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Sample records for abdominal compression binder

  1. Abdominal binders may reduce pain and improve physical function after major abdominal surgery - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Josephine Philip; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Bisgaard, Thue

    2014-11-01

    Evidence for the effect of post-operative abdominal binders on post-operative pain, seroma formation, physical function, pulmonary function and increased intra-abdominal pressure among patients after surgery remains largely un-investigated. A systematic review was conducted. The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for studies on the use of abdominal binders after abdominal surgery or abdominoplasty. All types of clinical studies were included. Two independent assessors evaluated the scientific quality of the studies. The primary outcomes were pain, seroma formation and physical function. A total of 50 publications were identified; 42 publications were excluded leaving eight publications counting a total of 578 patients for analysis. Generally, the scientific quality of the studies was poor. Use of abdominal binder revealed a non-significant tendency to reduce seroma formation after laparoscopic ventral herniotomy and a non-significant reduction in pain. Physical function was improved, whereas evidence supports a beneficial effect on psychological distress after open abdominal surgery. Evidence also supports that intra-abdominal pressure increases with the use of abdominal binders. Reduction of pulmonary function during use of abdominal binders has not been revealed. Abdominal binders reduce post-operative psychological distress, but their effect on post-operative pain after laparotomy and seroma formation after ventral hernia repair remains unclear. Due to the sparse evidence and poor quality of the literature, solid conclusions may be difficult to make, and procedure-specific, high-quality randomised clinical trials are warranted.

  2. The use of abdominal binders to treat over-shunting headaches.

    PubMed

    Sklar, Frederick H; Nagy, Laszlo; Robertson, Brian D

    2012-06-01

    Headaches are common in children with shunts. Headaches associated with over-shunting are typically intermittent and tend to occur later in the day. Lying down frequently makes the headaches better. This paper examines the efficacy of using abdominal binders to treat over-shunting headaches. Over an 18-year period, the senior author monitored 1027 children with shunts. Office charts of 483 active patients were retrospectively reviewed to identify those children with headaches and, in particular, those children who were thought to have headaches as a result of over-shunting. Abdominal binders were frequently used to treat children with presumed over-shunting headaches, and these data were analyzed. Of the 483 patients undergoing chart review, 258 (53.4%) had headache. A clinical diagnosis of over-shunting was made in 103 patients (21.3% overall; 39.9% of patients with headache). In 14 patients, the headaches were very mild (1-2 on a 5-point scale) and infrequent (1 or 2 per month), and treatment with an abdominal binder was not thought indicated. Eighty-nine patients were treated with a binder, but 19 were excluded from this retrospective study for noncompliance, interruption of the binder trial, or lack of follow-up. The remaining 70 pediatric patients, who were diagnosed with over-shunting headaches and were treated with abdominal binders, were the subjects of a more detailed retrospective study. Significant headache improvement was observed in 85.8% of patients. On average, the patients wore the binders for approximately 1 month, and headache relief usually persisted even after the binders were discontinued. However, the headaches eventually did recur in many of the patients more than a year later. In these patients, reuse of the abdominal binder was successful in relieving headaches in 78.9%. The abdominal binder is an effective, noninvasive therapy to control over-shunting headaches in most children. This treatment should be tried before any surgery is

  3. [Study of mixed dry binders in directly compressible lactoses and microcrystalline cellulose].

    PubMed

    Muzíková, J; Vinklarová, S

    2004-09-01

    The paper evaluated the compressibility of dry binders prepared in the ratios of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 from Pharmatosa DCL 15 and DCL 21 and Avicel PH 200, and the sensitivity of the mixtures to an addition of the lubricant magnesium stearate from the standpoint of the effect on the strength of tablets. Mixtures of lactoses with Avicel PH -200 in a ratio of 3:1 proved to be most advantageous. The strengths of tablets made of these mixtures oscillated in the optimal range and they showed the least sensitivity to the added lubricant. An increase in stearate concentration did not result in a marked decrease in the strength of compacts. Pharmatosa DCL 21 in a mixture with Avicel PH 200 yielded stronger compacts at lower compression force than Pharmatosa DCL 15.

  4. [Study of the strength of compacts of mixed dry binders consisting of powdered cellulose and directly compressible lactose].

    PubMed

    Muzíková, J; Hájková, P; Vinklarová, S

    2004-07-01

    The paper studied the strength of compacts of dry binders consisting of powdered cellulose and directly compressible lactose. The powdered cellulose employed was Arbocel A300, the directly compressible lactose, Pharmatosa DCL 21. The first step of the evaluation comprised the tensile strength of compacts and sensitivity of dry binders alone to an addition of magnesium stearate. The same method of evaluation was then used for mixed dry binders from Arbocel A300 and Pharmatosa DCL 21 in ratios of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3. The tested concentrations of magnesium stearate were 0.4 and 0.8%. Sensitivity of dry binders to an addition of the lubricant was evaluated by means of lubricant sensitivity ratio (LSR) values. The compacts with the highest strength and at the same time the lowest sensitivity to an addition of magnesium stearate were produced using a mixture of Arbocel A300 and Pharmatosa DCL 21 in a ratio of 1:3. The evaluation also included the commercially produced mixed dry binder Cellactosa 80, in which higher sensitivity to an addition of stearate than in a mixture of Arbocel A300 and Pharmatosa DCL 21 in a ratio of 1:3 was found.

  5. Interfraction variation in lung tumor position with abdominal compression during stereotactic body radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mampuya, Wambaka Ange; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Matsuo, Yukinori

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the effect of abdominal compression on the interfraction variation in tumor position in lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in a larger series of patients with large tumor motion amplitude.Methods: Thirty patients with lung tumor motion exceeding 8 mm who underwent SBRT were included in this study. After translational and rotational initial setup error was corrected based on bone anatomy, CBCT images were acquired for each fraction. The residual interfraction variation was defined as the difference between the centroid position of the visualized target in three dimensions derived from CBCT scans and thosemore » derived from averaged intensity projection images. The authors compared the magnitude of the interfraction variation in tumor position between patients treated with [n= 16 (76 fractions)] and without [n= 14 (76 fractions)] abdominal compression.Results: The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of the motion amplitude in the longitudinal direction before abdominal compression was 19.9 ± 7.3 (range, 10–40) mm and was significantly (p < 0.01) reduced to 12.4 ± 5.8 (range, 5–30) mm with compression. The greatest variance of the interfraction variation with abdominal compression was observed in the longitudinal direction, with a mean ± SD of 0.79 ± 3.05 mm, compared to −0.60 ± 2.10 mm without abdominal compression. The absolute values of the 95th percentile of the interfraction variation for one side in each direction were 3.97/6.21 mm (posterior/anterior), 4.16/3.76 mm (caudal/cranial), and 2.90/2.32 mm (right/left) without abdominal compression, and 2.14/5.03 mm (posterior/anterior), 3.93/9.23 mm (caudal/cranial), and 2.37/5.45 mm (right/left) with abdominal compression. An absolute interfraction variation greater than 5 mm was observed in six (9.2%) fractions without and 13 (17.1%) fractions with abdominal compression.Conclusions: Abdominal compression was effective for reducing the

  6. SU-D-BRA-06: Duodenal Interfraction Motion with Abdominal Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Witztum, A; Holyoake, D; Warren, S

    Purpose: To quantify the effect of abdominal compression on duodenal motion during pancreatic radiotherapy. Methods: Seven patients treated for pancreatic cancer were selected for analysis. Four patients were treated with abdominal compression and three without. The duodenum was contoured by the same physician on each CBCT (five CBCTs for patients with compression, four for non-compression patients). CBCTs were rigidly registered using a soft tissue match and contours were copied to the delivered plans which were all radical (BED > 50 Gy). The distance between the duodenum on the planning CT and each CBCT was quantified by calculating the root meanmore » square (RMS) distance. The DVHs of each abdominal compression patient was converted to an EQD2 DVH (alpha/beta = 10) using an in-house tool and volumes receiving at least 25, 35, 45, and 50 Gy were recorded. Results: The maximum variation in duodenal volumes on the CBCTs for the four abdominal compression patients were 19.1 cm{sup 3} (32.8%), 19.1 cm{sup 3} (20.6%), 19.9 cm{sup 3} (14.3%), and 12.9 cm{sup 3} (27.3%) compared to 15.2 cm{sup 3} (17.6%), 34.7 cm{sup 3} (83.4%), and 56 cm{sup 3} (60.2%) for non-compression patients. The average RMS distance between the duodenum on the planning CT and each CBCT for all abdominal compression patients was 0.3 cm compared to 0.7 cm for non-compressed patients. The largest (and average) difference between the planning CT and CBCTs in volume of duodenum receiving more than 25, 35, 45 and 50 Gy for abdominal compression patients was 11% (5%), 9% (3%), 9% (2%), and 6% (1%). Conclusion: Abdominal compression reduces variation in volume and absolute position of the duodenum throughout treatment. This is seen as an improvement but does not eliminate the need to consider dosimetric effects of motion. Abdominal compression is particularly useful in SBRT when only a few fractions are delivered. Alon Witztum is supported by an MRC/Gray Institute DPhil Studentship. Daniel Holyoake

  7. Development of real time abdominal compression force monitoring and visual biofeedback system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Siyong; Kim, Dong-Su; Kang, Seong-Hee; Cho, Min-Seok; Kim, Kyeong-Hyeon; Shin, Dong-Seok; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we developed and evaluated a system that could monitor abdominal compression force (ACF) in real time and provide a surrogating signal, even under abdominal compression. The system could also provide visual-biofeedback (VBF). The real-time ACF monitoring system developed consists of an abdominal compression device, an ACF monitoring unit and a control system including an in-house ACF management program. We anticipated that ACF variation information caused by respiratory abdominal motion could be used as a respiratory surrogate signal. Four volunteers participated in this test to obtain correlation coefficients between ACF variation and tidal volumes. A simulation study with another group of six volunteers was performed to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed system. In the simulation, we investigated the reproducibility of the compression setup and proposed a further enhanced shallow breathing (ESB) technique using VBF by intentionally reducing the amplitude of the breathing range under abdominal compression. The correlation coefficient between the ACF variation caused by the respiratory abdominal motion and the tidal volume signal for each volunteer was evaluated and R 2 values ranged from 0.79 to 0.84. The ACF variation was similar to a respiratory pattern and slight variations of ACF ranges were observed among sessions. About 73-77% average ACF control rate (i.e. compliance) over five trials was observed in all volunteer subjects except one (64%) when there was no VBF. The targeted ACF range was intentionally reduced to achieve ESB for VBF simulation. With VBF, in spite of the reduced target range, overall ACF control rate improved by about 20% in all volunteers except one (4%), demonstrating the effectiveness of VBF. The developed monitoring system could help reduce the inter-fraction ACF set up error and the intra fraction ACF variation. With the capability of providing a real time surrogating signal and VBF under compression, it could

  8. Complete resection of a rectus abdominis muscle invaded by desmoid tumors and subsequent management with an abdominal binder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tatsuhiko

    2018-02-07

    Desmoid-type fibromatosis is characterized by desmoid tumors, which are benign soft tissue tumors that can be locally aggressive but typically do not metastasize. Desmoid tumors can manifest anywhere in the body, and those in the abdominal cavity account for approximately 30 to 50% of all such tumors. Complete resection with free margins has been the standard treatment, but non-surgical therapies have been implemented recently. However, if tumors are strongly invasive and/or persistently recur, radical surgical resection with free margins remains the primary treatment. Unfortunately, radical resection may cause large abdominal defects and hinder reconstruction. Several reports and recommendations have addressed this issue; however, to the best of our knowledge, few reports have described complete resection and the subsequent reconstruction of the rectus abdominis muscle. A 35-year-old Asian woman presented at our hospital with a chief complaint of abdominal pain. She had abdominal desmoid tumors that required complete resection of her rectus abdominis muscle. Due to necrosis in her own reconstructed tissue, we failed to cover her anterior abdominal wall; thus, we used an abdominal binder as a substitute material to avoid exacerbating the incisional hernia and help her generate intra-abdominal pressure. This case report may be informative and helpful for the treatment of patients with desmoid tumors, as managing desmoid-type fibromatosis is difficult.

  9. New patient-controlled abdominal compression method in radiography: radiation dose and image quality.

    PubMed

    Piippo-Huotari, Oili; Norrman, Eva; Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta; Geijer, Håkan

    2018-05-01

    The radiation dose for patients can be reduced with many methods and one way is to use abdominal compression. In this study, the radiation dose and image quality for a new patient-controlled compression device were compared with conventional compression and compression in the prone position . To compare radiation dose and image quality of patient-controlled compression compared with conventional and prone compression in general radiography. An experimental design with quantitative approach. After obtaining the approval of the ethics committee, a consecutive sample of 48 patients was examined with the standard clinical urography protocol. The radiation doses were measured as dose-area product and analyzed with a paired t-test. The image quality was evaluated by visual grading analysis. Four radiologists evaluated each image individually by scoring nine criteria modified from the European quality criteria for diagnostic radiographic images. There was no significant difference in radiation dose or image quality between conventional and patient-controlled compression. Prone position resulted in both higher dose and inferior image quality. Patient-controlled compression gave similar dose levels as conventional compression and lower than prone compression. Image quality was similar with both patient-controlled and conventional compression and was judged to be better than in the prone position.

  10. SU-E-J-48: Development of An Abdominal Compression Device for Respiratory Correlated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T; Kang, S; Kim, D

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop the abdominal compression device which could control pressure level according to the abdominal respiratory motion and evaluate its feasibility. Methods: In this study, we focused on developing the abdominal compression device which could control pressure level at any point of time so the developed device is possible to use a variety of purpose (gating technique or respiratory training system) while maintaining the merit of the existing commercial device. The compression device (air pad form) was designed to be able to compress the front and side of abdomen and the pressure levelmore » of the abdomen is controlled by air flow. Pressure level of abdomen (air flow) was determined using correlation data between external abdominal motion and respiratory volume signal measured by spirometer. In order to verify the feasibility of the device, it was necessary to confirm the correlation between the abdominal respiratory motion and respiratory volume signal and cooperation with respiratory training system also checked. Results: In the previous study, we could find that the correlation coefficient ratio between diaphragm and respiratory volume signal measured by spirometer was 0.95. In this study, we confirmed the correlation between the respiratory volume signal and the external abdominal motion measured by belt-transducer (correlation coefficient ratio was 0.92) and used the correlated respiratory volume data as an abdominal pressure level. It was possible to control the pressure level with negligible time delay and respiratory volume data based guiding waveforms could be properly inserted into the respiratory training system. Conclusion: Through this feasibility study, we confirmed the correlation between the respiratory volume signal and the external abdominal motion. Also initial assessment of the device and its compatibility with the respiratory training system were verified. Further study on application in respiratory

  11. SU-F-T-91: Development of Real Time Abdominal Compression Force (ACF) Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S

    Purpose: Hard-plate based abdominal compression is known to be effective, but no explicit method exists to quantify abdominal compression force (ACF) and maintain the proper ACF through the whole procedure. In addition, even with compression, it is necessary to do 4D CT to manage residual motion but, 4D CT is often not possible due to reduced surrogating sensitivity. In this study, we developed and evaluated a system that both monitors ACF in real time and provides surrogating signal even under compression. The system can also provide visual-biofeedback. Methods: The system developed consists of a compression plate, an ACF monitoring unitmore » and a visual-biofeedback device. The ACF monitoring unit contains a thin air balloon in the size of compression plate and a gas pressure sensor. The unit is attached to the bottom of the plate thus, placed between the plate and the patient when compression is applied, and detects compression pressure. For reliability test, 3 volunteers were directed to take several different breathing patterns and the ACF variation was compared with the respiratory flow and external respiratory signal to assure that the system provides corresponding behavior. In addition, guiding waveform were generated based on free breathing, and then applied for evaluating the effectiveness of visual-biofeedback. Results: We could monitor ACF variation in real time and confirmed that the data was correlated with both respiratory flow data and external respiratory signal. Even under abdominal compression, in addition, it was possible to make the subjects successfully follow the guide patterns using the visual biofeedback system. Conclusion: The developed real time ACF monitoring system was found to be functional as intended and consistent. With the capability of both providing real time surrogating signal under compression and enabling visual-biofeedback, it is considered that the system would improve the quality of respiratory motion management in

  12. Optimum mix for fly ash geopolymer binder based on workability and compressive strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arafa, S. A.; Ali, A. Z. M.; Awal, A. S. M. A.; Loon, L. Y.

    2018-04-01

    The request of concrete is increasing every day for sustaining the necessity of development of structure. The production of OPC not only consumes big amount of natural resources and energy, but also emit significant quantity of CO2 to the atmosphere. Therefore, it is necessary to find alternatives like Geopolymer to make the concrete environment friendly. Geopolymer is an inorganic alumino-silicate compound, produced from fly ash. This paper describes the experimental work conducted by casting 40 geopolymer paste mixes, and was cured at 80°C for 24 h to evaluate the effect of various parameters affecting the workability and compressive strength. Alkaline solution to fly ash ratio and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration were chosen as the key parameters of strength and workability. Laboratory investigation with different percentage of sodium hydroxide concentration and different alkaline liquid to fly ash ratio reveals that the optimum ratios are 10 M, AL/FA=0.5. It has generally been found that the workability decreased and the compressive strength increased with an increase in the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution. However, workability was increased and the compressive strength was decreased with the increase in the ratio of fly ash to alkaline solution.

  13. Radiation dermatitis caused by a bolus effect from an abdominal compression device

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, Michael; Wei, Randy L.; Yu, Suhong

    American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 176 evaluated the dosimetric effects caused by couch tops and immobilization devices. The report analyzed the extensive physics-based literature on couch tops, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) frames, and body immobilization bags, while noting the scarcity of clinical reports of skin toxicity because of external devices. Here, we present a clinical case report of grade 1 abdominal skin toxicity owing to an abdominal compression device. We discuss the dosimetric implications of the utilized treatment plan as well as post hoc alternative plans and quantify differences in attenuation and skin dose/build-up betweenmore » the device, a lower-density alternative device, and an open field. The description of the case includes a 66-year-old male with HER2 amplified poorly differentiated distal esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemo-radiation and the use of an abdominal compression device. Radiation was delivered using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with 2 arcs using abdominal compression and image guidance. The total dose was 50.4 Gy delivered over 40 elapsed days. With 2 fractions remaining, the patient developed dermatitis in the area of the compression device. The original treatment plan did not include a contour of the device. Alternative post hoc treatment plans were generated, one to contour the device and a second with anterior avoidance. In conclusion, replanning with the device contoured revealed the bolus effect. The skin dose increased from 27 to 36 Gy. planned target volume (PTV) coverage at 45 Gy was reduced to 76.5% from 95.8%. The second VMAT treatment plan with an anterior avoidance sector and more oblique beam angles maintained PTV coverage and spared the anterior wall, however at the expense of substantially increased dose to lung. This case report provides an important reminder of the bolus effect from external devices such as abdominal compression

  14. Fluid displacement from intraluminal thrombus of abdominal aortic aneurysm as a result of uniform compression.

    PubMed

    van Noort, Kim; Schuurmann, Richte Cl; Wermelink, Bryan; Slump, Cornelis H; Kuijpers, Karel C; de Vries, Jean-Paul Pm

    2017-10-01

    Objectives The results after aneurysm repair with an endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS) system are dependent on the stability of the aneurysm sac and particularly the intraluminal abdominal aortic thrombus (ILT). The postprocedural ILT volume is decreased compared with preprocedural ILT volume in aortic aneurysm patients treated with EVAS. We hypothesize that ILT is not stable in all patients and pressurization of the ILT may result in displacement of fluids from the ILT, no differently than serum is displaced from whole blood when it settles. To date, the mechanism and quantification of fluid displacement from ILT are unknown. Methods The study included 21 patients who underwent elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The ILT was harvested as a routine procedure during the operation. After excision of a histologic sample of the ILT specimen in four patients, ILT volume was measured and the ILT was compressed in a dedicated compression setup designed to apply uniform compression of 200 mmHg for 5 min. After compression, the volumes of the remaining thrombus and the displaced fluid were measured. Results The median (interquartile-range) of ILT volume before compression was 60 (66) mL, and a median of 5.7 (8.4) mL of fluid was displaced from the ILT after compression, resulting in a median thrombus volume decrease of 11% (10%). Fluid components can be up to 31% of the entire ILT volume. Histologic examination of four ILT specimens showed a reduction of the medial layer of the ILT after compression, which was the result of compression of fluid-containing canaliculi. Conclusions Applying pressure of 200 mmHg to abdominal aortic aneurysm ILT resulted in the displacement of fluid, with a large variation among patients. Fluid displacement may result in decrease of ILT volume during and after EVAS, which might have implications on pre-EVAS volume planning and on stability of the endobags during follow-up which may lead to migration, endoleak or both.

  15. Interfraction Liver Shape Variability and Impact on GTV Position During Liver Stereotactic Radiotherapy Using Abdominal Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Eccles, Cynthia L., E-mail: cynthia.eccles@rob.ox.ac.uk; Dawson, Laura A.; Moseley, Joanne L.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: For patients receiving liver stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), abdominal compression can reduce organ motion, and daily image guidance can reduce setup error. The reproducibility of liver shape under compression may impact treatment delivery accuracy. The purpose of this study was to measure the interfractional variability in liver shape under compression, after best-fit rigid liver-to-liver registration from kilovoltage (kV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans to planning computed tomography (CT) scans and its impact on gross tumor volume (GTV) position. Methods and Materials: Evaluable patients were treated in a Research Ethics Board-approved SBRT six-fraction study with abdominal compression. Kilovoltage CBCTmore » scans were acquired before treatment and reconstructed as respiratory sorted CBCT scans offline. Manual rigid liver-to-liver registrations were performed from exhale-phase CBCT scans to exhale planning CT scans. Each CBCT liver was contoured, exported, and compared with the planning CT scan for spatial differences, by use of in house-developed finite-element model-based deformable registration (MORFEUS). Results: We evaluated 83 CBCT scans from 16 patients with 30 GTVs. The mean volume of liver that deformed by greater than 3 mm was 21.7%. Excluding 1 outlier, the maximum volume that deformed by greater than 3 mm was 36.3% in a single patient. Over all patients, the absolute maximum deformations in the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior directions were 10.5 mm (SD, 2.2), 12.9 mm (SD, 3.6), and 5.6 mm (SD, 2.7), respectively. The absolute mean predicted impact of liver volume displacements on GTV by use of center of mass displacements was 0.09 mm (SD, 0.13), 0.13 mm (SD, 0.18), and 0.08 mm (SD, 0.07) in the left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. Conclusions: Interfraction liver deformations in patients undergoing SBRT under abdominal compression after rigid

  16. [Effect of external abdominal aorta compression on circulation during anesthesia induction in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuman; Wang, Lixiang

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effect of external abdominal aorta compression on circulation during anesthetic induction in elderly patients. A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. Patients with age of 60-75 years old, requiring a general anesthesia for non-abdominal surgery, and with II-III class of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, and admitted to General Hospital of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces from January to April in 2017 were enrolled. They were divided into abdominal aorta pressure group and control group according to random number method, with 20 patients in each group. In both groups, anesthesia was induced with midazolam, propofol, fentanyl and cisatracurium, and was maintained with propofol, remifentanil and cisatracurium. After successful intubation, the anesthesia machine was changed into mechanical ventilation. The patients in abdominal aorta pressure group were given abdominal aorta pressure 1 minute after induction of general anesthesia with midazolam till 5 minutes after intubation. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and blood oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) were observed before anesthesia induction, immediately after anesthesia induction, immediately after intubation, 5 minutes and 10 minutes after intubation, respectively. The incidence of hypotension or bradycardia, and usage of ephedrine or atropine were recorded. There were no significant differences in MAP [mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa): 83.6±4.7 vs. 82.9±4.7], HR (bpm: 67.3±5.9 vs. 65.9±5.7) and SpO 2 (0.962±0.007 vs. 0.960±0.009) before anesthesia induction between abdominal aorta pressure group and control group (all P > 0.05). Immediately after anesthesia induction, the MAP and HR in control group were significantly decreased as compared with those before anesthesia induction [MAP (mmHg): 70.0±8.7 vs. 82.9±4.7, HR (bpm): 60.7±6.7 vs. 65.9±5.7, both P < 0.05], and they were also significantly lower than those of

  17. A new technique for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis: abdominal CT with compression to the right lower quadrant.

    PubMed

    Kılınçer, Abidin; Akpınar, Erhan; Erbil, Bülent; Ünal, Emre; Karaosmanoğlu, Ali Devrim; Kaynaroğlu, Volkan; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of abdominal CT with compression to the right lower quadrant (RLQ) in adults with acute appendicitis. 168 patients (age range, 18-78 years) were included who underwent contrast-enhanced CT for suspected appendicitis performed either using compression to the RLQ (n = 71) or a standard protocol (n = 97). Outer diameter of the appendix, appendiceal wall thickening, luminal content and associated findings were evaluated in each patient. Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher's and Pearson's chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference in the mean outer diameter (MOD) between compression CT scans (10.6 ± 1.9 mm) and standard protocol (11.2 ± 2.3 mm) in patients with acute appendicitis (P = 1). MOD was significantly lower in the compression group (5.2 ± 0.8 mm) compared to the standard protocol (6.5 ± 1.1 mm) (P < 0.01) in patients without appendicitis. A cut-off value of 6.75 mm for the outer diameter of the appendix was found to be 100% sensitive in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis for both groups. The specificity was higher for compression CT technique (67.7 vs. 94.9%). Normal appendix diameter was significantly smaller in the compression-CT group compared to standard-CT group, increasing diagnostic accuracy of abdominal compression CT. • Normal appendix diameter is significantly smaller in compression CT. • Compression could force contrast material to flow through the appendiceal lumen. • Compression CT may be a CT counterpart of graded compression US.

  18. Pneumatic antishock garment inflation activates the human sympathetic nervous system by abdominal compression.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Nathan M; Levine, Benjamin D; Raven, Peter B; Pawelczyk, James A

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic antishock garments (PASG) have been proposed to exert their blood pressure-raising effect mechanically, i.e. by increasing venous return and vascular resistance of the lower body. We tested whether, alternatively, PASG inflation activates the sympathetic nervous system. Five men and four women wore PASG while mean arterial pressure (MAP), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), heart rate and stroke volume were measured. One leg bladder (LEG) and the abdominal bladder (ABD) of the trousers were inflated individually and in combination (ABD+LEG), at 60 or 90 mmHg for 3 min. By the end of 3 min of inflation, conditions that included the ABD region caused significant increases in MAP in a dose-dependent fashion (7 ± 2, 8 ± 3, 14 ± 4 and 13 ± 5 mmHg for ABD60, ABD+LEG60, ABD90 and ABD+LEG90, respectively, P < 0.05). Likewise, inflation that included ABD caused significant increases in total MSNA compared with control values [306 ± 70, 426 ± 98 and 247 ± 79 units for ABD60, ABD90 and ABD+LEG90, respectively, P < 0.05 (units = burst frequency × burst amplitude]. There were no changes in MAP or MSNA in the LEG-alone conditions. The ABD inflation also caused a significant decrease in stroke volume (-11 ± 3 and -10 ± 3 ml per beat in ABD90 and ABD+LEG90, respectively, P < 0.05) with no change in cardiac output. Neither cardiopulmonary receptor deactivation nor mechanical effects can account for a slowly developing rise in both sympathetic activity and blood pressure during ABD inflation. Rather, these data provide direct evidence that PASG inflation activates the sympathetic nervous system secondarily to abdominal, but not leg, compression.

  19. Comparison of Liver Tumor Motion With and Without Abdominal Compression Using Cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Eccles, Cynthia L.; Patel, Ritesh; Simeonov, Anna K.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Abdominal compression (AC) can be used to reduce respiratory liver motion in patients undergoing liver stereotactic body radiotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to measure the changes in three-dimensional liver tumor motion with and without compression using cine-magnetic resonance imaging. Patients and Methods: A total of 60 patients treated as a part of an institutional research ethics board-approved liver stereotactic body radiotherapy protocol underwent cine T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging through the tumor centroid in the coronal and sagittal planes. A total of 240 cine-magnetic resonance imaging sequences acquired at one to three images each second for 30-60more » s were evaluated using an in-house-developed template matching tool (based on the coefficient correlation) to measure the magnitude of the tumor motion. The average tumor edge displacements were used to determine the magnitude of changes in the caudal-cranial (CC) and anteroposterior (AP) directions, with and without AC. Results: The mean tumor motion without AC of 11.7 mm (range, 4.8-23.3) in the CC direction was reduced to 9.4 mm (range, 1.6-23.4) with AC. The tumor motion was reduced in both directions (CC and AP) in 52% of the patients and in a single direction (CC or AP) in 90% of the patients. The mean decrease in tumor motion with AC was 2.3 and 0.6 mm in the CC and AP direction, respectively. Increased motion occurred in one or more directions in 28% of patients. Clinically significant (>3 mm) decreases were observed in 40% and increases in <2% of patients in the CC direction. Conclusion: AC can significantly reduce three-dimensional liver tumor motion in most patients, although the magnitude of the reduction was smaller than previously reported.« less

  20. Artifacts in slab average-intensity-projection images reformatted from JPEG 2000 compressed thin-section abdominal CT data sets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Kil Joong; Mantiuk, Rafal; Kim, Hye-ri; Kim, Young Hoon

    2008-06-01

    The objective of our study was to assess the effects of compressing source thin-section abdominal CT images on final transverse average-intensity-projection (AIP) images. At reversible, 4:1, 6:1, 8:1, 10:1, and 15:1 Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) 2000 compressions, we compared the artifacts in 20 matching compressed thin sections (0.67 mm), compressed thick sections (5 mm), and AIP images (5 mm) reformatted from the compressed thin sections. The artifacts were quantitatively measured with peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and a perceptual quality metric (High Dynamic Range Visual Difference Predictor [HDR-VDP]). By comparing the compressed and original images, three radiologists independently graded the artifacts as 0 (none, indistinguishable), 1 (barely perceptible), 2 (subtle), or 3 (significant). Friedman tests and exact tests for paired proportions were used. At irreversible compressions, the artifacts tended to increase in the order of AIP, thick-section, and thin-section images in terms of PSNR (p < 0.0001), HDR-VDP (p < 0.0001), and the readers' grading (p < 0.01 at 6:1 or higher compressions). At 6:1 and 8:1, distinguishable pairs (grades 1-3) tended to increase in the order of AIP, thick-section, and thin-section images. Visually lossless threshold for the compression varied between images but decreased in the order of AIP, thick-section, and thin-section images (p < 0.0001). Compression artifacts in thin sections are significantly attenuated in AIP images. On the premise that thin sections are typically reviewed using an AIP technique, it is justifiable to compress them to a compression level currently accepted for thick sections.

  1. Kilovoltage Imaging of Implanted Fiducials to Monitor Intrafraction Motion With Abdominal Compression During Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Gastrointestinal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Yorke, Ellen; Xiong, Ying; Han, Qian; Zhang, Pengpeng; Mageras, Gikas; Lovelock, Michael; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Goodman, Karyn A

    2016-07-01

    To assess intrafraction respiratory motion using a commercial kilovoltage imaging system for abdominal tumor patients with implanted fiducials and breathing constrained by pneumatic compression during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). A pneumatic compression belt limited respiratory motion in 19 patients with radiopaque fiducials in or near their tumor during SBRT for abdominal tumors. Kilovoltage images were acquired at 5- to 6-second intervals during treatment using a commercial system. Intrafractional fiducial displacements were measured using in-house software. The dosimetric effect of the observed displacements was calculated for 3 sessions for each patient. Intrafraction displacement patterns varied between patients and between individual treatment sessions. Averaged over 19 patients, 73 sessions, 7.6% of craniocaudal displacements exceeded 0.5 cm, and 1.2% exceeded 0.75 cm. The calculated single-session dose to 95% of gross tumor volume differed from planned by an average of -1.2% (range, -11.1% to 4.8%) but only for 4 patients was the total 3-session calculated dose to 95% of gross tumor volume more than 3% different from planned. Our pneumatic compression limited intrafractional abdominal target motion, maintained target position established at setup, and was moderately effective in preserving coverage. Commercially available intrafractional imaging is useful for surveillance but can be made more effective and reliable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Kilovoltage imaging of implanted fiducials to monitor intrafraction motion with abdominal compression during stereotactic body radiotherapy for GI tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yorke, Ellen; Xiong, Ying; Han, Qian; Zhang, Pengpeng; Mageras, Gikas; Lovelock, Michael; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objective To assess intrafraction respiratory motion using a commercial kilovoltage imaging system for abdominal tumor patients with implanted fiducials and breathing constrained by pneumatic compression during stereotactic body radiotherapy (sbrt). Methods and Materials A pneumatic compression belt limited respiratory motion in 19 patients with radiopaque fiducials in or near their tumor during sbrt for abdominal tumors. Kilovoltage images were acquired at 5–6 sec intervals during treatment using a commercial system. Intrafractional fiducial displacements were measured using in-house software. The dosimetric effect of the observed displacements was calculated for three sessions for each patient. Results Intrafraction displacement patterns varied between patients and between individual treatment sessions. Averaged over 19 patients, 73 sessions, 7.6% of craniocaudal displacements exceeded 0.5 cm and 1.2% exceeded 0.75 cm. The calculated single session dose to 95% of gross tumor volume (GTVD95) differed from planned by an average of −1.2% (−11.1%−4.8%) but only for 4 patients was total 3-session calculated GTVD95 over 3% different from planned Conclusions Our pneumatic compression limited intrafractional abdominal target motion, maintained target position established at setup, and was moderately effective in preserving coverage. Commercially available intrafractional imaging is useful for surveillance but can be made more effective and reliable. PMID:26797539

  3. Kilovoltage Imaging of Implanted Fiducials to Monitor Intrafraction Motion With Abdominal Compression During Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Gastrointestinal Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Yorke, Ellen, E-mail: yorke@mskcc.org; Xiong, Ying; Han, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To assess intrafraction respiratory motion using a commercial kilovoltage imaging system for abdominal tumor patients with implanted fiducials and breathing constrained by pneumatic compression during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A pneumatic compression belt limited respiratory motion in 19 patients with radiopaque fiducials in or near their tumor during SBRT for abdominal tumors. Kilovoltage images were acquired at 5- to 6-second intervals during treatment using a commercial system. Intrafractional fiducial displacements were measured using in-house software. The dosimetric effect of the observed displacements was calculated for 3 sessions for each patient. Results: Intrafraction displacement patterns variedmore » between patients and between individual treatment sessions. Averaged over 19 patients, 73 sessions, 7.6% of craniocaudal displacements exceeded 0.5 cm, and 1.2% exceeded 0.75 cm. The calculated single-session dose to 95% of gross tumor volume differed from planned by an average of −1.2% (range, −11.1% to 4.8%) but only for 4 patients was the total 3-session calculated dose to 95% of gross tumor volume more than 3% different from planned. Conclusions: Our pneumatic compression limited intrafractional abdominal target motion, maintained target position established at setup, and was moderately effective in preserving coverage. Commercially available intrafractional imaging is useful for surveillance but can be made more effective and reliable.« less

  4. Anaesthetic injection versus ischemic compression for the pain relief of abdominal wall trigger points in women with chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Mary L L S; Braz, Carolina A; Rosa-e-Silva, Julio C; Candido-dos-Reis, Francisco J; Nogueira, Antonio A; Poli-Neto, Omero B

    2015-12-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is a common condition among women, and 10 to 30 % of causes originate from the abdominal wall, and are associated with trigger points. Although little is known about their pathophysiology, variable methods have been practiced clinically. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of local anaesthetic injections versus ischemic compression via physical therapy for pain relief of abdominal wall trigger points in women with chronic pelvic pain. We conducted a parallel group randomized trial including 30 women with chronic pelvic pain with abdominal wall trigger points. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups. One group received an injection of 2 mL 0.5 % lidocaine without a vasoconstrictor into a trigger point. In the other group, ischemic compression via physical therapy was administered at the trigger points three times, with each session lasting for 60 s, and a rest period of 30 s between applications. Both treatments were administered during one weekly session for four weeks. Our primary outcomes were satisfactory clinical response rates and percentages of pain relief. Our secondary outcomes are pain threshold and tolerance at the trigger points. All subjects were evaluated at baseline and 1, 4, and 12 weeks after the interventions. The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital that was associated with a university providing assistance predominantly to working class women who were treated by the public health system. Clinical response rates and pain relief were significantly better at 1, 4, and 12 weeks for those receiving local anaesthetic injections than ischemic compression via physical therapy. The pain relief of women treated with local anaesthetic injections progressively improved at 1, 4, and 12 weeks after intervention. In contrast, women treated with ischemic compression did not show considerable changes in pain relief after intervention. In the local anaesthetic injection group, pain threshold

  5. Concurrent Respiratory Motion Correction of Abdominal PET and DCE-MRI using a Compressed Sensing Approach.

    PubMed

    Fuin, Niccolo; Catalano, Onofrio Antonio; Scipioni, Michele; Canjels, Lisanne P W; Izquierdo, David; Pedemonte, Stefano; Catana, Ciprian

    2018-01-25

    Purpose: We present an approach for concurrent reconstruction of respiratory motion compensated abdominal DCE-MRI and PET data in an integrated PET/MR scanner. The MR and PET reconstructions share the same motion vector fields (MVFs) derived from radial MR data; the approach is robust to changes in respiratory pattern and do not increase the total acquisition time. Methods: PET and DCE-MRI data of 12 oncological patients were simultaneously acquired for 6 minutes on an integrated PET/MR system after administration of 18 F-FDG and gadoterate meglumine. Golden-angle radial MR data were continuously acquired simultaneously with PET data and sorted into multiple motion phases based on a respiratory signal derived directly from the radial MR data. The resulting multidimensional dataset was reconstructed using a compressed sensing approach that exploits sparsity among respiratory phases. MVFs obtained using the full 6-minute (MC_6-min) and only the last 1 minute (MC_1-min) of data were incorporated into the PET reconstruction to obtain motion-corrected PET images and in an MR iterative reconstruction algorithm to produce a series of motion-corrected DCE-MRI images (moco_GRASP). The motion-correction methods (MC_6-min and MC_1-min) were evaluated by qualitative analysis of the MR images and quantitative analysis of maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV max , SUVmean), contrast, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and lesion volume in the PET images. Results: Motion corrected MC_6-min PET images demonstrated 30%, 23%, 34% and 18% increases in average SUV max , SUVmean, contrast and SNR, and an average 40% reduction in lesion volume with respect to the non-motion-corrected PET images. The changes in these figures of merit were smaller but still substantial for the MC_1-min protocol: 19%, 10%, 15% and 9% increases in average SUV max , SUVmean, contrast and SNR; and a 28% reduction in lesion volume. Moco_GRASP images were deemed of acceptable or better diagnostic image

  6. The effectiveness of a pneumatic compression belt in reducing respiratory motion of abdominal tumors in patients undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, D Michael; Zatcky, Joan; Goodman, Karyn; Yamada, Yoshiya

    2014-06-01

    Abdominal compression using a pneumatic abdominal compression belt developed in-house has been used to reduce respiratory motion of patients undergoing hypo-fractionated or single fraction stereotactic radio-ablative therapy for abdominal cancers. The clinical objective of belt usage was to reduce the cranial-caudal (CC) respiratory motion of the tumor to 5 mm or less during both CT simulation and treatment. A retrospective analysis was done to determine the effectiveness of the device and associated clinical procedures to reduce the CC respiratory motion of the tumor. 42 patients treated for tumors in the liver (30), adrenal glands (6), pancreas (3) and lymph nodes (3) using high dose hypofractionated radiotherapy between 2004 and the present were eligible for analysis. All patients had 2-3 radiopaque fiducial markers implanted near the tumor prior to simulation, or had clips from prior surgery. Integral to the belt is an inflatable air bladder that is positioned over the abdomen. The pneumatic pressure was set to a level in consultation with the patient. The CC motion was measured fluoroscopically with and without pneumatic pressure. Pneumatic pressure was used at all treatments to reduce to CC motion to that achieved at simulation. The mean CC motion with the belt in place, but no additional air pressure was 11.4 mm with a range of 5-20 mm. With the pressure applied, the mean CC motion was reduced to 4.4 mm with a range of 1-8 mm (P-value < 0.001). The clinical objective of reducing the CC motion of the tumor to a maximum excursion of 5 mm or less was achieved in 93% of cases. The use of a pneumatic compression belt and associated clinical procedures was found to result in a significant and frequently substantial reduction in the CC motion of the tumor.

  7. Biophysics of cardiopulmonary resuscitation with periodic z-axis acceleration or abdominal compression at aortic resonant frequencies.

    PubMed

    Babbs, Charles F

    2006-06-01

    Periodic z-axis acceleration (pGz)-CPR involves an oscillating motion of a whole patient in the head-to-foot dimension on a mechanized table. The method is able to sustain blood flow and long-term survival during and after prolonged cardiac arrest in anesthetized pigs. However, the exact mechanism by which circulation of blood is created has remained unknown. To explain the hemodynamic mechanism of pGz-CPR and to suggest some theoretically useful improvements. Computer modeling using a hybrid analytical-numerical approach, based upon Newton's second law of motion for fluid columns in the aorta and vena cavae, Ohm's law for resistive flow through vascular beds, and a 10-compartment representation of the adult human circulation. This idealized 70-kg human model is exercised to explore the effects upon systemic perfusion pressure of whole body z-axis acceleration at frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 5 Hz. The results, in turn, suggested studies of abdominal compression at these frequencies. Blood motion induced in great vessels by periodic z-axis acceleration causes systemic perfusion when cardiac valves are competent. Blood flow is a function of the frequency of oscillation. At 3.5 Hz, periodic acceleration using +/-0.6G and +/-1.2 cm oscillations induces forward blood flow of 2.1L/min and systemic perfusion pressure of 47 mmHg. A form of resonance occurs at the frequency for peak-flow, in which the period of oscillation matches the round-trip transit time for reflected pulse waves in the aorta. For +/-1.0 G acceleration at 3.5 Hz, systemic perfusion pressure is 80 mmHg and forward flow is 3.8L/min in the adult human model with longitudinal z-axis motion of only +/-2 cm. Similar results can be obtained using abdominal compression to excite resonant pressure-volume waves in the aorta. For 20 mmHg abdominal pressure pulses at 3.8 Hz, systemic perfusion pressure is 7 mmHg and forward flow is 2.8L/min. pGz-CPR and high-frequency abdominal CPR are the physically realistic

  8. 4D-CT scans reveal reduced magnitude of respiratory liver motion achieved by different abdominal compression plate positions in patients with intrahepatic tumors undergoing helical tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Yong, E-mail: hu.yong@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Zhou,

    Purpose: While abdominal compression (AC) can be used to reduce respiratory liver motion in patients receiving helical tomotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma, the nature and extent of this effect is not well described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in magnitude of three-dimensional liver motion with abdominal compression using four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) images of several plate positions. Methods: From January 2012 to October 2015, 72 patients with intrahepatic carcinoma and divided into four groups underwent 4D-CT scans to assess respiratory liver motion. Of the 72 patients, 19 underwent abdominal compression of the cephalic area betweenmore » the subxiphoid and umbilicus (group A), 16 underwent abdominal compression of the caudal region between the subxiphoid area and the umbilicus (group B), 11 patients underwent abdominal compression of the caudal umbilicus (group C), and 26 patients remained free breathing (group D). 4D-CT images were sorted into ten-image series, according to the respiratory phase from the end inspiration to the end expiration, and then transferred to treatment planning software. All liver contours were drawn by a single physician and confirmed by a second physician. Liver relative coordinates were automatically generated to calculate the liver respiratory motion in different axial directions to compile the 10 ten contours into a single composite image. Differences in respiratory liver motion were assessed with a one-way analysis of variance test of significance. Results: The average respiratory liver motion in the Y axial direction was 4.53 ± 1.16, 7.56 ± 1.30, 9.95 ± 2.32, and 9.53 ± 2.62 mm in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively, with a significant change among the four groups (p < 0.001). Abdominal compression was most effective in group A (compression plate on the subxiphoid area), with liver displacement being 2.53 ± 0.93, 4.53 ± 1.16, and 2.14 ± 0.92 mm on the X-, Y-, and Z

  9. Abdominal compression during endoscopy (the Bolster technique) demonstrates hidden Schatzki rings (with videos).

    PubMed

    Jouhourian, Caroline; Bonis, Peter A; Guelrud, Moises

    2016-05-01

    Schatzki rings are found in the distal esophagus, are associated with hiatal hernias, and present with intermittent dysphagia to solid foods. They can be identified by radiology (GI series or barium swallow studies) or endoscopy. Rings are not always visualized during endoscopy in patients in whom they are suspected clinically. The Bolster technique involves application of epigastric abdominal pressure, which offers the potential to reveal a Schatzki ring that is otherwise obscured within a reduced hiatal hernia. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Bolster technique improves endoscopic detection of Schatzki rings. We reviewed 30 symptomatic patients with a history of a Schatzki ring in a tertiary care center. The Bolster technique was applied to patients in whom the ring was not visible during standard endoscopy. The main outcome measurement was identification of the Schatzki ring after the Bolster technique. A Schatzki ring was visible during standard endoscopy in 26 of the 30 patients. In the remaining 4, the ring was visible only after the application of the Bolster technique. The Bolster technique is a simple maneuver that can increase detection rates of Schatzki rings during endoscopy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. SU-E-J-133: Evaluation of Inter- and Intra-Fractional Pancreas Tumor Residual Motions with Abdominal Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y; Shi, F; Tian, Z

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Abdominal compression (AC) has been widely used to reduce pancreas motion due to respiration for pancreatic cancer patients undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). However, the inter-fractional and intra-fractional patient motions may degrade the treatment. The purpose of this work is to study daily CBCT projections and 4DCT to evaluate the inter-fractional and intra-fractional pancreatic motions. Methods: As a standard of care at our institution, 4D CT scan was performed for treatment planning. At least two CBCT scans were performed for daily treatment. Retrospective studies were performed on patients with implanted internal fiducial markers or surgical clips. The initial motionmore » pattern was obtained by extracting marker positions on every phase of 4D CT images. Daily motions were presented by marker positions on CBCT scan projection images. An adaptive threshold segmentation algorithm was used to extract maker positions. Both marker average positions and motion ranges were compared among three sets of scans, 4D CT, positioning CBCT, and conformal CBCT, for inter-fractional and intra-fractional motion variations. Results: Data from four pancreatic cancer patients were analyzed. These patients had three fiducial markers implanted. All patients were treated by an Elekta Synergy with single fraction SBRT. CBCT projections were acquired by XVI. Markers were successfully detected on most of the projection images. The inter-fractional changes were determined by 4D CT and the first CBCT while the intra-fractional changes were determined by multiple CBCT scans. It is found that the average motion range variations are within 2 mm, however, the average marker positions may drift by 6.5 mm. Conclusion: The patients respiratory motion variation for pancreas SBRT with AC was evaluated by detecting markers from CBCT projections and 4DCT, both the inter-fraction and intra-fraction motion range change is small but the drift of marker positions may be

  11. SU-E-T-538: Does Abdominal Compression Through Prone Patient Position Reduce Respiratory Motion in Lung Cancer Radiotherapy?

    SciTech Connect

    Catron, T; Rosu, M; Weiss, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the effect of physiological abdominal compression from prone positioning by comparing respiratory-induced tumor movements in supine and prone positions. Methods: 19 lung cancer patients underwent repeated supine and prone free-breathing 4DCT scans. The effect of patient position on motion magnitude was investigated for tumors, lymph nodes (9 cases), and subgroups of central (11 cases), peripheral (8 cases) and small peripheral tumors (5 cases), by evaluating the population average excursions, absolute and relative to a carina-point. Results: Absolute motion analysis: In prone, motion increased by ~20% for tumors and ~25% for lymph nodes. Central tumors moved moremore » compared to peripheral tumors in both supine and prone (~22%, and ~4% respectively). Central tumors movement increased by ~12% in prone. For peripheral tumors the increase in prone position was ~25% (~40% and 29% changes on along RL and AP directions). Motion relative to carina-point analysis: Overall, tumor excursions relative to carina-point increased by ~17% in prone. Lymph node relative magnitudes were lower by ~4%. Likewise, the central tumors moved ~7% less in prone. The subgroup of peripheral tumors exhibited increased amplitudes by ~44%; the small peripheral tumors had even larger relative displacements in prone (~46%). Conclusion: Tumor and lymph node movement in the patient population from this study averaged to be higher in prone than in supine position. Results from carina analysis also suggest that peripheral tissues have more physiologic freedom of motility when placed in the prone position, regardless of size. From these observations we should continue to avoid prone positioning for all types of primary lung tumor, suggesting that patients should receive radiotherapy for primary lung cancer in supine position to minimize target tissue mobility during normal respiratory effort. Further investigation will include more patients with peripheral tumors to

  12. SU-F-T-121: Abdominal Compression Effectively Reduces the Interplay Effect and Enables Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy of Liver Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Souris, K; University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; Glick, A

    Purpose: To study if abdominal compression can reduce breathing motion and mitigate interplay effect in pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PBSPT) treatment of liver tumors in order to better spare healthy liver volumes compared with photon therapy. Methods: Ten patients, six having large tumors initially treated with IMRT and four having small tumors treated with SBRT, were replanned for PBSPT. ITV and beam-specific PTVs based on 4D-CT were used to ensure target coverage in PBSPT. The use of an abdominal compression belt and volumetric repainting was investigated to mitigate the interplay effect between breathing motion and PBSPT dynamic delivery. Anmore » in-house Matlab script has been developed to simulate this interplay effect. The dose is computed on each phase individually by sorting all spots according to their simulated delivery timing. The final dose distribution is then obtained by accumulating all dose maps to a reference phase. Results: For equivalent target coverage PBSPT reduced average healthy liver dose by 9.5% of the prescription dose compared with IMRT/SBRT. Abdominal compression of 113.2±42.2 mmHg was effective for all 10 patients and reduced average motion by 2.25 mm. As a result, the average ITV volume decreased from 128.2% to 123.1% of CTV volume. Similarly, the average beam-specific PTV volume decreased from 193.2% to 183.3%. For 8 of the 10 patients, the average motion was reduced below 5 mm, and up to 3 repainting were sufficient to mitigate interplay. For the other two patients with larger residual motion, 4–5 repainting were needed. Conclusion: We recommend evaluation of the 4DCT motion histogram following simulation and the interplay effect following treatment planning in order to personalize the use of compression and volumetric repainting for each patient. Abdominal compression enables safe and more effective PBS treatment of liver tumors by reduction of motion and interplay effect. Kevin Souris is supported by IBA and Televie

  13. Traction-compression-closure for exomphalos major.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Antonino; Owen, Anthony; Bianchi, Adrian

    2006-11-01

    We present our experience with traction-compression-closure (TCC) for exomphalos major (EM) to achieve a safe and embryologically correct midline supraumbilical aesthetic closure with preservation of the umbilicus. Nineteen neonates with EM were paralyzed and ventilated. The abdominal domain was increased by upward cord traction to assist liver-bowel reduction by gravity and sac ligation, followed by circumferential elastic body binder compression. The supraumbilical abdominal wall anomaly cicatrized spontaneously or was closed surgically as a midline scar, with preservation of the umbilicus. Over 7 years (1998-2004), 19 patients with EM were treated by TCC, 18 of whom survived. The patients' median gestational age was 36 weeks (range, 24-40 weeks); their median birth weight was 2312 g (range, 890-3000 g). The median time to reduction was 4 days (range, 3-5 days), whereas that to full enteral feeds was 6 days (range, 4-6 days). Mechanical ventilation for 7 days (range, 6-8 days) was not associated with any morbidity, and the time to home discharge was 11 days (range, 8-12 days). Five patients did not require any surgery. There was no episode of sac rupture or infection. Abdominal expansion by vertical cord traction followed by compression reduction (TCC) under muscle relaxation and ventilation is time well spent toward a safe and aesthetic midline abdominal wall closure without tension for EM.

  14. Modified binders on the basis of flotation tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapovalov, N. A.; Zagorodnyuk, L. Kh; Shchekina, A. Yu; Gorodov, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    The article proposes compositions of efficient modified composite binders on the basis of portland cement and flotation tailings; the new binders attain the ultimate compressive stress that is twice as high as that of the cement stone. At that, use of annually growing volume of flotation tailings in the production of the composite binder is a rational way for recycling this type of waste and allows saving the planet's natural resources.

  15. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  16. [Pulmonary atelectasis in patients with neurological or muscular disease; gravity-related lung compression by the heart and intra-abdominal organs on persistent supine position].

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Mitsuo; Maeoka, Yukinori; Kawahara, Hitoshi; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Kousaku

    2006-11-01

    We report 10 cases of pulmonary atelectasis diagnosed by chest computed tomography in patients with neurological or muscular disease. Atelectasis was frequently seen in hypotonic patients who could not roll over on their own. The atelectases located mostly in the dorsal bronchopulmonary segments, adjacent to the heart or diaphragm. Atelectasis diminished in two patients after they became able to roll themselves over. Gravity-related lung compression by the heart and intra-abdominal organs on persistent supine position can cause pulmonary atelectasis in patients with neurological or muscular disease who can not roll over by their own power. To confirm that the prone position reduces compression of the lungs, chest computed tomography was performed in both the supine and the prone position in three patients. Sagittal images with three-dimensional computed tomographic reconstruction revealed significant sternad displacements of the heart and caudal displacements of the dorsal portion of the diaphragm on prone position compared with supine position. The prone position, motor exercises for rolling over, and biphasic cuirass ventilation are effective in reducing gravity-related lung compression. Some patients with intellectual disabilities were also able to cooperate in chest physiotherapy. Chest physiotherapy is useful in preventing atelectasis in patients with neurological or muscular disease.

  17. Abdominal 4D flow MR imaging in a breath hold: combination of spiral sampling and dynamic compressed sensing for highly accelerated acquisition.

    PubMed

    Dyvorne, Hadrien; Knight-Greenfield, Ashley; Jajamovich, Guido; Besa, Cecilia; Cui, Yong; Stalder, Aurélien; Markl, Michael; Taouli, Bachir

    2015-04-01

    To develop a highly accelerated phase-contrast cardiac-gated volume flow measurement (four-dimensional [4D] flow) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique based on spiral sampling and dynamic compressed sensing and to compare this technique with established phase-contrast imaging techniques for the quantification of blood flow in abdominal vessels. This single-center prospective study was compliant with HIPAA and approved by the institutional review board. Ten subjects (nine men, one woman; mean age, 51 years; age range, 30-70 years) were enrolled. Seven patients had liver disease. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Two 4D flow acquisitions were performed in each subject, one with use of Cartesian sampling with respiratory tracking and the other with use of spiral sampling and a breath hold. Cartesian two-dimensional (2D) cine phase-contrast images were also acquired in the portal vein. Two observers independently assessed vessel conspicuity on phase-contrast three-dimensional angiograms. Quantitative flow parameters were measured by two independent observers in major abdominal vessels. Intertechnique concordance was quantified by using Bland-Altman and logistic regression analyses. There was moderate to substantial agreement in vessel conspicuity between 4D flow acquisitions in arteries and veins (κ = 0.71 and 0.61, respectively, for observer 1; κ = 0.71 and 0.44 for observer 2), whereas more artifacts were observed with spiral 4D flow (κ = 0.30 and 0.20). Quantitative measurements in abdominal vessels showed good equivalence between spiral and Cartesian 4D flow techniques (lower bound of the 95% confidence interval: 63%, 77%, 60%, and 64% for flow, area, average velocity, and peak velocity, respectively). For portal venous flow, spiral 4D flow was in better agreement with 2D cine phase-contrast flow (95% limits of agreement: -8.8 and 9.3 mL/sec, respectively) than was Cartesian 4D flow (95% limits of agreement: -10.6 and 14.6 m

  18. Variations of target volume definition and daily target volume localization in stereotactic body radiotherapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients under abdominal compression.

    PubMed

    Han, Chunhui; Sampath, Sagus; Schultheisss, Timothy E; Wong, Jeffrey Y C

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to compare gross tumor volumes (GTV) in 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) simulation and daily cone beam CT (CBCT) with the internal target volume (ITV) in 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) simulation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) under abdominal compression. We retrospectively selected 10 patients with NSCLC who received image-guided SBRT treatments under abdominal compression with daily CBCT imaging. GTVs were contoured as visible gross tumor on the planning 3DCT and daily CBCT, and ITVs were contoured using maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the planning 4DCT. Daily CBCTs were registered with 3DCT and MIP images by matching of bony landmarks in the thoracic region to evaluate interfractional GTV position variations. Relative to MIP-based ITVs, the average 3DCT-based GTV volume was 66.3 ± 17.1% (range: 37.5% to 92.0%) (p < 0.01 in paired t-test), and the average CBCT-based GTV volume was 90.0 ± 6.7% (daily range: 75.7% to 107.1%) (p = 0.02). Based on bony anatomy matching, the center-of-mass coordinates for CBCT-based GTVs had maximum absolute shift of 2.4 mm (left-right), 7.0 mm (anterior-posterior [AP]), and 5.2 mm (superior-inferior [SI]) relative to the MIP-based ITV. CBCT-based GTVs had average overlapping ratio of 81.3 ± 11.2% (range: 45.1% to 98.9%) with the MIP-based ITV, and 57.7 ± 13.7% (range: 35.1% to 83.2%) with the 3DCT-based GTV. Even with abdominal compression, both 3DCT simulations and daily CBCT scans significantly underestimated the full range of tumor motion. In daily image-guided patient setup corrections, automatic bony anatomy-based image registration could lead to target misalignment. Soft tissue-based image registration should be performed for accurate treatment delivery. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Variations of target volume definition and daily target volume localization in stereotactic body radiotherapy for early-stage non–small cell lung cancer patients under abdominal compression

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Chunhui, E-mail: chan@coh.org; Sampath, Sagus; Schultheisss, Timothy E.

    We aimed to compare gross tumor volumes (GTV) in 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) simulation and daily cone beam CT (CBCT) with the internal target volume (ITV) in 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) simulation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of patients with early-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) under abdominal compression. We retrospectively selected 10 patients with NSCLC who received image-guided SBRT treatments under abdominal compression with daily CBCT imaging. GTVs were contoured as visible gross tumor on the planning 3DCT and daily CBCT, and ITVs were contoured using maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the planning 4DCT. Daily CBCTs were registeredmore » with 3DCT and MIP images by matching of bony landmarks in the thoracic region to evaluate interfractional GTV position variations. Relative to MIP-based ITVs, the average 3DCT-based GTV volume was 66.3 ± 17.1% (range: 37.5% to 92.0%) (p < 0.01 in paired t-test), and the average CBCT-based GTV volume was 90.0 ± 6.7% (daily range: 75.7% to 107.1%) (p = 0.02). Based on bony anatomy matching, the center-of-mass coordinates for CBCT-based GTVs had maximum absolute shift of 2.4 mm (left-right), 7.0 mm (anterior-posterior [AP]), and 5.2 mm (superior-inferior [SI]) relative to the MIP-based ITV. CBCT-based GTVs had average overlapping ratio of 81.3 ± 11.2% (range: 45.1% to 98.9%) with the MIP-based ITV, and 57.7 ± 13.7% (range: 35.1% to 83.2%) with the 3DCT-based GTV. Even with abdominal compression, both 3DCT simulations and daily CBCT scans significantly underestimated the full range of tumor motion. In daily image-guided patient setup corrections, automatic bony anatomy-based image registration could lead to target misalignment. Soft tissue-based image registration should be performed for accurate treatment delivery.« less

  20. Sci-Fri PM: Radiation Therapy, Planning, Imaging, and Special Techniques - 04: Assessment of intra-fraction motion during lung SABR VMAT using a custom abdominal compression device

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Derek; Robinson, Mark; Araujo, Cynthia

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Lung SABR patients are treated using Volumetrically Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT), utilizing 2 arcs with Conebeam CT (CBCT) image-guidance prior to each arc. Intra-fraction imaging can prolong treatment time (up to 20%), and the aim of this study is to determine if it is necessary. Methods: We utilize an in-house abdominal compression device to minimize respiratory motion, 4DCT to define the ITV, a 5 mm PTV margin and a 2–3 mm PRV margin. We treated 23 patients with VMAT, fifteen were treated to 48 Gy in 4 fractions, while eight were treated with up to 60 Gy in 8more » fractions. Intrafraction motion was assessed by the translational errors recorded for the second CBCT. Results: There was no significant difference (t-test, p=0.93) in the intra-fraction motion between the patients treated with 4 and 8 fractions, or between the absolute translations in each direction (ANOVA, p=0.17). All 124 intra-fraction CBCT images were analysed and 95% remained localized within the 5 mm PTV margin The mean magnitude of the vector displacement was 1.8 mm. Conclusions: For patients localized with an abdominal compression device, the intrafraction CBCT image may not be necessary, if it is only the tumor coverage that is of concern, as the patients are typically well within the 5 mm PTV margin. On the other hand, if there is a structure with a smaller PRV margin, an intrafraction CBCT is recommended to ensure that the dose limit for the organ at risk is not exceeded.« less

  1. Motion and volumetric change as demonstrated by 4DCT: The effects of abdominal compression on the GTV, lungs, and heart in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Abdullah; Jabbour, Salma K; Rosenberg, Stephen; Patel, Ajay; Goyal, Sharad; Haffty, Bruce G; Yue, Ning J; Khan, Alvin

    2016-01-01

    Lung tumors move during respiration, complicating radiation therapy. The abdominal compression plate (ACP) is thought to reduce respiratory motion. This study quantifies ACP efficacy on respiratory-induced motion by using 4-dimensional computed tomography to evaluate volume and displacement changes of the heart, lungs, and tumor with and without ACP. Lung cancer patients (n = 17) received 4-dimensional computed tomography simulations (10 computed tomography scans from 0% to 90% breathing phases) with and without ACP under maximally tolerated diaphragmatic pressure. Gross tumor volume (GTV), heart, and lungs were contoured in treatment planning software for each phase. Structures were exported for analysis. For each phase, with and without ACP, tumor and organ absolute centroid range of motion and volume were calculated. ACP did not significantly affect GTV, heart, or lung motion on the sample as a whole, but instead demonstrated patient-specific results. ACP reduced GTV motion in 3 (17.6%; 3 upper lobe tumors) by 2.9 mm (P < .01), increased motion in 5 (29.4%; 3 upper lobe tumors, 1 middle lobe, 1 lower lobe) by 1.9 mm (P < .03), and did not significantly change 9. Of the 3 patients exhibiting significantly decreased GTV motion, GTV, heart, and lung range of motion was 7.4 mm, 11.8 mm, and 11.9 mm, respectively, without compression and 4.5 mm, 8.4 mm, and 10.9 mm, respectively, with compression. Averaged across the sample, ACP did not exhibit any axis-specific effect. ACP efficacy was patient-specific, possibly because of pre-existing factors including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity, chest wall elasticity, tumor location, and patient comfort. Tumor lobe location does not predetermine compression efficacy; therefore, patients should be simulated with and without ACP, regardless of tumor location. GTV motion seems most important in determining suitability for compression. Alternative motion control should be considered in patients not benefited by

  2. Effects of phosphate binders in moderate CKD.

    PubMed

    Block, Geoffrey A; Wheeler, David C; Persky, Martha S; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Ketteler, Markus; Spiegel, David M; Allison, Matthew A; Asplin, John; Smits, Gerard; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Kooienga, Laura; Thadhani, Ravi; Mannstadt, Michael; Wolf, Myles; Chertow, Glenn M

    2012-08-01

    Some propose using phosphate binders in the CKD population given the association between higher levels of phosphorus and mortality, but their safety and efficacy in this population are not well understood. Here, we aimed to determine the effects of phosphate binders on parameters of mineral metabolism and vascular calcification among patients with moderate to advanced CKD. We randomly assigned 148 patients with estimated GFR=20-45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) to calcium acetate, lanthanum carbonate, sevelamer carbonate, or placebo. The primary endpoint was change in mean serum phosphorus from baseline to the average of months 3, 6, and 9. Serum phosphorus decreased from a baseline mean of 4.2 mg/dl in both active and placebo arms to 3.9 mg/dl with active therapy and 4.1 mg/dl with placebo (P=0.03). Phosphate binders, but not placebo, decreased mean 24-hour urine phosphorus by 22%. Median serum intact parathyroid hormone remained stable with active therapy and increased with placebo (P=0.002). Active therapy did not significantly affect plasma C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 levels. Active therapy did, however, significantly increase calcification of the coronary arteries and abdominal aorta (coronary: median increases of 18.1% versus 0.6%, P=0.05; abdominal aorta: median increases of 15.4% versus 3.4%, P=0.03). In conclusion, phosphate binders significantly lower serum and urinary phosphorus and attenuate progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism among patients with CKD who have normal or near-normal levels of serum phosphorus; however, they also promote the progression of vascular calcification. The safety and efficacy of phosphate binders in CKD remain uncertain.

  3. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clearinghouse What are abdominal adhesions? Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ... Esophagus Stomach Large intestine Adhesion Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ...

  4. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Recurrent or Functional Abdominal Pain (RAP or FAP) What is abdominal pain? Abdominal pain , or stomachache, ... recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) or functional abdominal pain (FAP)? If your health care provider has ruled out ...

  5. Effect of binder liquid type on spherical crystallization.

    PubMed

    Maghsoodi, Maryam; Hajipour, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Spherical crystallization is a process of formation of agglomerates of crystals held together by binder liquid. This research focused on understanding the effect of type of solvents used as binder liquid on the agglomeration of crystals. Carbamazepine and ethanol/water were used respectively as a model drug and crystallization system. Eight solvents as binder liquid including chloroform, dichloromethane, isopropyl acetate, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, dimethyl aniline, benzene and toluene were examined to better understand the relationship between the physical properties of the binder liquid and its ability to bring about the formation of the agglomerates. Moreover, the agglomerates obtained from effective solvents as binder liquid were evaluated in term of size, apparent particle density and compressive strength. In this study the clear trend was observed experimentally in the agglomerate formation as a function of physical properties of the binder liquid such as miscibility with crystallization system. Furthermore, the properties of obtained agglomerates such as size, apparent particle density and compressive strength were directly related to physical properties of effective binder liquids. RESULTS of this study offer a useful starting point for a conceptual framework to guide the selection of solvent systems for spherical crystallization.

  6. Binder effect on seashell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Hatta, Mohamed Nasrul Mohamed; Baba, Noor Wahida Ab; Hussin, Rosniza; Ismail, Al Emran

    2017-10-01

    Self-protection or known as defensive covering can be alluded to something that can secure body, building, or vehicles from harm or assault. As the evolution going on, the material utilized as a part of plate armour continue changing, from steel, Kevlar, ceramic and the materials that can give better impact and benefit to the user. A study has been led to distinguish either seashell can be one of the fundamental source to produce protective material due to the properties of seashell that consist of calcium chloride. Seashell is crushed and chipped using variable speed rotor mill and is compressed into specimen shape followed the ASTM C1211-13. Three different samples is tested made from seashells that mix with three different binder i.e. water, kaolin and polyethylene glycol (PEG) each. The specimens then were sintered at elevated controlled temperature 400°C before run for three point bending test to determine their mechanical properties results. Result shows that specimen with water gives highest value for Young's modulus and ultimate strength compared to sample with binder of kaolin and PEG. This proved that seashell powder remain intact even at higher temperature.

  7. Prospective Evaluation of Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) Algorithm in Abdominal CT: A comparison of reduced dose with standard dose imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lubner, Meghan G.; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Kim, David H.; Tang, Jie; Munoz del Rio, Alejandro; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively study CT dose reduction using the “prior image constrained compressed sensing” (PICCS) reconstruction technique. Methods Immediately following routine standard dose (SD) abdominal MDCT, 50 patients (mean age, 57.7 years; mean BMI, 28.8) underwent a second reduced-dose (RD) scan (targeted dose reduction, 70-90%). DLP, CTDIvol and SSDE were compared. Several reconstruction algorithms (FBP, ASIR, and PICCS) were applied to the RD series. SD images with FBP served as reference standard. Two blinded readers evaluated each series for subjective image quality and focal lesion detection. Results Mean DLP, CTDIvol, and SSDE for RD series was 140.3 mGy*cm (median 79.4), 3.7 mGy (median 1.8), and 4.2 mGy (median 2.3) compared with 493.7 mGy*cm (median 345.8), 12.9 mGy (median 7.9 mGy) and 14.6 mGy (median 10.1) for SD series, respectively. Mean effective patient diameter was 30.1 cm (median 30), which translates to a mean SSDE reduction of 72% (p<0.001). RD-PICCS image quality score was 2.8±0.5, improved over the RD-FBP (1.7±0.7) and RD-ASIR(1.9±0.8)(p<0.001), but lower than SD (3.5±0.5)(p<0.001). Readers detected 81% (184/228) of focal lesions on RD-PICCS series, versus 67% (153/228) and 65% (149/228) for RD-FBP and RD-ASIR, respectively. Mean image noise was significantly reduced on RD-PICCS series (13.9 HU) compared with RD-FBP (57.2) and RD-ASIR (44.1) (p<0.001). Conclusion PICCS allows for marked dose reduction at abdominal CT with improved image quality and diagnostic performance over reduced-dose FBP and ASIR. Further study is needed to determine indication-specific dose reduction levels that preserve acceptable diagnostic accuracy relative to higher-dose protocols. PMID:24943136

  8. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... abdominal cavity ( most often cancer of the ovaries ) Cirrhosis of the liver Damaged bowel Heart disease Infection ...

  9. Seal coat binder performance specifications.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-11-01

    Need to improve seal coat binder specs: replace empirical tests (penetration, ductility) with : performance-related tests applicable to both : unmodified and modified binders; consider temperatures that cover entire in service : range that are tied t...

  10. Discovery with "Binders".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candler, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    It is helpful to elicit sentences using "binders" and to examine their properties together, especially when the indigenous language has textual and logical processes different from those of English. Such a procedure increases students' awareness of the delicacy of the clause/sentence grammar which pivots around these difficult words. (Author)

  11. [An experimental study on the effects of rhythmic abdominal lifting and compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a swine model of asphyxia].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-man; Wang, Li-xiang; Liu, Ya-hua; Sun, Kun; Ma, Li-zhi; Guo, Xiao-dong; Li, Hui-qing

    2012-04-01

    To compare the hemodynamic and respiratory influences of chest compression- cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CC-CPR) and rhythmic abdominal lifting and compression-cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ALC-CPR) in a swine model of asphyxia cardiac arrest (CA), and evaluate the effectiveness of rhythmic abdominal lifting and compression. Thirty swines were randomly divided into two groups, with 15 swines in each group. CA model was reproduced by asphyxia as a result of clamping the trachea, and CC-CPR and ALC-CPR was conducted in two groups, respectively. Electrocardiogram (ECG), pulse oxygen saturation [SpO(2)], end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide [P(ET)CO(2)], aorta systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), central venous pressure (CVP), and tidal volume (VT) were monitored continuously from 10 minutes before asphyxia to the end of experiment. The aorta mean arterial pressure (MAP), coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) and minute ventilation (MV) were calculated. Artery blood samples were collected to determine the blood gas analysis at 10 minutes before asphyxia, 10 minutes after asphyxia, and 5, 10, 20 minutes after resuscitation. The restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) rate, 24-hour survival rate and 24-hour neurological function score were observed. There were no significant differences in all mentioned indexes between two groups at 10 minutes before and 10 minutes after asphyxia. At 2 minutes after the resuscitation, the MAP (mm Hg, 1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) and CPP (mm Hg) in CC-CPR group were significantly higher than those in ALC-CPR group (MAP: 43.60 ± 12.91 vs. 33.40 ± 6.59, P < 0.05; CPP: 21.67 ± 11.28 vs. 11.80 ± 4.16, P < 0.01), the VT (ml) and MV (L/min)in ALC-CPR group were significantly higher than those in CC-CPR group (VT: 111.67 ± 18.12 vs. 56.60 ± 7.76; MV: 11.17 ± 1.81 vs. 5.54 ± 0.79, both P < 0.01). At 5, 10, 20 minutes after resuscitation, in ALC-CPR group, pH value, arterial partial pressure of oxygen [PaO(2

  12. SU-F-BRB-01: How Effective Is Abdominal Compression at Reducing Lung Motion? An Analysis Using Deformable Image Registration Within Different Sub-Regions of the Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Paradiso, D; Pearce, A; Leszczynski, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of employing abdominal compression (AC) in reducing motion for the target region and sub-regions of the lung as part of the planning process for radiation therapy. Methods: Fourteen patients with early lung cancer were scanned with 4DCT and it was determined that target motion exceeded our institutional limit of > 8 mm motion and received a repeat 4DCT with AC. For each 4DCT, deformable image registration (DIR) was used to map the max inhale to the max exhale phase to determine the deformation vector fields (DVF). DIR was performed with Morphons and Demons algorithms. Themore » mean DVF was used to represent that sub-region for each patient. The magnitudes of the mean DVF were quantified for the target and 12 sub-regions in the AP, LR SI directions. The sub-regions were contoured on each lung as (add prefix R or L for lung): Upper-Anterior (UA), Upper-Posterior (UP), Mid-Anterior (MA), Mid-Posterior (MP), Lower-Anterior (LA) and Lower-Posterior (LP). Results: The min/max SI motion for the target on the uncompressed 4DCT was 8mm/24.5 mm. The magnitude of decrease in SI was greatest in the RLP region (3.7±4.0mm) followed by target region (3.3±2.2mm) and finally the LLP region (3.0±3.5mm). The magnitude of decrease in 3D vector followed the same trend; RLP (3.5±2.2mm) then GTV (3.5±2.6mm) then LLP (2.7±3.8mm). 79% of the cases had a SI decrease of >12.5%, 43% had a SI decrease of >25% and 21% had a SI decrease of >50% as compared to the motion on the uncompressed 4DCT. Conclusion: AC is useful in reducing motion with the largest decreases observed in the lower posterior regions of the lungs. However, it should be noted that AC will not greatly decrease motion for all cases as 21% of cases did not reduce SI motion more than 12.5% of initial motion.« less

  13. A novel technique of non-invasive ventilation: Pharyngeal oxygen with nose-closure and abdominal-compression--Aid for pediatric flexible bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Soong, Wen-Jue; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Tsao, Pei-Chen; Harloff, Morgan; Matthew Soong, Yen-Hui

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the safety, feasibility and efficacy of a novel non-invasive ventilation (NIV) technique--pharyngeal oxygen with nose-closure and abdominal-compression (PhO2 -NC-AC)--to aid pediatric flexible bronchoscopy (FB). A prospective 1 year study of patients who received FB. A basic PhO2 flow (0.5-1.0 L/kg/min, maximal 5.0 L/min) was routinely applied. Active NIV was initiated when the heart rate dropped <80 beats/min or desaturation was <80% for >10 sec. It was performed as follows: NC 1 sec for inspiration then released, followed by AC 1 sec for active expiration at a rate of 20-30 cycles/min until vital signs returned to acceptable levels for >10 sec. When the patients were stable, supplementary NIV was optionally given. Cardiopulmonary parameters were collected and analyzed. Three hundred thirty-seven FBs, including 188 therapeutic, were conducted in 286 patients with a mean age of 18.3 months (± 14.4, 10 min to 12 years) and a mean body weight of 13.5 kg (± 6.7, 0.5-35 kg). Three hundred thirty-three active NIVs were executed with a mean duration of 87.8 sec (± 40.4, 28-190 sec). A significantly longer FB duration (33.2 ± 16.7 min vs. 7.2 ± 2.8 min, P < 0.001) and a higher application rate of active NIV (1.44/FB vs. 0.42/FB) were noted in the therapeutic compared to the diagnostic group. Vital signs and blood gases (35 cases) improved rapidly and returned to baseline within 3 min. All FBs were safely and successfully completed without significant complications. PhO2 -NC-AC is a simple, safe and effective NIV technique for respiratory support and rescue during various pediatric FB procedures. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. EFFICACY OF SERVO-CONTROLLED SPLANCHNIC VENOUS COMPRESSION IN THE TREATMENT OF ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION. A RANDOMIZED COMPARISON WITH MIDODRINE

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Luis E.; Diedrich, André; Baudenbacher, Franz J.; Harder, René; Whitfield, Jonathan S.; Iqbal, Fahad; Gamboa, Alfredo; Shibao, Cyndya A.; Black, Bonnie K.; Raj, Satish R.; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo

    2016-01-01

    Splanchnic venous pooling is a major hemodynamic determinant of orthostatic hypotension (OH), but is not specifically targeted by pressor agents, the mainstay of treatment. We developed an automated inflatable abdominal binder that provides sustained servo-controlled venous compression (40 mmHg) and can be activated only on standing. We tested the efficacy of this device against placebo and compared it to midodrine in nineteen autonomic failure patients randomized to receive either placebo, midodrine (2.5–10 mg) or placebo combined with binder on separate days in a single-blind, crossover study. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured seated and standing before and 1-hour post-medication; the binder was inflated immediately before standing. Only midodrine increased seated SBP (31±5 vs. 9±4 placebo and 7±5 binder, P=0.003); whereas orthostatic tolerance (defined as area under the curve of upright SBP [AUCSBP]) improved similarly with binder and midodrine (AUCSBP, 195±35 and 197±41 vs. 19±38 mmHg*min for placebo, P=0.003). Orthostatic symptom burden decreased with the binder (from 21.9±3.6 to 16.3±3.1, P=0.032) and midodrine (from 25.6±3.4 to 14.2±3.3, P<0.001), but not with placebo (from 19.6±3.5 to 20.1±3.3, P=0.756). We also compared the combination of midodrine and binder, with midodrine alone. The combination produced a greater increase in orthostatic tolerance (AUCSBP, 326±65 vs. 140±53 mmHg*min for midodrine alone, P=0.028, n=21), and decreased orthostatic symptoms (from 21.8±3.2 to 12.9±2.9, P<0.001). In conclusion, servo-controlled abdominal venous compression with an automated inflatable binder is as effective as midodrine, the standard of care, in the management of OH. Combining both therapies produces greater improvement in orthostatic tolerance. PMID:27271310

  15. The Effect of Abdominal Support on Functional Outcomes in Patients Following Major Abdominal Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cheifetz, Oren; Overend, Tom J.; Crowe, Jean

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Immobility and pain are modifiable risk factors for development of venous thromboembolism and pulmonary morbidity after major abdominal surgery (MAS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of abdominal incision support with an elasticized abdominal binder on postoperative walk performance (mobility), perceived distress, pain, and pulmonary function in patients following MAS. Methods: Seventy-five patients scheduled to undergo MAS via laparotomy were randomized to experimental (binder) or control (no binder) groups. Sixty (33 male, 27 female; mean age 58±14.9 years) completed the study. Preoperative measurements of 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance, perceived distress, pain, and pulmonary function were repeated 1, 3, and 5 days after surgery. Results: Surgery was associated with marked postoperative reductions (p<0.001) in walk distance (∼75–78%, day 3) and forced vital capacity (35%, all days) for both groups. Improved 6MWT distance by day 5 was greater (p<0.05) for patients wearing a binder (80%) than for the control group (48%). Pain and symptom-associated distress remained unchanged following surgery with binder usage, increasing significantly (p<0.05) only in the no binder group. Conclusion: Elasticized abdominal binders provide a non-invasive intervention for enhancing recovery of walk performance, controlling pain and distress, and improving patients' experience following MAS. PMID:21629603

  16. Char binder for fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Borio, Richard W.; Accortt, Joseph I.

    1981-01-01

    An arrangement that utilizes agglomerating coal as a binder to bond coal fines and recycled char into an agglomerate mass that will have suitable retention time when introduced into a fluidized bed 14 for combustion. The simultaneous use of coal for a primary fuel and as a binder effects significant savings in the elimination of non-essential materials and processing steps.

  17. Improvements in Fabrication of Sand/Binder Cores for Casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhitiyarov, Sayavur I.; Overfelt, Ruel A.; Adanur, Sabit

    2005-01-01

    Three improvements have been devised for the cold-box process, which is a special molding process used to make sand/binder cores for casting hollow metal parts. These improvements are: The use of fiber-reinforced composite binder materials (in contradistinction to the non-fiber-reinforced binders used heretofore), The substitution of a directed-vortex core-blowing subprocess for a prior core-blowing process that involved a movable gassing plate, and The use of filters made from filtration-grade fabrics to prevent clogging of vents. For reasons that exceed the scope of this article, most foundries have adopted the cold-box process for making cores for casting metals. However, this process is not widely known outside the metal-casting industry; therefore, a description of pertinent aspects of the cold-box process is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the aforementioned improvements. In the cold-box process as practiced heretofore, sand is first mixed with a phenolic resin (considered to be part 1 of a three-part binder) and an isocyanate resin (part 2 of the binder). Then by use of compressed air, the mixture is blown into a core box, which is a mold for forming the core. Next, an amine gas (part 3 of the binder) that acts as a catalyst for polymerization of parts 1 and 2 is blown through the core box. Alternatively, a liquid amine that vaporizes during polymerization can be incorporated into the sand/resin mixture. Once polymerization is complete, the amine gas is purged from the core box by use of compressed air. The finished core is then removed from the core box.

  18. Abdominal Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Deborah; Weilitz, Pamela Becker

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints by patients, and assessment of abdominal pain and associated symptoms can be challenging for home healthcare providers. Reasons for abdominal pain are related to inflammation, organ distention, and ischemia. The history and physical examination are important to narrow the source of acute or chronic problems, identify immediate interventions, and when necessary, facilitate emergency department care.

  19. Method Of Characterizing An Electrode Binder

    DOEpatents

    Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Coco, Isabelle; Villenave, Jean-Jacques

    1999-05-11

    In a method of characterizing a polymer binder for cell electrodes in contact with an electrolyte and including a current collector and a paste containing an electrochemically active material and said binder, a spreading coefficient of the binder on the active material is calculated from the measured angle of contact between standard liquids and the active material and the binder, respectively. An interaction energy of the binder with the electrolyte is calculated from the measured angle of contact between the electrolyte and the binder. The binder is selected such that the spreading coefficient is less than zero and the interaction energy is at least 60 mJ/m.sup.2.

  20. Testing of Binders Toxicological Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strokova, V.; Nelyubova, V.; Rykunova, M.

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the results of a study of the toxicological effect of binders with different compositions on the vital activity of plant and animal test-objects. The analysis of the effect on plant cultures was made on the basis of the phytotesting data. The study of the effect of binders on objects of animal origin was carried out using the method of short-term testing. Based on the data obtained, binders are ranked according to the degree of increase in the toxic effect: Gypsum → Portland cement → Slag Portland cement. Regardless of the test-object type, the influence of binders is due to the release of various elements (calcium ions or heavy metals) into the solution. In case of plant cultures, the saturation of the solution with elements has a positive effect (there is no inhibitory effect), and in case of animal specimens - an increase in the toxic effect.

  1. Development of an MgO-based binder for stabilizing fine sediments and storing CO2.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyung-Yup; Ahn, Jun-Young; Kim, Cheolyong; Seo, Jeong-Yun; Hwang, Inseong

    2015-12-01

    An MgO-based binder was developed that could stabilize fine dredged sediments for reuse and store CO2. Initially, a binder consisting of fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS) was developed by using alkaline activators such as KOH, NaOH, and lime. The FA0.4-BFS0.6 binder (mixed at a FA-to-BFS weight ratio of 4:6) showed the highest compressive strength of 10.7 MPa among FA/BFS binders when 5 M KOH was used. When lime (L) was tested as an alkaline activator, the strength was comparable with those obtained when KOH or NaOH was used. The L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9 binder (10 % lime mixed with the FA/BFS binder) showed the highest strength of 11.0 MPa. Finally, by amending this L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9 binder with MgO, a novel MgO-based binder (MgO0.5-(L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9) 0.5) was developed, which demonstrated the 28th day strength of 11.9 MPa. The MgO-based binder was successfully applied to stabilize a fine sediment to yield a compressive strength of 4.78 MPa in 365 days, which was higher than that obtained by the Portland cement (PC) system (3.22 MPa). Carbon dioxide sequestration was evidenced by three observations: (1) the decrease in pH of the treated sediment from 12.2 to 11.0; (2) the progress of the carbonation front inward the treated sediment; and (3) the presence of magnesium carbonates. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results showed that 67.2 kg of CO2 per ton of the treated sediment could be stored under the atmospheric condition during 1 year.

  2. The Effect of Baggase Ash on Fly Ash-Based Geopolimer Binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayuaji, R.; Darmawan, M. S.; Husin, N. A.; Banugraha, R.; Alfi, M.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.

    2018-06-01

    Geopolymer concrete is an environmentally friendly concrete. However, the geopolymer binder has a problem with setting time; mainly the composition comprises high calcium fly ash. This study utilized bagasse ash to improve setting time on fly ash-based geopolymer binder. The characterization of bagasse ash was carried out by using chemical and phase analysis, while the morphology characterization was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The setting time test and the compressive strength test used standard ASTM C 191-04 and ASTM C39 / C39M respectively. The compressive strength of the samples determined at 3, 28 and 56 days. The result compared the requirement of the standards.

  3. Routine Testing of Bitumen Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holý, Michal; Remišová, Eva

    2017-12-01

    The quality of bituminous binders used in the construction and maintenance of road surfaces is currently assessed by empirical testing based on obtaining one value for specific boundary conditions, which were designed about 100 years ago. Basic empirical tests include the softening point and penetration, but the practice shows that these tests appear to be inadequate. The evaluation of changes of bitumen properties during the production and paving process of bituminous mixture is also important. The paper points out how the "traditional" tests as softening point and penetration and viscosity are sufficient to evaluate properties of bitumen binders.

  4. Polysiloxane binder for lithium ion battery electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Dong, Jian; Amine, Khalil

    2015-10-13

    An electrode includes a binder and an electroactive material, wherein the binder includes a polymer including a linear polysiloxane or a cyclic polysiloxane. The polymer may be generally represented by Formula I: ##STR00001##

  5. [Abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Sido, B; Grenacher, L; Friess, H; Büchler, M W

    2005-09-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma is much more frequent than penetrating abdominal trauma in Europe. As a consequence of improved quality of computed tomography, even complex liver injuries are increasingly being treated conservatively. However, missed hollow viscus injuries still remain a problem, as they considerably increase mortality in multiply injured patients. Laparoscopy decreases the rate of unnecessary laparotomies in perforating abdominal trauma and helps to diagnose injuries of solid organs and the diaphragm. However, the sensitivity in detecting hollow viscus injuries is low and the role of laparoscopy in blunt abdominal injury has not been defined. If intra-abdominal bleeding is difficult to control in hemodynamically unstable patients, damage control surgery with packing of the liver, total splenectomy, and provisional closure of hollow viscus injuries is of importance. Definitive surgical treatment follows hemodynamic stabilization and restoration of hemostasis. Injuries of the duodenum and pancreas after blunt abdominal trauma are often associated with other intra-abdominal injuries and the treatment depends on their location and severity.

  6. Electrochemical components employing polysiloxane-derived binders

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2013-06-11

    A processed polysiloxane resin binder for use in electrochemical components and the method for fabricating components with the binder. The binder comprises processed polysiloxane resin that is partially oxidized and retains some of its methyl groups following partial oxidation. The binder is suitable for use in electrodes of various types, separators in electrochemical devices, primary lithium batteries, electrolytic capacitors, electrochemical capacitors, fuel cells and sensors.

  7. Phosphate binder usage in kidney failure patients.

    PubMed

    Bleyer, Anthony J

    2003-06-01

    Phosphorus binders are used in patients with kidney failure because of the incomplete removal of phosphorus with dialysis and the inability to exclude phosphorus from the diet. Aluminium was the initial phosphorus binder used, but was replaced by calcium-containing binders because of the development of aluminium toxicity. Calcium-based binders have been the mainstay of therapy for many years, but recent investigations have pointed to increased rates of vascular calcification in patients taking calcium-containing binders. For this reason, alternative agents have been developed. Sevelamer (Renagel), GelTex Pharmaceuticals Inc.) is a polymer which has been found to effectively bind phosphorus. It has resulted in a decreased rate of vascular calcification compared to calcium-containing binders. Other agents under development include lanthanum carbonate and iron-complex preparations. Further research will likely concentrate on identifying binders that bind phosphate more efficiently, have minimal gastrointestinal side effects and provide other benefits to dialysis patients.

  8. Intestinal injury mechanisms after blunt abdominal impact.

    PubMed

    Cripps, N P; Cooper, G J

    1997-03-01

    Intestinal injury is frequent after non-penetrating abdominal trauma, particularly after modern, high-energy transfer impacts. Under these circumstances, delay in the diagnosis of perforation is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. This study establishes patterns of intestinal injury after blunt trauma by non-penetrating projectiles and examines relationships between injury distribution and abdominal wall motion. Projectile impacts of variable momentum were produced in 31 anaesthetised pigs to cause abdominal wall motion of varying magnitude and velocity. No small bowel injury was observed at initial impact velocity of less than 40 m/s despite gross abdominal compression. At higher velocity, injury to the small bowel was frequent, irrespective of the degree of abdominal compression (P = 0.00044). Large bowel injury was observed at all impact velocities and at all degrees of abdominal compression. This study confirms the potential for intestinal injury in high velocity, low momentum impacts which do not greatly compress the abdominal cavity and demonstrates apparent differences in injury mechanisms for the small bowel and colon. Familiarity with injury mechanisms may reduce delays in the diagnosis of intestinal perforation in both military and civilian situations.

  9. A study of compressibility and compactibility of directly compressible tableting materials containing tramadol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Mužíková, Jitka; Kubíčková, Alena

    2016-09-01

    The paper evaluates and compares the compressibility and compactibility of directly compressible tableting materials for the preparation of hydrophilic gel matrix tablets containing tramadol hydrochloride and the coprocessed dry binders Prosolv® SMCC 90 and Disintequik™ MCC 25. The selected types of hypromellose are Methocel™ Premium K4M and Methocel™ Premium K100M in 30 and 50 % concentrations, the lubricant being magnesium stearate in a 1 % concentration. Compressibility is evaluated by means of the energy profile of compression process and compactibility by the tensile strength of tablets. The values of total energy of compression and plasticity were higher in the tableting materials containing Prosolv® SMCC 90 than in those containing Disintequik™ MCC 25. Tramadol slightly decreased the values of total energy of compression and plasticity. Tableting materials containing Prosolv® SMCC 90 yielded stronger tablets. Tramadol decreased the strength of tablets from both coprocessed dry binders.

  10. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  11. Observation of asphalt binder microstructure with ESEM.

    PubMed

    Mikhailenko, P; Kadhim, H; Baaj, H; Tighe, S

    2017-09-01

    The observation of asphalt binder with the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has shown the potential to observe asphalt binder microstructure and its evolution with binder aging. A procedure for the induction and identification of the microstructure in asphalt binder was established in this study and included sample preparation and observation parameters. A suitable heat-sampling asphalt binder sample preparation method was determined for the test and several stainless steel and Teflon sample moulds developed, finding that stainless steel was the preferable material. The magnification and ESEM settings conducive to observing the 3D microstructure were determined through a number of observations to be 1000×, although other magnifications could be considered. Both straight run binder (PG 58-28) and an air blown oxidised binder were analysed; their structures being compared for their relative size, abundance and other characteristics, showing a clear evolution in the fibril microstructure. The microstructure took longer to appear for the oxidised binder. It was confirmed that the fibril microstructure corresponded to actual characteristics in the asphalt binder. Additionally, a 'bee' micelle structure was found as a transitional structure in ESEM observation. The test methods in this study will be used for more comprehensive analysis of asphalt binder microstructure. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  12. Abdominal rigidity

    MedlinePlus

    ... other symptoms do you have at the same time? For example, do you have abdominal pain ? You may have the following tests: Barium studies of the stomach and intestines (such as an upper GI series ) Blood tests Colonoscopy Gastroscopy Peritoneal lavage Stool studies ...

  13. Effect of recovered binders from recycled shingles and increased RAP percentages on resultant binder PG.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-12-01

    This research evaluated the properties of recycled asphalt binders from Wisconsin sources. Continuous grading : properties were measured for 18 recycled binder sources: 12 reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) sources and 6 recycled : asphalt shingle sour...

  14. Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel

    DOEpatents

    Daugherty, Kenneth E.; Venables, Barney J.; Ohlsson, Oscar O.

    1996-01-01

    A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

  15. Lipid metabolism of commercial layers fed diets containing aflatoxin, fumonisin, and a binder.

    PubMed

    Siloto, E V; Oliveira, E F A; Sartori, J R; Fascina, V B; Martins, B A B; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Sartori, D R S

    2013-08-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) and fumonisins (FU) are a major problem faced by poultry farmers, leading to huge economic losses. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of AF (1 mg/kg of feed) and FU (25 mg/kg of feed), singly or in combination, on the lipid metabolism in commercial layers and investigate the efficacy of a commercial binder (2 kg/t of feed) on reducing the toxic effects of these mycotoxins. A total of 168 Hisex Brown layer hens, 37 wk of age, were randomized into a 3 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement (3 diets with no binder containing AF, FU, and AF+FU; 3 diets with binder containing AF, FU, and AF+FU; and a control diet with no mycotoxins and binders), totaling 7 treatments. The hens contaminated with AF showed the characteristic effects of aflatoxicosis, such as a yellow liver, resulting from the accumulation of liver fat, lower values of plasma very low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides, and higher relative weight of the kidneys and liver. Hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects of FU were not observed in this study. On the other hand, the FU caused a reduction in small intestine length and an increase in abdominal fat deposition. The glucan-based binder prevented some of the deleterious effects of these mycotoxins, particularly the effects of AF on hepatic lipid metabolism, kidney relative weight, and FU in the small intestine.

  16. Theme Binders: One Size Fits All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskwill, Steve

    1996-01-01

    Describes theme binders designed by sixth graders as an independent study component that unites the class as a learning community, showcases student work, and illustrates developmental milestones for parents. Details theme binder components: (1) cover page; (2) introductory page outlining the theme and contents; (3) evaluation sections indicating…

  17. Influence of Binder in Iron Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsuddin, S.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Hussain, Z.; Ahmad, Z. A.

    2010-03-01

    The ability to use iron and its alloys as the matrix material in composite systems is of great importance because it is the most widely used metallic material with a variety of commercially available steel grades [1]. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of binder in particulate iron based metal matrix composites. There are four types of binder that were used in this study; Stearic Acid, Gummi Arabisch, Polyvinyl alcohol 15000 MW and Polyvinyl alcohol 22000 MW. Six different weight percentage of each binder was prepared to produce the composite materials using powder metallurgy (P/M) route; consists of dry mixing, uniaxially compacting at 750 MPa and vacuum sintering at 1100° C for two hours. Their characterization included a study of density, porosity, hardness and microstructure. Results indicate that MMC was affected by the binder and stearic acid as a binder produced better properties of the composite.

  18. Resistance to minor groove binders.

    PubMed

    Colmegna, Benedetta; Uboldi, Sarah; Erba, Eugenio; D'Incalci, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    In this paper multiple resistance mechanisms to minor groove binders (MGBs) are overviewed. MGBs with antitumor properties are natural products or their derivatives and, as expected, they are all substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). However, a moderate expression of P-gp does not appear to reduce the sensitivity to trabectedin, the only MGB so far approved for clinical use. Resistance to this drug is often related to transcriptional mechanisms and to DNA repair pathways, particularly defects in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER). Therefore tumors resistant to trabectedin may become hypersensitive to UV rays and other DNA damaging agents acting in the major groove, such as Platinum (Pt) complexes. If this is confirmed in clinic, that will provide the rationale to combine trabectedin sequentially with Pt derivates.

  19. Early-age hydration and volume change of calcium sulfoaluminate cement-based binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaunsali, Piyush

    Shrinkage cracking is a predominant deterioration mechanism in structures with high surface-to-volume ratio. One way to allay shrinkage-induced stresses is to use calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement whose early-age expansion in restrained condition induces compressive stress that can be utilized to counter the tensile stresses due to shrinkage. In addition to enhancing the resistance against shrinkage cracking, CSA cement also has lower carbon footprint than that of Portland cement. This dissertation aims at improving the understanding of early-age volume change of CSA cement-based binders. For the first time, interaction between mineral admixtures (Class F fly ash, Class C fly ash, and silica fume) and OPC-CSA binder was studied. Various physico-chemical factors such as the hydration of ye'elimite (main component in CSA cement), amount of ettringite (the main phase responsible for expansion in CSA cement), supersaturation with respect to ettringite in cement pore solution, total pore volume, and material stiffness were monitored to examine early-age expansion characteristics. This research validated the crystallization stress theory by showing the presence of higher supersaturation level of ettringite, and therefore, higher crystallization stress in CSA cement-based binders. Supersaturation with respect to ettringite was found to increase with CSA dosage and external supply of gypsum. Mineral admixtures (MA) altered the expansion characteristics in OPC-CSA-MA binders with fixed CSA cement. This study reports that fly ash (FA) behaves differently depending on its phase composition. The Class C FA-based binder (OPC-CSA-CFA) ceased expanding beyond two days unlike other OPC-CSA-MA binders. Three factors were found to govern expansion of CSA cement-based binders: 1) volume fraction of ettringite in given pore volume, 2) saturation level of ettringite, and 3) dynamic modulus. Various models were utilized to estimate the macroscopic tensile stress in CSA cement

  20. Strength Loss in MA-MOX Green Pellets from Radiation Damage to Binders

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Lessing; W.R. Cannon; Gerald W. Egeland

    The fracture strength of green Minor Actinides (MA)-MOX pellets containing 75 wt.% DUO2, 20 wt. % PuO2, 3 wt. % AmO2 and 2 wt. % NpO2 was studied as a function of storage time, after mixing in the binder and before sintering, to test the effect of radiation damage on binders. Fracture strength degraded continuously over the 10 days of the study for all three binders studied: PEG binder (Carbowax 8000), microcrystalline wax (Mobilcer X) and Styrene-acrylic copolymer (Duramax B1022) but the fracture strength of Duramax B1022 degraded the least. For instance, for several hours after mixing Carbowax 8000 withmore » MA MOX, the fracture strength of a pellet was reasonably high and pellets were easily handled without breaking but the pellets were too weak to handle after 10 days. Strength measured using diametral compression test showed strength degradation was more rapid in pellets containing 1.0 wt. % Carbowax PEG 8000 compared to those containing only 0.2 wt. %, suggesting that irradiation not only left the binder less effective but also reduced the pellet strength. In contrast the strength of pellets containing Duramax B1022 degraded very little over the 10 day period. It was suggested that the styrene portion of the Duramax B1022 copolymer provided the radiation resistance.« less

  1. Leaching of heavy metals from solidified waste using Portland cement and zeolite as a binder.

    PubMed

    Napia, Chuwit; Sinsiri, Theerawat; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the properties of solidified waste using ordinary Portland cement (OPC) containing synthesized zeolite (SZ) and natural zeolite (NZ) as a binder. Natural and synthesized zeolites were used to partially replace the OPC at rates of 0%, 20%, and 40% by weight of the binder. Plating sludge was used as contaminated waste to replace the binder at rates of 40%, 50% and 60% by weight. A water to binder (w/b) ratio of 0.40 was used for all of the mixtures. The setting time and compressive strength of the solidified waste were investigated, while the leachability of the heavy metals was determined by TCLP. Additionally, XRD, XRF, and SEM were performed to investigate the fracture surface, while the pore size distribution was analyzed with MIP. The results indicated that the setting time of the binders marginally increased as the amount of SZ and NZ increased in the mix. The compressive strengths of the pastes containing 20 and 40wt.% of NZ were higher than those containing SZ. The compressive strengths at 28 days of the SZ solidified waste mixes were 1.2-31.1MPa and those of NZ solidified waste mixes were 26.0-62.4MPa as compared to 72.9MPa of the control mix at the same age. The quality of the solidified waste containing zeolites was better than that with OPC alone in terms of the effectiveness in reducing the leachability. The concentrations of heavy metals in the leachates were within the limits specified by the US EPA. SEM and MIP revealed that the replacement of Portland cement by zeolites increased the total porosity but decreased the average pore size and resulted in the better containment of heavy ions from the solidified waste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Roll Compaction and Tableting of High Loaded Metformin Formulations Using Efficient Binders.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Oscar-Rupert; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2018-04-23

    Metformin has a poor tabletability and flowability. Therefore, metformin is typically wet granulated with a binder before tableting. To save production costs, it would be desirable to implement a roll compaction/dry granulation (RCDG) process for metformin instead of using wet granulation. In order to implement RCDG, the efficiency of dry binders is crucial to ensure a high drug load and suitable properties of dry granules and tablets. This study evaluates dry granules manufactured by RCDG and subsequently tableting of high metformin content formulations (≥ 87.5%). Based on previous results, fine particle grades of hydroxypropylcellulose and copovidone in different fractions were compared as dry binders. The formulations are suitable for RCDG and tableting. Furthermore, results can be connected to in-die and out-of-die compressibility analysis. The addition of 7% of dry binder is a good compromise to generate sufficient mechanical properties on the one hand, but also to save resources and ensure a high metformin content on the other hand. Hydroxypropylcellulose was more efficient in terms of granule size, tensile strength and friability. Three percent croscarmellose was added to reach the specifications of the US Pharmacopeia regarding dissolution. The final formulation has a metformin content of 87.5%. A loss in tabletability does not occur for granules compressed at different specific compaction forces, which displays a robust tensile strength of tablets independent of the granulation process.

  3. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life ... familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: abdominal aorta, abdominal aortic aneurysm, abdominal pain, ...

  4. Detection of polymer modifiers in asphalt binder.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-01-01

    This study addressed the evaluation of alternative test methods to identify the presence of polymer modifiers in performance-graded binders for the purpose of quality assurance. A method of identification is presented in AASHTO T302, Polymer Content ...

  5. 7 CFR 30.15 - Cigar binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.15 Cigar binder. A portion of a tobacco leaf rolled around the filler of a cigar to bind or hold it...

  6. 7 CFR 30.15 - Cigar binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.15 Cigar binder. A portion of a tobacco leaf rolled around the filler of a cigar to bind or hold it...

  7. 7 CFR 30.15 - Cigar binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.15 Cigar binder. A portion of a tobacco leaf rolled around the filler of a cigar to bind or hold it...

  8. 7 CFR 30.15 - Cigar binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.15 Cigar binder. A portion of a tobacco leaf rolled around the filler of a cigar to bind or hold it...

  9. 7 CFR 30.15 - Cigar binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.15 Cigar binder. A portion of a tobacco leaf rolled around the filler of a cigar to bind or hold it...

  10. Battery components employing a silicate binder

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, Frank M [Albuquerque, NM; Reinhardt, Frederick W [Albuquerque, NM; Odinek, Judy G [Rio Rancho, NM

    2011-05-24

    A battery component structure employing inorganic-silicate binders. In some embodiments, casting or coating of components may be performed using aqueous slurries of silicates and electrode materials or separator materials.

  11. Study the bonding mechanism of binders on hydroxyapatite surface and mechanical properties for 3DP fabrication bone scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qinghua; Wang, Yanen; Li, Xinpei; Yang, Mingming; Chai, Weihong; Wang, Kai; zhang, Yingfeng

    2016-04-01

    In 3DP fabricating artificial bone scaffolds process, the interaction mechanism between binder and bioceramics power determines the microstructure and macro mechanical properties of Hydroxyapatite (HA) bone scaffold. In this study, we applied Molecular Dynamics (MD) methods to investigating the bonding mechanism and essence of binders on the HA crystallographic planes for 3DP fabrication bone scaffolds. The cohesive energy densities of binders and the binding energies, PCFs g(r), mechanical properties of binder/HA interaction models were analyzed through the MD simulation. Additionally, we prepared the HA bone scaffold specimens with different glues by 3DP additive manufacturing, and tested their mechanical properties by the electronic universal testing machine. The simulation results revealed that the relationship of the binding energies between binders and HA surface is consistent with the cohesive energy densities of binders, which is PAM/HA>PVA/HA>PVP/HA. The PCFs g(r) indicated that their interfacial interactions mainly attribute to the ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds which formed between the polar atoms, functional groups in binder polymer and the Ca, -OH in HA. The results of mechanical experiments verified the relationship of Young׳s modulus for three interaction models in simulation, which is PVA/HA>PAM/HA>PVP/HA. But the trend of compressive strength is PAM/HA>PVA/HA>PVP/HA, this is consistent with the binding energies of simulation. Therefore, the Young׳s modulus of bone scaffolds are limited by the Young׳s modulus of binders, and the compressive strength is mainly decided by the viscosity of binder. Finally, the major reasons for differences in mechanical properties between simulation and experiment were found, the space among HA pellets and the incomplete infiltration of glue were the main reasons influencing the mechanical properties of 3DP fabrication HA bone scaffolds. These results provide useful information in choosing binder for 3DP fabrication

  12. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, R.W.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1998-03-24

    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner is disclosed. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50--800 kg/m{sup 3} (0.05--0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization. 4 figs.

  13. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, Richard W.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    1998-03-24

    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50-800 kg/m.sup.3 (0.05-0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization.

  14. Mechanical and Permeability Characteristics of Latex-Modified Pre-Packed Pavement Repair Concrete as a Function of the Rapid-Set Binder Content

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jae-Woong; Jeon, Ji-Hong; Park, Chan-Gi

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the strength and durability characteristics of latex-polymer-modified, pre-packed pavement repair concrete (LMPPRC) with a rapid-set binder. The rapid-set binder was a mixture of rapid-set cement and silica sand, where the fluidity was controlled using a latex polymer. The resulting mix exhibited a compressive strength of ≥21 MPa and a flexural strength of ≥3.5 MPa after 4 h of curing (i.e., the traffic opening term for emergency repairs of pavement). The ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material was varied through 0.40, 0.33, 0.29, and 0.25. Mechanical characterization revealed that the mechanical performance, permeability, and impact resistance increased as the ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder decreased. The mixture exhibited a compressive strength of ≥21 MPa after 4 h when the ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material was ≤0.29. The mixture exhibited a flexural strength of ≥3.5 MPa after 4 h when the ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material was ≤0.33. The permeability resistance to chloride ions satisfied 2000 C after 7 days of curing for all ratios. The ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material that satisfied all conditions for emergency pavement repair was ≤0.29. PMID:28793596

  15. Mechanical and Permeability Characteristics of Latex-Modified Pre-Packed Pavement Repair Concrete as a Function of the Rapid-Set Binder Content.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-Woong; Jeon, Ji-Hong; Park, Chan-Gi

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the strength and durability characteristics of latex-polymer-modified, pre-packed pavement repair concrete (LMPPRC) with a rapid-set binder. The rapid-set binder was a mixture of rapid-set cement and silica sand, where the fluidity was controlled using a latex polymer. The resulting mix exhibited a compressive strength of ¥21 MPa and a flexural strength of ¥3.5 MPa after 4 h of curing (i.e., the traffic opening term for emergency repairs of pavement). The ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material was varied through 0.40, 0.33, 0.29, and 0.25. Mechanical characterization revealed that the mechanical performance, permeability, and impact resistance increased as the ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder decreased. The mixture exhibited a compressive strength of ¥21 MPa after 4 h when the ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material was ¤0.29. The mixture exhibited a flexural strength of ¥3.5 MPa after 4 h when the ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material was ¤0.33. The permeability resistance to chloride ions satisfied 2000 C after 7 days of curing for all ratios. The ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material that satisfied all conditions for emergency pavement repair was ¤0.29.

  16. Mesoscale Effective Property Simulations Incorporating Conductive Binder

    DOE PAGES

    Trembacki, Bradley L.; Noble, David R.; Brunini, Victor E.; ...

    2017-07-26

    Lithium-ion battery electrodes are composed of active material particles, binder, and conductive additives that form an electrolyte-filled porous particle composite. The mesoscale (particle-scale) interplay of electrochemistry, mechanical deformation, and transport through this tortuous multi-component network dictates the performance of a battery at the cell-level. Effective electrode properties connect mesoscale phenomena with computationally feasible battery-scale simulations. We utilize published tomography data to reconstruct a large subsection (1000+ particles) of an NMC333 cathode into a computational mesh and extract electrode-scale effective properties from finite element continuum-scale simulations. We present a novel method to preferentially place a composite binder phase throughout the mesostructure,more » a necessary approach due difficulty distinguishing between non-active phases in tomographic data. We compare stress generation and effective thermal, electrical, and ionic conductivities across several binder placement approaches. Isotropic lithiation-dependent mechanical swelling of the NMC particles and the consideration of strain-dependent composite binder conductivity significantly impact the resulting effective property trends and stresses generated. Lastly, our results suggest that composite binder location significantly affects mesoscale behavior, indicating that a binder coating on active particles is not sufficient and that more accurate approaches should be used when calculating effective properties that will inform battery-scale models in this inherently multi-scale battery simulation challenge.« less

  17. Mesoscale Effective Property Simulations Incorporating Conductive Binder

    SciTech Connect

    Trembacki, Bradley L.; Noble, David R.; Brunini, Victor E.

    Lithium-ion battery electrodes are composed of active material particles, binder, and conductive additives that form an electrolyte-filled porous particle composite. The mesoscale (particle-scale) interplay of electrochemistry, mechanical deformation, and transport through this tortuous multi-component network dictates the performance of a battery at the cell-level. Effective electrode properties connect mesoscale phenomena with computationally feasible battery-scale simulations. We utilize published tomography data to reconstruct a large subsection (1000+ particles) of an NMC333 cathode into a computational mesh and extract electrode-scale effective properties from finite element continuum-scale simulations. We present a novel method to preferentially place a composite binder phase throughout the mesostructure,more » a necessary approach due difficulty distinguishing between non-active phases in tomographic data. We compare stress generation and effective thermal, electrical, and ionic conductivities across several binder placement approaches. Isotropic lithiation-dependent mechanical swelling of the NMC particles and the consideration of strain-dependent composite binder conductivity significantly impact the resulting effective property trends and stresses generated. Lastly, our results suggest that composite binder location significantly affects mesoscale behavior, indicating that a binder coating on active particles is not sufficient and that more accurate approaches should be used when calculating effective properties that will inform battery-scale models in this inherently multi-scale battery simulation challenge.« less

  18. A study of a novel coprocessed dry binder composed of α-lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose and corn starch.

    PubMed

    Mužíková, Jitka; Srbová, Alena; Svačinová, Petra

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with a study of the novel coprocessed dry binder Combilac®, which contains 70% of α-lactose monohydrate, 20% of microcrystalline cellulose and 10% of native corn starch. These tests include flow properties, compressibility, lubricant sensitivity, tensile strength and disintegration time of tablets. Compressibility is evaluated by means of the energy profile of compression process, test of stress relaxation and tablet strength. The above-mentioned parameters are also evaluated in the physical mixture of α-lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose and native corn starch and compared with Combilac. Combilac shows much better flowability than the physical mixture of the used dry binders. Its compressibility is better, tablets possess a higher tensile strength. Neither Combilac, nor the physical mixture can be compressed without lubricants due to high friction and sticking to the matrix. Combilac has a higher lubricant sensitivity than the physical mixture of the dry binders. Disintegration time of Combilac tablets is comparable with the disintegration time of tablets made from the physical mixture.

  19. SU-G-JeP3-13: Use of Volumetric Indices to Study the Viability of Respiratory Gating in Conjunction with Abdominal Compression in the Management of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Tumors Using Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Under the Conditions of Controlled Breathing

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, H; Gomez, J

    Purpose: AAPM TG-76 report advises lung patients experiencing tumor motion >5mm to use some form of motion management with even smaller limit for complex/special procedures like SBRT. Generally, either respiratory gating or abdominal compression is used for motion management. In this retrospective study, we are using an innovative index, Volumetric Indices (VI) = (GTVnn AND GTV{sub 50+}Xmm)/(GTVnn) to quantify how much of the tumor remains within 1, 2, and 3mm margins throughout the breathing cycle using GTV{sub 50+}Xmm margin on GTV{sub 50}[nn=0,10,20,…90]. Using appropriate limits, VI can provide tumor motion information and to check if RPM gates could have beenmore » used in conjunction with abdominal compression to better manage tumor motion. Methods: 64 SBRT patients with a total of 67 lung tumors were studied. 4DCT scans were taken, fully capturing tumor motion throughout the 10 phases of the breathing cycle. For each phase, Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) was segmented and appropriates structures were defined to determine VI values. For the 2mm margin, VI values less than 0.95 for peripheral lesions and 0.97 for central lesions indicate tumor movement greater than 4mm. VI values for 1mm and 3mm margins were also analyzed signifying tumor motion of 2mm & 6mm, respectively. Results: Of the 64 patients, 35 (55%) had motion greater than 4mm & could have benefited from respiratory gating. For 5/8 (63%) middle lobe lesions, 21/27 (78%) lower lobe lesions, and 10/32 (31%) upper lobe lesions, gating could have resulted in smaller ITV. 32/55 (58%) peripheral lesions and 4/12 (33%) central lesions could have had gating. Average ITV decreased by 1.25cc (11.43%) and average VI increased by 0.11. Conclusion: Out of 64 patients, 55% exhibited motion greater than 4mm even with abdominal compression. Even with abdominalcompression, lung tumors can move >4mm as the degree of pressure which a patient can tolerate, is patient specific.« less

  20. DNABIT Compress - Genome compression algorithm.

    PubMed

    Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam

    2011-01-22

    Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, "DNABIT Compress" for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that "DNABIT Compress" algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases.

  1. Synthesis and Comparison of Two cBN Composites with Starting Ternary Carbide Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Zhenming; Yang, Limin; Gong, Jianhong; Gao, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2 are two promising binders for the ultrahard composite polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PcBN). In this study, the cBN composites with Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2 binders with different binder contents were synthesized under the same high pressure ( 5.5 GPa) and high temperature (1350 °C) conditions. Their mechanical properties were measured separately, including Vickers hardness, bending hardening, and compression hardening. Together with XRD results, the phase compounds were also investigated. The decomposition and reaction processes were affected by binder content. Some new compounds formed during sintering, these compounds were TiC, TiSi2, SiC, TiB2, SiB4, TiB2, and TiC0.7N0.3 in Ti3SiC2-cBN composites, as well as TiC0.7N0.3, TiB2, and AlN in Ti3AlC2-cBN composites. The microstructure of the cracks surface was obtained after the bending tests, and was used to further investigate and compare their crack mode by SEM. The crack surface profile and elementary analysis on the oxidative surface were also discussed.

  2. Mimosa pudica seed mucilage: isolation; characterization and evaluation as tablet disintegrant and binder.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Munish; Kumar, Ashok; Yadav, Parvinder; Singh, Kuldeep

    2013-06-01

    In the present study Mimosa pudica seed mucilage was isolated, characterized and evaluated as tablet binder and disintegrant. Several properties of mucilage like high swelling index and gelling nature prompted us to explore its applications as disintegrating and binding agent. Disintegrant properties were evaluated by formulating directly compressed hydrochlorothiazide tablets containing 1%-10% (w/w) of seed mucilage as disintegrant and compared with the standard disintegrants. The disintegration time of mucilage containing tablets was found to be in the order of 3%>1%>5%>7.5%>10%. On comparative evaluation with standard disintegrants, it was observed that the order of disintegration of tablets was Ac-Di-Solbinder and compared with tablets prepared using PVP-K25 (1.7%, w/w) and acacia (6.8%, w/w) as the binder. Mimosa mucilage at 10% (w/w) concentration provided tablets with adequate hardness and friability. In conclusion, M. pudica seed mucilage is a potential tablet disintegrant and binder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis and Comparison of Two cBN Composites with Starting Ternary Carbide Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Zhenming; Yang, Limin; Gong, Jianhong; Gao, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2 are two promising binders for the ultrahard composite polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PcBN). In this study, the cBN composites with Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2 binders with different binder contents were synthesized under the same high pressure ( 5.5 GPa) and high temperature (1350 °C) conditions. Their mechanical properties were measured separately, including Vickers hardness, bending hardening, and compression hardening. Together with XRD results, the phase compounds were also investigated. The decomposition and reaction processes were affected by binder content. Some new compounds formed during sintering, these compounds were TiC, TiSi2, SiC, TiB2, SiB4, TiB2, and TiC0.7N0.3 in Ti3SiC2-cBN composites, as well as TiC0.7N0.3, TiB2, and AlN in Ti3AlC2-cBN composites. The microstructure of the cracks surface was obtained after the bending tests, and was used to further investigate and compare their crack mode by SEM. The crack surface profile and elementary analysis on the oxidative surface were also discussed.

  4. One Binder to Bind Them All.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Oliver

    2016-10-10

    High quality binders, such as antibodies, are of critical importance for chemical sensing applications. With synthetic alternatives, such as molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), less sensor development time and higher stability of the binder can be achieved. In this feature paper, I will discuss the impact of synthetic binders from an industrial perspective and I will challenge the molecular imprinting community on the next step to leapfrog the current status quo of MIPs for (bio)sensing. Equally important, but often neglected as an effective chemical sensor, is a good match of transducer and MIP coating for a respective application. To demonstrate an application-driven development, a biosensing use case with surface-imprinted layers on piezoacoustic sensors is reported. Depending on the electrode pattern for the transducer, the strong mechanical coupling of the analyte with the MIP layer coated device allows the adoption of the sensitivity from cell mass to cell viability with complete reversibility.

  5. Use of the Abdominal Aortic Tourniquet for Hemorrhage Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    compression to the aorta at the abdominal-pelvic junction to occlude blood flow in the common iliac and inguinal arteries. The target of the compression...circumferential device that utilizes a belt, windlass and pneumatic pressure to compress the aorta . The belt and windlass together greatly increase the...clamping the aorta or fully stopping all blood flow to the pelvis and lower extremities. In essence the AAT™ acts as a valve to figuratively ‘turn the

  6. Characterization and Modeling of Asphalt Binder Fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaei, Farinaz

    Fatigue cracking is a primary distress in asphalt pavements caused by the accumulation of damage under repeated traffic loading. Many factors influence fatigue damage in pavements, including pavement structure, environmental conditions, and asphalt mixture volumetric properties. Asphalt binder is the weakest asphalt concrete constituent and, thus, plays a critical role in determining the fatigue resistance of pavements. Therefore, the ability to characterize and model the inherent fatigue performance of an asphalt binder is a necessary first step to design. A comprehensive understanding and prediction of asphalt binder fatigue performance require a suitable experiment coupled with a model to predict how the binder will perform under various traffic, temperature, and structural conditions encountered in the field. The simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model has been used successfully by researchers to predict the damage evolution in asphalt mixtures for various traffic and climatic conditions using limited uniaxial test data. Although the literature shows promise for applying VECD modeling to asphalt binder fatigue, the past efforts have several shortcomings. It has been demonstrated that flow and adhesion loss can impede DSR fatigue test results. Thus, definition of test conditions (e.g., temperature) where cyclic DSR tests are appropriate for fatigue characterization of binders is necessary. In addition, the applicability of the model to predict fatigue performance under varying loading and thermal history has not been rigorously evaluated. Furthermore, the effects of material nonlinearity have been largely neglected in past modeling efforts for simplicity. In addition, past efforts have employed the parallel plate DSR geometry for the fatigue characterization of asphalt binders. In the parallel plate geometry, the strain depends on the radial distance from the specimen center. Therefore, the material will fail at different rates as a function of

  7. Evaluation of hybrid binder for use in surface mixtures in Florida : final report, June 2009.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-06-01

    Binder and mixture tests were performed to evaluate the relative performance of a PG 67-22 base binder and six other commercially available binders produced by modifying the same base binder with the following modifiers: one Styrene Butadiene Styrene...

  8. Evaluation of new binders using newly developed fracture energy test.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated a total of seven asphalt binders with various additives : using the newly developed binder fracture energy test. The researchers prepared and : tested PAV-aged and RTFO-plus-PAV-aged specimens. This study confirmed previous : res...

  9. Impact of Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS) on Asphalt Binder Performance

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) on virgin binder true grade and fracture energy density (FED). A mortar approach, which avoids the need for binder extraction, was adopted to quan...

  10. Laboratory evaluation of asphalt binder rutting, fracture, and adhesion tests.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-04-01

    The current performance grading (PG) specification for asphalt binders was developed based on the Strategic Highway : Research Program (SHRP) and is based primarily on the study of unmodified asphalt binders. Over the years, experience has : proven t...

  11. Texas cracking performance prediction, simulation, and binder recommendation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies show some mixes with softer binders used outside of Texas (e.g., Minnesotas Cold Weather Road Research Facility mixes) have both good rutting and cracking performance. However, the current binder performance grading (PG) system fail...

  12. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... plaque buildup causes the walls of the abdominal aorta to become weak and bulge outward like a ... treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, is a ...

  13. Appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Travis

    2017-09-01

    Appendicitis is a frequently encountered surgical problem in the Emergency Department (ED). Appendicitis typically results from obstruction of the appendiceal lumen, although trauma has been reported as an infrequent cause of acute appendicitis. Intestinal injury and hollow viscus injury following blunt abdominal trauma are well reported in the literature but traumatic appendicitis is much less common. The pathophysiology is uncertain but likely results from several mechanisms, either in isolation or combination. These include direct compression/crush injury, shearing injury, or from indirect obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by an ileocecal hematoma or traumatic impaction of stool into the appendix. Presentation typically mirrors that of non-traumatic appendicitis with nausea, anorexia, fever, and right lower quadrant abdominal tenderness and/or peritonitis. Evaluation for traumatic appendicitis requires a careful history and physical exam. Imaging with ultrasound or computed tomography is recommended if the history and physical do not reveal an acute surgical indication. Treatment includes intravenous antibiotics and surgical consultation for appendectomy. This case highlights a patient who developed acute appendicitis following blunt trauma to the abdomen sustained during a motor vehicle accident. Appendicitis must be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in any patient who presents to the ED with abdominal pain, including those whose pain begins after sustaining blunt trauma to the abdomen. Because appendicitis following trauma is uncommon, timely diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 47 CFR 51.232 - Binder group management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Binder group management. 51.232 Section 51.232... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.232 Binder group management. (a) With the exception of loops..., segregating or reserving particular loops or binder groups for use solely by any particular advanced services...

  15. 47 CFR 51.232 - Binder group management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Binder group management. 51.232 Section 51.232... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.232 Binder group management. (a) With the exception of loops..., segregating or reserving particular loops or binder groups for use solely by any particular advanced services...

  16. 47 CFR 51.232 - Binder group management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Binder group management. 51.232 Section 51.232... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.232 Binder group management. (a) With the exception of loops..., segregating or reserving particular loops or binder groups for use solely by any particular advanced services...

  17. 21 CFR 880.5160 - Therapeutic medical binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Therapeutic medical binder. 880.5160 Section 880...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5160 Therapeutic medical binder. (a) Identification. A therapeutic medical binder is a...

  18. 21 CFR 880.5160 - Therapeutic medical binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Therapeutic medical binder. 880.5160 Section 880...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5160 Therapeutic medical binder. (a) Identification. A therapeutic medical binder is a...

  19. Alkaline Activator Impact on the Geopolymer Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błaszczyński, Tomasz Z.; Król, Maciej R.

    2017-10-01

    Concrete structures are constantly moving in the direction of improving the durability. Durability depends on many factors, which are the composition of concrete mix, the usage of additives and admixtures and the place, where material will work and carry the load. The introduction of new geopolymer binders for geopolymer structures adds a new aspect that is type of used activator. This substance with strongly alkaline reaction is divided because of the physical state, the alkaline degree and above all the chemical composition. Taking into account, that at present the geopolymer binders are made essentially from waste materials or by-products from the combustion of coal or iron ore smelting, unambiguous determination of the effect of the activator on the properties of the geopolymer material requires a number of trials, researches and observation. This paper shows the influence of the most alkaline activators on the basic parameters of the durability of geopolymer binders. In this study there were used highly alkaline hydroxides, water glasses and granules, which are waste materials in a variety of processes taking place in chemical plants. As the substrate of geopolymer binders there were used fly ash which came from coal and high calcareous ash from the burning of lignite.

  20. Efficiency of Composite Binders with Antifreezing Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogurtsova, Y. N.; Zhernovsky, I. V.; Botsman, L. N.

    2017-11-01

    One of the non-heating methods of cold-weather concreting is using concretes hardening at negative temperatures. This method consists in using chemical additives which reduce the freezing temperature of the liquid phase and provide for concrete hardening at negative temperatures. The non-heating cold-weather concreting, due to antifreezing agents, allows saving heat and electric energy at the more flexible work performance technology. At selecting the antifreezing components, the possibility of concreting at temperatures up to minus 20 °C and combination with a plasticizer contained in the composite binder were taken into account. The optimal proportions of antifreezing and complex agents produced by MC-Bauchemie Russia for fine-grained concretes were determined. So, the introduction of antifreezing and complex agents allows obtaining a structure of composite characteristic for cement stone in the conditions of below zero temperatures at using different binders; the hydration of such composite proceeded naturally. Low-water-demand binders (LWDB) based composites are characterized by a higher density and homogeneity due to a high dispersity of a binder and its complicated surface providing for a lot of crystallization centers. LWDB contains small pores keeping water in a liquid form and promoting a more complete hydration process.

  1. Freeforming objects with low-binder slurry

    DOEpatents

    Cesarano, III, Joseph; Calvert, Paul D.

    2000-01-01

    In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

  2. Organic Binder Developments for Solid Freeform Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Mobasher, Amir A.

    2003-01-01

    A number of rapid prototyping techniques are under development at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) National Center for Advanced Manufacturing Rapid Prototyping Laboratory. Commercial binder developments in creating solid models for rapid prototyping include: 1) Fused Deposition Modeling; 2) Three Dimensional Printing; 3) Selective Laser Sintering (SLS). This document describes these techniques developed by the private sector, as well as SLS undertaken by MSFC.

  3. Effect of rapid set binder on early strength and permeability of HES latex modified road repair pre-packed concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J. W.; Lee, S. K.; Yu, C.; Park, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    The early strength development characteristics and permeability resistance of high early strength (HES) pre-packed road repair concrete incorporating a rapid-set binder material were evaluated for emergency repairs to road pavement. The rapid-set binder is a mixture of rapid-set cement and silica sands whose fluidity improves with the addition of styrene butadiene latex (latex). The resulting mixture has a compressive strength of 21 MPa or higher and a flexural strength of greater than 3.5 MPa after 4 hours, the maximum curing age allowed for emergency repair materials. This study examines the strength development properties and permeability resistance of HES latex-modified pre-packed road repair concrete using a rapid- set binder as a function of the latex-to-binder mixing ratio at values of 0.40, 0.33, 0.29 and 0.25. Both early strength development properties and permeability resistance increased as the ratio of latex to rapid-set binder decreased. The mixture showed a compressive strength of 21 MPa or higher after 4 hours, which is the design standard of emergency repair concrete, only when this ratio was 0.29 or lower. A flexural strength of 3.5 MPa or greater was observed after hours only when this ratio was 0.33 or lower. The standard for permeability resistance, less than 2,000 C of chloride after 7 days of curing, was satisfied by all ratios. The ratio of latex to rapid-set binder satisfying all of the conditions for an emergency road repair material was 0.29 or less.

  4. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  5. Preparation and properties of isotropic Nd-Fe-B bonded magnets with sodium silicate binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. Q.; Hu, R. J.; Yue, M.; Yin, Y. X.; Zhang, D. T.

    2017-08-01

    In present study, sodium silicate, a kind of heat-resistant binder, was used to prepare bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets with improved thermal stability and mechanical strength. Effect of curing temperature and curing time of the new binder to the magnetic properties, microstructure, and mechanical strength of the magnets was systematically investigated. Fracture surface morphology observation show that sodium silicate in bonded magnets could completely be cured at 175 °C for 40 min, and the magnets prepared under this condition exhibit optimal properties. They exhibit usable magnetic properties of Br of 4.66 kGs, Hcj of 4.84 kOe, and (BH)max of 4.06 MGOe at 200 °C. Moreover, the magnets possess high compressive strength of 63 MPa.

  6. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.; Bradley, Jonathan N.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%.

  7. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

    1998-07-07

    A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique are disclosed. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%. 21 figs.

  8. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.; Bradley, Jonathan N.

    1998-01-01

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method.

  9. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

    1998-03-10

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique is disclosed. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method. 11 figs.

  10. Alkali-metal silicate binders and methods of manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A paint binder is described which uses a potassium or sodium silicate dispersion having a silicon dioxide to alkali-metal oxide mol ratio of from 4.8:1 to 6.0:1. The binder exhibits stability during both manufacture and storage. The process of making the binder is predictable and repeatable and the binder may be made with inexpensive components. The high mol ratio is achieved with the inclusion of a silicon dioxide hydrogel. The binder, which also employs a silicone, is in the final form of a hydrogel sol.

  11. A study of the properties of tablets from coprocessed dry binders composed of alpha-lactose monohydrate and different types of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Muzíková, J; Zvolánková, J

    2007-12-01

    The paper evaluates the differences between the properties of tablets from two coprocessed dry binders based on alpha-lactose monohydrate and cellulose, MicroceLac 100 and Cellactose 80. The substances differ in the type of contained cellulose; MicroceLac 100 contains 25% of microcrystalline cellulose, Cellactose 80, 25% of powdered cellulose. The properties under study included the tensile strength and disintegration time in dependence on compression force, addition of two concentrations of the lubricant sodium stearylfumarate (Pruv) and a 50% addition of the active ingredients ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid. Using one of the compression forces, the effect of Pruv and magnesium stearate on the above-mentioned properties were compared. In the compression forces of 6 and 8 kN the strength of the compacts from pure Cellactose 80 was lower than that of those from MicroceLac 100 both without and with the lubricant. The lubricant sensitivity of dry binders depended on compression force. Pruv decreased the strength of compacts less than magnesium stearate. The tablets from Cellactose 80 possessed a longer disintegration time than those from MicroceLac 100, excepting the tableting materials containing 0.4 Pruv with a compression force of 6 kN. Disintegration time was prolonged with the use of sodium stearylfumarate and it was increased with compression force much more markedly in the case of Cellactose 80. In the presence of ascorbic acid, the strength of tablets was decreased in the case of both dry binders, but it was higher with MicroceLac100, disintegration time was very short and independent of the type of the dry binder. In the case of acetylsalicylic acid, the strength of tablets was higher with a lesser influence of the type of the dry binder, and disintegration time was longer and especially in the case of Cellactose 80 increased with increasing concentration of Pruv.

  12. Phenomena during thermal removal of binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrdina, Kenneth Edward

    The research presented herein has focused on debinding of an ethylene copolymer from a SiC based molded ceramic green body. Examination of the binder burnout process was carried out by breaking down the process into two distinct regions: those events which occur before any weight loss begins, and those events occurring during binder removal. Below the temperature of observed binder loss (175sp°C), both reversible and irreversible displacement was observed to occur. The displacement was accounted for by relaxation of molding stresses, thermal expansion of the system, and melting of the semicrystalline copolymer occurring during heating. Upon further heating the binder undergoes a two stage thermal degradation process. In the first stage, acetic acid is the only degradation product formed, as determined by GC/MS analysis. In this stage, component shrinkage persisted and it was found that one unit volume of shrinkage corresponded with one unit volume of binder removed, indicating that no porosity developed. The escaping acetic acid effluents must diffuse through liquid polymer filled porous regions to escape. The gas pressure of the acetic acid species produced in the first stage of the thermal degradation may exceed the ambient pressure promoting bubble formation. Controlling the heating rate of the specimen maintains the gas pressure below the bubbling threshold and minimizes the degradation time. Experiments have determined the kinetics of the reaction in the presence of the high surface area (10-15msp2/g) ceramic powder and then verified that acetic acid was diffusing through the polymer phase to the specimen surface where evaporation is taking place. The sorption method measured the diffusivity and activity of acetic acid within the filled ceramic system within a TGA. These data were incorporated into a Fickian type model which included the rate of generation of the diffusing species. The modeling process involved prediction of the bloating temperature as a

  13. Child with Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Rajalakshmi; Nallasamy, Karthi

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the common symptoms reported by children in urgent care clinics. While most children tend to have self-limiting conditions, the treating pediatrician should watch out for underlying serious causes like intestinal obstruction and perforation peritonitis, which require immediate referral to an emergency department (ED). Abdominal pain may be secondary to surgical or non-surgical causes, and will differ as per the age of the child. The common etiologies for abdominal pain presenting to an urgent care clinic are acute gastro-enteritis, constipation and functional abdominal pain; however, a variety of extra-abdominal conditions may also present as abdominal pain. Meticulous history taking and physical examination are the best tools for diagnosis, while investigations have a limited role in treating benign etiologies.

  14. Abdominal exploration - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100049.htm Abdominal exploration - series—Normal ... intestine (jejunum and ileum), the large intestine (colon), the liver, the spleen, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the uterus, ...

  15. Alkali-activated complex binders from class C fly ash and Ca-containing admixtures.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaolu; Shi, Huisheng; Chen, Liming; Dick, Warren A

    2010-01-15

    Processes that maximize utilization of industrial solid wastes are greatly needed. Sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution were used to create alkali-activated complex binders (AACBs) from class C fly ash (CFA) and other Ca-containing admixtures including Portland cement (PC), flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG), and water treatment residual (WTR). Specimens made only from CFA (CFA100), or the same fly ash mixed with 40 wt% PC (CFA60-PC40), with 10 wt% FGDG (CFA90-FGDG10), or with 10 wt% WTR (CFA90-WTR10) had better mechanical performance compared to binders using other mix ratios. The maximum compressive strength of specimens reached 80.0 MPa. Geopolymeric gel, sodium polysilicate zeolite, and hydrated products coexist when AACB reactions occur. Ca from CFA, PC, and WTR precipitated as Ca(OH)(2), bonded in geopolymers to obtain charge balance, or reacted with dissolved silicate and aluminate species to form calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. However, Ca from FGDG probably reacted with dissolved silicate and aluminate species to form ettringite. Utilization of CFA and Ca-containing admixtures in AACB is feasible. These binders may be widely utilized in various applications such as in building materials and for solidification/stabilization of other wastes, thus making the wastes more environmentally benign.

  16. In Situ Imaging during Compression of Plastic Bonded Explosives for Damage Modeling.

    PubMed

    Manner, Virginia W; Yeager, John D; Patterson, Brian M; Walters, David J; Stull, Jamie A; Cordes, Nikolaus L; Luscher, Darby J; Henderson, Kevin C; Schmalzer, Andrew M; Tappan, Bryce C

    2017-06-10

    The microstructure of plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) is known to influence behavior during mechanical deformation, but characterizing the microstructure can be challenging. For example, the explosive crystals and binder in formulations such as PBX 9501 do not have sufficient X-ray contrast to obtain three-dimensional data by in situ, absorption contrast imaging. To address this difficulty, we have formulated a series of PBXs using octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) crystals and low-density binder systems. The binders were hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) or glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) cured with a commercial blend of acrylic monomers/oligomers. The binder density is approximately half of the HMX, allowing for excellent contrast using in situ X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. The samples were imaged during unaxial compression using micro-scale CT in an interrupted in situ modality. The rigidity of the binder was observed to significantly influence fracture, crystal-binder delamination, and flow. Additionally, 2D slices from the segmented 3D images were meshed for finite element simulation of the mesoscale response. At low stiffness, the binder and crystal do not delaminate and the crystals move with the material flow; at high stiffness, marked delamination is noted between the crystals and the binder, leading to very different mechanical properties. Initial model results exhibit qualitatively similar delamination.

  17. In situ imaging during compression of plastic bonded explosives for damage modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Manner, Virginia Warren; Yeager, John David; Patterson, Brian M.; ...

    2017-06-10

    Here, the microstructure of plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) is known to influence behavior during mechanical deformation, but characterizing the microstructure can be challenging. For example, the explosive crystals and binder in formulations such as PBX 9501 do not have sufficient X-ray contrast to obtain three-dimensional data by in situ, absorption contrast imaging. To address this difficulty, we have formulated a series of PBXs using octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) crystals and low-density binder systems. The binders were hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) or glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) cured with a commercial blend of acrylic monomers/oligomers. The binder density is approximately half of the HMX, allowingmore » for excellent contrast using in situ X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. The samples were imaged during unaxial compression using micro-scale CT in an interrupted in situ modality. The rigidity of the binder was observed to significantly influence fracture, crystal-binder delamination, and flow. Additionally, 2D slices from the segmented 3D images were meshed for finite element simulation of the mesoscale response. At low stiffness, the binder and crystal do not delaminate and the crystals move with the material flow; at high stiffness, marked delamination is noted between the crystals and the binder, leading to very different mechanical properties. Initial model results exhibit qualitatively similar delamination.« less

  18. In situ imaging during compression of plastic bonded explosives for damage modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Manner, Virginia Warren; Yeager, John David; Patterson, Brian M.

    Here, the microstructure of plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) is known to influence behavior during mechanical deformation, but characterizing the microstructure can be challenging. For example, the explosive crystals and binder in formulations such as PBX 9501 do not have sufficient X-ray contrast to obtain three-dimensional data by in situ, absorption contrast imaging. To address this difficulty, we have formulated a series of PBXs using octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) crystals and low-density binder systems. The binders were hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) or glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) cured with a commercial blend of acrylic monomers/oligomers. The binder density is approximately half of the HMX, allowingmore » for excellent contrast using in situ X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. The samples were imaged during unaxial compression using micro-scale CT in an interrupted in situ modality. The rigidity of the binder was observed to significantly influence fracture, crystal-binder delamination, and flow. Additionally, 2D slices from the segmented 3D images were meshed for finite element simulation of the mesoscale response. At low stiffness, the binder and crystal do not delaminate and the crystals move with the material flow; at high stiffness, marked delamination is noted between the crystals and the binder, leading to very different mechanical properties. Initial model results exhibit qualitatively similar delamination.« less

  19. In Situ Imaging during Compression of Plastic Bonded Explosives for Damage Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Manner, Virginia W.; Yeager, John D.; Patterson, Brian M.; Walters, David J.; Stull, Jamie A.; Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Luscher, Darby J.; Henderson, Kevin C.; Schmalzer, Andrew M.; Tappan, Bryce C.

    2017-01-01

    The microstructure of plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) is known to influence behavior during mechanical deformation, but characterizing the microstructure can be challenging. For example, the explosive crystals and binder in formulations such as PBX 9501 do not have sufficient X-ray contrast to obtain three-dimensional data by in situ, absorption contrast imaging. To address this difficulty, we have formulated a series of PBXs using octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) crystals and low-density binder systems. The binders were hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) or glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) cured with a commercial blend of acrylic monomers/oligomers. The binder density is approximately half of the HMX, allowing for excellent contrast using in situ X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. The samples were imaged during unaxial compression using micro-scale CT in an interrupted in situ modality. The rigidity of the binder was observed to significantly influence fracture, crystal-binder delamination, and flow. Additionally, 2D slices from the segmented 3D images were meshed for finite element simulation of the mesoscale response. At low stiffness, the binder and crystal do not delaminate and the crystals move with the material flow; at high stiffness, marked delamination is noted between the crystals and the binder, leading to very different mechanical properties. Initial model results exhibit qualitatively similar delamination. PMID:28772998

  20. The performance of blended conventional and novel binders in the in-situ stabilisation/solidification of a contaminated site soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Hailing; Jin, Fei; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2015-03-21

    This paper presents an investigation of the effects of novel binders and pH values on the effectiveness of the in-situ stabilisation/solidification technique in treating heavy metals and organic contaminated soils after 1.5-year treatment. To evaluate the performance of different binders, made ground soils of SMiRT site, upto 5 m depth, were stabilised/solidified with the triple auger system and cores were taken for laboratory testing after treatment. Twenty four different binders were used including Portland cement (PC), ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS), pulverised fuel ash (PFA), MgO and zeolite. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS), leachate pH and the leachability of heavy metals and total organics were applied to study the behaviours of binders in treating site soils. Under various contaminant level and binder level, the results show that UCS values were 22-3476 kPa, the leachability of the total organics was in the range of 22-241 mg/l and the heavy metals was in the range of 0.002-0.225 mg/l. In addition, the combination of GGBS and MgO at a ratio of 9:1 shows better immobilisation efficiency in treating heavy metals and organic contaminated soils after 1.5-year treatment, and the binding mechanisms under different binders were also discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome after Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: Quaternary Syndromes?

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, A W; Nickerson, D; Roberts, D J; Rosen, M J; McBeth, P B; Petro, C C; Berrevoet, Frederik; Sugrue, M; Xiao, Jimmy; Ball, C G

    2017-06-01

    Reconstruction with reconstitution of the container function of the abdominal compartment is increasingly being performed in patients with massive ventral hernia previously deemed inoperable. This situation places patients at great risk of severe intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome if organ failure ensues. Intra-abdominal hypertension and especially abdominal compartment syndrome may be devastating systemic complications with systematic and progressive organ failure and death. We thus reviewed the pathophysiology and reported clinical experiences with abnormalities of intra-abdominal pressure in the context of abdominal wall reconstruction. Bibliographic databases (1950-2015), websites, textbooks, and the bibliographies of previously recovered articles for reports or data relating to intra-abdominal pressure, intra-abdominal hypertension, and the abdominal compartment syndrome in relation to ventral, incisional, or abdominal hernia repair or abdominal wall reconstruction. Surgeons should thus consider and carefully measure intra-abdominal pressure and its resultant effects on respiratory parameters and function during abdominal wall reconstruction. The intra-abdominal pressure post-operatively will be a result of the new intra-peritoneal volume and the abdominal wall compliance. Strategies surgeons may utilize to ameliorate intra-abdominal pressure rise after abdominal wall reconstruction including temporizing paralysis of the musculature either temporarily or semi-permanently, pre-operative progressive pneumoperitoneum, permanently removing visceral contents, or surgically releasing the musculature to increase the abdominal container volume. In patients without complicating shock and inflammation, and in whom the abdominal wall anatomy has been so functionally adapted to maximize compliance, intra-abdominal hypertension may be transient and tolerable. Intra-abdominal hypertension/abdominal compartment syndrome in the specific setting of

  2. Rectal perforation by compressed air

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    As the use of compressed air in industrial work has increased, so has the risk of associated pneumatic injury from its improper use. However, damage of large intestine caused by compressed air is uncommon. Herein a case of pneumatic rupture of the rectum is described. The patient was admitted to the Emergency Room complaining of abdominal pain and distension. His colleague triggered a compressed air nozzle over his buttock. On arrival, vital signs were stable but physical examination revealed peritoneal irritation and marked distension of the abdomen. Computed tomography showed a large volume of air in the peritoneal cavity and subcutaneous emphysema at the perineum. A rectal perforation was found at laparotomy and the Hartmann procedure was performed. PMID:28706893

  3. Rectal perforation by compressed air.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Jin

    2017-07-01

    As the use of compressed air in industrial work has increased, so has the risk of associated pneumatic injury from its improper use. However, damage of large intestine caused by compressed air is uncommon. Herein a case of pneumatic rupture of the rectum is described. The patient was admitted to the Emergency Room complaining of abdominal pain and distension. His colleague triggered a compressed air nozzle over his buttock. On arrival, vital signs were stable but physical examination revealed peritoneal irritation and marked distension of the abdomen. Computed tomography showed a large volume of air in the peritoneal cavity and subcutaneous emphysema at the perineum. A rectal perforation was found at laparotomy and the Hartmann procedure was performed.

  4. Abdominal Aortic Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Borioni, Raoul; Garofalo, Mariano; De Paulis, Ruggero; Nardi, Paolo; Scaffa, Raffaele; Chiariello, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    Isolated abdominal aortic dissections are rare events. Their anatomic and clinical features are different from those of atherosclerotic aneurysms. We report 4 cases of isolated abdominal aortic dissection that were successfully treated with surgical or endovascular intervention. The anatomic and clinical features and a review of the literature are also presented. PMID:15902826

  5. Abdominal Trauma Revisited.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, David V

    2017-11-01

    Although abdominal trauma has been described since antiquity, formal laparotomies for trauma were not performed until the 1800s. Even with the introduction of general anesthesia in the United States during the years 1842 to 1846, laparotomies for abdominal trauma were not performed during the Civil War. The first laparotomy for an abdominal gunshot wound in the United States was finally performed in New York City in 1884. An aggressive operative approach to all forms of abdominal trauma till the establishment of formal trauma centers (where data were analyzed) resulted in extraordinarily high rates of nontherapeutic laparotomies from the 1880s to the 1960s. More selective operative approaches to patients with abdominal stab wounds (1960s), blunt trauma (1970s), and gunshot wounds (1990s) were then developed. Current adjuncts to the diagnosis of abdominal trauma when serial physical examinations are unreliable include the following: 1) diagnostic peritoneal tap/lavage, 2) surgeon-performed ultrasound examination; 3) contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis; and 4) diagnostic laparoscopy. Operative techniques for injuries to the liver, spleen, duodenum, and pancreas have been refined considerably since World War II. These need to be emphasized repeatedly in an era when fewer patients undergo laparotomy for abdominal trauma. Finally, abdominal trauma damage control is a valuable operative approach in patients with physiologic exhaustion and multiple injuries.

  6. Abdominal hernias: Radiological features

    PubMed Central

    Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

  7. Nanobodies and recombinant binders in cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Helma, Jonas; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Muyldermans, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are key reagents to investigate cellular processes. The development of recombinant antibodies and binders derived from natural protein scaffolds has expanded traditional applications, such as immunofluorescence, binding arrays, and immunoprecipitation. In addition, their small size and high stability in ectopic environments have enabled their use in all areas of cell research, including structural biology, advanced microscopy, and intracellular expression. Understanding these novel reagents as genetic modules that can be integrated into cellular pathways opens up a broad experimental spectrum to monitor and manipulate cellular processes. PMID:26056137

  8. Nanobodies and recombinant binders in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Helma, Jonas; Cardoso, M Cristina; Muyldermans, Serge; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2015-06-08

    Antibodies are key reagents to investigate cellular processes. The development of recombinant antibodies and binders derived from natural protein scaffolds has expanded traditional applications, such as immunofluorescence, binding arrays, and immunoprecipitation. In addition, their small size and high stability in ectopic environments have enabled their use in all areas of cell research, including structural biology, advanced microscopy, and intracellular expression. Understanding these novel reagents as genetic modules that can be integrated into cellular pathways opens up a broad experimental spectrum to monitor and manipulate cellular processes. © 2015 Helma et al.

  9. DSC and TG Analysis of a Blended Binder Based on Waste Ceramic Powder and Portland Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Trník, Anton; Kulovaná, Tereza; Scheinherrová, Lenka; Rahhal, Viviana; Irassar, Edgardo; Černý, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Cement industry belongs to the business sectors characteristic by high energy consumption and high {CO}2 generation. Therefore, any replacement of cement in concrete by waste materials can lead to immediate environmental benefits. In this paper, a possible use of waste ceramic powder in blended binders is studied. At first, the chemical composition of Portland cement and ceramic powder is analyzed using the X-ray fluorescence method. Then, thermal and mechanical characterization of hydrated blended binders containing up to 24 % ceramic is carried out within the time period of 2 days to 28 days. The differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry measurements are performed in the temperature range of 25°C to 1000°C in an argon atmosphere. The measurement of compressive strength is done according to the European standards for cement mortars. The thermal analysis results in the identification of temperature and quantification of enthalpy and mass changes related to the liberation of physically bound water, calcium-silicate-hydrates dehydration and portlandite, vaterite and calcite decomposition. The portlandite content is found to decrease with time for all blends which provides the evidence of the pozzolanic activity of ceramic powder even within the limited monitoring time of 28 days. Taking into account the favorable results obtained in the measurement of compressive strength, it can be concluded that the applied waste ceramic powder can be successfully used as a supplementary cementing material to Portland cement in an amount of up to 24 mass%.

  10. Retroperitoneal haematoma causing gastric outflow obstruction following endovascular repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Benjamin; Tod, Laura; Ghosh, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    A 74-year-old man presented with back pain and collapse. A ruptured infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was successfully managed by endovascular aneurysm repair. Postoperatively, he developed gastric outlet obstruction owing to duodenal compression from the unevacuated retroperitoneal haematoma. In the absence of abdominal compartment syndrome, conservative management with gastric decompression and parenteral nutrition led to a full recovery. PMID:23162028

  11. Fatigue and fracture properties of aged binders in the context of reclaimed asphalt mixes.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-08-01

    Evidence in the literature indicates that the stiffness of the asphalt binder increases and ductility of the binder decreases : with oxidative aging. Typically for unmodified asphalt binders, increase in stiffness or decrease in ductility is regarded...

  12. Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Koop, Herbert; Koprdova, Simona; Schürmann, Christine

    2016-01-29

    Chronic abdominal wall pain is a poorly recognized clinical problem despite being an important element in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. This review is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and EMBASE employing the terms "abdominal wall pain" and "cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. In 2% to 3% of patients with chronic abdominal pain, the pain arises from the abdominal wall; in patients with previously diagnosed chronic abdominal pain who have no demonstrable pathological abnormality, this likelihood can rise as high as 30% . There have only been a small number of clinical trials of treatment for this condition. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, with the aid of Carnett's test. The characteristic clinical feature is strictly localized pain in the anterior abdominal wall, which is often mischaracterized as a "functional" complaint. In one study, injection of local anesthesia combined with steroids into the painful area was found to relieve pain for 4 weeks in 95% of patients. The injection of lidocaine alone brought about improvement in 83-91% of patients. Long-term pain relief ensued after a single lidocaine injection in 20-30% of patients, after repeated injections in 40-50% , and after combined lidocaine and steroid injections in up to 80% . Pain that persists despite these treatments can be treated with surgery (neurectomy). Chronic abdominal wall pain is easily diagnosed on physical examination and can often be rapidly treated. Any physician treating patients with abdominal pain should be aware of this condition. Further comparative treatment trials will be needed before a validated treatment algorithm can be established.

  13. Video Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Optivision developed two PC-compatible boards and associated software under a Goddard Space Flight Center Small Business Innovation Research grant for NASA applications in areas such as telerobotics, telesciences and spaceborne experimentation. From this technology, the company used its own funds to develop commercial products, the OPTIVideo MPEG Encoder and Decoder, which are used for realtime video compression and decompression. They are used in commercial applications including interactive video databases and video transmission. The encoder converts video source material to a compressed digital form that can be stored or transmitted, and the decoder decompresses bit streams to provide high quality playback.

  14. Pharmacology of the Phosphate Binder, Lanthanum Carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Damment, Stephen JP

    2011-01-01

    Studies were conducted to compare the phosphate-binding efficacy of lanthanum carbonate directly with other clinically used phosphate binders and to evaluate any potential adverse pharmacology. To examine the phosphate-binding efficacy, rats with normal renal function and chronic renal failure received lanthanum carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, or sevelamer hydrochloride in several experimental models. Lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide markedly increased excretion of [32P]-phosphate in feces and reduced excretion in urine in rats with normal renal function (p < 0.05), indicating good dietary phosphate-binding efficacy. In rats with chronic renal failure, lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide reduced urinary phosphate excretion to a greater degree and more rapidly than calcium carbonate, which in turn was more effective than sevelamer hydrochloride. The potential to induce adverse pharmacological effects was assessed systematically in mice, rats, and dogs with normal renal function using standard in vivo models. There was no evidence of any adverse secondary pharmacological effects of lanthanum carbonate on the central nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, or gastrointestinal systems. These studies indicate that lanthanum carbonate is the more potent of the currently available dietary phosphate binders. No adverse secondary pharmacological actions were observed in vivo in a systematic evaluation at high doses. PMID:21332344

  15. Wetting characteristics of asphalt binders at mixing temperatures.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-10-01

    Conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA) is produced by heating the aggregate and the asphalt binder to elevated : temperatures that are typically in the range of 150C to 160C. These temperatures ensure that the viscosity of the : asphalt binder is low eno...

  16. Development of binder test to determine fracture energy [summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-04-01

    Asphalt binder makes up a relatively small percentage 4% to 8% of the hot mix asphalt used in pavements, but its performance as a binder is critical to the longevity of road surfaces. Asphalt is : a material whose flexibility changes with : t...

  17. Characterizing and modeling organic binder burnout from green ceramic compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Ewsuk, K.G.; Cesarano, J. III; Cochran, R.J.

    New characterization and computational techniques have been developed to evaluate and simulate binder burnout from pressed powder compacts. Using engineering data and a control volume finite element method (CVFEM) thermal model, a nominally one dimensional (1-D) furnace has been designed to test, refine, and validate computer models that simulate binder burnout assuming a 1-D thermal gradient across the ceramic body during heating. Experimentally, 1-D radial heat flow was achieved using a rod-shaped heater that directly heats the inside surface of a stack of ceramic annuli surrounded by thermal insulation. The computational modeling effort focused on producing a macroscopic model formore » binder burnout based on continuum approaches to heat and mass conservation for porous media. Two increasingly complex models have been developed that predict the temperature and mass of a porous powder compact as a function of time during binder burnout. The more complex model also predicts the pressure within a powder compact during binder burnout. Model predictions are in reasonably good agreement with experimental data on binder burnout from a 57--65% relative density pressed powder compact of a 94 wt% alumina body containing {approximately}3 wt% binder. In conjunction with the detailed experimental data from the prototype binder burnout furnace, the models have also proven useful for conducting parametric studies to elucidate critical i-material property data required to support model development.« less

  18. 47 CFR 51.232 - Binder group management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Binder group management. 51.232 Section 51.232 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.232 Binder group management. (a) With the exception of loops...

  19. 46 CFR 308.544 - Facultative binder, Form MA-315.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iii-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.544 Facultative binder, Form MA-315. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Binder, which may be obtained from the American War...

  20. 46 CFR 308.203 - Amount insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount insured under interim binder. 308.203 Section 308.203 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.203 Amount insured under interim binder. The...

  1. 46 CFR 308.544 - Facultative binder, Form MA-315.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iii-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.544 Facultative binder, Form MA-315. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Binder, which may be obtained from the American War...

  2. 46 CFR 308.203 - Amount insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount insured under interim binder. 308.203 Section 308.203 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.203 Amount insured under interim binder. The...

  3. 46 CFR 308.203 - Amount insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount insured under interim binder. 308.203 Section 308.203 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.203 Amount insured under interim binder. The...

  4. 46 CFR 308.544 - Facultative binder, Form MA-315.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iii-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.544 Facultative binder, Form MA-315. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Binder, which may be obtained from the American War...

  5. 46 CFR 308.203 - Amount insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount insured under interim binder. 308.203 Section 308.203 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.203 Amount insured under interim binder. The...

  6. 46 CFR 308.203 - Amount insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount insured under interim binder. 308.203 Section 308.203 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.203 Amount insured under interim binder. The...

  7. 46 CFR 308.544 - Facultative binder, Form MA-315.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iii-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.544 Facultative binder, Form MA-315. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Binder, which may be obtained from the American War...

  8. 46 CFR 308.544 - Facultative binder, Form MA-315.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.544 Facultative binder, Form MA-315. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Binder, which may be obtained from MARAD's...

  9. Alkali-Activated Natural Pozzolan/Slag Binder for Sustainable Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najimi, Meysam

    This study aimed to fully replace Portland cement (PC) with environmentally friendly binders capable of improving longevity of concrete. The new binders consisted of different proportions of natural Pozzolan and slag which were alkaline-activated with various combinations of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate. A step-by-step research program was designed to (1) develop alkali-activated natural Pozzolan/slag pastes with adequate fresh and strength properties, (2) produce alkali-activated natural Pozzolan/slag mortars to assess the effects of dominant variables on their plastic and hardened properties, and (3) finally produce and assess fresh, mechanical, dimensional, transport and durability properties of alkali-activated natural Pozzolan/slag concretes. The major variables included in this study were binder combination (natural Pozzolan/slag combinations of 70/30, 50/50 and 30/70), activator combination (sodium silicate/sodium hydroxide combinations of 20/80, 25/75 and 30/70), and sodium hydroxide concentration (1, 1.75 and 2.5M). The experimental program assessed performance of alkali-activated natural Pozzolan/slag mixtures including fresh properties (flow and setting times), unit weights (fresh, demolded and oven-dry), mechanical properties (compressive and tensile strengths, and modulus of elasticity), transport properties (absorption, rapid chloride penetration, and rapid chloride migration), durability (frost resistance, chloride induced corrosion, and resistance to sulfuric acid attack), and dimensional stability (drying shrinkage). This study also compared the performance of alkali-activated natural Pozzolan/slag concretes with that of an equivalent reference Portland cement concrete having a similar flow and strength characteristics. The results of this study revealed that it was doable to find optimum binder proportions, activator combinations and sodium hydroxide concentrations to achieve adequate plastic and hardened properties. Nearly for all studied

  10. Practical experiences with new types of highly modified asphalt binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špaček, Petr; Hegr, Zdeněk; Beneš, Jan

    2017-09-01

    As a result of steadily increasing traffic load on the roads in the Czech Republic, we should be focused on the innovative technical solutions, which will lead to extending the life time of asphalt pavements. One of these ways could be the future use of bitumen with a higher degree of polymer modification. This paper discusses experience with comparison of new highly polymer modified asphalt binder type with conventional polymer modified asphalt binder and unmodified binder with penetration grade 50/70. There are compared the results of various types laboratory tests of asphalt binders, as well as the results of asphalt mixtures laboratory tests. The paper also mentions the experience with workability and compactability of asphalt mixture with highly polymer modified asphalt binder during the realization of the experimental reference road section by the Skanska company in the Czech Republic.

  11. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... are, or may be, pregnant. Alternative Names Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, ...

  12. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... this problem include: Smoking High blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most ... body from an aortic aneurysm, you will need surgery right away. If the aneurysm is small and ...

  13. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... An abdominal CT scan makes detailed pictures of the structures inside your belly very quickly. This test may be used to look ...

  14. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood clots to the lungs) Abdominal or chest wall pain: Shingles (herpes zoster infection) Costochondritis (inflammation of ... or tumors), fat (evidence of impaired digestion and absorption of food), and the presence of germs. X- ...

  15. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  16. Abdominal cocoon: sonographic features.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, S Boopathy; Palanivelu, Chinnusamy; Sendhilkumar, Karuppusamy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan

    2003-07-01

    An abdominal cocoon is a rare condition in which the small bowel is encased in a membrane. The diagnosis is usually established at surgery. Here we describe the sonographic features of this condition.

  17. Ternary blends containing demercurated lighting phosphor and MSWI fly ash as high-performance binders for stabilizing and recycling electroplating sludge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wu-Jang; Wu, Chia-Teng; Wu, Chang-En; Hsieh, Lin-Huey; Li, Chang-Chien; Lain, Chi-Yuan; Chu, Wei

    2008-08-15

    This paper describes the solidification and stabilization of electroplating sludge treated with a high-performance binder made from portland type-I cement, municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, and lighting phosphor powder (called as cement-fly ash-phosphor binder, CFP). The highest 28-day unconfined compressive strength of the CFP-treated paste was 816 kg/cm(2) at a ratio of cement to fly ash to lighting phosphor powder of 90:5:5; the strength of this composition also fulfilled the requirement of a high-strength concrete (>460 kg/cm(2) at 28 days). The CFP-stabilized sludge paste samples passed the Taiwanese EPA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test and, therefore, could be used either as a building material or as a controlled low-strength material, depending on the sludge-to-CFP binder ratio.

  18. Physical-Mechanical Properties of a Fiber-Reinforced Composite Based on an ELUR-P Carbon Tape and XT-118 Binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paimushin, V. N.; Kholmogorov, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    A series of tests to identify the physical-mechanical properties of a unidirectional carbon-fiber-reinforced composite based on an ELUR-P carbon fibers and an XT-118 epoxy binder were performed. The form of the stress-strain diagrams of specimens loaded in tension in the longitudinal, transverse, and ±45° directions and in compression in the longitudinal and ±45° directions were examined. Tensile diagrams were also determined for the XT-118 binder alone. The relation between the tangential shear modulus and shear strains of the composite was highly nonlinear from the very beginning of loading and depended on the loading type. Such a nonlinear response of the carbon-fiber-reinforced composite in shear cannot be the result of plastic deformation of binder, but can be explained only by structural changes caused by the inner buckling instability of the composite at micro- and mesolevels..

  19. Development of a green binder system for paper products.

    PubMed

    Flory, Ashley R; Vicuna Requesens, Deborah; Devaiah, Shivakumar P; Teoh, Keat Thomas; Mansfield, Shawn D; Hood, Elizabeth E

    2013-03-26

    It is important for industries to find green chemistries for manufacturing their products that have utility, are cost-effective and that protect the environment. The paper industry is no exception. Renewable resources derived from plant components could be an excellent substitute for the chemicals that are currently used as paper binders. Air laid pressed paper products that are typically used in wet wipes must be bound together so they can resist mechanical tearing during storage and use. The binders must be strong but cost-effective. Although chemical binders are approved by the Environmental Protection Agency, the public is demanding products with lower carbon footprints and that are derived from renewable sources. In this project, carbohydrates, proteins and phenolic compounds were applied to air laid, pressed paper products in order to identify potential renewable green binders that are as strong as the current commercial binders, while being organic and renewable. Each potential green binder was applied to several filter paper strips and tested for strength in the direction perpendicular to the cellulose fibril orientation. Out of the twenty binders surveyed, soy protein, gelatin, zein protein, pectin and Salix lignin provided comparable strength results to a currently employed chemical binder. These organic and renewable binders can be purchased in large quantities at low cost, require minimal reaction time and do not form viscous solutions that would clog sprayers, characteristics that make them attractive to the non-woven paper industry. As with any new process, a large-scale trial must be conducted along with an economic analysis of the procedure. However, because multiple examples of "green" binders were found that showed strong cross-linking activity, a candidate for commercial application will likely be found.

  20. Development of a green binder system for paper products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is important for industries to find green chemistries for manufacturing their products that have utility, are cost-effective and that protect the environment. The paper industry is no exception. Renewable resources derived from plant components could be an excellent substitute for the chemicals that are currently used as paper binders. Air laid pressed paper products that are typically used in wet wipes must be bound together so they can resist mechanical tearing during storage and use. The binders must be strong but cost-effective. Although chemical binders are approved by the Environmental Protection Agency, the public is demanding products with lower carbon footprints and that are derived from renewable sources. Results In this project, carbohydrates, proteins and phenolic compounds were applied to air laid, pressed paper products in order to identify potential renewable green binders that are as strong as the current commercial binders, while being organic and renewable. Each potential green binder was applied to several filter paper strips and tested for strength in the direction perpendicular to the cellulose fibril orientation. Out of the twenty binders surveyed, soy protein, gelatin, zein protein, pectin and Salix lignin provided comparable strength results to a currently employed chemical binder. Conclusions These organic and renewable binders can be purchased in large quantities at low cost, require minimal reaction time and do not form viscous solutions that would clog sprayers, characteristics that make them attractive to the non-woven paper industry. As with any new process, a large-scale trial must be conducted along with an economic analysis of the procedure. However, because multiple examples of “green” binders were found that showed strong cross-linking activity, a candidate for commercial application will likely be found. PMID:23531016

  1. Effect of CO2 concentration on strength development and carbonation of a MgO-based binder for treating fine sediment.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyung-Yup; Kim, Jin Young; Phan, Hoang Quang Huy; Ahn, Jun-Young; Kim, Tae Yoo; Hwang, Inseong

    2018-05-28

    We previously described a MgO-based binder for treating fine sediment and simultaneously store CO 2 . Here, we describe a study of the physical/mechanical characteristics and carbonation reactions of the MgO-based binder used to solidify/stabilize fine sediment in atmospheres containing different CO 2 concentrations. Carbonation of the sediment treated with the MgO-based binder at the atmospheric CO 2 concentration markedly improved the compressive strength of the product. The compressive strength was 4.78 MPa after 365 days of curing, 1.3 times higher than the compressive strength of sediment treated with portland cement. This improvement was caused by the formation of carbonation products, such as hydromagnesite, nesquehonite, and lansfordite, and the constant high pH (~ 12) of the specimen, which favored the growth of hydration products such as calcium silicate hydrates and portlandite. Very low compressive strengths were found when 50 and 100% CO 2 atmospheres were used because of excessive formation of carbonation products, which occupied 78% of the specimen depth. Abundant carbonation products increased the specimen volume and decreased the pH to 10.2, slowing the growth of hydration products. The absence of brucite in specimens produced in a 100% CO 2 atmosphere indicated that MgO carbonation is favored over hydration at high CO 2 concentrations.

  2. Impact of Different Binders on the Roughness, Adhesion Strength, and Other Properties of Mortars with Expanded Cork.

    PubMed

    Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Widomski, Marcin K; Szafraniec, Małgorzata; Łagód, Grzegorz

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the research that is presented in this paper was to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of heat-insulating mortars with expanded cork aggregates and different binders. In this work, the measurements of surface roughness and adhesion strength, supported by determination of basic mechanical and physical parameters, such as density, bulk density, open porosity, total porosity, absorbability, thermal conductivity coefficient, compressive strength, flexural strength, and frost resistance of mortars containing expanded oak cork, were performed. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigations demonstrated the microstructure, contact zone, and distribution of pores in the heat-insulating mortars containing expanded cork. The results indicated that the addition of expanded cork and different binders in heat-insulating mortars triggers changes in their roughness and adhesion strength. The SEM research confirmed the very good adhesion of the paste to the cork aggregate.

  3. Impact of Different Binders on the Roughness, Adhesion Strength, and Other Properties of Mortars with Expanded Cork

    PubMed Central

    Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Widomski, Marcin K.; Szafraniec, Małgorzata; Łagód, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the research that is presented in this paper was to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of heat-insulating mortars with expanded cork aggregates and different binders. In this work, the measurements of surface roughness and adhesion strength, supported by determination of basic mechanical and physical parameters, such as density, bulk density, open porosity, total porosity, absorbability, thermal conductivity coefficient, compressive strength, flexural strength, and frost resistance of mortars containing expanded oak cork, were performed. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigations demonstrated the microstructure, contact zone, and distribution of pores in the heat-insulating mortars containing expanded cork. The results indicated that the addition of expanded cork and different binders in heat-insulating mortars triggers changes in their roughness and adhesion strength. The SEM research confirmed the very good adhesion of the paste to the cork aggregate. PMID:29494525

  4. Preparation of fly ash-granulated blast furnace slag-carbide slag binder and application in total tailings paste backfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Hao, Ya-fei; Zhao, Feng-qing

    2018-03-01

    Based on activation and synergistic effect among various materials, a low-cost mine backfill cementing material, FGC binder, was prepared by using fly ash, granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS), carbide slag and composite activator. The proper proportioning of FGC binder is obtained by response surface experiment optimization method: fly ash 62 %, GBFS 20 %, carbide slag 8 % and compound activators 10 %. Adjusting the material ratio obtains different cementing material which could satisfy requirements of different mined-out areas. With the mass ratio of cementing material and tailings 1:4∼1:8, the concentration of total solid 70 %, the compressive strength values of total tailings filling body at 28 d reaches 1.64∼4.14 MPa, and the backfilling cost is 20 % lower than using OPC cement.

  5. A study of a co-processed dry binder composed of microcrystalline cellulose and glycerol monostearate.

    PubMed

    Mužíková, Jitka; Muchová, Sandra

    2012-10-01

    The paper studies the co-processed dry binder LubriToseTM MCC from the viewpoint of energy evaluation of the compression process, strength and disintegration time of tablets. The results were compared with the identical evaluation of physical mixtures of microcrystalline cellulose with several types of lubricants. LubriTose MCC showed the lowest value of energy for friction, the highest value of energy accumulated by the tablet, and the highest plasticity of all tableting materials under study. There were no marked differences in the values of the energy of decompression. The tensile strength of tablets from LubriTose MCC was lower than in those from the mixture of Vivapur® 12 and glycerol monostearate, in the compression forces of 4 and 5 kN it was comparable with the tensile strength of tablets from Vivapur 12 with Poloxamer 407. Disintegration time of tablets from LubriTose MCC was shorter than that of those from Vivapur 12 with glycerol monostearate at the compression force of 3 kN, in the case of the compression forces of 4 and 5 kN no statistically significant difference was found between the values of these tableting materials.

  6. Complete occlusion after blunt injury to the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Meghoo, Colin A L; Gonzalez, Ernest A; Tyroch, Alan H; Wohltmann, Christopher D

    2003-10-01

    Injury to the abdominal aorta after blunt trauma is uncommon. When this injury results in complete vessel occlusion, the presentation is dramatic. Timely intervention is essential. After a case report, we examined all reported cases of complete occlusion after blunt injury to the abdominal aorta and reviewed the cause, presentation, and management of this injury. Complete vessel occlusion arises from intimal injury. The most frequent mechanism is compression from a seat belt or steering wheel during a motor vehicle crash. Patients present with absent femoral and distal pulses in association with lower extremity neuropathy. Intervention commonly involves bypass grafting of the abdominal aorta. Complete occlusion after blunt trauma to the abdominal aorta is rare. Neurologic deficits most commonly arise from peripheral nerve ischemia. Reperfusion within 6 hours confers a greater chance of limb salvage and neurologic recovery.

  7. Evaluation of novel reactive MgO activated slag binder for the immobilisation of lead and zinc.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fei; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2014-12-01

    Although Portland cement is the most widely used binder in the stabilisation/solidification (S/S) processes, slag-based binders have gained significant attention recently due to their economic and environmental merits. In the present study, a novel binder, reactive MgO activated slag, is compared with hydrated lime activated slag in the immobilisation of lead and zinc. A series of lead or zinc-doped pastes and mortars were prepared with metal to binder ratio from 0.25% to 1%. The hydration products and microstructure were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The major hydration products were calcium silicate hydrate and hydrotalcite-like phases. The unconfined compressive strength was measured up to 160 d. Findings show that lead had a slight influence on the strength of MgO-slag paste while zinc reduced the strength significantly as its concentration increased. Leachate results using the TCLP tests revealed that the immobilisation degree was dependent on the pH and reactive MgO activated slag showed an increased pH buffering capacity, and thus improved the immobilisation efficiency compared to lime activated slag. It was proposed that zinc was mainly immobilised within the structure of the hydrotalcite-like phases or in the form of calcium zincate, while lead was primarily precipitated as the hydroxide. It is concluded, therefore, that reactive MgO activated slag can serve as clinker-free alternative binder in the S/S process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Compressed Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Erlich, Yaniv; Gordon, Assaf; Brand, Michael; Hannon, Gregory J.; Mitra, Partha P.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades we have steadily increased our knowledge on the genetic basis of many severe disorders. Nevertheless, there are still great challenges in applying this knowledge routinely in the clinic, mainly due to the relatively tedious and expensive process of genotyping. Since the genetic variations that underlie the disorders are relatively rare in the population, they can be thought of as a sparse signal. Using methods and ideas from compressed sensing and group testing, we have developed a cost-effective genotyping protocol to detect carriers for severe genetic disorders. In particular, we have adapted our scheme to a recently developed class of high throughput DNA sequencing technologies. The mathematical framework presented here has some important distinctions from the ’traditional’ compressed sensing and group testing frameworks in order to address biological and technical constraints of our setting. PMID:21451737

  9. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation.

    PubMed

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, I A; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated.

  11. 14 CFR 198.15 - Non-premium insurance-payment of registration binders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...—payment of registration binders. (a) The binder for initial registration is $575 for each aircraft or... registration binders. 198.15 Section 198.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... addition of an aircraft or insurable item must be accompanied by the binder for each aircraft and insurable...

  12. 14 CFR 198.15 - Non-premium insurance-payment of registration binders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...—payment of registration binders. (a) The binder for initial registration is $575 for each aircraft or... registration binders. 198.15 Section 198.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... addition of an aircraft or insurable item must be accompanied by the binder for each aircraft and insurable...

  13. 14 CFR 198.15 - Non-premium insurance-payment of registration binders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...—payment of registration binders. (a) The binder for initial registration is $575 for each aircraft or... registration binders. 198.15 Section 198.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... addition of an aircraft or insurable item must be accompanied by the binder for each aircraft and insurable...

  14. 14 CFR 198.15 - Non-premium insurance-payment of registration binders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...—payment of registration binders. (a) The binder for initial registration is $575 for each aircraft or... registration binders. 198.15 Section 198.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... addition of an aircraft or insurable item must be accompanied by the binder for each aircraft and insurable...

  15. Compressible Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuto, V. M.

    1997-06-01

    We present a model to treat fully compressible, nonlocal, time-dependent turbulent convection in the presence of large-scale flows and arbitrary density stratification. The problem is of interest, for example, in stellar pulsation problems, especially since accurate helioseismological data are now available, as well as in accretion disks. Owing to the difficulties in formulating an analytical model, it is not surprising that most of the work has gone into numerical simulations. At present, there are three analytical models: one by the author, which leads to a rather complicated set of equations; one by Yoshizawa; and one by Xiong. The latter two use a Reynolds stress model together with phenomenological relations with adjustable parameters whose determination on the basis of terrestrial flows does not guarantee that they may be extrapolated to astrophysical flows. Moreover, all third-order moments representing nonlocality are taken to be of the down gradient form (which in the case of the planetary boundary layer yields incorrect results). In addition, correlations among pressure, temperature, and velocities are often neglected or treated as in the incompressible case. To avoid phenomenological relations, we derive the full set of dynamic, time-dependent, nonlocal equations to describe all mean variables, second- and third-order moments. Closures are carried out at the fourth order following standard procedures in turbulence modeling. The equations are collected in an Appendix. Some of the novelties of the treatment are (1) new flux conservation law that includes the large-scale flow, (2) increase of the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy owing to compressibility and thus (3) a smaller overshooting, and (4) a new source of mean temperature due to compressibility; moreover, contrary to some phenomenological suggestions, the adiabatic temperature gradient depends only on the thermal pressure, while in the equation for the large-scale flow, the physical

  16. Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ser Yee; Pormento, James G; Koong, Heng Nung

    2009-04-01

    Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis are common bedside procedures with diagnostic, therapeutic and palliative roles. We describe a useful and familiar a useful and familiar technique with the use of a multiple lumen catheter commonly used for central venous line insertion for drainage of ascites or moderate to large pleural effusions. The use of a multiple lumen catheter allows easier and more rapid aspiration of fluid with a smaller probability of the side holes being blocked as compared to the standard needle or single catheter methods. This is particularly useful in situations where the dedicated commercial kits for thoracocentesis and abdominal paracentesis are not readily available.

  17. Dry-Processed, Binder-Free Holey Graphene Electrodes for Supercapacitors with Ultrahigh Areal Loadings.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Evan D; Han, Xiaogang; Lacey, Steven D; Kim, Jae-Woo; Connell, John W; Hu, Liangbing; Lin, Yi

    2016-11-02

    For commercial applications, the need for smaller footprint energy storage devices requires more energy to be stored per unit area. Carbon nanomaterials, especially graphene, have been studied as supercapacitor electrodes and can achieve high gravimetric capacities affording high gravimetric energy densities. However, most nanocarbon-based electrodes exhibit a significant decrease in their areal capacitances when scaled to the high mass loadings typically used in commercially available cells (∼10 mg/cm 2 ). One of the reasons for this behavior is that the additional surface area in thick electrodes is not readily accessible by electrolyte ions due to the large tortuosity. Furthermore, the fabrication of such electrodes often involves complicated processes that limit the potential for mass production. Here, holey graphene electrodes for supercapacitors that are scalable in both production and areal capacitance are presented. The lateral surface porosity on the graphene sheets was created using a facile single-step air oxidation method, and the resultant holey graphene was compacted under ambient conditions into mechanically robust monolithic shapes that can be directly used as binder-free electrodes. In comparison, pristine graphene discs under similar binder-free compression molding conditions were extremely brittle and thus not deemed useful for electrode applications. The coin cell supercapacitors, based on these holey graphene electrodes exhibited small variations in gravimetric capacitance over a wide range of areal mass loadings (∼1-30 mg/cm 2 ) at current densities as high as 30 mA/cm 2 , resulting in the near-linear increase of the areal capacitance (F/cm 2 ) with the mass loading. The prospects of the presented method for facile binder-free ultrathick graphene electrode fabrication are discussed.

  18. [Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease: the positions of sevelamer].

    PubMed

    Fomin, V V; Shilov, E M; Svistunov, A A; Milovanov, Iu S

    2013-01-01

    The paper shows the role of phosphate binders in the correction of phosphorus and calcium metabolic disturbances in chronic kidney disease. The results of clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy and safety of sevelamer are discussed.

  19. Development of a binder fracture test to determine fracture energy.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-04-01

    It has been found that binder testing methods in current specifications do not accurately predict cracking performance at intermediate temperatures. Fracture energy has been determined to be strongly correlated to fracture resistance of asphalt mixtu...

  20. Development of bio-sourced binder to metal injection moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Alexandre; Barrière, Thierry; Gelin, Jean-Claude

    2016-10-01

    In the MIM process the binder play the most important role. It provides fluidity of the feedstock mixture for injection molding and adhesion of the powder to keep the molded shape. The binder must provide strength and cohesion for the molded part, must be easy to be removed from the molded part, and must be the recyclable, environmentally friendly and economical ones. The goal of this study is to develop a binder environmentally friendly. For this, a study of formulation based on polyethylene glycol, because of is water debinding properties, was made. Polylactic acid and Polyhydroxyalkanoates were investigated as bio sourced polymers. The chemical, miscibility and rheological behavior of the binder formulation were investigated.

  1. Field evaluation of modified asphalt binder guidelines : [brief].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-04-01

    This project assessed the suitability of Wisconsins asphalt binder modification guidelines. It follows up on a previous Wisconsin Highway Research Program (WHRP) study (0092-03-13) which served as an initial step towards validating WisDOTs asph...

  2. Development and Application of Functionalized Protein Binders in Multicellular Organisms.

    PubMed

    Bieli, D; Alborelli, I; Harmansa, S; Matsuda, S; Caussinus, E; Affolter, M

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are crucial for almost all biological processes. Studying such interactions in their native environment is critical but not easy to perform. Recently developed genetically encoded protein binders were shown to function inside living cells. These molecules offer a new, direct way to assess protein function, distribution and dynamics in vivo. A widely used protein binder scaffold are the so-called nanobodies, which are derived from the variable domain of camelid heavy-chain antibodies. Another commonly used scaffold, the DARPins, is based on Ankyrin repeats. In this review, we highlight how these binders can be functionalized in order to study proteins in vivo during the development of multicellular organisms. It is to be anticipated that many more applications for such synthetic protein binders will be developed in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies of organic paint binders by NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyros, A.; Anglos, D.

    2006-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is applied to the study of aged binding media used in paintings, namely linseed oil, egg tempera and an acrylic medium. High resolution 1D and 2D NMR experiments establish the state of hydrolysis and oxidation of the linseed and egg tempera binders after five years of aging, by determining several markers sensitive to the hydrolytic and oxidative processes of the binder lipid fraction. The composition of the acrylic binder co-polymer is determined by 2D NMR spectroscopy, while the identification of a surfactant, poly(ethylene glycol), found in greater amounts in aged acrylic medium, is reported. The non-destructive nature of the proposed analytical NMR methodology, and minimization of the amount of binder material needed through the use of sophisticated cryoprobes and hyphenated LC-NMR techniques, make NMR attractive for the arts analyst, in view of its rapid nature and experimental simplicity.

  4. Fracture properties and fatigue cracking resistance of asphalt binders.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-03-01

    Several different types of modifiers are increasingly bring used to improve the performance of asphalt binders or to : achieve desired mixture production characteristics (e.g., Warm Mix Asphalt). However, current Superpave : performance specification...

  5. Long-term aging of recycled binders : [summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-10-01

    At 80 million tons a year representing more than 80% of all milled asphalt pavement : asphalt paving is Americas most recycled material. Asphalt can be recycled in place, which is : very cost effective; however, aging of recycled binder ca...

  6. Field evaluation of Wisconsin modified binder selection guidelines - phase II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to continue phase I of the study with the objective of identifying promising procedures and applicable modified binder specification criteria for use in Wisconsin, based on comparison of test results to field performan...

  7. Developing a laboratory protocol for asphalt binder recovery.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-10-01

    Asphalt binder extraction and recovery are common laboratory procedures used to provide material for research and quality : assurance testing. The most common methods of recovery performed today include the Abson method and the rotary evaporator : (o...

  8. Determination of usable residual asphalt binder in RAP.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    For current recycled mix designs, the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) assumes 100% contribution of : working binder from Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) materials when added to Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). However, it is : unclear if this assu...

  9. Staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Taviloglu, Korhan

    2003-07-01

    To review the current developments in staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma. To overview the steps of damage control laparotomy. The ever increasing importance of the resuscitation phase with current intensive care unit (ICU) support techniques should be emphasized. General surgeons should be familiar to staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma and collaborate with ICU teams, interventional radiologists and several other specialties to overcome this entity.

  10. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski

    2006-12-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that willmore » work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures that can be used for improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching, by preventing the ''ponding'' and ''channeling'' effects that currently cause reduced recovery and extended leaching cycle times. Methods have also been developed for iron ore processing which are intended to

  11. Rutting resistance of asphalt mixture with cup lumps modified binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffie, E.; Hanif, W. M. M. Wan; Arshad, A. K.; Hashim, W.

    2017-11-01

    Rutting is the most common pavement distress in pavement structures which occurs mainly due to several factors such as increasing of traffic volume, climatic conditions and also due to construction design errors. This failure reduced the service life of the pavement, reduced driver safety and increase cost of maintenance. Polymer Modified Binder has been observed for a long time in improving asphalt pavement performance. Research shows that the use of polymer in bituminous mix not only improve the resistance to rutting but also increase the life span of the pavement. This research evaluates the physical properties and rutting performance of dense graded Superpave-designed HMA mix. Two different types of dense graded Superpave HMA mix were developed consists of unmodified binder mix (UMB) and cup lumps rubber (liquid form) modified binder mix (CLMB). Natural rubber polymer modified binder was prepared from addition of 8 percent of cup lumps into binder. Results showed that all the mixes passed the Superpave volumetric properties criteria which indicate that these mixtures were good with respect to durability and flexibility. Furthermore, rutting results from APA rutting test was determined to evaluate the performance of these mixtures. The rutting result of CLMB demonstrates better resistance to rutting than those prepared using UMB mix. Addition of cup lumps rubber in asphalt mixture was found to be significant, where the cup lumps rubber has certainly improves the binder properties and enhanced its rutting resistance due to greater elasticity offered by the cup lumps rubber particles. It shows that the use of cup lumps rubber can significantly reduce the rut depth of asphalt mixture by 41% compared to the minimum rut depth obtained for the UMB mix. Therefore, it can be concluded that the cup lumps rubber is suitable to be used as a modifier to modified binder in order to enhance the properties of the binder and thus improves the performance of asphalt mixes.

  12. Pore- and micro-structural characterization of a novel structural binder based on iron carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sumanta, E-mail: Sumanta.Das@asu.edu; Stone, David, E-mail: dajstone@gmail.com; Convey, Diana, E-mail: Diana.Convey@asu.edu

    2014-12-15

    The pore- and micro-structural features of a novel binding material based on the carbonation of waste metallic iron powder are reported in this paper. The binder contains metallic iron powder as the major ingredient, followed by additives containing silica and alumina to facilitate favorable reaction product formation. Compressive strengths sufficient for a majority of concrete applications are attained. The material pore structure is investigated primarily through mercury intrusion porosimetry whereas electron microscopy is used for microstructural characterization. Reduction in the overall porosity and the average pore size with an increase in carbonation duration from 1 day to 4 days ismore » noticed. The pore structure features are used in predictive models for gas and moisture transport (water vapor diffusivity and moisture permeability) through the porous medium which dictates its long-term durability when used in structural applications. Comparisons of the pore structure with those of a Portland cement paste are also provided. The morphology of the reaction products in the iron-based binder, and the distribution of constituent elements in the microstructure are also reported. - Highlights: • Carbonation of iron produces a dense microstructure. • Pore volume in iron carbonate lower, critical size higher than those in OPC pastes • Reaction product contains iron, carbon, silicon, aluminum and calcium. • Power-law for porosity-moisture permeability relationship was established.« less

  13. Functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Grover, Madhusudan; Drossman, Douglas A

    2010-10-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a relatively less common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder defined by the presence of constant or frequently recurring abdominal pain that is not associated with eating, change in bowel habits, or menstrual periods (Drossman Gastroenterology 130:1377-1390, 2006), which points to a more centrally targeted (spinal and supraspinal) basis for the symptoms. However, FAPS is frequently confused with irritable bowel syndrome and other functional GI disorders in which abdominal pain is associated with eating and bowel movements. FAPS also differs from chronic abdominal pain associated with entities such as chronic pancreatitis or chronic inflammatory bowel disease, in which the pain is associated with peripherally acting factors (eg, gut inflammation or injury). Given the central contribution to the pain experience, concomitant psychosocial disturbances are common and strongly influence the clinical expression of FAPS, which also by definition is associated with loss of daily functioning. These factors make it critical to use a biopsychosocial construct to understand and manage FAPS, because gut-directed treatments are usually not successful in managing this condition.

  14. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    SciTech Connect

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler

    2004-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that willmore » work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.« less

  15. Abdominal Wall Endometriosis Mimicking Metastases.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Rakul; Anoop, T M; Mony, Rari P

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal wall lesions can be broadly divided into nontumorous and tumorous conditions. Nontumorous lesions include congenital lesion, abdominal wall hernia, inflammation and infection, vascular lesions, and miscellaneous conditions like hematoma. Tumorous lesions include benign and malignant neoplasms. Here, we report an unusual case of abdominal wall endometriosis mimicking metastases in a patient with breast carcinoma.

  16. Formulation and dissolution kinetics study of hydrophilic matrix tablets with tramadol hydrochloride and different co-processed dry binders.

    PubMed

    Komersová, Alena; Lochař, Václav; Myslíková, Kateřina; Mužíková, Jitka; Bartoš, Martin

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to present the possibility of using of co-processed dry binders for formulation of matrix tablets with drug controlled release. Hydrophilic matrix tablets with tramadol hydrochloride, hypromellose and different co-processed dry binders were prepared by direct compression method. Hypromelloses Methocel™ K4M Premium CR or Methocel™ K100M Premium CR were used as controlled release agents and Prosolv® SMCC 90 or Disintequik™ MCC 25 were used as co-processed dry binders. Homogeneity of the tablets was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The release of tramadol hydrochloride from prepared formulations was studied by dissolution test method. The dissolution profiles obtained were evaluated by non-linear regression analysis, release rate constants and other kinetic parameters were determined. It was found that matrix tablets based on Prosolv® SMCC 90 and Methocel™ Premium CR cannot control the tramadol release effectively for >12h and tablets containing Disintequik™ MCC 25 and Methocel™ Premium CR >8h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Compressive and bonding strength of fly ash based geopolymer mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zailani, Warid Wazien Ahmad; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Zainol, Mohd Remy Rozainy Mohd Arif; Razak, Rafiza Abd.; Tahir, Muhammad Faheem Mohd

    2017-09-01

    Geopolymer which is produced by synthesizing aluminosilicate source materials with an alkaline activator solution promotes sustainable and excellent properties of binder. The purpose of this paper is to determine the optimum binder to sand ratio of geopolymer mortars based on mechanical properties. In order to optimize the formulation of geopolymer mortar, various binder to sand ratios (0.25, 0.33, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0) are prepared. The investigation on the effect of sand inclusion to the compressive and bonding strength of geopolymer mortar is approached. The experimental results show that the bonding strength performance of geopolymer is also depends on the various binder to sand ratio, where the optimum ratio 0.5 gives a highest strength of 12.73 MPa followed by 12.35 MPa, which corresponds the ratio 1.0 for geopolymer, while the compared value of OPC bonding strength is given by 9.3 MPa. The morphological structure at the interface zone is determined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the homogenous bonding between geopolymer and substrate can be observed. Fly ash based geopolymers reveal a new category of mortar which has high potential to be used in the field of concrete repair and rehabilitation.

  18. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Binders for Energetics - Modelling and Synthesis in Harmony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dossi, Licia; Cleaver, Doug; Gould, Peter; Dunnett, Jim; Cavaye, Hamish; Ellison, Laurence; Luppi, Federico; Hollands, Ron; Bradley, Mark

    The Binders by Design UK programme develop new polymeric materials for energetic applications that can overcome problems related to chemico-physical properties, aging, additives, environmental and performance of energetic compositions. Combined multi-scale modelling and experiment is used for the development of a new modelling tool and with the aim to produce novel materials with great confidence and fast turnaround. New synthesised binders with attractive properties for energetic applications used to provide a high level of confidence in the results of developed models. Molecular dynamics simulations investigate the thermal behaviour and the results directly feed into a Group Interaction Model (GIM). A viscoelastic constitutive model has been developed examining stress development in energetic/binder configurations. GIM data has been used as the basis for developing hydrocode equations of state, which then applied in run-to-detonation type investigations to examine the effect of the shock properties of a binder on the reactivity of a typical Polymer Bonded Explosive in a high-velocity impact type scenario. The Binders by Design UK programme is funded through the Weapons Science and Technology Centre by DSTL.

  20. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski

    2006-03-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that willmore » work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.« less

  1. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    SciTech Connect

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler

    2005-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not breakdown during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will workmore » satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process. As a result, operators of many facilities see large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching.« less

  2. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler

    2005-09-30

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that willmore » work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.« less

  3. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler

    2004-03-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that willmore » work satisfactorily. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process. As a result, operators of acidic heap-leach facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of other agglomeration applications, particularly advanced primary ironmaking.« less

  4. Performance analysis of flexible DSSC with binder addition

    SciTech Connect

    Muliani, Lia; Hidayat, Jojo; Anggraini, Putri Nur, E-mail: putri.nur.anggraini@gmail.com

    2016-04-19

    Flexible DSSC is one of modification of DSSC based on its substrate. Operating at low temperature, flexible DSSC requires a binder to improve particles interconnection. This research was done to compare the morphology and performance of flexible DSSC that was produced with binder-added and binder-free. TiO{sub 2} powder, butanol, and HCl were mixed for preparation of TiO{sub 2} paste. Small amount of titanium isopropoxide as binder was added into the mixture. TiO{sub 2} paste was deposited on ITO-PET plastic substrate with area of 1x1 cm{sup 2} by doctor blade method. Furthermore, SEM, XRD, and BET characterization were done to analyzemore » morphology and surface area of the TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode microstructures. Dyed TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode and platinum counter electrode were assembled and injected by electrolyte. In the last process, flexible DSSCs were illuminated by sun simulator to do J-V measurement. As a result, flexible DSSC containing binder showed higher performance with photoconversion efficiency of 0.31%.« less

  5. Performance analysis of flexible DSSC with binder addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muliani, Lia; Hidayat, Jojo; Anggraini, Putri Nur

    2016-04-01

    Flexible DSSC is one of modification of DSSC based on its substrate. Operating at low temperature, flexible DSSC requires a binder to improve particles interconnection. This research was done to compare the morphology and performance of flexible DSSC that was produced with binder-added and binder-free. TiO2 powder, butanol, and HCl were mixed for preparation of TiO2 paste. Small amount of titanium isopropoxide as binder was added into the mixture. TiO2 paste was deposited on ITO-PET plastic substrate with area of 1x1 cm2 by doctor blade method. Furthermore, SEM, XRD, and BET characterization were done to analyze morphology and surface area of the TiO2 photoelectrode microstructures. Dyed TiO2 photoelectrode and platinum counter electrode were assembled and injected by electrolyte. In the last process, flexible DSSCs were illuminated by sun simulator to do J-V measurement. As a result, flexible DSSC containing binder showed higher performance with photoconversion efficiency of 0.31%.

  6. DNABIT Compress – Genome compression algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam

    2011-01-01

    Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, “DNABIT Compress” for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that “DNABIT Compress” algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases. PMID:21383923

  7. Elastomeric binders for electrodes. [in secondary lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D. H.; Somoano, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    The poor mechanical integrity of the cathode represents an important problem which affects the performance of ambient temperature secondary lithium cells. Repeated charge of a TiS2 cathode may give rise to stresses which disturb the electrode structure and can contribute to capacity loss. An investigation indicates that the use of an inelastic binder material, such as Teflon, aggravates the problem, and can lead to electrode disruption and poor TiS2 particle-particle contact. The feasibility of a use of elastomers as TiS2 binder materials has, therefore, been explored. It was found that elastomeric binders provide an effective approach for simplifying rechargeable cathode fabrication. A pronounced improvement in the mechanical integrity of the cathode structure contributes to a prolonged cycle life.

  8. Advancements in Binder Systems for Solid Freeform Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Paper will present recent developments in advanced material binder systems for solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technologies. The advantage of SFF is the capability to custom fabricate complex geometries directly from computer aided design data in layer- by-layer fashion, eliminated the need for traditional fixturing and tooling. Binders allow for the low temperature processing of 'green' structural materials, either metal, ceramic or composite, in traditional rapid prototyping machines. The greatest obstacle comes when green parts must then go through a sintering or burnout process to remove the binders and fully densify the parent material, without damaging or distorting the original part geometry. Critical issues and up-to-date assessments will be delivered on various material systems.

  9. In silico design of smart binders to anthrax PA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, Michael; Hurley, Margaret M.

    2012-06-01

    The development of smart peptide binders requires an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of recognition which has remained an elusive grail of the research community for decades. Recent advances in automated discovery and synthetic library science provide a wealth of information to probe fundamental details of binding and facilitate the development of improved models for a priori prediction of affinity and specificity. Here we present the modeling portion of an iterative experimental/computational study to produce high affinity peptide binders to the Protective Antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis. The result is a general usage, HPC-oriented, python-based toolkit based upon powerful third-party freeware, which is designed to provide a better understanding of peptide-protein interactions and ultimately predict and measure new smart peptide binder candidates. We present an improved simulation protocol with flexible peptide docking to the Anthrax Protective Antigen, reported within the context of experimental data presented in a companion work.

  10. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-02

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain.

  11. Processing of Building Binder Materials to Increase their Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fediuk, R. S.; Garmashov, I. S.; Kuzmin, D. E.; Stoyushko, N. Yu; Gladkova, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper deals modern physical methods of activation of building powder materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of Portland cement. Activated concrete has a number of features that are used as design characteristics of structures and are due to the structure of the activated binder and its contacts with concrete aggregates. These features also have a significant impact on the nature of the destruction of concrete under load, changing the boundaries of its microcracks and durability.

  12. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe

    2017-05-16

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  13. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  14. Abdominal Aortic Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Lech, Christie; Swaminathan, Anand

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses abdominal aortic emergencies. There is a common thread of risk factors and causes of these diseases, including age, male gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and connective tissue disorders. The most common presenting symptom of these disorders is pain, usually in the chest, flank, abdomen, or back. Computed tomography scan is the gold standard for diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the aorta in the hemodynamically stable patient. Treatment consists of a combination of blood pressure and heart rate control and, in many cases, emergent surgical intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Abdominal Complications after Severe Burns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    abdominal compartment syndrome, schemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic ulcer disease and astritis requiring laparotomy, small bowel obstruction, rimary fungal...abdominal complications was 25%, with Curl- ng’s ulcer the most common malady (54% of the total), ollowed by esophageal lesions (17%), hemorrhagic...complications in- luded trauma exploratory laparotomy, abdominal com- artment syndrome, ischemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic lcer disease and gastritis, large

  16. Chronic abdominal wall pain misdiagnosed as functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    van Assen, Tijmen; de Jager-Kievit, Jenneke W A J; Scheltinga, Marc R; Roumen, Rudi M H

    2013-01-01

    The abdominal wall is often neglected as a cause of chronic abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to identify chronic abdominal wall pain syndromes, such as anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES), in a patient population diagnosed with functional abdominal pain, including irritable bowel syndrome, using a validated 18-item questionnaire as an identification tool. In this cross-sectional analysis, 4 Dutch primary care practices employing physicians who were unaware of the existence of ACNES were selected. A total of 535 patients ≥18 years old who were registered with a functional abdominal pain diagnosis were approached when they were symptomatic to complete the questionnaire (maximum 18 points). Responders who scored at least the 10-point cutoff value (sensitivity, 0.94; specificity, 0.92) underwent a diagnostic evaluation to establish their final diagnosis. The main outcome was the presence and prevalence of ACNES in a group of symptomatic patients diagnosed with functional abdominal pain. Of 535 patients, 304 (57%) responded; 167 subjects (31%) recently reporting symptoms completed the questionnaire. Of 23 patients who scored above the 10-point cutoff value, 18 were available for a diagnostic evaluation. In half of these subjects (n = 9) functional abdominal pain (including IBS) was confirmed. However, the other 9 patients were suffering from abdominal wall pain syndrome, 6 of whom were diagnosed with ACNES (3.6% prevalence rate of symptomatic subjects; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.6), whereas the remaining 3 harbored a painful lipoma, an abdominal herniation, and a painful scar. A clinically relevant portion of patients previously diagnosed with functional abdominal pain syndrome in a primary care environment suffers from an abdominal wall pain syndrome such as ACNES.

  17. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40 Applicability...

  18. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40 Applicability; description of...

  19. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40 Applicability; description of...

  20. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40 Applicability...

  1. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40 Applicability...

  2. The evaluation and specification development of alternate modified asphalt binders in South Carolina : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-11-01

    In this research project, asphalt binders containing various polymer modifiers were investigated through : examining both binder and mixture properties.Two additional topics were also investigated, including: a) the : effects of liquid antistr...

  3. Effect of asphalt rejuvenating agent on aged reclaimed asphalt pavement and binder properties.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-11-01

    Hot in-place recycling (HIR) preserves distressed asphalt pavements while minimizing use of virgin binder : and aggregates. The final quality of an HIR mixture depends on the characteristics of the original binder, aging of the : pavement surface dur...

  4. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test for DOTD asphalt binder specification : technical summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-09-01

    Higher traffic coupled with heavier loads led the asphalt industry to introduce polymer-modified binders to enhance the durability and strength of hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. When the Superpave Performance Graded (PG) binder specification (AASHT...

  5. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test for DOTD asphalt binder specification : final report 564.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-09-01

    Numerous studies have shown that G*/Sin, the high temperature specification parameter for current Performance Graded (PG) asphalt binder is not adequate to reflect the rutting characteristics of polymer-modified binders. Consequently, many state De...

  6. Evaluation of new binders using newly developed fracture energy test : [summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-07-01

    The flexibility and cohesion that give asphalt concrete its performance characteristics largely derive from the properties of binders. The durability of binders affects the function and lifetime of paving, and considering how extensive Floridas ro...

  7. Effect of asphalt rejuvenating agent on aged reclaimed asphalt pavement and binder properties : technical summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-11-01

    Hot in-place recycling (HIR) preserves distressed asphalt pavements while minimizing use of virgin binder and aggregates. The final quality of an HIR mixture depends on the characteristics of the original binder, aging of the pavement surface during ...

  8. Evaluation of the Texas tier system for seal coat binder specification.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-09-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) instituted a change in their seal coat binder specification in 2010 which allowed districts to select multiple binders within specified traffic levels or tiers for the purposes of allowing contractors to...

  9. Mechanical Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt Prepared Using Foamed Asphalt Binders : Executive Summary Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-03-01

    Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a mixture containing aggregates and asphalt binders prepared at specified : proportions. The aggregates and asphalt binder proportions are determined through a mix design : procedure such as the Marshall Mix Design or the Sup...

  10. Mechanical properties of warm mix asphalt prepared using foamed asphalt binders : executive summary report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-03-01

    Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a mixture containing aggregates and asphalt binders prepared at specified : proportions. The aggregates and asphalt binder proportions are determined through a mix design : procedure such as the Marshall Mix Design or the Sup...

  11. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery test for LADOTD asphalt binder specification.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this research are to characterize the elastic response of various binders used by LADOTD to determine the feasibility of the Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) test to be included in the LADOTD asphalt binder specification and to...

  12. Turbulence in Compressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lecture notes for the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) Special Course on 'Turbulence in Compressible Flows' have been assembled in this report. The following topics were covered: Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers, Compressible Turbulent Free Shear Layers, Turbulent Combustion, DNS/LES and RANS Simulations of Compressible Turbulent Flows, and Case Studies of Applications of Turbulence Models in Aerospace.

  13. Parameters Affecting the Mechanical Properties of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Binders – Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lăzărescu, A.; Szilagyi, H.; Ioani, A.; Baeră, C.

    2018-06-01

    As the demand for concrete and the needs to satisfy development of infrastructure facilities increase, it is essential to find alternatives to create environment-friendly concrete. The particular procedure of alkaline activation of fly ash - in which ash resulting from a power plant is combined with a specific alkaline activator in order to create a solid material, then dried at a certain temperature - opened new opportunities for this new material to get attention worldwide. In order to obtain a material with similar properties of ordinary Portland cement concrete and to obtain desirable compressive strengths, the parameters that affect this type of binders should be fully understood. The aim of this paper is to study the main parameters affecting the mechanical strength of the fly ash-based geopolymer paste and their interactions. Parameters such as molarity of sodium hydroxide (from 8M to 12M) and alkaline activators ratio (from 0,5 to 2,5) were analysed to observe how they affect the mechanical properties of the geopolymer paste. Experimental results show that the compressive strength of the fly ash-based geopolymer paste produced using Romanian local raw materials increases with the increase of the concentration of sodium hydroxide and higher ratios of Na2SiO3/NaOH solution.

  14. New phosphate-based binder for stabilization of soils contaminated with heavy metals: leaching, strength and microstructure characterization.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan-Jun; Wei, Ming-Li; Reddy, Krishna R; Jin, Fei; Wu, Hao-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Bin

    2014-12-15

    Cement stabilization is used extensively to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals. However, previous studies suggest that the elevated zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) concentrations in the contaminated soils would substantially retard the cement hydration, leading to the deterioration of the performance of cement stabilized soils. This study presents a new binder, KMP, composed of oxalic acid-activated phosphate rock, monopotassium phosphate and reactive magnesia. The effectiveness of stabilization using this binder is investigated on soils spiked with Zn and Pb, individually and together. Several series of tests are conducted including toxicity characteristic leaching (TCLP), ecotoxicity in terms of luminescent bacteria test and unconfined compressive strength. The leachability of a field Zn- and Pb- contaminated soil stabilized with KMP is also evaluated by TCLP leaching test. The results show that the leached Zn concentrations are lower than the China MEP regulatory limit except when Zn and Pb coexist and for the curing time of 7 days. On the other hand, the leached Pb concentrations for stabilized soils with Pb alone or mixed Zn and Pb contamination are much lower than the China MEP or USEPA regulatory limit, irrespective of the curing time. The luminescent bacteria test results show that the toxicity of the stabilized soils has been reduced considerably and is classified as slightly toxic class. The unconfined compressive strength of the soils decrease with the increase in the Zn concentration. The stabilized soils with mixed Zn and Pb contaminants exhibit notably higher leached Zn concentration, while there is lower unconfined compressive strength relative to the soils when contaminated with Zn alone. The X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope analyses reveal the presence of bobierrite (Mg3(PO4)2·8H2O) and K-struvite (MgKPO4·6H2O) as the main products formed in the KMP stabilized uncontaminated soils; the formation of hopeite (Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O

  15. Development of non-petroleum-based binders for use in flexible pavements - phase II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-10-01

    Bio-binders can be utilized as asphalt modifiers, extenders, and replacements for conventional asphalt in bituminous binders. : From the rheology results of Phase I of this project, it was found that the bio-binders tested had good performance, simil...

  16. 46 CFR 308.3 - Applications for insurance; warranties; supporting documents; payment of binder fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... documents; payment of binder fees. 308.3 Section 308.3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE General § 308.3 Applications for insurance; warranties; supporting documents; payment of binder fees. (a) Application, binder forms. A single application for War...

  17. 46 CFR 308.3 - Applications for insurance; warranties; supporting documents; payment of binder fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... documents; payment of binder fees. 308.3 Section 308.3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE General § 308.3 Applications for insurance; warranties; supporting documents; payment of binder fees. (a) Application, binder forms. A single application for War...

  18. 46 CFR 308.3 - Applications for insurance; warranties; supporting documents; payment of binder fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... documents; payment of binder fees. 308.3 Section 308.3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE General § 308.3 Applications for insurance; warranties; supporting documents; payment of binder fees. (a) Application, binder forms. A single application for War...

  19. 46 CFR 308.3 - Applications for insurance; warranties; supporting documents; payment of binder fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... documents; payment of binder fees. 308.3 Section 308.3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE General § 308.3 Applications for insurance; warranties; supporting documents; payment of binder fees. (a) Application, binder forms. A single application for War...

  20. Composite Gypsum Binders with Silica-containing Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernysheva, N. V.; Lesovik, V. S.; Drebezgova, M. Yu; Shatalova, S. V.; Alaskhanov, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    New types of fine mineral additives are proposed for designing water-resistant Composite Gypsum Binders (CGB); these additives significantly differ from traditional quartz feed: wastes from wet magnetic separation of Banded Iron Formation (BIF WMS waste), nanodispersed silica powder (NSP), chalk. Possibility of their combined use has been studied as well.

  1. Characterization of polymeric binders for Metal Injection Molding (MIM) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adames, Juan M.

    The Metal Injection Molding (MIM) process is an economically attractive method of producing large amounts of small and complex metallic parts. This is achieved by combining the productivity of injection molding with the versatility of sintering of metal particulates. In MIM, the powdered metal is blended with a plastic binder to obtain the feedstock. The binder imparts flowability to the blend at injection molding conditions and strength at ambient conditions. After molding, the binder is removed in a sequence of steps that usually involves solvent-extraction and polymer burn-out. Once the binder is removed, the metal particles are sintered. In this research several topics of the MIM process were studied to understand how the polymeric binder, similar to the one used in the sponsoring company, works. This was done by examining the compounding and water debinding processes, the rheological and thermal properties, and the microstructure of the binder/metal composite at different processing stages. The factors studied included the metal contents, the composition of the binder and the processing conditions. The three binders prepared during the course of this research were blends of a polyolefin, polyoxymethylene copolymer (POM) and a water-soluble polymer (WSP). The polyolefin resins included polypropylene (PP), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE). The powdered metal in the feedstocks was 316 L stainless steel. The compounding studies were completed in an internal mixer under different conditions of temperature, rotational speed and feedstock composition. It was found that the metal concentration was the most important factor in determining the torque evolution curves. The observation of microstructure with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at different stages during compounding revealed that the metal particles neither agglomerate nor touch each other. The liquid extraction of the water-soluble polymer (WSP) from the molded

  2. Hyperscaling breakdown and Ising spin glasses: The Binder cumulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.

    2018-02-01

    Among the Renormalization Group Theory scaling rules relating critical exponents, there are hyperscaling rules involving the dimension of the system. It is well known that in Ising models hyperscaling breaks down above the upper critical dimension. It was shown by Schwartz (1991) that the standard Josephson hyperscaling rule can also break down in Ising systems with quenched random interactions. A related Renormalization Group Theory hyperscaling rule links the critical exponents for the normalized Binder cumulant and the correlation length in the thermodynamic limit. An appropriate scaling approach for analyzing measurements from criticality to infinite temperature is first outlined. Numerical data on the scaling of the normalized correlation length and the normalized Binder cumulant are shown for the canonical Ising ferromagnet model in dimension three where hyperscaling holds, for the Ising ferromagnet in dimension five (so above the upper critical dimension) where hyperscaling breaks down, and then for Ising spin glass models in dimension three where the quenched interactions are random. For the Ising spin glasses there is a breakdown of the normalized Binder cumulant hyperscaling relation in the thermodynamic limit regime, with a return to size independent Binder cumulant values in the finite-size scaling regime around the critical region.

  3. Presentation for new binder tests and specification change workshop.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-06-18

    The research team of the Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI) developed and taught a new asphalt binder test workshop, which was held at the Cedar Park branch of the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) on June 18, 2014. The focus of the wo...

  4. Optimal use of phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Sonikian, Makrouhi; Papachristou, Evangelos; Goumenos, Dimitrios S

    2013-12-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is one of the major factors associated with the development of vascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Since phosphate is retained in such patients, pharmacological treatment and other measures are necessary to control hyperphosphatemia. Several phosphate binders (calcium salts, magnesium salts, non-calcium-based binders and aluminium) are available for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia. Nevertheless, none of the above mentioned agents has shown an overall superiority over others, while potency and side effects are quite variable among them creating difficulties in choosing the optimal drug for each patient. The authors discuss the disturbed phosphate metabolism, the available phosphate binders, as well as the general therapeutic principles of treating hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients. The literature used for this review had been retrieved from PubMed and covers a large number of original and retrospective studies as well as prospective cohort studies, meta-analyses and international clinical guidelines. Lowering serum phosphate levels in CKD patients may potentially have a positive impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Factors that should be taken into consideration when selecting a specific drug include CKD stage, cardiovascular disease, severity of secondary hyperparathyroidism, concomitant medications, life expectancy and patient compliance. Therefore, when selecting a specific phosphate binder, individualisation is mandatory.

  5. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 308.303 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by shipping...

  6. 46 CFR 308.103 - Insured amounts under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 308.103 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.103 Insured amounts under interim binder. (a... chapter. (b) Insurance risks. Insurance risks covered by the terms of the standard form of war risk hull...

  7. 46 CFR 308.103 - Insured amounts under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 308.103 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.103 Insured amounts under interim binder. (a... chapter. (b) Insurance risks. Insurance risks covered by the terms of the standard form of war risk hull...

  8. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 308.303 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by shipping...

  9. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 308.303 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by shipping...

  10. 46 CFR 308.103 - Insured amounts under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 308.103 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.103 Insured amounts under interim binder. (a... chapter. (b) Insurance risks. Insurance risks covered by the terms of the standard form of war risk hull...

  11. 46 CFR 308.103 - Insured amounts under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 308.103 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.103 Insured amounts under interim binder. (a... the terms of the standard form of war risk hull insurance policy (§ 308.107), except damage to or...

  12. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 308.303 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by shipping...

  13. 46 CFR 308.103 - Insured amounts under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 308.103 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.103 Insured amounts under interim binder. (a... chapter. (b) Insurance risks. Insurance risks covered by the terms of the standard form of war risk hull...

  14. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 308.303 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by shipping...

  15. Method for freeforming objects with low-binder slurry

    DOEpatents

    Cesarano, III, Joseph; Calvert, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

  16. Multimodality and Immigrant Children (Response to Marni Binder)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campano, Gerald; Low, David

    2011-01-01

    This response to Marni Binder reflects upon two examples of (im)migrant children's artwork and challenges the dominant notion that (im)migration experiences--and their subsequent portrayals--can be fit into neat slots. The authors position multimodal composing opportunities as affording children a vital instrument for deploying their full semiotic…

  17. Intensive Hemodialysis, Mineral and Bone Disorder, and Phosphate Binder Use.

    PubMed

    Copland, Michael; Komenda, Paul; Weinhandl, Eric D; McCullough, Peter A; Morfin, Jose A

    2016-11-01

    Mineral and bone disorder is a common complication of end-stage renal disease. Notably, hyperphosphatemia likely promotes calcification of the myocardium, valves, and arteries. Hyperphosphatemia is associated with higher risk for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity along a gradient beginning at 5.0mg/dL. Among contemporary hemodialysis (HD) patients, mean serum phosphorus level is 5.2mg/dL, although 25% of patients have serum phosphorus levels of 5.5 to 6.9mg/dL; and 13%, >7.0mg/dL. Treatment of hyperphosphatemia is burdensome. Dialysis patients consume a mean of 19 pills per day, half of which are phosphate binders. Medicare Part D expenditures on binders for dialysis patients approached $700 million in 2013. Phosphorus removal with thrice-weekly HD (4 hours per session) is ∼3,000mg/wk. However, clearance is unlikely to counterbalance dietary intake, which varies around a mean of 7,000mg/wk. Dietary restriction and phosphate binders are important interventions, but each has limitations. Dietary control is complicated by limited access to healthy food choices and unclear labeling. Meanwhile, adherence to phosphate binders is poor, especially in younger patients and those with high pill burden. Multiple randomized clinical trials show that intensive HD reduces serum phosphorus levels. In the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) trial, short daily and nocturnal schedules reduced serum phosphorus levels by 0.6 and 1.6mg/dL, respectively, relative to 3 sessions per week. A similar effect of nocturnal HD was observed in an earlier trial. In the daily arm of the FHN trial, intensive HD significantly lowered estimated phosphate binder dose per day, whereas in the nocturnal arm, intensive HD led to binder discontinuation in 75% of patients. However, intensive HD appears to have no meaningful effects on serum calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations. In conclusion, intensive HD, especially nocturnal HD, lowers serum phosphorus levels and decreases the need for

  18. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  19. The effects of crystal proximity and crystal-binder adhesion on the thermal responses of ultrasonically-excited composite energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Z. A.; Casey, A. D.; Gunduz, I. E.; Rhoads, J. F.; Son, S. F.

    2017-12-01

    Composite energetic materials have been shown to generate heat under certain ultrasonic excitations, enough to drive rapid reactions in some cases. In an attempt to isolate the proposed heat generation mechanisms of frictional and viscoelastic heating at crystal-crystal and crystal-binder interfaces, a systematic study was conducted with cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine crystals arranged as discrete inclusions within Sylgard 184 binder. Groups of three embedded crystals, or "triads," were arranged in two geometries with the crystals either in contact or slightly separated. Additionally, samples with good crystal-binder adhesion as well as ones mechanically debonded using compression were considered. The samples were excited ultrasonically with a contact piezoelectric transducer, and the top surface of each sample was monitored via infrared thermography. The contacting triads showed evidence of an intense localized heat source conducting to the polymer surface above the crystal locations in contrast to the separated triads. The debonded samples of both types reached higher maximum surface temperatures, on average. The results of both two-way and nested analysis of variance indicate a statistically significant difference for both adhesion and separation distance on temperature rise. We conclude that friction between crystal contact points and a debonded, moving binder at the crystal interface (also a mode of friction) play a significant role in localized heat generation, while viscoelastic/viscoplastic heating appears comparatively minor for these specific excitation conditions. The significance of frictional heat generation over viscoelastic heating in these systems may influence future design considerations related to the selection of binder materials for composite energetic materials.

  20. Adherence to phosphate binders in hemodialysis patients: prevalence and determinants.

    PubMed

    Van Camp, Yoleen P M; Vrijens, Bernard; Abraham, Ivo; Van Rompaey, Bart; Elseviers, Monique M

    2014-12-01

    Phosphate control is a crucial treatment goal in end-stage renal disease, but poor patient adherence to phosphate binder therapy remains a challenge. This study aimed to estimate the extent of phosphate binder adherence in hemodialysis patients and to identify potential determinants. Phosphate binder adherence was measured blindly in 135 hemodialysis patients for 2 months using the medication event monitoring system. Patient data, gathered at inclusion through medical records, ad hoc questionnaires and the short form (SF)-36 health survey, included: (1) demographics, (2) perceived side-effects, belief in benefit, self-reported adherence to the therapy, (3) knowledge about phosphate binder therapy, (4) social support, and (5) quality of life (SF-36). Phosphatemia data was collected from charts. 'Being adherent' was defined as missing <1 total daily dose/week and 'being totally adherent' as missing <1 total daily dose/week, every week. Mean age of patients was 67 years and 64 % of the sample was male. Over the 2 months, 78 % of the prescribed doses were taken. Every week, about half of patients were adherent. Over the entire 8-week period, 22 % of patients were totally adherent. Mean phosphatemia levels were 0.55 mg/dl lower in adherent than nonadherent patients (4.76 vs. 5.31 mg/dl). Determinants for being totally adherent were living with a partner, higher social support (both were interrelated) and higher physical quality of life. Experiencing intake-related inconvenience negatively affected adherence. The social support and quality of life physical score explained 26 % of the variance in adherence. Phosphate binder nonadherence remains a major problem. Interventions should aim, at least, to improve social support. With few associated factors found and yet low adherence, an individualized approach seems indicated.

  1. CT of abdominal tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, B.M.; Mann, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms ofmore » peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.« less

  2. Functional abdominal pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Clouse, Ray E; Mayer, Emeran A; Aziz, Qasim; Drossman, Douglas A; Dumitrascu, Dan L; Mönnikes, Hubert; Naliboff, Bruce D

    2006-04-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) differs from the other functional bowel disorders; it is less common, symptoms largely are unrelated to food intake and defecation, and it has higher comorbidity with psychiatric disorders. The etiology and pathophysiology are incompletely understood. Because FAPS likely represents a heterogeneous group of disorders, peripheral neuropathic pain mechanisms, alterations in endogenous pain modulation systems, or both may be involved in any one patient. The diagnosis of FAPS is made on the basis of positive symptom criteria and a longstanding history of symptoms; in the absence of alarm symptoms, an extensive diagnostic evaluation is not required. Management is based on a therapeutic physician-patient relationship and empirical treatment algorithms using various classes of centrally acting drugs, including antidepressants and anticonvulsants. The choice, dose, and combination of drugs are influenced by psychiatric comorbidities. Psychological treatment options include psychotherapy, relaxation techniques, and hypnosis. Refractory FAPS patients may benefit from a multidisciplinary pain clinic approach.

  3. [A study of the properties of compacts from a mixed dry binder on the base of alpha-lactose monohydrate and microcrystalline cellulose].

    PubMed

    Muzíková, J; Páleník, L

    2005-05-01

    The paper studies the tensile strength and disintegration time of compacts from the mixed dry binder MicroceLac 100. Tensile strength and disintegration time of tablets were tested in connection with the following factors: compression force, compression rate, addition of magnesium stearate, addition of ascorbic acid, the model active principle. The compression forces employed were 5, 6, and 7 kN, compression rates, 20 and 40 mm/min, stearate concentration 0, 0.4, and 0.8%, ascorbic acid concentration, 25 and 50%. With increasing addition of the stearate, the strength of compacts from MicroceLacu 100 was decreased for both compression rates, but with a higher rate, in a concentration of 0.4%, the decrease in strength was more marked. Disintegration time was increased with compression force and the addition of the stearate, but in all cases it was very short. Increased addition of ascorbic acid further intensified the decrease in the strength of compacts and decreased the disintegration time and the effect of the stearate on it. Disintegration time of compacts with ascorbic acid in a concentration of 50% did not increase with compression force.

  4. Abdominal elephantiasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Dominique; Cloutier, Richard; Lapointe, Roch; Desgagné, Antoine

    2004-01-01

    Elephantiasis is a well-known condition in dermatology usually affecting the legs and external genitalia. It is characterized by chronic inflammation and obstruction of the lymphatic channels and by hypertrophy of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. The etiology is either idiopathic or caused by a variety of conditions such as chronic filarial disease, leprosy, leishmaniasis, and chronic recurrent cellulites. Elephantiasis of the abdominal wall is very rare. A complete review of the English and French literature showed only two cases reported in 1966 and 1973, respectively. We report a third case of abdominal elephantiasis and we briefly review this entity. We present the case of a 51-year-old woman who had progressively developed an enormous pediculated abdominal mass hanging down her knees. The skin was thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured. She had a history of multiple abdominal cellulites. She underwent an abdominal lipectomy. Histopathology of the specimen confirmed the diagnosis of abdominal elephantiasis. Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare disease that represents end-stage failure of lymph drainage. Lipectomy should be considered in the management of this condition.

  5. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  6. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Newborn With Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Alwan, Riham; Drake, Meredith; Gurria Juarez, Juan; Emery, Kathleen H; Shaaban, Aimen F; Szabo, Sara; Sobolewski, Brad

    2017-11-01

    A previously healthy 3-week-old boy presented with 5 hours of marked fussiness, abdominal distention, and poor feeding. He was afebrile and well perfused. His examination was remarkable for localized abdominal tenderness and distention. He was referred to the emergency department in which an abdominal radiograph revealed gaseous distention of the bowel with a paucity of gas in the pelvis. Complete blood cell count and urinalysis were unremarkable. His ongoing fussiness and abnormal physical examination prompted consultation with surgery and radiology. Our combined efforts ultimately established an unexpected diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Analysis of the Optimum Usage of Slag for the Compressive Strength of Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han-Seung; Wang, Xiao-Yong; Zhang, Li-Na; Koh, Kyung-Taek

    2015-01-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag is widely used as a mineral admixture to replace partial Portland cement in the concrete industry. As the amount of slag increases, the late-age compressive strength of concrete mixtures increases. However, after an optimum point, any further increase in slag does not improve the late-age compressive strength. This optimum replacement ratio of slag is a crucial factor for its efficient use in the concrete industry. This paper proposes a numerical procedure to analyze the optimum usage of slag for the compressive strength of concrete. This numerical procedure starts with a blended hydration model that simulates cement hydration, slag reaction, and interactions between cement hydration and slag reaction. The amount of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is calculated considering the contributions from cement hydration and slag reaction. Then, by using the CSH contents, the compressive strength of the slag-blended concrete is evaluated. Finally, based on the parameter analysis of the compressive strength development of concrete with different slag inclusions, the optimum usage of slag in concrete mixtures is determined to be approximately 40% of the total binder content. The proposed model is verified through experimental results of the compressive strength of slag-blended concrete with different water-to-binder ratios and different slag inclusions. PMID:28787998

  9. Analysis of the Optimum Usage of Slag for the Compressive Strength of Concrete.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han-Seung; Wang, Xiao-Yong; Zhang, Li-Na; Koh, Kyung-Taek

    2015-03-18

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag is widely used as a mineral admixture to replace partial Portland cement in the concrete industry. As the amount of slag increases, the late-age compressive strength of concrete mixtures increases. However, after an optimum point, any further increase in slag does not improve the late-age compressive strength. This optimum replacement ratio of slag is a crucial factor for its efficient use in the concrete industry. This paper proposes a numerical procedure to analyze the optimum usage of slag for the compressive strength of concrete. This numerical procedure starts with a blended hydration model that simulates cement hydration, slag reaction, and interactions between cement hydration and slag reaction. The amount of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is calculated considering the contributions from cement hydration and slag reaction. Then, by using the CSH contents, the compressive strength of the slag-blended concrete is evaluated. Finally, based on the parameter analysis of the compressive strength development of concrete with different slag inclusions, the optimum usage of slag in concrete mixtures is determined to be approximately 40% of the total binder content. The proposed model is verified through experimental results of the compressive strength of slag-blended concrete with different water-to-binder ratios and different slag inclusions.

  10. Compressed gas manifold

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrand, Richard J.; Wozniak, John J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  11. Micromanaging Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Maegdefessel, Lars; Spin, Joshua M.; Adam, Matti; Raaz, Uwe; Toh, Ryuji; Nakagami, Futoshi; Tsao, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease to human morbidity and mortality has increased in the aging, industrialized world. In response, extraordinary efforts have been launched to determine the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of the diseased aorta. This work aims to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to limit AAA expansion and, ultimately, rupture. Contributions from multiple research groups have uncovered a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory milieu, which is believed to be essential for maintaining aortic vascular homeostasis. Recently, novel small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, have been identified as important transcriptional and post-transcriptional inhibitors of gene expression. MicroRNAs are thought to “fine tune” the translational output of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. With the discovery that microRNAs act as powerful regulators in the context of a wide variety of diseases, it is only logical that microRNAs be thoroughly explored as potential therapeutic entities. This current review summarizes interesting findings regarding the intriguing roles and benefits of microRNA expression modulation during AAA initiation and propagation. These studies utilize disease-relevant murine models, as well as human tissue from patients undergoing surgical aortic aneurysm repair. Furthermore, we critically examine future therapeutic strategies with regard to their clinical and translational feasibility. PMID:23852016

  12. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-11-14

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Abdominal aortic feminism

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. PMID:25398912

  14. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  15. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Park, Sang -Jae

    2015-10-06

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  16. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2017-08-01

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  17. Low-loss binder for hot pressing boron nitride

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Leon

    1991-01-01

    Borazine derivatives used as low-loss binders and precursors for making ceramic boron nitride structures. The derivative forms the same composition as the boron nitride starting material, thereby filling the voids with the same boron nitride material upon forming and hot pressing. The derivatives have a further advantage of being low in carbon thus resulting in less volatile byproduct that can result in bubble formation during pressing.

  18. Infiltration of Nanoparticles into Porous Binder Jet Printed Parts

    DOE PAGES

    Elliott, Amelia; AlSalihi, Sarah; Merriman, Abbey L.; ...

    2016-01-01

    The densification of parts that are produced by binder jetting Additive Manufacturing (AM; a.k.a. “3D Printing”) is an essential step in making them mechanically useful. By increasing the packing factor of the powder bed by incorporating nanoparticles into the binder has potential to alleviate the amount of shrinkage needed for full densification of binder jet parts. We present preliminary data on the use of 316L Stainless Steel Nanoparticles (SSN) to densify 316L stainless steel binder jet parts. Aqueous solutions of Diethylene Glycol (DEG) or Ethylene Glycol (EG) were prepared at different DEG/water and EG/water molar ratios; pH of the solutionsmore » was adjusted by the use of 0.10 M sodium hydroxide. Nanoparticles were suspended in a resulted solution at a volume percentage of SSN/solution at 0.5%. The suspension was then sonicated for thirty minutes. One milliliter of the suspension was added stepwise to a sintered, printed disk with the dimensions: (d = 10 mm, h = 3 mm) in the presence of a small magnet. The 3D part was then sintered again. Moreover, the increase in the mass of the 3D part was used as indication of the amount of nanoparticles that diffused in the 3D part. This mass percent increase was studied as a function of pH of the suspension and as function DEG/water molar ratio. Unlike EG, data show that change in pH affects the mass percent when the suspension was made with DEG. Finally, optical analysis of the discs’ cross sections revealed trends metallic densities similar to trends in the data for mass increase with changing pH and water molar ratio.« less

  19. Infiltration of Nanoparticles into Porous Binder Jet Printed Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Amelia; AlSalihi, Sarah; Merriman, Abbey L.

    The densification of parts that are produced by binder jetting Additive Manufacturing (AM; a.k.a. “3D Printing”) is an essential step in making them mechanically useful. By increasing the packing factor of the powder bed by incorporating nanoparticles into the binder has potential to alleviate the amount of shrinkage needed for full densification of binder jet parts. We present preliminary data on the use of 316L Stainless Steel Nanoparticles (SSN) to densify 316L stainless steel binder jet parts. Aqueous solutions of Diethylene Glycol (DEG) or Ethylene Glycol (EG) were prepared at different DEG/water and EG/water molar ratios; pH of the solutionsmore » was adjusted by the use of 0.10 M sodium hydroxide. Nanoparticles were suspended in a resulted solution at a volume percentage of SSN/solution at 0.5%. The suspension was then sonicated for thirty minutes. One milliliter of the suspension was added stepwise to a sintered, printed disk with the dimensions: (d = 10 mm, h = 3 mm) in the presence of a small magnet. The 3D part was then sintered again. Moreover, the increase in the mass of the 3D part was used as indication of the amount of nanoparticles that diffused in the 3D part. This mass percent increase was studied as a function of pH of the suspension and as function DEG/water molar ratio. Unlike EG, data show that change in pH affects the mass percent when the suspension was made with DEG. Finally, optical analysis of the discs’ cross sections revealed trends metallic densities similar to trends in the data for mass increase with changing pH and water molar ratio.« less

  20. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Based Processing of PEP Binder Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    mBPECTED 1 19990525 017 257 Table 1. Representative PEP Materials with Binders Studied mmsmi§M8i&M Wk&mߣfit0t& • PBXN -5 PBXN -6 PBXN -201 PBX...Meeting, 28 November - 1 December 1989, CPIA Publication 527, pp. 99- 106 , 1989. Reid, R.C; Prausnitz, J.M.; Poling, B.E., The Properties of Liquids and

  1. Incentive spirometry after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, Suja P

    Patients face various possible complications after abdominal surgery. This article examines best practice in guiding and teaching them how to use an incentive spirometer to facilitate recovery and prevent respiratory complications.

  2. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... signs or symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The final recommendation statement summarizes what the Task ... the potential benefits and harms of screening for AAA: (1) Men ages 65 to 75 who smoke ...

  3. Evaluation of Thermal Oxidative Aging Effect on the Rheological Performance of Modified Asphalt Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Cheng

    Modified asphalt binder, which is combined by base binder and additive modifier, has been implemented in pavement industry for more than 30 years. Recently, the oxidative aging mechanism of asphalt binder has been studied for several decades, and appreciable finding results of asphalt binder aging mechanism were achieved from the chemistry and rheological performance aspects. However, most of these studies were conducted with neat binders, the research of aging mechanism of modified asphalt binder was limited. Nowadays, it is still highly necessary to clarify how the asphalt binder aging happens with the modified asphalt binder, what is the effect of the different modifiers (additives) on the binder aging process, how the rheological performance changes under the thermal oxidative aging conditions and so on. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of isothermal oxidative aging conditions on the rheological performance change of the modified and controlled asphalt binders. There were totally 14 different sorts of asphalt binders had been aged in the PAV pans in the air-force drafted ovens at 50°C, 60°C and 85°C for 0.5 day to 240 days. The Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) were used to perform the experiments. The analysis of rheological indices (Low shear viscosity-LSV, Crossover modulus-G*c, Glover-Rowe Parameter-G-R, DSR function-DSR Fn) as a function of carbonyl area (CA) was conducted. With the SBS modification, both of the hardening susceptibility of the rheological index-LSV and G-R decreases compared with the corresponding base binder. The TR increased the hardening susceptibility of all the rheological indexes. While for the G*c, SBS increases the slope of the most modified asphalt binders except A and B_TR_X series binders. The multiple linear regression statistical analysis results indicate that the oxidative aging conditions play an important role on the CA, and rheological performance

  4. Universal data compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, R. A.; Cox, B. V.

    Universal and adaptive data compression techniques have the capability to globally compress all types of data without loss of information but have the disadvantage of complexity and computation speed. Advances in hardware speed and the reduction of computational costs have made universal data compression feasible. Implementations of the Adaptive Huffman and Lempel-Ziv compression algorithms are evaluated for performance. Compression ratios versus run times for different size data files are graphically presented and discussed in the paper. Required adjustments needed for optimum performance of the algorithms relative to theoretical achievable limits will be outlined.

  5. Video bandwidth compression system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludington, D.

    1980-08-01

    The objective of this program was the development of a Video Bandwidth Compression brassboard model for use by the Air Force Avionics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, in evaluation of bandwidth compression techniques for use in tactical weapons and to aid in the selection of particular operational modes to be implemented in an advanced flyable model. The bandwidth compression system is partitioned into two major divisions: the encoder, which processes the input video with a compression algorithm and transmits the most significant information; and the decoder where the compressed data is reconstructed into a video image for display.

  6. Effects of freeze-thaw on characteristics of new KMP binder stabilized Zn- and Pb-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ming-Li; Du, Yan-Jun; Reddy, Krishna R; Wu, Hao-Liang

    2015-12-01

    For viable and sustainable reuse of solidified/stabilized heavy metal-contaminated soils as roadway subgrade materials, long-term durability of these soils should be ensured. A new binder, KMP, has been developed for solidifying/stabilizing soils contaminated with high concentrations of heavy metals. However, the effects of long-term extreme weather conditions including freeze and thaw on the leachability and strength of the KMP stabilized contaminated soils have not been investigated. This study presents a systematic investigation on the impacts of freeze-thaw cycle on leachability, strength, and microstructural characteristics of the KMP stabilized soils spiked with Zn and Pb individually and together. For comparison purpose, Portland cement is also tested as a conventional binder. Several series of tests are conducted including the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction procedure, unconfined compression test (UCT), and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). The results demonstrate that the freeze-thaw cycles have much less impact on the leachability and strength of the KMP stabilized soils as compared to the PC stabilized soils. After the freeze-thaw cycle tests, the KMP stabilized soils display much lower leachability, mass loss, and strength loss. These results are assessed based on the chemical speciation of Zn and Pb, and pore size distribution of the soils. Overall, this study demonstrates that the KMP stabilized heavy metal-contaminated soils perform well under the freeze-thaw conditions.

  7. Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo, Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    COW 03 PUBLICATION REPORT 94-30227 * ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS IN CAIRO, BY RWIavni 0. IHibbs6 M. Kuanmm ad Z. Fun .Y .~ ... W I Form ApprovedREPORT...Fever Hospital, Cairo, In the past, abdominal tuberculous ýileocaecal: was Egypt, are prospectively evaluated by the US Naval one of the commonest forms...8217. females of child-bearing age) indicated that 9 of 20 40%, were diagnosed as extrapulmonary tuberculosis. isolates from 91 tuberculous peritonitis

  8. Multifunctional SA-PProDOT Binder for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ling, Min; Qiu, Jingxia; Li, Sheng; Yan, Cheng; Kiefel, Milton J; Liu, Gao; Zhang, Shanqing

    2015-07-08

    An environmentally benign, highly conductive, and mechanically strong binder system can overcome the dilemma of low conductivity and insufficient mechanical stability of the electrodes to achieve high performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs) at a low cost and in a sustainable way. In this work, the naturally occurring binder sodium alginate (SA) is functionalized with 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (ProDOT) via a one-step esterification reaction in a cyclohexane/dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid (DBSA)/water microemulsion system, resulting in a multifunctional polymer binder, that is, SA-PProDOT. With the synergetic effects of the functional groups (e.g., carboxyl, hydroxyl, and ester groups), the resultant SA-PProDOT polymer not only maintains the outstanding binding capabilities of sodium alginate but also enhances the mechanical integrity and lithium ion diffusion coefficient in the LiFePO4 (LFP) electrode during the operation of the batteries. Because of the conjugated network of the PProDOT and the lithium doping under the battery environment, the SA-PProDOT becomes conductive and matches the conductivity needed for LiFePO4 LIBs. Without the need of conductive additives such as carbon black, the resultant batteries have achieved the theoretical specific capacity of LiFePO4 cathode (ca. 170 mAh/g) at C/10 and ca. 120 mAh/g at 1C for more than 400 cycles.

  9. Fabrication of porous silicon nitride ceramics using binder jetting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinskiy, L.; Ripetsky, A.; Sitnikov, S.; Solyaev, Y.; Kahramanov, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the binder jetting technology application for the processing of the Si3N4-based ceramics. The difference of the developed technology from analogues used for additive manufacturing of silicon nitride ceramics is a method of the separate deposition of the mineral powder and binder without direct injection of suspensions/slurries. It is assumed that such approach allows reducing the technology complexity and simplifying the process of the feedstock preparation, including the simplification of the composite materials production. The binders based on methyl ester of acrylic acid with polyurethane and modified starch were studied. At this stage of the investigations, the technology of green body's fabrication is implemented using a standard HP cartridge mounted on the robotic arm. For the coordinated operation of the cartridge and robot the specially developed software was used. Obtained green bodies of silicon powder were used to produce the ceramic samples via reaction sintering. The results of study of ceramics samples microstructure and composition are presented. Sintered ceramics are characterized by fibrous α-Si3N4 structure and porosity up to 70%.

  10. Biocompatibility of new calcium aluminate cement (EndoBinder).

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Fabiano Gamero; Roberti Garcia, Lucas Fonseca; Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda Carvalho

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of calcium aluminate cement (EndoBinder) in subcutaneous tissue of rats. Fifteen rats, weighing 300 g, were separated into 3 groups (n = 5) in accordance with the time of death (7, 21, 42 days). Two incisions were made in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of each rat in which were implanted 2 polyethylene tubes filled with the test materials, EndoBinder (EB) and Grey MTA (GMTA). The external tube walls were considered the negative control group (CG). After 7, 21, and 42 days, animals were killed, obtaining 5 samples per group, at each time interval of analysis. From the morphologic and morphometric analyses by using a score of (0-3) (50, 100, and 400×), results showed absence of inflammatory reaction (0) for EB after 42 days. However, for GMTA, a slight inflammatory reaction (1) was observed after 42 days, which means the persistence of a chronic inflammatory process. When compared with CG, tissue reaction ranging from discrete (1-7 days) to absent (0-42 days) was observed. EndoBinder presented satisfactory tissue reaction; it was biocompatible when tested in subcutaneous tissue of rats. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Blunt abdominal trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, Deborah; Lee, Lois K

    2012-06-01

    This review will examine the current evidence regarding pediatric blunt abdominal trauma and the physical exam findings, laboratory values, and radiographic imaging associated with the diagnosis of intra-abdominal injuries (IAI), as well as review the current literature on pediatric hollow viscus injuries and emergency department disposition after diagnosis. The importance of the seat belt sign on physical examination and screening laboratory data remains controversial, although screening hepatic enzymes are recommended in the evaluation of nonaccidental trauma to identify occult abdominal organ injuries. Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) has modest sensitivity for hemoperitoneum and IAI in the pediatric trauma patient. Patients with concern for undiagnosed IAI, including bowel injury, may be considered for hospital admission and serial abdominal exams without an increased risk of complications, if an exploratory laparotomy is not performed emergently. Although the FAST exam is not recommended as the sole screening tool to rule out IAI in hemodynamically stable trauma patients, it may be used in conjunction with the physical exam and laboratory findings to identify children at risk for IAI. Children with a normal physical exam and normal abdominal CT may not require routine hospitalization after blunt abdominal trauma.

  12. High performance polymer chemical hydrogel-based electrode binder materials for direct borohydride fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Nurul A.; Ma, Jia; Sahai, Yogeshwar; Buchheit, Rudolph G.

    Novel, cost-effective, high-performance, and environment-friendly electrode binders, comprising polyvinyl alcohol chemical hydrogel (PCH) and chitosan chemical hydrogel (CCH), are reported for direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFCs). PCH and CCH binders-based electrodes have been fabricated using a novel, simple, cost-effective, time-effective, and environmentally benign technique. Morphologies and electrochemical performance in DBFCs of the chemical hydrogel binder-based electrodes have been compared with those of Nafion ® binder-based electrodes. Relationships between the performance of binders in DBFCs with structural features of the polymers and the polymer-based chemical hydrogels are discussed. The CCH binder exhibited better performance than a Nafion ® binder whereas the PCH binder exhibited comparable performance to Nafion ® in DBFCs operating at elevated cell temperatures. The better performance of CCH binder at higher operating cell temperatures has been ascribed to the hydrophilic nature and water retention characteristics of chitosan. DBFCs employing CCH binder-based electrodes and a Nafion ®-117 membrane as an electrolyte exhibited a maximum peak power density of about 589 mW cm -2 at 70 °C.

  13. The value of 'binder-off' imaging to identify occult and unexpected pelvic ring injuries.

    PubMed

    Fagg, James A C; Acharya, Mehool R; Chesser, Tim J S; Ward, Anthony J

    2018-02-01

    To determine the effectiveness of 'binder-off' plain pelvic radiographs in the assessment of pelvic ring injuries. All patients requiring operative intervention at our tertiary referral pelvic unit/major trauma centre for high-energy pelvic injuries between April 2012 and December 2014 were retrospectively identified. Pre-operative pelvic imaging with and without pelvic binder was reviewed with respect to fracture pattern and pelvic stability. The frequency with which the imaging without pelvic binder changed the opinion of the pelvic stability and need for operative intervention, when compared with the computed tomography (CT) scans and anteroposterior (AP) radiographs with the binder on, was assessed. Seventy-three percent (71 of 97) of patients had initial imaging with a pelvic binder in situ. Of these, 76% (54 of 71) went on to have 'binder-off' imaging. Seven percent (4 of 54) of patients had unexpected unstable pelvic ring injuries identified on 'binder-off' imaging that were not identified on CT imaging in binder. Trauma CT imaging of the pelvis with a pelvic binder in place is inadequate at excluding unstable pelvic ring injuries, and, based on the original findings in this paper, we recommend additional plain film 'binder-off' radiographs, when there is any clinical concern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recce imagery compression options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, Donald J.

    1995-09-01

    The errors introduced into reconstructed RECCE imagery by ATARS DPCM compression are compared to those introduced by the more modern DCT-based JPEG compression algorithm. For storage applications in which uncompressed sensor data is available JPEG provides better mean-square-error performance while also providing more flexibility in the selection of compressed data rates. When ATARS DPCM compression has already been performed, lossless encoding techniques may be applied to the DPCM deltas to achieve further compression without introducing additional errors. The abilities of several lossless compression algorithms including Huffman, Lempel-Ziv, Lempel-Ziv-Welch, and Rice encoding to provide this additional compression of ATARS DPCM deltas are compared. It is shown that the amount of noise in the original imagery significantly affects these comparisons.

  15. Compression for radiological images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Dennis L.

    1992-07-01

    The viewing of radiological images has peculiarities that must be taken into account in the design of a compression technique. The images may be manipulated on a workstation to change the contrast, to change the center of the brightness levels that are viewed, and even to invert the images. Because of the possible consequences of losing information in a medical application, bit preserving compression is used for the images used for diagnosis. However, for archiving the images may be compressed to 10 of their original size. A compression technique based on the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) takes the viewing factors into account by compressing the changes in the local brightness levels. The compression technique is a variation of the CCITT JPEG compression that suppresses the blocking of the DCT except in areas of very high contrast.

  16. Radiological Image Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Shih-Chung Benedict

    The movement toward digital images in radiology presents the problem of how to conveniently and economically store, retrieve, and transmit the volume of digital images. Basic research into image data compression is necessary in order to move from a film-based department to an efficient digital -based department. Digital data compression technology consists of two types of compression technique: error-free and irreversible. Error -free image compression is desired; however, present techniques can only achieve compression ratio of from 1.5:1 to 3:1, depending upon the image characteristics. Irreversible image compression can achieve a much higher compression ratio; however, the image reconstructed from the compressed data shows some difference from the original image. This dissertation studies both error-free and irreversible image compression techniques. In particular, some modified error-free techniques have been tested and the recommended strategies for various radiological images are discussed. A full-frame bit-allocation irreversible compression technique has been derived. A total of 76 images which include CT head and body, and radiographs digitized to 2048 x 2048, 1024 x 1024, and 512 x 512 have been used to test this algorithm. The normalized mean -square-error (NMSE) on the difference image, defined as the difference between the original and the reconstructed image from a given compression ratio, is used as a global measurement on the quality of the reconstructed image. The NMSE's of total of 380 reconstructed and 380 difference images are measured and the results tabulated. Three complex compression methods are also suggested to compress images with special characteristics. Finally, various parameters which would effect the quality of the reconstructed images are discussed. A proposed hardware compression module is given in the last chapter.

  17. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski

    2006-09-30

    Heap leaching is one of the methods being used to recover metal from low grade ore deposits. The main problem faced during heap leaching is the migration of fine grained particles through the heap, forming impermeable beds which result in poor solution flow. The poor solution flow leads to less contact between the leach solution and the ore, resulting in low recovery rates. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses prevents fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Currently, there is one facility in the United States which uses agglomeration. This operationmore » agglomerates their ore using leach solution (raffinate), but is still experiencing undesirable metal recovery from the heaps due to agglomerate breakdown. The use of a binder, in addition to the leach solution, during agglomeration would help to produce stronger agglomerates that did not break down during processing. However, there are no known binders that will work satisfactorily in the acidic environment of a heap, at a reasonable cost. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. Increasing copper recovery in heap leaching by the use of binders and agglomeration would result in a significant decrease in the amount of energy consumed. Assuming that 70% of all the leaching heaps would convert to using agglomeration technology, as much as 1.64*10{sup 12} BTU per year would be able to be saved if a 25% increase in copper recovery was experienced, which is equivalent to saving approximately 18% of the energy currently being used in leaching heaps. For every week a leach cycle was decreased, a savings of as much as 1.23*10{sup 11} BTU per week would result. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures. These binders and experimental procedures will be able to be used for use in improving the energy

  18. Celiac Plexus Block as a Predictor of Surgical Outcome for Sympathetically Mediated Abdominal Pain in a Case of Suspected Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhuo; Fritz, David A; Turner, Suzanne; Hardy, David M; Meiler, Steffen E; Martin, Dan C; Dua, Anterpreet

    2018-02-14

    Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS), also known as celiac artery compression syndrome, is an uncommon condition classically characterized by chronic abdominal pain, weight loss, and abdominal bruit. Chronic mesenteric ischemia caused by intermittent compression of the celiac artery by the MAL provokes upper abdominal pain that is sympathetically mediated via the celiac plexus. Because it is a diagnosis of exclusion, diagnosis of MALS in the clinical setting is typically challenging. We present an atypical case which highlights the utility of celiac plexus block as both an assistant diagnostic tool and a predictor of surgical outcomes for suspected MALS.

  19. The effect of water binder ratio and fly ash on the properties of foamed concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saloma, Hanafiah, Urmila, Dea

    2017-11-01

    Foamed concrete is a lightweight concrete composed by cement, water, fine aggregate and evenly distributed foam. Foamed concrete is produced by adding foam to the mixture. The function of foam is to create air voids in the mixture, so the weight of the concrete becomes lighter. The foaming agent is diluted in water then given air pressure by foam generator to produce foam. This research utilizes coal combustion, which is fly ash as cementitious material with a percentage of 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of water binder ratio 0.425, 0.450, 0.475, and 0.500 using fly ash on the properties of foamed concrete. Fresh concrete tests include slump flow and setting time test while hardened concrete tests include density and compressive strength. The maximum value of slump flow test result is 59.50 cm on FC-20-0.500 mixture with w/b = 0.500 and 20% of fly ash percentage. The results of the setting time tests indicate the fastest initial and final time are 335 and 720 minutes, respectively on FC-0-0.425 mixture with w/b = 0.425 without fly ash. The lowest density is 978.344 kg/m3 on FC-20-0.500 mixture with w/b = 0.500 and 20% of fly ash percentage. The maximum compressive strength value is 4.510 MPa at 28 days on FC-10-0.450 mixture with w/b = 0.450 and 10% of fly ash percentage.

  20. Evaluation of lunar regolith geopolymer binder as a radioactive shielding material for space exploration applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Carlos; Broussard, Kaylin; Gongre, Matthew; Simicevic, Neven; Mejia, Johanna; Tham, Jessica; Allouche, Erez; Davis, Gabrielle

    2015-09-01

    Future manned missions to the moon will require the ability to build structures using the moon's natural resources. The geopolymer binder described in this paper (Lunamer) is a construction material that consists of up to 98% lunar regolith, drastically reducing the amount of material that must be carried from Earth in the event of lunar construction. This material could be used to fabricate structural panels and interlocking blocks that have radiation shielding and thermal insulation characteristics. These panels and blocks could be used to construct living quarters and storage facilities on the lunar surface, or as shielding panels to be installed on crafts launched from the moon surface to deep-space destinations. Lunamer specimens were manufactured in the laboratory and compressive strength results of up to 16 MPa when cast with conventional methods and 37 MPa when cast using uniaxial pressing were obtained. Simulation results have shown that the mechanical and chemical properties of Lunamer allow for adequate radiation shielding for a crew inside the lunar living quarters without additional requirements.

  1. Sapropel as a Binder: Properties and Application Possibilities for Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuka, V.; Šinka, M.; Kļaviņš, M.; Stankeviča, K.; Korjakins, A.

    2015-11-01

    Recent development trends largely look for possibilities of a wider use of natural materials and local resources. In this perspective, the use of organic rich lake sediment - sapropel - as a binding material in line with other environmentally friendly filling materials can be considered as a challenge. Sapropel itself is a valuable resource with multiple areas of application, for example, medicine, veterinary, agriculture, livestock farming, balneology, cosmetic applications, construction, and its application options have been widely studied in the 20th century in the Baltic countries, Ukraine and Russia. Birch wood fibre and sanding dust, hemp shives, ‘Aerosil’ are used as a filler and three types of sapropel are used as a binder in making composites. After material preparation and curing, physical and mechanical properties - density, thermal conductivity, compressive and flexural strength, were determined and compared to the data in the literature, and the opportunities to use them in the ecological construction were considered. The obtained results give insight into possibilities to use sapropel as a raw material, which can be considered as prospective material for construction materials and design products.

  2. Sodium alginate adhesives as binders in wood fibers/textile waste fibers biocomposites for building insulation.

    PubMed

    Lacoste, Clément; El Hage, Roland; Bergeret, Anne; Corn, Stéphane; Lacroix, Patrick

    2018-03-15

    Alginate derived from seaweed is a natural polysaccharide able to form stable gel through carbohydrate functional groups largely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry. This article deals with the use of sodium alginate as an adhesive binder for wood fibres/textile waste fibres biocomposites. Several aldehyde-based crosslinking agents (glyoxal, glutaraldehyde) were compared for various wood/textile waste ratios (100/0, 50/50, 60/40, 70/30 and 0/100 in weight). The fully biomass derived composites whose properties are herewith described satisfy most of the appropriate requirements for building materials. They are insulating with a thermal conductivity in the range 0.078-0.089 W/m/K for an average density in the range 308-333 kg/m3 according to the biocomposite considered. They are semi-rigid with a maximal mechanical strength of 0.84 MPa under bending and 0.44 MPa under compression for 60/40 w/w wood/textile waste biocomposites with a glutaraldehyde crosslinking agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of Mycotoxin Binders on the Oral Bioavailability of Doxycycline in Pigs.

    PubMed

    De Mil, Thomas; Devreese, Mathias; De Saeger, Sarah; Eeckhout, Mia; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2016-03-16

    Mycotoxin binders are feed additives that aim to adsorb mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, making them unavailable for systemic absorption. The antimicrobial drug doxycycline (DOX) is often used in pigs and is administered through feed or drinking water; hence, DOX can come in contact with mycotoxin binders in the gastrointestinal tract. This paper describes the effect of four mycotoxin binders on the absorption of orally administered DOX in pigs. Two experiments were conducted: The first used a setup with bolus administration to fasted pigs at two different dosages of mycotoxin binder. In the second experiment, DOX and the binders were mixed in the feed at dosages recommended by the manufacturers (= field conditions). Interactions are possible between some of the mycotoxin binders dosed at 10 g/kg feed but not at 2 g/kg feed. When applying field conditions, no influences were seen on the plasma concentrations of DOX.

  4. Influence of solidification accelerators on structure formation of anhydrite-containing binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikanova, L.; Volkova, O.; Kudyakov, A.; Sarkisov, Y.; Tolstov, D.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents results of scientific analysis of chemical additives influence on acid fluoride binder. It was found that the influence of sulfate nature additives on the process of hydration and solidification of the binder is similar to influence of additives on indissoluble anhydrite. Additives with SO42- anion NO- are more efficient. The mentioned additives according to accelerating effect belong to the following succession: K2SO4 > Na2SO4 > FeSO4 > MgSO4. Facilitation of the process of hydration and solidification of the binder, increase in density and durability of the binder (32 MPa) is to the greatest extent achieved with the introduction of 2% sodium sulfate additive of the binder's mass into the composition of the binder along with the ultrasonic treatment of water solution. Directed crystal formation process with healing of porous structure by new growths presented as calcium sulfate dehydrate and hydroglauberite provides positive effect.

  5. Compressed domain indexing of losslessly compressed images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Gerald

    2001-12-01

    Image retrieval and image compression have been pursued separately in the past. Only little research has been done on a synthesis of the two by allowing image retrieval to be performed directly in the compressed domain of images without the need to uncompress them first. In this paper methods for image retrieval in the compressed domain of losslessly compressed images are introduced. While most image compression techniques are lossy, i.e. discard visually less significant information, lossless techniques are still required in fields like medical imaging or in situations where images must not be changed due to legal reasons. The algorithms in this paper are based on predictive coding methods where a pixel is encoded based on the pixel values of its (already encoded) neighborhood. The first method is based on an understanding that predictively coded data is itself indexable and represents a textural description of the image. The second method operates directly on the entropy encoded data by comparing codebooks of images. Experiments show good image retrieval results for both approaches.

  6. Parallel image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reif, John H.

    1987-01-01

    A parallel compression algorithm for the 16,384 processor MPP machine was developed. The serial version of the algorithm can be viewed as a combination of on-line dynamic lossless test compression techniques (which employ simple learning strategies) and vector quantization. These concepts are described. How these concepts are combined to form a new strategy for performing dynamic on-line lossy compression is discussed. Finally, the implementation of this algorithm in a massively parallel fashion on the MPP is discussed.

  7. Sustainable asphalt pavement: Application of slaughterhouse waste oil and fly ash in asphalt binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Ramos, Jorge Luis

    Increasing energy costs, lack of sufficient natural resources and the overwhelming demand for petroleum has stimulated the development of alternative binders to modify or replace petroleum-based asphalt binders. In the United States, the petroleum-based asphalt binder is mainly used to produce the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). There are approximately 4000 asphalt plants that make 500 million tons of asphalt binder valued at roughly 3 billion/year. The instability of the world's oil market has pushed oil prices to more than 80 per barrel in 2012, which increased the cost of asphalt binder up to $570 per ton. Therefore, there is a timely need to find alternative sustainable resources to the asphalt binder. This paper investigates the possibility of the partial replacement of the asphalt binder with slaughterhouse waste and/or fly ash. In order to achieve this objective, the asphalt binder is mixed with different percentages of waste oil and/or fly ash. In order to investigate the effect of these additives to the performance of the asphalt binder, a complete performance grade test performed on multiple samples. The results of the performance grade tests are compared with a control sample to observe how the addition of the waste oil and/or fly ash affects the sample. Considering the increasing cost and demand of asphalt, the use of slaughterhouse waste oil and/or fly ash as a partial replacement may result in environmental and monetary improvements in the transportation sector.

  8. Microstructure of the combustion zone: Thin-binder AP-polymer sandwiches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, E. W.; Panyam, R. R.; Sigman, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental results are summarized for systematic quench-burning tests on ammonium perchlorate-HC binder sandwiches with binder thicknesses in the range 10 - 150 microns. Tests included three binders (polysulfide, polybutadiene-acrylonitrile, and hydroxy terminated polybutadiene), and pressures from 1.4 to 14 MPa. In addition, deflagration limits were determined in terms of binder thickness and pressure. Results are discussed in terms of a qualitative theory of sandwich burning consolidated from various sources. Some aspects of the observed results are explained only speculatively.

  9. Sequential neural text compression.

    PubMed

    Schmidhuber, J; Heil, S

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that neural networks may be promising tools for data compression without loss of information. We combine predictive neural nets and statistical coding techniques to compress text files. We apply our methods to certain short newspaper articles and obtain compression ratios exceeding those of the widely used Lempel-Ziv algorithms (which build the basis of the UNIX functions "compress" and "gzip"). The main disadvantage of our methods is that they are about three orders of magnitude slower than standard methods.

  10. Biological sequence compression algorithms.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, T; Sadakane, K; Imai, H

    2000-01-01

    Today, more and more DNA sequences are becoming available. The information about DNA sequences are stored in molecular biology databases. The size and importance of these databases will be bigger and bigger in the future, therefore this information must be stored or communicated efficiently. Furthermore, sequence compression can be used to define similarities between biological sequences. The standard compression algorithms such as gzip or compress cannot compress DNA sequences, but only expand them in size. On the other hand, CTW (Context Tree Weighting Method) can compress DNA sequences less than two bits per symbol. These algorithms do not use special structures of biological sequences. Two characteristic structures of DNA sequences are known. One is called palindromes or reverse complements and the other structure is approximate repeats. Several specific algorithms for DNA sequences that use these structures can compress them less than two bits per symbol. In this paper, we improve the CTW so that characteristic structures of DNA sequences are available. Before encoding the next symbol, the algorithm searches an approximate repeat and palindrome using hash and dynamic programming. If there is a palindrome or an approximate repeat with enough length then our algorithm represents it with length and distance. By using this preprocessing, a new program achieves a little higher compression ratio than that of existing DNA-oriented compression algorithms. We also describe new compression algorithm for protein sequences.

  11. Dataset on predictive compressive strength model for self-compacting concrete.

    PubMed

    Ofuyatan, O M; Edeki, S O

    2018-04-01

    The determination of compressive strength is affected by many variables such as the water cement (WC) ratio, the superplasticizer (SP), the aggregate combination, and the binder combination. In this dataset article, 7, 28, and 90-day compressive strength models are derived using statistical analysis. The response surface methodology is used toinvestigate the effect of the parameters: Varying percentages of ash, cement, WC, and SP on hardened properties-compressive strengthat 7,28 and 90 days. Thelevels of independent parameters are determinedbased on preliminary experiments. The experimental values for compressive strengthat 7, 28 and 90 days and modulus of elasticity underdifferent treatment conditions are also discussed and presented.These dataset can effectively be used for modelling and prediction in concrete production settings.

  12. Environmentally-Friendly Geopolymeric Binders Made with Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Portland cement (PC) is the ubiquitous binding material for constructions works. It is a big contributor to global warming and climate change since its production is responsible for 5-10 % of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Half of this emission arises from the calcination of calcareous raw materials and half from kiln fuel burning and cement clinker grinding. Recently there have been efforts to develop alternative binders with lower greenhouse gas emissions. One such class of binders is geopolymers, formed by activating natural or waste materials with suitable alkaline or acidic solutions. These binders use natural or industrial waste raw materials with a very low CO2 footprint from grinding of the starting materials, and some from the production of the activating chemicals. The total CO2 emissions from carefully formulated mixtures can be as low as 1/10th - 1/5th of those of PC concrete mixtures with comparable properties. While use of industrial wastes as raw materials is environmentally preferable, the variability of their chemical compositions over time renders their use difficult. Use of natural materials depletes resources but can have more consistent properties and can be more easily accepted. Silica sand is a natural material containing very high amounts of quartz. Silica fume is a very fine waste from silicon metal production that is mostly non-crystalline silica. This study describes the use of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions to yield mortars with mechanical properties comparable to those of portland cement mortars and with better chemical and thermal durability. Strength gain is slower than with PC mixtures at room temperature but adequate ultimate strength can be achieved with curing at slightly elevated temperatures in less than 24 h. The consistency of the chemical compositions of these materials and their abundance in several large, developing countries makes silica attractive for producing sustainable concretes with reduced carbon

  13. Ternary binder based plasters with improved thermal insulating ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čáchová, M.; Koňáková, D.; Vejmelková, E.; Vyšvařil, M.

    2017-10-01

    New kind of plasters with improved thermal insulating ability are presented in this article. Improvement was reached by utilization of lightweight expanded perlite with high porosity. The second used aggregate was silica sand. Regarding the binder, three kind were combined for the reason of better plaster performance. Pure lime, Portland cement and pozzolanic ceramic powder were employed. Basic physical properties and thermal characteristics were determined. The porosity of plasters reached desired higher value about 50% and the thermal conductivity in dry state was lower than 0.16 Wm-1K-1.

  14. Oxyphosphorus-containing polymers as binders for battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Russell Clayton; Mullin, Scott Allen; Eitouni, Hany Basam

    A class of polymeric phosphorous esters can be used as binders for battery cathodes. Metal salts can be added to the polymers to provide ionic conductivity. The polymeric phosphorous esters can be formulated with other polymers either as mixtures or as copolymers to provide additional desirable properties. Examples of such properties include even higher ionic conductivity and improved mechanical properties. Furthermore, cathodes that include the polymeric phosphorous esters can be assembled with a polymeric electrolyte separator and an anode to form a complete battery.

  15. Changes of Properties of Bitumen Binders by Additives Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remišová, Eva; Holý, Michal

    2017-10-01

    Requirements for properties of bituminous binders are determined in the European standards. The physico-chemical behaviour of bitumen depends on its colloidal structure (asphaltenes dispersed into an oily matrix constituted by saturates, aromatics and resins) that depends primarily on its crude source and processing. Bitumen properties are evaluated by group composition, elementary analysis, but more often conventional or functional tests. Bitumen for road uses is assessed according to the physical characteristics. For the purpose of improving the qualitative properties of bitumen and asphalts the additives are applied e.g. to increase elasticity, improving the heat stability, improving adhesion to aggregate, to decrease viscosity, increasing the resistance to aging, to prevent binder drainage from the aggregate surface, etc. The objective of presented paper is to assess and compare effect of additives on properties of bitumen binders. In paper, the results of bitumen properties, penetration, softening point, and dynamic viscosity of two paving grade bitumen 35/50, 50/70 and polymer modified bitumen PmB 45/80-75 are analyzed and also the changes of these properties by the application of selected additives (Sasobit, Licomont BS100, Wetfix BE and CWM) to improve adhesion to aggregate and improve workability. Measurements of properties have been performed according to the relevant European standards. The laboratory tests showed significantly increasing the softening point of paving grade bitumen 50/70 and 35/50 by 13 to 45°C. The effect of various additives on bitumen softening point is different. Penetration varies according to type of bitumen and type of used additive. The penetration values of modified bitumen PmB 45/80-75 with additives Sasobit and Licomont BS100 show increase of bitumen stiffness of 16 0.1mm and a shift in the gradation. The changes in penetration and in softening point significantly shown when calculating on Penetration index as a parameter of

  16. Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy.

  17. Abdominal surgery in neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Bryant, James E; Gaughan, Earl M

    2005-08-01

    Abdominal surgery in foals under 30 days old has become more common with improved neonatal care. Early recognition of a foal at risk and better nursing care have increased the survival rates of foals that require neonatal care. The success of improved neonatal care also has increased the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal, umbilical, and bladder disorders in these foals. This chapter focuses on the early and accurate diagnosis of specific disorders that require abdominal exploratory surgery and the specific treatment considerations and prognosis for these disorders.

  18. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    PubMed Central

    Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761

  19. High speed X-ray phase contrast imaging of energetic composites under dynamic compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parab, Niranjan D.; Roberts, Zane A.; Harr, Michael H.; Mares, Jesus O.; Casey, Alex D.; Gunduz, I. Emre; Hudspeth, Matthew; Claus, Benjamin; Sun, Tao; Fezzaa, Kamel; Son, Steven F.; Chen, Weinong W.

    2016-09-01

    Fracture of crystals and frictional heating are associated with the formation of "hot spots" (localized heating) in energetic composites such as polymer bonded explosives (PBXs). Traditional high speed optical imaging methods cannot be used to study the dynamic sub-surface deformation and the fracture behavior of such materials due to their opaque nature. In this study, high speed synchrotron X-ray experiments are conducted to visualize the in situ deformation and the fracture mechanisms in PBXs composed of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) crystals and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene binder doped with iron (III) oxide. A modified Kolsky bar apparatus was used to apply controlled dynamic compression on the PBX specimens, and a high speed synchrotron X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI) setup was used to record the in situ deformation and failure in the specimens. The experiments show that synchrotron X-ray PCI provides a sufficient contrast between the HMX crystals and the doped binder, even at ultrafast recording rates. Under dynamic compression, most of the cracking in the crystals was observed to be due to the tensile stress generated by the diametral compression applied from the contacts between the crystals. Tensile stress driven cracking was also observed for some of the crystals due to the transverse deformation of the binder and superior bonding between the crystal and the binder. The obtained results are vital to develop improved understanding and to validate the macroscopic and mesoscopic numerical models for energetic composites so that eventually hot spot formation can be predicted.

  20. High speed X-ray phase contrast imaging of energetic composites under dynamic compression

    DOE PAGES

    Parab, Niranjan D.; Roberts, Zane A.; Harr, Michael H.; ...

    2016-09-26

    Fracture of crystals and subsequent frictional heating are associated with formation of hot spots in energetic composites such as polymer bonded explosives (PBXs). Traditional high speed optical imaging methods cannot be used to study the dynamic sub-surface deformation and fracture behavior of such materials due to their opaque nature. In this study, high speed synchrotron X-ray experiments are conducted to visualize the in situ deformation and fracture mechanisms in PBXs manufactured using octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) crystals and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) binder. A modified Kolsky bar apparatus was used to apply controlled dynamic compression on the PBX specimens, and a high speedmore » synchrotron X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI) setup was used to record the in situ deformation and failure in the specimens. The experiments show that synchrotron X-ray PCI provides a sufficient contrast between the HMX crystals and the doped binder, even at ultrafast recording rates. Under dynamic compression, most of the cracking in the crystals was observed to be due to the tensile stress generated by the diametral compression applied from the contacts between the crystals. Tensile stress driven cracking was also observed for some of the crystals due to the transverse deformation of the binder and superior bonding between the crystal and the binder. In conclusion, the obtained results are vital to develop improved understanding and to validate the macroscopic and mesoscopic numerical models for energetic composites so that eventually hot spot formation can be predicted.« less

  1. Optimal Surgical Therapy in a Porcine (Sus scrofa) Model of Extra-Thoracic Penetrating Trauma Resulting in Hemorrhagic Shock: ED Thoracotomy vs. Immediate Trans-Abdominal Vascular Control. A Porcine Model for Evaluating the Management of Non-Compressible Torso Hemorrhage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-08

    celiac aortic clamping (n=6), direct vascular control (n=6), and endovascular aortic occlusion n=6). This study presents a large animal model of class...including thoracic aortic clamping, supra- celiac aortic clamping, direct vascular control, and proximal endovascular balloon occlusion. Following vascular...subsequently underwent non-compressible hemorrhage with thoracic aortic clamping (n=6), supra- celiac aortic clamping (n=6), direct vascular control (n=6

  2. Widefield compressive multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Alemohammad, Milad; Shin, Jaewook; Tran, Dung N; Stroud, Jasper R; Chin, Sang Peter; Tran, Trac D; Foster, Mark A

    2018-06-15

    A single-pixel compressively sensed architecture is exploited to simultaneously achieve a 10× reduction in acquired data compared with the Nyquist rate, while alleviating limitations faced by conventional widefield temporal focusing microscopes due to scattering of the fluorescence signal. Additionally, we demonstrate an adaptive sampling scheme that further improves the compression and speed of our approach.

  3. Compression Ratio Adjuster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkerman, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    New mechanism alters compression ratio of internal-combustion engine according to load so that engine operates at top fuel efficiency. Ordinary gasoline, diesel and gas engines with their fixed compression ratios are inefficient at partial load and at low-speed full load. Mechanism ensures engines operate as efficiently under these conditions as they do at highload and high speed.

  4. Effect of process variables on the calorific value and compressive strength of the briquettes made from high moisture Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helwani, Z.; Fatra, W.; Arifin, L.; Othman, M. R.; Syapsan

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the manual hydraulic press was designed to prepare the briquettes from selected biomass waste. Each biomass was sun-dried and milled into small particle sizes before mixing with crude glycerol that used as a biomass binder. The effects of applied pressure levels of 100, 110, 120 bars, the particle size of 60, 80 and 100 mesh and the binder composition on the density, compressive strength and calorific heating value of the prepared briquettes were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Results showed that the briquettes have an average inside diameter, average outside diameter, and height of 12, 38, and 25-30 mm, respectively. The density of the briquettes increased with increasing the applied pressure, was in the range of 623-923 kg/m3. The densest briquettes were obtained at 80 mesh of particle size, 53:47 binder composition ratio and 110 bars of pressurizing. The heating value of the briquette reached up to 28.99 MJ/kg obtained on the particle size of 80 mesh, 53:47 binder composition, and 110 bars and the best compressive strength of 6.991 kg/cm2 obtained at a particle size of 100 mesh, 60:40 binder composition, and 120 bars. Process conditions influence the calorific value significantly.

  5. In Situ Imaging during Compression of Plastic Bonded Explosives for Damage Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeager, John; Manner, Virginia; Patterson, Brian; Walters, David; Cordes, Nikolaus; Henderson, Kevin; Tappan, Bryce; Luscher, Darby

    2017-06-01

    The microstructure of plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) is known to influence behavior during insults such as deformation, heating or initiation to detonation. Obtaining three-dimensional microstructural data can be difficult due in part to fragility of the material and small feature size. X-ray computed tomography (CT) is an ideal characterization technique but the explosive crystals and binder in formulations such as PBX 9501 do not have sufficient x-ray contrast to differentiate between the components. Here, we have formulated several PBXs using octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7- tetrazocine (HMX) crystals and low-density binder systems. The full three-dimensional microstructure of these samples has been characterized using microscale CT during uniaxial mechanical compression in an interrupted in situ modality. The rigidity of the binder was observed to significantly influence fracture, crystal-binder delamination, and material flow. Additionally, the segmented, 3D images were meshed for finite element simulation. Initial results of the mesoscale modeling exhibit qualitatively similar delamination. Los Alamos National Laboratory - LDRD.

  6. Abdominal ultrasound and medical education.

    PubMed

    García de Casasola Sánchez, G; Torres Macho, J; Casas Rojo, J M; Cubo Romano, P; Antón Santos, J M; Villena Garrido, V; Diez Lobato, R

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasound is a very versatile diagnostic modality that permits real-time visualization of multiple internal organs. It is of invaluable help for the physical examination of the patients. To assess if ultrasound can be incorporated into medical education and if the students can perform a basic abdominal ultrasound examination without the necessity of a long period of training. Twelve medical students were trained in basic abdominal ultrasound during a 15-h training program including a 5-h theoretical and practical course and supervised practice in 20 selected patients. Subsequently, we conducted an evaluation test that assessed the ability of students to obtain the ultrasound views and to detect various pathologies in five different patients. The students were able to correctly identify the abdominal views more than 90% of the times. This percentage was only lower (80%) in the right subcostal view to locate the gallbladder. The accuracy or global efficiency of the ultrasound for the diagnosis of relevant pathological findings of the patients was greater than 90% (91.1% gallstones, abdominal aortic aneurysm 100%; splenomegaly 98.3%, ascites 100%; dilated inferior vena cava 100%; acute urinary retention 100%). The ultrasound may be a feasible learning tool in medical education. Ultrasound can help students to improve the physical examination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe it to you. Here are different kinds of pain: ...

  8. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the...

  9. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the...

  10. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the...

  11. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper...

  12. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper...

  13. Grade determination of crumb rubber-modified performance graded asphalt binder.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-08-01

    Due to particulates common in crumb rubber-modified asphalt binders, conventional PG grading using the Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) with a gap height of 1.0 mm may not be valid and in accordance with current specifications. Asphalt binder testing an...

  14. Grade determination of crumb rubber-modified performance graded asphalt binder.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-08-01

    Due to particulates common in crumb rubber-modified asphalt binders, conventional PG grading using the Dynamic : Shear Rheometer (DSR) with a gap height of 1.0 mm may not be valid and in accordance with current specifications. : Asphalt binder testin...

  15. Field test of a polyphosphoric acid (PPA) modified asphalt binder on Rt. 1 in Perry.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-04-01

    The Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) uses the Superpave hot mix asphalt process and : specifies asphalt binder grades using the Performance Grade criteria. The Department mainly uses asphalt : binder grade PG 64-28. This is an asphalt bi...

  16. The influence of metakaolin substitution by slag in alkali-activated inorganic binders for civil engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlec, J.; Rieger, D.; Kovářík, T.; Novotný, P.; Franče, P.; Pola, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this study the effect of metakaolin replacement by milled blast furnace slag in alkali-activated geopolymeric binder was investigated in accordance to their rheological and mechanical properties. It was demonstrated that slag addition into the metakaolin binder can improve mechanical properties of final products. Our investigation was focused on broad interval of metakaolin substitution in the range from 100 to 40 volume per cents of metakaolin so that the volume content of solids in final binder was maintained constant. Prepared binders were activated by alkaline solution of potassium silicate with silicate module of 1.61. The particle size analyses were performed for determination of particle size distribution. The rheological properties were determined in accordance to flow properties by measurements on Ford viscosity cup and by oscillatory measurements of hardening process. For the investigation of hardening process, the strain controlled small amplitude oscillatory rheometry was used in plane-plate geometry. For determination of applied mechanical properties were binders filled by ceramic grog in the granularity range 0-1 mm. The filling was maintained constant at 275 volume per cents in accordance to ratio of solids in dry binder. The mechanical properties were investigated after 1, 7 and 28 days and microstructure was documented by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that slag addition have beneficial effect not only on mechanical properties of hardened binder but also on flow properties of fresh geopolymer paste and subsequent hardening kinetics of alkali-activated binders.

  17. 46 CFR 308.6 - Period of interim binders, updating application information and new applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... information and new applications. 308.6 Section 308.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE General § 308.6 Period of interim binders, updating... interim binders are required to notify the American War Risk Agency annually, by June 30th, of any change...

  18. 46 CFR 308.6 - Period of interim binders, updating application information and new applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information and new applications. 308.6 Section 308.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE General § 308.6 Period of interim binders, updating... interim binders are required to notify the American War Risk Agency annually, by June 30th, of any change...

  19. 46 CFR 308.6 - Period of interim binders, updating application information and new applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information and new applications. 308.6 Section 308.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE General § 308.6 Period of interim binders, updating... interim binders are required to notify the American War Risk Agency annually, by June 30th, of any change...

  20. 46 CFR 308.6 - Period of interim binders, updating application information and new applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information and new applications. 308.6 Section 308.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE General § 308.6 Period of interim binders, updating... interim binders are required to notify the American War Risk Agency annually, by June 30th, of any change...

  1. Effects of binders on the electrochemical performance of rechargeable magnesium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan; NuLi, Yanna; Su, Shuojian; Yang, Jun; Wang, Jiulin

    2017-02-01

    A comparative study on the effects of different binders on the electrochemical performance of rechargeable magnesium batteries with Mo6S8 cathode is conducted for the first time. The selected binders are commercial organic-soluble polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), water-soluble poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), gelatin, sodium alginate (SA) and Beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The binders significantly affect the physical properties, thus the electrochemical performance of Mo6S8 cathode. Compared with those using traditional PVDF binder, Mo6S8 electrodes with PAA and PVA exhibit enhanced cycling stabilities and rate capabilities, which are attributed to the improved cohesion among the electrode constituents and adhesion between the electrode laminate and the current collector. In addition, the anodic stability of these binders is not only related to the chemical structure of binders, but also to the uniformity of electrode surface. SA binder shows low anodic stability duo to containing easily oxidized groups. Non-uniform electrode surface decreases the anodic stability of PVDF based Mo6S8 electrode. Gelatin can be used as a binder in the formulation of high voltage cathodes for rechargeable magnesium batteries.

  2. 40 CFR 63.10886 - What are my management practices for binder formulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Area Sources Pollution Prevention Management Practices for New and Existing Affected Sources § 63.10886 What are my management practices for binder formulations? For each furfuryl alcohol warm box mold or... does not apply to the resin portion of the binder system. Requirements for New and Existing Affected...

  3. 40 CFR 63.10886 - What are my management practices for binder formulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Area Sources Pollution Prevention Management Practices for New and Existing Affected Sources § 63.10886 What are my management practices for binder formulations? For each furfuryl alcohol warm box mold or... does not apply to the resin portion of the binder system. Requirements for New and Existing Affected...

  4. 40 CFR 63.10886 - What are my management practices for binder formulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Area Sources Pollution Prevention Management Practices for New and Existing Affected Sources § 63.10886 What are my management practices for binder formulations? For each furfuryl alcohol warm box mold or... does not apply to the resin portion of the binder system. Requirements for New and Existing Affected...

  5. 40 CFR 63.10886 - What are my management practices for binder formulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Area Sources Pollution Prevention Management Practices for New and Existing Affected Sources § 63.10886 What are my management practices for binder formulations? For each furfuryl alcohol warm box mold or... does not apply to the resin portion of the binder system. Requirements for New and Existing Affected...

  6. Ductile Binder Phase For Use With Almgb14 And Other Hard Ceramic Materials

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Bruce A.; Russell, Alan; Harringa, Joel

    2005-07-26

    This invention relates to a ductile binder phase for use with AlMgB14 and other hard materials. The ductile binder phase, a cobalt-manganese alloy, is used in appropriate quantities to tailor good hardness and reasonable fracture toughness for hard materials so they can be used suitably in industrial machining and grinding applications.

  7. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-03-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study I was a systematic review of the existing standardized methods for assessing quality of life after incisional hernia repair. After a systematic search in the electronic databases Embase and PubMed, a total of 26 studies using standardized measures for assessment of quality of life after incisional hernia repair were found. The most commonly used questionnaire was the generic Short-Form 36, which assesses overall health-related quality of life, addressing both physical and mental health. The second-most common questionnaire was the Carolinas Comfort Scale, which is a disease specific questionnaire addressing pain, movement limitation and mesh sensation in relation to a current or previous hernia. In total, eight different questionnaires were used at varying time points in the 26 studies. In conclusion, standardization of timing and method of quality of life assessment after incisional hernia repair was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the

  8. Compression fractures of the back

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatments. Surgery can include: Balloon kyphoplasty Vertebroplasty Spinal fusion Other surgery may be done to remove bone ... Alternative Names Vertebral compression fractures; Osteoporosis - compression fracture Images Compression fracture References Cosman F, de Beur SJ, ...

  9. 0-6674 : improving fracture resistance measurement in asphalt binder specification with verification on asphalt mixture cracking performance.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-08-01

    The current performance grading (PG) specification for asphalt binders is based primarily on the study of unmodified asphalt binders. Over the years, experience has proven that the PG grading system, while good for ensuring overall quality, fails in ...

  10. Evaluation of binder aging and its influence in aging of hot mix asphalt concrete : literature review and experimental design.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-02-01

    Binder oxidation in pavements and its impact on pavement performance has been addressed by : numerous laboratory studies of binder oxidation chemistry, reaction kinetics, and hardening and its impact on : mixture fatigue. Studies also have included s...

  11. CSAM: Compressed SAM format.

    PubMed

    Cánovas, Rodrigo; Moffat, Alistair; Turpin, Andrew

    2016-12-15

    Next generation sequencing machines produce vast amounts of genomic data. For the data to be useful, it is essential that it can be stored and manipulated efficiently. This work responds to the combined challenge of compressing genomic data, while providing fast access to regions of interest, without necessitating decompression of whole files. We describe CSAM (Compressed SAM format), a compression approach offering lossless and lossy compression for SAM files. The structures and techniques proposed are suitable for representing SAM files, as well as supporting fast access to the compressed information. They generate more compact lossless representations than BAM, which is currently the preferred lossless compressed SAM-equivalent format; and are self-contained, that is, they do not depend on any external resources to compress or decompress SAM files. An implementation is available at https://github.com/rcanovas/libCSAM CONTACT: canovas-ba@lirmm.frSupplementary Information: Supplementary data is available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:25239980

  13. Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

    2014-09-19

    Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Abdominal shotgun trauma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Toutouzas, Konstantinos G; Larentzakis, Andreas; Drimousis, Panagiotis; Riga, Maria; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Katsaragakis, Stylianos

    2008-01-01

    Introduction One of the most lethal mechanisms of injury is shotgun wound and particularly the abdominal one. Case presentation We report a case of a 45 years old male suffering abdominal shotgun trauma, who survived his injuries. Conclusion The management of the abdominal shotgun wounds is mainly dependent on clinical examination and clinical judgment, while requires advanced surgical skills. PMID:18625076

  15. Study of chloride ion transport of composite by using cement and starch as a binder

    SciTech Connect

    Armynah, Bidayatul; Halide, Halmar; Zahrawani,

    This study presents the chemical bonding and the structural properties of composites from accelerator chloride test migration (ACTM). The volume fractions between binder (cement and starch) and charcoal in composites are 20:80 and 60:40. The effect of the binder to the chemical composition, chemical bonding, and structural properties before and after chloride ion passing through the composites was determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), and x-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. From the XRD data, XRF data, and the FTIR data shows the amount of chemical composition, the type of binding, and the structure of composites are dependingmore » on the type of binder. The amount of chloride migration using starch as binder is higher than that of cement as a binder due to the density effects.« less

  16. Binder-induced surface structure evolution effects on Li-ion battery performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvani, S. J.; Pasqualini, M.; Witkowska, A.; Gunnella, R.; Birrozzi, A.; Minicucci, M.; Rajantie, H.; Copley, M.; Nobili, F.; Di Cicco, A.

    2018-03-01

    A comparative investigation on binder induced chemical and morphological evolution of Li4Ti5O12 electrodes was performed via X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electrochemical measurements. Composite electrodes were obtained using three different binders (PAA, PVdF, and CMC) with 80:10:10 ratio of active material:carbon:binder. The electrochemical performances of the electrodes, were found to be intimately correlated with the evolution of the microstructure of the electrodes, probed by XPS and SEM analysis. Our analysis shows that the surface chemistry, thickness of the passivation layers and the morphology of the electrodes are strongly dependent on the type of binders that significantly influence the electrochemical properties of the electrodes. These results point to a key role played by binders in optimization of the battery performance and improve our understanding of the previously observed and unexplained electrochemical properties of these electrodes.

  17. Data Compression Techniques for Maps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Lempel - Ziv compression is applied to the classified and unclassified images as also to the output of the compression algorithms . The algorithms ...resulted in a compression of 7:1. The output of the quadtree coding algorithm was then compressed using Lempel - Ziv coding. The compression ratio achieved...using Lempel - Ziv coding. The unclassified image gave a compression ratio of only 1.4:1. The K means classified image

  18. Modeling of Hydration, Compressive Strength, and Carbonation of Portland-Limestone Cement (PLC) Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Limestone is widely used in the construction industry to produce Portland limestone cement (PLC) concrete. Systematic evaluations of hydration kinetics, compressive strength development, and carbonation resistance are crucial for the rational use of limestone. This study presents a hydration-based model for evaluating the influences of limestone on the strength and carbonation of concrete. First, the hydration model analyzes the dilution effect and the nucleation effect of limestone during the hydration of cement. The degree of cement hydration is calculated by considering concrete mixing proportions, binder properties, and curing conditions. Second, by using the gel–space ratio, the compressive strength of PLC concrete is evaluated. The interactions among water-to-binder ratio, limestone replacement ratio, and strength development are highlighted. Third, the carbonate material contents and porosity are calculated from the hydration model and are used as input parameters for the carbonation model. By considering concrete microstructures and environmental conditions, the carbon dioxide diffusivity and carbonation depth of PLC concrete are evaluated. The proposed model has been determined to be valid for concrete with various water-to-binder ratios, limestone contents, and curing periods. PMID:28772472

  19. Modeling of Hydration, Compressive Strength, and Carbonation of Portland-Limestone Cement (PLC) Concrete.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yong

    2017-01-26

    Limestone is widely used in the construction industry to produce Portland limestone cement (PLC) concrete. Systematic evaluations of hydration kinetics, compressive strength development, and carbonation resistance are crucial for the rational use of limestone. This study presents a hydration-based model for evaluating the influences of limestone on the strength and carbonation of concrete. First, the hydration model analyzes the dilution effect and the nucleation effect of limestone during the hydration of cement. The degree of cement hydration is calculated by considering concrete mixing proportions, binder properties, and curing conditions. Second, by using the gel-space ratio, the compressive strength of PLC concrete is evaluated. The interactions among water-to-binder ratio, limestone replacement ratio, and strength development are highlighted. Third, the carbonate material contents and porosity are calculated from the hydration model and are used as input parameters for the carbonation model. By considering concrete microstructures and environmental conditions, the carbon dioxide diffusivity and carbonation depth of PLC concrete are evaluated. The proposed model has been determined to be valid for concrete with various water-to-binder ratios, limestone contents, and curing periods.

  20. Oxidation Behavior of Matrix Graphite and Its Effect on Compressive Strength

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Xiangwen; Contescu, Cristian I.; Zhao, Xi; ...

    2017-01-01

    Mmore » atrix graphite (G) with incompletely graphitized binder used in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) is commonly suspected to exhibit lower oxidation resistance in air. In order to reveal the oxidation performance, the oxidation behavior of newly developed A3-3 G at the temperature range from 500 to 950°C in air was studied and the effect of oxidation on the compressive strength of oxidized G specimens was characterized. Results show that temperature has a significant influence on the oxidation behavior of G. The transition temperature between Regimes I and II is ~700°C and the activation energy ( E a ) in Regime I is around 185 kJ/mol, a little lower than that of nuclear graphite, which indicates G is more vulnerable to oxidation. Oxidation at 550°C causes more damage to compressive strength of G than oxidation at 900°C. Comparing with the strength of pristine G specimens, the rate of compressive strength loss is 77.3% after oxidation at 550°C and only 12.5% for oxidation at 900°C. icrostructure images of SE and porosity measurement by ercury Porosimetry indicate that the significant compressive strength loss of G oxidized at 550°C may be attributed to both the uniform pore formation throughout the bulk and the preferential oxidation of the binder.« less

  1. Cohesive finite element modeling of the delamination of HTPB binder and HMX crystals under tensile loading

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, David J.; Luscher, Darby J.; Yeager, John D.

    Accurately modeling the mechanical behavior of the polymer binders and the degradation of interfaces between binder and crystal is important to science-based understanding of the macro-scale response of polymer bonded explosives. The paper presents a description of relatively a simple bi-crystal HMX-HTPB specimen and associated tensile loading experiment including computed tomography imaging, the pertinent constitutive theory, and details of numerical simulations used to infer the behavior of the material during the delamination process. Within this work, mechanical testing and direct numerical simulation of this relatively simple bi-crystal system enabled reasonable isolation of binder-crystal interface delamination, in which the effects ofmore » the complicated thermomechanical response of explosive crystals were minimized. Cohesive finite element modeling of the degradation and delamination of the interface between a modified HTPB binder and HMX crystals was used to reproduce observed results from tensile loading experiments on bi-crystal specimens. Several comparisons are made with experimental measurements in order to identify appropriate constitutive behavior of the binder and appropriate parameters for the cohesive traction-separation behavior of the crystal-binder interface. This research demonstrates the utility of directly modeling the delamination between binder and crystal within crystal-binder-crystal tensile specimen towards characterizing the behavior of these interfaces in a manner amenable to larger scale simulation of polycrystalline PBX materials. One critical aspect of this approach is micro computed tomography imaging conducted during the experiments, which enabled comparison of delamination patterns between the direct numerical simulation and actual specimen. In addition to optimizing the cohesive interface parameters, one important finding from this investigation is that understanding and representing the strain-hardening plasticity of HTPB

  2. Elastic and Sorption Characteristics of an Epoxy Binder in a Composite During Its Moistening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aniskevich, K.; Glaskova, T.; Jansons, J.

    2005-07-01

    Results of an experimental investigation into the elastic and sorption characteristics of a model composite material (CM) — epoxy resin filled with LiF crystals — during its moistening are presented. Properties of the binder in the CM with different filler contents ( v f = 0, 0.05, 0.11, 0.23, 0.28, 0.33, 0.38, and 0.46) were evaluated indirectly by using known micromechanical models of CMs. It was revealed that, for the CM in a conditionally initial state, the elastic modulus of the binder in it and the filler microstrain (change in the interplanar distance in the crystals, measured by the X-ray method) as functions of filler content had the same character. The elastic modulus of the binder in the CM with a low filler content was equal to that for the binder in a block; the elastic modulus of the binder in the CM decreased with increasing filler content. The maximum (corresponding to water saturation of the CM) stresses in the binder and the filler microstresses as functions of filler content were of the same character. Moreover, the absolute values of maximum stresses in the binder and of filler microstresses coincided for high and low contents of the filler. At v f = 0.2-0. 3, the filler microstrains exceeded the stresses in the binder. The effect of moisture on the epoxy binder in the CM with a high filler content was not entirely reversible: the elastic characteristics of the binder increased, the diffusivity decreased, and the ultimate water content increased after a moistening-drying cycle.

  3. Cohesive finite element modeling of the delamination of HTPB binder and HMX crystals under tensile loading

    DOE PAGES

    Walters, David J.; Luscher, Darby J.; Yeager, John D.; ...

    2018-02-27

    Accurately modeling the mechanical behavior of the polymer binders and the degradation of interfaces between binder and crystal is important to science-based understanding of the macro-scale response of polymer bonded explosives. The paper presents a description of relatively a simple bi-crystal HMX-HTPB specimen and associated tensile loading experiment including computed tomography imaging, the pertinent constitutive theory, and details of numerical simulations used to infer the behavior of the material during the delamination process. Within this work, mechanical testing and direct numerical simulation of this relatively simple bi-crystal system enabled reasonable isolation of binder-crystal interface delamination, in which the effects ofmore » the complicated thermomechanical response of explosive crystals were minimized. Cohesive finite element modeling of the degradation and delamination of the interface between a modified HTPB binder and HMX crystals was used to reproduce observed results from tensile loading experiments on bi-crystal specimens. Several comparisons are made with experimental measurements in order to identify appropriate constitutive behavior of the binder and appropriate parameters for the cohesive traction-separation behavior of the crystal-binder interface. This research demonstrates the utility of directly modeling the delamination between binder and crystal within crystal-binder-crystal tensile specimen towards characterizing the behavior of these interfaces in a manner amenable to larger scale simulation of polycrystalline PBX materials. One critical aspect of this approach is micro computed tomography imaging conducted during the experiments, which enabled comparison of delamination patterns between the direct numerical simulation and actual specimen. In addition to optimizing the cohesive interface parameters, one important finding from this investigation is that understanding and representing the strain-hardening plasticity of HTPB

  4. Abdominal compartment syndrome related to noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    De Keulenaer, Bart L; De Backer, Adelard; Schepens, Dirk R; Daelemans, Ronny; Wilmer, Alexander; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2003-07-01

    To study the effects of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) on intra-abdominal pressure. Single case report from a tertiary teaching hospital. A 65-year-old man who experienced a sudden respiratory and cardiovascular collapse during NIPPV. This was caused by gastric overdistension due to aerophagia followed by raised intra-abdominal pressure leading to intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. The respiratory and cardiovascular problems resolved immediately after the introduction of a nasogastric tube. This resulted in normalization of IAP. This is the first case reported of an abdominal compartment syndrome related to NIPPV. Clinicians should be aware of this possible complication while using NIPPV.

  5. Focus on Compression Stockings

    MedlinePlus

    ... sion apparel is used to prevent or control edema The post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a complication ( ... complication. abdomen. This swelling is referred to as edema. If you have edema, compression therapy may be ...

  6. External Compression Headaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... People likely to get external compression headaches include construction workers, people in the military, police officers and ... If protective headwear, such as a sports or construction helmet, is necessary, make sure it fits properly ...

  7. The Compressibility Burble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, John

    1935-01-01

    Simultaneous air-flow photographs and pressure-distribution measurements have been made of the NACA 4412 airfoil at high speeds in order to determine the physical nature of the compressibility burble. The flow photographs were obtained by the Schlieren method and the pressures were simultaneously measured for 54 stations on the 5-inch-chord wing by means of a multiple-tube photographic manometer. Pressure-measurement results and typical Schlieren photographs are presented. The general nature of the phenomenon called the "compressibility burble" is shown by these experiments. The source of the increased drag is the compression shock that occurs, the excess drag being due to the conversion of a considerable amount of the air-stream kinetic energy into heat at the compression shock.

  8. Investigation of the Effect of Oil Modification on Critical Characteristics of Asphalt Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golalipour, Amir

    Thermally induced cracking of asphalt pavement continues to be a serious issue in cold climate regions as well as in areas which experience extreme daily temperature differentials. Low temperature cracking of asphalt pavements is attributed to thermal stresses and strains developed during cooling cycles. Improving asphalt binder low temperature fracture and stiffness properties continues to be a subject of particular concern. Therefore, significant amount of research has been focused on improving asphalt binder properties through modification. In recent years, wide ranges of oil based modifications have been introduced to improve asphalt binder performance, especially at the low service temperatures. Although, significant use of these oils is seen in practice, knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms of oil modification and their properties for achieving optimum characteristics is limited. Hence, this study focuses on better understanding of the effect of oil modifiers which would help better material selection and achieve optimum performance in terms of increasing the life span of pavements. In this study, the effect of oil modification on the rheological properties of the asphalt binder is investigated. To examine the effect of oil modification on binder characteristics, low temperature properties as well as high temperature performance of oil modified binders were evaluated. It is found that oils vary in their effects on asphalt binder performance. However, for all oils used in the study, adding an oil to binder can improve binder low temperature performance, and this result mainly attributed to the softening effect. In addition to that, a simple linear model is proposed to predict the performance grade of oil modified binder based on the properties of its constituents at high and low temperatures. Another part of this study focuses on the oil modification effect on asphalt binder thermal strain and stresses. A viscoelastic analytical procedure is combined with

  9. Alternative Compression Garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Brown, A. K.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. Future anti-gravity suits (AGS) may be similar to the Shuttle era inflatable AGS or may be a mechanical compression device like the Russian Kentavr. We have evaluated the above garments as well as elastic, gradient compression garments of varying magnitude and determined that breast-high elastic compression garments may be a suitable replacement to the current AGS. This new garment should be more comfortable than the AGS, easy to don and doff, and as effective a countermeasure to orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, these new compression garments could be worn for several days after space flight as necessary if symptoms persisted. We conducted two studies to evaluate elastic, gradient compression garments. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the comfort and efficacy of an alternative compression garment (ACG) immediately after actual space flight and 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of space flight, and to determine if they would impact recovery if worn for up to three days after bed rest.

  10. Image compression technique

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Chi-Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    1997-01-01

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace's equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image.

  11. Intelligent bandwith compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, D. Y.; Bullock, B. L.; Olin, K. E.; Kandt, R. K.; Olsen, J. D.

    1980-02-01

    The feasibility of a 1000:1 bandwidth compression ratio for image transmission has been demonstrated using image-analysis algorithms and a rule-based controller. Such a high compression ratio was achieved by first analyzing scene content using auto-cueing and feature-extraction algorithms, and then transmitting only the pertinent information consistent with mission requirements. A rule-based controller directs the flow of analysis and performs priority allocations on the extracted scene content. The reconstructed bandwidth-compressed image consists of an edge map of the scene background, with primary and secondary target windows embedded in the edge map. The bandwidth-compressed images are updated at a basic rate of 1 frame per second, with the high-priority target window updated at 7.5 frames per second. The scene-analysis algorithms used in this system together with the adaptive priority controller are described. Results of simulated 1000:1 band width-compressed images are presented. A video tape simulation of the Intelligent Bandwidth Compression system has been produced using a sequence of video input from the data base.

  12. Image compression technique

    DOEpatents

    Fu, C.Y.; Petrich, L.I.

    1997-03-25

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace`s equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image. 16 figs.

  13. Plant proteins as binders in cellulosic paper composites.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Yehia; El-Wakil, Nahla A; El-Gendy, Ahmed A; Abou-Zeid, Ragab E; Youssef, M A

    2010-07-01

    Plant proteins are used - for the first time - in this work as bulk binders for cellulosic fibers in paper composites. Soy bean protein and wheat gluten were denatured by two methods, namely by: urea+NaOH and by urea+NaOH+acrylamide. Addition of increased amounts of the denatured proteins resulted in a significant increase in all paper strength properties. Soy protein led, in addition, to a remarkable enhancement in opacity. The use of proteins increased kaolin retention in the paper composites, while keeping the paper strength higher than the blank protein-free paper. The results show that plant proteins are favorable than synthetic adhesives; because they are biodegradable and do not cause troubles in paper recycling i.e. they are environmentally friendly. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rheological characterization of geopolymer binder modified by organic resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cekalová, M.; Kovárík, T.; Rieger, D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is going to investigate properties of alkali-activated powder (calcined kaoilinitic clay and granulated blast furnace slag) prepared as a geopolymer paste and modified by various amount of organic resin. Hybrid organic-inorganic binders were prepared as a mix of organic resin and geopolymer inorganic paste under vacuum conditions. The process of solidification was investigated by measurements of storage (G’) and loss modulus ( G’) in torsion. The measurement was conducted in oscillatory mode by constant strain of 0.01 %. This strain is set in linear visco-elastic region for minimization influence of paste structure. The effect of organic resin is presented and determined by changes of viscosity (‘n*), modules in torsion and tangent of loss angle (tan 8). Results indicate that addition of organic resin significantly affects the initial viscosity and hardening kinetics.

  15. Graphite fluoride as a solid lubricant in a polyimide binder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.; Sliney, H. E.

    1972-01-01

    Polyimide resin (PI) was shown to be a suitable binder material for the solid lubricant graphite fluoride, (CF(1.1))n. Comparisons were made to similar tests using PI-bonded MOS2 films, graphite fluoride rubbed films, and MOS2 rubbed films. The results showed that, at any one specific temperature between 25 and 400 C, the wear life of PI-bonded graphite fluoride films exceeded those of the other three films by at least a factor of 2 and by as much as a factor of 60. Minimum friction coefficients for the PI-bonded films were 0.08 for graphite fluoride and 0.04 for MOS2. The rider wear rates for the two PI-bonded films at 25 C were nearly equal.

  16. Fracture properties of concrete specimens made from alkali activated binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimonová, Hana; Kucharczyková, Barbara; Topolář, Libor; Bílek, Vlastimil, Jr.; Keršner, Zbyněk

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to quantify crack initiation and other fracture properties - effective fracture toughness and specific fracture energy - of two types of concrete with an alkali activated binder. The beam specimens with a stress concentrator were tested in a three-point bending test after 28, 90, and 365 days of maturing. Records of fracture tests in the form of load versus deflection (P-d) diagrams were evaluated using effective crack model and work-of-fracture method and load versus mouth crack opening displacement (P-CMOD) diagrams were evaluated using the Double-K fracture model. The initiation of cracks during the fracture tests for all ages was also monitored by the acoustic emission method. The higher value of monitored mechanical fracture parameters of concrete with alkali activated blast furnace slag were achieved with substitution blast furnace slag by low calcium fly ash in comparison with substitution by cement kiln dust.

  17. Hotspot-Centric De Novo Design of Protein Binders

    PubMed Central

    Fleishman, Sarel J.; Corn, Jacob E.; Strauch, Eva-Maria; Whitehead, Timothy A.; Karanicolas, John; Baker, David

    2014-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions play critical roles in biology, and computational design of interactions could be useful in a range of applications. We describe in detail a general approach to de novo design of protein interactions based on computed, energetically optimized interaction hotspots, which was recently used to produce high-affinity binders of influenza hemagglutinin. We present several alternative approaches to identify and build the key hotspot interactions within both core secondary structural elements and variable loop regions and evaluate the method's performance in natural-interface recapitulation. We show that the method generates binding surfaces that are more conformationally restricted than previous design methods, reducing opportunities for off-target interactions. PMID:21945116

  18. Compaction of AWBA fuel pellets without binders (AWBA Development Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.G.R.

    1982-08-01

    Highly active oxide fuel powders, composed of UO/sub 2/, UO/sub 2/-ThO/sub 2/, or ThO/sub 2/, were compacted into ultra-high density pellets without the use of binders. The objective of the study was to select the optimum die lubricant for compacting these powders into pellets in preparation for sintering to densities in excess of 97% Theoretical Density. The results showed that sintered density was a function of both the lubricant bulk density and concentration with the lowest bulk density lubricant giving the highest sintered densities with a lubricant concentration of 0.1 weight percent. Five calcium and zinc stearates were evaluated withmore » a calcium stearate with a 15 lb/ft/sup 3/ bulk density being the best lubricant.« less

  19. Infrared properties of three plastic bonded explosive binders

    DOE PAGES

    Hoffman, D. Mark

    2017-08-02

    Here, three polymers are routinely used as binders for plastic bonded explosives by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, FK-800, Viton A 100, and Oxy 461. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared measurements were performed on 10 different lots of FK-800, 5 different lots of Oxy 461, and 3 different lots of Viton A-100, one sample of Viton VTR 5883 and 2 Fluorel polymers of hexafluoropropene and vinylidene fluoride. The characteristic IR bands were measured. If possible, their vibrational modes were assigned based on literature data. Simple Mopac calculations were used to validate these vibrational mode assignments. Somewhat more sophisticated calculations weremore » run using Gaussian on the same structures.« less

  20. Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Shiyun, E-mail: tjzhongshiyun@163.com; Ni Kun; Li Jinmei

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum has suitable workability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strength of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is higher than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dry shrinkage of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is lower than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The leaching of sulfate ion of mortar is studied. - Abstract: A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratiomore » (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C-S-H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563-938 micro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is

  1. Effect of polymer binders in anode catalyst layer on performance of alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. S.; Zhao, T. S.; Liang, Z. X.

    In preparing low-temperature fuel cell electrodes, a polymer binder is essential to bind discrete catalyst particles to form a porous catalyst layer that simultaneously facilitates the transfer of ions, electrons, and reactants/products. For two types of polymer binder, namely, an A3-an anion conducting ionomer and a PTFE-a neutral polymer, an investigation is made of the effect of the content of each binder in the anode catalyst layer on the performance of an alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) with an anion-exchange membrane and non-platinum (non-Pt) catalysts. Experiments are performed by feeding either ethanol (C 2H 5OH) solution or ethanol-potassium hydroxide (C 2H 5OH-KOH) solution. The experimental results for the case of feeding C 2H 5OH solution without added KOH indicate that the cell performance varies with the A3 ionomer content in the anode catalyst layer, and a content of 10 wt.% exhibits the best performance. When feeding C 2H 5OH-KOH solution, the results show that: (i) in the region of low current density, the best performance is achieved for a membrane electrode assembly without any binder in the anode catalyst layer; (ii) in the region of high current density, the performance is improved with incorporation of PTFE binder in the anode catalyst layer; (iii) the PTFE binder yields better performance than does the A3 binder.

  2. Preparation of Fiber Based Binder Materials to Enhance the Gas Adsorption Efficiency of Carbon Air Filter.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Jeong Rak; Lim, Dae Young; Lee, So Hee; Yeo, Sang Young

    2015-10-01

    Fiber binder adapted carbon air filter is prepared to increase gas adsorption efficiency and environmental stability. The filter prevents harmful gases, as well as particle dusts in the air from entering the body when a human inhales. The basic structure of carbon air filter is composed of spunbond/meltblown/activated carbon/bottom substrate. Activated carbons and meltblown layer are adapted to increase gas adsorption and dust filtration efficiency, respectively. Liquid type adhesive is used in the conventional carbon air filter as a binder material between activated carbons and other layers. However, it is thought that the liquid binder is not an ideal material with respect to its bonding strength and liquid flow behavior that reduce gas adsorption efficiency. To overcome these disadvantages, fiber type binder is introduced in our study. It is confirmed that fiber type binder adapted air filter media show higher strip strength, and their gas adsorption efficiencies are measured over 42% during 60 sec. These values are higher than those of conventional filter. Although the differential pressure of fiber binder adapted air filter is relatively high compared to the conventional one, short fibers have a good potential as a binder materials of activated carbon based air filter.

  3. The Influence of Phosphor and Binder Chemistry on the Aging Characteristics of Remote Phosphor Products

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Lynn; Yaga, Robert; Lamvik, Michael

    The influence of phosphor and binder layer chemistries on the lumen maintenance and color stability of remote phosphor disks were examined using wet high-temperature operational lifetime testing (WHTOL). As part of the experimental matrix, two different correlated color temperature (CCT) values, 2700 K and 5000 K, were studied and each had a different binder chemistry. The 2700 K samples used a urethane binder whereas the 5000 K samples used an acrylate binder. Experimental conditions were chosen to enable study of the binder and phosphor chemistries and to minimize photo-oxidation of the polycarbonate substrate. Under the more severe WHTOL conditions ofmore » 85°C and 85% relative humidity (RH), absorption in the binder layer significantly reduced luminous flux and produced a blue color shift. The milder WHTOL conditions of 75°C and 75% RH, resulted in chemical changes in the binder layer that may alter its index of refraction. As a result, lumen maintenance remained high, but a slight yellow shift was found. The aging of remote phosphor products provides insights into the impact of materials on the performance of phosphors in an LED lighting system.« less

  4. Influence of Selected Factors on the Relationship between the Dynamic Elastic Modulus and Compressive Strength of Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Jurowski, Krystian; Grzeszczyk, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the relationship between the static and dynamic elastic modulus of concrete and the relationship between the static elastic modulus and compressive strength of concrete have been formulated. These relationships are based on investigations of different types of concrete and take into account the type and amount of aggregate and binder used. The dynamic elastic modulus of concrete was tested using impulse excitation of vibration and the modal analysis method. This method could be used as a non-destructive way of estimating the compressive strength of concrete. PMID:29565830

  5. Influence of Selected Factors on the Relationship between the Dynamic Elastic Modulus and Compressive Strength of Concrete.

    PubMed

    Jurowski, Krystian; Grzeszczyk, Stefania

    2018-03-22

    In this paper, the relationship between the static and dynamic elastic modulus of concrete and the relationship between the static elastic modulus and compressive strength of concrete have been formulated. These relationships are based on investigations of different types of concrete and take into account the type and amount of aggregate and binder used. The dynamic elastic modulus of concrete was tested using impulse excitation of vibration and the modal analysis method. This method could be used as a non-destructive way of estimating the compressive strength of concrete.

  6. Influence of pH on in vitro disintegration of phosphate binders.

    PubMed

    Stamatakis, M K; Alderman, J M; Meyer-Stout, P J

    1998-11-01

    Hyperphosphatemia, a common complication in patients with end-stage renal disease, is treated with oral phosphate-binding medications that restrict phosphorus absorption from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Impaired product performance, such as failure to disintegrate and/or dissolve in the GI tract, could limit the efficacy of the phosphate binder. Disintegration may be as important as dissolution for predicting in vitro product performance for medications that act locally on the GI tract, such as phosphate binders. Furthermore, patients with end-stage renal disease have a wide range in GI pH, and pH can influence a product's performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of pH on in vitro disintegration of phosphate binders. Fifteen different commercially available phosphate binders (seven calcium carbonate tablet formulations, two calcium acetate tablet formulations, three aluminum hydroxide capsule formulations, and three aluminum hydroxide tablet formulations) were studied using the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) standard disintegration apparatus. Phosphate binders were tested in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.5), distilled water (pH 5.1), and simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.5). Product failure was defined as two or more individual tablets or capsules failing to disintegrate completely within 30 minutes. Results indicate that 9 of the 15 phosphate binders tested showed statistically significant differences in disintegration time (DT) based on pH. The percentage of binders that passed the disintegration study test in distilled water, gastric fluid, and intestinal fluid were 80%, 80%, and 73%, respectively. The findings of this study show that the disintegration of commercially available phosphate binders is highly variable. The pH significantly affected in vitro disintegration in the majority of phosphate binders tested; how significantly this affects in vivo performance has yet to be studied.

  7. A Case of Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Prominent Kyphosis Resulting in Compression of the Intestine by the Costal Arch

    PubMed Central

    Yoneyama, Satoshi; Kato, Takehito; Yumoto, Tetsuya; Ohwada, Masami; Terashima, Toru; Koizumi, Masanori; Ueki, Hamaichi

    2013-01-01

    An 85-year-old woman with no history of abdominal surgery complained of abdominal pain and vomiting and was referred to us with a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction a few days later. Upon admission to our facility, she presented with marked abdominal swelling and prominent kyphosis. Because of the kyphosis, most of the dilated bowel was compressing her thoracic cavity. No obvious strangulation or free air was observed via abdominal computed tomography imaging. We attempted decompression using a nasogastric tube, but the symptoms persisted. Surgery was performed 2 days after admission. The origin of the obstruction was a compression of the ileocecal region by the costal arch. The bowel was discolored, and thus surgically excised. There were no major postsurgical complications other than a mild wound infection. Until now, there have been no reports of advanced kyphosis inducing ileus, but there are concerns of an increase in similar cases as society continues to age. PMID:23971780

  8. Do aluminium-based phosphate binders continue to have a role in contemporary nephrology practice?

    PubMed

    Mudge, David W; Johnson, David W; Hawley, Carmel M; Campbell, Scott B; Isbel, Nicole M; van Eps, Carolyn L; Petrie, James J B

    2011-05-13

    Aluminium-containing phosphate binders have long been used for treatment of hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. Their safety became controversial in the early 1980's after reports of aluminium related neurological and bone disease began to appear. Available historical evidence however, suggests that neurological toxicity may have primarily been caused by excessive exposure to aluminium in dialysis fluid, rather than aluminium-containing oral phosphate binders. Limited evidence suggests that aluminium bone disease may also be on the decline in the era of aluminium removal from dialysis fluid, even with continued use of aluminium binders. The K/DOQI and KDIGO guidelines both suggest avoiding aluminium-containing binders. These guidelines will tend to promote the use of the newer, more expensive binders (lanthanum, sevelamer), which have limited evidence for benefit and, like aluminium, limited long-term safety data. Treating hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients continues to represent a major challenge, and there is a large body of evidence linking serum phosphate concentrations with mortality. Most nephrologists agree that phosphate binders have the potential to meaningfully reduce mortality in dialysis patients. Aluminium is one of the cheapest, most effective and well tolerated of the class, however there are no prospective or randomised trials examining the efficacy and safety of aluminium as a binder. Aluminium continues to be used as a binder in Australia as well as some other countries, despite concern about the potential for toxicity. There are some data from selected case series that aluminium bone disease may be declining in the era of reduced aluminium content in dialysis fluid, due to rigorous water testing. This paper seeks to revisit the contemporary evidence for the safety record of aluminium-containing binders in dialysis patients. It puts their use into the context of the newer, more expensive binders and increasing concerns about the risks of

  9. Polyolefin backbone substitution in binders for low temperature powder injection moulding feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Kuritka, Ivo; Bleyan, Davit

    2014-02-27

    This paper reports the substitution of polyolefin backbone binder components with low melting temperature carnauba wax for powder injection moulding applications. The effect of various binder compositions of Al₂O₃ feedstock on thermal degradation parameters is investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Within the experimental framework 29 original feedstock compositions were prepared and the superiority of carnauba wax over the polyethylene binder backbone was demonstrated in compositions containing polyethylene glycol as the initial opening agent and governing the proper mechanism of the degradation process. Moreover, the replacement of synthetic polymer by the natural wax contributes to an increase of environmental sustainability of modern industrial technologies.

  10. Do aluminium-based phosphate binders continue to have a role in contemporary nephrology practice?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aluminium-containing phosphate binders have long been used for treatment of hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. Their safety became controversial in the early 1980's after reports of aluminium related neurological and bone disease began to appear. Available historical evidence however, suggests that neurological toxicity may have primarily been caused by excessive exposure to aluminium in dialysis fluid, rather than aluminium-containing oral phosphate binders. Limited evidence suggests that aluminium bone disease may also be on the decline in the era of aluminium removal from dialysis fluid, even with continued use of aluminium binders. Discussion The K/DOQI and KDIGO guidelines both suggest avoiding aluminium-containing binders. These guidelines will tend to promote the use of the newer, more expensive binders (lanthanum, sevelamer), which have limited evidence for benefit and, like aluminium, limited long-term safety data. Treating hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients continues to represent a major challenge, and there is a large body of evidence linking serum phosphate concentrations with mortality. Most nephrologists agree that phosphate binders have the potential to meaningfully reduce mortality in dialysis patients. Aluminium is one of the cheapest, most effective and well tolerated of the class, however there are no prospective or randomised trials examining the efficacy and safety of aluminium as a binder. Aluminium continues to be used as a binder in Australia as well as some other countries, despite concern about the potential for toxicity. There are some data from selected case series that aluminium bone disease may be declining in the era of reduced aluminium content in dialysis fluid, due to rigorous water testing. Summary This paper seeks to revisit the contemporary evidence for the safety record of aluminium-containing binders in dialysis patients. It puts their use into the context of the newer, more expensive binders and increasing

  11. Combinatorially Screened Peptide as Targeted Covalent Binder: Alteration of Bait-Conjugated Peptide to Reactive Modifier.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Shuta; Tabuchi, Yudai; Ito, Yuji; Taki, Masumi

    2018-06-01

    A peptide-type covalent binder for a target protein was obtained by combinatorial screening of fluoroprobe-conjugated peptide libraries on bacteriophage T7. The solvatochromic fluoroprobe works as a bait during the affinity selection process of phage display. To obtain the targeted covalent binder, the bait in the selected consensus peptide was altered into a reactive warhead possessing a sulfonyl fluoride. The reaction efficiency and site/position specificity of the covalent conjugation between the binder and the target protein were evaluated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and rationalized by a protein-ligand docking simulation.

  12. Natural asphalt modified binders used for high stiffness modulus asphalt concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilski, Marcin; Słowik, Mieczysław

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a set of test results supporting the possibility of replacing, in Polish climate conditions, hard road 20/30 penetration grade bitumen used in the binder course and/or base course made of high stiffness modulus asphalt concrete with binders comprising of 35/50 or 50/70 penetration grade bitumens and additives in the form of natural Gilsonite or Trinidad Epuré asphalts. For the purpose of comparing the properties of the discussed asphalt binders, values of the Performance Grade have been determined according to the American Superpave system criteria.

  13. Effects of ageing on different binders for retouching and on some binder-pigment combinations used for restoration of wall paintings

    SciTech Connect

    Ropret, P.; Zoubek, R.; Skapin, A. Sever

    2007-11-15

    In restoration of colour layers, the selection of the most appropriate retouching binder is a very important step that may have a crucial impact on materials durability. As different weather conditions can have versatile influence on stability of colour layers, we determined the effect of ageing on carefully selected samples of binders (Tylose, Klucel, ammonium caseinate, gum arabicum, fish and skin glues and some other synthetic binders) as well as on several binder-pigment combinations (the pigments in combinations being cinnabar, green earth and smalt). The samples were subjected to accelerated ageing tests in climatic chambers. In these tests the temperaturemore » and the relative humidity were daily oscillating between - 20 deg. C and 50 deg. C and 50% to 90%, respectively, for a period of one month. Then the samples were exposed to UV and visible light generated by a metal halide lamp for a month. The differences in microstructure before and after ageing were determined by optical and scanning electron microscopy, while the ageing of the organic structures in binders was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy.« less

  14. Intelligent bandwidth compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, D. Y.; Bullock, B. L.; Olin, K. E.; Kandt, R. K.; Olsen, J. D.

    1980-02-01

    The feasibility of a 1000:1 bandwidth compression ratio for image transmission has been demonstrated using image-analysis algorithms and a rule-based controller. Such a high compression ratio was achieved by first analyzing scene content using auto-cueing and feature-extraction algorithms, and then transmitting only the pertinent information consistent with mission requirements. A rule-based controller directs the flow of analysis and performs priority allocations on the extracted scene content. The reconstructed bandwidth-compressed image consists of an edge map of the scene background, with primary and secondary target windows embedded in the edge map. The bandwidth-compressed images are updated at a basic rate of 1 frame per second, with the high-priority target window updated at 7.5 frames per second. The scene-analysis algorithms used in this system together with the adaptive priority controller are described. Results of simulated 1000:1 bandwidth-compressed images are presented.

  15. Compressible Flow Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.

    2006-01-01

    The Compressible Flow Toolbox is primarily a MATLAB-language implementation of a set of algorithms that solve approximately 280 linear and nonlinear classical equations for compressible flow. The toolbox is useful for analysis of one-dimensional steady flow with either constant entropy, friction, heat transfer, or Mach number greater than 1. The toolbox also contains algorithms for comparing and validating the equation-solving algorithms against solutions previously published in open literature. The classical equations solved by the Compressible Flow Toolbox are as follows: The isentropic-flow equations, The Fanno flow equations (pertaining to flow of an ideal gas in a pipe with friction), The Rayleigh flow equations (pertaining to frictionless flow of an ideal gas, with heat transfer, in a pipe of constant cross section), The normal-shock equations, The oblique-shock equations, and The expansion equations.

  16. Evaluation of the levels of metalloproteinsase-2 in patients with abdominal aneurysm and abdominal hernias.

    PubMed

    Antoszewska, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms and abdominal hernias become an important health problems of our times. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and its rupture is one of the most dangerous fact in vascular surgery. There are some theories pointing to a multifactoral genesis of these kinds of diseases, all of them assume the attenuation of abdominal fascia and abdominal aortic wall. The density and continuity of these structures depend on collagen and elastic fibers structure. Reducing the strength of the fibers may be due to changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) by the proteolytic enzymes-matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade extracellular matrix proteins. These enzymes play an important role in the development of many disease: malignant tumors (colon, breast, lung, pancreas), cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, ischemia-reperfusion injury), connective tissue diseases (Ehler-Danlos Syndrome, Marfan's Syndrome), complications of diabetes (retinopathy, nephropathy). One of the most important is matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). The aim of the study was an estimation of the MMP-2 blood levels in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia, and in patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm. The study involved 88 patients aged 42 to 89 years, including 75 men and 13 women. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia (45 persons, representing 51.1% of all group) and patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm (43 persons, representing 48,9% of all group). It was a statistically significant increase in MMP-2 blood levels in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia compared to patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm. It was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of POCHP in patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia. Statistically significant

  17. KNEE-JOINT LOADING IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: INFLUENCE OF ABDOMINAL AND THIGH FAT

    PubMed Central

    Messier, Stephen P.; Beavers, Daniel P.; Loeser, Richard F.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Khajanchi, Shubham; Legault, Claudine; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Hunter, David J.; DeVita, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Using three separate models that included total body mass, total lean and total fat mass, and abdominal and thigh fat as independent measures, we determined their association with knee-joint loads in older overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Fat depots were quantified using computed tomography and total lean and fat mass determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 176 adults (age = 66.3 yr., BMI = 33.5 kg·m−2) with radiographic knee OA. Knee moments and joint bone-on-bone forces were calculated using gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. Results Higher total body mass was significantly associated (p ≤ 0.0001) with greater knee compressive and shear forces, compressive and shear impulses (p < 0.0001), patellofemoral forces (p< 0.006), and knee extensor moments (p = 0.003). Regression analysis with total lean and total fat mass as independent variables revealed significant positive associations of total fat mass with knee compressive (p = 0.0001), shear (p < 0.001), and patellofemoral forces (p = 0.01) and knee extension moment (p = 0.008). Gastrocnemius and quadriceps forces were positively associated with total fat mass. Total lean mass was associated with knee compressive force (p = 0.002). A regression model that included total thigh and total abdominal fat found both were significantly associated with knee compressive and shear forces (p ≤ 0.04). Thigh fat was associated with the knee abduction (p = 0.03) and knee extension moment (p = 0.02). Conclusions Thigh fat, consisting predominately of subcutaneous fat, had similar significant associations with knee joint forces as abdominal fat despite its much smaller volume and could be an important therapeutic target for people with knee OA. PMID:25133996

  18. Knee joint loading in knee osteoarthritis: influence of abdominal and thigh fat.

    PubMed

    Messier, Stephen P; Beavers, Daniel P; Loeser, Richard F; Carr, J Jeffery; Khajanchi, Shubham; Legault, Claudine; Nicklas, Barbara J; Hunter, David J; Devita, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Using three separate models that included total body mass, total lean and total fat mass, and abdominal and thigh fat as independent measures, we determined their association with knee joint loads in older overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Fat depots were quantified using computed tomography, and total lean and fat mass were determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 176 adults (age, 66.3 yr; body mass index, 33.5 kg·m) with radiographic knee OA. Knee moments and joint bone-on-bone forces were calculated using gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. Higher total body mass was significantly associated (P ≤ 0.0001) with greater knee compressive and shear forces, compressive and shear impulses (P < 0.0001), patellofemoral forces (P < 0.006), and knee extensor moments (P = 0.003). Regression analysis with total lean and total fat mass as independent variables revealed significant positive associations of total fat mass with knee compressive (P = 0.0001), shear (P < 0.001), and patellofemoral forces (P = 0.01) and knee extension moment (P = 0.008). Gastrocnemius and quadriceps forces were positively associated with total fat mass. Total lean mass was associated with knee compressive force (P = 0.002). A regression model that included total thigh and total abdominal fat found that both were significantly associated with knee compressive and shear forces (P ≤ 0.04). Thigh fat was associated with knee abduction (P = 0.03) and knee extension moment (P = 0.02). Thigh fat, consisting predominately of subcutaneous fat, had similar significant associations with knee joint forces as abdominal fat despite its much smaller volume and could be an important therapeutic target for people with knee OA.

  19. Abdominal Sarcoidosis Mimicking Peritoneal Carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Roh, Won Seok; Lee, Seungho; Park, Ji Hyun; Kang, Jeonghyun

    2018-04-01

    We present a patient diagnosed with skin sarcoidosis, breast cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and peritoneal sarcoidosis with a past history of colorectal cancer. During stage work up for breast cancer, suspicious lesions on peritoneum were observed in imaging studies. Considering our patient's history and imaging findings, we initially suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis. However, the peritoneal lesion was diagnosed as sarcoidosis in laparoscopic biopsy. This case demonstrates that abdominal sarcoidosis might be considered as a differential diagnosis when there is a lesion suspected of being peritoneal carcinomatosis with nontypical clinical presentations.

  20. On Compressible Vortex Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secchi, Paolo

    2005-05-01

    We introduce the main known results of the theory of incompressible and compressible vortex sheets. Moreover, we present recent results obtained by the author with J. F. Coulombel about supersonic compressible vortex sheets in two space dimensions. The problem is a nonlinear free boundary hyperbolic problem with two difficulties: the free boundary is characteristic and the Lopatinski condition holds only in a weak sense, yielding losses of derivatives. Under a supersonic condition that precludes violent instabilities, we prove an energy estimate for the boundary value problem obtained by linearization around an unsteady piecewise solution.

  1. Orbiting dynamic compression laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Kasiraj, P.; Frisch, B.

    1984-01-01

    In order to examine the feasibility of carrying out dynamic compression experiments on a space station, the possibility of using explosive gun launchers is studied. The question of whether powders of a refractory metal (molybdenum) and a metallic glass could be well considered by dynamic compression is examined. In both cases extremely good bonds are obtained between grains of metal and metallic glass at 180 and 80 kb, respectively. When the oxide surface is reduced and the dynamic consolidation is carried out in vacuum, in the case of molybdenum, tensile tests of the recovered samples demonstrated beneficial ultimate tensile strengths.

  2. [Internationalization and innovation of abdominal acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Characteristics of abdominal acupuncture are analyzed through three aspects of inheriting and innovation, collaborated research as well as international visual field. It is pointed that abdominal acupuncture is based on clinical practice, focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effect and expending the clinical application. It also promots the thinking on how to recall the tradition and how to inherit tradition availably. The modern medical problems should be studied and innovation resolutions should be searched, which can help the internationalization and modernization of abdominal acupuncture.

  3. Laboratory evaluation of asphalt concrete mixtures containing high contents of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and binder.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of added asphalt : binder content on the performance and volumetric p : roperties of : asphalt concrete mixtures containing reclaimed asph : alt pavement (RAP) in the amounts of 0%, 20%, and 4 : 0%. A laboratory- : ...

  4. Research on preparation of phosphate-modified animal glue binder for foundry use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian-Shu; Liu, Wei-Hua; Li, Ying-Min

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, three phosphates were used as modifiers to modify animal glue binder. The structural characteristics and thermal properties of animal glue binder treated with phosphates were studied by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography and derivative thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that the modified animal glue binder had better sand tensile strength and lower viscosity than untreated animal glue binder. The best modification process was as follows: the optimal amount of sodium carbonate was 4 wt% to animal glue; the optimal weight ratio of the modifiers was sodium pyrophosphate : sodium tripolyphosphate : sodium hexametaphosphate : animal glue = 3 : 3 : 4 : 100, and the optimal reaction should be performed at 80°C for a reaction time of 120 min. A final tensile strength of approximately 3.20 MPa was achieved and the viscosity value was approximately 880 mPa s.

  5. Microarray Detection of Duplex and Triplex DNA Binders with DNA-Modified Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lytton-Jean, Abigail K. R.; Han, Min Su; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2008-01-01

    We have designed a chip-based assay, using microarray technology, for determining the relative binding affinities of duplex and triplex DNA binders. This assay combines the high discrimination capabilities afforded by DNA-modified Au nanoparticles with the high-throughput capabilities of DNA microarrays. The detection and screening of duplex DNA binders are important because these molecules, in many cases, are potential anticancer agents as well as toxins. Triplex DNA binders are also promising drug candidates. These molecules, in conjunction with triplex forming oligonucleotides, could potentially be used to achieve control of gene expression by interfering with transcription factors that bind to DNA. Therefore, the ability to screen for these molecules in a high-throughput fashion could dramatically improve the drug screening process. The assay reported here provides excellent discrimination between strong, intermediate, and weak duplex and triplex DNA binders in a high-throughput fashion. PMID:17614366

  6. Analysis of the multiple stress creep recovery asphalt binder test and specifications for use in Indiana.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-03-01

    The Superpave specifications and equipment, introduced in 1993, represented a major advancement with respect to offering a better : understanding of the behavior and characteristics of asphalt binders based on their rheological properties. However, t...

  7. Minimum virgin binder limits in recycled superpave mixes in Kansas : technical summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-07-01

    Use of recycled materials in asphalt pavement has become widespread recently due : to rising costs of virgin binder and increased attention to sustainability. Historically, : recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) has been the most commonly used recycled ma...

  8. Demonstration and purchase of PG binder testing equipment phase 1 and 2 : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-04-01

    A pooled fund project was undertaken to purchase new asphalt binder testing equipment for state : transportation agencies. The seven states that agreed to participate included: Connecticut, : Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Islan...

  9. Selection and evaluation of performance-graded asphalt binders for Virginia.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-06-01

    This study recommended performance-graded (PG) binders to be used in hot-mix asphalt in Virginia. Ten conventional viscosity-graded asphalt cements, representing the asphalt typically available in Virginia, were graded under the PG system to develop ...

  10. Analysis of aggregates and binders used for the ODOT chip seal program.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-11-30

    This project compared the results of laboratory characterization of chip seal aggregate samples for Oklahoma DOT Divisions 1,2,3,5 and 6 with performance data from the Pavement Management System (PMS) database. Binder evaluation was limited to identi...

  11. Process Development of Porcelain Ceramic Material with Binder Jetting Process for Dental Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyanaji, Hadi; Zhang, Shanshan; Lassell, Austin; Zandinejad, Amirali; Yang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Custom ceramic structures possess significant potentials in many applications such as dentistry and aerospace where extreme environments are present. Specifically, highly customized geometries with adequate performance are needed for various dental prostheses applications. This paper demonstrates the development of process and post-process parameters for a dental porcelain ceramic material using binder jetting additive manufacturing (AM). Various process parameters such as binder amount, drying power level, drying time and powder spread speed were studied experimentally for their effect on geometrical and mechanical characteristics of green parts. In addition, the effects of sintering and printing parameters on the qualities of the densified ceramic structures were also investigated experimentally. The results provide insights into the process-property relationships for the binder jetting AM process, and some of the challenges of the process that need to be further characterized for the successful adoption of the binder jetting technology in high quality ceramic fabrications are discussed.

  12. Comparison of "saw and seal" procedure and performance grade binder to minimize thermal cracking.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-04-01

    In an effort to compare performance and cost effectiveness of the Saw and : Seal procedure and Performance Grade (PG) binders, the Maine Department Of : Transportation (MDOT) constructed an experimental project in Weston, Maine : during the fal...

  13. Evaluation of binder aging and its influence in aging of hot mix asphalt concrete : technical report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-04-01

    Warm mix asphalt (WMA) technologies, through reduced mixing and placement temperatures, have : reduced fuel consumption, enhanced compaction, increased haul distances and an extended paving season. : Issues of concern in WMA are binder oxidation and ...

  14. Binder-Free V 2 O 5 Cathode for Greener Rechargeable Aluminum Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huali; Bai, Ying; Chen, Shi

    This letter reports on the investigation of a binder-free cathode material to be used in rechargeable aluminum batteries. This cathode is synthesized by directly depositing V2O5 on a Ni foam current collector. Rechargeable aluminum coin cells fabricated using the as-synthesized binder-free cathode delivered an initial discharge capacity of 239 mAh/g, which is much higher than that of batteries fabricated using a cathode composed of V2O5 nanowires and binder. An obvious discharge voltage plateau appeared at 0.6 V in the discharge curves of the Ni–V2O5 cathode, which is slightly higher than that of the V2O5 nanowire cathodes with common binders. Thismore » improvement is attributed to reduced electrochemical polarization.« less

  15. Testing protocols to ensure performance of high asphalt binder replacement mixes using RAP and RAS.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-12-01

    The use of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) in asphalt concrete (AC) mixtures can reduce demand for virgin aggregates and asphalt binder, bringing environmental and economic benefits. However, replacing virgin asph...

  16. The use of phosphoric acid to stiffen hot mix asphalt binders

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-11-01

    This document offers guidelines for the use of phosphoric acid to stiffen asphalt binders for hot mix paving applications. Data are presented on the likely effect on pavement life, moisture resistance, and use with limestone aggregates and liquid ami...

  17. Epoxidized Natural Rubber/Chitosan Network Binder for Silicon Anode in Lithium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ha; Lee, Jeong Hun; Nam, Dong Ho; Cho, Misuk; Kim, Jaehoon; Chanthad, Chalathorn; Lee, Youngkwan

    2018-05-16

    Polymeric binder is extremely important for Si-based anode in lithium-ion batteries due to large volume variation during charging/discharging process. Here, natural rubber-incorporated chitosan networks were designed as a binder material to obtain both adhesion and elasticity. Chitosan could strongly anchor Si particles through hydrogen bonding, while the natural rubber could stretch reversibly during the volume variation of Si particles, resulting in high cyclic performance. The prepared electrode exhibited the specific capacities of 1350 mAh/g after 1600 cycles at the current density of 8 A/g and 2310 mAh/g after 500 cycles at the current density of 1 A/g. Furthermore, the cycle test with limiting lithiation capacity was conducted to study the optimal binder properties at varying degree of the volume expansion of silicon, and it was found that the elastic property of binder material was strongly required when the large volume expansion of Si occurred.

  18. Fundamental evaluation of the interaction between RAS/RAP and virgin asphalt binders.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive laboratory testing program was conducted in this research project to examine the blending between reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP)/recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) and virgin asphalt binders and to evaluate the factors that may affect ...

  19. Minimum virgin binder limits in recycled superpave mixes in Kansas : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-07-01

    Use of recycled materials in asphalt pavement has become widespread recently due to rising costs of virgin : binder and increased attention to sustainability. Historically, recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) has been the most : commonly used recycled ma...

  20. Deadly Throwaways--Plastic Six-Pack Binders and Metal Pull-Tabs Doom Wildlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Penny

    1975-01-01

    Thousands of creatures are vulnerable to entrapment, entanglement, strangulation, or starvation as a result of plastic six-pack binders and metal pull-tabs. Possible solutions include: recycling, clean-up campaigns, and strong container legislation. (BT)

  1. The Binder Method: A Spatial, Conceptual Approach to Teaching Business Report Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dean

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the binder method approach to teaching business report writing, explains its basic procedures, its organizational advantages, its time saving qualilty, and its adaptation to more than one user at different locations or different times. (EL)

  2. [Diagnostic imaging and acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-19

    Acute abdominal pain is a common clinical condition. Clinical signs and symptoms can be difficult to interpret, and diagnostic imaging may help to identify intra-abdominal disease. Conventional X-ray, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen vary in usability between common surgical causes of acute abdominal pain. Overall, conventional X-ray cannot confidently diagnose or rule out disease. US and CT are equally trustworthy for most diseases. US with subsequent CT may enhance diagnostic precision. Magnetic resonance seems promising for future use in acute abdominal imaging.

  3. Abdominal Pain in the Geriatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Magidson, Phillip D; Martinez, Joseph P

    2016-08-01

    With an aging population, emergency department clinicians can expect an increase in geriatric patients presenting with abdominal pain. Compared with younger patients, this patient population is less likely to present with classic symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory values of abdominal disease. However, the morbidity and mortality associated with elderly patients presenting with abdominal pathologic conditions are significant. For this reason, the clinician must be familiar with some subtle and not so subtle differences when caring for the geriatric patient with abdominal pain to ensure timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-08-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  5. Recurrent abdominal pain in childhood.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Fang Kuan; How, Choon How; Ong, Christina

    2013-04-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain in childhood is common, and continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is usually attributed to a functional gastrointestinal disorder rather than an organic disease. In most cases, a comprehensive history and physical examination should enable one to make a positive diagnosis of functional disorder. The presence of alarm symptoms and signs, such as weight loss, gastrointestinal bleeding and chronic severe diarrhoea, warrants further investigations and referral to a paediatric gastrointestinal specialist. The mainstay of therapy in functional abdominal pain is education, reassurance and avoidance of triggering factors. While symptom-based pharmacological therapy may be helpful in patients who do not respond to simple management, it is best used on a time-limited basis due to the lack of good evidence of its efficacy. The primary goal of therapy is a return to normal daily activities rather than complete elimination of pain. In recalcitrant cases, psychological interventions such as cognitive behaviour therapy and relaxation training have proven to be efficacious.

  6. Rupture of sigmoid colon caused by compressed air.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wan-Bin; Hu, Ji-Lin; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Xian-Xiang; Zhang, Mao-Shen; Liu, Guang-Wei; Zheng, Xue-Feng; Lu, Yun

    2016-03-14

    Compressed air has been generally used since the beginning of the 20(th) century for various applications. However, rupture of the colon caused by compressed air is uncommon. We report a case of pneumatic rupture of the sigmoid colon. The patient was admitted to the emergency room complaining of abdominal pain and distention. His colleague triggered a compressed air nozzle against his anus as a practical joke 2 h previously. On arrival, his pulse rate was 126 beats/min, respiratory rate was 42 breaths/min and blood pressure was 86/54 mmHg. Physical examination revealed peritoneal irritation and the abdomen was markedly distended. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed a large volume of air in the abdominal cavity. Peritoneocentesis was performed to relieve the tension pneumoperitoneum. Emergency laparotomy was done after controlling shock. Laparotomy revealed a 2-cm perforation in the sigmoid colon. The perforation was sutured and temporary ileostomy was performed as well as thorough drainage and irrigation of the abdominopelvic cavity. Reversal of ileostomy was performed successfully after 3 mo. Follow-up was uneventful. We also present a brief literature review.

  7. Rupture of sigmoid colon caused by compressed air

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wan-Bin; Hu, Ji-Lin; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Xian-Xiang; Zhang, Mao-Shen; Liu, Guang-Wei; Zheng, Xue-Feng; Lu, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Compressed air has been generally used since the beginning of the 20th century for various applications. However, rupture of the colon caused by compressed air is uncommon. We report a case of pneumatic rupture of the sigmoid colon. The patient was admitted to the emergency room complaining of abdominal pain and distention. His colleague triggered a compressed air nozzle against his anus as a practical joke 2 h previously. On arrival, his pulse rate was 126 beats/min, respiratory rate was 42 breaths/min and blood pressure was 86/54 mmHg. Physical examination revealed peritoneal irritation and the abdomen was markedly distended. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed a large volume of air in the abdominal cavity. Peritoneocentesis was performed to relieve the tension pneumoperitoneum. Emergency laparotomy was done after controlling shock. Laparotomy revealed a 2-cm perforation in the sigmoid colon. The perforation was sutured and temporary ileostomy was performed as well as thorough drainage and irrigation of the abdominopelvic cavity. Reversal of ileostomy was performed successfully after 3 mo. Follow-up was uneventful. We also present a brief literature review. PMID:26973403

  8. Improved compression molding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heier, W. C.

    1967-01-01

    Modified compression molding process produces plastic molding compounds that are strong, homogeneous, free of residual stresses, and have improved ablative characteristics. The conventional method is modified by applying a vacuum to the mold during the molding cycle, using a volatile sink, and exercising precise control of the mold closure limits.

  9. Centrifugal Gas Compression Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fultun, Roy

    2002-11-01

    A centrifuged gas of kinetic, elastic hard spheres compresses isothermally and without flow of heat in a process that reverses free expansion. This theorem follows from stated assumptions via a collection of thought experiments, theorems and other supporting results, and it excludes application of the reversible mechanical adiabatic power law in this context. The existence of an isothermal adiabatic centrifugal compression process makes a three-process cycle possible using a fixed sample of the working gas. The three processes are: adiabatic mechanical expansion and cooling against a piston, isothermal adiabatic centrifugal compression back to the original volume, and isochoric temperature rise back to the original temperature due to an influx of heat. This cycle forms the basis for a Thomson perpetuum mobile that induces a loop of energy flow in an isolated system consisting of a heat bath connectable by a thermal path to the working gas, a mechanical extractor of the gas's internal energy, and a device that uses that mechanical energy and dissipates it as heat back into the heat bath. We present a simple experimental procedure to test the assertion that adiabatic centrifugal compression is isothermal. An energy budget for the cycle provides a criterion for breakeven in the conversion of heat to mechanical energy.

  10. Code Compression for DSP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    PAGES 6 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b . ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8...Automation Conference, June 1998. [Liao95] S. Liao, S. Devadas , K. Keutzer, “Code Density Optimization for Embedded DSP Processors Using Data Compression

  11. Temporal compressive sensing systems

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Bryan W.

    2017-12-12

    Methods and systems for temporal compressive sensing are disclosed, where within each of one or more sensor array data acquisition periods, one or more sensor array measurement datasets comprising distinct linear combinations of time slice data are acquired, and where mathematical reconstruction allows for calculation of accurate representations of the individual time slice datasets.

  12. The Compressed Video Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, John

    In the fall semester 1995, Southern Arkansas University- Magnolia (SAU-M) began a two semester trial delivering college classes via a compressed video link between SAU-M and its sister school Southern Arkansas University Tech (SAU-T) in Camden. As soon as the University began broadcasting and receiving classes, it was discovered that using the…

  13. Compressed Sensing for Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Jacob Nathan

    Many chemical applications, from spectroscopy to quantum chemistry, involve measuring or computing a large amount of data, and then compressing this data to retain the most chemically-relevant information. In contrast, compressed sensing is an emergent technique that makes it possible to measure or compute an amount of data that is roughly proportional to its information content. In particular, compressed sensing enables the recovery of a sparse quantity of information from significantly undersampled data by solving an ℓ 1-optimization problem. This thesis represents the application of compressed sensing to problems in chemistry. The first half of this thesis is about spectroscopy. Compressed sensing is used to accelerate the computation of vibrational and electronic spectra from real-time time-dependent density functional theory simulations. Using compressed sensing as a drop-in replacement for the discrete Fourier transform, well-resolved frequency spectra are obtained at one-fifth the typical simulation time and computational cost. The technique is generalized to multiple dimensions and applied to two-dimensional absorption spectroscopy using experimental data collected on atomic rubidium vapor. Finally, a related technique known as super-resolution is applied to open quantum systems to obtain realistic models of a protein environment, in the form of atomistic spectral densities, at lower computational cost. The second half of this thesis deals with matrices in quantum chemistry. It presents a new use of compressed sensing for more efficient matrix recovery whenever the calculation of individual matrix elements is the computational bottleneck. The technique is applied to the computation of the second-derivative Hessian matrices in electronic structure calculations to obtain the vibrational modes and frequencies of molecules. When applied to anthracene, this technique results in a threefold speed-up, with greater speed-ups possible for larger molecules. The

  14. Chelating effect in short polymers for the design of bidentate binders of increased affinity and selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Sara; Fogolari, Federico; Scoles, Giacinto

    2015-01-01

    The design of new strong and selective binders is a key step towards the development of new sensing devices and effective drugs. Both affinity and selectivity can be increased through chelation and here we theoretically explore the possibility of coupling two binders through a flexible linker. We prove the enhanced ability of double binders of keeping their target with a simple model where a polymer composed by hard spheres interacts with a spherical macromolecule, such as a protein, through two sticky spots. By Monte Carlo simulations and thermodynamic integration we show the chelating effect to hold for coupling polymers whose radius of gyration is comparable to size of the chelated particle. We show the binding free energy of flexible double binders to be higher than that of two single binders and to be maximized when the binding sites are at distances comparable to the mean free polymer end-to-end distance. The affinity of two coupled binders is therefore predicted to increase non linearly and in turn, by targeting two non-equivalent binding sites, this will lead to higher selectivity. PMID:26496975

  15. The impact of nurse-led education on haemodialysis patients' phosphate binder medication adherence.

    PubMed

    Sandlin, Kimberly; Bennett, Paul N; Ockerby, Cherene; Corradini, Ann-Marie

    2013-03-01

    Phosphate binder medication adherence is required to maintain optimal phosphate levels and minimise bone disease in people with end stage kidney disease. To examine the impact of a nurse-led education intervention on bone disorder markers, adherence to phosphate binder medication and medication knowledge. Descriptive study with a paired pre-post intervention survey. Adults receiving haemodialysis. Twelve-week intervention where patients self-administered their phosphate binder medication at each dialysis treatment. Nurses provided individualised education. Patients completed a pre- and post-intervention survey designed to explore their knowledge of phosphate binders. There were no statistically significant changes in clinical markers but a significant improvement in the proportion of patients who took their phosphate binder correctly, increasing from 44 to 72% (p = 0.016). There were moderate to large effect size changes for improved knowledge. A nurse-led intervention education programme can increase patients' phosphate binder adherence. However, this does not necessarily manifest into improved serum phosphate levels. © 2013 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  16. Experimentally validated computational modeling of organic binder burnout from green ceramic compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Ewsuk, K.G.; Cochran, R.J.; Blackwell, B.F.

    The properties and performance of a ceramic component is determined by a combination of the materials from which it was fabricated and how it was processed. Most ceramic components are manufactured by dry pressing a powder/binder system in which the organic binder provides formability and green compact strength. A key step in this manufacturing process is the removal of the binder from the powder compact after pressing. The organic binder is typically removed by a thermal decomposition process in which heating rate, temperature, and time are the key process parameters. Empirical approaches are generally used to design the burnout time-temperaturemore » cycle, often resulting in excessive processing times and energy usage, and higher overall manufacturing costs. Ideally, binder burnout should be completed as quickly as possible without damaging the compact, while using a minimum of energy. Process and computational modeling offer one means to achieve this end. The objective of this study is to develop an experimentally validated computer model that can be used to better understand, control, and optimize binder burnout from green ceramic compacts.« less

  17. Analysis of the binder yield energy test as an indicator of fatigue behaviour of asphalt mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Johan; Mturi, Georges A. J.; Komba, Julius; Du Plessis, Louw

    2017-09-01

    Empirical binder testing has increasingly failed to predict pavement performance in South Africa, with fatigue cracking being one of the major forms of premature pavement distress. In response, it has become a national aspiration to incorporate a performance related fatigue test into the binder specifications for South Africa. The Binder Yield Energy Test (BYET) was the first in a series of tests analysed for its potential to predict the fatigue performance of the binder. The test is performed with the dynamic shear rheometer, giving two key parameters, namely, yield energy and shear strain at maximum shear stress (γτmax). The objective of the investigation was to perform a rudimentary evaluation of the BYET; followed by a more in-depth investigation should the initial BYET results prove promising. The paper discusses the results generated from the BYET under eight different conditions, using six different binders. The results are then correlated with four point bending beam fatigue test results obtained from asphalt mix samples that were manufactured from the same binders. Final results indicate that the BYET is not ideal as an indicator of fatigue performance.

  18. Non-competitive inhibition by active site binders.

    PubMed

    Blat, Yuval

    2010-06-01

    Classical enzymology has been used for generations to understand the interactions of inhibitors with their enzyme targets. Enzymology tools enabled prediction of the biological impact of inhibitors as well as the development of novel, more potent, ones. Experiments designed to examine the competition between the tested inhibitor and the enzyme substrate(s) are the tool of choice to identify inhibitors that bind in the active site. Competition between an inhibitor and a substrate is considered a strong evidence for binding of the inhibitor in the active site, while the lack of competition suggests binding to an alternative site. Nevertheless, exceptions to this notion do exist. Active site-binding inhibitors can display non-competitive inhibition patterns. This unusual behavior has been observed with enzymes utilizing an exosite for substrate binding, isomechanism enzymes, enzymes with multiple substrates and/or products and two-step binding inhibitors. In many of these cases, the mechanisms underlying the lack of competition between the substrate and the inhibitor are well understood. Tools like alternative substrates, testing the enzyme reaction in the reverse direction and monitoring inhibition time dependence can be applied to enable distinction between 'badly behaving' active site binders and true exosite inhibitors.

  19. Hydroxyapatite moldable formulation using natural rubber latex as binder.

    PubMed

    Sailaja, G S; Ramesh, P; Varma, H K

    2007-07-01

    A simple but efficient processing method for shaping intricate bioceramic green bodies has been developed by using natural rubber latex as binder. Different shapes of hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (HAP) were molded from a composite formulation containing wet precipitated HAP, natural rubber latex (NRL), and a stabilizer. On controlled heat treatment followed by sintering, dense shapes of HAP contours were obtained. The thermal degradation profile of HAP-NRL composites shows that NRL degrades slowly without any abrupt exotherm. The results of energy dispersive X-ray analysis together with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis indicate that the inorganic residue of NRL does not contain any heavy element. The sintered density of the samples increased with increased HAP content in the formulation and percentage shrinkage reduced accordingly. On varying the HAP content in the formulation from 35 to 95 wt %, the compositions with 85, 90, 92, and 95 wt % HAP showed better flexural strength in the range 40-54 MPa and a flexural modulus value in the range 36-50 GPa. The fracture morphology, as observed by the scanning electron microscope confirms that with increased HAP content in the formulation the sample microstructure attains higher uniformity. The Vickers microhardness for the samples sintered at two different temperatures (1150 and 1250 degrees C) showed that hardness increases with increase in the sintering temperature with a maximum for the highest HAP loaded formulation. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparison of computational methods to model DNA minor groove binders.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Hemant Kumar; Chourasia, Mukesh; Kumar, Devesh; Sastry, G Narahari

    2011-03-28

    There has been a profound interest in designing small molecules that interact in sequence-selective fashion with DNA minor grooves. However, most in silico approaches have not been parametrized for DNA ligand interaction. In this regard, a systematic computational analysis of 57 available PDB structures of noncovalent DNA minor groove binders has been undertaken. The study starts with a rigorous benchmarking of GOLD, GLIDE, CDOCKER, and AUTODOCK docking protocols followed by developing QSSR models and finally molecular dynamics simulations. In GOLD and GLIDE, the orientation of the best score pose is closer to the lowest rmsd pose, and the deviation in the conformation of various poses is also smaller compared to other docking protocols. Efficient QSSR models were developed with constitutional, topological, and quantum chemical descriptors on the basis of B3LYP/6-31G* optimized geometries, and with this ΔT(m) values of 46 ligands were predicted. Molecular dynamics simulations of the 14 DNA-ligand complexes with Amber 8.0 show that the complexes are stable in aqueous conditions and do not undergo noticeable fluctuations during the 5 ns production run, with respect to their initial placement in the minor groove region.

  1. New Aqueous Binders for Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, Andrew N.; Krumdick, Gregory K.; Trask, Stephen E.

    2016-12-22

    This final report summarizes the research effort of the CRADA between PPG Industries and Argonne National Laboratory (CRADA # C1400501 and Amendment 1 - ACK 85C11, Rev. 1), and completes the requirements of Task #5 in the CRADA. The results from Argonne represent a combined effort between the MERF and CAMP Facility (Materials Engineering Research Facility and the Cell Analysis, Modeling and Prototyping Facility). The key points of this report can be briefly summarized as: The multicomponent aqueous binder for NCM cathodes developed by PPG shows promising results when used on the CAMP Facility’s pilot-scale coater; NCM523 cathode electrodes exposedmore » to water exhibit a voltage anomaly in the first two formation cycles that appears to have little effect on the material capacity, but needs to be explored further; the experimental LFP electrode produced by PPG does cycle electrochemically, but with reduced capacity and an uncharacteristic voltage profile; there is no obvious correlation between the pH and zeta-potential of materials that are commonly used in the lithium-ion battery; lithium ions are more readily dissolved out of NCM523 by water than the transition metals (by two orders of magnitude), and suggests that the plating bath may need to be spiked with a lithium salt; the approach of creating sub-micron size NCM523 particles via ball milling results in a cathode material with poor electrochemical performance.« less

  2. Don't Forget the Abdominal Wall: Imaging Spectrum of Abdominal Wall Injuries after Nonpenetrating Trauma.

    PubMed

    Matalon, Shanna A; Askari, Reza; Gates, Jonathan D; Patel, Ketan; Sodickson, Aaron D; Khurana, Bharti

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal wall injuries occur in nearly one of 10 patients coming to the emergency department after nonpenetrating trauma. Injuries range from minor, such as abdominal wall contusion, to severe, such as abdominal wall rupture with evisceration of abdominal contents. Examples of specific injuries that can be detected at cross-sectional imaging include abdominal muscle strain, tear, or hematoma, including rectus sheath hematoma (RSH); traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH); and Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) (closed degloving injury). These injuries are often overlooked clinically because of (a) a lack of findings at physical examination or (b) distraction by more-severe associated injuries. However, these injuries are important to detect because they are highly associated with potentially grave visceral and vascular injuries, such as aortic injury, and because their detection can lead to the diagnosis of these more clinically important grave traumatic injuries. Failure to make a timely diagnosis can result in delayed complications, such as bowel hernia with potential for obstruction or strangulation, or misdiagnosis of an abdominal wall neoplasm. Groin injuries, such as athletic pubalgia, and inferior costochondral injuries should also be considered in patients with abdominal pain after nonpenetrating trauma, because these conditions may manifest with referred abdominal pain and are often included within the field of view at cross-sectional abdominal imaging. Radiologists must recognize and report acute abdominal wall injuries and their associated intra-abdominal pathologic conditions to allow appropriate and timely treatment. © RSNA, 2017.

  3. Ultrahigh Pressure Dynamic Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    Laser-based dynamic compression provides a new opportunity to study the lattice structure and other properties of geological materials to ultrahigh pressure conditions ranging from 100 - 1000 GPa (1 TPa) and beyond. Such studies have fundamental applications to understanding the Earth's core as well as the interior structure of super-Earths and giant planets. This talk will review recent dynamic compression experiments using high-powered lasers on materials including Fe-Si, MgO, and SiC. Experiments were conducted at the Omega laser (University of Rochester) and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS, Stanford). At Omega, laser drives as large as 2 kJ are applied over 10 ns to samples that are 50 microns thick. At peak compression, the sample is probed with quasi-monochromatic X-rays from a laser-plasma source and diffraction is recorded on image plates. At LCLS, shock waves are driven into the sample using a 40-J laser with a 10-ns pulse. The sample is probed with X-rays form the LCLS free electron laser providing 1012 photons in a monochromatic pulse near 10 keV energy. Diffraction is recorded using pixel array detectors. By varying the delay between the laser and the x-ray beam, the sample can be probed at various times relative to the shock wave transiting the sample. By controlling the shape and duration of the incident laser pulse, either shock or ramp (shockless) loading can be produced. Ramp compression produces less heating than shock compression, allowing samples to be probed to ultrahigh pressures without melting. Results for iron alloys, oxides, and carbides provide new constraints on equations of state and phase transitions that are relevant to the interior structure of large, extrasolar terrestrial-type planets.

  4. TEM Video Compressive Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Andrew; Kovarik, Libor; Abellan, Patricia

    One of the main limitations of imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution during in-situ TEM experiments is the frame rate of the camera being used to image the dynamic process. While the recent development of direct detectors has provided the hardware to achieve frame rates approaching 0.1ms, the cameras are expensive and must replace existing detectors. In this paper, we examine the use of coded aperture compressive sensing methods [1, 2, 3, 4] to increase the framerate of any camera with simple, low-cost hardware modifications. The coded aperture approach allows multiple sub-frames to be coded and integrated into amore » single camera frame during the acquisition process, and then extracted upon readout using statistical compressive sensing inversion. Our simulations show that it should be possible to increase the speed of any camera by at least an order of magnitude. Compressive Sensing (CS) combines sensing and compression in one operation, and thus provides an approach that could further improve the temporal resolution while correspondingly reducing the electron dose rate. Because the signal is measured in a compressive manner, fewer total measurements are required. When applied to TEM video capture, compressive imaging couled improve acquisition speed and reduce the electron dose rate. CS is a recent concept, and has come to the forefront due the seminal work of Candès [5]. Since the publication of Candès, there has been enormous growth in the application of CS and development of CS variants. For electron microscopy applications, the concept of CS has also been recently applied to electron tomography [6], and reduction of electron dose in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging [7]. To demonstrate the applicability of coded aperture CS video reconstruction for atomic level imaging, we simulate compressive sensing on observations of Pd nanoparticles and Ag nanoparticles during exposure to high temperatures and other environmental

  5. Retrospective comparison of abdominal ultrasonography and radiography in the investigation of feline abdominal disease

    PubMed Central

    Won, Wylen Wade; Sharma, Ajay; Wu, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal radiography and ultrasonography are commonly used as part of the initial diagnostic plan for cats with nonspecific signs of abdominal disease. This retrospective study compared the clinical usefulness of abdominal radiography and ultrasonography in 105 feline patients with signs of abdominal disease. The final diagnosis was determined more commonly with ultrasonography (59%) compared to radiography (25.7%). Ultrasonography was also able to provide additional clinically relevant information in 76% of cases, and changed or refined the diagnosis in 47% of cases. Based on these findings, ultrasonography may be sufficient as an initial diagnostic test for the investigation of feline abdominal disease. PMID:26483582

  6. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: An update

    PubMed

    Chuen, Jason; Theivendran, Mayo

    2018-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remains one of the hallmark pathologies in vascular surgery and an area of intense research interest. Treatment options have expanded in recent years to increase the range of morphology suitable for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), and with potential implications on treatment thresholds. This article is the first of two that will outline current treatment options for AAA, including areas of controversy and research in AAA disease, to inform the development of Australasian clinical guidelines and health policy. Medical therapy options remain limited and no aneurysm-specific pharmacotherapy is currently available. Recent years have witnessed a significant shift in AAA surgery from open repair to EVAR and expansion of EVAR techniques. General management of cardiovascular risk factors remains key to reducing all-cause mortality for patients with AAA.

  7. Da Vinci-assisted abdominal cerclage.

    PubMed

    Barmat, Larry; Glaser, Gretchen; Davis, George; Craparo, Frank

    2007-11-01

    To report the first placement of an abdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage using the da Vinci robot. Case report. Tertiary-care hospital. A 39-year-old female with a history of cervical insufficiency who required a cerclage and was not a candidate for transvaginal cerclage placement. Abdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage placement using the da Vinci robot. Ability to safely and successfully place an abdominal cerclage using the da Vinci robot. Abdominal cerclage was successfully placed using the da Vinci robot. The patient had minimal blood loss and was discharged to home on the same day as surgery. Da Vinci robot-assisted abdominal cerclage placement is an innovative application of robotic surgery and may alter the standard of care for women who require this surgery.

  8. Three-year performance of in-situ mass stabilised contaminated site soils using MgO-bearing binders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Jin, Fei; Shen, Zhengtao; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2016-11-15

    This paper provides physical and chemical performances of mass stabilised organic and inorganic contaminated site soils using a new group of MgO-bearing binders over 3 years and evaluated the time-dependent performance during the 3 years. This study took place at a contaminated site in Castleford, UK in 2011, where MgO, ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS) and Portland cement (PC) were mixed with the contaminated soils in a dry form using the ALLU mass mixing equipment. Soil cores were retrieved 40-day, 1-year and 3-year after the treatment. The core quality, strength, and the leaching properties were determined via physical observation, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and batch leaching tests. After 3-year treatment, the UCS values of ALLU mixes were in the range of 50-250kPa; the leachate concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn (except Ni) in all mixes were lower than their drinking water standards; and the leachability of total organics was in the range of 10-105mg/L. No apparent degradation of the mass stabilised materials after 3 years' exposure to the field conditions was found. MgO-GGBS blends were found able to provide higher strength and less leachability of contaminants compared to PC and MgO-only mixes in mass stabilised soils. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental studies on effect of cow dung ash (pozzolanic binder) and coconut fiber on strengthproperties of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatasubramanian, C.; Muthu, D.; Aswini, G.; Nandhini, G.; Muhilini, K.

    2017-07-01

    The studies on durability of concrete have attracted attention in the recent years and its long term strength depends on quality of ingredients used in production of concrete. Now a days, the availability of ingredients is limited and in order to overcome this problem, research studies focuses on some alternate materials in the concrete production process. Also, Incorporation of waste materials consumes less energy leading to reduction of emission of green house gases. The application of fly ash and cow dung ash as a pozzolanic binder instead of cement and coir fibers finds extensive application in the manufacturing process of building materials. In this project an attempt has been made to utilize cow dung ash and coconut fiber as a replacement material of cement in the production of concrete. The cement is partially replaced with cow dung ash by about 2.5, 3 & 3.5 % by weight and with 1% of coconut fiber. The Compressive and Tensile strengths of concrete were found at different curing periods (7,14 & 28 days). From this study, it is inferred that these replacements will have a reasonable improvement in the strength properties of concrete by about 55-70%. The substitution of CDA, CF is economical in terms of cost and this usage eliminates the problem of landfills, reducing the environmental risk, maintaining the ecological balance, which is very much required for our nation.

  10. Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. [A commonly seen cause of abdominal pain: abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Solmaz, Ilker; Talay, Mustafa; Tekindur, Şükrü; Kurt, Ercan

    2012-01-01

    Although abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is accepted as a rare condition, it is a syndrome that should be diagnosed more commonly when the clinical signs cannot explain the cause of abdominal pain. Abdominal pain is commonly considered by physicians to be based on intra-abdominal causes. Consequently, redundant tests and consultations are requested for these patients, and unnecessary surgical procedures may be applied. Patients with this type of pain are consulted to many clinics, and because their definitive diagnoses cannot be achieved, they are assessed as psychiatric patients. Actually, a common cause of abdominal wall pain is nerve entrapment on the lateral edge of the rectus abdominis muscle. In this paper, we would like to share information about the diagnosis and treatment of a patient who, prior to presenting to us, had applied to different clinics for chronic abdominal pain and had undergone many tests and consultations; abdominal surgery was eventually decided.

  12. Effect of Different Binders on the Electrochemical Performance of Metal Oxide Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Feng, Lili; Yang, Wenrong; Zhang, Yinyin; Zhang, Yanli; Bai, Wei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Chuan, Yongming; Zheng, Ziguang; Guan, Hongjin

    2017-10-01

    When testing the electrochemical performance of metal oxide anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), binder played important role on the electrochemical performance. Which binder was more suitable for preparing transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs has not been systematically researched. Herein, five different binders such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) HSV900, PVDF 301F, PVDF Solvay5130, the mixture of styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SBR+CMC), and polyacrylonitrile (LA133) were studied to make anode electrodes (compared to the full battery). The electrochemical tests show that using SBR+CMC and LA133 binder which use water as solution were significantly better than PVDF. The SBR+CMC binder remarkably improve the bonding capacity, cycle stability, and rate performance of battery anode, and the capacity retention was about 87% after 50th cycle relative to the second cycle. SBR+CMC binder was more suitable for making transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs.

  13. The effect of crumb rubber particle size to the optimum binder content for open graded friction course.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Katman, Herda Yati; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Koting, Suhana; Mashaan, Nuha S

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the relations of rubber size, rubber content, and binder content in determination of optimum binder content for open graded friction course (OGFC). Mix gradation type B as specified in Specification for Porous Asphalt produced by the Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM) was used in this study. Marshall specimens were prepared with four different sizes of rubber, namely, 20 mesh size [0.841 mm], 40 mesh [0.42 mm], 80 mesh [0.177 mm], and 100 mesh [0.149 mm] with different concentrations of rubberised bitumen (4%, 8%, and 12%) and different percentages of binder content (4%-7%). The appropriate optimum binder content is then selected according to the results of the air voids, binder draindown, and abrasion loss test. Test results found that crumb rubber particle size can affect the optimum binder content for OGFC.

  14. Digital cinema video compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husak, Walter

    2003-05-01

    The Motion Picture Industry began a transition from film based distribution and projection to digital distribution and projection several years ago. Digital delivery and presentation offers the prospect to increase the quality of the theatrical experience for the audience, reduce distribution costs to the distributors, and create new business opportunities for the theater owners and the studios. Digital Cinema also presents an opportunity to provide increased flexibility and security of the movies for the content owners and the theater operators. Distribution of content via electronic means to theaters is unlike any of the traditional applications for video compression. The transition from film-based media to electronic media represents a paradigm shift in video compression techniques and applications that will be discussed in this paper.

  15. Progressive compressive imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evladov, Sergei; Levi, Ofer; Stern, Adrian

    2012-06-01

    We have designed and built a working automatic progressive sampling imaging system based on the vector sensor concept, which utilizes a unique sampling scheme of Radon projections. This sampling scheme makes it possible to progressively add information resulting in tradeoff between compression and the quality of reconstruction. The uniqueness of our sampling is that in any moment of the acquisition process the reconstruction can produce a reasonable version of the image. The advantage of the gradual addition of the samples is seen when the sparsity rate of the object is unknown, and thus the number of needed measurements. We have developed the iterative algorithm OSO (Ordered Sets Optimization) which employs our sampling scheme for creation of nearly uniform distributed sets of samples, which allows the reconstruction of Mega-Pixel images. We present the good quality reconstruction from compressed data ratios of 1:20.

  16. Isentropic compression of argon

    SciTech Connect

    Veeser, L.R.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Oona, H.

    1997-06-01

    The compression was done in an MC-1 flux compression (explosive) generator, in order to study the transition from an insulator to a conductor. Since conductivity signals were observed in all the experiments (except when the probe is removed), both the Teflon and the argon are becoming conductive. The conductivity could not be determined (Teflon insulation properties unknown), but it could be bounded as being {sigma}=1/{rho}{le}8({Omega}cm){sub -1}, because when the Teflon breaks down, the dielectric constant is reduced. The Teflon insulator problem remains, and other ways to better insulate the probe or to measure the conductivity without a probe is beingmore » sought.« less

  17. Compression of electromyographic signals using image compression techniques.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcus Vinícius Chaffim; Berger, Pedro de Azevedo; da Rocha, Adson Ferreira; de Carvalho, João Luiz Azevedo; Nascimento, Francisco Assis de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in the transmission and storage of electromyographic signals for long periods of time, few studies have addressed the compression of such signals. In this article we present an algorithm for compression of electromyographic signals based on the JPEG2000 coding system. Although the JPEG2000 codec was originally designed for compression of still images, we show that it can also be used to compress EMG signals for both isotonic and isometric contractions. For EMG signals acquired during isometric contractions, the proposed algorithm provided compression factors ranging from 75 to 90%, with an average PRD ranging from 3.75% to 13.7%. For isotonic EMG signals, the algorithm provided compression factors ranging from 75 to 90%, with an average PRD ranging from 3.4% to 7%. The compression results using the JPEG2000 algorithm were compared to those using other algorithms based on the wavelet transform.

  18. Distributed Compressive Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    example, smooth signals are sparse in the Fourier basis, and piecewise smooth signals are sparse in a wavelet basis [8]; the commercial coding standards MP3...including wavelets [8], Gabor bases [8], curvelets [35], etc., are widely used for representation and compression of natural signals, images, and...spikes and the sine waves of a Fourier basis, or the Fourier basis and wavelets . Signals that are sparsely represented in frames or unions of bases can

  19. Conductive Polymeric Binder for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tianxiang

    Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and pulverization during the charging and discharging process, many researchers put efforts into it. Most of the strategies are through nanostructured material design and introducing conductive polymer binders that serve as matrix of the active material in anode. This thesis aims for developing a novel method for preparing the anode to improve the capacity retention rate. This would require the anode to have high electrical conductivity, high ionic conductivity, and good mechanical properties, especially elasticity. Here the incorporation of a conducting polymer and a conductive hydrogel in Sn-based anodes using a one-step electrochemical deposition via a 3-electrode cell method is reported: the Sn particles and conductive component can be electrochemically synthesized and simultaneously deposited into a hybrid thin film onto the working electrode directly forming the anode. A well-defined three dimensional network structure consisting of Sn nanoparticles coated by conducting polymers is achieved. Such a conductive polymer-hydrogel network has multiple advantageous features: meshporous polymeric structure can offer the pathway for lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte; the continuous electrically conductive polypyrrole network, with the electrostatic interaction with elastic, porous hydrogel, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAMPS) as both the crosslinker and doping anion for polypyrrole (PPy) can decrease the volume expansion by creating porous scaffold and softening the system itself. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of PAMPS and creating an interval can improve the cycling performance, resulting in improved capacity retention about 80% after 20 cycles, compared with only 54% of that of the control sample without PAMPS. The cycle

  20. Novel, inorganic composites using porous, alkali-activated, aluminosilicate binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musil, Sean

    Geopolymers are an inorganic polymeric material composed of alumina, silica, and alkali metal oxides. Geopolymers are chemical and fire resistant, can be used as refractory adhesives, and are processed at or near ambient temperature. These properties make geopolymer an attractive choice as a matrix material for elevated temperature composites. This body of research investigated numerous different reinforcement possibilities and variants of geopolymer matrix material and characterized their mechanical performance in tension, flexure and flexural creep. Reinforcements can then be chosen based on the resulting properties to tailor the geopolymer matrix composites to a specific application condition. Geopolymer matrix composites combine the ease of processing of polymer matrix composites with the high temperature capability of ceramic matrix composites. This study incorporated particulate, unidirectional fiber and woven fiber reinforcements. Sodium, potassium, and cesium based geopolymer matrices were evaluated with cesium based geopolymer showing great promise as a high temperature matrix material. It showed the best strength retention at elevated temperature, as well as a very low coefficient of thermal expansion when crystallized into pollucite. These qualities made cesium geopolymer the best choice for creep resistant applications. Cesium geopolymer binders were combined with unidirectional continuous polycrystalline mullite fibers (Nextel(TM) 720) and single crystal mullite fibers, then the matrix was crystallized to form cubic pollucite. Single crystal mullite fibers were obtained by the internal crystallization method and show excellent creep resistance up to 1400°C. High temperature flexural strength and flexural creep resistance of pollucite and polycrystalline/single-crystal fibers was evaluated at 1000-1400°C.

  1. Aqueous Binder Enhanced High-Performance GeP5 Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    He, Jun; Wei, Yaqing; Hu, Lintong; Li, Huiqiao; Zhai, Tianyou

    2018-01-01

    GeP5 is a recently reported new anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), it holds a large theoretical capacity about 2300 mAh g−1, and a high rate capability due to its bi-active components and superior conductivity. However, it undergoes a large volume change during its electrochemical alloying and de-alloying with Li, a suitable binder is necessary to stable the electrode integrity for improving cycle performance. In this work, we tried to apply aqueous binders LiPAA and NaCMC to GeP5 anode, and compared the difference in electrochemical performance between them and traditional binder PVDF. As can be seen from the test result, GeP5 can keep stable in both common organic solvents and proton solvents such as water and alcohol solvents, it meets the application requirements of aqueous binders. The electrochemistry results show that the use of LiPAA binder can significantly improve the initial Coulombic efficiency, reversible capacity, and cyclability of GeP5 anode as compared to the electrodes based on NaCMC and PVDF binders. The enhanced electrochemical performance of GeP5 electrode with LiPAA binder can be ascribed to the unique high strength long chain polymer structure of LiPAA, which also provide numerous uniform distributed carboxyl groups to form strong ester groups with active materials and copper current collector. Benefit from that, the GeP5 electrode with LiPAA can also exhibit excellent rate capability, and even at low temperature, it still shows attractive electrochemical performance. PMID:29484292

  2. Wear and corrosion behaviour of tungsten carbide based coatings with different metallic binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdi, Z.; Apandi, M. N. M.; Ibrahim, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Tungsten carbide based coating has been well known as wear and corrosion resistance materials. However, less study is done on comparing the coating with different binder. Thus, in this work the wear and corrosion behaviour of high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coatings, namely (i) tungsten carbide cobalt and (ii) tungsten carbide nickel will be evaluated. Both coatings were characterised using X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The wear behaviour has been examined using the modified grinder machine by weight loss measurement. Two types of abrasive have been used that include 3 g by weight alumina and silica. While for the corrosion behaviour, it is monitored by three electrodes of electrochemical test and immersion test for 30 days in an acidic environment. The electrolyte used was 0.5 M sulphuric acids (H2SO4). It was found that the cobalt binder shows higher wear resistance compares to the nickel binder for both slurry types. The harder alumina compared to silica results in higher wear rate with removal of carbide and binder is about the same rate. For silica abrasive, due to slightly lower hardness compared to the carbide, the wear is dominated by binder removal followed by carbide detachment. For corrosion, the nickel binder shows four times higher wear resistance compared to the cobalt binder as expected due to its natural behaviour. These finding demonstrate that the selection of coating to be used in different application in this case, wear and corrosion shall be chosen carefully to maximize the usage of the coating.

  3. Aqueous Binder Enhanced High-Performance GeP5 Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jun; Wei, Yaqing; Hu, Lintong; Li, Huiqiao; Zhai, Tianyou

    2018-02-01

    GeP5 is a recently reported new anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), it holds a large theoretical capacity about 2300 mAh g-1, and a high rate capability due to its bi-active components and superior conductivity. However, it undergoes a large volume change during its electrochemical alloying and de-alloying with Li, a suitable binder is necessary to stable the electrode integrity for improving cycle performance. In this work, we tried to apply aqueous binders LiPAA and NaCMC to GeP5 anode, and compared the difference in electrochemical performance between them and traditional binder PVDF. As can be seen from the test result, GeP5 can keep stable in both common organic solvents and proton solvents such as water and alcohol solvents, it meets the application requirements of aqueous binders. The electrochemistry results show that the use of LiPAA binder can significantly improve the initial Coulombic efficiency, reversible capacity, and cyclability of GeP5 anode as compared to the electrodes based on NaCMC and PVDF binders. The enhanced electrochemical performance of GeP5 electrode with LiPAA binder can be ascribed to the unique high strength long chain polymer structure of LiPAA, which also provide numerous uniform distributed carboxyl groups to form strong ester groups with active meterials and copper current collector. Benefit from that, the GeP5 electrode with LiPAA can also exhibit excellent rate capability, and even at low temperature, it still shows attractive electrochemical performance.

  4. Mammographic compression in Asian women.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susie; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2017-01-01

    To investigate: (1) the variability of mammographic compression parameters amongst Asian women; and (2) the effects of reducing compression force on image quality and mean glandular dose (MGD) in Asian women based on phantom study. We retrospectively collected 15818 raw digital mammograms from 3772 Asian women aged 35-80 years who underwent screening or diagnostic mammography between Jan 2012 and Dec 2014 at our center. The mammograms were processed using a volumetric breast density (VBD) measurement software (Volpara) to assess compression force, compression pressure, compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast volume, VBD and MGD against breast contact area. The effects of reducing compression force on image quality and MGD were also evaluated based on measurement obtained from 105 Asian women, as well as using the RMI156 Mammographic Accreditation Phantom and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs. Compression force, compression pressure, CBT, breast volume, VBD and MGD correlated significantly with breast contact area (p<0.0001). Compression parameters including compression force, compression pressure, CBT and breast contact area were widely variable between [relative standard deviation (RSD)≥21.0%] and within (p<0.0001) Asian women. The median compression force should be about 8.1 daN compared to the current 12.0 daN. Decreasing compression force from 12.0 daN to 9.0 daN increased CBT by 3.3±1.4 mm, MGD by 6.2-11.0%, and caused no significant effects on image quality (p>0.05). Force-standardized protocol led to widely variable compression parameters in Asian women. Based on phantom study, it is feasible to reduce compression force up to 32.5% with minimal effects on image quality and MGD.

  5. Fecal Impaction Causing Pelvic Venous Compression and Edema.

    PubMed

    Naramore, Sara; Aziz, Faisal; Alexander, Chandran Paul; Methratta, Sosamma; Cilley, Robert; Rocourt, Dorothy

    2015-09-28

    Chronic constipation is a common condition which may result in fecal impaction. A 13-year-old male with chronic constipation and encopresis presented with fecal impaction for three weeks. The impaction caused abdominal pain, distension, encopresis, and decreased oral intake. He was found in severe distress with non-pitting edema of his feet and ankles along with perineal edema. The pedal edema worsened after receiving a fluid bolus, so concern arose for venous compression or a thrombus. A Duplex Ultrasound demonstrated changes in the venous waveforms of the bilateral external iliac and common femoral veins without thrombosis. Manual disimpaction and polyethylene glycol 3350 with electrolytes resolved the pedal and perineal edema. Four months later, he had soft bowel movements without recurrence of the edema. A repeat Duplex Ultrasound was normal. We present a child in whom severe fecal impaction caused pelvic venous compression resulting in bilateral pedal and perineal edema.

  6. Fecal Impaction Causing Pelvic Venous Compression and Edema

    PubMed Central

    Naramore, Sara; Aziz, Faisal; Alexander, Chandran Paul; Methratta, Sosamma; Cilley, Robert; Rocourt, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common condition which may result in fecal impaction. A 13-year-old male with chronic constipation and encopresis presented with fecal impaction for three weeks. The impaction caused abdominal pain, distension, encopresis, and decreased oral intake. He was found in severe distress with non-pitting edema of his feet and ankles along with perineal edema. The pedal edema worsened after receiving a fluid bolus, so concern arose for venous compression or a thrombus. A Duplex Ultrasound demonstrated changes in the venous waveforms of the bilateral external iliac and common femoral veins without thrombosis. Manual disimpaction and polyethylene glycol 3350 with electrolytes resolved the pedal and perineal edema. Four months later, he had soft bowel movements without recurrence of the edema. A repeat Duplex Ultrasound was normal. We present a child in whom severe fecal impaction caused pelvic venous compression resulting in bilateral pedal and perineal edema. PMID:26500749

  7. Investigating the Doping Mechanism of Pyrene Based Methacrylate Functional Conductive Binder in Silicon Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Ling, Min; Liu, Michael; Zheng, Tianyue; ...

    2017-01-01

    The doping mechanism of poly (1-pyrenemethyl methacrylate) (PPy) is investigated through electrochemical analytical and spectroscopic method. The performance of PPy as a Si materials binder is studied and compared with that of a commercial available lithium polyacrylate (PAALi) binder. The pyrene moiety consumes lithium ions according to the cyclic voltammogram (CV) measurement, as a doping to the PPy binder. Based on the lithium consumption, PPy based Si/graphite electrode doping is quantified at 1.1 electron/pyrene moiety. Lastly, the PPy binder based electrodes surface are uniform and crack free during lithiation/delithiation, which is revealed through Scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging.

  8. Binder-free LiCoO2/carbon nanotube cathodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shu; Wang, Ke; Wang, Jiaping; Jiang, Kaili; Li, Qunqing; Fan, Shoushan

    2012-05-02

    Binder-free LiCoO(2) -SACNT cathodes with excellent flexibility and conductivity are obtained by constructing a continuous three-dimensional super-aligned carbon nanotube (SACNT) framework with embedded LiCoO(2) particles. These binder-free cathodes display much better cycling stability, greater rate performance, and higher energy density than classical cathodes with binder. Various functional binder-free SACNT composites can be mass produced by the ultrasonication and co-deposition method described in this paper. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Laparoscopy In Unexplained Abdominal Pain: Surgeon's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Muhammad Tariq; Waqar, Shahzad Hussain; Zahid, Muhammad Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Unexplained abdominal pain is a common but difficult presenting feature faced by the clinicians. Such patients can undergo a number of investigations with failure to reach any diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of laparoscopy in the diagnosis and management of patients with unexplained abdominal pain. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad from January 2009 to December 2013. This study included 91 patients of unexplained abdominal pain not diagnosed by routine clinical examination and investigations. These patients were subjected to diagnostic laparoscopy for evaluation of their conditions and to confirm the diagnosis. These patients presented 43% of patients undergoing investigations for abdominal pain. Patients diagnosed with gynaecological problems were excluded to see surgeon's perspective. The findings and the outcomes of the laparoscopy were recorded and data was analyzed. Unexplained abdominal pain is common in females than in males. The most common laparoscopic findings were abdominal tuberculosis followed by appendicitis. Ninety percent patients achieved pain relief after laparoscopic intervention. Laparoscopy is both beneficial and safe in majority of patients with unexplained abdominal pain. General surgeons should acquire training and experience in laparoscopic surgery to provide maximum benefit to these difficult patients.

  10. Intra-abdominal pressure during swimming.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, S; Ogita, F; Huang, Z; Kurobe, K; Nagira, A; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, H; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the intra-abdominal pressure during front crawl swimming at different velocities in competitive swimmers and to clarify the relationships between stroke indices and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. The subjects were 7 highly trained competitive collegiate male swimmers. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured during front crawl swimming at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 m · s(-1) and during the Valsalva maneuver. Intra-abdominal pressure was taken as the difference between minimum and maximum values, and the mean of 6 stable front crawl stroke cycles was used. Stroke rate and stroke length were also measured as stroke indices. There were significant differences in stroke rate among all velocities (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in stroke length by velocity. Significant within-subject correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke rate or stroke length (P < 0.01) were observed, although there were no significant correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke indices when controlling for swimming velocity. These findings do not appear to support the effectiveness of trunk training performed by competitive swimmers aimed at increasing intra-abdominal pressure. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Traumatic abdominal hernia complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Aleix; Garrigós-Ortega, Gonzalo; Gómez-Abril, Segundo Ángel; Martí-Martínez, Eva; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a critical illness involving skin and soft tissues, which may develop after blunt abdominal trauma causing abdominal wall hernia and representing a great challenge for physicians. A 52-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a road accident, presenting blunt abdominal trauma with a large non-reducible mass in the lower-right abdomen. A first, CT showed abdominal hernia without signs of complication. Three hours after ICU admission, he developed hemodynamic instability. Therefore, a new CT scan was requested, showing signs of hernia complication. He was moved to the operating room where a complete transversal section of an ileal loop was identified. Five hours after surgery, he presented a new episode of hemodynamic instability with signs of skin and soft tissue infection. Due to the high clinical suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis development, wide debridement was performed. Following traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH), patients can present unsuspected injuries in abdominal organs. Helical CT can be falsely negative in the early moments, leading to misdiagnosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection and, consequently, resuscitation measures, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and early surgical debridement are required. This type of fasciitis can develop after blunt abdominal trauma following wall hernia without skin disruption.

  12. Review article: the functional abdominal pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sperber, A D; Drossman, D A

    2011-03-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a debilitating disorder with constant or nearly constant abdominal pain, present for at least 6 months and loss of daily functioning. To review the epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of FAPS. A literature review using the keywords: functional abdominal pain, chronic abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and functional gastrointestinal disorders. No epidemiological studies have focused specifically on FAPS. Estimates of prevalence range from 0.5% to 1.7% and tend to show a female predominance. FAPS pathophysiology appears unique in that the pain is caused primarily by amplified central perception of normal visceral input, rather than by enhanced peripheral stimulation from abdominal viscera. The diagnosis of FAPS is symptom-based in accordance with the Rome III diagnostic criteria. These criteria are geared to identify patients with severe symptoms as they require constant or nearly constant abdominal pain with loss of daily function and are differentiated from IBS based on their non-association with changes in bowel habit, eating or other gut-related events. As cure is not feasible, the aims of treatment are reduced suffering and improved quality of life. Treatment is based on a biopsychosocial approach with a therapeutic patient-physician partnership at its base. Therapeutic options include central nonpharmacological and pharmacological modalities and peripheral modalities. These can be combined to produce an augmentation effect. Although few studies have assessed functional abdominal pain syndrome or its treatment specifically, the treatment strategies outlined in this paper appear to be effective. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Abdominal epilepsy as an unusual cause of abdominal pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Yilmaz; Sefer, Ustebay; Dondu, Ulker Ustebay; Ismail, Ozanli; Yusuf, Ehi

    2016-09-01

    Abdominal pain, in etiology sometimes difficult to be defined, is a frequent complaint in childhood. Abdominal epilepsy is a rare cause of abdominal pain. In this article, we report on 5 year old girl patient with abdominal epilepsy. Some investigations (stool investigation, routine blood tests, ultrasonography (USG), electrocardiogram (ECHO) and electrocardiograpy (ECG), holter for 24hr.) were done to understand the origin of these complaints; but no abnormalities were found. Finally an EEG was done during an episode of abdominal pain and it was shown that there were generalized spikes especially precipitated by hyperventilation. The patient did well on valproic acid therapy and EEG was normal 1 month after beginning of the treatment. The cause of chronic recurrent paroxymal abdominal pain is difficult for the clinicians to diagnose in childhood. A lot of disease may lead to paroxysmal gastrointestinal symptoms like familial mediterranean fever and porfiria. Abdominal epilepsy is one of the rare but easily treatable cause of abdominal pain. In conclusion, abdominal epilepsy should be suspected in children with recurrent abdominal pain.

  14. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

  15. Treatment strategy for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Davidovic, L

    2014-07-01

    Rupture is the most serious and lethal complication of the abdominal aortic aneurysm. Despite all improvements during the past 50 years, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are still associated with very high mortality. Namely, including patients who die before reaching the hospital, the mortality rate due to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is 90%. On the other hand, during the last twenty years, the number of abdominal aortic aneurysms significantly increased. One of the reasons is the fact that in majority of countries the general population is older nowadays. Due to this, the number of degenerative AAA is increasing. This is also the case for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. Age must not be the reason of a treatment refusal. Optimal therapeutic option ought to be found. The following article is based on literature analysis including current guidelines but also on my Clinics significant experience. Furthermore, this article show cases options for vascular medicine in undeveloped countries that can not apply endovascular procedures at a sufficient level and to a sufficient extent. At this moment the following is evident. Thirty-day-mortality after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms is significantly lower in high-volume hospitals. Due to different reasons all ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are not suitable for EVAR. Open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm should be performed by experienced open vascular surgeons. This could also be said for the treatment of endovascular complications that require open surgical conversion. There is no ideal procedure for the treatment of AAA. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages, its own limits and complications, as well as indications and contraindications. Future reductions in mortality of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms will depend on implementation of population-based screening; on strategies to prevent postoperative organ injury and also on new medical technology

  16. Rheological and thermal performance of newly developed binder systems for ceramic injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Kasparkova, Vera; Hnatkova, Eva

    2016-05-01

    In a novel binder system, carnauba wax was considered to replace the synthetic backbone polymers (polyolefins) enhancing the environmental sustainability of Ceramic Injection Molding (CIM) technology. The paper presents comparison of the rheological performance and thermal behavior of the aluminum oxide CIM feedstocks based on a binder containing carnauba wax with those consisting of a commercial binder. Further, acrawax (N, N'-Ethylene Bis-stearamide) has been considered as another possible substitute of polyolefins. For both proposed substitutes there is a significant reduction in viscosity, and in case of carnauba wax based feedstock also in processing temperature, which is essential for injection molding of reactive powders. Thermal characterization comprised analyses of single neat binders, their mixtures and mixtures with aluminum oxide. The presence of powder lowered melting temperatures of all tested binders except of polyolefin. Further depression in melting point of poly(ethylene glycol) is observed in combination with polyolefin in the presence of powder, and it is related to changes in size of the crystalline domains.

  17. A Robust, Water-Based, Functional Binder Framework for High-Energy Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Matthew J; Österlund, Viking; Bergfelt, Andreas; Jeschull, Fabian; Bowden, Tim; Brandell, Daniel

    2017-07-10

    We report here a water-based functional binder framework for the lithium-sulfur battery systems, based on the general combination of a polyether and an amide-containing polymer. These binders are applied to positive electrodes optimised towards high-energy electrochemical performance based only on commercially available materials. Electrodes with up to 4 mAh cm -2 capacity and 97-98 % coulombic efficiency are achievable in electrodes with a 65 % total sulfur content and a poly(ethylene oxide):poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PEO:PVP) binder system. Exchange of either binder component for a different polymer with similar functionality preserves the high capacity and coulombic efficiency. The improvement in coulombic efficiency from the inclusion of the coordinating amide group was also observed in electrodes where pyrrolidone moieties were covalently grafted to the carbon black, indicating the role of this functionality in facilitating polysulfide adsorption to the electrode surface. The mechanical properties of the electrodes appear not to significantly influence sulfur utilisation or coulombic efficiency in the short term but rather determine retention of these properties over extended cycling. These results demonstrate the robustness of this very straightforward approach, as well as the considerable scope for designing binder materials with targeted properties. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. OncoBinder facilitates interpretation of proteomic interaction data by capturing coactivation pairs in cancer.

    PubMed

    Van Coillie, Samya; Liang, Lunxi; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Huanbin; Fang, Jing-Yuan; Xu, Jie

    2016-04-05

    High-throughput methods such as co-immunoprecipitationmass spectrometry (coIP-MS) and yeast 2 hybridization (Y2H) have suggested a broad range of unannotated protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and interpretation of these PPIs remains a challenging task. The advancements in cancer genomic researches allow for the inference of "coactivation pairs" in cancer, which may facilitate the identification of PPIs involved in cancer. Here we present OncoBinder as a tool for the assessment of proteomic interaction data based on the functional synergy of oncoproteins in cancer. This decision tree-based method combines gene mutation, copy number and mRNA expression information to infer the functional status of protein-coding genes. We applied OncoBinder to evaluate the potential binders of EGFR and ERK2 proteins based on the gastric cancer dataset of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). As a result, OncoBinder identified high confidence interactions (annotated by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) or validated by low-throughput assays) more efficiently than co-expression based method. Taken together, our results suggest that evaluation of gene functional synergy in cancer may facilitate the interpretation of proteomic interaction data. The OncoBinder toolbox for Matlab is freely accessible online.

  19. Influence of solidification accelerators on structure formation of anhydrite-containing binders

    SciTech Connect

    Anikanova, L., E-mail: alasmit@mail.ru; Volkova, O., E-mail: v.olga.nikitina@gmail.com; Kudyakov, A.

    2016-01-15

    The article presents results of scientific analysis of chemical additives influence on acid fluoride binder. It was found that the influence of sulfate nature additives on the process of hydration and solidification of the binder is similar to influence of additives on indissoluble anhydrite. Additives with SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anion NO{sup −} are more efficient. The mentioned additives according to accelerating effect belong to the following succession: K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} > Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} > FeSO{sub 4} > MgSO{sub 4}. Facilitation of the process of hydration and solidification of the binder, increase in density and durability of the binder (32 MPa)more » is to the greatest extent achieved with the introduction of 2% sodium sulfate additive of the binder’s mass into the composition of the binder along with the ultrasonic treatment of water solution. Directed crystal formation process with healing of porous structure by new growths presented as calcium sulfate dehydrate and hydroglauberite provides positive effect.« less

  20. Powder bed binder jet 3D printing of Inconel 718: Densification, microstructural evolution and challenges

    DOE PAGES

    Nandwana, Peeyush; Elliott, Amy M.; Siddel, Derek; ...

    2017-01-03

    Traditional manufacturing of Inconel 718 components from castings and thermomechanical processing routes involve extensive post processing and machining to attain the desired geometry. Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies including direct energy deposition (DED), selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM) and binder jet 3D printing (BJ3DP) can minimize scrap generation and reduce lead times. While there is extensive literature on the use of melting and solidification based AM technologies, there has been limited research on the use of binder jet 3D printing. In this paper, a brief review on binder jet additive manufacturing of Inconel 718 is presented. In addition,more » existing knowledge on sintering of Inconel 718 has been extended to binder jet 3D printing. We found that supersolidus liquid phase sintering (SLPS) is necessary to achieve full densification of Inconel 718. SLPS is sensitive to the feedstock chemistry that has a strong influence on the liquid volume fraction at the processing temperature. Based on these results, we discuss an empirical framework to determine the role of powder particle size and liquid volume fraction on sintering kinetics. In conclusion, the role of powder packing factor and binder saturation on microstructural evolution is discussed. The current challenges in the use of BJ3DP for fabrication of Inconel 718, as well as, extension to other metal systems, are presented.« less