... Syndrome The Digestive System & How it Works Abdominal Adhesions What are abdominal adhesions? Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that ... or stool through the intestines. What causes abdominal adhesions? Abdominal surgery is the most frequent cause of ...
... An abnormal result may be due to: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abscess Cancer or tumors that involves the adrenal ... Churchill Livingstone; 2015:chap 5. Read More Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open Abscess Acute arterial ...
... Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...
... tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap Images Digestive system Peritoneal sample References Garcia-Tiso G. ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...
... Kidney - blood and urine flow Abdominal ultrasound References Chen L. Abdominal ultrasound imaging. In: Sahani DV, Samir ... the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should not be used ...
Glauser, Frédéric; Barras, Anne-Catherine; Pache, Isabelle; Monti, Matteo
Abdominal paracentesis is frequently performed in the clinical setting. Every newly developed ascites need to be investigated by abdominal paracentesis. Any clinical or biological deterioration in patients with chronic ascites also requires a new paracentesis. Therapeutically abdominal paracentesis is performed for refractory or symptomatic ascites. As other invasive procedures, it is critical to master its indications, contra-indications and complications. The aim of this article is to review the basics of abdominal paracentesis in order to help physicians to carry out this technical skill.
Gschossmann, J M; Holtmann, G; Netzer, P; Essig, M; Balsiger, B M; Scheurer, U
Abdominal pain can result from a variety of different intra- and extra-abdominal disorders. Given the wide variety of etiological triggers for this pain, the primary task during the first stage of the diagnostic work-up is to determine as soon as possible the underlying cause and the degree of emergency. The aim of this evaluation is to adapt the therapeutic measures which are necessary for a causal treatment to the individual situation. Contrary to somatic causes of abdominal pain, the availability of such a causal therapy for functional bowel disorders is still very limited. Given this dilemma, the therapeutic focus of abdominal pain associated with these functional syndromes has to be placed on symptom-oriented treatment.
Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is does not always reflect the seriousness ...
De Waele, Jan J
Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.
... Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91–111. Seek Help for ... and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website ... Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders 700 West Virginia ...
Kapoor, V. K.
Tuberculosis has staged a global comeback and forms a dangerous combination with AIDS. The abdomen is one of the common sites of extrapulmonary involvement. Patients with abdominal tuberculosis have a wide range and spectrum of symptoms and signs; the disease is therefore a great mimic. Diagnosis, mainly radiological and supported by endoscopy, is difficult to make and laparotomy is required in a large number of patient. Management involves judicious combination of antitubercular therapy and surgery which may be required to treat complications such as intestinal obstruction and perforation. The disease, though potentially curable, carries a significant morbidity and mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:9926119
Suarez-Moreno, Roberto; Ponce-Pérez, Luis Virgilio; Margain-Paredes, Miguel Angel; Garza-de la Llave, Heriberto; Madrazo-Navarro, Mario; Espinosa-Álvarez, Arturo
Antecedentes: la enfermedad de Churg-Strauss es poco común, idiopática, caracterizada por hipereosinofilia en sangre y tejidos, aunada a vasculitis sistémica en pacientes con antecedentes de asma o rinitis alérgica. Las manifestaciones gastrointestinales del síndrome de Churg Strauss se caracterizan por dolor abdominal, seguido de diarrea y hemorragia en 31-45% de los casos. Caso clínico: paciente masculino con antecedente de asma que acudió a consulta por abdomen agudo con probable apendicitis aguda; durante el protocolo de estudio se diagnosticó síndrome de Churg Strauss, con manifestaciones intestinales. Conclusión: el síndrome de Churg Strauss es una vasculitis poco frecuente que puede manifestarse con síntomas intestinales, como en este caso; es importante tenerlo en mente a la hora de los diagnósticos diferenciales. Existen pocos reportes con este síndrome asociado con abdomen agudo, todos ellos con mal pronóstico.
Campos-Muñoz, Manuel Alejandro; Villarreal-Ríos, Enrique; Chimal-Torres, Mariano; Pozas-Medina, Josué Atila
Introducción: la presión intraabdominal es el estado de equilibrio de la presión de la cavidad abdominal en reposo y puede presentar cambios durante la ventilación mecánica o espontánea. El objetivo fue determinar la presión intraabdominal como predictor de cirugía en el paciente con dolor abdominal agudo. Métodos: se llevó a cabo un estudio de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte de pacientes con dolor abdominal agudo en el servicio de urgencias de un hospital de segundo nivel, en el periodo comprendido entre abril y diciembre de 2013. Se incluyeron 37 pacientes, todos fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente con previa toma de la presión intraabdominal. Se formaron los grupos con el resultado del estudio anatomopatológico: con evidencia de proceso inflamatorio abdominal agudo (n = 28) y sin evidencia de proceso inflamatorio abdominal agudo (n = 9). Resultados: en los casos el 100 % presentó presión intraabdominal alta con una p = 0.01, RM: 5 (IC 95 %: 2.578-9.699). En los casos la media de la presión intraabdominal fue de 11.46 y en los controles de 9.2 (p = 0.183). Conclusiones: el dolor abdominal que requiere cirugía para su resolución tiene relación directa con una presión intraabdominal > 5 mmHg.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000162.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm To use the sharing features on this page, ... to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ...
Radiation - abdomen - discharge; Cancer - abdominal radiation; Lymphoma - abdominal radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after radiation treatment starts, you might notice changes ...
... Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis or plaque buildup causes the ... weak and bulge outward like a balloon. An AAA develops slowly over time and has few noticeable ...
Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...
Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A; Maltese, M R
Although considerable efforts have been advanced to investigate the biomechanical aspects of abdominal injuries, reviews have been very limited. The purpose of this article is to present a comprehensive review of the topic. Traumatic abdominal injuries occur due to penetrating or blunt loading. However, the present review is focused on blunt trauma. Because of the complexity of the abdomen, biomechanically relevant anatomical characteristics of the various abdominal organs are presented. The proposed mechanism of injury for these organs and methods for abdominal injury quantification are described. This is followed by a detailed analysis of the biomechanical literature with particular emphasis on experiments aimed to duplicate real world injuries and attempt to quantify trauma in terms of parameters such as force, deflection, viscous criteria, pressure criteria, and correlation of these variables with the severity of abdominal injury. Experimental studies include tests using primates, pigs, rats, beagles, and human cadavers. The effects of velocity, compression, padding, and impactor characteristics on tolerance; effects of pressurization and postmortem characteristics on abdominal injury; deduction of abdominal response corridors; and force-deflection responses (of the different abdominal regions and organs) are discussed. Output of initial research is presented on the development of a device to record the biomechanical parameters in an anthropomorphic test dummy during impact. Based on these studies and the current need for abdominal protection, recommendations are given for further research.
Salas-Lozano, Nereo Guillermo; Meza-Cardona, Javier; González-Fernández, Coty; Pineda-Figueroa, Laura; de Ariño-Suárez, Mauricio
Antecedentes: el angioedema hereditario es un trastorno inflamatorio episódico, que se hereda de manera autosómica dominante y se caracteriza por episodios de edema periférico. Los pacientes pueden tener edema de la pared de cualquier víscera hueca, incluido el intestino. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de un paciente masculino de 33 años de edad, sin antecedentes de importancia, con dolor abdominal, localizado en el epigastrio, irradiado al cuadrante inferior derecho, acompañado de 5 vómitos. La tomografía abdominal mostró engrosamiento de la pared de la segunda y tercera porción del duodeno, con infiltración de grasa y líquido libre. Los exámenes de laboratorio mostraron: concentraciones bajas del complemento C4 (5.5 mg/dL) y actividad del inhibidor de C1 del complemento de 30%. Conclusiones: el angioedema hereditario es consecuencia de la deficiencia (tipo I) o disfunción (tipo II) del inhibidor C1 del complemento. El dolor abdominal asociado con angioedema es de inicio súbito, como dolor cólico, recurrente y de intensidad moderada. En la actualidad existen dos medicamentos aprobados por la Food and Drug Administration para el tratamiento de pacientes con esta afección.
Kirkpatrick, A W; Nickerson, D; Roberts, D J; Rosen, M J; McBeth, P B; Petro, C C; Berrevoet, Frederik; Sugrue, M; Xiao, Jimmy; Ball, C G
Reconstruction with reconstitution of the container function of the abdominal compartment is increasingly being performed in patients with massive ventral hernia previously deemed inoperable. This situation places patients at great risk of severe intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome if organ failure ensues. Intra-abdominal hypertension and especially abdominal compartment syndrome may be devastating systemic complications with systematic and progressive organ failure and death. We thus reviewed the pathophysiology and reported clinical experiences with abnormalities of intra-abdominal pressure in the context of abdominal wall reconstruction. Bibliographic databases (1950-2015), websites, textbooks, and the bibliographies of previously recovered articles for reports or data relating to intra-abdominal pressure, intra-abdominal hypertension, and the abdominal compartment syndrome in relation to ventral, incisional, or abdominal hernia repair or abdominal wall reconstruction. Surgeons should thus consider and carefully measure intra-abdominal pressure and its resultant effects on respiratory parameters and function during abdominal wall reconstruction. The intra-abdominal pressure post-operatively will be a result of the new intra-peritoneal volume and the abdominal wall compliance. Strategies surgeons may utilize to ameliorate intra-abdominal pressure rise after abdominal wall reconstruction including temporizing paralysis of the musculature either temporarily or semi-permanently, pre-operative progressive pneumoperitoneum, permanently removing visceral contents, or surgically releasing the musculature to increase the abdominal container volume. In patients without complicating shock and inflammation, and in whom the abdominal wall anatomy has been so functionally adapted to maximize compliance, intra-abdominal hypertension may be transient and tolerable. Intra-abdominal hypertension/abdominal compartment syndrome in the specific setting of
Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q
Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy.
Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto
Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678
Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T
The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Koop, Herbert; Koprdova, Simona; Schürmann, Christine
Chronic abdominal wall pain is a poorly recognized clinical problem despite being an important element in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. This review is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and EMBASE employing the terms "abdominal wall pain" and "cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. In 2% to 3% of patients with chronic abdominal pain, the pain arises from the abdominal wall; in patients with previously diagnosed chronic abdominal pain who have no demonstrable pathological abnormality, this likelihood can rise as high as 30% . There have only been a small number of clinical trials of treatment for this condition. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, with the aid of Carnett's test. The characteristic clinical feature is strictly localized pain in the anterior abdominal wall, which is often mischaracterized as a "functional" complaint. In one study, injection of local anesthesia combined with steroids into the painful area was found to relieve pain for 4 weeks in 95% of patients. The injection of lidocaine alone brought about improvement in 83-91% of patients. Long-term pain relief ensued after a single lidocaine injection in 20-30% of patients, after repeated injections in 40-50% , and after combined lidocaine and steroid injections in up to 80% . Pain that persists despite these treatments can be treated with surgery (neurectomy). Chronic abdominal wall pain is easily diagnosed on physical examination and can often be rapidly treated. Any physician treating patients with abdominal pain should be aware of this condition. Further comparative treatment trials will be needed before a validated treatment algorithm can be established.
Abdominal pain is among the most frequent ailments reported in the office setting and can account for up to 40% of ailments in the ambulatory practice. Also, it is in the top three symptoms of patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) and accounts for 5-10% of all ED primary presenting ailments. There are several common sources for acute abdominal pain and many for subacute and chronic abdominal pain. This article explores the history-taking, initial evaluation, and examination of the patient presenting with acute abdominal pain. The goal of this article is to help differentiate one source of pain from another. Discussion of acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis, appendicitis, ectopic pregnancy, diverticulitis, gastritis, and gastroenteritis are undertaken. Additionally, there is discussion of common laboratory studies, diagnostic studies, and treatment of the patient with the above entities.
Chang, Yu; Tsai, Eing Mei; Long, Cheng Yu; Chen, Yung Hung; Kay, Nari
Abdominal wall endometriosis is rare, with an incidence of 0.03-0.47% following cesarean delivery. The study reviewed abdominal wall endometriomas during an 8-year period in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital. Of 166 patients with endometriosis treated surgically in the hospital during an 8-year period, 20 (12%) had abdominal wall endometriomas. The mean interval between the prior operation and the appearance of the first symptoms was 39.3 months. Preoperative diagnosis was correct in 14 patients (70%). Abdominal wall endometrioma is more common than generally assumed in patients visiting the hospital. In patients with a palpable subcutaneous mass near surgical scars associated with cyclic or constant pain, a thorough history and physical examination are sufficient to establish the presence of endometriomas. A surgical-wide excision with clear margins is the single treatment of choice.
Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...
Seiler, Christian A
Patients with an abdominal catastrophe are in urgent need of early, interdisciplinary medical help. The treatment plan should be based on medical priorities and clear leadership. First priority should be given to achieve optimal oxygenation of blood and stabilization of circulation during all treatment-phases. The sicker the patient, the less invasive the (surgical) treatment should to be, which means "damage control only". This short article describes 7 important, pragmatic rules that will help to increase the survival of a patient with an abdominal catastrophe. Preexisting morbidity and risk factors must be included in the overall risk-evaluation for every therapeutic intervention. The challenge in patients with an abdominal catastrophe is to carefully balance the therapeutic stress and the existing resistance of the individual patient. The best way to avoid abdominal disaster, however, is its prevention.
... the results of abdominoplasty. Many feel a new sense of self-confidence. Alternative Names Cosmetic surgery of the abdomen; Tummy tuck; Abdominoplasty Images Abdominoplasty - series Abdominal muscles References McGrath MH, Pomerantz J. Plastic surgery. In: Townsend ...
Neyman, Edward G; Georgiades, Christos S; Fishman, Elliot K
Rising incidence of disseminated and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB), especially in immunocompromised hosts and patients with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, has resulted in an increase of unusual clinical and radiographic presentations of TB. With CT being a common part of emergency room (ER) evaluation of abdominal pain, it is imperative that radiologists be able to recognize abdominal presentations of TB. We discuss and illustrate typical and less common CT manifestations of tuberculosis in the abdomen to help ER radiologists in this task.
Danto, L A; Wolfman, E F
Three cases of blunt abdominal trauma are presented to exemplify the mechanism of trauma and the problems of diagnosis associated with any linear blow to the abdomen. The mechanisms of visceral injury are reviewed, and special attention is directed to the abdominal wall injury that can be present in these patients. This injury has special implications in directing the operative approach and repair. An unusual aortic occlusion is described which is peculiar to this type of injury.
Savarese, R P; Rosenfeld, J C; DeLaurentis, D A
Between January 1976 and December 1982, 181 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were treated surgically, and in 13 patients the aneurysms were found to be inflammatory. Inflammatory aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (IAAA) share important characteristics with typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysms. Diagnosis and surgical management of IAAA are distinctive which suggests that IAAA should be considered separately, as a varient of typical abdominal aortic aneurysms. IAAA occur predominantly in males. The presenting symptoms are often idiosyncratic and include severe abdominal or back pain, or both, and ureteral obstruction; the diagnosis of IAAA should be considered when these symptoms are present. Although grossly and microscopically, the perianeurysmal fibrosis resembles idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, the two conditions can be differentiated. At the present time, ultrasonography and computed tomography appear to offer reliable means for diagnosing IAAA. The presence of IAAA, whether established preoperatively or discovered unexpectedly at operation, necessitate certain modifications in the surgical approach, in order to avoid injuring the duodenum and the venous structures. Most patients can be successfully treated by resection and graft replacement. Rupture of the aneurysm in IAAA appears to be less frequent than in typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E
Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition.
Teyhen, Deydre S; Gill, Norman W; Whittaker, Jackie L; Henry, Sharon M; Hides, Julie A; Hodges, Paul
Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) of the abdominal muscles is increasingly being used in the management of conditions involving musculoskeletal dysfunctions associated with the abdominal muscles, including certain types of low back and pelvic pain. This commentary provides an overview of current concepts and evidence related to RUSI of the abdominal musculature, including issues addressing the potential role of ultrasound imaging in the assessment and training of these muscles. Both quantitative and qualitative aspects associated with clinical and research applications are considered, as are the possible limitations related to the interpretation of measurements made with RUSI. Research to date has utilized a range of methodological approaches, including different transducer placements and imaging techniques. The pros and cons of the various methods are discussed, and guidelines for future investigations are presented. Potential implications and opportunities for clinical use of RUSI to enhance evidence-based practice are outlined, as are suggestions for future research to further clarify the possible role of RUSI in the evaluation and treatment of abdominal muscular morphology and function.
Mikami, Y; Kyogoku, M
Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is a distinct clinicopathological entity, characterized by: (1) clinical presentation, such as back pain, weight loss, and increased ESR, (2) patchy and/or diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and (3) marked periaortic fibrosis resulting in thickening of the aneurysmal wall and occasional retroperitoneal fibrosis. Its pathogenesis is unknown, but some authors support the theory that IAAA is a subtype of atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm because of close relationship between IAAA and atherosclerotic change. In this article, we describe clinical and histological features of IAAA on the basis of the literature and our review of 6 cases of IAAA, emphasizing the similarity and difference between IAAA and atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. Our review supports that marked lamellar fibrosis completely replacing the media and adventitia, patchy lymphocytic infiltration (mostly B cells) and endarteritis obliterans are characteristic features of IAAA.
Kamprath, S; Merker, A; Kühne-Heid, R; Schneider, A
We report a case of abdominal actinomycosis in a 54 year old woman using an intrauterine device for a period of 8 years. The most important finding was a tuboovarialabscess at the left pelvic side with involvement of the serosa of the jejunum, ileum, sigma, and omentum majus. Intraoperative exploration showed a solid retroperitoneal infiltration between the pelvic side wall and sigma. Another infiltration was found on the left side of the abdominal wall. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and the patient was treated by a combination of Aminopenicillin and Metronidazol. After a period of three months we observed a complete regression of the clinical and the MRI findings.
Márquez Becerra, M A; Toro Calzada, R J; Puello Camara, J J
Concept, classification, frequency and predominant factors of abdominal pregnancy, were reviewed. The case of a patient 32 years old, from Hospital General Tacuba, ISSSTE; with a history of secondary sterility of seven years duration, win an abdominal pregnancy with symptomatology mainly digestive; she was under hypovolemic shock, acute abdomen, but with an ultrasonographic study showing intrauterine pregnancy and a tumor in right iliac fossa, which confounded the preoperative diagnosis. Exploratory laparotomy, was done. An alive product was found 14 to 16 years old, and living the placenta in situ. Evolutions was favorable. In the final comment the clinical picture, the diagnostic media, the management possibilities for the placenta and hemorrhage, are mentioned.
Uranüs, Selman; Dorr, Katrin
The decision in favor of surgery or nonoperative conservative treatment in blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma requires a precise diagnosis that is not always possible with imaging techniques, whereby there is great danger that an injury to the diaphragm or intestines may be overlooked. To avoid such oversights, indications for exploratory laparotomy have traditionally been generous, to the extent that up to 41% of exploratory laparotomies turn out to be nontherapeutic and could be, or could have been, avoided with laparoscopy. A diagnostic laparoscopy with therapeutic option should only be attempted in stable patients. Three trocars are usually used and the abdomen is explored systematically, beginning with the right upper quadrant and continuing clockwise. Hollow viscus injuries and injuries to the diaphragm and mesentery can be detected and sutured laparoscopically. Injuries to parenchymal organs are not a primary focus of laparoscopy, but with a laparoscopic approach, they usually no longer bleed in stable patients and can be sealed with tissue adhesive and collagen tamponade to prevent re-bleeding. The routine use of laparoscopy can achieve a sensitivity of 90-100% in abdominal trauma. This can reduce the number of unnecessary laparotomies and the related morbidity. Laparoscopy can be performed safely and effectively in stable patients with abdominal trauma. The most important advantages are reduction of the nontherapeutic laparotomy rate, morbidity, shortening of hospitalization, and cost-effectiveness. In the future, new developments in and the miniaturization of equipment can be expected to increase the use of minimally invasive techniques in abdominal trauma cases.
An abdominal x-ray is an imaging test to look at organs and structures in the abdomen. Organs include the spleen, stomach, and intestines. When the test is done to look at the bladder and kidney structures, it is called a KUB (kidneys, ureters, bladder) x-ray.
Abdominal laparoscopy is a useful aid in diagnosing disease or trauma in the abdominal cavity with less scarring than ... as liver and pancreatic resections may begin with laparoscopy to exclude the presence of additional tumors (metastatic ...
A number of benign and malignant tumors may develop in the abdominal cavity. Sarcomas are rather rare tumors of the abdominal cavity. They are often diagnosed at advanced growth stages as their local growth can cause clinical problems to the patients. The author presents a case report of myxofibrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity.Key words: myxofibrosarcoma.
Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.
Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458
Sachs, T; Schermerhorn, M
Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) continues to be one of the most lethal vascular pathologies we encounter. Its management demands prompt and efficient evaluation and repair. Open repair has traditionally been the mainstay of treatment. However, the introduction of endovascular techniques has altered the treatment algorithm for ruptured AAA in most major medical centers. We present recent literature and techniques for ruptured AAA and its surgical management.
Aliverti, Andrea; Bovio, Dario; Fullin, Irene; Dellacà, Raffaele L.; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Pedotti, Antonio; Macklem, Peter T.
Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs) is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 50–75 ml with an ejection fraction of 4–6% and an output of 750–1500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.61±0.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.57±0.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart. PMID:19440240
Abdominal catastrophe is a serious clinical condition, usually being a complication arising during treatment of intraabdominal nontraumatic disorders or abdominal injuries. Most commonly, inflamation- secondary peritonitis, is concerned. Abdominal catastrophe also includes secondary signs of sepsis, abdominal compartment syndrome and enterocutaneous fistules. Most septic abdominal disorders which show signs of abdominal catastrophy, require surgical intervention and reinterventions--planned or "on demand" laparotomies. During the postoperative period, the patient requires intensive care management, including steps taken to stabilize his/hers condition, management of sepsis and metabolic and nutritional support measures, as well as adequate indication for reoperations. New technologies aimed at prevention of complications in laparostomies and to improve conditions for final laparotomy closure are used in phase procedures for surgical management of intraabdominal infections. Despite the new technologies, abdominal catastrophe has higher morbidity and lethality risk rates.
Matthews, P; Aziz, Q
Functional abdominal pain or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is an uncommon functional gut disorder characterised by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain attributed to the gut but poorly related to gut function. It is associated with abnormal illness behaviour and patients show psychological morbidity that is often minimised or denied in an attempt to discover an organic cause for symptoms. Thus the conventional biomedical approach to the management of such patients is unhelpful and a person's symptom experience is more usefully investigated using a biopsychosocial evaluation, which necessarily entails a multidisciplinary system of healthcare provision. Currently the pathophysiology of the disorder is poorly understood but is most likely to involve a dysfunction of central pain mechanisms either in terms of attentional bias, for example, hypervigilance or a failure of central pain modulation/inhibition. Although modern neurophysiological investigation of patients is promising and may provide important insights into the pathophysiology of FAPS, current clinical management relies on an effective physician-patient relationship in which limits on clinical investigation are set and achievable treatment goals tailored to the patient's needs are pursued. PMID:15998821
Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B
Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management.
Van Heertum, R.L.; Brunetti, J.C.; Yudd, A.P.
Over the past several years, abdominal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has evolved from a research tool to an important clinical imaging modality that is helpful in the diagnostic assessment of a wide variety of disorders involving the abdominal viscera. Although liver-spleen imaging is the most popular of the abdominal SPECT procedures, blood pool imaging is becoming much more widely utilized for the evaluation of cavernous hemangiomas of the liver as well as other vascular abnormalities in the abdomen. Adjunctive indium leukocyte and gallium SPECT studies are also proving to be of value in the assessment of a variety of infectious and neoplastic diseases. As more experience is acquired in this area, SPECT should become the primary imaging modality for both gallium and indium white blood cells in many institutions. Renal SPECT, on the other hand, has only recently been used as a clinical imaging modality for the assessment of such parameters as renal depth and volume. The exact role of renal SPECT as a clinical tool is, therefore, yet to be determined. 79 references.
Oh, Chaeyoun; Youn, Joong Kee; Han, Ji-Won; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jung, Sung-Eun
Abstract The use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in pediatric patients has been steadily increasing in recent years. However, its use for diagnosing and treating abdominal tumors in children is still limited compared with adults, especially when malignancy is a matter of debate. Here, we describe the experience at our center with pediatric abdominal tumors to show the safety and feasibility of MIS. Based on a retrospective review of patient records, we selected for study those pediatric patients who had undergone diagnostic exploration or curative resection for abdominal tumors at a single center from January 2010 through August 2015. Diagnostic exploration for abdominal tumors was performed in 32 cases and curative resection in 173 cases (205 operations). MIS was performed in 11 cases of diagnostic exploration (34.4%) and 38 cases of curative resection (21.9%). The mean age of the children who underwent MIS was 6.09 ± 5.2 years. With regard to diagnostic exploration, patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were found to be similar for MIS and open surgery. With regard to curative resection, however, the mean age was significantly lower among the patients who underwent open surgery (4.21 ± 4.20 vs 6.02 ± 4.99 for MIS, P = 0.047), and the proportion of malignancies was significantly higher (80% vs 39.4% for MIS, P < 0.001). MIS compared favorably with open surgery with respect to the rate of recurrence (6.7% vs 35.1%, P = 0.035), the rate of intraoperative transfusions (34.2% vs 58.5%, P = 0.01), the median amount of blood transfused (14 vs 22 mL/kg, P = 0.001), and the mean number of hospital days (4.66 ± 2.36 vs 7.21 ± 5.09, P < 0.001). Complication rates did not differ significantly between the MIS and open surgery groups. The operation was converted to open surgery in 3 cases (27.2%) of diagnostic MIS and in 5 cases (13.1%) of curative MIS. MIS was found to be both feasible and effective for the
Golan, Rachel; Shelef, Ilan; Rudich, Assaf; Gepner, Yftach; Shemesh, Elad; Chassidim, Yoash; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Henkin, Yaakov; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Ben Avraham, Sivan; Witkow, Shula; Liberty, Idit F.; Tangi-Rosental, Osnat; Sarusi, Benjamin; Stampfer, Meir J.; Shai, Iris
OBJECTIVE Unlike visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the association between subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and obesity-related morbidity is controversial. In patients with type 2 diabetes, we assessed whether this variability can be explained by a putative favorable, distinct association between abdominal superficial SAT (SSAT) (absolute amount or its proportion) and cardiometabolic parameters. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 73 patients with diabetes (mean age 58 years, 83% were men) and cross-sectionally analyzed fat distribution at S1-L5, L5-L4, and L3-L2 levels. Patients completed food frequency questionnaires, and subgroups had 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and 24-h ambulatory electrocardiography. RESULTS Women had higher %SSAT (37 vs. 23% in men; P < 0.001) despite a similar mean waist circumference. Fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.046) and HbA1c (P = 0.006) were both lower with increased tertile of absolute SSAT. In regression models adjusted for age, waist circumference, and classes of medical treatments used in this patient population, increased %SSAT was significantly associated with decreased HbA1c (β = −0.317; P = 0.013), decreased daytime ambulatory blood pressure (β = −0.426; P = 0.008), and increased HDL cholesterol (β = 0.257; P = 0.042). In contrast, increased percent of deep SAT (DSAT) was associated with increased HbA1c (β = 0.266; P = 0.040) and poorer heart rate variability parameters (P = 0.030). Although total fat and energy intake were not correlated with fat tissue distribution, increased intake of trans fat tended to be associated with total SAT (r = 0.228; P = 0.05) and DSAT (r = 0.20; P = 0.093), but not with SSAT. CONCLUSIONS Abdominal SAT is composed of two subdepots that associate differently with cardiometabolic parameters. Higher absolute and relative distribution of fat in abdominal SSAT may signify beneficial cardiometabolic effects in patients with type 2
Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit
The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis.
Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M. Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit
The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis. PMID:25610249
Watkins, Courtney; Fransson, Boel A; Ragle, Claude A; Mattoon, John; Gay, John M
To compare thoracic and abdominal cavity volumes during abdominal CO2 insufflation and abdominal wall lift (AWL) conditions. In vitro cadaveric study. Mature medium-to-large breed fresh canine cadavers (n = 6). Each cadaver was imaged with computed tomography (CT) under baseline, abdominal CO2 insufflation, and AWL conditions. Measurements of thoracic and abdominal cavities were performed for each condition using image-analyzing software. Resulting volumes for each cadaver were converted to percent change from baseline to normalize the data. The t-tests were used to compare percent changes of both thoracic and abdominal volumes. Thoracic volume significantly decreased from baseline during CO2 insufflation (P < .01). No significant difference in thoracic volume occurred with AWL when compared with baseline. Abdominal volume increased by 80% with CO2 insufflation (95% CI: 56.4-107.0%) but only 25% with AWL (95% CI: 12.3-37.8%). Abdominal CO2 insufflation results in decreased thoracic volume when compared with baseline. AWL preserved thoracic volume similar to baseline. Abdominal volumes achieved with abdominal CO2 insufflation are significantly greater than those attained with AWL. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
COW 03 PUBLICATION REPORT 94-30227 * ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS IN CAIRO, BY RWIavni 0. IHibbs6 M. Kuanmm ad Z. Fun .Y .~ ... W I Form ApprovedREPORT...Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 8 April 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo...abdominal tuberculosis patients seen at Abbassia Fever Hospital in Cairo, Egypt from January 1990 to August 1992 are described; their mean age was 21.5
Stafford, P. J.
A 62 year old man presented with abdominal ascites, without pleural effusion, due to peritoneal mesothelioma. He had chronic obstructive airways disease and a past history of right upper lobectomy for tuberculosis. On two occasions abdominal paracentesis was followed within 72 hours by pneumothorax. This previously unreported complication of abdominal paracentesis may be due to increased diaphragmatic excursion following the procedure and should be considered in patients with preexisting lung disease. PMID:2385561
Wake, Sarah; Abhyankar, Aruna; Hutton, Kim
A cystic lymphangioma arising within the abdomen is a rare entity in children. It may present with an abdominal mass and symptoms of abdominal pain, vomiting, and anorexia. These nonspecific clinical symptoms are often attributed to more common acute pediatric conditions. In this report, we describe two pediatric cases of intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma that were initially diagnosed and treated as appendicitis. True diagnosis was only achieved on surgical excision and pathological investigation of cystic material.
Okafor, Ii; Ude, Ac; Aderibigbe, Aso; Amu, Oc; Udeh, Pe; Obianyo, Nen; Ani, Coc
A case of abdominal pregnancy in a 39 year old female gravida 4, para 0(+3) is presented. Ultrasonography revealed a viable abdominal pregnancy at 15 weeks gestational age. She was initially managed conservatively. Surgical intervention became necessary at 20 weeks gestational age following Ultrasound detection of foetal demise. The maternal outcome was favourable. This case is presented to highlight the dilemma associated with diagnosis and management of abdominal pregnancy with a review of literature.
Boos, C; Kujath, P; Bruch, H-P
The incidence of invasive mycoses in patients undergoing abdominal surgery amounts to approximately 8% and shows an upward trend in epidemiological studies. The lethality of these systemic mycoses, which are mostly based on Candida infections constitutes up to 60%. The development of a sytemic mycosis is marked by exogenic, endogenic and iatrogenic risk factors and typically displays tissue invasion after an initial fungal contamination or systemic dissemination via fungal sepsis. Fungal peritonitis is generally a monoinfection with Candida spp., where Candida albicans outweighs in 70% of cases. Aspergillus spp. are only detected abdominally in rare cases. The histological verification of a fungal invasion is regarded as proof of the existence of an invasive mycosis, but typical macroscopic findings with corresponding cultural findings can also confirm the diagnosis. Systemic mycosis requires an early initiation of a consistent antimycotic therapy as well as definitive surgical eradication of the focus in order to reduce high lethal rate. Resistances or incorrect dosages can be validated objectively by means of histological monitoring of the antimycotic therapy, thus affording early recognition of the need to change the substance class.
Connolly, G; Doyle, M; Barrett, T; Byrne, P; De Mello, M; Harrison, R F
This study aimed to evaluate the morbidity and pregnancy outcome of myomectomy in infertile women with uterine fibroids. This was a cross-sectional study. Records were reviewed for 100 consecutive women in the Rotunda Hospital who underwent myomectomy in the years 1995-1996. A questionnaire regarding subsequent fertility was sent. The study was carried out in the infertility unit at the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Seventy-five women responded. Multiple myomectomy was performed in 52 (70%). Mean fibroid size was 6.8 cm (range 2-14.5 cm). Nine women (12%) developed complications; five had menstrual problems, two had wound discomfort and two had abdominal discomfort. Twenty-five women (33%) became pregnant. Seven (28%) were IVF pregnancies. Overall six (24%) miscarried. In 19 of 25, pregnancy occurred where fibroids were the only identifiable cause of infertility. We conclude that abdominal myomectomy is associated with a favourable outcome in infertile women particularly if no other confounding variable is present.
Siebenmann, R; Schneider, K; von Segesser, L; Turina, M
348 cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm were reviewed for typical features of inflammatory aneurysm (IAAA) (marked thickening of aneurysm wall, retroperitoneal fibrosis and rigid adherence of adjacent structures). IAAA was present in 15 cases (14 male, 1 female). When compared with patients who had ordinary aneurysms, significantly more patients complained of back or abdominal pain (p less than 0.01). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was highly elevated. Diagnosis was established in 7 of 10 computed tomographies. 2 patients underwent emergency repair for ruptured aneurysm. Unilateral ureteral obstruction was present in 4 cases and bilateral in 1. Repair of IAAA was performed by a modified technique. Histological examination revealed thickening of the aortic wall, mainly of the adventitial layer, infiltrated by plasma cells and lymphocytes. One 71-year-old patient operated on for rupture of IAAA died early, and another 78-year-old patient after 5 1/2 months. Control computed tomographies revealed spontaneous regression of inflammatory infiltration after repair. Equally, hydronephrosis due to ureteral obstruction could be shown to disappear or at least to decrease. IAAA can be diagnosed by computed tomography with high sensitivity. Repair involves low risk, but modification of technique is necessary. The etiology of IAAA remains unclear.
Hagel, C; Schilling, M
Appropriate access to the abdominal cavity is the first and crucial step for successful abdominal surgical intervention. In planning the incision, several variables have to be considered, such as anatomy of the abdominal wall, localization of the target organ, and individual conditions (previous incisions, minimal access surgery, etc). Medial laparotomy is the preferred incision for emergency cases and ill-defined pathologies, allowing access and hence exploration to all quadrants. Transverse laparotomies give superior access to the dorsal and right aspects of the liver and cause less pain in patients unfit for regional anesthetic procedures. Draining of the abdominal cavity is used after various resective and reconstructive procedures, but there is little evidence for its use in a number of operations such as gastric, hepatic, and colorectal resections. Advantages and disadvantages of different abdominal wall incisions and drainages are discussed.
Nagurney, J T; Brown, D F; Novelline, R A; Kim, J; Fischer, R H
We conducted a retrospective descriptive study to determine the value of plain abdominal radiographs in emergency department (ED) patients also receiving abdominal computed tomography scans (CT) for the evaluation of nontraumatic abdominal, back and flank pain (NTAP). Cases were identified through radiology log books. Medical records and radiology reports were reviewed to determine whether the CT confirmed the findings of the plain abdominal radiographs, and whether the clinical course confirmed the results of either. Test characteristics for the plain abdominal radiograph and for the CT, using the clinical course including subsequent invasive procedures as the gold standard, were calculated. Of 177 patients who received CTs, 97 (55%) also received plain abdominal radiographs. Among the 74 patients who were admitted to the hospital and had complete data, the sensitivity and specificity for the plain abdominal radiographs were .43 and .75 respectively, compared to .91 and .94 for the CT scan (P(sens.) < .05, P(spec.) < .05). In 4 patients (5%), both studies failed to identify pathology shown in a subsequent procedure. In ED patients with NTAP, the plain abdominal radiograph may have some value as a screening tool; however, in patients in whom a CT is likely to be ordered anyway, a plain abdominal radiograph is unhelpful and often misleading.
Haycock, Christine E.
In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)
Haycock, Christine E.
In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)
Carlberg, David J; Lee, Stephen D; Dubin, Jeffrey S
Although most frequently presenting with lower abdominal pain, appendicitis, colitis, and diverticulitis can cause pain throughout the abdomen and can cause peritoneal and retroperitoneal symptoms. Evaluation and management of lower intestinal disease requires a nuanced approach by the emergency physician, sometimes requiring computed tomography, ultrasonography, MRI, layered imaging, shared decision making, serial examination, and/or close follow-up. Once a presumed or confirmed diagnosis is made, appropriate treatment is initiated, and may include surgery, antibiotics, and/or steroids. Appendicitis patients should be admitted. Diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease can frequently be managed on an outpatient basis, but may require admission and surgical consultation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Epstein, B.M.; Mann, J.H.
Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.
Hanna, Dominique; Cloutier, Richard; Lapointe, Roch; Desgagné, Antoine
Elephantiasis is a well-known condition in dermatology usually affecting the legs and external genitalia. It is characterized by chronic inflammation and obstruction of the lymphatic channels and by hypertrophy of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. The etiology is either idiopathic or caused by a variety of conditions such as chronic filarial disease, leprosy, leishmaniasis, and chronic recurrent cellulites. Elephantiasis of the abdominal wall is very rare. A complete review of the English and French literature showed only two cases reported in 1966 and 1973, respectively. We report a third case of abdominal elephantiasis and we briefly review this entity. We present the case of a 51-year-old woman who had progressively developed an enormous pediculated abdominal mass hanging down her knees. The skin was thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured. She had a history of multiple abdominal cellulites. She underwent an abdominal lipectomy. Histopathology of the specimen confirmed the diagnosis of abdominal elephantiasis. Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare disease that represents end-stage failure of lymph drainage. Lipectomy should be considered in the management of this condition.
Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott
The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias.
External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584
Zucchini, Giorgia; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Ricci, Claudio; Casadei, Riccardo; Santini, Donatella; Calculli, Lucia; Corinaldesi, Roberto
In spite of careful intraoperative precautions and gauze counts, mistakes can still occur during surgery. In the case reported, a retained gauze leaved during a surgical approach for removing a solid-cystic papillary tumor localized in the pancreatic tail, caused both persistent abdominal discomfort and the presence of an abdominal cystic lesion at imaging techniques. When a previous operative history is present, a foreign body should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an intra-abdominal cystic mass. Finally, radio-opaque marker should be routinely used by surgeons in order to reach a correct diagnosis in operated patients having retained gauze.
Early, Gerald L; Wesp, Julie; Augustin, Stanley M
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is seen with increasing frequency in the critically-ill. Elevated intraabdominal pressures interfere with vital organ function and contribute to mortality. Prevention, when possible and early recognition of occurrence with timely therapy will improve survival. Measurement of bladder pressures plays a critical role in diagnosis and guiding therapy. Treatment includes non-invasive and invasive methodologies designed to decrease the volume of abdominal contents and invasive methods to increase the compartment dimensions.
Nesbakken, A; Pillgram-Larsen, J; Naess, F; Gerner, T; Solheim, K; Stadaas, J O; Gjøra, O
We have reviewed the medical records of 111 patients treated for abdominal stab wounds during the period 1980-87. Our two hospitals serve a catchment area of about 450,000 people. Exploratory laparotomy was performed in 89 patients with suspected peritoneal penetration. In 16 patients the laparotomy was negative, and in 15 patients only minor injuries were noted. There were no serious complications in these 31 patients. Twenty-seven patients had thoracic wounds below the fourth intercostal space, 15 with intraabdominal injuries. The most common injuries were lacerations of the liver, the small bowel and the diaphragm. The mortality in the series was 2%. Stab wounds are infrequent in Norway, and most surgeons have limited experience of such injuries. We discuss whether to employ immediate exploratory laparotomy or selective management when the peritoneum has been penetrated. When there is no evidence of evisceration or omental protrusion, local exploration of the wound should be performed in order to confirm or exclude peritoneal penetration. Injury to the diaphragm and intraabdominal viscera should always be suspected in thoracic stab wounds below the fourth intercostal space.
Mortimer, Alice Emily
A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Raĭbuzhis, E N; Fot, E V; Gaĭdukov, K M; Kirov, M Iu
To evaluate the changes in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal perfusion pressure (APP) during perioperative period in urgent abdominal surgery and to assess the relationship of these parameters with gas exchange and tissue perfusion. Twenty-four patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery were enrolled into a prospective observational study. We recorded IAP APP, mean arterial pressure, arterial and venous blood gases after induction of anesthesia, at the end of surgery, and 6, 12, 48 and 72 h postoperatively. LAP was measured by nasogastric tube using CiMON monitor (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany). In addition, we studied the relationship of IAP and APP with blood gases parameters. We observed perioperative increase of IAP (> 12 mm Hg) in 75% of enrolled patients, tendency to postoperative rise of IAP and transient increase of arterial lactate at 6 h after surgery. APP remained within normal values. We found positive correlation of APP with PaO2/FiO2 and ScvO2 at 72 hours after surgery. Transient perioperative increase of IAP was observed in 75% patients undergoing urgent abdominal surgery; however in parallel with intensive care the abdominal perfusion pressure remained within normal values. Abdominal perfusion is related with arterial oxygenation and central venous saturation.
Davis, Suja P
Patients face various possible complications after abdominal surgery. This article examines best practice in guiding and teaching them how to use an incentive spirometer to facilitate recovery and prevent respiratory complications.
Concha, Fátima; Maguiña, Ciro; Seas, Carlos
We present the case of a 26-year-old male Peruvian patient who presented with disseminated intra-abdominal hydatidosis. The patient was treated with surgical removal of the cysts and prolonged medical treatment with albendazole. PMID:24006293
... signs or symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The final recommendation statement summarizes what the Task ... the potential benefits and harms of screening for AAA: (1) Men ages 65 to 75 who smoke ...
abdominal compartment syndrome, schemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic ulcer disease and astritis requiring laparotomy, small bowel obstruction, rimary fungal...complications in- luded trauma exploratory laparotomy, abdominal com- artment syndrome, ischemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic lcer disease and gastritis, large...70%); 13 for other compli- ations, such as biliary or perineal conditions (26%); and 4 or feeding access (8%). For the civilians, 2 had trauma
Schonfeld, Deborah; Lee, Lois K
This review will examine the current evidence regarding pediatric blunt abdominal trauma and the physical exam findings, laboratory values, and radiographic imaging associated with the diagnosis of intra-abdominal injuries (IAI), as well as review the current literature on pediatric hollow viscus injuries and emergency department disposition after diagnosis. The importance of the seat belt sign on physical examination and screening laboratory data remains controversial, although screening hepatic enzymes are recommended in the evaluation of nonaccidental trauma to identify occult abdominal organ injuries. Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) has modest sensitivity for hemoperitoneum and IAI in the pediatric trauma patient. Patients with concern for undiagnosed IAI, including bowel injury, may be considered for hospital admission and serial abdominal exams without an increased risk of complications, if an exploratory laparotomy is not performed emergently. Although the FAST exam is not recommended as the sole screening tool to rule out IAI in hemodynamically stable trauma patients, it may be used in conjunction with the physical exam and laboratory findings to identify children at risk for IAI. Children with a normal physical exam and normal abdominal CT may not require routine hospitalization after blunt abdominal trauma.
Tjalma, W A A
Evaluating and "cleaning" of the uterine cavity is probably the most performed operation in women. It is done for several reasons: abortion, evaluation of irregular bleeding in premenopausal period, and postmenopausal bleeding. Abortion is undoubtedly the number one procedure with more than 44 million pregnancies terminated every year. This procedure should not be underestimated and a careful preoperative evaluation is needed. Ideally a sensitive pregnancy test should be done together with an ultrasound in order to confirm a uterine pregnancy, excluding extra-uterine pregnancy, and to detect genital and/or uterine malformations. Three out of four abortions are performed by surgical methods. Surgical methods include a sharp, blunt, and suction curettage. Suction curettage or vacuum aspiration is the preferred method. Despite the fact that it is a relative safe procedure with major complications in less than one percent of cases, it is still responsible for 13% of all maternal deaths. All the figures have not declined in the last decade. Trauma, perforation, and bleeding are a danger triage. When there is a perforation, a laparoscopy should be performed immediately, in order to detect intra-abdominal lacerations and bleeding. The bleeding should be stopped as soon as possible in order to not destabilize the patient. When there is a perforation in the uterus, this "entrance" can be used to perform the curettage. This is particularly useful if there is trauma of the isthmus and uterine wall, and it is difficult to identify the uterine canal. A curettage is a frequent performed procedure, which should not be underestimated. If there is a perforation in the uterus, then this opening can safely be used for vacuum aspiration.
Sharma, Vishal; Bhatia, Anmol; Malik, Sarthak; Singh, Navjeet; Rana, Surinder S.
Objective: Scalloping of visceral organs is described in pseudomyxoma peritonei, malignant ascites, among other conditions, but not tuberculosis. Methods: We report findings from a retrospective study of patients with abdominal tuberculosis who had visceral scalloping on abdominal computed tomography (CT). Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis was made on the basis of combination of clinical, biochemical, radiological and microbiological criteria. The clinical data, hematological and biochemical parameters, and findings of chest X-ray, CT, Mantoux test, and HIV serology were recorded. Results: Of 72 patients with abdominal tuberculosis whose CT scans were included, seven patients had visceral scalloping. The mean age of these patients was 32.14 ± 8.43 years and four were men. While six patients had scalloping of liver, one had splenic scalloping. The patients presented with abdominal pain (all), abdominal distension (five patients), loss of weight or appetite (all), and fever (four patients). Mantoux test was positive in five, while none had HIV infection. The diagnosis was based on fluid (ascitic or collections) evaluation in four patients, ileo-cecal biopsy in one patient, fine needle aspiration from omental thickening in one patient, and sputum positivity for acid fast bacilli (AFB) in one patient. On CT examination, four patients had ascites, five had collections, one had lymphadenopathy, four had peritoneal involvement, three had pleural effusion, and two had ileo-cecal thickening. All except one patient received standard ATT for 6 months or 9 months (one patient). Pigtail drainage for collections was needed for two patients. Discussion: This report is the first description of visceral scalloping of liver and spleen in patients with abdominal tuberculosis. Previously, this finding has been reported primarily with pseudomyxoma peritonei and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Conclusion: Visceral scalloping may not conclusively distinguish peritoneal
Fang, Guo-en; Luo, Tian-hang; DU, Cheng-hui; Bi, Jian-wei; Xue, Xu-chao; Wei, Guo; Weng, Zhao-zhang; Ma, Li-ye; Hua, Ji-de
To improve the prognosis of patients with abdominal trauma. Between January 1993 and December 2005, 415 patients were enrolled in this research. The patients consisted of 347 males and 68 females with mean age of 36 years (ranging from 3-82 years). All abdominal traumas consisted of closed traumas (360 cases, 86.7%) and open traumas (55 cases, 13.3%). A total of 407 cases (98.1%) were fully recovered from trauma and the other 8 cases (1.9%) died of multiple injuries. The mean injury severity score (ISS) of all patients was 22 while the mean ISS of the patients who died in hospital was 42. Postoperative complications were seen in 9 patients such as infection of incisional wounds (6 cases), pancreatic fistula (2 cases) and intestinal fistula (1 case). All these postoperative complications were cured by the conservative treatment. Careful case history inquisition and physical examination are the basic methods to diagnose abdominal trauma. Focused abdominal ultrasonography is always the initial imaging examination because it is non-invasive and can be performed repeatedly with high accuracy. The doctors should consider the severity of local injuries and the general status of patients during the assessment of abdominal trauma. The principle of treatment is to save lives at first, then to cure the injuries. Unnecessary laparotomy should be avoided to reduce additional surgical trauma.
Morales Hernández, Sara; Díaz Velázquez, Mary Flor; Puello Tamara, Edgardo; Morales Hernández, Jorge; Basavilvazo Rodríguez, Maria Antonia; Cruz Cruz, Polita del Rocío; Hernández Valencia, Marcelino
Abdominal pregnancies are the implantation of gestation in some of the abdominal structures. This kind of pregnancies represents sevenfold maternal death risk than tubarian ectopic pregnancies, and 90-fold death risk than normal ones. Previous cases have erroneously reported as abscess in Douglas punch, and frequently result in obitus or postnatal deaths. We report a case of a patient with 27 years old, and diagnosis of 25.2 weeks of pregnancy, prior placenta and anhidramnios, referred due to difficult in uterine contour delimitation, easy palpation of fetal parts, cephalic pole in left hypochondrious and presence of mass in hypogastria, no delimitations, pain with mobilization, no transvaginal bleed and fetal movements. Interruption of pregnancy is decided by virtue of severe oligohidramnios, retardation in fetal intrabdominal growth, and recurrent maternal abdominal pain. Surgical intervention was carried out for resolution of the obstetrical event, in which was found ectopic abdominal pregnancy with bed placental in right uterine horn that corresponded to a pregnancy of 30 weeks of gestation. Abdominal pregnancy is still a challenge for obstetrics due to its diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis is oriented to prevent an intrabdominal hemorrhage that is the main maternal cause of mortality.
Lee, George Quan
Aspiration of the abdominal cavity to withdraw fluid that collects in almost all cases of intra-abdominal disease that necessitates operation is a relatively easy and safe procedure that can help in deciding for or against operation in borderline cases. Diagnostic aid is given by observing the color, odor and cell content of the fluid. Inability to obtain fluid, although in general reassuring, cannot be trusted absolutely, for there may be severe disease without aspirable exudate. Sometimes the intestine may be punctured by the aspirating needle, which contaminates the aspirate but apparently does not bring about leakage of bowel content. PMID:13561121
Lindholt, Jes Sanddal
Although the number of elective operations for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is increasing, the sex- and age-standardised mortality rate of AAAs continues to rise, especially among men aged 65 years or more. The lethality of ruptured AAA continues to be 80-95%, compared with 5-7% by elective surgery of symptomfree AAA. In order to fulfil all WHO, European, and Danish criteria for screening, a randomised hospitalbased screening trial of 12,639 65-73 year old men in Viborg County (Denmark) was initiated in 1994. It seemed that US screening is a valid, suitable and acceptable method of screening. The acceptance rate was 77%, and 95% accept control scans. Furthermore, persons at the highest risk of having an AAA attend screening more frequently. We found that 97% of the interval cases developed from aortas that initially measured 2.5-2.9 cm - i.e. approx. only 5% attenders need re-screening at 5-year intervals. Two large RCTs have given clear indications of operation. Survivors of surgery enjoy the same quality of life as the background population, and only 2-5% of patients refuse an offer of surgery. Early detection seems relevant since the cardiovascular mortality is more than 4 times higher in AAA patients without previous hospital discharge diagnoses due to cardiovascular disease than among similar men without AAA. The absolute risk difference after 5 years was 16%. So, they will benefit from general cardiovascular preventive action as smoking cessation, statins and low-dose aspirin, which could inhibit further AAA progression. All 4 existing RCTs point in the same direction, viz. in favour of screening of men aged 65 and above. We found that screening significantly reduced AAA-related mortality by 67% within the first five years (NNT = 352). Restriction of screening to men with previous cardiovascular or pulmonary hospital discharge diagnoses would request only 27% of the relevant male population study to be invited, but would only have prevented 46.7% of the
Jensen, Kristian Kiim
Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study I was a systematic review of the existing standardized methods for assessing quality of life after incisional hernia repair. After a systematic search in the electronic databases Embase and PubMed, a total of 26 studies using standardized measures for assessment of quality of life after incisional hernia repair were found. The most commonly used questionnaire was the generic Short-Form 36, which assesses overall health-related quality of life, addressing both physical and mental health. The second-most common questionnaire was the Carolinas Comfort Scale, which is a disease specific questionnaire addressing pain, movement limitation and mesh sensation in relation to a current or previous hernia. In total, eight different questionnaires were used at varying time points in the 26 studies. In conclusion, standardization of timing and method of quality of life assessment after incisional hernia repair was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the
Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.
The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.
Sukkarieh, F; Brasseur, P; Bissen, L
The authors report the case of a 93-year old woman referred to the emergency department and presenting with an intestinal obstruction. Abdominal CT reveals a biliary ileus caused by the migration and the impaction of a 3 cm gallstone in the small bowel. Surgical treatment by enterolithotomy was successful. In over 90% of cases, gallstone ileus is a complication of cholelithiasis and accounts for 25% of intestinal obstruction in patients over 65 years. To reduce morbidity and mortality, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential. Abdominal CT-scan is the gold standard technique.
Després, Jean-Pierre; Lemieux, Isabelle
Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Proposed criteria for identifying patients with metabolic syndrome have contributed greatly to preventive medicine, but the value of metabolic syndrome as a scientific concept remains controversial. The presence of metabolic syndrome alone cannot predict global cardiovascular disease risk. But abdominal obesity - the most prevalent manifestation of metabolic syndrome - is a marker of 'dysfunctional adipose tissue', and is of central importance in clinical diagnosis. Better risk assessment algorithms are needed to quantify diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk on a global scale.
Seo, A Young; Oh, Dong Hyun
Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004
Bryant, James E; Gaughan, Earl M
Abdominal surgery in foals under 30 days old has become more common with improved neonatal care. Early recognition of a foal at risk and better nursing care have increased the survival rates of foals that require neonatal care. The success of improved neonatal care also has increased the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal, umbilical, and bladder disorders in these foals. This chapter focuses on the early and accurate diagnosis of specific disorders that require abdominal exploratory surgery and the specific treatment considerations and prognosis for these disorders.
An, Gary; West, Michael A
There has been an increased awareness of the presence and clinical importance of abdominal compartment syndrome. It is now appreciated that elevations of abdominal pressure occur in a wide variety of critically ill patients. Full-blown abdominal compartment syndrome is a clinical syndrome characterized by progressive intra-abdominal organ dysfunction resulting from elevated intra-abdominal pressure. This review provides a current, clinically focused approach to the diagnosis and management of abdominal compartment syndrome, with a particular emphasis on intensive care. Source data were obtained from a PubMed search of the medical literature, with an emphasis on the time period after 2000. PubMed "related articles" search strategies were likewise employed frequently. Additional information was derived from the Web site of the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (http://www.wsacs.org). The detrimental impact of elevated intra-abdominal pressure, progressing to abdominal compartment syndrome, is recognized in both surgical and medical intensive care units. The recent international abdominal compartment syndrome consensus conference has helped to define, characterize, and raise awareness of abdominal compartment syndrome. Because of the frequency of this condition, routine measurement of intra-abdominal pressure should be performed in high-risk patients in the intensive care unit. Evidence-based interventions can be used to minimize the risk of developing elevated intra-abdominal pressure and to aggressively treat intra-abdominal hypertension when identified. Surgical decompression remains the gold standard for rapid, definitive treatment of fully developed abdominal compartment syndrome, but nonsurgical measures can often effectively affect lesser degrees of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome.
García de Casasola Sánchez, G; Torres Macho, J; Casas Rojo, J M; Cubo Romano, P; Antón Santos, J M; Villena Garrido, V; Diez Lobato, R
Ultrasound is a very versatile diagnostic modality that permits real-time visualization of multiple internal organs. It is of invaluable help for the physical examination of the patients. To assess if ultrasound can be incorporated into medical education and if the students can perform a basic abdominal ultrasound examination without the necessity of a long period of training. Twelve medical students were trained in basic abdominal ultrasound during a 15-h training program including a 5-h theoretical and practical course and supervised practice in 20 selected patients. Subsequently, we conducted an evaluation test that assessed the ability of students to obtain the ultrasound views and to detect various pathologies in five different patients. The students were able to correctly identify the abdominal views more than 90% of the times. This percentage was only lower (80%) in the right subcostal view to locate the gallbladder. The accuracy or global efficiency of the ultrasound for the diagnosis of relevant pathological findings of the patients was greater than 90% (91.1% gallstones, abdominal aortic aneurysm 100%; splenomegaly 98.3%, ascites 100%; dilated inferior vena cava 100%; acute urinary retention 100%). The ultrasound may be a feasible learning tool in medical education. Ultrasound can help students to improve the physical examination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
... Patient Stories Resources Copyright 2014 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Extra-Abdominal Desmoid Tumors Extra-abdominal desmoids ... to serve as medical advice. Anyone seeking specific orthopaedic advice or assistance should consult his or her ...
Vanhoenacker, F M; De Backer, A I; Op de, Beeck B; Maes, M; Van Altena, R; Van Beckevoort, D; Kersemans, P; De Schepper, A M
This article discusses the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the abdomen, including involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, the peritoneum, mesentery, omentum, abdominal lymph nodes, solid abdominal organs, the genital system and the abdominal aorta. Abdominal TB is a diagnostic challenge, particularly when pulmonary TB is absent. It may mimic many other abdominal diseases, both clinically and radiologically. An early correct diagnosis, however, is important in order to ensure proper treatment and a favorable outcome. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of abdominal TB and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Generally, CT appears to be the imaging modality of choice in the detection and assessment of abdominal tuberculosis, other than gastrointestinal TB. Barium studies remain superior for demonstrating mucosal intestinal lesions. Ultrasound may be used for follow-up to monitor therapy response. The diagnosis of abdominal TB should be considered if suggestive imaging findings are found in patients with a high index of suspicion.
McDaniel, Ellen; Stawicki, Stanislaw PA; Bahner, David P
Blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruptions associated with evisceration are very rare. The authors describe a case of traumatic abdominal wall disruption with bowel evisceration that occurred after a middle-aged woman sustained direct focal blunt force impact to the lower abdomen. Abdominal exploration and surgical repair of the abdominal wall defect were performed, with good clinical outcome. A brief overview of literature pertinent to this rare trauma scenario is presented. PMID:22229144
Machi, J M; Gyuro, J; Losek, J D
Two pediatric patients with life-threatening intra-abdominal injuries associated with Superman play are presented. The cases illustrate the importance of knowing the mechanism of injury in the assessment of children with blunt abdominal trauma. The diagnostic value of liver enzymes and the controversies surrounding the radiographic assessment of pediatric blunt abdominal trauma are presented.
Oguejiofor, Njideka; Al-Abayechi, Sarah; Njoku, Emmanuel
Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease, caused by gram positive anaerobic bacteria, that may appear as an abdominal mass and/or abscess (Wagenlehner et al. 2003). This paper presents an unusual case of a hemodynamically stable 80-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with 4 weeks of worsening abdominal pain and swelling. He also complains of a 20-bound weight loss in 2 months. A large tender palpable mass in the right upper quadrant was noted on physical exam. Laboratory studies showed a normal white blood cell count, slightly decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, and mildly elevated total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase. A CT with contrast was done and showed a liver mass. Radiology and general surgery suspected malignancy and recommended CT guided biopsy. The sample revealed abundant neutrophils and gram positive rods. Cytology was negative for malignancy and cultures eventually grew actinomyces. High dose IV penicillin therapy was given for 4 weeks and with appropriate response transitioned to oral antibiotic for 9 months with complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:28299215
Fontseré, N; Bonet, J; Bonal, J; Romero, R
First cause of secondary hypertension is renovascular hypertension which presents abdominal bruit in 16 to 20% of cases. This clinical sign is also associated with other vascular disease of the abdomen such as celiac trunk stenosis and/or aneurysms located on the pancreaticoduodenal or gastroduodenal arcs level, with little representation among aneurysm. They usually appear on a context of digestive complications like neoplasias, chronic pancreatitis or gastric obstructions possibly with obstructive icterus, hemorrhage and acute abdomen episodes. Its presentation in other contexts is rare and constitutes a diagnostic challenge. Diagnosis is made by abdominal arteriography which is the best method because you can locate the problem as well as intervene therapeutically with embolization of the aneurysme. We would like to emphasize the importance of a quick diagnosis due to the risk of rupture and the high morbi-mortality associated.
Novelline, R A; Rhea, J T; Bell, T
CT has revolutionized the diagnostic work-up of trauma patients with suspected abdominal injuries. A wide range of intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal organ injuries can be quickly and accurately diagnosed with CT. Today, helical CT technology permits even faster examinations, with improved intravenous contrast opacification of parenchymal organs and vascular structures and reduced CT artifacts caused by patient motion, respiration, and arterial pulsation. Severely injured and potentially unstable patients, who might not have been able to tolerate the long CT examinations of the past, may be quickly evaluated today with helical CT. Accurate diagnosis requires high quality CT examinations that are performed with optimum CT protocols. This article reviews the currently recommended helical CT protocols for evaluating patients with suspected abdominal injuries, and the CT findings when injuries are present.
Mele, G; Loizzi, P; Greco, P; Gargano, G; Varcaccio Garofalo, G; Belsanti, A
Three different regimens of antibiotic treatment have been employed in order to evaluate their efficacy as a profilaxis for abdominal hysterectomy. Two short term administrations (Cephtriaxone and Cephamandole plus Tobramycine) and a conventional full dose treatment (Cephazoline) have been compared over a group of homogeneous patients. No significant differences, except a reduction in postoperative time spent in hospital, have been found among the groups. A reduction in urinary tract infection has also been reported with a single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis.
Appendicitis is a frequently encountered surgical problem in the Emergency Department (ED). Appendicitis typically results from obstruction of the appendiceal lumen, although trauma has been reported as an infrequent cause of acute appendicitis. Intestinal injury and hollow viscus injury following blunt abdominal trauma are well reported in the literature but traumatic appendicitis is much less common. The pathophysiology is uncertain but likely results from several mechanisms, either in isolation or combination. These include direct compression/crush injury, shearing injury, or from indirect obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by an ileocecal hematoma or traumatic impaction of stool into the appendix. Presentation typically mirrors that of non-traumatic appendicitis with nausea, anorexia, fever, and right lower quadrant abdominal tenderness and/or peritonitis. Evaluation for traumatic appendicitis requires a careful history and physical exam. Imaging with ultrasound or computed tomography is recommended if the history and physical do not reveal an acute surgical indication. Treatment includes intravenous antibiotics and surgical consultation for appendectomy. This case highlights a patient who developed acute appendicitis following blunt trauma to the abdomen sustained during a motor vehicle accident. Appendicitis must be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in any patient who presents to the ED with abdominal pain, including those whose pain begins after sustaining blunt trauma to the abdomen. Because appendicitis following trauma is uncommon, timely diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reust, Carin E; Williams, Amy
Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound tenderness. The age of the child can help focus the differential diagnosis. In infants and toddlers, clinicians should consider congenital anomalies and other causes, including malrotation, hernias, Meckel diverticulum, or intussusception. In school-aged children, constipation and infectious causes of pain, such as gastroenteritis, colitis, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections, are more common. In female adolescents, clinicians should consider pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy, ruptured ovarian cysts, or ovarian torsion. Initial laboratory tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, urinalysis, and a pregnancy test. Abdominal radiography can be used to diagnose constipation or obstruction. Ultrasonography is the initial choice in children for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, pancreatitis, ovarian cyst, ovarian or testicular torsion, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy-related pathology, and appendicitis. Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgery, with a peak incidence during adolescence. When the appendix is not clearly visible on ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to confirm the diagnosis.
Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Koti, Rahul; Davidson, Brian R
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (key-hole removal of the gallbladder) is now the most often used method for treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Several cardiopulmonary changes (decreased cardiac output, pulmonary compliance, and increased peak airway pressure) occur during pneumoperitoneum, which is now introduced to allow laparoscopic cholecystectomy. These cardiopulmonary changes may not be tolerated in individuals with poor cardiopulmonary reserve. To assess the benefits and harms of abdominal wall lift compared to pneumoperitoneum in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2013. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing abdominal wall lift (with or without pneumoperitoneum) versus pneumoperitoneum. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), rate ratio (RaR), or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on intention-to-treat analysis with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using the Review Manager (RevMan) software. For abdominal wall lift with pneumoperitoneum versus pneumoperitoneum, a total of 130 participants (all with low anaesthetic risk) scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised in five trials to abdominal wall lift with pneumoperitoneum (n = 53) versus pneumoperitoneum only (n = 52). One trial which included 25 people did not state the number of participants in each group. All five trials had a high risk of bias. There was no mortality or conversion to open cholecystectomy in any of the participants in the trials that reported these outcomes. There was no significant difference in the rate of serious adverse events between the two groups (two trials; 2/29 events (0.069 events per person) versus 2/29 events (0.069 events per person); rate ratio 1.00; 95% CI 0
Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Koti, Rahul; Samraj, Kumarakrishnan; Davidson, Brian R
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (key-hole removal of the gallbladder) is now the most often used method for treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Several cardiopulmonary changes (decreased cardiac output, pulmonary compliance, and increased peak airway pressure) occur during pneumoperitoneum, which is now introduced to allow laparoscopic cholecystectomy. These cardiopulmonary changes may not be tolerated in individuals with poor cardiopulmonary reserve. To assess the benefits and harms of abdominal wall lift compared with pneumoperitoneum in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until January 2012. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing abdominal wall lift (with or without pneumoperitoneum) versus pneumoperitoneum. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), rate ratio (RaR), or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on intention-to-treat analysis with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using RevMan software. For abdominal wall lift with pneumoperitoneum versus pneumoperitoneum, a total of 156 participants (all with low anaesthetic risk) who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised in six trials to abdominal wall lift with pneumoperitoneum (n = 65) versus pneumoperitoneum only (n = 66). One trial which included 25 patients did not state the number of patients in each group. All six trials had a high risk of bias. There was no mortality or conversion to open cholecystectomy in any of the patients in the trials that reported these outcomes. There was no significant difference in the rate of serious adverse events between the two groups (2 trials; 2/29 events (0.069 events per patient) versus 2/29 events (0.069 events per patient); rate ratio 1.00; 95% CI 0.17 to 5.77). None of the
Révész, Erzsébet; Markovics, Gabriella; Darabos, Zoltán; Tóth, Ildikó; Fok, Eva
Number of cases of filariasis have been recently reported in the Hungarian medical literature, most of them caused by Dirofilaria repens . Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted filarioid worm in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs and cats. Human infection manifests as either subcutaneous nodules or lung parenchymal disease, which may even be asymptomatic. The authors report a human Dirofilaria repens infection of the abdominal cavity in a 61-year-old man,who underwent laparotomy for acute abdomen. Intraoperatively, local peritonitis was detected caused by a white nemathhelminth, measured 8 cm in size. Histocytology confirmed that the infection was caused by Dirofilaria repens.
Link, Brian A; Kropp, Bradley; Frimberger, Dominic
Continent urinary diversion has gained increasing popularity in the pediatric population during the last few decades. In adults, continent diversions are usually needed to replace a bladder after cystectomy for invasive carcinoma. Subsequently, the creation of functional and cosmetically hidden urinary and cecal abdominal stomas has become an integral part of many urinary reconstructive procedures. These techniques, originally developed for pediatric urinary reconstruction have gained increasing popularity for adult patients in need of a continence procedure. In the current manuscript, we review the technical aspects of site selection, mucocutaneous anastomosis, cosmetic appearance, and management of associated complications.
K. Intra- abdominal compartment syndrome as a complication of ruptured abdomi- nal aortic aneurysm repair. Am Surg 1989;55:396-402. 6. Sugrue M...00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Author’s personal copy Case Report Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After
Ballantyne, K C; Sethia, B; Reece, I J; Davidson, K G
Over the past 9 years, ten patients have presented to the Thoracic Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, with 12 empyemas secondary to intra-abdominal sepsis. In eight patients, the presenting signs and symptoms were wrongly attributed to primary intra-thoracic pathology. All were subsequently found to have intra-abdominal sepsis. The presence of empyema after recent abdominal surgery or abdominal pain strongly suggests a diagnosis of ipsilateral subphrenic abscess. Adequate surgical drainage is essential. In our experience, limited thoracotomy with subdiaphragmatic extension offers the best access to both pleural and subphrenic spaces and provides the greatest chance of eradicating infection on both sides of the diaphragm.
Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob
Acute abdominal pain is a common clinical condition. Clinical signs and symptoms can be difficult to interpret, and diagnostic imaging may help to identify intra-abdominal disease. Conventional X-ray, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen vary in usability between common surgical causes of acute abdominal pain. Overall, conventional X-ray cannot confidently diagnose or rule out disease. US and CT are equally trustworthy for most diseases. US with subsequent CT may enhance diagnostic precision. Magnetic resonance seems promising for future use in acute abdominal imaging.
Ghoroobi, Javad; Khoddami, Maliheh; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Sadeghian, Naser; Mahdavi, Alireza; Hatefi, Sayeh
Toxocariasis is an extensive helminthic infection that leads to visceral larva migrans in humans. A 2.5-year-old girl referred for abdominal mass. She had history of pharyngitis for two weeks. There were no other symptoms. Abdominal examination revealed an irregular solid mass in right lower quadrant (RLQ). Abdominal ultrasonography revealed an echohetrogenic large mass in RLQ, liver, and retroperitoneal area. Abdominal CT scan showed a huge mass. At laparotomy a large retroperitoneal mass that involved right liver lobe, bladder, ileocecal valve, small and large intestines was found. At histopathology diagnosis of toxocariasis was made. PMID:28164001
Ghoroobi, Javad; Mohajerzadeh, Leily; Khoddami, Maliheh; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Sadeghian, Naser; Mahdavi, Alireza; Hatefi, Sayeh
Toxocariasis is an extensive helminthic infection that leads to visceral larva migrans in humans. A 2.5-year-old girl referred for abdominal mass. She had history of pharyngitis for two weeks. There were no other symptoms. Abdominal examination revealed an irregular solid mass in right lower quadrant (RLQ). Abdominal ultrasonography revealed an echohetrogenic large mass in RLQ, liver, and retroperitoneal area. Abdominal CT scan showed a huge mass. At laparotomy a large retroperitoneal mass that involved right liver lobe, bladder, ileocecal valve, small and large intestines was found. At histopathology diagnosis of toxocariasis was made.
Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S
One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.
Enríquez-Vega, María Elizabeth; Solorio-Rosete, Hugo Francisco; Cossío-Zazueta, Alfonso; Bizueto-Rosas, Héctor; Cruz-Castillo, Juan Ernesto; Iturburu-Enríquez, Alessandra
Introducción: aneurisma es el incremento del diámetro de una arteria > 50 %; los más frecuentes son los aneurismas de la aorta abdominal (AAA). La ecografía abdominal es el estudio de escrutinio para su diagnóstico. La detección oportuna del AAA en población de riesgo disminuye la morbimortalidad. El objetivo fue estimar la frecuencia de AAA en pacientes mayores de 65 años.Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal entre junio y octubre del 2012 en pacientes de ambos sexos mayores de 65 años que cubrieron los criterios de selección. Se les practicó ultrasonidoDoppler dúplex y se midió el diámetro anteroposterior de la aorta abdominal infrarrenal, se definió como AAA a una aorta abdominal con un diámetro mayor a 3 cm. Se empleó estadística descriptiva y regresión logística para factores de riesgo.Resultados: se incluyeron 144 pacientes, edad media (72.7 ± 6.7), el 95.1 % sexo masculino. El 13 % continuaban fumando. En 127 el diámetro de la aorta fue normal. Se detectaron 10 pacientes con AAA, todos del sexo masculino, el diámetro de los aneurismas identificados variaron de 3.2 a 7.11 cm, el diámetro promedio de 3 - 4 cm (n = 5). Solo el tabaquismo activo fue un factor predictivo significativo para AAA.Conclusión: Se demostró frecuencia significativa de AAA no detectada en masculinos mayores de 65 años, el tabaquismo fue el factor de riesgo más importante.
... in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-termJust about everyone has had a " ... time or another. But sudden severe abdominal pain (stomach pain), also called acute pain, shouldn't be ...
Won, Wylen Wade; Sharma, Ajay; Wu, Wenbo
Abdominal radiography and ultrasonography are commonly used as part of the initial diagnostic plan for cats with nonspecific signs of abdominal disease. This retrospective study compared the clinical usefulness of abdominal radiography and ultrasonography in 105 feline patients with signs of abdominal disease. The final diagnosis was determined more commonly with ultrasonography (59%) compared to radiography (25.7%). Ultrasonography was also able to provide additional clinically relevant information in 76% of cases, and changed or refined the diagnosis in 47% of cases. Based on these findings, ultrasonography may be sufficient as an initial diagnostic test for the investigation of feline abdominal disease. PMID:26483582
Won, Wylen Wade; Sharma, Ajay; Wu, Wenbo
Abdominal radiography and ultrasonography are commonly used as part of the initial diagnostic plan for cats with nonspecific signs of abdominal disease. This retrospective study compared the clinical usefulness of abdominal radiography and ultrasonography in 105 feline patients with signs of abdominal disease. The final diagnosis was determined more commonly with ultrasonography (59%) compared to radiography (25.7%). Ultrasonography was also able to provide additional clinically relevant information in 76% of cases, and changed or refined the diagnosis in 47% of cases. Based on these findings, ultrasonography may be sufficient as an initial diagnostic test for the investigation of feline abdominal disease.
Dehlin, Jennifer M; Upchurch, Gilbert R
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a lethal disease. Ultrasound is the modality of choice for screening patients for AAAs. It is reasonable to screen patients over age 60, particularly men, women with cardiovascular risk factors, smokers, and patients with a family history of AAAs. Patients with small (< 5.5 cm) AAAs should be followed with serial ultrasound. Medical management should focus on treating comorbidities, particularly those that put patients at risk for other cardiovascular diseases. Smoking cessation is mandatory in these patients. Patients with large or symptomatic AAAs should be evaluated for surgery; this includes careful imaging of the abdomen, aggressive treatment of comorbidities, and perioperative beta blockade. Endovascular repair has lower short-term morbidity compared with conventional open repair. Trials assessing long-term results are in progress. Basic science and translational research focusing on the underlying pathogenesis of AAAs will likely pave the way for medical therapies in the future.
Lo, Ruby C.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has long been recognized as a condition predominantly afflicting males, with sex-associated differences described for almost every aspect of the disease from pathophysiology and epidemiology to morbidity and mortality. Women are generally spared from AAA formation by the immunomodulating effects of estrogen but once they develop, the natural history of AAAs in women appears to be more aggressive, with more rapid expansion, a higher tendency to rupture at smaller diameters, and higher mortality following rupture. However, simply repairing AAA at smaller diameters in women is a debatable solution, as even elective endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) is fraught with higher morbidity and mortality in women compared to men. The goal of this review is to summarize what is currently known about the effect of gender on AAA presentation, treatment, and outcomes. Additionally, we aim to review current controversies over screening recommendations and threshold for repair in women. PMID:26747679
Debi, Uma; Ravisankar, Vasudevan; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sharma, Arun Kumar
Abdominal tuberculosis is an increasingly common disease that poses diagnostic challenge, as the nonspecific features of the disease which may lead to diagnostic delays and development of complications. This condition is regarded as a great mimicker of other abdominal pathology. A high index of suspicion is an important factor in early diagnosis. Abdominal involvement may occur in the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lymphnodes or solid viscera. Various investigative methods have been used to aid in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and initiation of antituberculous therapy and surgical treatment are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality. Most of the patients respond very well to standard antitubercular therapy and surgery is required only in a minority of cases. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis because early recognition of this condition is important. We reviewed our experience with the findings on various imaging modalities for diagnosis of this potentially treatable disease. PMID:25356043
Greenstein, Alexander J.; O’Rourke, Robert W.
Introduction Gastric bypass remains the mainstay of surgical therapy for obesity. Abdominal pain after gastric bypass is common, and accounts for up to half of all postoperative complaints and emergency room visits. This manuscript reviews the most important causes of abdominal pain specific to gastric bypass and discusses management considerations. Data Sources The current surgical literature was reviewed using PubMed, with a focus on abdominal pain after gastric bypass and the known pathologies that underlie its pathogenesis. Conclusions The differential diagnosis for abdominal pain after gastric bypass is large and includes benign and life-threatening entities. Its diverse causes require a broad evaluation that should be directed by history and clinical presentation. In the absence of a clear diagnosis, the threshold for surgical exploration in patients with abdominal pain after gastric bypass should be low. PMID:21333269
Panitch, Howard B
The abdominal wall is an integral component of the chest wall. Defects in the ventral abdominal wall alter respiratory mechanics and can impair diaphragm function. Congenital abdominal wall defects also are associated with abnormalities in lung growth and development that lead to pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and alterations in thoracic cage formation. Although infants with ventral abdominal wall defects can experience life-threatening pulmonary complications, older children typically experience a more benign respiratory course. Studies of lung and chest wall function in older children and adolescents with congenital abdominal wall defects are few; such investigations could provide strategies for improved respiratory performance, avoidance of respiratory morbidity, and enhanced exercise ability for these children.
Owers, C; Morgan, J L; Garner, J P
Blast injury is uncommon, and remains poorly understood by most clinicians outside regions of active warfare. Primary blast injury (PBI) results from the interaction of the blast wave with the body, and typically affects gas-containing organs such as the ear, lungs and gastrointestinal tract. This review investigates the mechanisms and injuries sustained to the abdomen following blast exposure. MEDLINE was searched using the keywords 'primary blast injury', 'abdominal blast' and 'abdominal blast injury' to identify English language reports of abdominal PBI. Clinical reports providing sufficient data were used to calculate the incidence of abdominal PBI in hospitalized survivors of air blast, and in open- and enclosed-space detonations. Sixty-one articles were identified that primarily reported clinical or experimental abdominal PBI. Nine clinical reports provided sufficient data to calculate an incidence of abdominal PBI; 31 (3·0 per cent) of 1040 hospitalized survivors of air blast suffered abdominal PBI, the incidence ranging from 1·3 to 33 per cent. The incidence for open- and enclosed-space detonations was 5·6 and 6·7 per cent respectively. The terminal ileum and caecum were the most commonly affected organs. Surgical management of abdominal PBI is similar to that of abdominal trauma of other causes. Abdominal PBI is uncommon but has the potential for significant mortality and morbidity, which may present many days after blast exposure. It is commoner after blast in enclosed spaces and under water. Copyright © 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dignan, F; Abu-Arafeh, I; Russell, G
AIMS—To determine the clinical course of childhood abdominal migraine, seven to 10 years after the diagnosis. METHODS—A total of 54 children with abdominal migraine were studied; 35 were identified from a population survey carried out on Aberdeen schoolchildren between 1991 and 1993, and 19 from outpatient records of children in the same age group who had attended the Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital. Controls were 54 children who did not have abdominal pain in childhood, matched for age and sex, obtained from either the population survey or the patient administration system. Main outcome measures were presence or resolution of abdominal migraine and past or present history of headache fulfilling the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria for the diagnosis of migraine. RESULTS—Abdominal migraine had resolved in 31 cases (61%). Seventy per cent of cases with abdominal migraine were either current (52%) or previous (18%) sufferers from headaches that fulfilled the IHS criteria for migraine, compared to 20% of the controls. CONCLUSIONS—These results support the concept of abdominal migraine as a migraine prodrome, and suggest that our diagnostic criteria for the condition are robust. PMID:11316687
Martínez-Pérez, Aleix; Garrigós-Ortega, Gonzalo; Gómez-Abril, Segundo Ángel; Martí-Martínez, Eva; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa
Necrotizing fasciitis is a critical illness involving skin and soft tissues, which may develop after blunt abdominal trauma causing abdominal wall hernia and representing a great challenge for physicians. A 52-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a road accident, presenting blunt abdominal trauma with a large non-reducible mass in the lower-right abdomen. A first, CT showed abdominal hernia without signs of complication. Three hours after ICU admission, he developed hemodynamic instability. Therefore, a new CT scan was requested, showing signs of hernia complication. He was moved to the operating room where a complete transversal section of an ileal loop was identified. Five hours after surgery, he presented a new episode of hemodynamic instability with signs of skin and soft tissue infection. Due to the high clinical suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis development, wide debridement was performed. Following traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH), patients can present unsuspected injuries in abdominal organs. Helical CT can be falsely negative in the early moments, leading to misdiagnosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection and, consequently, resuscitation measures, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and early surgical debridement are required. This type of fasciitis can develop after blunt abdominal trauma following wall hernia without skin disruption.
Cripps, N P; Cooper, G J
Intestinal injury is frequent after non-penetrating abdominal trauma, particularly after modern, high-energy transfer impacts. Under these circumstances, delay in the diagnosis of perforation is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. This study establishes patterns of intestinal injury after blunt trauma by non-penetrating projectiles and examines relationships between injury distribution and abdominal wall motion. Projectile impacts of variable momentum were produced in 31 anaesthetised pigs to cause abdominal wall motion of varying magnitude and velocity. No small bowel injury was observed at initial impact velocity of less than 40 m/s despite gross abdominal compression. At higher velocity, injury to the small bowel was frequent, irrespective of the degree of abdominal compression (P = 0.00044). Large bowel injury was observed at all impact velocities and at all degrees of abdominal compression. This study confirms the potential for intestinal injury in high velocity, low momentum impacts which do not greatly compress the abdominal cavity and demonstrates apparent differences in injury mechanisms for the small bowel and colon. Familiarity with injury mechanisms may reduce delays in the diagnosis of intestinal perforation in both military and civilian situations.
Cripps, N. P.; Cooper, G. J.
Intestinal injury is frequent after non-penetrating abdominal trauma, particularly after modern, high-energy transfer impacts. Under these circumstances, delay in the diagnosis of perforation is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. This study establishes patterns of intestinal injury after blunt trauma by non-penetrating projectiles and examines relationships between injury distribution and abdominal wall motion. Projectile impacts of variable momentum were produced in 31 anaesthetised pigs to cause abdominal wall motion of varying magnitude and velocity. No small bowel injury was observed at initial impact velocity of less than 40 m/s despite gross abdominal compression. At higher velocity, injury to the small bowel was frequent, irrespective of the degree of abdominal compression (P = 0.00044). Large bowel injury was observed at all impact velocities and at all degrees of abdominal compression. This study confirms the potential for intestinal injury in high velocity, low momentum impacts which do not greatly compress the abdominal cavity and demonstrates apparent differences in injury mechanisms for the small bowel and colon. Familiarity with injury mechanisms may reduce delays in the diagnosis of intestinal perforation in both military and civilian situations. PMID:9135238
Moriyama, S; Ogita, F; Huang, Z; Kurobe, K; Nagira, A; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, H; Hirano, Y
The present study aimed to determine the intra-abdominal pressure during front crawl swimming at different velocities in competitive swimmers and to clarify the relationships between stroke indices and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. The subjects were 7 highly trained competitive collegiate male swimmers. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured during front crawl swimming at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 m · s(-1) and during the Valsalva maneuver. Intra-abdominal pressure was taken as the difference between minimum and maximum values, and the mean of 6 stable front crawl stroke cycles was used. Stroke rate and stroke length were also measured as stroke indices. There were significant differences in stroke rate among all velocities (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in stroke length by velocity. Significant within-subject correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke rate or stroke length (P < 0.01) were observed, although there were no significant correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke indices when controlling for swimming velocity. These findings do not appear to support the effectiveness of trunk training performed by competitive swimmers aimed at increasing intra-abdominal pressure. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574
Yunus, Yilmaz; Sefer, Ustebay; Dondu, Ulker Ustebay; Ismail, Ozanli; Yusuf, Ehi
Abdominal pain, in etiology sometimes difficult to be defined, is a frequent complaint in childhood. Abdominal epilepsy is a rare cause of abdominal pain. In this article, we report on 5 year old girl patient with abdominal epilepsy. Some investigations (stool investigation, routine blood tests, ultrasonography (USG), electrocardiogram (ECHO) and electrocardiograpy (ECG), holter for 24hr.) were done to understand the origin of these complaints; but no abnormalities were found. Finally an EEG was done during an episode of abdominal pain and it was shown that there were generalized spikes especially precipitated by hyperventilation. The patient did well on valproic acid therapy and EEG was normal 1 month after beginning of the treatment. The cause of chronic recurrent paroxymal abdominal pain is difficult for the clinicians to diagnose in childhood. A lot of disease may lead to paroxysmal gastrointestinal symptoms like familial mediterranean fever and porfiria. Abdominal epilepsy is one of the rare but easily treatable cause of abdominal pain. In conclusion, abdominal epilepsy should be suspected in children with recurrent abdominal pain.
Gómez Díaz, Carlos Javier; Rebasa Cladera, Pere; Navarro Soto, Salvador; Hidalgo Rosas, José Manuel; Luna Aufroy, Alexis; Montmany Vioque, Sandra; Corredera Cantarín, Constanza
The aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of the risk model developed by van Ramshorst et al., and a modification of the same, to predict the abdominal wound dehiscence's risk in patients who underwent midline laparotomy incisions. Observational longitudinal retrospective study. Patients who underwent midline laparotomy incisions in the General and Digestive Surgery Department of the Sabadell's Hospital-Parc Taulí's Health and University Corporation-Barcelona, between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2010. Dependent variable: Abdominal wound dehiscence. Global risk score, preoperative risk score (postoperative variables were excluded), global and preoperative probabilities of developing abdominal wound dehiscence. 176 patients. Patients with abdominal wound dehiscence: 15 (8.5%). The global risk score of abdominal wound dehiscence group (mean: 4.97; IC 95%: 4.15-5.79) was better than the global risk score of No abdominal wound dehiscence group (mean: 3.41; IC 95%: 3.20-3.62). This difference is statistically significant (P<.001). The preoperative risk score of abdominal wound dehiscence group (mean: 3.27; IC 95%: 2.69-3.84) was better than the preoperative risk score of No abdominal wound dehiscence group (mean: 2.77; IC 95%: 2.64-2.89), also a statistically significant difference (P<.05). The global risk score (area under the ROC curve: 0.79) has better accuracy than the preoperative risk score (area under the ROC curve: 0.64). The risk model developed by van Ramshorst et al. to predict the abdominal wound dehiscence's risk in the preoperative phase has a limited usefulness. Additional refinements in the preoperative risk score are needed to improve its accuracy. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Lewis; Roller; Parra; Cotlar
To present a case of torsion of a nonneoplastic intra-abdominal testis with an unusual clinical presentation.A 26-year-old active duty Navy Petty Officer presented to the emergency department on 3 occasions over a 5-day period with lower abdominal pain. Physical examination demonstrated acute tenderness in the left lower quadrant with sugestion of a normal spermatic cord and atrophic testis in the left scrotum. Computed tomography scan demonstrated an intra-abdominal lesion near the internal inguinal ring. The patient underwent surgical exploration through an inguinal incision. Torsion of a nonviable intra-abdominal testis was present. The scrotum contained only the vas deferens and cremasteric muscle. An orchiectomy was performed with removal of the vas deferens and other cord structures.The unusual clinical finding of acute torsion of an intra-abdominal testis, associated with an apparent atrophic scrotal testis, presented a confusing clinical picture. Computed tomography scan did not clarify the issue sufficiently to establish a definite preoperative diagnosis. Clinical suspicion prompted early surgical intervention. Review of the current literature produced 60 reported cases of torsion of an intra-abdominal testis. Two thirds of these involved testicular neoplasm, usually seminoma. Although the clinical presentation varied, most patients had recent onset of lower abdominal pain associated with tenderness and, in half the cases, a mass. Patients almost always presented with an absent scrotal testis on the involved side, and not infrequently reported previous surgery thought to be an orchiectomy.Diagnosis of an intra-abdominal testicular torsion is rare, particularly when no neoplasm is present. A high index of suspicion must be maintained whenever there is abdominal pain and undescended testis. The surgical history and imaging studies may not clarify a confusing clinical picture.
Ferrucci, J T
Major technical advances in MR imaging have led to its wider use in the evaluation of abdominal disease. The principle new pulse sequence is the RARE sequence for T2-weighted imaging. Multishot and breath-hold single-shot RARE techniques are now widely used, and both have performed as well as conventional spin-echo imaging with far shorter acquisition times. The most notable improvements have been in the detection and characterization of hepatic lesions. Two liver-specific contrast agents received FDA approval during 1997: SPIO particles or ferumoxide and mangafodipir trisodium, a hepatocyte-specific agent. Both of these agents provide considerable benefit in the detection and characterization of hepatic lesions. Manganese enhancement has also proved useful in MR imaging of the pancreas, although fat-suppressed T1-weighted imaging with dynamic gadolinium enhancement has also yielded results comparable with those of contrast-enhanced CT. MR hydrography, a generic term for static fluid imaging, is another derivative of RARE fast T2-weighted imaging. MRCP, the best known example of MR hydrography, has been rapidly and widely employed as a primary method for imaging the biliary and pancreatic ducts and has become competitive with ERCP. MR vascular imaging, especially portal venography, has been used for noninvasive imaging of portal venous disease in Budd Chiari disease, before placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, and for pancreatic cancer staging. Finally, the development of conventional phased-array body coils and endorectal coils has enabled high-quality MR imaging of perirectal disease (including Crohn disease, fistula in ano, and postpartum sphincter dysfunction). Future abdominal applications of MR imaging will involve second-generation MR interventional techniques, including use of open systems, functional or diffusion-weighted imaging exploiting the molecular activity of tissues, and virtual MR endoscopy. Although CT continues to evolve
Kuznetsov, N A; Rodoman, G V; Shalaeva, T I; Trefilova, O I; Sosikova, N L
90 patients with acute pancreatitis were observed, in 60 of them laparoscopic drainage was performed. The procedure by sterile pancreatonecrosis is indicated only in presence of extent amount of exudate in abdominal cavity. Duration of draining the abdominal cavity should be strictly limited because of the high risk of septic complications. Contraindications for the abdominal drainage by acute necrotic pancreatitis are not only adhesions in the abdomen and shock state of the patient at the moment of procedure necessity, but also unstable hemodynamics in anamnesis and even by the arterial pressure downtrend.
Baumann, Donald P; Butler, Charles E
Abdominal wall defects requiring soft tissue coverage can be either partial-thickness defects or full-thickness composite defects. Soft tissue flap reconstruction offers significant advantages in defects that cannot be closed primarily. Flap reconstruction is performed in a single-stage procedure obviating chronic wound management. If the defect size exceeds the availability of local soft tissue for coverage, regional pedicled flaps can be delivered into the abdominal wall while maintaining blood supply from their donor site. Microsurgical free tissue transfer increases the capacity to provide soft tissue coverage for abdominal wall defects that are not amenable to either local or regional flap coverage.
Drexel, Sabrina; Azarow, Kenneth; Jafri, Mubeen A
Trauma is the leading cause of pediatric mortality and abdominal injury is a significant contributor to morbidity. The assessment of abdominal trauma in children must be conducted expeditiously and thoroughly. Physical examination, laboratory testing, and imaging are central to trauma evaluation. In children with minor injury, protocols may help to limit the use of ionizing radiation. Children with significant abdominal injury who are unstable should be resuscitated with blood products and undergo emergent surgical intervention. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abdominal incisional hernia is a common complication after open abdominal operations. Laparoscopic procedures have obvious mini-invasive advantages for surgical treatment of abdominal incisional hernia, especially to cases with big hernia defect. Laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia has routine mode but the actual operations will be various according to the condition of every hernia. Key points of these operations include design of the position of trocars, closure of defects and fixation of meshes. The details of these issues and experiences of perioperative evaluation and treatment will be talked about in this article. PMID:27761446
Thongprayoon, C; Pasa-Arj, S
A 34-year-old woman, gravida 6 with 10 weeks of gestation was admitted because of abdominal pain and fainting. On physical examination she had hypotension, was pale with abdominal tenderness and guarding. Culdocentesis yielded unclotted blood. Immediate laparotomy was performed, because a diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy was made. About 2,500 ml of fresh blood was found in the abdominal cavity. Appendicular artery tear caused active arterial bleeding. The torn appendicular artery was observed to be the consequence of perforated appendicitis, which, in turn, was caused by a faecalith. Appendectomy was performed and she made a good recovery.
Falidas, Evangelos; Mathioulakis, Stavros; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Pavlakis, Emmanouil; Anyfantakis, Georgios; Villias, Constantinos
Mesenteric cysts are rare abdominal tumors of unclear histologic origin, usually asymptomatic. Post-traumatic mesenteric cyst usually results as a consequence of a mesenteric lymphangitic rupture or a hematoma followed by absorption and cystic degeneration. The preoperative histological and radiological diagnosis is difficult. We present the case of a 45-year-old male patient with sizable, palpable abdominal tumor, the gradual swelling of which the patient himself combined with the blunt abdominal trauma he acquired from an opponent's knee in a football game 5 months ago. PMID:22096714
Since we called for the attention of the occurrence of abdominal compartment syndrome in 2002, forty cases of this complication have been recognized and reported by six burn units in this journal, including three cases accompanied with massive pleural effusion (1601 - 3240 mL). Most cases emerged after "aggressive" fluid resuscitation, especially after massive infusion of crystalloid fluid. The idea "more fluid no harm" should be corrected. The goal of early fluid resuscitation in burn is to correct the hypovolemia and cell hypoxia, and circulating fluid just serves as a carrier in bringing O2 to the cells and carrying out CO2 and other metabolites from tissues. In face of "leaking while infusing", heavy accumulation of fluid in the third spaces may worsen the cell hypoxia. Some of the parameters we get from invasive monitoring systems can be misleading. Now, the trend of overloading should be prevented, and it behaves us to study the regime of lower fluid volume with proper contents in burn shock resuscitation.
Welch, C.E.; Malt, R.A.
A new art of ''interventional radiology'' has been developed in the past few years. Major applications include postoperative instrumentation of the biliary tract, percutaneous biliary drainage, tumor biopsy, abscess drainage, and intestinal-intubation procedures. Intervention by angiography encompasses injection of such substances as Pitressin (vasopressin), and embolization. These procedures have been of immense value. Fortunately, complications, such as sepsis and bleeding, have been infrequent. Computerized body tomography has also proved extremely important, particularly in the diagnosis of subphrenic abscess and pancreatic and pelvic pathology. /sup 99m/Tc-labeled-erythrocyte scans can be used to detect gastrointestinal bleeding sites. Scans can also identify hepatobiliary disease and splenic injury or differentiate the cause of jaundice. /sup 111/Indium-labeled autologous leukocytes may be useful in differentiating a pancreatic abscess from a pseudocyst. The advantage of indium scans over /sup 67/Ga scans is that a shorter time is required for maximum resolution: gallium requires 48 hours, indium 4. Another advantage is that indium is cleared through the liver and spleen and is not secreted into the bowel. /sup 67/Ga is absorbed by lymphomas and hepatocarcinomas. Nuclear magnetic resonance has many possible uses in abdominal surgery, but so far little information is available. This technique has been used to detect an empyema of the gallbladder that was not diagnosed by ultrasound. Among hepatic lesions, it can easily differentiate tumors from cysts and in that regard is superior to both ultrasound and scan. (JMT)
Jin, Sungmin; Kang, Jeeun; Song, Tai-Kyung; Yoo, Yangmo
Ultrasonography has been conducting a critical role in assessing abdominal disorders due to its noninvasive, real-time, low cost, and deep penetrating capabilities. However, for imaging obese patients with a thick fat layer, it is challenging to achieve appropriate image quality with a conventional beamforming (CON) method due to phase aberration caused by the difference between sound speeds (e.g., 1580 and 1450m/s for liver and fat, respectively). For this, various sound speed correction (SSC) methods that estimate the accumulated sound speed for a region-of interest (ROI) have been previously proposed. However, with the SSC methods, the improvement in image quality was limited only for a specific depth of ROI. In this paper, we present the adaptive sound speed correction (ASSC) method, which can enhance the image quality for whole depths by using estimated sound speeds from two different depths in the lower layer. Since these accumulated sound speeds contain the respective contributions of layers, an optimal sound speed for each depth can be estimated by solving contribution equations. To evaluate the proposed method, the phantom study was conducted with pre-beamformed radio-frequency (RF) data acquired with a SonixTouch research package (Ultrasonix Corp., Canada) with linear and convex probes from the gel pad-stacked tissue mimicking phantom (Parker Lab. Inc., USA and Model539, ATS, USA) whose sound speeds are 1610 and 1450m/s, respectively. From the study, compared to the CON and SSC methods, the ASSC method showed the improved spatial resolution and information entropy contrast (IEC) for convex and linear array transducers, respectively. These results indicate that the ASSC method can be applied for enhancing image quality when imaging obese patients in abdominal ultrasonography.
Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)
The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.
Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)
The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.
Raina, Madiha; Chelimsky, Gisela; Chelimsky, Thomas
Abdominal migraines present with debilitating symptoms in adolescence. At our institution, the gastroenterology, neurology, and autonomic departments collaborated in treating patients with such presentations. This case series describes 6 patients who were given intravenous dihydroergotamine (DHE) for presumed abdominal migraines. DHE was only used when other agents like amitriptyline, verapamil, topiramate, or depakote had proved ineffective. DHE was started at 0.5 mg dose and on average 7 to 9 mg were given on each hospitalization. Patient ages ranged from 13 to 19 years with the majority being female. One patient did not respond to treatment. One patient was admitted 4 times for symptoms of abdominal migraines resolving with DHE. The average time between symptom relapse was about 5 to 12 months. Five of our 6 patients responded to the infusion without significant side effects. Based on these case series, DHE may be a treatment option in children with intractable abdominal migraine.
Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... belly Has had a recent injury to the abdomen Is having trouble breathing Call your provider if ...
Tovar Martín, E; Acea Nebril, B
Approximately 10 per cent of abdominal aneurysms have an excessively thick wall that sometimes involve duodenum, cava or colon by an inflammatory process. Between February 1986 and December 1992, 147 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) were treated surgically and in 13 (8.8%) the aneurysms were found to be inflammatory. Their mean age was 67.3 years (70.1 years in non inflammatory group) and all were symptomatics initially (abdominal pain in 53%, rupture in 23%, mass in 15%). The operative mortality for elective resection was 37% in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAA) decreasing to 9% in the AAA group without inflammatory involvement. We conclude that surgery is indicated in these patients to prevent rupture and to hasten the subsidense of inflammatory process ever with postoperative morbi-mortality increased.
Vera, Jesús; García, María-Dolores; Marigil, Miguel; Abascal, Manuel; Lopez, Jose-Ignacio; Ligorred, Luis
Synovial sarcoma arising in the abdominal wall is a rare tumor. We report a case of a 38-year-old man who complained of abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed a firm mobile mass, 25 cm in diameter, in the left lower abdominal wall. The tumor was first thought to be a sarcoma arising from the omentum or mesentery. During surgery, a large tumor was found attached to the inner surface of the abdominal wall and compressing the gastrointestinal tract. On microscopic examination the tumor corresponded to a biphasic synovial sarcoma immunoreactive for cytokeratins (AE1/AE3, 7 and 19), epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen in the epithelial tumor cells, for E-cadherin especially in their glandular structure, vimentin, CD99, and CD56 in the spindle cell component and for bcl-2 protein. The tumor recurred at the same site, and clinical course progressed to death 3 months after the initial diagnosis.
Sharman, Mellora J; Goh, Clara S; Kuipers von Lande, Richard G; Hodgson, Jennifer L
A 5-year-old, female Ragdoll cat was diagnosed with an intra-abdominal mycetoma involving the ileocaecal region. Diagnosis was obtained via histopathological examination following surgical resection of the mass and an ileocolic anastomosis. The initial surgery was complicated by lymphangiectasia, chylous abdominal effusion and mild bacterial leakage from the anastomosis site. A second, exploratory laparotomy was performed to augment the anastomosis with serosal patching and omentalisation and to investigate a cystic structure observed on follow-up abdominal ultrasound. Initial amoxycillin clavulanate (Clavulox; Pfizer Animal Health) therapy was ineffective, but clindamycin (Antirobe; Pfizer Animal Health) proved successful in resolving the infection. Abdominal actinomycetoma in the cat may be an under-diagnosed condition due to its close resemblance to neoplastic disease. Standard diagnostic and therapeutic regimens are commonly ineffective in Actinomyces species infections. Surgical resection along with adjunctive, long-term, selective antimicrobial therapy is effective and prognosis is good for localised lesions.
Desai, Bobby; De Portu, Giuliano
Renal calyceal rupture is a usual etiology of abdominal pain in the emergency department. We present a case of unexpected renal calyx rupture in a patient with symptomatology of renal colic. A discussion and review are provided. PMID:23326726
Le, Don; Guileyardo, Joseph; Casanova, Mark
Abdominal apoplexy is a rare hemorrhagic condition involving the small arteries or veins within the abdominal cavity. A high degree of clinical suspicion, followed by appropriate diagnostic workup and therapeutic intervention, is critical, as nonoperative mortality approaches 100%. Contrary to most previously reported cases, which were associated with hemoperitoneum, we present a patient in which gastroduodenal artery dissection resulted in an organized retroperitoneal hematoma with local compression of the duodenum and subsequent bowel obstruction, resulting in vomiting, aspiration, and death. PMID:27695177
Farías, Emigdio Torres; Gómez, Luis Guillermo Torres; Allegre, René Márquez; Higareda, Salvador Hernández
Abdominal advanced pregnancy is an obstetric complication that put at risk maternal and fetal life. We report a case of advanced abdominal pregnancy with intact ovaries and fallopian tubes, without ureteroperitoneal fistulae and, late prenatal diagnosis, in a multiparous patient without risk factors, with alive newborn, and whose pregnancy was attended at Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad, Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia, Centro Medico Nacional de Occidente del IMSS, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.
Summers, Ronald M.
OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207
Murry, Jason S; Hoang, David M; Ashragian, Sogol; Liou, Doug Z; Barmparas, Galinos; Chung, Rex; Alban, Rodrigo F; Margulies, Daniel R; Ley, Eric J
Stab wounds (SW) to the abdomen traditionally require urgent exploration when associated with shock, evisceration, or peritonitis. Hemodynamically stable patients without evisceration may benefit from serial exams even with peritonitis. We compared patients taken directly to the operating room with abdominal SWs (ED-OR) to those admitted for serial exams (ADMIT). We retrospectively reviewed hemodynamically stable patients presenting with any abdominal SW between January 2000 and December 2012. Exclusions included evidence of evisceration, systolic blood pressure ≤110 mm Hg, or blood transfusion. NON-THER was defined as abdominal exploration without identification of intra-abdominal injury requiring repair. Of 142 patients included, 104 were ED-OR and 38 were ADMIT. When ED-OR was compared with ADMIT, abdominal Abbreviated Injury Score was higher (2.4 vs 2.1; P = 0.01) and hospital length of stay was longer (4.8 vs 3.3 days; P = 0.04). Incidence of NON-THER was higher in ED-OR cohort (71% vs 13%; P ≤ 0.001). In a regression model, ED-OR was a predictor of NON-THER (adjusted odds ratio 16.6; P < 0.001). One patient from ED-OR expired after complications from NON-THER. There were no deaths in the ADMIT group. For those patients with abdominal SWs who present with systolic blood pressure ≥110 mm Hg, no blood product transfusion in the emergency department and lacking evisceration, admission for serial abdominal exams may be preferred regardless of abdominal exam.
Smith, Avery; Le, Don; Guileyardo, Joseph; Casanova, Mark
Abdominal apoplexy is a rare hemorrhagic condition involving the small arteries or veins within the abdominal cavity. A high degree of clinical suspicion, followed by appropriate diagnostic workup and therapeutic intervention, is critical, as nonoperative mortality approaches 100%. Contrary to most previously reported cases, which were associated with hemoperitoneum, we present a patient in which gastroduodenal artery dissection resulted in an organized retroperitoneal hematoma with local compression of the duodenum and subsequent bowel obstruction, resulting in vomiting, aspiration, and death.
Le-Xiang, Zeng; Yao-Hao, Wu; Na, Li; Rong-Lin, Qiu; Jia-Jia, Zhou; Wen-Li, Jiang; Jie, Zhang; Xiao-Geng, Deng
Abstract To explore effective treatment of large abdominal malignancies in children complicated with abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Six children with large abdominal malignancies complicated with ACS were admitted to our department from January 2013 to January 2016, and the changes in their breathing, heart rate, oxygen saturation, abdominal circumference, bladder pressure, and urine output, as well as the treatment measures and outcomes, were retrospectively analyzed. The 6 children included 1 child with bilateral nephroblastoma, 1 child with abdominal alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, 1 child with right ovarian malignant teratoma complicated with abdominal glioma, 1 child with abdominal malignant teratoma, 1 child with right nephroblastoma, and 1 child with left adrenal gland neuroblastoma. All patients were treated in a timely manner. The first 4 children underwent abdominal cavity decompression through surgical resection of the tumor, and the ACS was successfully cured allowing for follow-up care, whereas the last 2 patients failed to receive emergency surgery and eventually died due to the gradual aggravation of ACS. Decompression through surgical resection of the tumor is the only effective measure for treating large abdominal malignancies in children complicated with ACS. PMID:28445278
Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea
Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655
Aggarwal, Sourabh; Qamar, Arman; Sharma, Vishal; Sharma, Alka
An arterial aneurysm is defined as a focal dilation of a blood vessel with respect to the original artery. The risk of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) increases dramatically in the presence of the following factors: age older than 60 years, smoking, hypertension and Caucasian ethnicity. The likelihood that an aneurysm will rupture is influenced by the aneurysm size, expansion rate, continued smoking and persistent hypertension. The majority of AAAs are asymptomatic and are detected as an incidental finding on ultrasonography, abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging performed for other purposes. It can also present with abdominal pain or complications such as thrombosis, embolization and rupture. Approximately 30% of asymptomatic AAAs are discovered as a pulsatile abdominal mass on routine physical examination. Abdominal ultrasonography is considered the screening modality of choice for detecting AAAs because of its high sensitivity and specificity, as well as its safety and relatively lower cost. The decision to screen for AAAs is challenging. The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommended that men between the age of 65 to 75 years who have ever smoked should be screened at least once for AAAs by abdominal ultrasonography. Management options for patients with an asymptomatic AAA include reduction of risk factors such as smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia; medical therapy with beta-blockers; watchful waiting; endovascular stenting; and surgical repair depending on the size and expansion rate of the aneurysm and underlying comorbidities. PMID:21523201
Santos Moreira, Juliana; Melo, Ana Sofia Carneiro Pinto de; Noites, Andreia; Couto, Miriam Faria; Melo, Cristina Argel de; Adubeiro, Nuno Carvalho Freire de Almeida
Abdominal fat is associated with metabolic disorders, leading to cardiovascular risk factors and numerous diseases. This study aimed to analyze the effect of plaster body wrap in combination with aerobic exercise on abdominal fat. Nineteen female volunteers were randomly divided into intervention group (IG; n = 10) performing aerobic exercise with plaster body wrap, and control group (CG; n = 9) performing only exercise. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were measured using ultrasound; subcutaneous fat was also estimated on analysis of skinfolds and abdominal perimeters. At the end of the 10-sessions protocol, the IG demonstrated a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in subcutaneous fat at the left anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) level and in iliac crest perimeter measurements. A large intervention effect size strength (0.80) was found in subcutaneous fat below the navel and a moderate effect size strength on the vertical abdominal skinfold (0.62) and the perimeter of the most prominent abdominal point (0.57). Comparing the initial and final data of each group, the IG showed a significant decrease in numerous variables including visceral and subcutaneous fat above and below the navel measured by ultrasound (p ≤ 0.05). Plaster body wrap in combination with aerobic exercise seems to be effective for abdominal fat reduction.
Hinterseher, Irene; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Since first candidate gene studies were published 20 years ago, nearly 100 genetic association studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biologically relevant genes have been reported on AAA. The studies investigated SNPs in genes of the extracellular matrix, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and signaling pathways. Very few studies were large enough to draw firm conclusions and very few results could be replicated in another sample set. The more recent unbiased approaches are family-based DNA linkage studies and genome-wide genetic association studies, which have the potential of identifying the genetic basis for AAA, if appropriately powered and well-characterized large AAA cohorts are used. SNPs associated with AAA have already been identified in these large multicenter studies. One significant association was of a variant in a gene called CNTN3 which is located on chromosome 3p12.3. Two follow-up studies, however, could not replicate the association. Two other SNPs, which are located on chromosome 9p21 and 9q33 were replicated in other samples. The two genes with the strongest supporting evidence of contribution to the genetic risk for AAA are the CDKN2BAS gene, also known as ANRIL, which encodes an antisense RNA that regulates expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and DAB2IP, which encodes an inhibitor of cell growth and survival. Functional studies are now needed to establish the mechanisms by which these genes contribute to AAA pathogenesis. PMID:21146954
Leppäniemi, A; Tukiainen, E
Complex abdominal wall defects refer to situations where simple ventral hernia repair is not feasible because the defect is very large, there is a concomitant infection or failed previous re-pair attempt, or if there is not enough original skin to cover the repair. Usually a complex abdominal wall repair is preceded by a period of temporary abdominal closure where the short-term aims include closure of the catabolic drain, protection of the viscera and preventing fistula formation, preventing bowel adherence to the abdominal wall, and enabling future fascial and skin closure. Currently the best way to achieve these goals is the vacuum- and mesh-mediated fascial traction method achieving close to 90% fascial closure rates. The long-term aims of an abdominal closure following a planned hernia strategy include intact skin cover, fascial closure at midline (if possible), good functional outcome with innervated abdominal musculature, no pain and good cosmetic result. The main methods of abdominal wall reconstruction include the use of prosthetic (mesh) or autologous material (tissue flaps). In patients with original skin cover over the fascial defect (simple ventral hernia), the most commonly used method is hernia repair with an artificial mesh. For more complex defects, our first choice of reconstruction is the component separation technique, sometimes combined with a mesh. In contaminated fields where component separation alone is not feasible, a combination with a biological mesh can be used. In large defects with grafted skin, a free TFL flap is the best option, sometimes reinforced with a mesh and enhanced with components separation.
Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya
To summarize the association of vitamins (B6, B12, C, D, and E) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), we reviewed clinical studies with a comprehensive literature research and meta-analytic estimates. To identify all clinical studies evaluating the association of vitamins B6/B12/C/D/E and AAA, databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through April 2015, using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). For each case-control study, data regarding vitamin levels in both the AAA and control groups were used to generate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Pooled analyses of the 4 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin B6 levels (SMD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.11; P=0.003) but non-significantly lower vitamin B12 levels (SMD, -0.42; 95% CI, -1.09 to 0.25; P=0.22) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Pooled analyses of the 2 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower levels of circulating vitamins C (SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.23 to -0.19; P=0.007) and E (SMD, -1.76; 95% CI, -2.93 to 0.60; P=0.003) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Another pooled analysis of the 3 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels (SMD, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.50 to -0.01; P=0.04) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. In a double-blind controlled trial, 4.0-year treatment with a high-dose folic acid and vitamin B6/B12 multivitamin in kidney transplant recipients did not reduce a rate of AAA repair despite significant reduction in homocysteine level. In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 5.8-year supplementation with α-tocopherol (vitamin E) had no preventive effect on large AAA among male smokers. In clinical setting, although low circulating vitamins B6/C/D/E (not B12) levels are associated with AAA presence, vitamins B6/B12/E
Ohno, Shunsuke; Togawa, Yasuhiro; Chiku, Tsuyoshi; Sano, Wataru
Postherpetic pseudohernia causes an abdominal bulge as well as an abdominal wall herniation. This disease is one of the neurological complications of herpes zoster and essentially consists of paresis of ipsilateral abdominal muscles. Postherpetic pseudohernia may be mistaken for abdominal wall herniation because it is not well known. We describe two cases presenting an abdominal bulge. The ipsilateral abdominal bulge appeared after recovery from abdominal zoster. Abdominal CT showed no evidence of a herniation or mass. We diagnosed a postherpetic pseudohernia. One of the patients recovered spontaneously 4 months after the onset, and the other partially recovered after 2 months. This disease can be expected to disappear spontaneously, unlike abdominal herniation requiring surgery. It has been reported that 79.3% of patients eventually recovered spontaneously. For surgeons and general practitioners, it is beneficial to keep this disease in mind when examining a patient presenting an abdominal bulge. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Thabet, Farah Chedly; Ejike, Janeth Chiaka
To consolidate pediatric intensivists' understanding of the pathophysiology, definition, incidence, monitoring, and management of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS); and to highlight the characteristics related to the pediatric population. This is a narrative review article that utilized a systematic search of the medical literature published in the English language between January 1990 and august 2016. Studies were identified by conducting a comprehensive search of Pub Med databases. Search terms included "intra-abdominal hypertension and child", "intra-abdominal hypertension and pediatrics", "abdominal compartment syndrome and child", and "abdominal compartment syndrome and pediatrics". Intra-abdominal hypertension and ACS are associated with a number of pathophysiological disturbances and increased morbidity and mortality. These conditions have been well described in critically ill adults. In children, the IAH and the ACS have a reported incidence of 13% and 0.6 to 10% respectively; they carry similar prognostic impact but are still under-diagnosed and under-recognized by pediatric health care providers. Intra-abdominal hypertension and ACS are conditions that are regularly encountered in critically ill children. They are associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. Early recognition, prevention and timely management of this critical condition are necessary to improve its outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino
There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. RESUMO Em pacientes críticos com quadros abdominais agudos a esclarecer é crescente a solicitação da aferição da pressão intra-abdominal. Sintetizar resultados de pesquisas sobre a mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal pela via vesical e analisar o nível de evidência foram os objetivos desta revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada nas bases LILACS, MEDLINE e PubMed, no período de 2005 a julho de 2012. Identificaram-se 20 artigos, sendo 12 revisões de literatura, 4 estudos exploratório-descritivos, 2 opiniões de especialistas, 1 estudo de coorte prospectivo e 1 relato de experiência. O método vesical para mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal foi considerado padrão-ouro. Existem variações na técnica, entretanto pontos em comum foram identificados: posição supina completa, na ausência de contratura abdominal, ao final da expiração e expressa em mmHg. A maioria indica posicionar o ponto zero do
Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino
ABSTRACT There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. PMID:26958978
Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071
Marshall, Clement D; Hu, Michael S; Leavitt, Tripp; Barnes, Leandra A; Cheung, Alexander T M; Malhotra, Samir; Lorenz, H Peter; Longaker, Michael T
Abdominal adhesions consist of fibrotic tissue that forms in the peritoneal space in response to an inflammatory insult, typically surgery or intraabdominal infection. The precise mechanisms underlying adhesion formation are poorly understood. Many compounds and physical barriers have been tested for their ability to prevent adhesions after surgery with varying levels of success. The mouse and rat are important models for the study of abdominal adhesions. Several different techniques for the creation of adhesions in the mouse and rat exist in the literature. Here we describe a protocol utilizing abrasion of the cecum with sandpaper and sutures placed in the right abdominal sidewall. The mouse is anesthetized and the abdomen is prepped. A midline laparotomy is created and the cecum is identified. Sandpaper is used to gently abrade the surface of the cecum. Next, several figure-of-eight sutures are placed into the peritoneum of the right abdominal sidewall. The abdominal cavity is irrigated, a small amount of starch is applied, and the incision is closed. We have found that this technique produces the most consistent adhesions with the lowest mortality rate.
Shao, Li; Zheng, Hong; Jia, Feng-Ju; Wang, Hui-Qin; Liu, Li; Sun, Qi; An, Meng-Ying; Zhang, Xiu-Hua; Wen, Hao
Background Keeping abdominal surgery patients warm is common and warming methods are needed in power outages during natural disasters. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost, low-power warming methods for maintaining normothermia in abdominal surgery patients. Methods Patients (n = 160) scheduled for elective abdominal surgery were included in this prospective clinical study. Five warming methods were applied: heated blood transfusion/fluid infusion vs. unheated; wrapping patients vs. not wrapping; applying moist dressings, heated or not; surgical field rinse heated or not; and applying heating blankets or not. Patients’ nasopharyngeal and rectal temperatures were recorded to evaluate warming efficacy. Significant differences were found in mean temperatures of warmed patients compared to those not warmed. Results When we compared temperatures of abdominal surgery patient groups receiving three specific warming methods with temperatures of control groups not receiving these methods, significant differences were revealed in temperatures maintained during the surgeries between the warmed groups and controls. Discussion The value of maintaining normothermia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia is accepted. Three effective economical and practically applicable warming methods are combined body wrapping and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and warmed surgical rinse fluid, with or without heating blanket. These methods are practically applicable when low-cost method is indeed needed. PMID:22808045
Shao, Li; Zheng, Hong; Jia, Feng-Ju; Wang, Hui-Qin; Liu, Li; Sun, Qi; An, Meng-Ying; Zhang, Xiu-Hua; Wen, Hao
Keeping abdominal surgery patients warm is common and warming methods are needed in power outages during natural disasters. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost, low-power warming methods for maintaining normothermia in abdominal surgery patients. Patients (n = 160) scheduled for elective abdominal surgery were included in this prospective clinical study. Five warming methods were applied: heated blood transfusion/fluid infusion vs. unheated; wrapping patients vs. not wrapping; applying moist dressings, heated or not; surgical field rinse heated or not; and applying heating blankets or not. Patients' nasopharyngeal and rectal temperatures were recorded to evaluate warming efficacy. Significant differences were found in mean temperatures of warmed patients compared to those not warmed. When we compared temperatures of abdominal surgery patient groups receiving three specific warming methods with temperatures of control groups not receiving these methods, significant differences were revealed in temperatures maintained during the surgeries between the warmed groups and controls. The value of maintaining normothermia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia is accepted. Three effective economical and practically applicable warming methods are combined body wrapping and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and warmed surgical rinse fluid, with or without heating blanket. These methods are practically applicable when low-cost method is indeed needed.
McDermott, S.; Chan, V. O.; Ridge, C. A.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem disease with a range of abdominal manifestations including those involving the liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Recent advances in management of the respiratory complications of the disease has led to a greater life expectancy in patients with CF. Subsequently, there is increasing focus on the impact of abdominal disease on quality of life and survival. Liver cirrhosis is the most important extrapulmonary cause of death in CF, yet significant challenges remain in the diagnosis of CF related liver disease. The capacity to predict those patients at risk of developing cirrhosis remains a significant challenge. We review representative abdominal imaging findings in patients with CF selected from the records of two academic health centres, with a view to increasing familiarity with the abdominal manifestations of the disease. We review their presentation and expected imaging findings, with a focus on the challenges facing diagnosis of the hepatic manifestations of the disease. An increased familiarity with these abdominal manifestations will facilitate timely diagnosis and management, which is paramount to further improving outcomes for patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:28250993
Thompson, W; Longstreth, G; Drossman, D; Heaton, K; Irvine, E; Muller-Lissner, S
The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised. A functional bowel disorder (FBD) is diagnosed by characteristic symptoms for at least 12 weeks during the preceding 12 months in the absence of a structural or biochemical explanation. The irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal bloating, functional constipation, and functional diarrhea are distinguished by symptom-based diagnostic criteria. Unspecified FBD lacks criteria for the other FBDs. Diagnostic testing is individualized, depending on patient age, primary symptom characteristics, and other clinical and laboratory features. Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is defined as either the FAP syndrome, which requires at least six months of pain with poor relation to gut function and loss of daily activities, or unspecified FAP, which lacks criteria for the FAP syndrome. An organic cause for the pain must be excluded, but aspects of the patient's pain behavior are of primary importance. Treatment of the FBDs relies upon confident diagnosis, explanation, and reassurance. Diet alteration, drug treatment, and psychotherapy may be beneficial, depending on the symptoms and psychological features. Keywords: functional bowel disorder; functional constipation; functional diarrhea; irritable bowel syndrome; functional abdominal pain; functional abdominal bloating; Rome II PMID:10457044
Mottarella, Scott E.; Rosa, Mario; Bangura, Abdul; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Craig, Paul A.
The aim of the Structural Biology Extensible Visualization Scripting Language (SBEVSL) project is to allow users who are experts in one scripting language to use that language in a second molecular visualization environment without requiring the user to learn a new scripting language. ConSCRIPT, the first SBEVSL release, is a plug-in for PyMOL that accepts RasMol scripting commands either as premade scripts or as line-by-line entries from PyMOL's own command line. The plug-in is available for download at http://sourceforge.net/projects/sbevsl/files in the ConSCRIPT folder. PMID:21567873
Riambau, Vicente; Guerrero, Francisco; Montañá, Xavier; Gilabert, Rosa
Recent technological advances in the diagnosis and therapy of abdominal aortic aneurysm and renovascular disease are continuing to bring about changes in the way patients suffering from these conditions are treated. The prevalence of both these conditions is increasing. This is due to greater life-expectancy in patients with arteriosclerosis, a pathogenetic factor underlying both conditions. The application of diagnostic imaging techniques to non-vascular conditions has led to the early diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Clinical suspicion of reno-vascular disease can be confirmed easily using high-resolution diagnostic imaging modalities such as CT angiography and magnetic resonance angiography. Endovascular intervention is successfully replacing conventional surgical repair techniques, with the result that it may be possible to improve outcome in both conditions using effective and minimally invasive approaches. Future technological developments will enable these endovascular techniques to be applied in the large majority of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm or renovascular disease.
Piering, A W; Janowski, A P; Wehrenberg, W B; Moore, M T; Snyder, A C
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of four specific sit-up exercises on muscular activity of the rectus abdominis. Pairs of surface electrodes were placed unilaterally on four quadrants of the rectus abdominis, delimited by tendinous inscriptions, in four male subjects. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were taken while the subjects performed four different abdominal exercises. Each abdominal exercise was hypothesized to have a specific effect on one of the four quadrants of the rectus abdominis. The four exercises analyzed were: 1) long lying crunch, 2) bent knee crunch, 3) leg raise, and 4) vertical leg crunch. Analysis of the standardized EMG recordings demonstrated no significant differences in the mean muscle activity between the four different quadrants, in the mean muscle activity between the four different exercises, and in interactions between the exercises and the quadrants of the rectus abdominis. We conclude that none of the four abdominal exercises studied are specific for strengthening individual muscle quadrants of the rectus abdominis.
Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea
To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos/SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-0 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Kimball, E.; Malbrain, M.; Nesbitt, I.; Cohen, J.; Kaloiani, V.; Ivatury, R.; Mone, M.; Debergh, D.; Björck, M.
Background The effect of decompressive laparotomy on outcomes in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome has been poorly investigated. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to describe the effect of decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome on organ function and outcomes. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in adult patients who underwent decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. The primary endpoints were 28‐day and 1‐year all‐cause mortality. Changes in intra‐abdominal pressure (IAP) and organ function, and laparotomy‐related morbidity were secondary endpoints. Results Thirty‐three patients were included in the study (20 men). Twenty‐seven patients were surgical admissions treated for abdominal conditions. The median (i.q.r.) Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 26 (20–32). Median IAP was 23 (21–27) mmHg before decompressive laparotomy, decreasing to 12 (9–15), 13 (8–17), 12 (9–15) and 12 (9–14) mmHg after 2, 6, 24 and 72 h. Decompressive laparotomy significantly improved oxygenation and urinary output. Survivors showed improvement in organ function scores, but non‐survivors did not. Fourteen complications related to the procedure developed in eight of the 33 patients. The abdomen could be closed primarily in 18 patients. The overall 28‐day mortality rate was 36 per cent (12 of 33), which increased to 55 per cent (18 patients) at 1 year. Non‐survivors were no different from survivors, except that they tended to be older and on mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Decompressive laparotomy reduced IAP and had an immediate effect on organ function. It should be considered in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome. PMID:26891380
Rosen, A.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Moore, A.V. Jr.; Dunnick, N.R.
Abdominal computed tomography was performed in six patients with suspected ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm but in whom an alternate clinical diagnosis was seriously considered. In each patient, a large aortic aneurysm was demonstrated in association with a retroperitoneal accumulation of high-density blood. The retroperitoneal blood was primarily confined to the extracapsular perinephric space. In four of the six patients, a focal area of the aortic wall was indistinct on the side of the retroperitoneal hemorrhage at the presumed site of rupture. Five of the six patients underwent emergency surgery, which confirmed the site of aneurysm, presence of rupture and the location of fresh retroperitoneal blood.
Nejjar, M; Bennani, S; Zerouali, O N
Penetrating abdominal wounds are frequent and serious. 330 cases have been treated in the Department of Emergencies and visceral Surgery at Averroes Hospital of Casablanca from 1980 to 1990. The predominance of male sex is noted, and these wounds are always the result of aggression by white arm. All patients have been operated, the white laparotomy rate is of 36%. The classic interventionist attitude is still recommended in spite of this high rate, because our present conditions can't permit us a rigorous watching. According to abdominal lesions, the different interventions are reviewed, and their indications are detailed.
St Jean, G
This article describes the signs, hematologic alterations, and methods of diagnosis of digestive disorders that may be treated surgically. The necessity for surgical intervention is analyzed, based on clinical experience and current knowledge. The prognosis for surgical correction of common digestive problems and prognostic indicators for abomasal volvulus are described. Decision analysis for digestive surgery is reviewed, with examples for abomasal displacement and volvulus. Preoperative preparation for abdominal surgery--including facilities, equipment, supportive therapy, and distinction between elective and emergency surgery--is discussed briefly. The four most common surgical approaches for abdominal surgery are reviewed, and their indications noted.
Diagnostic imaging is often not indicated in chronic abdominal pain. In particular, undifferentiated abdominal pain is rarely an indication for a CT scan. CT scanning is overused even when imaging is required. Other modalities may be preferable. A normal CT scan does not rule out cancer. Alarm symptoms, including anaemia, blood in the stool, waking at night with gastrointestinal symptoms, and weight loss, should be investigated. The most appropriate modality depends on the symptoms. Clinical information on request forms for CT scans should be specific and include the suspected condition as this helps the radiologist to determine an appropriate imaging protocol.
Sonne, Morten; Hillingsø, Jens
Intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare conditions with high mortality. IAH is an intraabdominal pressure (IAP) above 12 mmHg and ACS an IAP above 20 mmHg with evidence of organ dysfunction. IAP is measured indirectly via the bladder or stomach. Various medical and surgical conditions increase the intraabdominal volume. When the content exceeds the compliance of the abdominal wall, the IAP rises. Increased IAP affects the functioning of the brain, lungs, circulation, kidneys, and bowel. The treatment of ACS is a reduction of IAP.
Kunishi, Yosuke; Iwata, Yuri; Ota, Mitsuyasu; Kurakami, Yuichi; Matsubayashi, Mao; Kanno, Masatomo; Kuboi, Yoriko; Yoshie, Koichiro; Kato, Yoshio
A 52-year-old woman presented with recurrent, severe abdominal pain. Laboratory tests and imaging were insignificant, and treatment for functional dyspepsia was ineffective. The poorly localized, dull, and severe abdominal pain, associated with anorexia, nausea, and vomiting, was consistent with abdominal migraine. The symptoms were relieved by loxoprofen and lomerizine, which are used in the treatment of migraine. We herein report a case of abdominal migraine in a middle-aged woman. Abdominal migraine should be considered as a cause of abdominal pain as it might easily be relieved by appropriate treatment. PMID:27725538
Augustin, Goran; Korolija, Dragan; Skegro, Mate; Jakic-Razumovic, Jasminka
Most complications after appendectomy occur within ten days; however, we report the unusual case of a suture granuloma 12 years after open appendectomy. The afebrile 75-year-old woman presented with a slightly painful palpable mass in the right lower abdomen. There was no nausea or vomiting and bowel movements were normal. She lost 10 kg during the 3 mo before presentation. The patient had undergone an appendectomy 12 years previously. Physical examination revealed a tender mass, 10 cm in diameter, under the appendectomy scar. The preoperative laboratory findings, tumor markers and plain abdominal radiographs were normal. Multi-slice computed tomography scanning showed an inhomogenous abdominal mass with minimal vascularization in the right lower abdomen 8.6 cm × 8 cm × 9 cm in size which communicated with the abdominal wall. The abdominal wall was thickened, weak and bulging. The abdominal wall mass did not communicate with the cecum or the ascending colon. Complete excision of the abdominal wall mass was performed via median laparotomy. Histopathological examination revealed a granuloma with a central abscess. This case report demonstrates that a preoperative diagnosis of abdominal wall mass after open appendectomy warrants the use of a wide spectrum of diagnostic modalities and consequently different treatment options. PMID:19705509
Asuncion, C M; Cinti, D C; Hawkins, H B
The use of an intrauterine device (IUD) is associated with the presence of actinomyces in the female genital tract. Since IUD use is currently so prevalent, IUD-related pelvic inflammatory disease occasionally spreads to the rest of the abdomen. Two patients with abdominal actinomycosis in association with an IUD illustrate the problem; we review the general problem.
Dick, J P R
The deep tendon reflexes (and the abdominal reflexes) are important physical signs which have a special place in neurological diagnosis, particularly in early disease when they alone may be abnormal. They act as "hard" signs in situations where clinical assessment is complicated by patient anxiety, and become more useful as clinical experience develops.
Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung
Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.
... Aug;6(4):232-6. Citation on PubMed Islam S. Clinical care outcomes in abdominal wall defects. Curr ... Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links USA.gov Copyright Privacy Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. ...
Chandler, John C; Gauderer, Michael W L
Abdominal masses in neonates reflect a wide spectrum of diseases,from lesions that can cause significant morbidity and mortality,to conditions readily corrected surgically, to entities which maybe safely observed. It is incumbent upon the infant's physician to determine the nature of the mass in a timely, safe, and cost-effective manner.
Cervantes Castro, Jorge
The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.
... En español Talk to Your Doctor about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Browse Sections The Basics Overview What is AAA? ... your doctor about getting screened (tested) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Am I at risk for AAA? Men ...
Cole, Elaine; Lynch, Antonia; Cugnoni, Helen
Abdominal pain has many causes, from simple to complex presentations. Patients with abdominal pain may have a number of physiological and psychological needs. Nurses have a key role to play in patient assessment, history talking and management.
Eisenberg, R L; Heineken, P; Hedgcock, M W; Federle, M; Goldberg, H I
In an effort to develop referral criteria for the ordering of abdominal radiographs for patients presenting with abdominal symptoms, we prospectively studied the relation between clinical data and radiographic abnormalities. Of 1780 examinations, 179 (10.0%) showed some radiographic abnormality. If abdominal radiographs would have been limited to those patients who had moderate or severe abdominal tenderness, or to patients with a high clinical suspicion of bowel obstruction, renal or ureteral calculi, trauma, ischemia, or gallbladder disease, regardless of the degree of tenderness, 956 (53.7%) examinations would not have been done. All radiographic abnormalities reflecting a serious pathologic process would have been identified. Only 33 (3.5) abnormalities of limited significance, almost all localized or generalized ileus, would have been undetected. The adoption of these referral criteria would result in minimal loss of clinicall useful information, large financial savings, and a reduction in radiation exposure.
Eisenberg, R L; Heineken, P; Hedgcock, M W; Federle, M; Goldberg, H I
In an effort to develop referral criteria for the ordering of abdominal radiographs for patients presenting with abdominal symptoms, we prospectively studied the relation between clinical data and radiographic abnormalities. Of 1780 examinations, 179 (10.0%) showed some radiographic abnormality. If abdominal radiographs would have been limited to those patients who had moderate or severe abdominal tenderness, or to patients with a high clinical suspicion of bowel obstruction, renal or ureteral calculi, trauma, ischemia, or gallbladder disease, regardless of the degree of tenderness, 956 (53.7%) examinations would not have been done. All radiographic abnormalities reflecting a serious pathologic process would have been identified. Only 33 (3.5%) abnormalities of limited significance, almost all localized or generalized ileus, would have been undetected. The adoption of these referral criteria would result in minimal loss of clinically useful information, large financial savings, and a reduction in radiation exposure. PMID:6830353
Eisenberg, R L; Heineken, P; Hedgcock, M W; Federle, M; Goldberg, H I
In an effort to develop referral criteria for the ordering of abdominal radiographs for patients presenting with abdominal symptoms, we prospectively studied the relation between clinical data and radiographic abnormalities. Of 1780 examinations, 179 (10.0%) showed some radiographic abnormality. If abdominal radiographs would have been limited to those patients who had moderate or severe abdominal tenderness, or to patients with a high clinical suspicion of bowel obstruction, renal or ureteral calculi, trauma, ischemia, or gallbladder disease, regardless of the degree of tenderness, 956 (53.7%) examinations would not have been done. All radiographic abnormalities reflecting a serious pathologic process would have been identified. Only 33 (3.5%) abnormalities of limited significance, almost all localized or generalized ileus, would have been undetected. The adoption of these referral criteria would result in minimal loss of clinically useful information, large financial savings, and a reduction in radiation exposure.
Jiménez Gómez, M; Betancor Rivera, N; Lima Sánchez, J; Hernández Hernández, J R
Abdominal traumatic evisceration as a result of high energy trauma is uncommon. Once repaired the possible internal damage, an abdominal wall defect of high complexity may exist, whose reconstruction represents a surgical challenge. Politraumatized male with important abdominal muculocutaneous avulsion and evisceration. After initial repair, the patient developed a big eventration in which we use a porcine dermis-derived mesh (Permacol(TM)), a safe and effective alternative in abdominal wall repair, thanks to its seamless integration with other tissues, even when exposed. Negative pressure therapy has been used for the management of wound complications after surgical implantation of PermacolTM mesh. We describe our experience with the use of PermacolTM mesh and negative pressure therapy to aid the wound closure after skin necrosis and exposed mesh.
Kvirikashvili, T O
We investigated 79 patients (76.0%) with lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes among all 104 with general abdominal lymphosarcoma. Ultrasound tomography was used in 98.1 % cases; also, in the urgent cases cancer transcutaneal puncture was performed with the purpose of cytological investigation. In complicated situations computer tomography was considered as a highly informative method of investigation. Surgical intervention and radial therapy is inexpedient in a treatment program of lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in children. Besides, it is shown the superiority of intensive program of polychemical therapy OMDV: vincristine (oncovin) -- 1.5 mg/m(2) i/v in the 1 day; metotrexate -- 250 mg/m(2) i/v drop by drop in the I day; dexamethazone 10 mg/m(2) per os 1-5 day; vepesid -- 100 mg/m(2) i/v drop by drop in the 4 and 5 days.) in comparison with the ACOP scheme: adriamicine or rubomicine - 30 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); cyclophosphane -- 600 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); vincristine (oncovin) -- 1.4 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); prednisolone -- 40 mg/m(2) every day 4-6 week quitting gradually) for treatment of lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in childhood age. General recovery without recurrence in children with lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes was occurred in 44.2% cases. In the case of polychemical therapy according to ACOP scheme, recovery was 20% and in the case of polychemical therapy following OMDV scheme, 78.1% of the children recovered.
Fernández Avalos, S; Muñoz-Santanach, D; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Luaces Cubells, C
To determine the prevalence, the presentation, the evaluation and the evolution of abdominal pain of gynaecological cause in adolescents who came to a Paediatric Emergency Department. An observational and descriptive study was performed. All adolescent female aged 12 to 18 years who came to Emergency Service during 2008 with abdominal pain were included. The patients diagnosed with gynaecological disorders were studied. Six hundred and ninety-nine adolescents with abdominal pain were evaluated and 54 (7,7%) of them were of gynaecological cause. Their mean age was 15,2 (SD 1,7) years. Fifty-one (94,4%) had had the menarche. Thirteen (59,3%) of the 32 adolescents, who were asked, said that they had had sex. The median evolution of pain was 2 days (p25-75: 6hours-4days). The most frequent associated symptoms were micturition syndrome (11; 20,4%) and vomiting (9; 16,7%). Thirty-one (57,4%) adolescents were evaluated by two or more specialists. Forty-two (77,7%) patients were subjected to complementary examinations; abdominal ultrasound (29; 53,7%) and urinary sediment (26; 48,1%) were the two most common. The main diagnoses were peri-ovular pain (16; 29,6%) and dysmenorrhoea (14; 25,9%). Six (9,3%) patients were admitted to the hospital and 4 (7,4%) needed surgery. Although the main causes of abdominal pain in adolescent females are physiological, an accurate anamnesis and physical examination is essential to rule out other more serious causes. A multidisciplinary evaluation is often necessary to make a correct diagnosis. Copyright 2009 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Mirosław
Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents.
Dittmar, Y; Rauchfuss, F; Ardelt, M; Settmacher, U
Although minimally invasive approaches to the abdominal cavity are becoming increasingly more important, open surgical techniques are still of essential interest and must be mastered by general and visceral surgeons. The choice of the particular approach depends on the specificity and location of the scheduled procedure. The following article is intended to give an overview on the current literature as well as experiences in the field of open surgical approaches to the abdominal cavity.
Stokes, Ian A.F.; Gardner-Morse, Mack G.; Henry, Sharon M.
BACKGROUND The roles of antagonistic activation of abdominal muscles and of intra-abdominal pressurization remain enigmatic, but are thought to be associated with both spinal unloading and spinal stabilization in activities such as lifting. Biomechanical analyses are needed to understand the function of intra-abdominal pressurization because of the anatomical and physiological complexity, but prior analyses have been over-simplified. METHODS To test whether increased intra-abdominal pressure was associated with reduced spinal compression forces for efforts that generated moments about each of the principal axis directions, a previously published biomechanical model of the spine and its musculature was modified by the addition of anatomically realistic three-layers of curved abdominal musculature connected by fascia to the spine. Published values of muscle cross-sectional areas and the active and passive stiffness properties were assigned. The muscle activations were calculated assuming minimized muscle stress and stretch for the model loaded with flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation moments of up to 60 Nm, along with intra-abdominal pressurization of 5 or 10 kPa (37.5 or 75 mmHg) and partial bodyweight (340 N). FINDINGS The analysis predicted a reduction in spinal compressive force with increase in intra-abdominal pressurization from 5 to 10 kPa. This reduction at 60 Nm external effort was 21% for extension effort, 18% for flexion effort, 29% for lateral bending and 31% for axial rotation. INTERPRETATION This analysis predicts that intra-abdominal pressure produces spinal unloading, and shows likely muscle activation patterns that achieve this. PMID:20655636
Blumoff, R.L.; McCartney, W.; Jaques, P.; Johnson, G. Jr.
Mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta are uncommon, but potentially lethal problems. Clinical subtleties may suggest their presence, but in the past, definitive diagnosis has been dependent on surgical exploration or autopsy findings. A case is presented in which 67-gallium citrate abdominal scanning localized the site of sepsis in an abdominal aortic aneurysm and allowed for prompt and successful surgical therapy. This noninvasive technique is recommended as a adjunct in the diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms.
Moore, Mark O; Richardson, Michael L; Rubin, Brian P; Baird, Geoffrey S
We present a case of an abdominal cavity myolipoma which herniated through a low transverse abdominal (Pfannenstiel) incision, and presented as an enlarging abdominal wall mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to surgery demonstrated an encapsulated solid tumor mass demonstrating fat signal and and increased T2-weighted signal. Postsurgical histological tissue diagnosis was myolipoma. Recognition of the intra- and extraperitoneal location of this abdominal tumor was essential for accurate surgical planning.
Kaur, Adarshpal; Singla, Archan Lal; Kumar, Ashwani; Yadav, Manish
Blunt abdominal traumas are uncommonly encountered despite their high prevalence, and injuries to the organ like duodenum are relatively uncommon (occurring in only 3%-5% of abdominal injuries) because of its retroperitoneal location. Duodenal injury combined with gastric perforation from a single abdominal trauma impact is rarely heard. The aim of this case report is to present a rare case of blunt abdominal trauma with combined gastric and duodenal injuries. PMID:25738037
In this article, the author describes the format of the Con Test, an Australian television game show which followed the same general rules and game play as the UK show PokerFace. At the end of each round a contestant needs to decide whether or not he or she should fold. A contestant needs to know how likely it is that he or she is in last place.…
Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The 2013 update of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for the management of intra-abdominal infections contains evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with intra-abdominal infections. PMID:23294512
Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.
Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…
Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.
Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…
Abdominal pain is the most common indication for OGD in children. However, existing studies examining the diagnostic outcomes of OGD in children with abdominal pain are limited. We conducted the current study to examine the diagnostic yield of OGD with biopsy in the evaluation of abdominal pain and ...
Karimi, Mehrdad; Yazdan Asadi, Sayyed; Parsaei, Pouya; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Ghaheri, Hafez; Ezzati, Sareh
Abdominal adhesions are pathological connections in peritoneal surfaces that are created after abdominal surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Rosa damascena extract on adhesions, considering the antioxidant properties of rose. Thirty healthy rats were divided into 3 groups: rats treated by 1% (A) and 5% (B) of R. damascena extract and the con- trol group (C). After administering anesthesia, the abdominal wall was opened and 3 shallow incisions (2 cm) were made on the right wall, and a 2 × 2 piece of peritoneal surface was removed on the left side of the abdominal wall. Then 3 mL of 1% (A) and 5% (B) R. damascena extract was administered into the abdominal cavity. The control group (C) received 3 mL of distilled water. The abdominal cavity was sutured, and a second laparotomy was carried out 14 days later to the created adhesions according to the Canbaz scale, and a histopathologic examination was also performed. All data was analyzed by SPSS volume 16 (Chicago, IL); P less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The amount of adhesion in group A was significantly lower than that of group C, 1.4 ± 1.265 versus 3 ± 0.816, (P = 0.007). The histological investigation also showed significant differences in the se- verity of fibrosis (P = 0.029) and inflammation (P = 0.009) between groups A and C; all rats in group B (5%) were found dead. This study indicated the use of R. damascena at a 1% level resulted in a remarkable decrease of intra-abdominal adhesions after laparotomy in rats. Further studies are necessary on this extract and its derivatives for treatment of such diseases in the human model.
Gutiérrez Hervás, Ana Isabel; Rizo Baeza, María Mercedes; Martínez Amorós, Natalia; Cortés Castell, Ernesto
Se plantea como objetivo determinar la presencia de predictores de síndrome metabólico en niños de 2 a 7 años en relación a su estado nutricional. Método: Estudio descriptivo con análisis cuantitativo en 260 niños de 2-7 años (135 niñas y 125 niños), 66% del total censados. Se midieron parámetros antropométricos y tensión arterial y se calcularon IMC, grasa corporal según Hoffman e índice cintura-talla (ICT). Se realizaron subgrupos con Z-Score del IMC según edad y sexo (bajo peso, normopeso, sobrepeso y obesidad), según grasa corporal (normal y con exceso), ICT (normal y obesidad abdominal) y tensión sistólica (normotensos e hipertensos según edad y sexo). Se utilizó como variable principal la clasificación según Z-Score del IMC. Resultados: La prevalencia combinada de sobrepeso y obesidad fue del 27%, sin diferencias por sexo. El estado nutricional relacionó significativamente con tensión arterial, grasa corporal e índice cintura-talla. Mayor porcentaje de obesos con tensión arterial sistólica alta que de normonutridos (OR=4.1; IC95% 1.7-9.8; p.
Black, R.R.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; ter Penning, B.; Yellin, J.
Indium-111 WBC imaging of a patient with occult septicemia revealed a large focal pattern of radiopharmaceutical distribution within the abdominal cavity at 24 hours post radiopharmaceutical administration. This finding was felt to represent a large intra-abdominal abscess. A five liter peritoneal abscess was found at surgery. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of an intra-abdominal abscess.
Farsi, Davood; Fadaki, Ali Akbar Khademi; Kianmehr, Nahid; Abbasi, Saeed; Rezai, Mahdi; Marashi, Mohammad; Mofidi, Mani
Blunt abdominal injury is a leading cause of death in trauma patients. A reliable test predicting intra-abdominal hemorrhage would be a novel method. The study objective was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of plasma ammonia in detection of intra-abdominal bleeding in patients with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT). In this observational study, all patients suffering from BAT, referred to our university teaching hospital included. The levels of ammonia were measured at the time of emergency department admission and 1 h after initial treatment. Demographic data, vital signs, and venous blood gas reports were recorded. Findings of contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography scan and laparotomy were assumed as a gold standard for abdominal injuries. A total of 104 patients was enrolled in the study. 15 patients (14.4%) had intra-abdominal hemorrhage and the mean plasma ammonia level in this group was significantly higher than the other patients on admission time (101.73 ± 5.41 μg/dL vs. 47.36 ± 26.31 μg/dL, P < 0.001). On receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis, in cutoff point of 89 μg/dL, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79.6-100), 93.26% (95% CI, 86-96.8), 14.83 (95% CI, 6.84-32.12), and 0, respectively. The study findings suggest the measurement of ammonia level at the time of admission in the patients with BAT would be a useful test predicting intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Furthermore, decrease in the ammonia level could be a useful marker for monitoring response to treatment in these patients.
Stellato, T A; Gauderer, M W; Ponsky, J L
During a 36-month period, 89 patients have undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy without mortality. Of these patients, 25 (13 infants and children, 12 adults) had prior abdominal procedures that increased their risk for the endoscopic procedure. With two exceptions, all gastrostomies were performed utilizing local anesthesia. There was one major complication, a gastrocolic fistula, which was successfully managed by repeating the endoscopic gastrostomy procedure at a location more cephalad in the stomach. Twenty-two of the gastrostomies were placed for feeding purposes and all of these patients were able to leave the hospital with alimentation accomplished via the tube. Three of the endoscopically placed gastrostomies were for gastrointestinal tract decompression. A total of 255 patient months have been accumulated in these patients with the endoscopically placed gastrostomy in situ. The technique can be safely performed in patients with prior abdominal surgery and in the majority of cases is the technique of choice for establishing a tube gastrostomy. PMID:6428334
Salcedo Joven, I; Segura Grau, A; Rodríguez Lorenzo, A; Segura Cabral, J M
To carry out an abdominal ultrasound examination with the highest degree of accuracy and thoroughness, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the anatomy and the normal measurements of the different organs. In this way, we can determine their normal condition and identify the pathology and its location more easily. It is very important to adopt a correct examination procedure, systematically sweeping the scan in the same direction and not leaving any organ unexamined. We suggest a procedure consisting of longitudinal, cross-sectional and oblique scans to view all the abdominal organs, starting the examination in the epigastric region, scanning first the right upper quadrant, then the left upper quadrant, both iliac fossa, and lastly the hypogastric region. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Biller, J A; Grand, R J; Harris, B H
Little information is available about the development of abdominal abscesses in adolescents with Crohn's disease. We report the clinical presentation of five adolescents with Crohn's disease who developed this complication. The mean time from diagnosis until development of an abdominal abscess was 1.7 years. The admitting diagnosis was an acute abdomen in two patients and recurrent Crohn's disease in the other three. No features of the clinical presentation or laboratory data distinguished this group from other adolescents with Crohn's disease. The use of ultrasound and CT scanning was helpful in making this diagnosis preoperatively. Those patients with active Crohn's disease who do not respond promptly to medical therapy should be evaluated for the development of this complication.
Emordi, Victor C; Aisien, Efosa; Osagie, Osasumwen T; Osifo, Osarumwense D
Invasive traditional practices which are frequently harmful are common in the care of children including neonates in developing countries. We report two cases of evisceration of intra-abdominal viscera in two neonates subjected to abdominal scarification with razor blades following febrile illnesses. The greater omentum and a loop of jejunum, respectively, were eviscerated. Both were successfully managed and discharged home. Consent was obtained from the parents for the use of the photos. These cases highlight the dangers of invasive traditional practices on neonates and the urgent need for enlightenment campaigns as well as enactment of policies to help protect these children in developing countries. © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bloating is a common symptom, especially in women. In the clinical practice, it remains a therapeutic challenge. Since recently, its pathophysiology is better understood: an impaired transit of gas (particularly in the small bowel) or a visceral hypersensitivity leading to the induction of an abdominal discomfort despite a normal volume of gas are two of the main causes, far more frequent than an excessive production of gas. Moreover, bloating can be related to abnormal viscera-somatic reflexes promoting both an abdomino-phrenic dyssynergia and the relaxation of the muscles of the abdominal wall. From a therapeutic point of view, the efficacy of the gas absorbants remains to be more documented. Besides the treatment of a constipation and the avoidance of nutrients either highly fermentable or rich in fructose, other therapeutic options include prokinetics and drugs acting on visceral sensitivity. Probiotics are another promising option. In some centers, a non pharmacological therapeutic approach, mainly based on hypnosis, is discussed.
Battaglia, S; Danesino, G M; Danesino, V; Castellani, S
Alterations of the abdominal aorta are relatively common, particularly in older people. Technological advances in the fields of ultrasonography, computed tomography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging have greatly increased the imaging options for the assessment of these lesions. Because it can be done rapidly and is also non-invasive, ultrasonography plays a major role in the exploration of the abdominal aorta, from its emergence from the diaphragm to its bifurcation. It is indicated for the diagnosis and follow-up of various aortic diseases, especially aneurysms. It can be used to define the shape, size, and location of these lesions, the absence or presence of thrombi and their characteristics. It is also useful for monitoring the evolution of the lesion and for postoperative follow-up. However, its value is limited in surgical planning and in emergency situations.
Naiem, Ahmed A.; Taqi, Kadhim M.; Al-Kendi, Badriya H.; Al-Qadhi, Hani
Hollow viscus injuries of the digestive tract are an uncommon occurrence in blunt abdominal trauma. We report a 39-year-old male who was hit by a vehicle as a pedestrian and admitted to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in 2015. He underwent an exploratory laparotomy which revealed injuries to the distal stomach, liver and descending colon. Postoperatively, the patient was febrile, tachycardic and hypotensive. Abdominal examination revealed distention and tenderness. The next day, a repeat laparotomy identified a gastric injury which had not been diagnosed during the initial laparotomy. Although the defect was repaired, the patient subsequently died as a result of multiorgan failure. Missed gastric injuries are rare and are associated with a grave prognosis, particularly for trauma patients. Delays in diagnosis, in addition to associated injuries, contribute to a high mortality rate. PMID:28003902
Khamitov, F F; Matochkin, E A; Vertkina, N V; Kizyma, A G; Lisitskiĭ, D A
The authors compare various surgical strategies of infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysm (IAAA) repair based on the experience of the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Urban Clinical Hospital No.81. Total 198 patients underwent aneurysm resection and grafting through conventional (90) or minilaparotomy (108) approaches. Mini-approach was shown to improve significantly both perioperative course and outcomes of IAAA correction. The main advantage of this approach comprised limited invasiveness together with sufficient exposure of abdominal aorta and its branches. Abandoning small bowel evisceration helps to preserve ther-moregulation and achieve volemic homeostasis with less fluid volume. Postoperative period after surgical mini-approach was characterized by shorter period of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay, earlier restoration of bowel motility, conversion to usual nutrition, patient mobilization and discharge. Minimally invasive technology significantly broadens feasibility of radical aortic reconstructions for patients with serious cardio-vascular comorbidities.
Qian, Ying; Chen, Xiao-nong; Shi, Hao; Xie, Jingyuan; Chen, Nan
Nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) is a rare disorder. Failure of an early diagnosis may cause progressive intestinal ischemia, leading to abdominal pain, sepsis, and death. Patients with end-stage renal disease are among the highest risk populations for developing this lethal complication. The key to a correct diagnosis at an early stage is a high index of suspicion in predisposed patients. In our case, we present a 62-year-old female undergoing maintenance hemodialysis for 8 years; she complained of abdominal pain after hemodialysis in the last 3 months; NOMI was suspected after a CT angiography. She partially recovered after multiple clinical interventions such as decreased ultrafiltration, an increased dose of low molecular-weight heparin and the use of vasoactive drugs. In conclusion, NOMI can be reversible if it is diagnosed as early as possible and after the necessary diagnostic measurements are initiated. PMID:26266246
Kazarian, V M
The study was designed to elucidate the circumstances under which iatrogenic foreign objects can be mistakenly left inside the patient's body after surgical interventions and to outline measures to prevent such errors. The data obtained in forensic medical examination of two cases of urgent surgery on abdominal organs are analysed. They indicate that the main causes of leaving behind foreign bodies in a patient include improper organization of emergency medical aid, personal qualities of the surgeon, and psycho-emotional atmosphere during the operation. Comprehensive evaluation of the associated clinical symptoms and their dynamics is necessary for early identification and removal of foreign objects left in the abdominal cavity. It would help to avoid undesirable outcomes of surgery and reduce the number of legal proceedings against medical and preventive treatment facilities.
Ross, Robert; Freeman, Jennifer; Hudson, Robert; Janssen, Ian
The independent relationships between visceral and abdominal sc adipose tissue (AT) depots, muscle composition, and insulin sensitivity were examined in 40 abdominally obese, premenopausal women. Measurements included glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, muscle composition by computed tomography, abdominal and nonabdominal (e.g. leg) AT by magnetic resonance imaging and cardiovascular fitness. Glucose disposal rates were negatively related to visceral AT mass (r = -0.42, P < 0.01). These observations remained significant (P < 0.01) after control for nonabdominal and abdominal sc AT, muscle attenuation, and peak oxygen uptake. Total, abdominal, or leg sc AT or muscle attenuation was not significantly (P > 0.10) related to glucose disposal. Subdivision of abdominal sc AT into anterior and posterior depots did not alter the observed relationships. Further analysis matched two groups of women for abdominal sc AT but with low and high visceral AT. Women with high visceral AT had lower glucose disposal rates compared with those with low visceral AT (P < 0.05). A similar analysis performed on two groups of women matched for visceral AT but high and low abdominal sc AT revealed no statistically different values for insulin sensitivity (P > 0.10). In conclusion, visceral AT alone is a strong correlate of insulin resistance independent of nonabdominal, abdominal sc AT, muscle composition, and cardiovascular fitness. Subdivision of abdominal sc AT did not provide additional insight into the relationship between abdominal obesity and metabolic risk.
Lourenço, Bianca N; Randall, Elissa; Seiler, Gabriela; Lunn, Katharine F
Acromegaly is increasingly recognized as a cause of insulin resistance in cats with diabetes mellitus (DM). The objective of this study was to determine if ultrasonographic changes in selected abdominal organs of acromegalic cats could be used to raise the index of suspicion for this condition. In this retrospective case-control study, medical records of cats presenting to North Carolina State University or Colorado State University from January 2002 to October 2012 were reviewed. Cats were included in the acromegaly group if they had insulin-resistant DM with increased serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) concentrations and had an abdominal ultrasound examination performed with report available. A control group included age-matched cats that had abdominal ultrasound examination performed for investigation of disease unlikely to involve the kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas or liver. Twenty-four cats were included in each group. IGF-1 concentrations in the acromegaly group ranged from >148 to 638 nmol/l. When compared with age-matched controls, cats with acromegaly demonstrated significantly increased median left and right kidney length, significantly increased median left and right adrenal gland thickness, and significantly increased median pancreatic thickness. Hepatomegaly and bilateral adrenomegaly were reported in 63% and 53% of acromegalic cats, respectively, and in none of the controls. Pancreatic abnormalities were described in 88% of the acromegalic cats and 8% of the controls. These findings indicate that compared with non-acromegalic cats, age-matched acromegalic patients have measurably larger kidneys, adrenal glands and pancreas. Diagnostic testing for acromegaly should be considered in poorly regulated diabetic cats exhibiting organomegaly on abdominal ultrasound examination. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.
Fajardo, Laís; Ramin, Guilherme de Araujo; Penachim, Thiago José; Martins, Daniel Lahan; Cardia, Patrícia Prando; Prando, Adilson
In the appropriate clinical setting, certain aspects of extranodal abdominal lymphoma, as revealed by current cross-sectional imaging techniques, should be considered potentially diagnostic and can hasten the diagnosis. In addition, diagnostic imaging in the context of biopsy-proven lymphoma can accurately stage the disease for its appropriate treatment. The purpose of this article was to illustrate the various imaging aspects of extranodal lymphoma in the abdomen. PMID:28057966
Ford, G T; Rosenal, T W; Clergue, F; Whitelaw, W A
This article describes the pathophysiology of the respiratory system after upper abdominal surgery, emphasizing the role of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The history of current techniques to measure respiratory muscle function are reviewed. The authors describe the postoperative pattern of breathing, speculate on the physiologic mechanisms responsible and discuss the data supporting the role of reflexes arising from the abdomen and the shift of neural output to different respiratory muscles. Finally, the authors review the impact of "closed" surgical interventions such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Munro, A; Jones, P F
Since surgical emergencies in the puerperium are rare, surgeons and obstetricians amass little experience of them. There may be considerable delay in making a diagnosis, firstly, because the abdominal symptoms are thought to be related to the pregnancy, and, secondly, because the signs are rarely convincing in contrast to the symptoms. Any of the common surgical emergencies may occur in pregnancy and the puerperium and there are some others that appear to be a particullar problem of the puerperium. PMID:1203726
Brett, A; Hodgetts, T
A case of abdominal aortic aneurysm is reported in a patient with long standing low back pain, presenting as meralgia paraesthetica and an increase in the severity of back pain. The case highlights the need for objective assessment of new symptoms arising in a chronic condition, and for a systematic approach to the assessment of radiographs performed in the accident and emergency department. Images p50-a PMID:9147718
Feasi, Marcello; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Cappato, Stefano; Pontali, Emanuele; Usiglio, David; Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Filauro, Marco; Mori, Marco; Cassola, Giovanni
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a Gram-positive bacillus that is infrequently responsible for infections in humans. Most human cases present as localized or generalized cutaneous infections. An invasive septic form, usually associated with endocarditis, has rarely been described. We report here an invasive infection caused by E. rhusiopathiae without endocardium involvement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an intra-abdominal abscess due to this pathogen.
Gilks, B.; Hegedus, C.; Freeman, H.; Fratkin, L.; Churg, A.
Peritoneal mesothelioma in a 61-year-old man, occurred 26 years after abdominal radiotherapy for a testicular seminoma. The patient had no history of asbestos exposure. After asbestos, radiation is the second most frequent defined cause of mesothelioma in North America, but the number of well-documented cases is small; this case represents only the fifth example of peritoneal mesothelioma after therapeutic irradiation of the abdomen. 16 references.
Zeybek, Burak; Hill, Amanda; Menderes, Gulden; Borahay, Mostafa A.; Azodi, Masoud
Background and Objectives: Cervical insufficiency is a difficult condition to diagnose and can lead to preterm birth, miscarriage, or perinatal infant morbidity and mortality. We conducted this retrospective case study and literature review to evaluate the safety and efficacy of robot-assisted abdominal cerclage during pregnancy. Methods: We conducted a case series and a systematic review that included patients who underwent robot-assisted abdominal cerclage during pregnancy from January 2010 through March 2016. Results: Six patients met the criteria for the case series. Median age was 34 years (range, 28–37) at the time of the procedure. In 5 cases, the indication for transabdominal cerclage was a failed vaginal cerclage in a previous pregnancy, whereas a scarred and shortened cervix caused by a previous dilatation and curettage–induced cervical laceration was the indication in the remaining case. Median operating time was 159.5 minutes (range, 124–204), and median estimated blood loss was 25 mL (range, 10–25). No surgeries were converted to laparotomies; all patients were discharged on postoperative day 1. The median gestational age at delivery was 37.5 weeks (range, 22–39). Five patients delivered between 36 and 39 weeks. No patients had chorioamnionitis or preterm premature rupture of membranes. One patient went into preterm labor at 22 weeks, and the cerclage was removed via minilaparotomy. Eight articles met the criteria for systematic review. Sixteen patients underwent robot-assisted abdominal cerclage during pregnancy. Median age was 31.5 years (range, 25–37). The major indication in most articles was previous failed transvaginal cerclage. The median gestational ages at time of procedure and delivery were 12 weeks (range, 10–15) and 37 weeks (range, 33–39), respectively. Conclusion: Robot-assisted abdominal cerclage is safe and effective during pregnancy. PMID:27904309
Hatipoglu, Sinan; Akbulut, Sami; Hatipoglu, Filiz; Abdullayev, Ruslan
With the developments in medical technology and increased surgical experience, advanced laparoscopic surgical procedures are performed successfully. Laparoscopic abdominal surgery is one of the best examples of advanced laparoscopic surgery (LS). Today, laparoscopic abdominal surgery in general surgery clinics is the basis of all abdominal surgical interventions. Laparoscopic abdominal surgery is associated with systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic alterations. Inadequate splanchnic perfusion in critically ill patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are still not well understood. With experience and with an increase in the number and diversity of the resulting data, the pathophysiology of laparoscopic abdominal surgery is now better understood. The normal physiology and pathophysiology of local and systemic effects of laparoscopic abdominal surgery is extremely important for safe and effective LS. Future research projects should focus on the interplay between the physiological regulatory mechanisms in the splanchnic circulation (SC), organs, and diseases. In this review, we discuss the effects of laparoscopic abdominal surgery on the SC.
Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir
Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.
Lanier, Steven T.; Jordan, Sumanas W.; Miller, Kyle R.; Ali, Nada A.; Stock, Stuart R.
Background: A new closure technique is introduced, which uses strips of macroporous polypropylene mesh as a suture for closure of abdominal wall defects due to failures of standard sutures and difficulties with planar meshes. Methods: Strips of macroporous polypropylene mesh of 2 cm width were passed through the abdominal wall and tied as simple interrupted sutures. The surgical technique and surgical outcomes are presented. Results: One hundred and seven patients underwent a mesh sutured abdominal wall closure. Seventy-six patients had preoperative hernias, and the mean hernia width by CT scan for those with scans was 9.1 cm. Forty-nine surgical fields were clean-contaminated, contaminated, or dirty. Five patients had infections within the first 30 days. Only one knot was removed as an office procedure. Mean follow-up at 234 days revealed 4 recurrent hernias. Conclusions: Mesh sutured repairs reliably appose tissue under tension using concepts of force distribution and resistance to suture pull-through. The technique reduces the amount of foreign material required in comparison to sheet meshes, and avoids the shortcomings of monofilament sutures. Mesh sutured closures seem to be tolerant of bacterial contamination with low hernia recurrence rates and have replaced our routine use of mesh sheets and bioprosthetic grafts. PMID:27757361
De Brabandere, K; Vanpaemel, G; Verheyen, L
We report the first case, to our knowledge, of spontaneous abscess of the abdominal wall, omentum and abdominal cavity caused by group G streptococci. A 52-year-old diabetic woman presented with abdominal tenderness and weight loss that had persisted for a few weeks. CT scan showed several abscesses of the abdominal wall, omentum and abdominal cavity. The abscesses were drained laparoscopically and antibiotics were given postoperatively. Biopsies and cultures showed group G streptococci. The patient recovered without any complication and left our hospital on the 17th postoperative day.
Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.
The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.
Gray, D. W.; Dixon, J. M.; Seabrook, G.; Collin, J.
Pain arising from the abdominal wall has been implicated as a cause of non-specific abdominal pain (NSAP), and the presence of abdominal wall tenderness (AWT) has been proposed as an accurate diagnostic test for NSAP. One hundred and fifty eight patients admitted to hospital with abdominal pain were tested for the presence of positive AWT. In 53 patients the final diagnosis was appendicitis and positive AWT was found in five. Thirty eight patients were found to have a variety of other recognised pathological diagnoses, none of whom had a positive AWT. In 67 patients a diagnosis of NSAP was made in the absence of other pathological diagnosis, 19 of whom had positive AWT, which was significantly different from the other diagnostic groups. This study confirms the presence of AWT in up to 28% of patients with NSAP, and suggests that testing for AWT is of value in patients with abdominal pain, although a positive AWT is not as accurate a predictor of NSAP as previously reported. PMID:2970820
Varela, N; Golvano, M; Monedero, P
Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block is a known and useful technique, widely used for postoperative pain management of abdominal wall incisions. During the past years, and following the expansion of ultrasound guided techniques, its use has even gained more adepts. It is usually used as an adjuvant technique, primarily in order to control postoperative pain and reduce opioids consumption. We report the case of an 82 years old patient admitted for drainage of a postoperative abdominal wall hematoma after correction of a McBurney incisional hernia. The corrective surgery had gone on without incident, under general anesthesia with laryngeal mask. Two weeks later, the patient came back to our emergency department with a clear hematoma of the abdominal wall. Surgery was decided. A sole local anesthetic technique was achieved, using a TAP block. The block was performed under ultrasound guidance, using a subcostal approach. The surgery went on without complications. Therefore, TAP block offers a hemodynamic stability, appropriate intra-operative anesthesia and post-surgical analgesia of the abdominal wall. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Rutherford, Robert B
Development of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysms repair (EVAR), now in its 4th decade, has involved at least 16 different devices, not counting major modifications of some, only 4 of which have emerged from clinical trials and gained US Food and Drug Administration approval. The main impetus behind EVAR has been its potential for significantly reducing procedural mortality and morbidity, but it was also expected to speed recovery and reduce costs through decreased use of hospital resources. At the outset, EVAR was touted as a better alternative to OPEN in high-risk patients with large abdominal aortic aneurysms, and to "watchful waiting" (periodic ultrasound surveillance) for those with small abdominal aortic aneurysms. This new technology has evoked a mixed response with enthusiasts and detractors debating its pros and cons. Bias and conflict of interest exist on both sides. This review will attempt to present a balanced review of the development and current status of this controversial competition between EVAR and OPEN, comparing them in terms of the following key considerations: mortality and morbidity, complications, failure modes and durability, and costs.
Li, Xiaoqi; Li, Jin; Ju, Xingzhu; Chen, Xiaojun; Wu, Xiaohua
To investigate whether abdominal scar characteristics could predict the occurrence of cervical stenosis after abdominal radical trachelectomy (ART), we conducted a retrospective study and investigated the relationship between abdominal scar characteristics and the occurrence of cervical stenosis in patients one year after undergoing ART. The abdominal scars were evaluated using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). Seventy-two participants were enrolled in the study, including 15 (20.8%) women with cervical stenosis, and 57 (79.2%) without stenosis. Results showed that the mean abdominal scar score assessed by VSS was higher in patients with cervical stenosis (7, range: 1–10) compared to those without stenosis (4, range: 0–9) (P = 0.001). Incidence rates of cervical stenosis increased with the VSS score. For women with VSS scores of 0 to 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, respectively, the occurrences of cervical stenosis were 6.1%, 16.7%, 16.7%, 27.3%, 37.5%, 50% and 100%. The cutoff point of VSS score was 7 according to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Fourteen of the 15 stenosis happened either in patients without anti-stenosis tools (Foley catheters or tailed intrauterine devices) placed during the surgery or after the devices were removed. Our results demonstrated that VSS is an effective approach to assess the presence of cervical stenosis after ART. Women who have an abdominal scar with a VSS score > 7 have a high risk of developing isthmic stenosis without anti-stenosis tools in place. PMID:27191256
Giele, H; Bendon, C; Reddy, S; Ramcharan, R; Sinha, S; Friend, P; Vaidya, A
Primary abdominal wall closure following small bowel transplantation is frequently impossible due to contraction of the abdominal domain. Although abdominal wall transplantation was reported 10 years ago this, technique has not been widely adopted, partly due to its complexity, but largely because of concerns that storing the abdominal allograft until the end of a prolonged intestinal transplant procedure would cause severe ischemia-reperfusion injury. We report six cases of combined small bowel and abdominal wall transplantation where the ischemic time was minimized by remotely revascularizing the abdominal wall on the forearm vessels, synchronous to the intestinal procedure. When the visceral transplant was complete, the abdominal wall was removed from the forearm and revascularized on the abdomen (n = 4), or used to close the abdomen while still vascularized on the forearm (n = 2). Primary abdominal wall closure was achieved in all. Mean cold ischemia was 305 min (300-330 min), and revascularization on the arm was 50 min (30-60 min). Three patients had proven abdominal wall rejection, all treated successfully. Immediate revascularization of the abdominal wall allograft substantially reduces cold ischemia without imposing constraints on the intestinal transplant. Reducing storage time may also have benefits with respect to ischemia-reperfusion-related graft immunogenicity.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in comparison to open surgical repair. An abdominal aortic aneurysm [AAA] is the enlargement and weakening of the aorta (major blood artery) that may rupture and result in stroke and death. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair [EVAR] is a procedure for repairing abdominal aortic aneurysms from within the blood vessel without open surgery. In this procedure, an aneurysm is excluded from blood circulation by an endograft (a device) delivered to the site of the aneurysm via a catheter inserted into an artery in the groin. The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this technology. The review included 44 eligible articles out of 489 citations identified through a systematic literature search. Most of the research evidence is based on non-randomized comparative studies and case series. In the short-term, EVAR appears to be safe and comparable to open surgical repair in terms of survival. It is associated with less severe hemodynamic changes, less blood transfusion and shorter stay in the intensive care and hospital. However, there is concern about a high incidence of endoleak, requiring secondary interventions, and in some cases, conversion to open surgical repair. Current evidence does not support the use of EVAR in all patients. EVAR might benefit individuals who are not fit for surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and whose risk of rupture of the aneurysm outweighs the risk of death from EVAR. The long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVAR cannot be determined at this time. Further evaluation of this technology is required. OBJECTIVE The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of
Culora, G A; Roche, W R
This paper illustrates a simple method of necropsy dissection of the abdominal organs after abdominal surgery. The organs are removed in one block as per the method described by Letulle. A retroperitoneal approach is then used. Structures are dissected away in a series of layers using the vasculature for guidance. This technique permits the examination of important structures in the postoperative abdomen which would otherwise be extremely difficult and time consuming using conventional methods. The anatomy is demonstrated without being obscured by the contents of the peritoneal cavity. Images PMID:9038770
Jullien, Sophie; Jain, Siddharth; Ryan, Hannah; Ahuja, Vineet
Background Tuberculosis (TB) of the gastrointestinal tract and any other organ within the abdominal cavity is abdominal TB, and most guidelines recommend the same six-month regimen used for pulmonary TB for people with this diagnosis. However, some physicians are concerned whether a six-month treatment regimen is long enough to prevent relapse of the disease, particularly in people with gastrointestinal TB, which may sometimes cause antituberculous drugs to be poorly absorbed. On the other hand, longer regimens are associated with poor adherence, which could increase relapse, contribute to drug resistance developing, and increase costs to patients and health providers. Objectives To compare six-month versus longer drug regimens to treat people that have abdominal TB. Search methods We searched the following electronic databases up to 2 September 2016: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, Embase (accessed via OvidSP), LILACS, INDMED, and the South Asian Database of Controlled Clinical Trials. We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing trials. We also checked article reference lists. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared six-month regimens versus longer regimens that consisted of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol to treat adults and children that had abdominal TB. The primary outcomes were relapse, with a minimum of six-month follow-up after completion of antituberculous treatment (ATT), and clinical cure at the end of ATT. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. For analysis of dichotomous outcomes, we used risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where appropriate, we pooled data from the included
Tanaka, Koji; Toiyama, Yuji; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Hiro, Junichiro; Kawamoto, Aya; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Araki, Toshimitsu; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato
Desmoid tumors (DTs) are benign myofibroblastic neoplasms originating from the fascia or muscle aponeurosis, which occur in one-third of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Most FAP-associated DTs occur in the intra-abdominal or abdominal wall region, thus, their infiltrative or expansive growth causes life-threatening organ damage, such as intestinal obstruction, urethral obstruction, and mesenteric infiltration with the involvement of mesenteric vessels. Treatments including surgical resection, cytotoxic chemotherapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-estrogen therapy have all been tried with variable success. Here, we report on three patients with FAP who developed multiple intra-abdominal and abdominal wall DTs after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Two cases underwent surgical resection of uncontrolled abdominal wall DTs after successful control of intra-abdominal DTs by systemic chemotherapy. The remaining case underwent repeated surgical resections of multiple intra-abdominal and abdominal wall DTs, and consequently had recurrent intra-abdominal DTs, with involvement of the small bowel and ureter. Surgical intervention as tumor volume reduction (cytoreduction) may be useful for cases with medical treatment-refractory or symptomatic FAP-associated abdominal DTs.
Monroy-Lozano, Blanca Estela; Motta-Martínez, Eduardo; Huitrón-García, Rafael; Zaldívar-Ramírez, Felipe Rafael; Hurtado-López, Luis Mauricio
We undertook this study to determine whether anatomic changes after total abdominal hysterectomy are a cause of dyspareunia in premenopausal women. This is a comparative, prospective and longitudinal study in 50 premenopausal women with benign uterine disease without dyspareunia treated with total abdominal hysterectomy. Primary variable was presence of postsurgical dyspareunia. Secondary variables are presurgical and assessment 3 months after surgery of left, right, anterior and posterior vaginal longitude (VLL, VRL, VAL and VPL, respectively) expressed in centimeters, as well as of the vaginal volume (VV). Statistical analysis for mean, central tendency and t-test. Group 1 (G1) is comprised of patients with postsurgical dyspareunia and Group 2 (G2) is comprised of patients without dyspareunia. In G1, three patients (mean age: 42 years) had dyspareunia, pre- and postsurgical mean values were VV 146.6 and 100, VLL 8 and 7.3, VPL 9.16 and 7.3, VLL 8 and 7.3, VRL 8 and 7.3. In G2, 47 patients (mean age: 40.36 years) were without dyspareunia, pre- and postsurgical values were VV 150.6 and 121.57, VLL 8.81 and 8.12, VPL 9.7 and 8.69, VLL 9.24 and 8.3, VRL 9.28 and 8.33. We did not find significant differences between the groups. Two of the three patients with dyspareunia had a vaginal granuloma, but the third case did not show an anatomical cause. There is no relationship between total abdominal hysterectomy in premenopausal women and anatomical vaginal changes after surgery as assessed by vaginal volume and longitude. Presence of vaginal granuloma was responsible for dyspareunia in 4% of cases. Dyspareunia was found in 2% of premenopausal women without posthysterectomy anatomical cause.
Liu, Qing; Han, Shupeng; Zhang, Ziran; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yahua; Li, Jing
Background. This study compared outcomes of abdominal lifting and compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ALP-CPR) with standard CPR (STD-CPR). Materials and Methods. Patients with cardiac arrest seen from April to December 2014 were randomized to receive standard CPR or ALP-CPR performed with a novel abdominal lifting/compression device. The primary outcome was return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Results. Patients were randomized to receive ALP-CPR (n = 40) and STD-CPR (n = 43), and the groups had similar baseline characteristics. After CPR, 9 (22.5%) and 7 (16.3%) patients in the ALP-CPR and STD-CPR groups, respectively, obtained ROSC. At 60 minutes after ROSC, 7 (77.8%) and 2 (28.6%) patients, respectively, in the ALP-CPR and STD-CPR groups survived (P = 0.049). Patients in the ALP-CPR group had a significantly higher heart rate and lower mean arterial pressure (MAP) than those in the STD-CPR group (heart rate: 106.8 versus 79.0, P < 0.001; MAP: 60.0 versus 67.3 mm Hg, P = 0.003). The posttreatment PCO2 was significantly lower in ALP-CPR group than in STD-CPR group (52.33 versus 58.81, P = 0.009). PO2 was significantly increased after ALP-CPR (45.15 to 60.68, P < 0.001), but it was not changed after STD-CPR. PO2 after CPR was significantly higher in the ALP-CPR group (60.68 versus 44.47, P < 0.001). There were no differences between genders and for patients who are > 65 or ≤ 65 years of age. Conclusions. The abdominal lifting and compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation device used in this study is associated with a higher survival rate after ROSC than standard CPR. PMID:27882073
Simões, Jorge; Gonçalves, Matilde; Matos, Isabel
A woman in her mid-60s presented with a bulky mass on the anterior abdominal wall. She had a previous incidental diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma FIGO stage IB following a vaginal hysterectomy. Physical exam and imaging revealed a well circumscribed bulging tumour at the umbilical region, measuring 10 × 9 × 9 cm, with overlying intact skin and subcutaneous tissue. Surgical resection was undertaken, and histological examination showed features of endometrial carcinoma. She began chemotherapy and is alive with no signs of recurrent disease one year after surgery. This case brings up to light an atypical location of a solitary metastasis of endometrial carcinoma. PMID:25349753
Sternbergh, W. Charles; Yoselevitz, Moises; Money, Samuel R.
Endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is an exciting new minimally invasive treatment option for patients with this disease. Ochsner Clinic has been the only institution in the Gulf South participating in FDA clinical trials of these investigational devices. Early results with endovascular AAA repair demonstrate a trend towards lower mortality and morbidity when compared with traditional open surgery. Length of stay has been reduced by two-thirds with a marked reduction in postoperative pain and at-home convalescence. If the long-term data on efficacy and durability of these devices are good, most AAAs in the future will be treated with this minimally invasive technique. PMID:21845135
Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe
Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital-including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)-or compressive-including "nutcracker" syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic.
Graham, Sarah; Freeman, David
The widespread use of laparoscopy in equine surgery has increased interest in the standing approach to a wide range of procedures typically regarded as feasible only through a ventral midline incision. Although a commonly cited benefit of standing surgery relates to avoiding costs of general anesthesia and risks associated with it, some procedures and horses are not suitable candidates for standing abdominal procedures. Some procedures, such as nephrectomy, colostomy, and closure of the nephrosplenic space, are not only suitable for standing surgery but are performed more easily and more safely through this approach than with general anesthesia.
Lowman, C. L.
In recent years improvements have been made in techniques for transplanting fascia into the muscles of the abdomen to take over the function of paralyzed muscles. The techniques are described in this presentation. Since muscular coordination of pelvis and thorax plays an important part in control of the extremities, better methods of placing transplants across the abdomen to link these regions offer, coincidentally, the benefit of better use of muscles in the arms and legs. If done early and skillfully, abdominal fascial transplants and allied transplants not only aid in restoring function but often prevent deformities. PMID:18149114
Patel, C. V.; Koppikar, M. G.; Patel, M. S.; Parulkar, G. B.; Pereira, L. M. Pinto
1 Dipyrone 2.5 g was compared with pethidine 100 mg in a double-blind parallel group study. 2 Patients with moderate or severe postoperative pain following abdominal surgery received one of the two drugs intramuscularly. 3 The two treatment groups were homogeneous when analyzed by age, weight, height, sex, and initial severity of pain. 4 The onset degree and duration of pain relief afforded by both drugs was similar when the groups were compared as a whole or according to initial pain level. 5 No side-effects were attributed to either drug in this study. PMID:7437276
Thornton, A; Pickering, D
Abdominal lymphoscintigraphy is a quick, easy, cheap and relatively non-invasive technique. In our study it appeared to be as accurate as lymphography, giving a positive correlation in 25 out of 32 patients (78%). In 11% of cases the lymphoscintigram detected an abnormality of lymph node function before macroscopic morphological change was seen in the lymphogram, indicating that in some instances lymphoscintigraphy is more sensitive than lymphography. The reason for this is unknown, although possible mechanisms are discussed and these are the subject of current further study. We believe this to be the first report of lymphoscintigraphy being more sensitive than lymphography for detecting lymph node disease.
Guillén, A; Costa, J M; Castelló, I; Claramunt, E; Cardona, E
The most common complications after CSF shunting to treat hydrocephalus are shunt infection and obstruction. Although ventriculoperitoneal (VP) diversion of the CSF using artificial shunt devices is an accepted method for the management of hydrocephalus, high rates of various complications have been reported, ranging from 24% to 47%. Among these, abdominal complications account for approximately 25%. The incidence of bowel perforation by shunt-catheter is known to be as low as 0.1-0.7%. We describe a case of migration af a peritoneal catheter through a congenital hernia of Morgagni.
Tate, J. J. T.; Davidson, B. R.; Hobbs, K. E. F.
Of 61 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 4 (6.25%) developed abdominal wall haematomas. This complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy may occur more commonly than existing literature suggests, and manifests in the post-operative period (days 2 to 6) by visible bruising, excessive pain or an asymptomatic drop in haematocrit. It is readily confirmed by ultrasonography. While no specific treatment is necessary apart from replacement of significant blood loss, the patient requires reassurance that this apparently alarming complication will rapidly resolve. PMID:8204548
Wanhainen, Anders; Mani, Kevin; Golledge, Jonathan
The natural course of many abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is to gradually expand and eventually rupture and monitoring the disease progression is essential to their management. In this publication, we review surrogate markers of AAA progression. AAA diameter remains the most widely used and important marker of AAA growth. Standardized reporting of reproducible methods of measuring AAA diameter is essential. Newer imaging assessments, such as volume measurements, biomechanical analyses, and functional and molecular imaging, as well as circulating biomarkers, have potential to add important information about AAA progression. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to recommend their routine use in clinical practice.
Picus, D.; Glazer, H.S.; Levitt, R.G.; Husband, J.E.
Computed tomographic (CT) scans were obtained in 20 patients with primary and/or metastatic abdominal carcinoid tumors. The primary tumors were seen rarely on CT. Mesenteric involvement was seen in eight of the 20 patients, usually as a soft-tissue mass surrounded by fat and radiating soft-tissue strands. Enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes were seen in seven patients, but rarely were they the only manifestation of intraabdominal disease. The most common finding was liver metastases (13 of 20 patients). CT is helpful in evaluating the extent of tumor before surgical exploration an in following the progression of disease once the diagnosis has been established.
Lima, Evelyne Patrícia Fernandes; Rodrigues, Geruza Baima de Oliveira
Muscle weakness appears most often in women, the factor that causes bad esthetics. To analyze the results of the Russian current strengthening the abdominal muscles. Literature review based on publications available in the following databases: Medline / Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs with crossing headings Russian current, sagging, abdomen. The use of electrical stimulation acts both on the white fibers, which account for the speed, but also on the red fibers given their support, and on intermediate fibers. The data published show the satisfaction and success of treatment, emphasizing that the Russian current promotes increase of muscle strength and hypertrophy.
Chan, Yuin-Chew; Bird, Lynne M
The prune belly syndrome (OMIM 100100) is an association of bladder dilation with hypoplasia of the abdominal wall muscles. This malformation sequence is due to early urethral obstruction. We report a family with abdominal wall muscular hypoplasia as an isolated defect, not associated with the urethral obstruction sequence. The proband is a q3-year-old male who presented with abdominal wall laxity and severe constipation. His mother, maternal grandmother and younger brother had varying degrees of abdominal wall muscular deficiency and constipation. His mother's condition was aggravated by her 2 pregnancies. This family shows vertical transmission (compatible with autosomal dominant or mitochondrial inheritance) of the abdominal phenotype of prune belly sequence without any evidence of urinary tract or renal pathology. The expression in the sons may remain incomplete because abdominal distention due to pregnancy will not occur.
Hartholt, Klaas Albert; Dekker, Jan Willem T
Blunt abdominal trauma may cause severe intra-abdominal injuries, while clinical findings could be mild or absent directly after the trauma. The absence of clinical findings could mislead physicians into underestimating the severity of the injury at the primary survey, and inevitably leads to a delay in the diagnosis. The Blunt Abdominal Trauma in Children (BATiC) score may help to identify children who are at a high risk for intra-abdominal injuries in an early stage and requires additional tests directly. A case of a 10-year-old girl with a duodenal perforation after a blunt abdominal trauma is presented. A delay in diagnosis may lead to an increased morbidity and mortality rate. A low admission threshold for children with abdominal pain after a blunt trauma is recommended.
Functional abdominal pain is a mind-body, psychosocial, and self-reinforcing experience with significant consequences for the sufferer and the surrounding support network. The occurrence of unpredictable symptoms and their severity add an element of dread and feeling out-of-control to daily life and often reduce overall functioning in a downward spiral. Two clinical presentations of functional abdominal pain are offered in this article (composites to protect confidentiality) dealing with abdominal pain syndrome and abdominal migraines. The treatment demonstrates the use of hypnotic principles for self-regulation, exploration, and meaning-making. Hypnosis treatment is conducted in combination with mindfulness-based interventions and Traditional Chinese Medicine's (TCM) teachings regarding abdominal health and illness. The clinical examples illustrate medical findings that suggest children with early life stress and an early onset of gastrointestinal somatization may not simply outgrow their functional abdominal pain but may suffer into adulthood.
Khansa, Ibrahim; Janis, Jeffrey E
Resection of abdominal wall tumors often leaves patients with debilitating soft tissue defects. Modern reconstructive techniques can be used to restore abdominal wall integrity. In this article, we present an overview of preoperative patient evaluation, analysis of the defect, surgical planning, and the spectrum of available surgical techniques, ranging from simple to complex. The established clinical evidence in the field of abdominal wall reconstruction is summarized and a case example is provided.
Acute abdominal pain is one of the most frequent causes of admission to an emergency department of a children's hospital. It continues to be a clinical challenge and the diagnosis viewed with the most apprehension is acute appendicitis. The clinical examination must be meticulous and repeated in order to assess the evolution of the abdominal syndrome and to adapt the paraclinic examinations. All the abdominal pains are not surgical but justify an admission for observation in pediatric surgical department.
Mercurio, Danielle Claire; Scace, Candace; Shah, Bhairav; Weiner, Evan; Prasad, Rajeev
Abdominal pain is a challenging presentation in children. Examination findings and etiology vary greatly, spanning a vast spectrum from flatulence to frank peritonitis with septic shock. Here, we discuss a 10-year-old boy with 24 hours of progressively worsening lower abdominal pain, nausea, and subjective fevers. History and physical examination findings were consistent with appendicitis. However, physicians were surprised when the single-view abdominal radiograph showed an unanticipated, somewhat perplexing discovery.
Sreedharan, Sadhishaan; Fiorentino, Mark; Sinha, Sankar
The aims of this study are to audit the ordering of abdominal radiographs (AXR) in the emergency department (ED) and evaluate the current practices, knowledge and attitudes of emergency physicians with regard to ordering AXRs in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain. A retrospective study was undertaken at an ED of a tertiary hospital in Tasmania using clinical notes on patient presenting with acute abdominal pain who underwent an AXR. The study also included a short questionnaire, which assessed emergency physicians' knowledge of current imaging guidelines and clinical practice when ordering an AXR. During the study period, 108 patients satisfied the selection criteria, and the AXR was reported as normal in 76 % (n = 82; p value <0.05), non-specific in 12 % (n = 13; p value <0.05) and abnormal in 12 % (n = 13; p value <0.05) of patients. Of those patients, 25 % (n = 27) of the AXRs did not meet indications listed in the Diagnostic Imaging Pathways published by the Western Australia Department of Health and were found not to benefit patient care. Of the 19 doctors who completed the survey, only 16 % (n = 3) were aware of any clinical guidelines for imaging in this setting. Current guidelines should be followed when ordering imaging for patients with acute abdominal pain to minimise unnecessary patient radiation exposure, avoid delays in diagnosis and definitive patient management, reduce costs and therefore increase efficiency in ED.
Goldberg, Jay Bussard, Anne; McNeil, Jean; Diamond, James
Purpose. To compare costs and reimbursements for three different treatments for uterine fibroids. Methods. Costs and reimbursements were collected and analyzed from the Thomas Jefferson University Hospital decision support database from 540 women who underwent abdominal hysterectomy (n 299), abdominal myomectomy (n = 105), or uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) (n = 136) for uterine fibroids during 2000-2002. We used the chi-square test and ANOVA, followed by Fisher's Least Significant Difference test, for statistical analysis. Results. The mean total hospital cost (US$) for UFE was $2,707, which was significantly less than for hysterectomy ($5,707) or myomectomy ($5,676) (p < 0.05). The mean hospital net income (hospital net reimbursement minus total hospital cost) for UFE was $57, which was significantly greater than for hysterectomy (-$572) or myomectomy (-$715) (p < 0.05). The mean professional (physician) reimbursements for UFE, hysterectomy, and myomectomy were $1,306, $979, and $1,078, respectively. Conclusion. UFE has lower hospital costs and greater hospital net income than abdominal hysterectomy or abdominal myomectomy for treating uterine fibroids. UFE may be more financially advantageous than hysterectomy or myomectomy for the insurer, hospital, and health care system. Costs and reimbursements may vary amongst different hospitals and regions.
Moreno-Sanz, C.; Herrero Bogajo, M.L.; Picazo-Yeste, J.; Morandeira Rivas, A.; Manzanera-Diaz, M.; Sedano-Vizcaino, C.
INTRODUCTION Pulmonary sequestration (PS) is an extremely rare malformation defined as a portion of lung tissue isolated from the pulmonary system. PSs are classified into intralobar type and intra-abdominal PS that represents only 2.5% of cases. There are 20 cases of PS reported in adults and only two were managed by laparoscopic approach. We report a case of intra-abdominal PS mimicking a gastroesophageal duplication cyst in an adult. Besides its rarity, this is the first intra-abdominal PS in an adult managed by an anterior laparoscopic approach. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 60-year-old female patient had had epigastric and left upper quadrant pain for several days. Physical examination was normal. Image test were consistent with a gastroesophageal duplication. The patient was taken to the operating room for laparoscopic exploration and resection. The pathological diagnosis was extralobar pulmonary sequestration. DISCUSSION Less than 20 cases of PS have been reported in adults and only two cases were managed by a lateral laparoscopic approach. In contrast to these reports, we used an anterior approach due to the GEJ suspected origin of the mass. CONCLUSION Extralobar intra-abdominal PS is an extremely rare condition during adulthood but this diagnosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a left-sided suprarenal mass. Due to the difficulty in achieving a definitive preoperative diagnosis, surgery is recommended. Laparoscopic resection is safe and effective but careful preoperative imaging studies are recommended in order to plan the most suitable approach. PMID:24091075
Illuminati, Giulio; Calio', Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Lorusso, Riccardo; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Vietri, Francesco
The management of unexpected intra-abdominal malignancy, discovered at laparotomy for elective treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), is controversial. It is still unclear whether both conditions should be treated simultaneously or a staged approach is to be preferred. To contribute in improving treatment guidelines, we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients undergoing laparotomy for elective AAA repair. From January 1994 to March 2003, 253 patients underwent elective, trans-peritoneal repair of an AAA. In four patients (1.6%), an associated, unexpected neoplasm was detected at abdominal exploration, consisting of one renal, one gastric, one ileal carcinoid, and one ascending colon tumor. All of them were treated at the same operation, after aortic repair and careful isolation of the prosthetic graft. The whole series' operative mortality was 3.6%. None of the patients simultaneously treated for AAA and tumor resection died in the postoperative period. No graft-related infections were observed. Simultaneous treatment of AAA and tumor did not prolong significantly the mean length of stay in the hospital, compared to standard treatment of AAA alone. Except for malignancies of organs requiring major surgical resections, simultaneous AAA repair and resection of an associated, unexpected abdominal neoplasm can be safely performed, in most of the patients, sparing the need for a second procedure. Endovascular grafting of the AAA can be a valuable tool in simplifying simultaneous treatment, or in staging the procedures with a very short delay.
Sokolovskiy, S. S.; Shtotskiy, Y. V.; Leljanov, A. D.
The paper discusses an experimental design of the wireless system for monitoring intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) using Bluetooth Low Energy technology. The possibility of measuring IAP via the bladder using a wireless pressure sensor with a hydrophobic bacteria filter between the liquid transmitting medium and the sensor element is grounded.
Stilo, Francesco; Mirenda, Francesco; Mandolfino, Tommaso; La Spada, Michele; D'Alfonso, Mario; Carmignani, Amedeo; De Caridi, Giovanni; Benedetto, Filippo; Spinelli, Francesco
The purpose of this study was to assess which modalities offered the best timing in the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms associated with other abdominal surgical diseases. From January 1984 to December 2002, 372 patients underwent surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysms, 350 men (94%) and 22 women (6%), mean age 72 years. Of these 10% were operated on urgently. The traditional open technique was used in 307 patients, and the endovascular method in the remaining 65 cases. In 40 patients (11%) we observed other associated abdominal diseases which were treated during the same operation in 34 cases (85%). We had three deaths in the 34 cases treated in the same operation (9%). In the remaining cases no perioperative mortality was registered. There were no cases of prosthesis infection. The mean hospital stay was 9 days. Simultaneous treatment appears, on the one hand, to carry an increased operative risk and increased mortality and, on the other, to present the advantage of having to perform only one surgical procedure. The advent of the endovascular method allows us to postpone the treatment of the associated disease without increasing the technical difficulty of the second operation.
Skoog, Per; Hörer, Tal; Nilsson, Kristofer F; Agren, Göran; Norgren, Lars; Jansson, Kjell
The main aim of this experimental study was to investigate the early effects of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) on intra-abdominal metabolism and intestinal mucosal blood flow to evaluate whether metabolites can serve as markers for organ dysfunction during IAH. A swine model was used, and the animals were anesthetized and ventilated. Fifteen animals were subjected to IAH of 30 mm Hg for 4 hr by carbon dioxide insufflation. Seven animals served as controls. Hemodynamic data, arterial blood samples, and urine output were analyzed. Intraluminal laser Doppler flowmetry measured intestinal mucosal blood flow. Glucose, glycerol, lactate, and pyruvate concentrations and lactate-to-pyruvate (l/p) ratio were measured intraperitoneally and intramurally in the small intestine and rectum using microdialysis. IAH lowered the abdominal perfusion pressure by 12-18 mm Hg, reduced the intestinal mucosal blood flow by 45-63%, and decreased urine output by 50-80%. In the intervention group, glycerol concentrations increased at all locations, pyruvate concentrations decreased, and the l/p ratio increased intraperitoneally and intramurally in the small intestine. Control animals remained metabolically stable. Glucose and lactate concentrations were only slightly affected or unchanged in both the groups. IAH reduces intestinal blood flow and urinary output and causes early metabolic changes, indicating a discrete shift toward anaerobic metabolism. Intraperitoneal microdialysis may be useful in the early detection of impaired organ dysfunction with metabolic consequences in IAH and abdominal compartment syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mhanni, Aizeddin A; Prasad, Chitra; Rockman-Greenberg, Cheryl
Recurrent abdominal pain remains one of the most common symptoms in pediatrics. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who had recurrent episodes of abdominal pain requiring more than 13 visits to the emergency department. A diagnosis of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency was eventually made. Urea cycle disorders often present beyond the neonatal period with frequent vomiting episodes; however, recurrent abdominal pain as a presenting symptom is unusual. Unnecessary invasive investigations of recurrent abdominal pain in childhood can be avoided by considering inborn errors of metabolism earlier in the differential diagnosis.
Phillips, Liza K; Prins, Johannes B
The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors associated with abdominal obesity is well established. Although currently lacking a universal definition, the metabolic syndrome describes a constellation of metabolic abnormalities, including abdominal obesity, and was originally introduced to characterize a population at high cardiovascular risk. Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that secretes several inflammatory and immune mediators known as adipokines. Dysregulation of adipokine secretion, free fatty acid toxicity, and the site-specific differences in abdominal (visceral) versus subcutaneous fat support abdominal obesity as a causal factor mediating the insulin resistance, increased risk of diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in the metabolic syndrome.
Hüseyınoğlu, Ürfettin; Çıçek, Melek
Background and Objectives: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery is a novel, gasless, single-incision laparoscopic surgical technique. In this study we aimed to compare the postoperative pain from keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery with carbon dioxide laparoscopy performed for benign ovarian cysts. Methods: During a 20-month period, 77 women underwent surgery for a benign ovarian cyst. Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery and conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy techniques were used for the operations in 32 women and 45 women, respectively. The 2 operative techniques were compared with regard to demographic characteristics; preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data including early postoperative pain scores; and frequency of shoulder pain and analgesic requirements. Results: Data regarding demographic characteristics, preoperative findings, cyst diameters and rupture rates, intra-abdominal adhesions, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay did not differ between groups (P > .05). However, the mean operative and abdominal access times were significantly longer in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Visual analog scale pain scores at initially and at the second, fourth, and 24th hours of the postoperative period were significantly lower in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Similarly, keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery caused significantly less shoulder pain and additional analgesic use (P < .05). Conclusion: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery seems to cause less pain in the management of benign ovarian cysts in comparison with conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy. PMID:25848177
Vermelho, Marli Batista Fernandes; Correia, Ademir Silva; Michailowsky, Tânia Cibele de Almeida; Suzart, Elizete Kazumi Kuniyoshi; Ibanês, Aline Santos; Almeida, Lanamar Aparecida; Khoury, Zarifa; Barba, Mário Flores
Objective To evaluate the incidence and spectrum of abdominal computed tomography imaging findings in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of abdominal computed tomography images of 26 patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. Results Abnormal abdominal tomographic findings were observed in 18 patients (69.2%), while no significant finding was observed in the other 8 (30.8%) patients. Conclusion Computed tomography has demonstrated to play a relevant role in the screening and detection of abdominal abnormalities in patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:25987748
Ichikawa, Toshio; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Yamawaki, Yoshifumi
Exarate pupae of the beetle Zophobas atratus Fab. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) have free appendages (antenna, palp, leg, and elytron) that are highly sensitive to mechanical stimulation. A weak tactile stimulus applied to any appendage initiated a rapid rotation of abdominal segments. High-speed photography revealed that one cycle of defensive abdominal rotation was induced in an all-or-none fashion by bending single or multiple mechanosensory hairs on a leg or prodding the cuticular surface of appendages containing campaniform sensilla. The direction of the abdominal rotation completely depended on the side of stimulation; stimulation of a right appendage induced a right-handed rotation about the anterior-posterior axis of the pupal body and vice versa. The trajectories of the abdominal rotations had an ellipsoidal or pear-shaped pattern. Among the trajectory patterns of the rotations induced by stimulating different appendages, there were occasional significant differences in the horizontal (right-left) component of abdominal rotational movements. Simultaneous stimulation of right and left appendages often induced variable and complex patterns of abdominal movements, suggesting an interaction between sensory signals from different sides. When an abdominal rotation was induced in a freely lying pupa, the rotation usually made the pupa move away from or turn its dorsum toward the source of stimulation with the aid of the caudal processes (urogomphi), which served as a fulcrum for transmitting the power of the abdominal rotation to the movement or turning of the whole body. Pattern generation mechanisms for the abdominal rotation were discussed. PMID:23448289
Kerr, John M; Ukpeh, Henry; Steinbok, Paul
Spinal arachnoid cysts are an infrequently reported cause of abdominal pain in children. In this report, we describe the unusual case of an extradural arachnoid cyst presenting as recurrent abdominal pain in a pediatric patient without any signs of cord or nerve root compression. A 14-year-old girl with recurrent abdominal pain as the only symptom of a spinal extradural arachnoid cyst is reported. The patient was incidentally diagnosed with an intraspinal mass on abdominal computed tomography (CT) during the course of investigating her abdominal pain. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging confirmed the diagnosis of a T11-L2 extradural arachnoid cyst. After resection of the T11-L2 arachnoid cyst, the patient's abdominal pain resolved. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing abdominal pain as the sole presenting feature of a spinal arachnoid cyst in the pediatric population. This case illustrates that abdominal pain may be the first and only presentation of spinal arachnoid cysts in children. Spinal pathology should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained abdominal pain, even when there are no other symptoms of spinal disease.
Desjardins, Benoit; Dill, Karin E; Flamm, Scott D; Francois, Christopher J; Gerhard-Herman, Marie D; Kalva, Sanjeeva P; Mansour, M Ashraf; Mohler, Emile R; Oliva, Isabel B; Schenker, Matthew P; Weiss, Clifford; Rybicki, Frank J
Clinical palpation of a pulsating abdominal mass alerts the clinician to the presence of a possible abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Generally an arterial aneurysm is defined as a localized arterial dilatation ≥50% greater than the normal diameter. Imaging studies are important in diagnosing the cause of a pulsatile abdominal mass and, if an AAA is found, in determining its size and involvement of abdominal branches. Ultrasound (US) is the initial imaging modality of choice when a pulsatile abdominal mass is present. Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) may be substituted in patients for whom US is not suitable. When aneurysms have reached the size threshold for intervention or are clinically symptomatic, contrast-enhanced multidetector CT angiography (CTA) is the best diagnostic and preintervention planning study, accurately delineating the location, size, and extent of aneurysm and the involvement of branch vessels. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) may be substituted if CT cannot be performed. Catheter arteriography has some utility in patients with significant contraindications to both CTA and MRA. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria(®) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.
Chen, Xiyang; Zhao, Jichun; Huang, Bin; Yuan, Ding; Yang, Yi; Ma, Yukui
Abstract Introduction: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) after endovascular repair (EVAR) of rupture abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) is a rare emergency situation, which has a high mortality. However, the progression of ACS is rapid and the diagnosis is usually been delayed, which increase the difficulties in treatment and affect the prognosis. We describe a case of a sever complication (acute intestinal necrosis) resulting from ACS after endovascular repair of rAAA. Clinical Finding: An elderly man, 81 years old, complained a sudden lower abdominal and back pain without any predisposing cause. He had a history of hypertension for 20 years without any regular anti-hypertensive therapy. Physical Examination revealed that the blood pressure was 89/54 mmHg, pulse was 120/min, oxygen saturation was 91%. The abdominal ultrasound and the CTA (computed tomography angiography) scan revealed a rAAA. Emergency EVAR under general anesthesia was performed for this patient. Diagnosis: Fourteen hours after endovascular repair, sudden decreased of blood pressure (70/50 mmHg) and oxygen saturation (70%) was observed. ACS or bleeding of retroperitoneal space was diagnosed. Interventions: Abdominal laparotomy was immediately performed. ACS was verified and a severe complication (acute intestinal necrosis) was observed, intestinal resection was performed for this patient. Outcomes: Unfortunately, this patient died after operation because of multi-organ failure in a very short period, which is very rare regarding to this condition. Surgical pathology, diagnosis and management were discussed. Conclusion: ACS was occurred with a severe complication (acute intestinal necrosis) in a very short period, which is very rare regarding to this condition after EVAR, it reminds us the severe result of ACS and more methods to prevent it happened after surgical management. PMID:27893667
Hicks, Caitlin W.; Velopulos, Catherine G.; Sacks, Justin M.
INTRODUCTION Heterotopic ossification (HO) refers to the formation of bone in non-ossifying tissue. Heterotopic mesenteric ossification is a rare form of HO that is characterized by the formation of an ossifying pseudotumour at the base of the mesentery, usually following abdominal surgery. PRESENTATION OF CASE We describe a case of mesenteric HO in a young male who presented for elective ventral incisional hernia repair following a stab wound to the abdomen requiring exploratory laparotomy 21 months earlier. Preoperative workup was unremarkable, but a hard, bone-like lesion was noted to encircle the base of the mesentery upon entering the abdomen, consistent with HO. The lesion was excised with close margins, and his hernia was repaired without incident. DISCUSSION Traumatic HO describes the ossification of extra-skeletal tissue that specifically follows a traumatic event. It usually occurs adjacent to skeletal tissue, but has been occasionally described in the abdomen as well, usually in patients who suffer abdominal trauma. Overall the prognosis of HO is good, as it is considered a benign lesion with no malignant potential. However, the major morbidity associated with mesenteric HO is bowel obstruction. CONCLUSION The size, location, and symptoms related to our patient's mesenteric HO put him risk for obstruction in the future. As a result, the mass was surgically excised during his ventral hernia repair with good outcomes. PMID:24981165
Dyrstad, Sara W; Fowler, Amy M; Jokerst, Clint E; Baker, Jonathan C; Hillen, Travis J; Menias, Christine
This article is a case-based review of the broad spectrum of tumors with musculoskeletal histology that can arise in the abdomen or pelvis and involve the soft tissues, muscle, and bone. In this article, pathology-proven cases are presented with a focus on radiographic, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography-computed tomography findings. The imaging features that differentiate tumors with musculoskeletal histology from more common abdominal tumors are discussed. Representative cases include malignant fibrous histiocytoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, desmoplastic fibroma, neurofibrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, intimal sarcoma, liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, teratoma, and chordoma. A variety of tumors with musculoskeletal histology can arise in the abdomen and pelvis. In some cases, unique imaging characteristics allow a confident diagnosis, whereas other cases have a more nonspecific appearance. Recognition of imaging features that suggest a musculoskeletal tumor including direct extension from a bone or neural foramen, the presence of cartilaginous or osseous matrix, or macroscopic fat would allow the radiologist to suggest the proper diagnosis. Recognizing imaging characteristics of tumors with musculoskeletal histology is important clinically as management and prognosis differ from that of more common abdominal tumors. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Spinczyk, Dominik; Karwan, Adam; Copik, Marcin
Non-invasive surface registration methods have been developed to register and track breathing motions in a patient's abdomen and thorax. We evaluated several different registration methods, including marker tracking using a stereo camera, chessboard image projection, and abdominal point clouds. Our point cloud approach was based on a time-of-flight (ToF) sensor that tracked the abdominal surface. We tested different respiratory phases using additional markers as landmarks for the extension of the non-rigid Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm to improve the matching of irregular meshes. Four variants for retrieving the correspondence data were implemented and compared. Our evaluation involved 9 healthy individuals (3 females and 6 males) with point clouds captured in opposite breathing phases (i.e., inhalation and exhalation). We measured three factors: surface distance, correspondence distance, and marker error. To evaluate different methods for computing the correspondence measurements, we defined the number of correspondences for every target point and the average correspondence assignment error of the points nearest the markers.
Turial, S; Enders, J; Schwind, M; Schier, F
This prospective study evaluated the diagnostic and therapeutic feasibility and safety of microlaparoscopy for the management of chronic abdominal pain in children. The study included 45 children (13 boys and 32 girls; age range from 6 to 16 years, average 9.5 years) undergoing diagnostic microlaparoscopy for chronic abdominal pain. Microlaparoscopy (the exclusive use of 2 mm instrument sets and small diameter scopes, i. e. 1.7 mm, 1.9 mm and 2.4 mm) was performed after common organic diseases were ruled out by careful baseline investigations. No complications occurred which were related to the exclusive use of 2 mm instruments and small scopes. CT scans were avoided in all patients. No intraoperative pathological findings were found in 18 children. In another 18 children, the intraoperative findings indicated the need for further surgical intervention. At follow-up, 26 patients reported that they were totally pain-free; 10 children had partial resolution after surgery, and 8 children reported only minimal resolution. In 20 cases, the procedures were accomplished as an outpatient surgery. Microlaparoscopy seems to be a safe and effective diagnostic tool with a favorable diagnostic accuracy, minimal access trauma and superior cosmesis in children.
Biondo-Simões, Maria de Lourdes Pessole; Zammar, Guilherme Roberto; Fernandes, Rodrigo dos Santos; Biondo-Simões, Rachel; Mello, Flavia Stica Ritzdorf de; Noronha, Lucia de
Treatment for obesity essentially has to do with weight loss, which can be achieved through surgical procedures. Despite the considerable rise in the number of such procedures, the relationship between obesity and the healing process has not been totally clarified. To investigate abdominal wound healing in obese Wistar rats on the seventh and fourteenth days following a laparotomy. Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups, the control and experiment group. The control group were fed on either a standard diet for the species and the experiment group were put on a high calorie diet. After 116 days, all the animals were submitted to a laparotomy followed by laparorrhaphy. After euthanasia on the seventh or fourteenth day, fragments of the abdominal wound containing the scar were submitted to histopathological and tensiometric analysis. The average weight of the animals from the experiment group was higher than that of the control group (p<0.001). The difference in the resistance of the cutaneous scars was not significant. The aponeurotic scars were more resistant in the control group after seven days (p=0.011) and fourteen days (p=0.040). There was no difference in terms of intensity of the inflammatory reaction and the collagen density was similar in both groups. In rats, obesity lowered the resistance of the aponeurotic scars but not the skin scars. It did not interfere with the delayed inflammatory response and the collagen density.
Stone, H. Harlan; Hooper, C. Ann; Millikan, William J.
Consecutive patients undergoing emergency appendectomy (283) or urgent cholecystectomy (51) were prospectively studied for the development of post-operative incisional or peritoneal sepsis. Severity of the original peritoneal infection was carefully recorded, while use of a Penrose dam to drain the peritoneum was randomized according to pre-assigned hospital number. Both aerobic and anaerobic cultures were taken from the abdomen at the time of operation as well as from all postoperative infectious foci. Results demonstrated no essential differences in incidence of wound and peritoneal infection following appendectomy for simple or suppurative appendicitis (187) or following cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis (51). However, with gangrenous or perforative appendicitis (94), incisional and intra-abdominal infection rates were 43% and 45%, respectively, when a drain was used; yet only 29 and 13%, respectively, without a drain. These latter differences were significant (p < 0.001). In addition, intra-abdominal abscesses were three times as likely to drain through the incision than along any tract provided by the rubber conduit. Cultures revealed that hospital pathogens accounted for a greater proportion of wound and peritoneal sepsis after cholecystectomy and appendectomy for simple or suppurative appendicitis if a drain had been inserted than if managed otherwise. By contrast, a mixed bacterial flora was responsible for most infections following appendectomy for gangrenous or perforated appendicitis, irrespective as to use of a drain. PMID:646499
Rollins, K E; Contractor, U; Inumerable, R; Lobo, D N
Introduction Patients who are Jehovah's Witnesses pose difficult ethical and moral dilemmas for surgeons because of their refusal to receive blood and blood products. This article outlines the personal experiences of six Jehovah's Witnesses who underwent major abdominal surgery at a single institution and also summarises the literature on the perioperative care of these patients. Methods The patients recorded their thoughts and the dilemmas they faced during their surgical journey. We also reviewed the recent literature on the ethical principles involved in treating such patients and strategies recommended to make surgery safer. Results All patients were supported in their decision making by the clinical team and the Hospital Liaison Committee for Jehovah's Witnesses. The patients recognised the ethical and moral difficulties experienced by clinicians in this setting. However, they described taking strength from their belief in Jehovah. A multitude of techniques are available to minimise the risk associated with major surgery in Jehovah's Witness patients, many of which have been adopted to minimise unnecessary use of blood products in general. Nevertheless, the risks of catastrophic haemorrhage and consequent mortality remain an unresolved issue for the treating team. Conclusions Respect for a patient's autonomy in this setting is the overriding ethical principle, with detailed discussion forming an important part of the preparation of a Jehovah's Witness for major abdominal surgery. Clinicians must be diligent in the documentation of the patient's wishes to ensure all members of the team can abide by these.
Mirjalili, S Ali; McFadden, Sara L; Buckenham, Tim; Stringer, Mark D
Descriptions of clinically important surface landmarks often vary between and within contemporary anatomical texts. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface anatomy of major abdominal vessels, kidneys, spleen, gastroesophageal junction, and duodenojejunal flexure in living adults using computed tomography (CT). After excluding patients with distorting space-occupying lesions, scoliosis, abnormal lordosis, and obvious visceromegaly, 108 abdominal CT scans of supine adults (mean age 60 years, range 18-97 years; 64 female) at end tidal inspiration were available for analysis by dual consensus reporting. Intra-observer agreement was assessed by repeat blind assessment of a random sample of scans. The vertebral level of the aortic bifurcation and almost all of its major branches, and the origin of the inferior vena cava were consistent with current descriptions. Important differences from contemporary descriptions of surface anatomy were as follows: the renal arteries were most commonly at the L1 vertebral level (left 55%, right 43%); the midpoint of the renal hila was most frequently at L2 (left 68%, right 40%); the 11th rib was a posterior relation of the left kidney in only 28% of scans; and the spleen was most frequently located between the 10th and 12th ribs (48%) with its long axis in line with the 11th rib (55%). Although the majority of vascular surface landmarks are consistent with standard descriptions, the surface anatomy of the kidneys, renal arteries, and spleen needs to be revised in accordance with observations using modern imaging techniques in vivo.
da Silva, Rodrigo Marcel Valentim; Oliveira, Glenda; Tavares, Maely Azevedo da Silva; Medeiros, Melyssa Lima; Andrada, Camila Procopio; Neto, Luis Gonzaga de Araujo
Cryolipolysis is a noninvasive technique of localized fat reduction. Controlled cold exposure is performed in the selective destruction of fat cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cryolipolysis on adipocytes elimination through histological and sonographic analyses. This study reports the case of a 46-year-old female patient, with complaint of localized abdominal fat and in the preoperative period of abdominoplasty. The patient was submitted to a single 60-minute application of cryolipolysis, temperature of −5°C, on the hypogastrium area, 5 cm below the umbilicus. To study the effects of this treatment, ultrasound images taken before the session and 7, 15, 30, and 45 days after the therapy were analysed. After the abdominoplasty, parts of the treated and the untreated withdrawn abdominal tissues were evaluated macro- and microscopically. In ultrasound images, as well as in macroscopic and histological analyses, significant adipocytes destruction was detected, with consequent fat layer reduction and integrity of areas that were adjacent to the treated tissue. The presence of fibrosis observed during therapy and acknowledged through performed analyses encourages further studies to clarify such finding. PMID:27895944
Leardi, S; Delmonaco, S; Ventura, T; Chiominto, A; De Rubeis, G; Simi, M
Chronic appendicitis may be the cause of recurrent abdominal pain. This hypothesis is the subject of controversy. The aim is to clarify the possible existence of a chronic inflammation of the appendix by a clinical and histopathologic study. The case history and the preoperative symptoms and serum findings of 269 patients with appendectomy have been studied. All the appendices have been histologically examined. Chronic appendicitis was diagnosed when at least two typical histological factors of chronic inflammation were present. The histological findings of the appendices have been correlated with preoperative clinical and serum findings of the patients. 14-46 months after the appendectomy, the patients have been examined. Histological examination revealed 187 cases (69.5%) with acute appendicitis, 44 cases (16.3%) with non disease of appendix and 38 cases (14.2%) with chronic appendicitis. Recurrent abdominal pain and normal leukocyte count were closely correlated (chi 2 = 18.3, p < 0.001; chi 2 = 21.3, p < 0.001 respectively) with diagnosis of chronic appendicitis. 81.8% of 33 patients with chronic appendicitis who underwent follow-up had relief of all the symptoms after appendectomy. Therefore, the study seems to confirm the existence of a clinico-pathological condition that can be defined as chronic appendicitis, resolvable with appendectomy.
Acute vascular emergencies can arise from direct traumatic injury to the vessel or be spontaneous (non-traumatic). The vascular injuries can also be divided into two categories: arteial injury and venous injury. Most of them are life-treatening emergencies, sice they may cause an important ipovolemic shock or severe ischemia in their end organ and require prompt diagnosis and treatment. In the different clinical scenarios, the correct diagnostic approach to vascular injuries isn’t firmly established and advantages of one imaging technique over the other are not obvious. Ultrasound (US) is an easy accessible, safe and non-invasive diagnostic modality but Computed Tomography (CT) with multiphasic imaging study is an accurate modality to evaluate the abdominal vascular injuries therefore can be considered the primary imaging modality in vascular emergencies. The aim of this review article is to illustrate the different imaging options for the diagnosis of abdominal vascular emergencies, including traumatic and non traumatic vessel injuries, focusing of US and CT modalities. PMID:23902665
Genovese, Eugenio Annibale; Fonio, Paolo; Floridi, Chiara; Macchi, Monica; Maccaferri, Anna; Ianora, Antonio Amato Stabile; Cagini, Lucio; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo
Acute vascular emergencies can arise from direct traumatic injury to the vessel or be spontaneous (non-traumatic).The vascular injuries can also be divided into two categories: arteial injury and venous injury.Most of them are life-treatening emergencies, sice they may cause an important ipovolemic shock or severe ischemia in their end organ and require prompt diagnosis and treatment.In the different clinical scenarios, the correct diagnostic approach to vascular injuries isn't firmly established and advantages of one imaging technique over the other are not obvious.Ultrasound (US) is an easy accessible, safe and non-invasive diagnostic modality but Computed Tomography (CT) with multiphasic imaging study is an accurate modality to evaluate the abdominal vascular injuries therefore can be considered the primary imaging modality in vascular emergencies.The aim of this review article is to illustrate the different imaging options for the diagnosis of abdominal vascular emergencies, including traumatic and non traumatic vessel injuries, focusing of US and CT modalities.
Pusiol, Teresa; Morichetti, Doriana; Pedrazzani, Corrado; Ricci, Francesco
Abdominal-pelvic actinomycosis is often mistaken for other conditions, presenting a preoperative diagnostic challenge. In a 46-year-old female, computed tomography showed an abdominal-pelvic retroperitoneal mass extending from the lower pole of the right kidney to the lower pelvis. The patient had a 3-year history of intrauterine device. The mass appeared to involve the ascending colon, cecum, distal ileum, right Fallopian tube and ovary, and ureter anteriorly and the psoas muscle posteriorly. The resection of retroperitoneal mass, distal ileum appendicectomy, right hemicolectomy, and right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. Penicillin therapy was given for six months without any complication. The retroperitoneal mass measured 4.5 × 3.5 × 3 cm, surrounded adjacent organs and histologically showed inflammatory granulomatous tissue, agglomeration of filaments, and sulfur granules of Actinomyces, with positive reaction with periodic acid Schiff. Right tubo-ovarian abscess was present. Abdominalpelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in patients with a pelvic mass especially in ones using intrauterine device. PMID:21904441
Boriek, Aladin M; Ortize, Jaime; Zhu, Deshen
During respiration, abdominal muscles experience loads, not only in the muscle-fiber direction but also transverse to the fibers. We wondered whether the abdominal muscles exhibit a fiber architecture that is similar to the diaphragm muscle, and, therefore, we chose two adjacent muscles: the internal oblique (IO), with about the same muscle length as the diaphragm, and the transverse abdominis (TA), which is twice as long as the diaphragm. First, we used acetylcholinesterase staining to examine the distribution of neuromuscular junctions on both surfaces of the TA and IO muscles in six dogs. A maximum of four irregular bands of neuromuscular junctions crossed the IO, and as many as six bands crossed the TA, which is consistent with a discontinuous fiber architecture. In six additional dogs, we examined fiber architecture of these muscles by microdissecting 103 fascicles from the IO and 139 from the TA. Each fascicle contained between 20 and 30 muscle fibers. The mean length of nonspanning fibers (NSF) ranged from 2.8 +/- 0.3 cm in the IO to 4.3 +/- 0.5 cm in the TA, and the mean length of spanning fibers ranged from 4.3 +/- 0.5 cm in the IO to 7.6 +/- 1.4 cm in the TA. NSF accounted for 89.6 +/- 1.5% of all fibers dissected from the IO and 99.1 +/- 0.2% of all fibers dissected from the TA. The percentage of NSF with both ends tapered was 6.2 +/- 1.0 and 41.0 +/- 2.3% for IO and TA, respectively. These data show that fiber architecture in either IO or TA is discontinuous, with much more short-tapered fibers in the TA than in the IO. When abdominal muscles are submaximally activated, as during both normal expiration and maximal expiratory efforts, muscle force could be transmitted to the cell membrane and to the extracellular intramuscular connective tissue by shear linkage, presumably via structural transmembrane proteins.
Ayerdi, Juan; Gupta, Sushil K; Sampson, Lawrence N; Deshmukh, Narayan
Complications from the Heimlich maneuver are relatively infrequent. Two fatal cases of abdominal aortic thrombosis have been reported following this technique. We report on the first patient that suffered an acute thrombosis of the abdominal aorta and survived. Prompt recognition of this complication provides the only hope of survival from this rare and catastrophic complication.
Rejin, Kebudi; Aykan, Ozgüven A; Omer, Görgün; Ensar, Yekeler; Bilge, Bilgiç; Inci, Ayan; Harzem, Ozger
Extrapulmonary metastasis, particularly abdominal metastasis from osteogenic sarcoma, are rare and generally appear as a solid mass of calcification as the primary tumor. The aim of this case report is to document the incidence, characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of abdominal metastasis in osteosarcomas in a single institution and to review the literature. From September 1989 to December 2002, 94 children ≤16 years of age with osteosarcomas were diagnosed and treated in the Division of Pediatric Oncology, Oncology Institute, Istanbul University. Patients with abdominal metastasis were assessed. Two girls of 94 patients (2.1%) with osteosarcoma developed abdominal metastasis. One had pulmonary metastasis at diagnosis and the other had developed lung metastasis 15 months after diagnosis. They developed abdominal metastasis 4 and 3 years after diagnosis during therapy or relapse at a median duration of 16 months (1-70 months) from initial diagnosis. All patients had metastasis to various sites, mostly lung, at the time the abdominal metastasis were detected. Treatment included surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy in one and only surgery in the other patient. Both patients died at a median time of 4 months (2-6 months) from the time of abdominal metastasis with progressive disease. Abdominal metastasis in osteosarcoma is a rare event, but abdomen should be investigated in case of recurrence from osteosarcoma. The outcome for these patients is dismal in this series and in the literature.
Acute inflammatory disease 5 Superior mesenteric artery syndrome 4 Biliary tract disease 4 surface in the patients with abdominal burns, and only...ity of these critically ill patients were equally affected by polypropylene was used for fascial closure, the wound ileus , sepsis, abdominal distention
With advances in abdominal surgery and the management of major trauma, complex abdominal wall defects have become the new surgical disease, and the need for abdominal wall reconstruction has increased dramatically. Subsequently, how to reconstruct these large defects has become a new surgical question. While most surgeons use native abdominal wall whenever possible, evidence suggests that synthetic or biologic mesh needs to be added to large ventral hernia repairs. One particular group of patients who exemplify "complex" are those with contaminated wounds, enterocutaneous fistulas, enteroatmospheric fistulas, and/or stoma(s), where synthetic mesh is to be avoided if at all possible. Most recently, biologic mesh has become the new standard in high-risk patients with contaminated and dirty-infected wounds. While biologic mesh is the most common tissue engineered used in this field of surgery, level I evidence is needed on its indication and long-term outcomes. Various techniques for reconstructing the abdominal wall have been described, however the long-term outcomes for most of these studies, are rarely reported. In this article, I outline current practical approaches to perioperative management and definitive abdominal reconstruction in patients with complex abdominal wall defects, with or without fistulas, as well as those who have lost abdominal domain.
Peled, I.J.; Kaplan, H.Y.; Herson, M.; Wexler, M.R.
We report a case of abdominal wall reconstruction following excision of irradiated skin and a ventral hernia. A very large tensor fascia lata musculocutaneous flap was used with good results. The anatomical features of this flap make it an excellent method of abdominal wall reconstruction.
Whipp, Christopher James; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Conboy, Gary; Gelens, Hans
A large abdominal mass containing numerous cysticerci identified as those of Taenia crassiceps (=Cysticercus longicollis) was found in the pelvic region of the abdominal cavity of a severely constipated and emaciated red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Cysticercosis has not previously been reported in a wild canid in North America.
Tobler, William D.; Tan, Tze-Woei; Farber, Alik
Blunt abdominal aortic injury is an uncommon traumatic finding. In the past, treatment options have traditionally consisted of open operative repair; however, the development of endovascular surgery has created new interventional possibilities. This case is presented to demonstrate the applications of endovascular abdominal aortic repair for a blunt traumatic injury. PMID:23730142
Vicq, P; Jourdan, P; Chapuis, O; Baranger, B
The mortality from abdominal gunshot wounds remains high, either in civilian or military cases. The severity factors of these wounds include bullet calibre and energy transfer of the missile. This paper studies some of the ballistics features of abdominal gunshot wounds. Practical guidelines are inferred concerning diagnosis and treatment of these wounds.
Pereira, Luiz Haroldo; Sterodimas, Aris
In many countries, liposuction is the most frequently performed aesthetic procedure. The procedure is promoted as a safe, easy-to-learn, outpatient procedure. The increasing number of liposuction procedures, often performed by inadequately trained physicians, has led to a growing number of iatrogenic postliposuction contour deformities and skin irregularities. This report describes a treatment protocol for iatrogenic abdominal contouring deformities. For patients who present with contour deformities but no skin flaccidity, the type 1 treatment plan (syringe-assisted lipectomy and lipografting) is the suggested approach. In cases of contour deformities and infraumbilical skin flaccidity, the type 2 treatment plan (mini-lipoabdominoplasty and lipografting procedures) is used. Finally, in the case of contour deformities as well as supra- and infraumbilical flaccidity, the type 3 treatment plan (lipoabdominoplasty and lipografting procedures) is indicated.
Kim, S H; Han, J K; Lee, K H; Won, H J; Kim, K W; Kim, J S; Park, C H; Choi, B I
Amyloidosis is a disease characterized by the deposition of fibrillar protein amyloid of beta-structure in organs or tissues. It is usually classified as either a primary disease or secondary to a co-existent condition, such as rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, or neoplasm (particularly multiple myeloma or renal cell carcinoma). Amyloid protein deposition can be seen in a variety of organs though it occurs with higher frequency in the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and heart. Amyloidosis can have a wide spectrum of manifestations in nearly every abdominal organ. Some of these, for example, multiple cystic submucosal masses of the stomach, amyloidosis of the gallbladder, and dirty soft tissue infiltration of the subcutaneous fat, have not yet been covered in the radiological literature. The combination of various imaging techniques and the identification of characteristic computed tomography (CT) hepatic features may help in the differentiation of amyloidosis from other infiltrative diseases; however, confirmative diagnosis can usually only be achieved by tissue biopsy.
Mallia, Alvin James; Ashwood, Neil; Arealis, George; Galanopoulos, Ilias
Retroperitoneal abscesses are unusual occurrences with occult and insidious presentations. There is often a lack of abdominal signs, leading to delays in drainage and high mortality rates. We report a case of thigh emphysema in an 88-year-old patient with diabetes. Prior to admission the patient reported a vague 4-week history of left thigh pain and an inability to fully weight bear. She presented to our emergency department with sepsis and acute kidney impairment. An X-ray of her left femur revealed widespread gas between muscular planes. A retroperitoneal abscess involving the left renal fossa, psoas, iliacus and upper thigh muscles was revealed on an urgent CT scan. The patient was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) and underwent an emergency drainage. Despite ICU the patient died 2 days after admission. PMID:25576509
Mallia, Alvin James; Ashwood, Neil; Arealis, George; Galanopoulos, Ilias
Retroperitoneal abscesses are unusual occurrences with occult and insidious presentations. There is often a lack of abdominal signs, leading to delays in drainage and high mortality rates. We report a case of thigh emphysema in an 88-year-old patient with diabetes. Prior to admission the patient reported a vague 4-week history of left thigh pain and an inability to fully weight bear. She presented to our emergency department with sepsis and acute kidney impairment. An X-ray of her left femur revealed widespread gas between muscular planes. A retroperitoneal abscess involving the left renal fossa, psoas, iliacus and upper thigh muscles was revealed on an urgent CT scan. The patient was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) and underwent an emergency drainage. Despite ICU the patient died 2 days after admission.
Kuivaniemi, Helena; Ryer, Evan J.; Elmore, James R.; Tromp, Gerard
Summary An aortic aneurysm is a dilatation in which the aortic diameter is ≥ 3.0 cm. If left untreated, the aortic wall continues to weaken and becomes unable to withstand the forces of the luminal blood pressure resulting in progressive dilatation and rupture, a catastrophic event associated with a mortality of 50 – 80%. Smoking and positive family history are important risk factors for the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Several genetic risk factors have also been identified. On the histological level, visible hallmarks of AAA pathogenesis include inflammation, smooth muscle cell apoptosis, extracellular matrix degradation, and oxidative stress. We expect that large genetic, genomic, epigenetic, proteomic and metabolomic studies will be undertaken by international consortia to identify additional risk factors and biomarkers, and to enhance our understanding of the pathobiology of AAA. Collaboration between different research groups will be important in overcoming the challenges to develop pharmacological treatments for AAA. PMID:26308600
Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe
Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital-including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)-or compressive-including "nutcracker" syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic. PMID:27777480
Berry, E; Marsden, A; Dalgarno, K W; Kessel, D; Scott, D J A
The aim of this study was to manufacture life-size, flexible, tubular replicas of human abdominal aortic aneurysms and the associated vasculature, suitable for use in a training simulator for endovascular procedures. Selective laser sintering was used to create a geometrically correct master model for each of ten anatomical variations. The masters were used to generate flexible latex replicas. The use of the replicas in the training simulator was demonstrated. In total ten silicone rubber models were produced. When connected into the training simulator and perfused at arterial pressure it was possible to deploy an endovascular stent under fluoroscopic control and to perform angiography. The study has shown that conventional rapid prototyping technology can be used to manufacture flexible, radiolucent replicas which provide a realistic training environment for endovascular procedures.
Ungurian, V M; Grinev, M V; Demko, A E; Povzun, S A
The authors analyzed the data of 281 cases of iatrogenes of manipulator character in abdominal surgery in order to investigate the circumstances and character of origin. There were 187 cases of operative confirmation and 84 cases of unintentional intraoperative retained foreign bodies. It was detected, that primary planned intervention of higher category of complexity should be related to the high risk group of the development of the operative confirmation. Retained foreign bodies with soft fabric base were diagnosed in early postoperative period as the result of the beginning of postoperative complications. The retained foreign bodies with tough backer material as a rule didn't cause the complications in early postoperative period. They were diagnosed in long-term postoperative period in majority of cases.
Jagadesham, Vamshi P; Scott, D Julian A; Carding, Simon R
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a multifactorial degenerative vascular disorder. One of the defining features of the pathophysiology of aneurysmal disease is inflammation. Recent developments in vascular and molecular cell biology have increased our knowledge on the role of the adaptive and innate immune systems in the initiation and propagation of the inflammatory response in aortic tissue. AAAs share many features of autoimmune disease, including genetic predisposition, organ specificity and chronic inflammation. Here, this evidence is used to propose that the chronic inflammation observed in AAAs is a consequence of a dysregulated autoimmune response against autologous components of the aortic wall that persists inappropriately. Identification of the molecular and cellular targets involved in AAA formation will allow the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of AAA.
Smeulders, Mark J C; Gorter, Ramon R; Cense, Huib A; van Trier, A Toine
Fireworks injuries are common and often affect children. Such injuries should be considered high energy trauma in the emergency room and taken care of according to the principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS). A 7-year-old boy was a victim of an explosion when he set off illegal fireworks. During evaluation in the emergency department he presented with a superficial laceration on the belly and extensive hand injury. Upon examination he had small-intestinal perforation that required immediate resection. The patient recovered well, but suffered permanent damage to the hand. Potentially life threatening injuries may accompany hand injuries after modern illegal fireworks. Hand injuries are serious. Despite prolonged treatment, they often result in permanent disability. The structured approach to trauma according to ATLS was important in detecting an accompanying abdominal trauma in this case.
Oviedo-García, A A; Algaba-Montes, M; Segura-Grau, A; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Á
Ultrasound has recently become an indispensable tool for the family physician, whether exercised in primary care and emergency department; and likewise it has spread to many other specialties: internal medicine, critical care, neurology, pneumology, digestive, etc. and that ultrasound has proven to be a safe diagnostic tool and have great capacity. We firmly believe that ultrasound done to «bedside» the patient by the family doctor, can greatly complement the physical examination and greatly improve clinical effectiveness, allowing the browser an immediate view of the anatomy and physiology of certain structures. It is within this context is particularly relevant ultrasonography of the Aorta and large abdominal vessels, made by the family doctor or the emergency itself, which will develop along this chapter. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Heng, Hock Gan; Teoh, Wen Tian; Sheikh-Omar, Abdul Rahman
Postmortem radiographic examinations of animals are commonly performed in judicial investigations to rule out gunshot and fractures. However, there was no available data on radiographic postmortem changes of animals. Forty-one sets of abdominal radiographs of feline cadavers made within 12 h of death were evaluated for postmortem changes. Intravascular gas was detected in 11 of 41 (27%) cadavers. The most common site of intravascular gas was the liver. Intravascular gas was also present in the aorta, femoral artery, celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries, and caudal superficial epigastric artery. Intrasplenic gas was detected in two cadavers. Only two cadavers had distended small intestine. One cadaver had pneumatosis coli. The changes detected were most likely due to putrefaction.
Bhatty, Shaheen A; Lal, Hari; Talib, Abu; Mahmood, Khalid; Naqvi, Iftekhar; Zaidi, Syeda Shaheera
Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO), previously regarded as a form of multiple sclerosis, is defined by Gault and Devic, as a retrobulbar neuritis or papillitis accompanied by acute myelitis and occasionally other neurological symptom or signs not restricted to the spinal cord or optic nerves. With the diagnosis of specific antibodies, probable role of humoral immunity supports its pathogenesis. Only a few cases of NMO have been reported in association with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Here we report a case of young girl with acute onset paraplegia diagnosed to have NMO, who later on during hospital stay developed ascites which cultured positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This association of abdominal TB with NMO is under-reported in literature.
Alvarez, J; Prada, A; Bermúdez, C; García, R; Ruiz, E; Urbano, J
To obtain the percentage of abdominal aortic aneurism (AAA) determined in men between 65-74 years old in a health centre using ultrasound, and to describe the distribution of risk factors in the whole sample and in patients with aneurism, as well as determining how many AAA are confirmed at the hospital and those cases of uncertain diagnosis. A cross-sectional study conducted on patients included from September 2014 to February 2015. From a total of 212 randomised patients, a clinical interview and abdominal ultrasound were performed on 115 men, aged 65 to 74, telephone-recruited from a total of 171 that fulfilled inclusion criteria. An infra-renal AAA was found in 2.6% of the sample (95% CI 0.54-7.4). Just over half (51.3%) of the sample had arterial hypertension, and 76.1% were smokers or former smokers. The 3 AAA found, one of which had an initial doubtful diagnosis, were confirmed by the Hospital Universitario Fundación Jiménez Díaz. There were no losses. All of the patients with AAA were active smokers and had at least one other risk factor. The percentage of infra-renal AAA in the sample was lower than expected, but higher than the percentage found in other studies that did not consider smoking in the inclusion criteria. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Baskin, Kevin M.; Kusnick, Catherine A.; Shamsolkottabi, Susanne; Lang, Elvira V.; Corson, J. D.; Stanford, William; Thompson, Brad H.; Hoffman, Eric A.
The purpose of this study was to develop a valid, reliable and accurate system of measurement of abdominal aortic aneurysms, using volumetric analysis of x-ray computed tomographic data. This study evaluates illustrative cases, and compares measurements of AAA phantoms, using standard 2D versus volumetric methods. To validate the volumetric analysis, four phantom aneurysms were constructed in a range of diameters (4.5 - 7.0 cm) which presents the greatest management challenge to the clinician. These phantoms were imaged using a Toshiba Xpress SX helical CT. Separate scans were obtained at conventional (10 mm X 10 mm) and thin slice (5 mm X 5 mm) collimations. The thin slices were reconstructed at 2 mm intervals. Data from each of the 96 scans were interpreted using a standard 2D approach, then analyzed using task-oriented volumetric software. We evaluate patient assessments, and compare greatest outer diameters of phantoms, by standard versus volumetric methods. Qualitative differences between solutions based on standard versus volumetric analysis of illustrative patient cases are substantial. Expert radiologists' standard measurements of phantom aneurysms are highly reliable (r2 equals 0.901 - 0.958; p < 0.001), but biased toward significant overestimation of aneurysm diameters in the range of clinical interest. For the same phantoms, volumetric analysis was both more reliable (r2 equals 0.986 - 0.996; p < 0.001), and more accurate, with no significant bias in the range of interest. Volumetric analysis promotes selection of more valid management strategies, by providing vital information not otherwise available, and allowing more reliable and accurate assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. It is particularly valuable in the presence of aortic tortuosity, vessel eccentricity, and uncertain involvement of critical vessels.
Several clinical trials have demonstrated that the use of probiotics and synbiotics in patients undergoing abdominal surgery might be beneficial in preventing postoperative infectious complications. However, other investigators report that there is no evidence supporting any benefits from preoperative use of pre- and probiotics (synbiotics) in patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery, and that in some cases there is even an increased risk of mortality. Possible explanations behind these controversies may be found in the postoperative period of administration (median time of 4 days), the oral (instead of jejunal) route of administration with the accompanying unclear survival rate of the probiotics in the stomach due to low pH, and the high-risk operations such as complicated colectomies resulting in a high overall rate of bacterial translocation and infections. In recent years, three important randomized studies on the effects of probiotics in patients undergoing colorectal surgery have reported that the use of probiotics markedly improved intestinal microbial populations and significantly decreased the incidence of further infectious complications. Furthermore, the patients' quality of life was also improved by shortening the duration of postoperative hospital stay and the period needed for antibiotics administration. Improvements in infection-related complications and gut defecation function have also been reported in patients receiving perioperative oral probiotics treatment, suggesting that the use of probiotics could reduce the extent of damage to colon mucosa after surgery. Probiotics can improve the integrity of the gut mucosal barrier as well as the balance of the gut microbiota, and they play a role in decreasing the rate of infection. This area, however, requires more research before preoperative oral intake of probiotics combined with postoperative treatment can be recommended for patients in need of gastrointestinal surgery. Copyright © 2011 S
Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.
The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.
El Mhabrech, H; Ben Hmida, H; Charfi, H; Zrig, A; Hafsa, C
Anterior abdominal wall defects (AAWD) correspond to a wide spectrum of congenital defects affecting 6.3/10,000 pregnancies. They have in common a closure defect of the anterior abdominal wall and can be fatal or expose the fetus and the neonate (NN) to many complications. This study was based on a retrospective study of 22 cases of AAWD collected between May 2009 and December 2014. Its purpose was to specify the importance of prenatal ultrasonography in the diagnosis and prognosis assessment of these defects. These 22 AAWDs consisted in 13 cases of omphalocele (including four cases of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome), four of gastroschisis, one of pentalogy of Cantrell, three of vesical exstrophy and one of cloacal exstrophy. Prenatal ultrasonography provided the diagnosis of 14 of these defects with a changing sensitivity with the gestational age varying from 17% in the first trimester to 71.4% and 77.8% in the second and third trimesters, respectively. The relevance of this examination was improved when performed by an imaging specialist. The prenatal diagnosis of these defects indicated an amniocentesis in eight cases, allowing the diagnosis of two cases of trisomy 18. It also motivated a therapeutic termination of the pregnancy (TTP) in ten cases. Prenatal ultrasonography allowed better prenatal follow-up and planning of the delivery of the continued pregnancies. It indicated an emergency C-section in only one case by showing intestinal complications of gastroschisis. Four NNs died (two cases of omphalocele and two of gastroschisis), three of which postoperatively and the prenatal diagnosis did not improve survival. Prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis provided a precise morphological study determining the type of the AAWD, a complete malformation assessment, and the prognosis factors. This resulted in adequate multidisciplinary pre and postnatal care, including a rigorous ultrasound follow-up, a TTP in case of associated defects, and emergency delivery once the
Introduction Desmoid tumors are rare lesions without any metastatic potential but a strong tendency to invade locally and to recur. These tumors are associated with women of fertile age, especially during and after pregnancy. Case presentation The case of a desmoid tumor of the anterior abdominal wall in a 40-year-old Caucasian man with no relevant family history is presented, describing its appearance on computed tomography and ultrasonography. The patient, who presented with a painless mass in the left anterolateral abdomen, had a history of previous urgent abdominal surgery after a shotgun injury two years earlier. Radical resection of the affected abdominal wall musculature was performed, and the defect was reconstructed with polypropylene mesh. Conclusion The diagnosis of desmoid tumor should be strongly considered even in male patients with an abdominal mass and a history of previous abdominal surgery. The goal of its treatment is complete tumor excision and avoidance of the development of complications such as hernia. PMID:21787413
Moullot, P; Philandrianos, C; Gonnelli, D; Casanova, D
Looking at a full-thickness abdominal wall defect, it is necessary to use reconstructive surgery techniques. The authors present an original case of reconstruction of the abdominal wall, using an anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) harvested with vascularised fascia lata. We describe the advantages of this technique, which has rarely been used for this indication. An 80-year-old woman presenting a full-thickness abdominal wall defect of 15×18cm was reconstructed by a pedicled ALT flap. Skin wound healing was obtained within 15 days, with no complication. There was no donor site sequela. The pedicled ALT flap appears to be a good solution for hypogastric abdominal wall defect in a one step procedure. Vacularised fascia lata bring with the cutaneous flap is useful to reconstruct the abdominal fascia.
Sue, Gloria R; Narayan, Deepak
Abdominal wall defects resulting from recurrent hernias, trauma, and radiation necrosis are difficult and challenging to repair given the high rates of recurrence and surgical morbidity. Complex abdominal wall defects often require the transposition of autologous material to bridge the fascial gap. We present a review of niche reconstructive techniques that have been used in complex abdominal wall repair. The specific techniques reviewed include use of delayed and tunneled pedicled tensor fascia lata myofascial flap, de-epithelialized flap closure, free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap with or without innervation, and abdominal wall transplant. These niche surgical techniques have great potential to reduce recurrence rates when used in the proper setting for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. More studies are needed to evaluate the relative use of these techniques with the more widely established surgical methods of reconstruction.
Izadpanah, Arash; Izadpanah, Ali; Karunanayake, Mihiran; Petropolis, Christian; Deckelbaum, Dan L.; Luc, Mario
Abdominoplasty is among the most commonly performed aesthetic procedures in plastic surgery. Despite high complication rate, abdominal contouring procedures are expected to rise in popularity with the advent of bariatric surgery. Patients with a history of gastric bypass surgery have an elevated incidence of small bowel obstruction from internal herniation, which is associated with non-specific upper abdominal pain, nausea, and a decrease in appetite. Internal hernias, when subjected to elevated intra-abdominal pressures, have a high-risk of developing ischemic bowel. We present a case report of patient with previous laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass who developed acute ischemic bowel leading to abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature. We herein emphasise on the subtle symptoms and signs that warrant further investigations in prospective patients for an abdominal contouring procedure with a prior history of gastric bypass surgery. PMID:25190927
Izadpanah, Arash; Izadpanah, Ali; Karunanayake, Mihiran; Petropolis, Christian; Deckelbaum, Dan L; Luc, Mario
Abdominoplasty is among the most commonly performed aesthetic procedures in plastic surgery. Despite high complication rate, abdominal contouring procedures are expected to rise in popularity with the advent of bariatric surgery. Patients with a history of gastric bypass surgery have an elevated incidence of small bowel obstruction from internal herniation, which is associated with non-specific upper abdominal pain, nausea, and a decrease in appetite. Internal hernias, when subjected to elevated intra-abdominal pressures, have a high-risk of developing ischemic bowel. We present a case report of patient with previous laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass who developed acute ischemic bowel leading to abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature. We herein emphasise on the subtle symptoms and signs that warrant further investigations in prospective patients for an abdominal contouring procedure with a prior history of gastric bypass surgery.
Puch-Ceballos, Eduardo Erik; Vázquez-Castro, Rosbel; Osorio-Pérez, Ana Isabel; Ramos-Ayala, Montserrat; Villarreal-Sosa, Conrado Otoniel; Ruvalcaba-Rivera, Everardo
Abdominal ectopic pregnancy is an extremely rare entity, which represents 1% of all ectopic pregnancies and is associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The maternal mortality risk of an abdominal ectopic pregnancy is seven to eight times greater than the risk of a tubal ectopic pregnancy and is 90 times greater than the risk of intrauterine pregnancy. This is a disease of difficult diagnosis that often takes place late. We report the case of a patient with an abdominal ectopic pregnancy, which was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound in the second trimester; the patient was suc- cessfully treated with exploratory laparotomy with complete removal of the fetus and placenta. We provide a review of the literature on the risk factors for abdominal ectopic pregnancy, diagnostic tests and therapeutic options.
Kollias, S; Stampolidis, N; Kourakos, P; Mantzari, E; Koupidis, S; Tsaousi, S; Dimitrouli, A; Atiyeh, B; Castana, O
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy.
kollias, S.; Stampolidis, N.; kourakos, P.; Mantzari, E.; Koupidis, S.; Tsaousi, S.; Dimitrouli, A.; Atiyeh, B.; Castana, O.
Summary Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy. PMID:26668555
Cheng, Joan M.; Kim, Kyung Won; Saboo, Sachin S.; Baez, Juan C.; Shinagare, Atul B.
Abstract For the radiologist, calcifications in an abdominal malignancy raise questions of both diagnostic and prognostic significance. Although certain cancers are well known to calcify, such as colorectal and ovarian, malignant abdominal calcifications actually arise from a wide variety of epithelial, mesenchymal, lymphoid, or germ cell neoplasms. The pathophysiology of calcification in abdominal malignancies is heterogeneous and incompletely understood. Calcifications may present primarily, in untreated tumors, or develop during treatment; the latter can occur in variable clinical settings. A basic understanding of the varied pathogenic etiology can assist the radiologist in assessing disease status. By presenting an assortment of calcified abdominal malignancies on computed tomography in varied clinical settings, we aim not only to inform the differential diagnosis, but also to clarify the prognosis of calcifications in abdominal malignancies. PMID:24334568
Cheng, Yongyuan; Qu, Lintao; Li, Jun; Wang, Bin; Geng, Junzu; Xing, Dong
Abstract Rationale: Abdominal cocoon and peritoneal loose body are both rare abdominal diseases. Patient concerns: The patient reported in this case was a 47-year-old man who suffered from abdominal pain and distension for 3 days. Diagnosis: X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple peritoneal loose body and small bowel obstruction, characterized by a total encapsulation of the small bowel with a fibrous membrane. Interventions: The patient underwent surgical treatment and exploratory laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis of abdominal cocoon. Outcomes: Histopathological examination of pelvic nodules confirmed peritoneal loose body. Lessons: To our knowledge, the herein reported case is the first abdominal cocoon that was accompanied by multiple peritoneal loose body. PMID:28248873
Kocakoc, Ercan; Bozgeyik, Zulkif; Koc, Mustafa; Balaban, Mehtap
To present a case with acute abdominal pain due to idiopathic intestinal intussusception diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) during the early postpartum period. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain, nausea and emesis after a normal vaginal delivery. Laboratory tests done at admission were within normal limits except for leukocytosis. Physical examination revealed abdominal distention, guarding and rebound tenderness. Abdominal ultrasound and oral contrast-enhanced CT showed a complex mass in the hypogastrium, with a typical configuration of intussusception. Emergent laparotomy revealed ileoileal invagination approximately 70 cm to the ileocecal valve but no lead point. A partial ileal resection was performed. This case shows that when intussusception is suspected, an abdominal ultrasound should be performed even in patients with atypical symptoms. CT may be used to confirm the diagnosis. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Chiles, Kris T; Feeney, Colin M
A 48 year old male admitted to the intensive care unit after a cardiac arrest complicated by a stroke intra-operatively during automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement. He post-operatively developed a rigid abdomen, elevated peak and plateau pressures, hypoxia and renal insufficiency. He was diagnosed with abdominal compartment syndrome with an intra-abdominal compartment pressure of 40mmHg. The patient was administered 10 mg of intravenous cisatracuriumbesylate in preparation for bedside surgical abdominal decompression. Cisatracurium eliminated the patients need for surgical intervention by reducing his abdominal compartment pressures to normal and improving his hypoxia and renal function. This case illustrates that neuromuscular blockade should be attempted in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome prior to surgical intervention. PMID:22013257
Manyanga, Hudson; Lwakatare, Flora
We report on an abdominal pregnancy in human immunodeficiency virus-positive mother, currently on antiretroviral therapy, which was discovered incidentally while training the obstetric ultrasound capacity building program. Although abdominal pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy, it may be more common in women with HIV infection because they tend to have a higher rate of sexually transmitted diseases than the general population. The positive diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy is difficult to establish and is usually missed during prenatal assessment particularly in settings that lack routine ultrasound examination as is the case in most developing countries. For the management of abdominal pregnancy, surgical intervention is recommended and removal of the placenta is a key controversy. Ultrasonography is considered the front-line and most effective imaging method and an awareness with a high index of suspicion of abdominal pregnancy is vital for reducing associated high maternal and even higher perinatal mortality. PMID:27896258
Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Schoretsanitis, Nikolaos; Koufopoulos, Georgios; Paulou, Konstantinos; Lazarides, Miltos K
Although small (<5 cm) abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) have been associated with symptoms and indication for intervention scarcely, the clinicians should never exclude such potential association especially in the absence of other overt pathological findings. In such cases, a surgical exploration with consequent intervention, if feasible, should be justified to prevent a detrimental evolution in a dubious scenario. In this article, we present 2 cases of patients with small AAA presenting with severe abdominal pain. In the absence of other solid clinical and radiological pathological findings, both patients underwent laparotomy where an inflammatory small AAA was identified and subjected either to resection and restoration with a tube graft or secondary endovascular repair because the periaortic fibrosis precluded the open repair. The characteristics and rationale of treatment modalities are exemplified and discussed.
Papavramidis, Theodossis S; Marinis, Athanasios D; Pliakos, Ioannis; Kesisoglou, Isaak; Papavramidou, Nicki
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) are increasingly recognized as potential complications in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. ACS and IAH affect all body systems, most notably the cardiac, respiratory, renal, and neurologic systems. ACS/IAH affects blood flow to various organs and plays a significant role in the prognosis of the patients. Recognition of ACS/IAH, its risk factors and clinical signs can reduce the morbidity and mortality associated. Moreover, knowledge of the pathophysiology may help rationalize the therapeutic approach. We start this article with a brief historic review on ACS/IAH. Then, we present the definitions concerning parameters necessary in understanding ACS/IAH. Finally, pathophysiology aspects of both phenomena are presented, prior to exploring the various facets of ACS/IAH management. PMID:21769216
Cheng, Yao; Xia, Jie; Lai, Mingliang; Cheng, Nansheng; He, Sirong
The use of surgical drains has been considered mandatory after pancreatic surgery. The role of prophylactic abdominal drainage to reduce postoperative complications after pancreatic surgery is controversial. To assess the benefits and harms of routine abdominal drainage after pancreatic surgery, compare the effects of different types of surgical drains, and evaluate the optimal time for drain removal. For the initial version of this review, we searched the Cochrane Library (2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1946 to 9 April 2015), Embase (1980 to 9 April 2015), Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to 9 April 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) (1978 to 9 April 2015). For this updated review, we searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and CBM from 2015 to 28 August 2016. We included all randomized controlled trials that compared abdominal drainage versus no drainage in people undergoing pancreatic surgery. We also included randomized controlled trials that compared different types of drains and different schedules for drain removal in people undergoing pancreatic surgery. We identified five trials (of 985 participants) which met our inclusion criteria. Two review authors independently identified the trials for inclusion, collected the data, and assessed the risk of bias. We performed the meta-analyses using Review Manager 5. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and the mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). For all analyses, we employed the random-effects model. Drain use versus no drain useWe included three trials involving 711 participants who were randomized to the drainage group (N = 358) and the no drainage group (N = 353) after pancreatic surgery. There was inadequate evidence to establish the effect of drains on mortality at 30 days (2.2% with drains versus 3.4% no drains; RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.99; three studies; low-quality evidence
Burke, Bridget A; Latenser, Barbara A
The definitions of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are not uniform despite the increasing awareness of IAH/ACS in burn patients. A short survey including definitions, resuscitation protocols, and monitoring practices was sent to every physician listed in the American Burn Association Directory. Thirty-two of 123 (26%) surveys were returned; 22 (69%) were from verified burn centers. Survey respondents said that bladder pressure indicating IAH is 19.6 mm Hg (range 12-30) and ACS is 25.9 mm Hg (range 15-40). Fifteen percentage of those responding do not include clinical sequellae in their definition of ACS. Bladder pressure is not routinely measured by 22 (69%) burn physicians, and staff at 17 centers (53%) wait until the abdomen is tense to measure abdominal pressure. Tense abdomen, along with elevated peak inspiratory pressures (PIP), is used in most centers (94%) to determine IAH/ACS, followed by oliguria (88%), and difficulty ventilating (78%). Resuscitation formulae used are primarily the Parkland/modified Parkland in 24 (75%) burn centers. Criteria for abdominal decompression is based on bladder pressures alone in 25 centers (78%); 16/32 (50%) use PIP, and 10/32 (31%) staff use other criteria including organ dysfunction or increased lactate. Eleven physicians (34%) advocate percutaneous decompression before decompressive laparotomy. Although most United States burn physicians define ACS as >or=25 mm Hg along with physiologic compromise, bladder pressure is routinely measured by only 31% of burn physicians. Most burn staff do not differentiate between IAH and ACS. Consensus definitions of IAH/ACS are necessary for burn care practitioners to compare research studies and discuss outcomes. Concise definitions will promote understanding of the pathophysiological processes involved and allow us to develop data-driven patient care protocols.
Judge, Bryan S; Hoyle, John D
We present a case in which a young female ingested several tablets of an over-the-counter cough and cold remedy over the course of a week. Pill fragments were identifiable and incidentally discovered when a CT scan of the abdomen was performed to evaluate the cause of her abdominal pain. Discovery of radiopaque pills on diagnostic imaging studies warrants further history and appropriate testing to rule out a life-threatening ingestion.
Brown, David F M; Fischer, Randy H; Novelline, Robert A; Kim, Jennifer; Nagurney, J Tobias
To describe the non-traumatic clinical settings in which abdominal computed tomography (CT) is used and to determine its diagnostic utility. A retrospective descriptive study of consecutive non-traumatic adult patients who underwent abdominal CT in a university hospital emergency department (ED). Radiology reports and patient charts were reviewed. The indication for each CT was determined by two reviewers. Indications were described as specific (e.g. "rule-out" appendicitis) or non-specific (e.g. abdominal pain). CT results were classified as positive, negative (normal or no new information) or indeterminate (technical limitations). For those with specific indications, positive results were further subdivided into supportive (of the clinical suspicion) or non-supportive (abnormal but suggesting an alternative diagnosis). The clinical course and results of subsequent diagnostic procedures were used to confirm CT results for admitted patients. Incidental CT findings were recorded. 177 patients were entered; mean age was 58 years; 48% were men. The most frequent indications ("rule-outs") were aortic disorders (23%), abscess (16%), and diverticulitis (14%). In patients with specific indications (n=160), 44% of the CT results supported the indication, 13% suggested an alternative diagnosis (non-supportive), 41% were negative, and 3% were indeterminate. In admitted patients (n=129), CT findings were contradicted in 6%. Adult ED patients undergo abdominal CT for a variety of non-traumatic indications. Findings in less than half support the pre-test clinical suspicion and an alternative previously unsuspected diagnosis is suggested in 13%. Follow-up is inconsistent with CT results in a small but significant number of cases.
Mannion, A F; Pulkovski, N; Toma, V; Sprott, H
The symmetry of, and physical characteristics influencing, the thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles at rest and during abdominal exercises were examined in 57 healthy subjects (20 men, 37 women; aged 22–62 years). M-mode ultrasound images were recorded from the abdominal muscles at rest and during abdominal hollowing exercises in hook-lying. The fascial lines bordering the transvs. abdominis, obliquus internus and obliquus externus were digitized and the absolute thickness, relative thickness (% of total lateral thickness) and contraction ratio (thickness during hollowing/thickness at rest), as well as the asymmetry (difference between sides expressed as a percent of the smallest value for the two sides) for each of these parameters were determined for each muscle. Both at rest and during hollowing, obliquus internus was the thickest and transvs. abdominis the thinnest muscle. There were no significant differences between left and right sides for group mean thicknesses of any muscle; however, individual asymmetries were evident, with mean values for the different muscles ranging from 11% to 26%; asymmetry was much less for the contraction ratios (mean % side differences, 5–14% depending on muscle). Body mass was the most significant positive predictor of absolute muscle thickness, for all muscles at rest and during hollowing, accounting for 30–44% variance. Body mass index explained 20–30% variance in transvs. abdominis contraction ratio (negative relationship). The influence of these confounders must be considered in comparative studies of healthy controls and back pain patients, unless groups are very carefully matched. Asymmetries observed in patients should be interpreted with caution, as they are also common in healthy subjects. PMID:19172732
management of the abdominal wall was determined by a multidisciplinary team of general and plastic surgeons, intensivists and specialist nurses . The...otomy is performed when the patient’s physiology has normalised, usually at 12–72 h after the damage control procedure. Closure of the midline... nurse specialist, microbiology, intensive care, the hos- pital medical director and the orthopaedic surgeons if there was concomitant bony or extremity
Becker, Chuck; Plymale, Margaret A; Wennergren, John; Totten, Crystal; Stigall, Kyle; Roth, J Scott
To provide adequate workspace between the viscera and abdominal wall, insufflation with carbon dioxide is a common practice in laparoscopic surgeries. An insufflation pressure of 15 mmHg is considered to be safe in patients, but all insufflation pressures create perioperative and postoperative physiologic effects. As a composition of viscoelastic materials, the abdominal wall should distend in a predictable manner given the pressure of the pneumoperitoneum. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between degree of abdominal distention and the insufflation pressure, with the goal of determining factors which impact the compliance of the abdominal wall. A prospective, IRB-approved study was conducted to video record the abdomens of patients undergoing insufflation prior to a laparoscopic surgery. Photo samples were taken every 5 s, and the strain of the patient's abdomen in the sagittal plane was determined, as well as the insufflator pressure (stress) at bedside. Patients were insufflated to 15 mmHg. The relationship between the stress and strain was determined in each sample, and compliance of the patient's abdominal wall was calculated. Subcutaneous fat thickness and rectus abdominus muscle thickness were obtained from computed tomography scans. Correlations between abdominal wall compliances and subcutaneous fat and muscle content were determined. Twenty-five patients were evaluated. An increased fat thickness in the abdominal wall had a direct exponential relationship with abdominal wall compliance (R (2) = 0.59, p < 0.05). There was no correlation between muscle and fat thickness. All insufflation pressures create perioperative and postoperative complications. The compliance of patients' abdominal body walls differs, and subcutaneous fat thickness has a direct exponential relationship with abdominal wall compliance. Thus, insufflation pressures can be better tailored per the patient. Future studies are needed to demonstrate the
Winters, J C; Cespedes, R D; Vanlangendonck, R
Vaginal vault prolapse and enterocele represent challenging forms of female pelvic organ relaxation. These conditions are most commonly associated with other pelvic organ defects. Proper diagnosis and management is essential to achieve long-term successful outcomes. Physical examination should be carried out in the lithotomy and standing positions (if necessary) in order to detect a loss of vaginal vault support. With proper identification of the vaginal cuff, one should assess the degree of mobility of the vaginal cuff with a Valsalva maneuver. If there is significant descent of the vaginal cuff, vaginal vault prolapse is present, and correction should be considered. The abdominal sacral colpopexy is an excellent means to provide vaginal vault suspension. This procedure entails suspension of the vaginal cuff to the sacrum with fascia or synthetic mesh. This procedure should always be accompanied by an abdominal enterocele repair and cul-de-sac obliteration. In addition, many patients require surgical procedures to correct stress urinary incontinence, which is either symptomatic or latent (occurs postoperatively after prolapse correction). Complications include: mesh infection, mesh erosion, bowel obstruction, ileus, and bleeding from the presacral venous complex. If the procedure is carried out using meticulous technique, few complications occur and excellent long-term reduction of vaginal vault prolapse and enterocele are achieved. The purpose of this article is to review the preoperative evaluation of women with pelvic organ prolapse, and provide a detailed description of the surgical technique of an abdominal sacral colpopexy.
Sikić, N; Korać, Z; Krajacić, I; Zunić, J
To analyze predictive factors for developing complications or lethal outcome in war abdominal trauma. Retrospective study. We analyzed 93 cases of war penetrating abdominal trauma treated at the General Hospital Karlovac, Croatia. The following potential predictor variables were analyzed: age, sex, type of wound, Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index (PATI), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and number of injured abdominal organs (NIAO). A total of 10.8% of wounded patients died and 25.8% developed complications. The overall average number of injured intra-abdominal organs was 2.0; in the group of patients with complications, the average was 3.0, and in the group of deceased patients, the average was 3.5. The most frequently injured organs were the small and large bowels. The significant predictors of developing complications as well as death outcome were the PATI, the ISS, and the NIAO. The best diagnostic efficiency (79.57%) for predicting complications was with the NIAO, whereas the best model for the prediction of death outcome combined all three variables (Z = -13.0776 + 0.1561 x PATI + 0.281 x ISS - 0.5234 x NIAO), with diagnostic efficiency of 92.47%. These models may be used as important prognostic factors in war abdominal injuries.
Haas, D C; Bohnker, B K
A young, active duty sailor presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. History, physical, and laboratory findings initially suggested cholecystitis or related disease. Further evaluation found myoglobinuria and a recently increased exercise program, leading to the diagnosis of exercise-induced right upper abdominal wall rhabdomyolysis. Although not a common cause of abdominal pain, this diagnosis should be considered in the patient with abdominal pain and a recently increased exercise program, particularly exercises of the abdominal wall such as "abdominal crunches."
Sands, William A; McNeal, Jeni R
Abdominal exercises are often performed on roller or rocker mechanisms, which have been aggressively promoted through the television and print media. However, justifications are lacking as to why these devices are superior to traditional abdominal exercises such as crunches. This study sought to describe and compare the range of motion (ROM) of several joints during crunches performed on 4 different abdominal conditioning devices (2 roller and 2 pivot types) and a traditional crunch exercise. Ten men (29 +/- 5.87 years, 177.5 +/- 6.46 cm, 80.96 +/- 11.72 kg) and 10 women (33.4 +/- 10.16 years, 162.23 +/- 3.83 cm, 56.99 +/- 7.36 kg) subjects agreed to participate in the study. Subjects were videotaped in the sagittal plane (60 Hz) using standard kinematic methods. Reflective markers were placed on the right temple, auditory meatus, shoulder, hip, knee, ankle, heel, toe, and 2 sternum markers placed on a foam piece strapped to the subject's chest. The videotaped movements were automatically digitized (PEAK5 2-D) and the data smoothed using a Butterworth filter. Relative angular ROMs of the head (temple, auditory meatus, shoulder); neck (auditory meatus, shoulder, hip); trunk (near sternum, shoulder, hip); hip (shoulder, hip, knee); sternum/head (sternum near and sternum far with temple and auditory meatus); sternum/trunk (sternum near and sternum far with shoulder and hip); and a sum of 4 angles (head, neck, trunk, hip) were calculated. Sex by equipment repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were calculated on the angles of the 5 exercises. When no main effect for sex was found, the data were collapsed across sex and a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was calculated on the resulting data. Post hoc analyses of pairwise differences were calculated using Tukey's honestly significant difference statistic. Results showed that crunches performed with the abdominal devices resulted in less ROM in all angles measured when compared with a traditional crunch. The
Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical Need Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm. In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 2% and 5.4%. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are found in 4% to 8% of older men and in 0.5% to 1.5% of women aged 65 years and older. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are largely asymptomatic. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. Often rupture may occur without warning, causing acute pain. Rupture is always life threatening and requires emergency surgical repair of the ruptured aorta. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. Over one-half of all deaths attributed to a ruptured aneurysm take place before the patient reaches hospital. In comparison, the rate of death in people undergoing elective surgery is 5% to 7%; however, symptoms of AAA rarely occur before rupture. Given that ultrasound can reliably visualize the aorta in 99% of the population, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AAA approaches 100%, screening for aneurysms is worth considering as it may reduce the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and hence reduce unnecessary deaths caused by AAA-attributable mortality. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Case reports, letters, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, non-human studies, and comments were excluded. Questions asked: Is population-based AAA screening effective in improving health outcomes in asymptomatic populations? Is AAA screening acceptable to the population? Does this affect the
Peng, Su; Cheng, Yao; Yang, Chen; Lu, Jiong; Wu, Sijia; Zhou, Rongxing; Cheng, Nansheng
The use of surgical drains has been considered mandatory after pancreatic surgery. The role of prophylactic abdominal drainage to reduce postoperative complications after pancreatic surgery is controversial. To assess the benefits and harms of routine abdominal drainage after pancreatic surgery, compare the effects of different types of surgical drains, and evaluate the optimal time for drain removal. We searched The Cochrane Library (2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1946 to 9 April 2015), EMBASE (1980 to 9 April 2015), Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to 9 April 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) (1978 to 9 April 2015). We included all randomized controlled trials that compared abdominal drainage versus no drainage in patients undergoing pancreatic surgery. We also included randomized controlled trials that compared different types of drains and different schedules for drain removal in patients undergoing pancreatic surgery. Two review authors independently identified the trials for inclusion, collected the data, and assessed the risk of bias. We performed the meta-analyses using Review Manager 5. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and the mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). For all analyses, we employed the random-effects model. Drain use versus no drain useWe included two trials involving 316 participants who were randomized to the drainage group (N = 156) and the no drainage group (N = 160) after pancreatic surgery. Both trials were at high risk of bias. There was inadequate evidence to establish the effect of drains on mortality at 30 days (drains 1.3%; no drains 3.8%; RR 0.44; 95% CI 0.05 to 3.94; two studies; very low-quality evidence), mortality at 90 days (2.9% versus 11.6%; RR 0.24; 95% CI 0.05 to 1.10; one study; very low-quality evidence), intra-abdominal infection (8.3% versus 14.4%; RR 0.61; 95% CI 0.25 to 1.46; two studies), wound infection (10.9% versus 11.9%; RR
Wang, Tsae-Jyy; Wang, Hung-Ming; Yang, Tsai-Sheng; Jane, Sui-Whi; Huang, Tse-Hung; Wang, Chao-Hui; Lin, Yi-Hsin
As many as 50% of end-stage cancer patients will develop ascites and associated symptoms, including pain, tiredness, nausea, depression, anxiety, drowsiness, loss of appetite, dyspnea, perceived abdominal bloating, and immobility. Abdominal massage may stimulate lymph return to the venous system and reduce ascites-related symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of abdominal massage in reducing these symptoms and reducing ascites itself as reflected in body weight. For a randomized controlled design using repeated measures, a sample of 80 patients with malignant ascites was recruited from gastroenterology and oncology units of a medical center in northern Taiwan and randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. A 15-minute gentle abdominal massage, using straight rubbing, point rubbing, and kneading, was administered twice daily for 3 days. The control group received a twice-daily 15-minute social interaction contact with the same nurse. Symptoms and body weight were measured in the morning for 4 consecutive days from pre- to post-test. In generalized estimation equation modeling, a significant group-by-time interaction on depression, anxiety, poor wellbeing, and perceived abdominal bloating, indicated that abdominal massage improved these four symptoms, with the greatest effect on perceived bloating. The intervention had no effect on pain, tiredness, nausea, drowsiness, poor appetite, shortness of breath, mobility limitation, or body weight. Abdominal massage appears useful for managing selected symptoms of malignant ascites.
Introduction Abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type is always challenging for diagnosis. Air containing abdominal viscera is most vulnerable to effects of primary blast injury. In any patient exposed to a primary blast wave who presents with an acute abdomen, an abdominal organ injury is to be kept in a clinical suspicion. Aim Study various abdominal organ injuries occurring in a primary type of blast injury. Material and methods: All those who had exploratory laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries after a primary blast injury for a period of 10 years from January 1998 - January 2008 were included in this retrospective study. Results Total 154 patients had laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries with a primary blast type of injury. Small intestine was damaged in 48 patients (31.1%) followed by spleen in 22.7% cases. 54 patients (35.06%) had more than one organ injured. Liver laceration was present in 30 patients (19.48%). Multiple small gut perforations were present in 37 patients (77.08%). Negative laparotomy was found in 5 patients (3.24%) whereas 3 (1.94%) had re-exploration. Mortality was present in 6 patients (3.89%). Conclusions Primary blast injury causes varied abdominal organ injuries. Single or multiple organ damage can be there. Small intestine is commonest viscera injured. Laparotomy gives final diagnosis. PMID:20025766
Czyzewski, Danita I; Self, Mariella M; Williams, Amy E; Weidler, Erica M; Blatz, Allison M; Shulman, Robert J
A significant proportion of children with functional abdominal pain develop chronic pain. Identifying clinical characteristics predicting pain persistence is important in targeting interventions. We examined whether child anxiety and/or pain-stooling relations were related to maintenance of abdominal pain frequency and compared the predictive value of 3 methods for assessing pain-stooling relations (ie, diary, parent report, child report). Seventy-six children (7-10 years old at baseline) who presented for medical treatment of functional abdominal pain were followed up 18 to 24 months later. Baseline anxiety and abdominal pain-stooling relations based on pain and stooling diaries and child- and parent questionnaires were examined in relationship to the persistence of abdominal pain frequency. Children's baseline anxiety was not related to persistence of pain frequency. Children who, however, displayed irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms at baseline maintained pain frequency at follow-up, whereas in children in whom there was no relationship between pain and stooling, pain frequency decreased. Pain and stool diaries and parent report of pain-stooling relations were predictive of pain persistence but child-report questionnaires were not. The presence of IBS symptoms in school-age children with functional abdominal pain appears to predict persistence of abdominal pain over time, whereas anxiety does not. Prospective pain and stooling diaries and parent report of IBS symptoms were predictors of pain maintenance, but child report of symptoms was not.
Cevik, Muazez; Boleken, Mehmet Emin; Sogut, Ozgur; Gökdemir, Mehmet Tahir; Karakas, Ekrem
Bicycling is a well-liked sporting activity in which many children participate, and bicycle accidents are one of the most common causes of abdominal injuries in children. We evaluated the characteristics and outcomes of abdominal injuries due to bicycle accidents in children. This study was carried out retrospectively on children at the Department of Pediatric Surgery who were hospitalized for abdominal injury due to a bicycle accident, from 2008 to 2012. Abdominal injury-related bicycle accidents were evaluated with respect to patient characteristics, clinical presentation, management strategy, and outcome. Fifty-nine patients were hospitalized for abdominal injuries related to a bicycle accident. The mean age of the patients was 11.48 ± 3.6 years. Most patients had an imprint of the handlebar edge on their abdomen. The most common abdominal organ injury due to a bicycle accident was laceration of the liver. Most patients were treated conservatively. Surgery was performed in 14 (24.1 %) patients. Hospital stay was 1-68 (mean 4.34 ± 11.6) days. Abdominal injuries following a bicycle accident are frequent, serious, and preventable. Most patients were treated conservatively. Bicycle injuries can be prevented.
The pattern of respiratory activity in abdominal muscles was studied in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing, vagotomized neonatal rats at postnatal days 0-3. Anesthesia (2.0% isoflurane, 50% O(2)) depressed breathing and resulted in hypercapnia. Under this condition, abdominal muscles showed discharge late in the expiratory phase (E2 activity) in most rats. As the depth of anesthesia decreased, the amplitude of discharges in the diaphragm and abdominal muscles increased. A small additional burst frequently occurred in abdominal muscles just after the termination of diaphragmatic inspiratory activity (E1 or postinspiratory activity). Since this E1 activity is not often observed in adult rats, the abdominal respiratory pattern likely changes during postnatal development. Anoxia-induced gasping after periodic expiratory activity without inspiratory activity, and in most rats, abdominal expiratory activity disappeared before terminal apnea. These results suggest that a biphasic abdominal motor pattern (a combination of E2 and E1 activity) is a characteristic of vagotomized neonatal rats during normal respiration.
Souza, Amalia Maria do Espirito Santo; Barbuto, Tomas Marzagão; Freitas, Flávia Alessandra; Vianna, Nathalia Fernandes; Zanchetta, Carla Maria Costa; Forsait, Silvana; Borba, Claudio; Azambuja, Alessandra Milani Prandini de; Cristofani, Lilian Maria; Odone, Vicente
Abdominal tumors are one of the most common types of pediatric cancer. Therefore, they should always be included in the differential diagnosis of abdominal masses. Here, we present the case of a child whose initial hypothesis of diagnosis contemplated this possibility. Later, it was demonstrated that the abdominal mass found was secondary to a common parasitosis. A 2-year old, moderately malnourished and pale white boy was referred with a history of a rapidly growing, well-limited, middle abdominal mass. The mass was 10 by 3 cm, hard and poorly movable, apparently involving both abdominal rectus muscles. A complete resection was performed, revealing an abdominal wall abscess, with intense eosinophilic proliferation, secondary to a local and intense reaction to innumerous Ascaris lumbricoides eggs. Extra luminal infestations with Ascaris, that usually form peritoneal granulomas have been previously described. However, neither external trauma nor fistula, that could explain the superficial presence of the eggs, was found. This description reinforces the relevance of infectious diseases within the differential diagnosis of abdominal masses, particularly in areas with high prevalence of parasitic infestations.
Czyzewski, Danita I.; Self, Mariella M.; Williams, Amy E.; Weidler, Erica M.; Blatz, Allison M.; Shulman, Robert J.
Objectives A significant proportion of children with functional abdominal pain develop chronic pain. Identifying clinical characteristics predicting pain persistence is important in targeting interventions. We examined whether child anxiety and/or pain-stooling relations were related to maintenance of abdominal pain frequency and compared the predictive value of three methods for assessing pain-stooling relations (i.e., diary, parent report, child report). Methods Seventy-six children (7–10-years-old at baseline) who presented for medical treatment of functional abdominal pain were followed up 18–24 months later. Baseline anxiety and abdominal pain-stooling relations based on pain and stooling diaries and child- and parent-questionnaires were examined in relationship to the persistence of abdominal pain frequency. Results Children’s baseline anxiety was not related to persistence of pain frequency. However, children who displayed irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms at baseline maintained pain frequency at follow-up, whereas in children in whom there was no relationship between pain and stooling, pain frequency decreased. Pain and stool diaries and parent report of pain-stooling relations were predictive of pain persistence but child-report questionnaires were not. Conclusions The presence of IBS symptoms in school age children with functional abdominal pain appears to predict persistence of abdominal pain over time, while anxiety does not. Prospective pain and stooling diaries and parent report of IBS symptoms were predictors of pain maintenance, but child report of symptoms was not. PMID:26301615
Brosnahan, Margaret M; Holbrook, Todd C; Gilliam, Lyndi L; Ritchey, Jerry W; Confer, Anthony W
To describe the clinical and pathological findings in 2 adult horses with documented increases in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), and to describe the direct puncture technique used to measure this pressure. Two adult horses developed increases in IAP secondary to large-volume abdominal effusion. A 9-year-old Quarter Horse cross gelding was presented for evaluation of urinary and neurologic signs. Abdominal ultrasonographic examination showed a hepatic abscess along with abdominal effusion. A 4-year-old Quarter Horse gelding was presented for evaluation of castration complications. A castration site infection extended into surrounding tissues, resulting in peritonitis, abdominal effusion, and severe cellulitis of the limbs. IAP measured in both horses was increased relative to reported equine reference values. Changes in hemodynamic parameters in both horses, notably increased central venous pressure, were consistent with those seen in other species in which intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and its sequellae have been documented. Extensive research and clinical literature guides management of humans with IAH and abdominal compartment syndrome. Knowledge of these conditions in companion animal and large domestic species is less well developed. Recent research has established reference values for standing, sedated and recumbent, anesthetized horses. Detailed reports of equine clinical cases of IAH have not been reported in the literature. This report provides information on the clinical, hemodynamic, and pathologic characteristics of 2 horses with measured increases in IAP, and describes the direct puncture technique used to perform these measurements.
Agnaeber, K; Bodalal, Z
We performed a comparative study between abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies using clinical data from Al-Jamhouria hospital (one of the largest maternity hospitals in Eastern Libya). Various parameters were taken into consideration: the rates of each type (and their subtypes); average age of patients; indications; causes; postoperative complications; and duration of stay in the hospital afterwards. Conclusions and recommendations were drawn from the results of this study. In light of the aforementioned parameters, it was found that: (1) abdominal hysterectomies were more common than vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (2) patients admitted for abdominal hysterectomies are younger than those admitted for vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (3) the most common indication for an abdominal hysterectomy was menstrual disturbances, while for vaginal hysterectomies it was vaginal prolapse; (4) the histopathological cause for abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies were observed and the most common were found to be leiomyomas and atrophic endometrium; (5) there was no significant difference between the two routes in terms of postoperative complications; (6) patients who were admitted for abdominal hysterectomies spent a longer amount of time in the hospital (p < 0.01). It was concluded that efforts should be made to further pursue vaginal and laparoscopic hysterectomies as a viable option to the more conventional abdominal route.
Lansing, R. W.; Meyerink, L.
1. We studied abdominal muscle responses to positive pressure loads applied suddenly to the external airway while subjects held a constant lung volume against steady pressure. The pre-loading holding pressure was 6 cm H2O, and the loading pressures were 6 or 12 cm H2O lasting for 2 sec. 2. Surface electromyograms (e.m.g.) were recorded over the internal oblique, external oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles. The latency and pattern of the e.m.g. reactions were studied by measuring the raw record for each loading trial, and by averaging the rectified e.m.g. for many trials. 3. No responses were obtained if subjects were instructed not to respond to the loads. When instructed and trained to maintain their pre-load position in spite of the load, a two-phase compensatory response was found. The initial response (phase I) was 100-300 msec in duration; it was followed by a continuous e.m.g. discharge (phase II) which continued to the offset of the pressure load. Subjects were also trained to make a single respiratory effort as quickly as possible after the load onset or after just an auditory stimulus. These were simple reaction time tasks of a traditional kind and the e.m.g. responses elicited were single, brief bursts. 4. For all subjects and experimental conditions the e.m.g. response of the internal oblique occurred first, followed by the external oblique and then the rectus abdominis. For the `maintain position' task, phase I latencies (internal oblique) averaged 66-90 msec for individual subjects, but for single trials with optimal conditions of practice and preparatory intervals these ranged from 42 to 110 msec with a third of the reactions occurring within 50-60 msec. 5. The latencies for reaction time responses to loading were about 6 msec shorter than the phase I latencies. The latency distributions for the two types of responses were similar, and both were affected to the same degree by practice, and changing the length and variability of the preparatory
Ojo, Emmanuel Olorundare; Ozoilo, Kenneth N.; Sule, Augustine Z.; Ugwu, Benjamin T.; Misauno, Michael A.; Ismaila, Bashiru O.; Peter, Solomon D.; Adejumo, Adeyinka A.
Background: Abdominal injuries contribute significantly to battlefield trauma morbidity and mortality. This study sought to determine the incidence, demographics, clinical features, spectrum, severity, management, and outcome of abdominal trauma during a civilian conflict. Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis of patients treated for abdominal trauma during the Jos civil crises between December 2010 and May 2012 at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Results: A total of 109 victims of communal conflicts with abdominal injuries were managed during the study period with 89 (81.7%) males and 20 (18.3%) females representing about 12.2% of the total 897 combat related injuries. The peak age incidence was between 21 and 40 years (range: 3–71 years). The most frequently injured intra-abdominal organs were the small intestine 69 (63.3%), colon 48 (44%), and liver 41 (37.6%). Forty-four (40.4%) patients had extra-abdominal injuries involving the chest in 17 (15.6%), musculoskeletal 12 (11%), and the head in 9 (8.3%). The most prevalent weapon injuries were gunshot 76 (69.7%), explosives 12 (11%), stab injuries 11 (10.1%), and blunt abdominal trauma 10 (9.2%). The injury severity score varied from 8 to 52 (mean: 20.8) with a fatality rate of 11 (10.1%) and morbidity rate of 29 (26.6%). Presence of irreversible shock, 3 or more injured intra-abdominal organs, severe head injuries, and delayed presentation were the main factors associated with mortality. Conclusion: Abdominal trauma is major life-threatening injuries during conflicts. Substantial mortality occurred with loss of nearly one in every 10 hospitalized victims despite aggressive emergency room resuscitation. The resources expenditure, propensity for death and expediency of timing reinforce the need for early access to the wounded in a concerted trauma care systems. PMID:26957819
Prisk, G. Kim; Paiva, Manuel
The abdominal and rib cage contributions to tidal breathing differ between rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-NREM sleep. We hypothesized that abdominal relative contribution during NREM and REM sleep would be altered in different directions when comparing sleep on Earth with sleep in sustained microgravity (μG), due to conformational changes and differences in coupling between the rib cage and the abdominal compartment induced by weightlessness. We studied respiration during sleep in five astronauts before, during, and after two Space Shuttle missions. A total of 77 full-night (8 h) polysomnographic studies were performed; abdominal and rib cage respiratory movements were recorded using respiratory inductive plethysmography. Breath-by-breath analysis of respiration was performed for each class: awake, light sleep, deep sleep, and REM sleep. Abdominal contribution to tidal breathing increased in μG, with the first measure in space being significantly higher than preflight values, followed by a return toward preflight values. This was observed for all classes. Preflight, rib cage, and abdominal movements were found to be in phase for all but REM sleep, for which an abdominal lead was observed. The abdominal leading role during REM sleep increased while deep sleep showed the opposite behavior, the rib cage taking a leading role in-flight. In μG, the percentage of inspiratory time in the overall breath, the duty cycle (TI/TTot), decreased for all classes considered when compared with preflight, while normalized inspiratory flow, taking the awake values as reference, increased in-flight for light sleep, deep sleep, and REM. Changes in abdominal-rib cage displacements probably result from a less efficient operating point for the diaphragm and a less efficient coupling between the abdomen and the apposed portion of the rib cage in μG. However, the preservation of total ventilation suggests that short-term adaptive mechanisms of ventilatory control compensate for these
Rodeghero, Jason R; Denninger, Thomas R; Ross, Michael D
Resident's case problem. Abdominal pain is a common symptom, but not a common diagnosis, of patients referred to physical therapists for examination and intervention. For patients with primary symptoms of abdominal pain, a thorough evaluation must be performed to determine if symptoms are musculoskeletal in nature or of a nonmusculoskeletal origin that would warrant a referral to a different healthcare provider. This report describes the management of 3 adults with primary complaints of abdominal pain who were referred for physical therapy evaluation and treatment. Two of the patients had secondary symptoms of hip and/or low back pain and had previously undergone extensive medical testing for their chronic abdominal pain, without a definitive diagnosis having been determined. A physical therapy evaluation was conducted, and treatment, including manual physical therapy and exercise, was administered to address all relative impairments, once the physical therapist had determined that the patients' symptoms were of musculoskeletal origin. The third patient included in this series was referred to a physical therapist with a diagnosis of greater trochanteric versus iliopsoas bursitis. However, the patient had abdominal pain that was more acute in nature and a history and physical examination findings that were concerning for abdominal pain of nonmusculoskeletal origin. Both patients with abdominal pain of musculoskeletal origin showed marked improvement in pain and disability after 7 treatment sessions. The third patient was referred to her primary care physician, and ultrasound examination of the abdomen revealed several intrauterine masses that were consistent with uterine fibroids. Following uterine fibroid embolization, the patient was symptom free. Although not routinely managed by physical therapists, abdominal pain is a relatively common patient symptom that can have several causes, both musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal. This paper emphasizes the importance
Chen, Yong; Jiang, Yun; Pahwa, Shivani; Ma, Dan; Lu, Lan; Twieg, Michael D.; Wright, Katherine L.; Seiberlich, Nicole; Griswold, Mark A.
Purpose To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) “fingerprinting” technique for quantitative abdominal imaging. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. To achieve accurate quantification in the presence of marked B0 and B1 field inhomogeneities, the MR fingerprinting framework was extended by using a two-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state free precession, or FISP, acquisition and a Bloch-Siegert B1 mapping method. The accuracy of the proposed technique was validated by using agarose phantoms. Quantitative measurements were performed in eight asymptomatic subjects and in six patients with 20 focal liver lesions. A two-tailed Student t test was used to compare the T1 and T2 results in metastatic adenocarcinoma with those in surrounding liver parenchyma and healthy subjects. Results Phantom experiments showed good agreement with standard methods in T1 and T2 after B1 correction. In vivo studies demonstrated that quantitative T1, T2, and B1 maps can be acquired within a breath hold of approximately 19 seconds. T1 and T2 measurements were compatible with those in the literature. Representative values included the following: liver, 745 msec ± 65 (standard deviation) and 31 msec ± 6; renal medulla, 1702 msec ± 205 and 60 msec ± 21; renal cortex, 1314 msec ± 77 and 47 msec ± 10; spleen, 1232 msec ± 92 and 60 msec ± 19; skeletal muscle, 1100 msec ± 59 and 44 msec ± 9; and fat, 253 msec ± 42 and 77 msec ± 16, respectively. T1 and T2 in metastatic adenocarcinoma were 1673 msec ± 331 and 43 msec ± 13, respectively, significantly different from surrounding liver parenchyma relaxation times of 840 msec ± 113 and 28 msec ± 3 (P < .0001 and P < .01) and those in hepatic parenchyma in healthy volunteers (745 msec ± 65 and 31 msec ± 6, P < .0001 and P = .021, respectively). Conclusion A rapid technique for quantitative abdominal imaging was developed that
Gerber, G S; Guss, S P; Pielet, R W
We report 2 cases of necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum, perianal area, and male genitalia (Fournier's gangrene) that arose secondary to intra-abdominal infectious processes (ruptured appendicitis and diverticulitis). Management consisted of immediate debridement of necrotic tissue, exploratory laparotomy, and diverting colostomy. The presence of an acute abdominal process was not immediately evident on initial evaluation of either patient. This demonstrates the critical importance of considering intra-abdominal infection in patients with Fournier's gangrene when the more commonly seen urinary tract, perirectal, and traumatic causes are not readily apparent.
Roldán-Alzate, Alejandro; Francois, Christopher J.; Wieben, Oliver; Reeder, Scott B.
OBJECTIVE Comprehensive assessment of abdominal hemodynamics is crucial for many clinical diagnoses but is challenged by a tremendous complexity of anatomy, normal physiology, and a wide variety of pathologic abnormalities. This article introduces 4D flow MRI as a powerful technique for noninvasive assessment of the hemodynamics of abdominal vascular territories. CONCLUSION Four-dimensional flow MRI provides clinicians with a more extensive and straightforward approach to evaluate disorders that affect blood flow in the abdomen. This review presents a series of clinical cases to illustrate the utility of 4D flow MRI in the comprehensive assessment of the abdominal circulation. PMID:27187681
Slade, Dominic Alexander James; Carlson, Gordon Lawrence
Key steps in managing patients with enterocutaneous fistulation and an abdominal wall defect include dealing effectively with abdominal sepsis and providing safe and effective nutritional support and skin care, then assessing intestinal and abdominal anatomy, before undertaking reconstructive surgery. The complexity, cost, and morbidity associated with such cases justifies creation of specialized centers in which gastroenterologic, hernia, and plastic surgical expertise, as well as experienced wound and stoma nursing and nutritional and psychological support, can be made available for patients with these challenging problems.
Domínguez-Comesaña, Elías; Ballinas-Miranda, Julio Roberto
Procalcitonin is a quite specific biomarker of infection and in recent years has shown its superiority to others markers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein, for the diagnosis and monitoring of a variety of infections. For this reason, several researchers have studied the potential role of procalcitonin for diagnosis and management of these infections. Intra-abdominal infections are a heterogeneous group of infections that, sometimes, pose difficult challenges to physicians. The published studies have produced mixed results, leading to controversy on the utility of this marker in intra-abdominal infections. This review summarizes these data and discuss the utility of procalcitonin in several intra abdominal infections, including postoperative infections.
Illuminati, Giulio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Pacilè, Maria A; Pizzardi, Giulia; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco
With the increasing diffusion of percutaneous interventions (PCI), surgeons are often faced with the problem of operating on patients under dual antiplatelet treatment. Replacing dual antiplatelet regiment with low molecular weight heparin may expose to the abrupt thrombosis of coronary stent and massive myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal operations can be safely performed under dual antiplatelet treatment. Eleven patients underwent 5 colectomies, 3 nefrectomies, 2 gastrectomies and 1 hysterectomy under aspirin and plavix without any significant perioperative hemorrhage. These preliminary results show that abdominal operations can be safely performed under dual antiplatelet regimen. Abdominal surgery, Dual antiplatelet treatment.
Panebianco, Nova L; Jahnes, Katherine; Mills, Angela M
When discussing which laboratory tests or imaging to order in the setting of acute abdominal pain, it is practical to organize information by disease process (eg, acute appendicitis, cholecystitis). Because studies on the accuracy of diagnostic tests are of necessity related to the presence or absence of specific diagnoses, and because clinicians frequently look to tests to help them rule in or rule out specific conditions, this article is organized by region of pain and common abdominal diagnoses. It focuses on the contributions that laboratory testing and imaging make in the emergency management of abdominal complaints. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
David, M.; Geido, D.; Pracca, F.; Sánchez, G.; Simini, F.; Zoppolo, C.
A device that generates negative extra-abdominal pressure (ABDOPRE) for treatment of patients with high intra-abdominal pressure was developed. It includes pressure sensors for transducing intra-abdominal pressure through an intra-vesical catheter and negative pressure in the vacuum bell which is placed over the abdomen. By means of a control system, a pattern for reducing IAP is set, according to a clinical protocol. The external negative pressure is generated using a vacuum pump connected to the bell. The system registers the values of interest for the medical history. The system is being tested over ICU patients, registering a satisfactory IAP reduction.
Tachamo, Niranjan; Timilsina, Bidhya; Nazir, Salik; Lohani, Saroj
Epiploic appendagitis (EA) is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain. It is a benign condition but may mimic other serious causes of acute abdomen such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, and gynecological emergency in severe cases. Knowledge of this condition in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain can save unnecessary hospital admission, antibiotics, and surgery. In this article, we present the case of a 43-year-old female who presented to our hospital with a 2-day history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and diarrhea. She was diagnosed with EA with computed tomography of abdomen with contrast and was managed conservatively with good outcome. PMID:27987280
Bozkurt, Mustafa; Okutur, Kerem; Aydin, Kübra; Namal, Esat; Oztürk, Akin; Balci, Cem; Demir, Gökhan
We report a case of fulminant abdominal gas gangrene in a patient with metastatic colon cancer. A 39-year-old patient with descending colon, high-grade adenocarcinoma and coexisting liver and lymph node metastases received two courses of chemotherapy. The patient developed sudden acute abdominal symptoms accompanied by septic shock parameters. The imaging findings on computed tomography were characteristic for abdominal gas gangrene, involving liver metastases, portal vein and lymph nodes with associated pneumoperitoneum. The patient succumbed to the disease within hours following the onset of symptoms.
Alfonzo, Michael; von Reinhart, Anna; Riera, Antonio
Pediatric emergency medicine physicians may be able to use point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) as a tool to evaluate abdominal wall masses. We present a case of a 2-month-old infant with a lower abdominal mass identified as a hernia sac by POCUS. It was initially thought to represent a Spigelian-type abdominal wall hernia but subsequently determined to be an unusual presentation of an inguinal hernia with testicular entrapment. We review each of these diagnoses in addition to relevant POCUS findings.
Schlarb, Angelika A; Bock, Inga; Gulewitsch, Marco D; Hautzinger, Martin
Given the high prevalence and possible psychosocial consequences of functional abdominal pain in children and adolescents, appropriate instruments for early diagnostics are required to work effectively against long-term chronic courses of this disorder. This report describes several self-report scales and reviews their applicability. In addition, questionnaires and interviews which assess pain intensity and associated factors as well as specific instruments for assessing functional abdominal pain in children and adolescents are introduced. It can be declared that none of the examined instruments grasps all relevant factors of pain. Especially in German there are only few appropriate diagnostic instruments for functional abdominal pain in children.
Radical tumor resection and immediate lower abdominal wall reconstruction in patients with aggressive neoplasm invading full-thickness abdominal wall are challenging because of their close proximity and possible invasion to bone and great vessels, as well as consequent giant defect. Data on 16 patients were reviewed retrospectively. Radical neoplasm resection and immediate abdominal wall reconstruction using the combined technique of intraperitoneal mesh placement, sublay technique, pedicled great omentum flap, and rotation skin graft were performed. Sixteen patients underwent radical abdominal wall neoplasm resection, achieving clear margin of >3 cm. The mean size of consequent giant defect was 226.5 ± 65.5 cm(2), with a mean polypropylene mesh size of 160.7 ± 40.5 cm(2) and a mean compound mesh size of 330.8 ± 100.2 cm(2). Sixteen patients had a mean follow-up duration of 32.5 ± 12.5 months. Four patients developed incisional infections, and 1 patient died of several metastatic lesions 24 months postoperatively. No ventral hernia and abdominal wall recurrence were observed. Radical neoplasm resection and immediate abdominal wall reconstruction are appropriate for patients with aggressive neoplasm in the lower abdominal wall. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arab, Amir Massoud; Chehrehrazi, Mahshid
Synergistic co-activation of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) has been reported in the literature. Considering that PFM dysfunction is present in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), altered abdominal muscle activation may also occur in incontinent women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the abdominal muscle activity during abdominal hollowing and bracing maneuver in women with and without SUI using ultrasound. Convenience sample of 20 non-pregnant female participated in the study. Subjects were categorized into two groups: continent females (N = 10) and females with SUI (N = 10). The percentage of change in thickness of right transverse abdominals (TrA) and internal obliques (IO) was measured during abdominal hollowing and bracing maneuver in both groups. The result of two-way mixed-design ANOVA revealed no significant health status by maneuver interaction effect for ultrasound measurement of the percentage of change in thickness of TrA (P = 0.66) and IO (P = 0.36). The main effect of health status on the percentage of the change in thickness of TrA (P = 0.52) or IO (P = 0.84) was not statistically significant. In overall, no significant difference was found in the percentage of changes in thickness of TrA and IO muscles during abdominal hollowing or bracing maneuver between women with and without SUI. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Petcu, D P; Petcu, C; Roşu, M
Intracardiac masses are detected more frequently due to the availability of echocardiography. Right atrial thrombosis is rare comparatively with that of the left atrium. The clinical presentation of the patient with right atrial thrombosis is linked with a misleading association between cardiovascular signs and digestive signs (acute abdominal pain, vomiting and marmorated skin of flanks). Initial clinical suspicions of acute pancreatitis, entero-mesenteric infarction and complicated gastro-duodenal ulcer were invalidated by imagistic investigations -- echocardiography and CT. The massive thrombus located in the right atrium, prolapsing during diastole through the tricuspid valve, was associated with the increase in plasmatic D-dimers and new ECG modifications type right bundle block (hemodynamic straining of the right ventricle). The evolution was favorable, after heparin-therapy by infusing pump, with relief of cardiovascular and digestive symptoms after the first 6 hours; after 36 h from the beginning of the treatment the thrombus was lysed. Sudden death likelihood through complete obstruction of the tricuspid ostium was prevented due to the early diagnosis offered by imagistic methods.
Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Lasheras, Juan C.; Singel, Soeren; Varga, Chris
We discuss the results of combined in-vitro laboratory measurements and clinical observations aimed at determining the effect that the unsteady wall shear stresses and the pressure may have on the growth and eventual rupturing of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA), a permanent bulging-like dilatation occurring near the aortic bifurcation. In recent years, new non-invasive techniques, such as stenting, have been used to treat these AAAs. However, the development of these implants, aimed at stopping the growth of the aneurysm, has been hampered by the lack of understanding of the effect that the hemodynamic forces have on the growth mechanism. Since current in-vivo measuring techniques lack the precision and the necessary resolution, we have performed measurements of the pressure and shear stresses in laboratory models. The models of the AAA were obtained from high resolution three-dimensional CAT/SCANS performed in patients at early stages of the disease. Preliminary DPIV measurements show that the pulsatile blood flow discharging into the cavity of the aneurysm leads to large spikes of pressure and wall shear stresses near and around its distal end, indicating a possible correlation between the regions of high wall shear stresses and the observed location of the growth of the aneurysm.
Cameron, A E; Dear, G L; Pocock, T J; Tennant, R W
Gas exchange occurring in the abdominal cavity during laparoscopy, using carbon dioxide as the insufflating gas, was investigated in 25 female patients being ventilated with 66.6% nitrous oxide and 33.3% oxygen. The gas remaining in the abdomen at the end of the procedure was collected and measurements were made using an infrared spectrometer, a paramagnetic analyser and a mass spectrometer. The mean duration of the laparoscopy was 9.5 minutes and the mean volume of carbon dioxide delivered was 6.8 litres. Nitrous oxide concentration in the abdomen was found to increase significantly with the duration of the procedure, varying from 1.4% to 12.8% with a mean of 4.3% (s.d. +/- 2.4). Oxygen concentration measured from 0.1 to 1.8% with a mean of 0.7% (s.d. +/- 0.4). Nitrogen concentration varied from zero to 1.8%, having a mean concentration of 0.8% (s.d. +/- 0.5). Carbon dioxide content was from 85.7 to 99.6% with a mean concentration of 94.2% (s.d. +/- 3.1). PMID:6231377
Weiss, Norbert; Rodionov, Roman N; Mahlmann, Adrian
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are the most common arterial aneurysms. Endovascular or open surgical aneurysm repair is indicated in patients with large AAA ≥ 5.5 cm in diameter as this prevents aneurysm rupture. The presence even of small AAAs not in need of immediate repair is associated with a very high cardiovascular risk including myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death. This risk by far exceeds the risk of aneurysm rupture. These patients therefore should be considered as high-risk patients and receive optimal medical treatment and life-style modification of their cardiovascular risk factors to improve their prognosis. In addition, these patients should be followed-up for aneurysm growth and receive medical treatment to decrease aneurym progression and rupture rate. Treatment with statins has been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality in these patients, and also slows the rate of AAA growth. Use of beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors and AT1-receptor antagonists does not affect AAA growth but may be indicated for comorbidities. Antibiotic therapy with roxithromycin has a small effect on AAA growth, but this effect must be critically weighed against the potential risk of wide-spread use of antibiotics.
Buck, Dominique B.; van Herwaarden, Joost A.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.; Moll, Frans L.
Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are usually treated with endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), which has become the standard of care in many hospitals for patients with suitable anatomy. Clinical evidence indicates that EVAR is associated with superior perioperative outcomes and similar long-term survival compared with open repair. Since the randomized, controlled trials that provided this evidence were conducted, however, the stent graft technology for infrarenal AAA has been further developed. Improvements include profile downsizing, optimization of sealing and fixation, and the use of low porosity fabrics. In addition, imaging techniques have improved, enabling better preoperative planning, stent graft placement, and postoperative surveillance. Also in the past few years, fenestrated and branched stent grafts have increasingly been used to manage anatomically challenging aneurysms, and experiments with off-label use of stent grafts have been performed to treat patients deemed unfit or unsuitable for other treatment strategies. Overall, the indications for endovascular management of AAA are expanding to include increasingly complex and anatomically challenging aneurysms. Ongoing studies and optimization of imaging, in addition to technological refinement of stent grafts, will hopefully continue to broaden the utilization of EVAR. PMID:24343568
Hannawa, Kevin K.; Eliason, Jonathan L.; Upchurch, Gilbert R.
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) comprise the 10th leading cause of death in Caucasian males 65–74 years of age, and accounted for nearly 16,000 deaths overall in the year 2000. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of AAAs is an important undertaking. Clinically, multiple risk factors are associated with the development of AAAs, including increasing age, positive smoking history, and hypertension. Male gender is also a well-established risk factor for the development of an AAA with a 4:1 male to female ratio. The reason for this gender disparity is unknown. The pathogenesis of AAAs formation is complex and multifactorial. Histologically, AAAs are characterized by early chemokine driven leukocyte infiltration into the aortic wall. Subsequent destruction of elastin and collagen in the media and adventitia ensues due to excessive local production of matrix degrading enzymes, and is accompanied by smooth muscle cell loss and thinning of the aortic wall. At present, there are no medical therapies available to treat patients with aortic aneurysms, using only the crude measurement of aortic diameter as a threshold for which patients must undergo life-threatening and costly surgery. Defining the early mechanisms underlying gender-related differences in AAA formation are critical, as understanding differences in disease patterns based on gender may allow us to develop new translational approaches to the prevention and treatment of patients with aortic aneurysms. PMID:19426607
Kienlen, J; Arnefaux, J; Brabet, L; Dupont, M H; Grolleau, D; Guilhot, R; Laurent, S; Sube, J; Vernette, M; Wintrebert, P; du Cailar, J
Fifty one patients from different surgical units, hence anesthetized by different anaesthesists, underwent reinterventions in abdominal surgery. The indications for the first intervention essentially involved the supra-mesocolic region of the abdomen (62 out of 100 cases). The operative risk during the first intervention was on the average 18 pour cent. The protocol of the first anaesthesia which was known in 42 cases, was of the narco-ataralgestic type. The date of the return to the operation table varied from 1 to 60 days. The state of the patients was in general catastrophic (organic renal failure, acute respiratory failure). Here again the anaesthesia was of the narco-ataralgesic type but the choice of drugs varied depending on the patients' state. However non significant difference was noted in the average hourly drug consumption between the two interventions. Apart from one circulatory arrest during induction, in one patient with hemorrhagic shock, no death was attributable to the anesthetic technique. The authors, using these findings, attempt to pick out a practical line of behaviour.
Hannawa, Kevin K; Eliason, Jonathan L; Upchurch, Gilbert R
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) comprise the tenth leading cause of death in Caucasian males 65 to 74 years of age and accounted for nearly 16,000 deaths overall in 2000. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of AAAs is an important undertaking. Clinically, multiple risk factors are associated with the development of AAAs, including increasing age, positive smoking history, and hypertension. Male gender is also a well-established risk factor for the development of an AAA, with a 4:1 male to female ratio. The reason for this gender disparity is unknown. The pathogenesis of AAAs formation is complex and multifactorial. Histologically, AAAs are characterized by early chemokine-driven leukocyte infiltration into the aortic wall. Subsequent destruction of elastin and collagen in the media and adventitia ensues owing to excessive local production of matrix-degrading enzymes and is accompanied by smooth muscle cell loss and thinning of the aortic wall. At present, no medical therapies are available to treat patients with aortic aneurysms, using only the crude measurement of aortic diameter as a threshold for which patients must undergo life-threatening and costly surgery. Defining the early mechanisms underlying gender-related differences in AAA formation is critical as understanding differences in disease patterns based on gender may allow us to develop new translational approaches to the prevention and treatment of patients with aortic aneurysms.
Bashir, Masoud M; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M
To review the physiology, indications, technical aspects, morbidity, and mortality of damage control surgery. Retrospective study of published papers. Teaching hospital, United Arab Emirates. A MEDLINE search on damage control surgery for the years 1981-2001. Further articles were retrieved from the references of the original articles. The indications for damage control surgery are: the need to terminate a laparotomy rapidly in an exsanguinating, hypothermic patient who had developed a coagulopathy and who is about to die on the operating table; inability to control bleeding by direct haemostasis; and inability to close the abdomen without tension because of massive visceral oedema and a tense abdominal wall. The principles of damage control surgery are: Phase I: laparotomy to control haemorrhage by packing; shunting, or balloon tamponade, or both; control of intestinal spillage by resection or ligation of damaged bowel, or both. Phase II: physiological resuscitation to correct hypothermia, metabolic acidosis, and coagulopathy. Phase III: planned reoperation for definitive repair. Damage control surgery is appropriate in a small number of critically ill patients who are likely to require substantial hospital resources; it has a high mortality (mean 45%, range (10%-69%). Damage control surgery offers a simple effective alternative to the traditional surgical management of complex or multiple injuries in critically injured patients. Phases I and II can be done at a rural hospital before transfer to a major trauma centre for definitive repair.
Kuscu, N Kemal; Oruc, Semra; Ceylan, Evren; Eskicioglu, Fatma; Goker, Asli; Caglar, Husnu
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) on sexual lives of patients in the postoperative period. Eighty-six patients who accepted to participate a phone-questionnaire were recruited in the study after TAH or TAH + BSO. They were asked about sexual desire, pain during sexual intercourse, frequency and satisfaction of sexual intercourse at pre- and postoperative periods, and loss of "feeling a woman" in the postoperative period. Sexual desire, pain during sexual intercourse, loss of "feeling a woman" questions were answered as "yes" or " no", number of weekly sexual intercourse was recorded, and satisfaction was graded as no = 0, mild = 1 and complete = 2 points. While sexual desire and frequency were found to be significantly lower (p=0.026 and p=0.01 respectively), no difference was noted in dyspareunia and satisfaction. When the patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of endogenous or exogenous estrogen, no difference was seen between the two groups in the postoperative period. We concluded that the effect of TAH or TAH+BSO operations were mainly on sexual desire and the number of weekly intercourse, and estrogen in the postoperative period did not make any difference between the two groups.
El-Radhi, A Sahib
Abdominal pain (AP) is a very common complaint caused by a variety of conditions. Mild or moderate AP affects practically all children of all ages. The pain usually settles spontaneously without medical intervention. AP severe enough to require medical intervention has both surgical and non-surgical causes. It is responsible for considerable morbidity, missed school days, and significant use of health resources. Children usually present either with an acute or recurrent AP. In comparison, chronic AP with persistent symptoms, lasting days or weeks, is rare in children. Surgical conditions may be the underlying causes in acute AP, but non-surgical conditions are diagnosed more commonly in children with recurrent AP. Management can be difficult, time-consuming and often clinically challenging to diagnose and treat. In most instances, the cause of AP can be diagnosed through the history and physical examination. The main objective in managing an affected child is to differentiate between benign, self-limited conditions such as constipation or gastroenteritis, and more life-threatening surgical conditions such as intussusception or appendicitis. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and Crohn's disease should be considered in any child presenting with recurrent AP.
Kenngott, H G; Wagner, M; Nickel, F; Wekerle, A L; Preukschas, A; Apitz, M; Schulte, T; Rempel, R; Mietkowski, P; Wagner, F; Termer, A; Müller-Stich, Beat P
Computer-assisted surgery is a wide field of technologies with the potential to enable the surgeon to improve efficiency and efficacy of diagnosis, treatment, and clinical management. This review provides an overview of the most important new technologies and their applications. A MEDLINE database search was performed revealing a total of 1702 references. All references were considered for information on six main topics, namely image guidance and navigation, robot-assisted surgery, human-machine interface, surgical processes and clinical pathways, computer-assisted surgical training, and clinical decision support. Further references were obtained through cross-referencing the bibliography cited in each work. Based on their respective field of expertise, the authors chose 64 publications relevant for the purpose of this review. Computer-assisted systems are increasingly used not only in experimental studies but also in clinical studies. Although computer-assisted abdominal surgery is still in its infancy, the number of studies is constantly increasing, and clinical studies start showing the benefits of computers used not only as tools of documentation and accounting but also for directly assisting surgeons during diagnosis and treatment of patients. Further developments in the field of clinical decision support even have the potential of causing a paradigm shift in how patients are diagnosed and treated.
Heyer, Kamaldeep S; Resnick, Scott A; Matsumura, Jon S; Amaranto, Daniel; Eskandari, Mark K
A completely percutaneous approach to infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) endografting has the theoretic benefits of being minimally invasive and more expedient. Our goal was to demonstrate the utility of this approach using a suprarenal fixation device and a suture-mediated closure system. We conducted a single-institution, retrospective review of 14 patients who underwent percutaneous AAA repair with the Zenith device between August 2003 and March 2007. Immediate and delayed access-related outcomes were examined over a mean follow-up of 12.1+/-2.0 months. Mean AAA size was 5.6 cm. Immediate arterial closure and technical success rate was 96% (27/28 vessels). One immediate hemostatic failure required open surgical repair. Over follow-up, one vessel required operative repair for new-onset claudication. No other immediate or delayed complications (thrombosis, pseudoaneurysm, infection, or deep venous thrombosis) were detected. A percutaneous approach for the treatment of AAA has several advantages over femoral artery cutdown but also has its own unique set of risks in the immediate and late postoperative period. Ultimately, the "preclose technique" can be safely applied for the Zenith device despite its large-bore delivery system.
Fujii, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Koichi; Aoki, Hiroki; Orita, Yuichi; Ishida, Takafumi; Ohtaki, Megu; Nagao, Masataka; Ishida, Mari; Yoshizumi, Masao
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), which commonly occur among elderly individuals, are accompanied by a risk of rupture and subsequent high mortality. Establishment of medical therapies for the prevention of AAAs requires further understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this condition. This report details the possible involvement of Osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the prevention of AAAs through inhibition of Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). In CaCl2-induced AAA models, both internal and external diameters were significantly increased with destruction of elastic fibers in the media in Opg knockout (KO) mice, as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, up-regulation of TRAIL expression was observed in the media by immunohistochemical analyses. Using a culture system, both the TRAIL-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and the chemoattractive effect of TRAIL on SMCs were inhibited by OPG. These data suggest that Opg may play a preventive role in the development of AAA through its antagonistic effect on Trail. PMID:26783750
Crawford, Colin M; Hurtgen-Grace, Kristin; Talarico, Ernest; Marley, John
To present a descriptive review of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), including a review of risk factors for and case finding in AAA for chiropractors as primary contact health care practitioners. Clinical and scientific literature identified through various sources including MEDLINE and citation tracking. Selective narrative review of relevant literature. AAA may be asymptomatic; however, back pain is a common presenting feature. Risk factors include male gender, increasing age, cigarette smoking, hypertension, chronic obstructive airway disease, claudication, and AAA in a first-degree relative. AAA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of older white patients, especially males, with low back pain. Estimated prevalence for AAAs in older males is in the order of 3% to 5%; rupture accounts for 1.7% of deaths in men aged 65 to 75 years. Elective surgical resection of AAAs (prior to rupture) offers a low operative mortality and good prognosis. AAA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of older patients presenting with low back pain and those with risk factors for AAA. Chiropractors, as primary contact health care practitioners, have a responsibility to refer patients suspected of having AAA for appropriate imaging and, where indicated, vascular surgical opinion.
Shum, Judy; Martufi, Giampaolo; Di Martino, Elena; Washington, Christopher B.; Grisafi, Joseph; Muluk, Satish C.; Finol, Ender A.
Recent studies have shown that the maximum transverse diameter of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and expansion rate are not entirely reliable indicators of rupture potential. We hypothesize that aneurysm morphology and wall thickness are more predictive of rupture risk and can be the deciding factors in the clinical management of the disease. A non-invasive, image-based evaluation of AAA shape was implemented on a retrospective study of 10 ruptured and 66 unruptured aneurysms. Three-dimensional models were generated from segmented, contrast-enhanced computed tomography images. Geometric indices and regional variations in wall thickness were estimated based on novel segmentation algorithms. A model was created using a J48 decision tree algorithm and its performance was assessed using ten-fold cross validation. Feature selection was performed using the χ2-test. The model correctly classified 65 datasets and had an average prediction accuracy of 86.6% (κ = 0.37). The highest ranked features were sac length, sac height, volume, surface area, maximum diameter, bulge height, and intra-luminal thrombus volume. Given that individual AAAs have complex shapes with local changes in surface curvature and wall thickness, the assessment of AAA rupture risk should be based on the accurate quantification of aneurysmal sac shape and size. PMID:20890661
Raffort, Juliette; Lareyre, Fabien; Clément, Marc; Hassen-Khodja, Réda; Chinetti, Giulia; Mallat, Ziad
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening disease associated with high morbidity, and high mortality in the event of aortic rupture. Major advances in open surgical and endovascular repair of AAA have been achieved during the past 2 decades. However, drug-based therapies are still lacking, highlighting a real need for better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in AAA formation and progression. The main pathological features of AAA include extracellular matrix remodelling associated with degeneration and loss of vascular smooth muscle cells and accumulation and activation of inflammatory cells. The inflammatory process has a crucial role in AAA and substantially influences many determinants of aortic wall remodelling. In this Review, we focus specifically on the involvement of monocytes and macrophages, summarizing current knowledge on the roles, origin, and functions of these cells in AAA development and its complications. Furthermore, we show and propose that distinct monocyte and macrophage subsets have critical and differential roles in initiation, progression, and healing of the aneurysmal process. On the basis of experimental and clinical studies, we review potential translational applications to detect, assess, and image macrophage subsets in AAA, and discuss the relevance of these applications for clinical practice.
Bodiaka, V Iu
Despite of significant development of modern surgery results of treatment of acute diffused peritonitis and acute intestinal obstruction are still unsatisfactory. Successful treatment of these conditions depends considerably on timely and adequate diagnosing as it gives a choice of optimal treatment tactics. Measuring of a human body heat flow in areas of organs affected by pathology in cases of acute diffused peritonitis and acute intestinal obstruction provides a possibility to improve the principles of early differential diagnosing, to form new approaches to treatment tactics and monitoring of general health status of a patient during early postoperative treatment. 47 patient suffering from acute diffused peritonitis and 42 patients suffering from acute intestinal obstruction have been examined; the patients were divided into groups based on abdominal cavity exudates character, intestinal obstruction type and intra-abdominal hypertension grade. Measurement of abdominal cavity heat flow was performed by a contact method with use of thermoelectric medical thermometer. Intra-abdominal hypertension was measured by generally used transvesical method. It has been established that abdominal cavity heat flow correlates with character of abdominal cavity exudates; this is also confirmed by reliable difference between serous peritonitis and fibrinopurulent peritonitis indices. Indices in case of acute intestinal obstruction are lower than ones in case of acute diffused peritonitis as there are no inflammatory changes of peritoneum. Development of intra-abdominal hypertension of grades 3-4 directly influences the heat flow extent; this is explained by accelerated and aggravated pathological changes of inner organs cased by the main disease. Thus, abdominal cavity heat flow fully reflects degree of purulent and inflammatory processes of abdominal cavity organs and can be used for additional diagnosing and clinical course monitoring.
Zhang, Hua-Yu; Liu, Dong; Tang, Hao; Sun, Shi-Jin; Ai, Shan-Mu; Yang, Wen-Qun; Jiang, Dong-Po; Zhang, Lian-Yang
Objectives: To investigate the effect of non-elastic/elastic abdominal binders on intra-vesical pressure (IVP), physiological functions, and clinical outcomes in laparotomy patients at the perioperative stage. Methods: This prospective study was conducted from May to October 2014 at the Trauma Surgery Department, Daping Hospital, Chongqing, China. Laparotomy patients were randomly divided into non-elastic abdominal binder group (28 patients), and elastic abdominal binder group (29 patients). Binders were applied for 14 days following the operation, or until discharge. Demographic information, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) scores (prior to the operation, on the first day after operation, the day IVP measurement was stopped, and one day before discharge), and outcomes were recorded. The IVP was measured before the operation to postoperative day 7. Results: There were no significant differences in the demographic information, outcomes, SOFA or APACHE-II scores between the 2 groups. Initial out-of-bed mobilization occurred earlier in the elastic binder group (3.2 ± 2.0 versus 5.0 ± 3.7 days, p=0.028). A greater increase in IVP was observed in the non-elastic binder group than in the elastic binder group (2.9 ± 1.1 versus 1.1 ± 0.7 mm Hg, p=0.000). Conclusion: Elastic binders have relatively little effect on IVP and are more helpful at promoting postoperative recovery than non-elastic binders. Therefore, elastic binders are more suitable for clinical use. PMID:26739977
Angelici, A M; Perotti, B; Dezzi, C; Amatucci, C; Mancuso, G; Caronna, R; Palumbo, P
The repair of large incisional hernias may occasionally lead to a substantial increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), and rarely to abdominal compartmental syndrome (ACS) with subsequent respiratory, vascular, and visceral complications. Measurement of the IAP has recently become a common practice in monitoring critical patients, even though such measurements were obtained in the early 1900s. A prospective study involving 54 patients undergoing elective abdominal wall gap repair (mean length, 17.4 cm) with a tension-free technique after incisional hernia was conducted. The purpose of the study was to determine whether or not urinary pressure for indirect IAP measurement is a reliable method for the early identification of patients with a higher risk of developing ACS. IAP measurements were performed using a Foley catheter connected to a HOLTECH® medical manometer. IAP values were determined preoperatively, after anesthetic induction, upon patient awakening, upon patient arrival in the ward after surgery, and 24 h after surgery before removing the catheter. All patients were treated by the same surgical team using a prosthetic composite mesh (PARIETEX®). Incisional hernia repair caused an increase in the mean IAP score of 2.68 mmHg in 47 of 54 patients (87.04%); the IAP was decreased in two patients (3.7%) and remained equal in five patients before and 24 h after surgery (9.26%). FEV-1, measured 24 h after surgery, increased in 50 patients (92.6%), remained stable in two patients (3.7%), and decreased in two patients (3.7%). The mean increase in FEV-1 was 0.0676 L (maximum increase = 0.42 L and minimum increase = 0.01 L) in any patient who developed ACS. Measurement of urinary bladder pressure has been shown to be easy to perform and free of complications. Measurement of urinary bladder pressure can also be a useful tool to identify patients with a higher risk of developing ACS.
Cheatham, Michael L; Safcsak, Karen
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are recognized causes of significant morbidity and mortality among a wide variety of critically ill patient populations. Our understanding of IAH and ACS as causes of organ failure and patient death has increased significantly over the past two decades since their "rediscovery" as clinically important disease processes. The development of consensus definitions and recommendations for the diagnosis and management of IAH/ACS, patient care algorithms, an international clinical research working group, and other educational tools have advanced efforts to improve patient outcome. Nonoperative management strategies to reduce elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and early surgical intervention for refractory IAH/ACS have been demonstrated to significantly improve patient survival. It is only through such a comprehensive, goal-directed approach that patient outcome will continue to improve. Despite the significant advances that have been made, the journey toward conquering IAH/ACS as a cause of patient death after injury and/or illness has only just begun. It is remarkable to consider that two decades ago, IAH, the detrimental physiological effects of elevated IAP and ACS, the development of IAH-induced organ dysfunction and failure were essentially unrecognized as causes of morbidity and mortality among critically ill adult and pediatric patients. It is not because these disease processes have been recently discovered. The pathophysiological impact of elevated IAP on cardiac, pulmonary, and renal function was well defined over 150 years ago. It has only been within the past 15 years that physicians and nurses worldwide rediscovered this long-forgotten pathophysiological knowledge and began to actively reconsider these two disease processes in their patient's daily differential diagnosis. Originally considered diseases affecting solely the traumatically injured, IAH and ACS are now recognized to
... Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Why do abdominal muscles sometimes separate during pregnancy? Answers from Roger W. ... D. During pregnancy, the growing uterus stretches the muscles in the abdomen. This can cause the two ...
Bassiouny, Ibrahim E.; Abbas, Tariq O.; Alansari, Amani N.; Ali, Mansour A.
We describe here a two-year-old male who required urgent laparotomy to relieve a strangulated small bowel caused by internal herniation around an intra-abdominal testis. This clinical presentation has not been reported previously. PMID:22084802
Wani, Mohd L; Rather, Ajaz A.; Parray, Fazl Q.; Ahangar, Abdul G.; Bijli, Akram H.; Irshad, Ifat; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Tahir S.
A rare case of ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is reported here. A 40-year-old female had undergone dilatation and curettage by a quack. On the second day she presented with presented with features of peritonitis. She was explored. Resection anastomosis of the ileum was done for multiple perforations of the ileum. Patient developed a fistula in the anterior abdominal wall which was draining bile-colored fluid. On the 12th postoperative day a 10-cm-long worm was seen coming out through the fistulous tract which was found to be Ascaris lumbricoids. Ascaris lumbricoids can lead to many complications ranging from worm colic to intestinal obstruction, volvulus, peritonitis, pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, liver abscess and many more. Worm has been reported to come out through mouth, nostrils, abdominal drains, T-tubes etc. But ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is very rare hence reported here. PMID:23930192
Wani, Mohd L; Rather, Ajaz A; Parray, Fazl Q; Ahangar, Abdul G; Bijli, Akram H; Irshad, Ifat; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Tahir S
A rare case of ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is reported here. A 40-year-old female had undergone dilatation and curettage by a quack. On the second day she presented with presented with features of peritonitis. She was explored. Resection anastomosis of the ileum was done for multiple perforations of the ileum. Patient developed a fistula in the anterior abdominal wall which was draining bile-colored fluid. On the 12(th) postoperative day a 10-cm-long worm was seen coming out through the fistulous tract which was found to be Ascaris lumbricoids. Ascaris lumbricoids can lead to many complications ranging from worm colic to intestinal obstruction, volvulus, peritonitis, pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, liver abscess and many more. Worm has been reported to come out through mouth, nostrils, abdominal drains, T-tubes etc. But ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is very rare hence reported here.
Li, Jing; Geng, Zhi-Jun; Xie, Chuan-Miao; Zhang, Xin-Ke; Chen, Rui-Ying; Cai, Pei-Qiang; Lv, Xiao-Fei
Abstract Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is a neoplasm that arises from follicular dendritic cells. FDCSs originating in the abdomen are extremely rare. Clinically, they often mimic a wide variety of other abdominal tumors, and correct preoperative diagnosis is often a challenging task. To date, only scattered cases of abdominal FDCS have been reported and few data are available on their radiological features. Here we present the computer tomography imaging findings of 5 patients with surgically and pathologically demonstrated abdominal FDCS. An abdominal FDCS should be included in the differential diagnosis when single or multiple masses with relatively large size, well- or ill-defined borders, complex internal architecture with marked internal necrosis and/or focal calcification, and heterogeneous enhancement with “rapid wash-in and slow wash-out” or “progressive enhancement” enhancement patterns in the solid component are seen. PMID:26735543
Karrouf, Gamal; Zaghloul, Adel; Abou-Alsaud, Mohamed; Barbour, Elie; Abouelnasr, Khaled
The management of abdominal wall repair continues to present a challenging problem, especially in the repair of major defects. Many abdominal wall defects can be repaired by primary closure; however, if the defect is large and there is a tension on the closure of the wound, the use of prosthetic materials becomes indispensable. Many studies have been performed with various materials and implant techniques, without the comparison of their degrees of success, based on sound meta-analysis and/or inclusive epidemiologic studies. This review covered the effectiveness of recent advances in prosthetic materials and implant procedures used in repair of abdominal wall, based on biomechanical properties and economic aspects of reconstructed large abdominal wall defects and hernias in animals. The presented results in this review helped to reach treatment algorithms that could maximize outcomes and minimize morbidity.
Pavlidis, T E; Galatianos, I N; Papaziogas, B T; Lazaridis, C N; Atmatzidis, K S; Makris, J G; Papaziogas, T B
To find out the causes of abdominal wound dehiscence. Retrospective study. University hospital, Greece. Abdominal wound dehiscence occurred in 89 cases out of 19,206 major abdominal operations including 4671 emergencies during the past 15 years (0.5%). In the study group 14 local and systemic risk factors were analysed and compared with those in a control group of 89 patients who had similar procedures without dehiscence. Statistical analysis using the chi square test. Significant factors (p < 0.05) included age over 65 years, emergency operation, cancer, haemodynamic instability, intra-abdominal sepsis, wound infection, hypoalbuminaemia, ascites, obesity, and steroids. Risk factors that were not significant included sex, anaemia, diabetes mellitus and pulmonary disease. Overall morbidity and mortality were 30% and 16%, respectively. The mortality and the possibility of dehiscence seem to correlate directly with the number of risk factors. Patients with these risk factors require more attention and special care to minimise the risk of its occurrence.
Tharwat, Mohamed; Buczinski, Sébastien
This study describes the ultrasonographic findings in 14 cows with abdominal fat necrosis. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed the presence of heterogeneous hyperechoic masses and hyperechoic omentum with localized masses floating in a hypoechoic peritoneal fluid. A hyperechogenic rim was imaged around both kidneys. The intestines were coated with hyperechoic capsules and the intestinal lumens were constricted. Ultrasonographic examination of the pancreatic parenchyma showed an overall increased echogenicity which was homogenously distributed in 3 cases. A diagnosis of abdominal fat necrosis was made with ultrasound-guided biopsy of the echogenic masses, and thereafter at postmortem examination. Results from this study demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasonography as an imaging modality for antemortem diagnosis of abdominal lipomatosis in cattle. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first that illustrates ultrasonographic findings in cattle affected with abdominal lipomatosis.
Cho, Jinbeom; Park, Ilyoung; Lee, Dosang; Sung, Kiyoung; Baek, Jongmin
Surgeons occasionally encounter a patient with a gastric cancer invading an adjacent organ, such as the pancreas, liver, or transverse colon. Although there is no established guideline for treatment of invasive gastric cancer, combined resection with radical gastrectomy is conventionally performed for curative purposes. We recently treated a patient with a large gastric cancer invading the abdominal wall, which was initially diagnosed as a simple abdominal wall abscess. Computed tomography showed that an abscess had formed adjacent to the greater curvature of the stomach. During surgery, we made an incision on the abdominal wall to drain the abscess, and performed curative total gastrectomy with partial excision of the involved abdominal wall. The patient received intensive treatment and wound management postoperatively with no surgery-related adverse events. However, the patient could not receive adjuvant chemotherapy and expired on the 82nd postoperative day. PMID:26468420
Kim, Jeong; Kim, Jae-Kyu; Yoon, Woong; Heo, Suk-Hee; Lee, Eun-Ju; Park, Jin-Gyoon; Kang, Heoung-Keun; Cho, Chol-Kyoon; Chung, Sang-Young
The study goal was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and clinical outcome of transarterial embolization for postoperative hemorrhage after abdominal surgery. Thirty-three patients were referred for angiography because of gastrointestinal or intra-abdominal bleeding after abdominal surgery. Urgent angiography and transarterial embolization was performed in all 33 patients. The clinical and angiographic features were retrospectively reviewed. Angiography revealed a discrete bleeding focus in 26 (79%) of 33 patients. Transarterial embolization was technically successful in 24 (92%) of 26 patients with a discrete bleeding focus. Rebleeding occurred in four (17%) of 24 patients. They were successfully managed with repeat embolization. There was no procedure-related complication during follow-up period. Angiography has a high detection rate of bleeding site in patients with postoperative hemorrhage after abdominal surgery. Transarterial embolization is considered to be an effective and safe means in the management of postoperative hemorrhage.
Harrell, Bradley R; Miller, Sarah
Fluid resuscitation is a primary concern of nurse clinicians. Excessive resuscitation with crystalloids places patients at particular risk for many subsequent complications that carry associated increases in mortality and morbidity. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome are deadly complications of third spacing and capillary leak that occur secondary to excessive fluid resuscitation. Careful consideration is necessary when achieving fluid balance in acutely ill patients, including reducing the use of crystalloids, implementing damage control resuscitation, and establishing measurable resuscitation endpoints. Nurse clinicians are capable of reducing mortality in intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome patients by incorporating the latest evidence in fluid resuscitation techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Karrouf, Gamal; Zaghloul, Adel; Abou-Alsaud, Mohamed; Barbour, Elie; Abouelnasr, Khaled
The management of abdominal wall repair continues to present a challenging problem, especially in the repair of major defects. Many abdominal wall defects can be repaired by primary closure; however, if the defect is large and there is a tension on the closure of the wound, the use of prosthetic materials becomes indispensable. Many studies have been performed with various materials and implant techniques, without the comparison of their degrees of success, based on sound meta-analysis and/or inclusive epidemiologic studies. This review covered the effectiveness of recent advances in prosthetic materials and implant procedures used in repair of abdominal wall, based on biomechanical properties and economic aspects of reconstructed large abdominal wall defects and hernias in animals. The presented results in this review helped to reach treatment algorithms that could maximize outcomes and minimize morbidity. PMID:27293982
Arjmand, N; Shirazi-Adl, A; Parnianpour, M
Using an iterative kinematics-driven nonlinear finite element model, relative efficiency of individual abdominal muscles in spinal stability in upright standing posture was investigated. Effect of load height on stability and muscle activities was also computed under different coactivity levels in abdominal muscles. The internal oblique was the most efficient muscle (compared with the external oblique and rectus abdominus) in providing stability while generating smaller spinal loads with lower fatigue rate of muscles. As the weight was held higher, stability deteriorated requiring additional flexor-extensor activities. The stabilising efficacy of abdominal muscles diminished at higher activities. The difference in critical loads in frontal and sagittal planes computed in the absence of abdominal coactivity disappeared under prescribed coactivities suggesting an optimal system in stability. The central nervous system may settle for a less stable spine in favour of lowering the risk of injury. Findings could help introduce stability criterion in optimisation models.
Toczek, Jakub; Meadows, Judith L; Sadeghi, Mehran M
Selection of patients for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is currently based on aneurysm size, growth rate, and symptoms. Molecular imaging of biological processes associated with aneurysm growth and rupture, for example, inflammation and matrix remodeling, could improve patient risk stratification and lead to a reduction in abdominal aortic aneurysm morbidity and mortality. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide magnetic resonance imaging are 2 novel approaches to abdominal aortic aneurysm imaging evaluated in clinical trials. A variety of other tracers, including those that target inflammatory cells and proteolytic enzymes (eg, integrin αvβ3 and matrix metalloproteinases), have proven effective in preclinical models of abdominal aortic aneurysm and show great potential for clinical translation.
Gyoten, Takayuki; Doi, Toshio; Yamashita, Akio; Fukahara, Kazuaki; Kotoh, Keiju; Yoshimura, Naoki
A 67-year-old man was admitted with severe abdominal pain and back pain. Computed tomography showed an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (8.4 × 8.3 cm) and a large retroperitoneal hematoma. Immediately afterwards, the patient suffered circulatory collapse and was rushed to the operating theater. A fistula communicating with the left iliac vein was found. It was repaired with a Dacron patch while balloon-tipped catheters controlled the bleeding. The abdominal aortic aneurysm was replaced with a bifurcated graft. The postoperative course was uneventful. There have been few reports of successful repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with aortoiliac arteriovenous fistula.
Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Metaxa, Eleni; Papaharilaou, Yannis; Tavlas, Emmanouil; Tsetis, Dimitrios; Ioannou, Christos
Abdominal aortic aneurysms are a common health problem and currently the need for surgical intervention is determined based on maximum diameter and growth rate criteria. Since these universal variables often fail to predict accurately every abdominal aortic aneurysms evolution, there is a considerable effort in the literature for other markers to be identified towards individualized rupture risk estimations and growth rate predictions. To this effort, biomechanical tools have been extensively used since abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is in fact a material failure of the diseased arterial wall to compensate the stress acting on it. The peak wall stress, the role of the unique geometry of every individual abdominal aortic aneurysm as well as the mechanical properties and the local strength of the degenerated aneurysmal wall, all confer to rupture risk. In this review article, the assessment of these variables through mechanical testing, advanced imaging and computational modeling is reviewed and the clinical perspective is discussed.
Murphy, W D; Feiglin, D H; Cisar, C C; al-Malt, A M; Bellon, E M
Abdominal pregnancies are rare, representing 1% of all ectopic pregnancies. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential in order to avoid the serious complications associated with the condition, including catastrophic hemorrhage secondary to placental separation. The clinical presentation of abdominal pregnancy is extremely variable and physical examination by itself may be insufficient for diagnosis. Ultrasound (US) is currently the imaging method of choice for establishing gestational location, but sonographic interpretation may be difficult due to gas within the gastrointestinal tract and distorted pelvic anatomy. The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in obstetric diagnosis, including abdominal pregnancy, has been described. We report a case of an abdominal pregnancy of 32 wk gestation diagnosed by MRI.
Englbrecht, J S; Pogatzki-Zahn, E M
Abdominal and thoracic surgical procedures can result in significant acute postoperative pain. Present evidence shows that postoperative pain management remains inadequate especially after "minor" surgical procedures. Various therapeutic options including regional anesthesia techniques and systemic pharmacotherapy are available for effective treatment of postoperative pain. This work summarizes the pathophysiological background of postoperative pain after abdominal and thoracic surgery and discusses the indication, effectiveness, risks, and benefits of the different therapeutic options. Special focus is given to the controversial debate about the indication for epidural analgesia, as well as various alternative therapeutic options, including transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block, paravertebral block (PVB), wound infiltration with local anesthetics, and intravenous lidocaine. In additional, indications and contraindications of nonopioid analgesics after abdominal and thoracic surgery are discussed and recommendations based on scientific evidence and individual risk and benefit analysis are made. All therapeutic options discussed are eligible for clinical use and may contribute to improve postoperative pain outcome after abdominal and thoracic surgical procedures.
Baskaran, Dinnish; Ashraf, Nadeem; Ahmad, Adil; Menon, Jay
The presentation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with isolated hip pain is a rare phenomenon. We present an atypical case of a 58-year-old previously fit man who presented with a 6-month history of progressively worsening left hip pain associated with unintentional weight loss, tender bilateral testicular swellings and a large non-tender palpable mass on abdominal examination. Urgent abdominal CT scan findings revealed a 15 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm extending to the aortic bifurcation associated with an extensive left hydronephrosis. In theatre, the diagnosis of inflammatory AAA (IAAA) was confirmed following the presence of pyuria and a successful repair with an open approach using a bifurcated dacron graft was performed. PMID:24038286
Baskaran, Dinnish; Ashraf, Nadeem; Ahmad, Adil; Menon, Jay
The presentation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with isolated hip pain is a rare phenomenon. We present an atypical case of a 58-year-old previously fit man who presented with a 6-month history of progressively worsening left hip pain associated with unintentional weight loss, tender bilateral testicular swellings and a large non-tender palpable mass on abdominal examination. Urgent abdominal CT scan findings revealed a 15 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm extending to the aortic bifurcation associated with an extensive left hydronephrosis. In theatre, the diagnosis of inflammatory AAA (IAAA) was confirmed following the presence of pyuria and a successful repair with an open approach using a bifurcated dacron graft was performed.
Thomson, A.B.; Cheeseman, C.I.; Walker, K.
The late effects of variable doses of abdominal irradiation on in vitro jejunal uptake were examined. The uptake of glucose, galactose, cholic acid, medium-chain length fatty acids, and decanol was studied 6 and 33 weeks following 300, 600, or 900 cGy abdominal irradiation. The intestinal morphological characteristics were similar 6 and 33 weeks after radiation. The uptake of cholic acid was unaffected by abdominal irradiation, but for glucose, galactose, and four fatty acids the direction and magnitude of the changes in uptake were influenced by the dose of irradiation and by the interval following exposure. The greater uptake of decanol at 6 weeks but lower uptake of decanol at 33 weeks reflected changes in the resistance of the intestinal unstirred water layer. These absorption changes suggest that the intestine may not be capable of correcting the transport abnormalities arising from sublethal doses of abdominal irradiation.
Mou, J W C; Tang, P M Y; Chan, K W; Tam, Y H; Lee, K H
Imperforate hymen is a relatively rare congenital anomaly. However, it is not an uncommon cause of lower abdominal pain presenting in teenage girls. Without careful history taking and thorough examination, the condition can be missed easily. We report an imperforate hymen presenting as abdominal pain in three teenage girls aged 12, 12 and 13 years, respectively, within a six-month period. The presentation was reviewed and the various types of hymenotomy were discussed.
Zhang, Xihai; Yang, Zhiming
How to succeed in repairing an immense abdominal wall defect is often a perplexed question for surgeons. Finding perfect substitute material, therefore, is of great importance. The materials in this regard are often divided into two categories: biomaterial and non-boimaterial. The former has excellent mechanics properties while the latter possesses more favourable biocompatibility. The characteristics, clinical effects and advantages of biomaterials and non-biomaterials for abdominal wall repair are reviewed.
Arbogast, Kristy B.; Ghati, Yoganand
Previous studies have demonstrated that booster seats reduce the risk of abdominal injuries by improving the fit of the seat belt on young children and encouraging better posture and compatibility with the vehicle seat. Recently, several studies have reported cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children questioning the protective effects of these restraints. The objective of this study was to examine cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children through parametric modeling to gain a thorough understanding of the injury causation scenarios. The Partners for Child Passenger Safety and CIREN in-depth crash investigation databases were queried to identify children in belt-positioning booster seats with abdominal injuries. The injury causation scenarios for these injuries were delineated using the CIREN Biotab method. The cases were modeled, using MADYMO with variations in key parameters, to determine the ranges of loads and loading rates for the abdomen and thorax. A parametric study was completed examining the influence of pretensioners and load limiters on the injury metrics obtained. Query of the two databases revealed three cases involving abdominal injuries to booster seated children. Children in two of the cases sustained a thoracic injury (AIS 3/AIS 4) in addition to their abdominal injuries (AIS 2) and review of these cases pointed to the role of shoulder belt loading in the injury causation. Modeling of these cases revealed chest compressions and accelerations of 30–53 mm and 41–89 g, respectively and abdominal deflection and velocity of 7.0–13.3 mm and 1.2–2.2 m/s, respectively. Parametric study suggested that coupling shoulder belt load limiting and lap belt buckle pretensioning resulted in improved chest and abdominal metrics while reducing head excursion, indicating that these technologies may provide injury reduction potential to pediatric rear seat occupants. PMID:20184845
Dey, Ramprasad; Bhattacharya, Ujjwal
Introduction: Tuberculosis is an important cause of morbidity in India. Abdominal Tuberculosis is a great mimicker and is difficult to diagnose. This prospective observational study is based on those patients who were diagnosed to be suffering from Abdominal Tuberculosis only after they presented with an acute abdomen. This study aims to document the nature of different types of acute presentation in Abdominal Tuberculosis according to involved sites and surgical pathology. The study also discusses the indications and extent of surgical intervention. Materials and Methods: Seventy new cases of Abdominal Tuberculosis (out of 718 cases of acute abdomen) were diagnosed and treated over a period of three years in the surgical ward of Calcutta National Medical College. Macroscopic appearance of abdominal tissues during surgery suggested the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology and tissue culture. All patients were subsequently treated with a full course of antitubercular drugs (ATD). Results: The clinical presentations of acute abdomen included acute intestinal obstruction, perforative peritonitis and acute appendicitis etc. Terminal ileum and ileocaecal region were predominantly involved. The most common pathology was intestinal stricture with or without perforation. Most of the patients (approx 78.5%) required emergency surgery as a therapeutic intervention. A two-stage procedure was preferred in peritonitis and sepsis. Most of the remaining patients (12.8%) required surgery after initial conservative treatment for the first few days. Undiagnosed Abdominal Tuberculosis represents a notable percentage (10%) of patients who present with an acute abdomen as a surgical emergency. Conclusion: Abdominal Tuberculosis is very difficult to diagnose and diagnosis is often delayed till an acute abdomen is presented with. Almost all patients needed surgical intervention. Irrespective of surgery, all patients of abdominal tuberculosis require a
Emergency repair of complicated abdominal hernias is associated with poor prognosis and a high rate of post-operative complications. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bergamo in July 2013, during the 2nd Congress of the World Society of Emergency Surgery with the goal of defining recommendations for emergency repair of abdominal wall hernias in adults. This document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference approved by a WSES expert panel. PMID:24289453
Kumar, Santosh; Bishnoi, Kshitij; Murugavaithianathan, Pragatheeswarane; Panwar, Vikas Kumar
Castleman's disease is a rare, benign lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown origin. Paraneoplastic pemphigus is a common association which presents as oral mucosal ulcerations. Abdominal and retroperitoneal Castleman's disease present either as a localized disease or as a systemic disease. We hereby present a 15-year-old male patient with oral mucosal lesions with localized vague right lower abdominal mass who was diagnosed to have Castleman's disease with paraneoplastic pemphigus which was surgically excised. PMID:27014502
Vidal, M L; del Castillo, F; Arroba, M L; Borque, C; García Hortelano, J
Thirteen cases of abdominal tuberculosis are presented; some of them in active or symptomatic stage and others in latent or abdominal calcification form. Many of these patients were diagnosed through the finding of a source of infected cattle after diagnosis of one of symptomatic patients. Pathogenesis, clinical findings and diagnostic difficulty are commented, as well a sanitary importance of the problem, since M. bovis is still a currently found organism in daily practice.
Klair, Jagpal Singh; Girotra, M; Medarametla, S; Shah, H R
We present a case of a middle-aged patient presenting with acute onset abdominal pain and distension who had signs of bowel obstruction on physical exam. He was afebrile, hemodynamically stable with no peritoneal signs. Abdominal radiograph and CT scan were pathognomic for sigmoid volvulus. Through this case report we want to discuss the presentation, diagnosis, management options for sigmoid volvulus and importance of features suggestive of ischemic bowel that necessitates different management options.
Shields, Ryan K; Nguyen, M Hong; Press, Ellen G; Clancy, Cornelius J
FKS mutant Candida isolates were recovered from 24% (6/25) of abdominal candidiasis patients exposed to echinocandin. Candida glabrata (29%) and Candida albicans (14%) mutants were identified. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were recovered from 83% of FKS mutant infections. Mutations were associated with prolonged echinocandin exposure (P = 0.01), breakthrough infections (P = 0.03), and therapeutic failures despite source control interventions (100%). Abdominal candidiasis is a hidden reservoir for the emergence of echinocandin-resistant Candida.
Castellani, Christoph; Petnehazy, Thomas; Gürtl-Lackner, Barbara; Saxena, Amulya K
Intrauterine ovarian torsion is a rare event, but it is a possible cause for unilateral ovarian aplasia. Most commonly the ovary undergoes autolysis after torsion so that no tissue or remnants can be discovered on the involved side. We report a rare case of unilateral intrauterine torsion followed by autoamputation and abdominal reimplantation resulting in an intra-abdominal complex cystic mass with a review of the literature. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Luo, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Chen-Sheng; Chao, Hsun-Chin; Chu, Shih-Ming; Hsueh, Chuen
Cystic lymphangiomas (CL) rarely present as intra-abdominal masses. Abdominal CL is often discussed in conjunction with mesenteric cysts; however, their histology, location and age of presentation differ significantly. In an attempt to establish a best diagnostic and treatment modality, we report our experience dealing with intra-abdominal CL during a 5-year period. Between January 1998 and December 2003, 12 patients, 7 boys and 5 girls, with a diagnosis of CL were reviewed. Modes of clinical presentation, location of CL, methods of diagnosis, surgical intervention and histological examination were all analyzed. The ages of the 12 patients ranged from 8 days to 6 years. Eleven of the 12 patients were symptomatic with abdominal pain, abdominal distention or palpable mass , dysuria and severe acute abdominal pain mimicking appendicitis. Abdominal ultrasound was done preoperatively in all patients. At laparotomy, 5 CL were located in the omentum, 5 in the mesentery, and another 2 in the retroperitoneum. All omental CL were completely excised without difficulty. CL removal required resection of both the cyst and intestine in 2 patients. One of 2 retropritoneal CL was removed with small areas of the posterior wall of the cyst remaining on the inferior vena cava (IVC). There were no major postoperative complications, deaths, or recurrences in this series. Intra-abdominal CL are usually involved in young children and are usually symptomatic. A preoperative diagnosis is possible with ultrasound study. Complete excision of the cysts with or without intestinal resection is mandatory to prevent recurrence. The long-term prognosis is excellent.
Iwańczak, Barbara; Stawarski, Andrzej; Czernik, Jerzy; Bronowickip, Krzysztof; Iwańczak, Franciszek; Pytrus, Tomasz; Klempous, Jan; Godziński, Jan
Pediatric abdominal pain is one of the most common symptom of children brought to attention of primary care physicians and pediatric surgeons. In many children clinical symptoms may be uncharacteristic and may lead to diagnostic difficulties. Clinical analysis of children with right lower quadrant abdominal pain suspected of appendicitis or children with periappendicular mass. The histories of 14 children aged from 18 months to 17 years treated in Pediatric Clinic were analysed. All children were operated because of right lower quadrant abdominal pain or abdominal mass before admission to the Pediatric Clinic or during hospitalization in Pediatric Clinic. Intraoperatively in all children pathologies other than appendicitis were the cause of symptoms. The most often Crohn's disease were recognized (9 children), in 2 cases with concomitant other pathologies (fecal tumor of appendix in one case and with peritoneal abscess after perforation of intestinal wall). Sporadically the inflammation of the mesenterial lymph nodes caused by Yersinia infection suggested appendicitis. In one boy with ulcerative colitis, during exacerbation of the disease appendicitis complicated by rupture and peritonitis was observed. In 18-month old child with right lower quadrant abdominal mass invagination complicated by perforation of the ileum was recognized. In the case of 14-years old boy 6 months after appendectomy we observed mechanical intestinal obstruction complicated by perforation and peritonitis. Carcinoid of the appendix was the cause of abdominal pain in one child. 1. Appendicitis is the most frequent surgical etiology of the right lower quadrant pediatric abdominal pain. 2. Despite new diagnostic imagines there are no definite criteria to recognize appendicitis, in most cases physical examination and very carefull evaluation of abdominal pain are the most important. 3. All children with periappendipected of Crohn's disease. 4. All children with equivocal presentations of
Giribono, Anna Maria; Ferrara, Doriana; Spalla, Flavia; Narese, Donatella; Bracale, Umberto; Pecoraro, Felice; Bracale, Renata; del Guercio, Luca
Isolated abdominal aortic dissection is a rare clinical disease representing only 1.3% of all dissections. There are a few case series reported in the literature. The causes of this pathology can be spontaneous, iatrogenic, or traumatic. Most patients are asymptomatic and symptoms are usually abdominal or back pain, while claudication and lower limb ischemia are rare. Surgical and endovascular treatment are two valid options with acceptable results. We herein describe nine cases of symptomatic spontaneous isolated abdominal aortic dissection, out of which four successfully were treated with an endovascular approach between July 2003 and July 2013. All patients were men, smokers, symptomatic (either abdominal or back pain or lower limb ischemia), with a history of high blood pressure, with a medical history negative for concomitant aneurysmatic dilatation or previous endovascular intervention. Diagnosis of isolated abdominal aortic dissection were established by contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the thoracic and abdominal aorta. All nine patients initially underwent medical treatment. In four symptomatic cases, non-responsive to medical therapy, bare-metal stents or stent grafts were successfully positioned. All patients completed a CTA follow-up of at least 12 months, during which they remained symptom-free. Endovascular management of this condition is associated with a high rate of technical success and a low mortality; therefore, it can be considered the treatment of choice when it is feasible. PMID:27994881
Dunn, M W; Berkowitz, F E; Miller, J J; Snitzer, J A
There have been several recent reports that cat-scratch disease (CSD) causes a multiplicity of atypical clinical syndromes. We recently diagnosed hepatosplenic CSD in a child who was seen with fever and abdominal pain. We report this case and 10 other patients with hepatosplenic CSD and highlight the importance of abdominal pain in this clinical entity. This was a retrospective review of charts of patients with a diagnosis of cat-scratch disease at Egleston Children's Hospital between January, 1985, and June, 1996. From these cases patients with hepatosplenic CSD were selected for study. Seven children (64%) had significant abdominal pain, and in three children abdominal pain was their chief complaint. All children in the study had pathologic evidence of CSD or elevated titers of antibodies to Bartonella henselae. Ultrasound examination showed that all children had microabscesses in the spleen, and eight had abscesses in the liver. One of the most remarkable findings in this large series of cases of hepatosplenic CSD was that 64% of the patients complained of abdominal pain. All children in this study received antibiotics. It was our clinical impression that once antibiotics had been started, the patients appeared to improve very quickly. With an increased index of suspicion, the use of B. henselae serology and an abdominal ultrasound examination, the diagnosis of this underrecognized disease might be more readily made.
Bharucha, Adil E.; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Sletten, Christopher D.
Although abdominal pain is a symptom of several structural gastrointestinal disorders (eg, peptic ulcer disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 4 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with abdominal pain: functional dyspepsia, constipation-predominant and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, and functional abdominal pain syndrome. Together, these conditions affect approximately 1 in 4 people in the United States. They are associated with comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia, depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Symptoms are explained by disordered gastrointestinal motility and sensation, which are implicated in a variety of peripheral (eg, postinfectious inflammation, luminal irritants) and/or central (eg, stress and anxiety) factors. These disorders are defined and can generally be diagnosed by symptoms alone. Often prompted by alarm features, selected testing is useful to exclude structural disease. Identifying the specific diagnosis (eg, differentiating between functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome) and establishing an effective patient-physician relationship are the cornerstones of therapy. Many patients with mild symptoms can be effectively managed with limited tests, sensible dietary modifications, and over-the-counter medications tailored to symptoms. If these measures are not sufficient, pharmacotherapy should be considered for bowel symptoms (constipation or diarrhea) and/or abdominal pain; opioids should not be used. Behavioral and psychological approaches (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy) can be very helpful, particularly in patients with chronic abdominal pain who require a multidisciplinary pain management program without opioids. PMID:27492916
Jensen, K K; Henriksen, N A; Jorgensen, L N
There is no consensus as to the treatment strategy for abdominal wall hernias in fertile women. This study was undertaken to review the current literature on treatment of abdominal wall hernias in fertile women before or during pregnancy. A literature search was undertaken in PubMed and Embase in combination with a cross-reference search of eligible papers. We included 31 papers of which 23 were case reports. In fertile women undergoing sutured or mesh repair, pain was described in a few patients during the last trimester of a subsequent pregnancy. Emergency surgery of incarcerated hernias in pregnant women, as well as combined hernia repair and cesarean section appears as safe procedures. No major complications were reported following hernia repair before or during pregnancy. The combined procedure of elective cesarean section and abdominal wall hernia repair was reported in 102 patients without major complications. The literature on abdominal wall hernia and pregnancy is sparse. Abdominal wall hernia repair with suture or mesh may cause pain in the last trimester of a subsequent pregnancy. Hernia repair in conjunction with cesarean section appear as the optimal treatment of a pregnant patient with a symptomatic abdominal wall hernia.
Neufeld, David; Keidar, Andrei; Gutman, Mordechai; Zissin, Rivka
Abdominal wall abscess due to Crohn's Disease used to be one of the definitive indications for operative treatment. The advent of interventional radiology, the accessibility to percutaneous drainage, and the availability of new medications raised the possibility of nonoperative treatment of this condition. The clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of 13 patients with abdominal wall abscesses secondary to Crohn's Disease were retrospectively reviewed. During a 10-year period (1993-2003), 13 patients with abdominal wall abscess were treated. Five patients had an anterolateral abdominal wall abscess and eight had a posterior abscess (psoas). In 11 patients, 17 drainage procedures were performed: 12 percutaneous and 5 operative. Despite initial adequate drainage and resolution of the abscess, all 13 patients eventually needed resection of the offending bowel segment, which was undertaken in 12 patients. The mean time between abscess presentation and definitive operation was 2 months. Percutaneous drainage is an attractive option in most cases of abdominal abscesses. However, in Crohn's Disease patients with an abdominal wall abscess, we found a high failure rate despite initial adequate drainage. We suggest that surgical resection of the diseased bowel segment should be the definitive therapy.
Ozcan, Rahsan; Mammadov, Emil; Aydin, Emrah; Adaletli, Ibrahim; Esen, Tugçe; Dervisoglu, Sergülen; Celayir, Sinan
Abdominal actinomycosis in childhood period is very rare and a relation to trauma is not well established. Herein we report a case that appeared subsequent to abdominal trauma. A 17 years old boy presented with left lower quadrant abdominal mass and signs of acute abdomen. The symptoms of abdominal discomfort began after a fall from height 3 months before admission. There were signs of acute abdomen at physical examination. Ultrasound of abdomen demonstrated a mass; CT scan findings pointed to a suspicious "internal hernia". An emergency laparotomy was performed. During surgery, a mass located over sigmoid colon and infiltrating the lateral abdominal wall was found. It was removed en bloc with the adjacent omentum. Except for the thickened sigmoid colon, no other pathologies were present at laparotomy. The pathology specimen revealed the actinomyces infection. The patient was treated with oral penicillin after discharge and the follow-up was uneventful. We advocate, keeping the actinomyces infection in mind in cases presenting with abdominal mass of unknown origin in childhood period.
Hagerty, Tracy; Geraghty, Patrick; Braverman, Alan C
Marfan syndrome (MFS) leads to aortic root aneurysm, while descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) occurs less commonly. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is rarely reported in MFS. Risk factors for AAA are poorly understood and there are no guidelines for AAA screening in MFS. We sought to characterize AAA among Marfan patients in our center. The records of 12 adults with MFS and AAA disease were reviewed. Clinical features, imaging, operative reports, and outcomes were analyzed. Twelve adults with MFS and AAA were studied; age at AAA diagnosis was 44 ± 15 years (range 18-63). Nine patients smoked cigarettes. Eleven patients underwent prior aortic root replacement at age 31 ± 15 years. The size of AAA was 5.0 ± 1.3 cm (range 3.5-7.5) at the time of diagnosis. The AAA was suprarenal in 5, juxtarenal in 2, and infrarenal in 5 patients. Two patients had a descending TAA. Branch vessel aneurysms were present in 7 patients. Five patients underwent open surgical repair, 5 underwent endovascular repair, and 5 are being treated medically. One patient died suddenly with AAA size 5.7 cm, 2 months before death. Three patients subsequently developed type B aortic dissection, from 3 months to 9 years after AAA diagnosis. Adults with MFS are at risk for developing AAA. Evaluation for AAA is recommended in adults with MFS and prior root replacement, especially if descending aortic or branch vessel aneurysm is present or the patient smokes cigarettes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hussey, K; Siddiqui, T; Burton, P; Welch, G H; Stuart, W P
Administrative data in the form of Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and the Scottish Morbidity Record (SMR) have been used to describe surgical activity. These data have also been used to compare outcomes from different hospitals and regions, and to corroborate data submitted to national audits and registries. The aim of this observational study was to examine the completeness and accuracy of administrative data relating to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Administrative data (SMR-01 returns) from a single health board relating to AAA repair were requested (September 2007 to August 2012). A complete list of validated procedures; termed the reference data set was compiled from all available sources (clinical and administrative). For each patient episode electronic health records were scrutinised to confirm urgency of admission, diagnosis, and operative repair. The 30-day mortality was recorded. The reference data set was used to systematically validate the SMR-01 returns. The reference data set contained 608 verified procedures. SMR-01 returns identified 2433 episodes of care (1724 patients) in which a discharge diagnosis included AAA. This included 574 operative repairs. There were 34 missing cases (5.6%) from SMR-01 returns; nine of these patients died within 30 days of the index procedure. Omission of these cases made a statistically significant improvement to perceived 30-day mortality (p < .05, chi-square test). If inconsistent SMR-01 data (in terms of ICD-10 and OPCS-4 codes) were excluded only 81.9% of operative repairs were correctly identified and only 30.9% of deaths were captured. The SMR-01 returns contain multiple errors. There also appears to be a systematic bias that reduces apparent 30-day mortality. Using these data alone to describe or compare activity or outcomes must be done with caution. Copyright © 2014 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fernández-Vázquez, Rosalía; Millán Romero, Ángel; Barbancho, Miguel Ángel; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón
Objetivo: la obesidad central tiene una gran relación con el síndrome metabólico. Estudiar la relación de la grasa del tronco, el índice de grasa visceral y las medidas antropométricas con el síndrome metabólico. Métodos: diseño: transversal descriptivo y correlacional. Participaron 75 varones, voluntarios, de distintas profesiones, que accedieron a un reconocimiento médico- laboral, con un rango de edad de 21 a 59 años. Mediciones de peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, perímetro abdominal, perímetro glúteo, índice cintura-cadera y grasa de tronco y nivel de grasa visceral mediante bioimpedanciometría (Tanita AB-140-ViScan) y parámetros bioquímicos: glucosa, colesterol total y triglicéridos. Así mismo, se midió la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica. Se comparan los estados de síndrome metabólico, sobrepeso y obesidad. Resultados: existen correlaciones de las medidas antropométricas con la de grasa de tronco y el nivel de grasa visceral, así como con los parámetros bioquímicos (p < 0,001). Un análisis de curvas ROC muestra que los puntos de corte a partir de los cuales se puede presentar el síndrome metabólico son de 32,7% de grasa de tronco y de 13 para el nivel de grasa visceral, con una alta sensibilidad y especificidad. Se obtienen los mismos puntos de corte para el estado de obesidad y síndrome metabólico. Conclusiones: la grasa de tronco y los niveles de grasa visceral son muy sensibles y específicos para la detección del síndrome metabólico y la obesidad, aunque no superan a las variables e índices antropométricos. En la condición de sobrepeso, la grasa de tronco y visceral son medidas algo más predictivas que las variables antropométricas.
Robinson, Mark; Lees, Adrian; Barton, Gabor
Abdominal exercises are widely used to develop the anterior muscles of the trunk. These exercises can be undertaken without the aid of equipment, but increasingly manufacturers are developing equipment which purportedly enhances the training effect for abdominal muscles. As there are many different products and exercises used for abdominal muscle development, it is likely that some are more effective than others. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of five commonly performed abdominal exercises. A second aim was to investigate the effects of fatigue on these exercises. Five different types of abdominal exercise [standard crunch (sit-up) with bent knees, gym ball crunch, crunch with 5 kg weight held behind the head, legs raised crunch and a commercially manufactured roller crunch] were examined using integrated surface electromyography (IEMG). The lower rectus abdominis (LRA), upper rectus abdominis (URA) and obliquus externus abdominis (EO) of 15 healthy male participants [age (mean +/- SD) 22.2 +/- 6.8 years; height 1.77 +/- 0.06 m; mass 79.3 +/- 10.7 kg] were monitored using a four-channel special purpose EMG data logger. Three trials of each exercise were performed in random order and normalized to enable comparisons between muscles and exercises. At a later date, ten participants were then re-tested when fresh and after a 30 min whole-body fatigue protocol that specifically targeted the abdominal muscles. Two exercises were evaluated, the abdominal roller crunch and legs raised crunch, which were judged to be the least and most effective, respectively, of the five exercises previously used. The normalized IEMG showed significant (p < 0.001) differences between exercises (gym ball crunch = 86.0 +/- 7.5%; legs raised crunch = 79.9 +/- 5.1%; 5 kg weight crunch = 65.1 +/- 13.4%; standard crunch = 56.2 +/- 3.2%; and roller crunch = 45.0 +/- 11.4%). Post-fatigue, the normalized mean IEMG for both exercises increased significantly (p < 0.05) for LRA and
Mell, Matthew W; Hlatky, Mark A; Shreibati, Jacqueline B; Dalman, Ronald L; Baker, Laurence C
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening remains largely underutilized in the U.S., and it is likely that the proportion of patients with aneurysms requiring prompt treatment is much higher compared with well-screened populations. The goals of this study were to determine the proportion of AAAs that required prompt repair after diagnostic abdominal imaging for U.S. Medicare beneficiaries and to identify patient and hospital factors contributing to early vs late diagnosis of AAA. Data were extracted from Medicare claims records for patients at least 65 years old with complete coverage for 2 years who underwent intact AAA repair from 2006 to 2009. Preoperative ultrasound and computed tomography was tabulated from 2002 to repair. We defined early diagnosis of AAA as a patient with a time interval of greater than 6 months between the first imaging examination and the index procedure, and late diagnosis as patients who underwent the index procedure within 6 months of the first imaging examination. Of 17,626 patients who underwent AAA repair, 14,948 met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 77.5 ± 6.1 years. Early diagnosis was identified for 60.6% of patients receiving AAA repair, whereas 39.4% were repaired after a late diagnosis. Early diagnosis rates increased from 2006 to 2009 (59.8% to 63.4%; P < .0001) and were more common for intact repair compared with repair after rupture (62.9% vs 35.1%; P < .0001) and for women compared with men (66.3% vs 59.0%; P < .0001). On multivariate analysis, repair of intact vs ruptured AAAs (odds ratio, 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.6) and female sex (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-1.5) remained the strongest predictors of surveillance. Although intact repairs were more likely to be diagnosed early, over one-third of patients undergoing repair for ruptured AAAs received diagnostic abdominal imaging greater than 6 months prior to surgery. Despite advances in screening practices, significant missed opportunities
Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Weir, Nate L; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weston, Todd D; Dengel, Donald R
The purpose of this study was to examine visceral fat mass as well as other measures abdominal body composition in National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the season. Three hundred and seventy NFL football players were measured before the start of the season using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Regional fat and lean mass was measured for each player. Players were categorized into 3 groups based on positions that mirror each other: linemen; linebackers/tight ends/running backs and wide receivers/defensive backs. Significant differences were observed between the position groups for both lean and fat regional measurements. However, the magnitude of difference was much greater for fat measures than lean measures. Additionally, a threshold was observed (∼114 kg) at which there is a greater increase in fat accumulation than lean mass accumulation. The increase in fat accumulation is distributed to the abdominal region where thresholds were observed for subcutaneous abdominal fat accumulation (12.1% body fat) and visceral abdominal fat accumulation (20.1% body fat), which likely explains the regional fat differences between groups. The results of this study suggest that as players get larger, there is more total fat than total lean mass accumulation and more fat is distributed to the abdominal region. This is of importance as increased fat mass may be detrimental to performance at certain positions. The thresholds observed for increased abdominal fat accumulation should be monitored closely given recent research observed that abdominal obesity predicts lower extremity injury risk and visceral adipose tissue's established association with cardiometabolic risk.
Brock, W B; Barker, D E; Burns, R P
Temporary closure of abdominal surgical wounds is occasionally required when conditions of the abdominal wall or peritoneal cavity prevent closure or when early re-exploration is planned. The optimal temporary closure should contain and protect the contents of the peritoneal cavity from external contamination and injury; preserve the integrity of the abdominal wall; be simple to perform and maintain; provide ease of reentry; and have minimal adverse physiologic effects. Based on these criteria, a method of temporary abdominal wound closure (termed the vacuum pack) has been designed and evaluated. The operative technique includes 1) placement of a fenestrated polyethylene sheet between the abdominal viscera and anterior parietal peritoneum; 2) placement of a moist, sterile laparotomy towel over the polyethylene sheet; 3) placement of two closed suction drains over the towel; 4) placement of an adhesive backed drape over the entire wound, including a wide margin of surrounding skin; and 5) suction applied to the drains, creating a vacuum and rigid compression of the layers of closure material. This creates a tight, external seal of the adhesive backed drape and facilitates drainage of the peritoneal cavity. From April 1992-December 1993, this temporary abdominal wound closure was performed 56 times in 28 patients, ages 6-78 years, for periods of 1-11 days. The procedure was used in 17 trauma patients and 11 non-trauma patients. Indications for use included increased intra-abdominal pressure in nine, mandatory re-exploration in 10, and a combination of these indications in nine patients. Pre- and postprocedural airway and systemic blood pressures were unaffected by this closure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Leppäniemi, Ari; Tukiainen, Erkki
Planned ventral hernia is a management strategy in which the abdominal fascial layer has been left unclosed and the viscera are covered only with original or grafted skin. Leaving the fascia open can be deliberate or unavoidable and most commonly results from staged repair of the abdominal wall due to trauma, peritonitis, pancreatitis, abdominal vascular emergencies, or abdominal compartment syndrome. The abdominal wall defects can be categorized as type I or II defects depending on whether there is intact, stable skin coverage. In defects with intact skin coverage, the most commonly used methods are the components separation technique and a prosthetic repair, sometimes used in combination. The advantages of the components separation technique is the ability to close the linea alba at the midline, creating a better functional result than a repair with inert mesh. Although the reherniation risk seems higher after components separation, the risk of infection is considerably lower. With a type II defect, with absent or unstable skin coverage, fascial repair alone is inadequate. Of the more complex reconstruction techniques, the use of a free tensor fasciae latae (TFL) flap utilizing a saphenous vein arteriovenous loop is the most promising. The advantages of the TFL flap include constant anatomy of the pedicle, a strong fascial layer, large-caliber vessels matching the size of the AV loop, and the ability to use large flaps (up to 20 × 35 cm). Whatever technique is used, the repair of complex abdominal wall defects requires close collaboration with plastic and abdominal surgeons, which is best managed in specialized centers.
Schneider, H J; Klotsche, J; Friedrich, N; Schipf, S; Völzke, H; Silber, S; März, W; Nauck, M; Pittrow, D; Wehling, M; Sievers, C; Lehnert, H; Stalla, G K; Wittchen, H-U; Wallaschofski, H
Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome. However, not all obese individuals have cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). It is not clear how many abdominally obese individuals are free of CVRF and what distinguishes them from the group of obese individuals with CVRF. In this study, we aimed to assess the associated factors and prevalence of abdominal obesity without CVRF. In our cross-sectional analysis, we included n = 4244 subjects from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), a population-based study and n = 6671 subjects from the Diabetes Cardiovascular Risk-Evaluation: Targets and Essential Data for Commitment of Treatment (DETECT) study, a representative primary care study in Germany. We defined abdominal obesity by waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) of 0.5 or greater. We assessed how many subjects with abdominal obesity had CVRF based on the definition of the metabolic syndrome. We analysed which conditions were associated with the absence of CVRF in abdominal obesity. In SHIP and DETECT, 2652 (62.5%) and 5126 (76.8%) subjects had a WHtR ≥ 0.5. Among those with a WHtR ≥ 0.5, 9.0% and 13.8% were free of CVRF and 49.9% and 52.7% had at least two CVRF in SHIP and DETECT, respectively. In both studies, after backward elimination, age, male sex, body mass index and high liver enzymes and unemployment were consistently inversely associated with the absence of CVRF. Among abdominally obese subjects, the prevalence of metabolically healthy subjects is low. Conditions consistently associated with the absence of CVRF in abdominal obesity are younger age, female sex, low BMI, and normal liver enzymes, the latter likely reflecting the absence of steatohepatitis.
Jenkins, Nathan T.; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J.; Laughlin, M. Harold
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is implicated as a source of proatherogenic cytokines. Phenotypic differences in local PVAT depots may contribute to differences in disease susceptibility among arteries and even regions within an artery. It has been proposed that PVAT around the abdominal and thoracic aorta shares characteristics of white and brown adipose tissue (BAT), respectively; however, a detailed comparison of the phenotype of these PVAT depots has not been performed. Using young and older adult rats, we compared the phenotype of PVATs surrounding the abdominal and thoracic aorta to each other and also to epididymal white and subscapular BAT. Compared with young rats, older rats exhibited greater percent body fat (34.5 ± 3.1 vs. 10.4 ± 0.9%), total cholesterol (112.2 ± 7.5 vs. 58.7 ± 6.3 mg/dl), HOMA-insulin resistance (1.7 ± 0.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.1 a.u.), as well as reduced ACh-induced relaxation of the aorta (maximal relaxation: 54 ± 10 vs. 77 ± 6%) (all P < 0.05). Expression of inflammatory genes and markers of immune cell infiltration were greater in abdominal PVAT than in thoracic PVAT, and overall, abdominal and thoracic PVATs resembled the phenotype of white adipose tissue (WAT) and BAT, respectively. Histology and electron microscopy indicated structural similarity between visceral WAT and abdominal PVAT and between BAT and thoracic PVAT. Our data provide evidence that abdominal PVAT is more inflamed than thoracic PVAT, a difference that was by and large independent of sedentary aging. Phenotypic differences in PVAT between regions of the aorta may be relevant in light of the evidence in large animals and humans that the abdominal aorta is more vulnerable to atherosclerosis than the thoracic aorta. PMID:23389108
Leib, M S; Larson, M M; Grant, D C; Monroe, W E; Troy, G C; Panciera, D L; Rossmeisl, J H; Werre, S R
Chronic diarrhea is common in dogs and has many causes. Ultrasonographic descriptions of many gastrointestinal diseases have been published, but the diagnostic utility of ultrasonography in dogs with chronic diarrhea has not been investigated. Diagnostic utility of abdominal ultrasound will be highest in dogs with GI neoplasia and lowest in those with inflammatory disorders. 87 pet dogs with chronic diarrhea. Prospective study in which medical records were reviewed and contribution of abdominal ultrasound toward making diagnosis was scored. In 57/87 (66%) of dogs, the same diagnosis would have been reached without ultrasonography. In 13/87 (15%) of dogs, the ultrasound examination was vital or beneficial to making the diagnosis. Univariable analysis identified that increased diagnostic utility was associated with weight loss (P = .0086), palpation of an abdominal or rectal mass (P = .0031), diseases that commonly have mass lesions visible on ultrasound examination (P < .0001), and a final diagnosis of GI neoplasia. Multivariable regression indicated that utility of abdominal ultrasonography would be 30 times more likely to be high in dogs in which an abdominal or rectal mass was palpated (odds ratio 30.5, 95% CI 5.5-169.6) (P < .0001) versus dogs without a palpable mass. In 15/87 (17%) of dogs, additional benefits of ultrasonography to case management, independent of the contribution to the diagnosis of diarrhea, were identified. Overall, the diagnostic utility of abdominal ultrasonography was low in dogs with chronic diarrhea. Identification of factors associated with high diagnostic utility is an indication to perform abdominal ultrasonography in dogs with chronic diarrhea. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Zakaria, O M; Hokkam, E N; Elsayem, K; Daoud, M Y; Alwadaani, H A; Al Mulhim, A S; Zakaria, H M; Sedky, F M; Aboyameen, O M
The abdomen is one of the most frequent sites for lymphoma in children. The role of surgery has been limited to intra-abdominal resectable tumours or as a diagnostic procedure in case of disseminated disease. Laparotomy without total excision of the tumour does not improve survival; moreover, it may cause complications and delays initiation of chemotherapy. This study was undertaken to assess the role of surgery in the management of children and adolescents presenting with intra-abdominal lymphoma in order to create certain criteria to select the proper surgical modality for managing those patients. This case-series, retrospective study was done on 33 patients of abdominal lymphoma over a period of seven years from 2000 to 2007. Patients' files were reviewed regarding the full clinical examinations, laboratory and radiological investigations as well as surgical and diagnostic procedures. Collected data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using SPSS program package. Eleven patients (33.3%) presented with huge pelvi-abdominal mass and eleven (33.3%) had generalized lymphadenopathy beside their abdominal affection. The remaining 11 (33.3%) patients presented with symptoms of an acute abdomen. A total of 15 laparotomies were done. 11 patients underwent emergency laparotomy for acute abdomen and 4 patients had elective abdominal exploration. Lymph node biopsies were taken in 7 patients and laparoscopy procedures were performed in 3 patients as a diagnostic tool. Out of the total 33, the remaining 8 patients underwent true cut needle biopsy for diagnosis of their disease. Surgery still has a role in treatment of lymphoma whether non Hodgkin or Hodgkin's. However, in disseminated metastatic disease, aggressive debulking of the tumour should be avoided as chemotherapy is to be instituted primarily. Surgical resection does not cause significant change in morbidity or mortality. Abdominal lymphoma in paediatrics, role of surgery.
Young, John S; Monaghan, Sean F; Chung, Chun S; Cioffi, William G; Ayala, Alfred; Heffernan, Daithi S
The etiology of sepsis is broad. The peritoneal cavity displays compartmentalization with respect to inflammatory responses, so peripheral blood responses to sepsis of abdominal vs. non-abdominal origin are expected to be divergent. Lymphocytes and invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells play important roles in survival from sepsis, as they dampen the neutrophil and macrophage responses. We assessed whether circulating iNKT cells display distinct phenotypic profiles depending on the presence of abdominal vs. non-abdominal infection with sepsis. Patients with sepsis, defined as infection confirmed microbiologically with a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), were enrolled prospectively. They were categorized as having either exclusively sepsis of abdominal or exclusively non-abdominal origin. The white blood cell (WBC) count was recorded. Whole-blood staining with monoclonal antibodies to CD3, V-alpha-24 (to identify iNKT cells), and CD69 (marker of early activation) was applied. Of the 53 enrolled patients, 18 had abdominal infection. Pneumonia was the most common non-abdominal type. There was no difference in gender, age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, WBC count, or CD3(+) T cells (7.1%±1.6% vs. 6.5%±0.9%; p=0.75) in the two groups. Patients with abdominal infection had a higher proportion of iNKT cells (2.7%±1.1% vs. 0.89%±0.14%; p=0.032). Correcting for WBC count, this translated into a higher absolute number of iNKT cells (3.4±1.8×10(7)/L vs. 0.74±0.15×10(7)/L; p=0.03). Patients with sepsis of abdominal origin had a lower percentage of CD69(+) iNKT cells (9.1%±3.1% vs. 27.2%±5.8%; p=0.028). In patients in shock vs. those who were not, patients with non-abdominal infection exhibited a greater number of iNKT cells (1.47±0.3 v. 0.62±0.1×10(7)/L; p=0.022) and percentage of activated iNKT cells (53±14.5% vs. 17.9±4.8%; p=0.04). Patients with non-abdominal infection who died had a lower absolute number of
Grossniklaus, Daurice A; Dunbar, Sandra B; Gary, Rebecca; Tohill, Beth C; Frediani, Jennifer K; Higgins, Melinda K
In the U.S., Europe, and throughout the world, abdominal obesity prevalence is increasing. Depressive symptoms may contribute to abdominal obesity through the consumption of diets high in energy density. To test dietary energy density ([DED]; kilocalories/gram of food and beverages consumed) for an independent relationship with abdominal obesity or as a mediator between depressive symptoms and abdominal obesity. This cross-sectional study included 87 mid-life, overweight adults; 73.6% women; 50.6% African-American. Variables and measures: Beck depression inventory-II (BDI-II) to measure depressive symptoms; 3-day weighed food records to calculate DED; and waist circumference, an indicator of abdominal obesity. Hierarchical regression tested if DED explained waist circumference variance while controlling for depressive symptoms and consumed food and beverage weight. Three approaches tested DED as a mediator. Nearly three-quarters of participants had abdominal obesity, and the mean waist circumference was 103.2 (SD 14.3) cm. Mean values: BDI-II was 8.67 (SD 8.34) which indicates that most participants experienced minimal depressive symptoms, and 21.8% reported mild to severe depressive symptoms (BDI-II ≥ 14); DED was 0.75 (SD 0.22) kilocalories/gram. Hierarchical regression showed an independent association between DED and waist circumference with DED explaining 7.0% of variance above that accounted for by BDI-II and food and beverage weight. DED did not mediate between depressive symptoms and abdominal obesity. Depressive symptoms and DED were associated with elevated waist circumference, thus a comprehensive intervention aimed at improving depressive symptoms and decreasing DED to reduce waist circumference is warranted.
Rezende-Neto, João Baptista; Vieira, Hélio Machado; Rodrigues, Bruno de Lima; Rizoli, Sandro; Nascimento, Barto; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira
The meeting of the Publication "Evidence Based Telemedicine - Trauma and Emergency Surgery" (TBE-CiTE), through literature review, selected three recent articles on the treatment of victims stab wounds to the abdominal wall. The first study looked at the role of computed tomography (CT) in the treatment of patients with stab wounds to the abdominal wall. The second examined the use of laparoscopy over serial physical examinations to evaluate patients in need of laparotomy. The third did a review of surgical exploration of the abdominal wound, use of diagnostic peritoneal lavage and CT for the early identification of significant lesions and the best time for intervention. There was consensus to laparotomy in the presence of hemodynamic instability or signs of peritonitis, or evisceration. The wound should be explored under local anesthesia and if there is no injury to the aponeurosis the patient can be discharged. In the presence of penetration into the abdominal cavity, serial abdominal examinations are safe without CT. Laparoscopy is well indicated when there is doubt about any intracavitary lesion, in centers experienced in this method.
Negrao Filho, R de F; Bérzin, F; Souza, G da C
This study objective was to verify the behavior of three portions of the abdominal rectus muscle through a quantitative analysis of the electromyographic signal in different types of abdominal exercises. Ten young male between 16 and 27 years old were studied and they had no previous history of muscle and joint illness. They were well-trained and did seven abdominal exercises chosen considering the types of contraction (isotonic and isometric) as well as the muscle fixation points. The electric activity of the superior, medium (above umbilicus) and inferior (below umbilicus) portions at the left side of the abdominal rectus muscle was taken using Beckman type surface mini-electrodes. The registers were collected from computerized 8-channel Nicholet electromyography equipment, model Viking II. The signals were quantified using the MVA (Maximum Volunteer Activity) software, being considered for analysis the values of RMS (Root Mean Square). The obtained data were submitted to a parametric analysis using the variance analysis (F test) and also the Tukey test, besides a descriptive graphic analysis starting from the average RMS values of each muscle portion. This study results suggest that for the majority of the subjects, the functional activities of the abdominal rectus muscle are performed with electric activity differences among their portions, showing a tendency of producing more electric activity in the superior portion than in the medium and inferior portions. The experiment also demonstrated an absence of a common behavior pattern in the three portions of the ten tested subjects.
D'Angelo, E; Prandi, E; Robatto, F; Petitjean, M; Bellemare, F
The insertional action of the abdominal muscles was studied in supine anesthetized, apneic rabbits and dogs by comparing the changes in esophageal pressure (Pes), upper and lower rib cage circumference (Cru,u and Crc,I) and lung volume (VL) in response to electrical stimulation of all abdominal muscles before and after evisceration. In eviscerated animals, abdominal muscle contraction increased Pes and decreased both VL and Cre,I, but had no effect on Crc,u. Maximal responses were obtained at submaximal intensities of stimulation, and became larger with increasing lung volume. Relative to the vital capacity in intact animals, maximal delta VL for stimulation performed at FRC and TLC were 7.2 +/- 2.9(SD) and 39.5 +/- 7% in rabbits, and 6.3 +/- 0.8 and 18.3 +/- 5.9% in dogs, respectively. Relative to the changes in lung volume occurring with maximal contraction of the abdominal muscles in intact animals, the values of delta VL observed in the eviscerated animals amounted to approximately 35 and approximately 45% for stimulation performed at FRC and TLC, respectively. Hence, abdominal muscles exert substantial insertional action on the lower rib cage that can result in appreciable lung deflationary effects, particularly at elevated lung volumes.
Jurik, Angela; Ressle, Andrea; Schmid, Roland M; Wotjak, Carsten T; Thoeringer, Christoph K
The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor type-1 (TRPV1) is critically involved in peripheral nociceptive processes of somatic and visceral pain. However, the role of the capsaicin receptor in the brain regarding visceral pain remains elusive. Here, we studied the contribution of TRPV1 to abdominal pain transmission at different nociceptive pathway levels using TRPV1 knock-out mice, resiniferatoxin-mediated deletion of TRPV1-positive primary sensory neurons, and intracerebral TRPV1 antagonism. We found that constitutive genetic TRPV1 deletion or peripheral TRPV1 deletion reduced acetic acid-evoked abdominal constrictions, without affecting referred abdominal hyperalgesia or allodynia in an acute pancreatitis model of visceral pain. Notably, intracerebral TRPV1 antagonism by SB 366791 significantly reduced chemical and inflammatory spontaneous abdominal nocifensive responses, as observed by reduced expressions of nociceptive facial grimacing, illustrating the affective component of pain. In addition to the established role of cerebral TRPV1 in anxiety, fear, or emotional stress, we demonstrate here for the first time that TRPV1 in the brain modulates visceral nociception by interfering with the affective component of abdominal pain. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gondolesi, Gabriel E; Aguirre, Nicolás F
One of the most important challenges in the intestinal (ITx) and multivisceral transplant (MVTx) is to achieve a successful abdominal wall closure. A tension-free primary closure should be our aim. In most of the cases, we need to perform a component separation technique, alone or combined, to the use of a synthetic mesh. If those options are not feasible, the abdominal wall composite vascularized allograft transplant (AW-CVA) utilizing direct orthotopic vascularization can be considered. The nonvascularized abdominal rectus fascia has also become an alternative method used worldwide, proving to be simple and well tolerated procedure. Furthermore, the use of the AW has been recently proposed as a new tool for a sentinel monitoring of the intestinal or pancreas allograft. There are different validated options for abdominal wall closure following intestinal transplantation. The long-term benefits of transplanting the abdominal wall, full or partial thickness and vascularized or nonvascularised, were shown. New developments might help to expand their applications in different areas such as reconstructive surgery and immunology.
García-Marín, Andrés; Nofuentes-Riera, Carmen; Mella-Laborde, Mario; Pérez-López, Mercedes; Pérez-Bru, Susana; Rubio-Cerdido, José María
Epiploic appendagitis is an atypical cause of abdominal pain whose knowledge could avoid diagnostic or treatment errors. Diagnosis has been performed with abdominal ultrasound or tomography with the only treatment being nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. To analyze patients diagnosed in our hospital. We performed a 4-year retrospective and descriptive study (March 2009-March 2013) of patients diagnosed with epiploic appendagitis in our hospital. Seventeen patients were included, 14 females and three males with a median age of 57 years. Symptom delay was 72 h. Abdominal pains were located in the left lower quadrant in 64.7% and right lower quadrant in 35.3% of patients. Blood test demonstrated leukocytes 6,300 (5,000-9,500), neutrophils 61.6% (57-65.8), and C reactive protein 1.5 (0.85-2.92). Diagnosis was confirmed with abdominal ultrasound or tomography in 88.2% and intraoperatively in 11.8%. Epiploic appendagitis was more frequent in women. Abdominal pain was located in the lower quadrant, more predominant in left than right. Blood tests were normal except for increased levels of C-reactive protein. Diagnosis was made mostly preoperatively due to imaging tests, avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention.
Meintjes, Jennifer; Yan, Sheng; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen; Zheng, Minghao
The reconstruction of abdominal wall defects remains a huge surgical challenge. Tension-free repair is proven to be superior to suture repair in abdominal wall reconstruction. Scaffolds are essential for tension-free repair. They are used to bridge a defect or reinforce the abdominal wall. A huge variety of scaffolds are now commercially available. Most of the synthetic scaffolds are composed of polypropylene. They provide strong tissue reinforcement, but cause a foreign body reaction, which can result in serious complications. Absorbable synthetic scaffolds, such as Dexon™ (polyglycolic acid) and Vicryl™ (polyglactin 910), are not suitable for abdominal wall reconstruction as they usually require subsequent surgeries to repair recurrent hernias. Composite scaffolds combine the strength of nonabsorbable synthetic scaffolds with the antiadhesive properties of the absorbable scaffold, but require long-term follow-up. Biological scaffolds, such as Permacol™, Surgisis(®) and Alloderm(®), are derived from acellular mammalian tissues. Non-cross-linked biological scaffolds show excellent biocompatibility and degrade slowly over time. However, remnant DNA has been found in several products and the degradation leads to recurrence. Randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up studies are lacking for all of the available scaffolds, particularly those derived from animal tissue. This article provides an overview of the different types of scaffolds available, and presents the key clinical studies of the commercially available synthetic, composite and biological scaffolds for abdominal wall reconstruction.
Gardner, Brandon B; Swaggart, Kayleigh A; Kim, Gene; Watson, Sydeaka; McNally, Elizabeth M
The muscular dystrophies target muscle groups differentially. In mouse models of muscular dystrophy, notably the mdx model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, the diaphragm muscle shows marked fibrosis and at an earlier age than other muscle groups, more reflective of the histopathology seen in human muscular dystrophy. Using a mouse model of limb girdle muscular dystrophy, the Sgcg mouse, we compared muscle pathology across different muscle groups and heart. A cohort of nearly 200 Sgcg mice were studied using multiple measures of pathology including echocardiography, Evans blue dye uptake and hydroxyproline content in multiple muscle groups. Spearman rank correlations were determined among echocardiographic and pathological parameters. The abdominal muscles were found to have more fibrosis than other muscle groups, including the diaphragm muscle. The abdominal muscles also had more Evans blue dye uptake than other muscle groups. The amount of diaphragm fibrosis was found to correlate positively with fibrosis in the left ventricle, and abdominal muscle fibrosis correlated with impaired left ventricular function. Fibrosis in the abdominal muscles negatively correlated with fibrosis in the diaphragm and right ventricles. Together these data reflect the recruitment of abdominal muscles as respiratory muscles in muscular dystrophy, a finding consistent with data from human patients.
Cho, Hyun Suk; Hong, Hye-Suk; Park, Mee Hyun; Ha, Hong Il; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Jung, Ah Young; Hwang, Ji-Young
Objective Though a number of CT findings of bowel and mesenteric injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are described in literature, no studies on the specific CT signs of a transected bowel have been published. In the present study we describe the incidence and new CT signs of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma. Materials and Methods We investigated the incidence of bowel transection in 513 patients admitted for blunt abdominal trauma who underwent multidetector CT (MDCT). The MDCT findings of 8 patients with a surgically proven complete bowel transection were assessed retrospectively. We report novel CT signs that are unique for transection, such as complete cutoff sign (transection of bowel loop), Janus sign (abnormal dual bowel wall enhancement, both increased and decreased), and fecal spillage. Results The incidence of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma was 1.56%. In eight cases of bowel transection, percentage of CT signs unique for bowel transection were as follows: complete cutoff in 8 (100%), Janus sign in 6 (100%, excluding duodenal injury), and fecal spillage in 2 (25%). The combination of complete cutoff and Janus sign were highly specific findings in patients with bowel transection. Conclusion Complete cut off and Janus sign are the unique CT findings to help detect bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma and recognition of these findings enables an accurate and prompt diagnosis for emergency laparotomy leading to reduced mortality and morbidity. PMID:23901318
Verbrugge, Frederik H; Dupont, Matthias; Steels, Paul; Grieten, Lars; Malbrain, Manu; Tang, W H Wilson; Mullens, Wilfried
Current pathophysiological models of congestive heart failure unsatisfactorily explain the detrimental link between congestion and cardiorenal function. Abdominal congestion (i.e., splanchnic venous and interstitial congestion) manifests in a substantial number of patients with advanced congestive heart failure, yet is poorly defined. Compromised capacitance function of the splanchnic vasculature and deficient abdominal lymph flow resulting in interstitial edema might both be implied in the occurrence of increased cardiac filling pressures and renal dysfunction. Indeed, increased intra-abdominal pressure, as an extreme marker of abdominal congestion, is correlated with renal dysfunction in advanced congestive heart failure. Intriguing findings provide preliminary evidence that alterations in the liver and spleen contribute to systemic congestion in heart failure. Finally, gut-derived hormones might influence sodium homeostasis, whereas entrance of bowel toxins into the circulatory system, as a result of impaired intestinal barrier function secondary to congestion, might further depress cardiac as well as renal function. Those toxins are mainly produced by micro-organisms in the gut lumen, with presumably important alterations in advanced heart failure, especially when renal function is depressed. Therefore, in this state-of-the-art review, we explore the crosstalk between the abdomen, heart, and kidneys in congestive heart failure. This might offer new diagnostic opportunities as well as treatment strategies to achieve decongestion in heart failure, especially when abdominal congestion is present. Among those currently under investigation are paracentesis, ultrafiltration, peritoneal dialysis, oral sodium binders, vasodilator therapy, renal sympathetic denervation and agents targeting the gut microbiota.
Ishida, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Susumu
Recent studies have indicated that maximum expiration could be a useful way of performing challenging exercises that include coactivation of the deep and superficial abdominal muscles. However, little is known about the effect of maximum expiration on the activity of the abdominal muscles during lumbar stabilizing exercise. The purpose of our study was to quantify changes in the activities of the abdominal muscles during side bridge exercise in combination with maximum expiration. Experimental laboratory study. The activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and internal oblique (IO) muscles were measured using electromyography in 12 healthy men performing 3 tasks: holding the breath after maximum expiration in the prone position, holding the breath after resting expiration during side bridge exercise, and holding the breath after maximum expiration during side bridge exercise. Significant increases in the activities of the abdominal muscles (RA, EO, and IO) occurred with maximum expiration when compared with resting expiration during side bridge exercise (P < 0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate the effect of maximum expiration on abdominal muscle activities during a stabilizing exercise, thus contributing to existing knowledge about therapeutic exercise for alternative core training.
Tokuno, C D; Cresswell, A G; Thorstensson, A; Carpenter, M G
Abdominal muscle recruitment strategies in response to a postural perturbation contradict the theory that the deeper abdominal muscles are always recruited in advance of the more superficial muscles. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such contrasting muscle recruitment patterns are due to the postural task or the predictability of a postural task. Participants performed an arm raise task as well as an unpredictable and a predictable balance perturbation task (i.e. support-surface translation) while intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained from the deep [transversus abdominis (TrA)] and superficial [obliquus externus (OE)] abdominal muscles. The abdominal muscle recruitment order was dependent on the postural task but not on the predictability of a postural perturbation. Whereas arm raises elicited similar EMG onset latencies in TrA and OE, the OE onset latency was 48 ms earlier than the TrA following an unpredictable translation (P = 0.003). The early OE activation persisted when the translation was made predictable to the participant (P = 0.024). These results provide evidence that the abdominal muscle recruitment order varies with the trunk stability requirements specific to each task. Rehabilitation strategies focusing on an early TrA activation to improve postural stability may not be appropriate for all everyday tasks. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
McCaughey, E J; McLean, A N; Allan, D B; Gollee, H
Abdominal functional electrical stimulation (AFES) is a technique intended to improve respiratory function in tetraplegia where breathing is affected due to abdominal muscle paralysis. Although it is known that optimal muscle contraction is achieved when electrical stimulation is applied close to the muscle motor point, AFES studies have used a variety of electrode positions. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of using Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation to detect the motor points of the abdominal muscles, and to evaluate the intrasubject repeatability and intersubject uniformity of their positions, to find the most suitable AFES electrode location. Low frequency stimulation (0.5 Hz) was applied to the abdominal muscles of 10 able bodied and five tetraplegic participants. The electrode positions which achieved the strongest muscle contractions were recorded as the motor point positions, with measurements repeated once. For five able bodied participants, assessments were repeated after 18 months, in seated and supine positions. Intersubject uniformity ranged from 2.8 to 8.8%. Motor point positions were identified with intrasubject repeatability of <1.7 cm, deemed adequate relative to standard AFES electrode size. Intrasubject repeatability shows motor point positions changed little (<1.7 cm) after 18 months but varied between seated and supine positions with repeatability of up to 3.1 cm. A simple technique to locate the motor points of the abdominal muscles is presented and shown to have an adequate intrasubject repeatability, enabling the optimum AFES electrode location to be identified for each user.
Ishida, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Susumu
Recent studies have indicated that maximum expiration could be a useful way of performing challenging exercises that include coactivation of the deep and superficial abdominal muscles. However, little is known about the effect of maximum expiration on the activity of the abdominal muscles during lumbar stabilizing exercise. The purpose of our study was to quantify changes in the activities of the abdominal muscles during side bridge exercise in combination with maximum expiration. Experimental laboratory study. The activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and internal oblique (IO) muscles were measured using electromyography in 12 healthy men performing 3 tasks: holding the breath after maximum expiration in the supine position, holding the breath after resting expiration during side bridge exercise, and holding the breath after maximum expiration during side bridge exercise. Significant increases in the activities of the abdominal muscles (RA, EO, and IO) occurred with maximum expiration when compared with resting expiration during side bridge exercise (P <0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate the effect of maximum expiration on abdominal muscle activities during a stabilizing exercise, thus contributing to existing knowledge about therapeutic exercise for alternative core training.
Gardner, Brandon B.; Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Kim, Gene; Watson, Sydeaka; McNally, Elizabeth M.
Background The muscular dystrophies target muscle groups differentially. In mouse models of muscular dystrophy, notably the mdx model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, the diaphragm muscle shows marked fibrosis and at an earlier age than other muscle groups, more reflective of the histopathology seen in human muscular dystrophy. Methods Using a mouse model of limb girdle muscular dystrophy, the Sgcg mouse, we compared muscle pathology across different muscle groups and heart. A cohort of nearly 200 Sgcg mice were studied using multiple measures of pathology including echocardiography, Evans blue dye uptake and hydroxyproline content in multiple muscle groups. Spearman rank correlations were determined among echocardiographic and pathological parameters. Findings The abdominal muscles were found to have more fibrosis than other muscle groups, including the diaphragm muscle. The abdominal muscles also had more Evans blue dye uptake than other muscle groups. The amount of diaphragm fibrosis was found to correlate positively with fibrosis in the left ventricle, and abdominal muscle fibrosis correlated with impaired left ventricular function. Fibrosis in the abdominal muscles negatively correlated with fibrosis in the diaphragm and right ventricles. Together these data reflect the recruitment of abdominal muscles as respiratory muscles in muscular dystrophy, a finding consistent with data from human patients. PMID:26029630
Purpose Appendicitis is the most common abdominal inflammatory process in children which were sometimes followed by complications including intra-abdominal abscess. This later needs classically a surgical drainage. We evaluated the efficacy of antibiotic treatment and surgical drainage. Methods Hospital records of children treated in our unit for intra-abdominal post appendectomy abscesses over a 6 years period were reviewed retrospectively. Results This study investigates a series of 14 children from 2 to 13 years of age with one or many abscesses after appendectomy, treated between 2002 and 2007. Seven underwent surgery and the others were treated with triple antibiotherapy. The two groups were comparable. For the 7 patients who receive medical treatment alone, it was considered efficient in 6 cases (85%) with clinical, biological and radiological recovery of the abscess. There was one failure (14%). The duration of hospitalization from the day of diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess was approximately 10.28 days (range 7 to 14 days). In the other group, the efficacy of treatment was considered satisfactory in all cases. The duration of hospitalization was about 13 days (range: 9 to 20). Conclusion Compared to surgical drainage, antibiotic management of intra-abdominal abscesses was a no invasive treatment with shorter hospitalization. PMID:20946659
Smith, H G; Tzanis, D; Messiou, C; Benson, C; van der Hage, J A; Fiore, M; Bonvalot, S; Hayes, A J
Soft tissue tumours of the abdominal wall account for approximately 10% of all soft tissue tumours. Tumours at this site comprise a heterogeneous group of pathologies with distinct clinical behaviours and responses to treatment. The management of these tumours has largely been extrapolated from studies of soft tissue tumours at other sites. This review aims to summarise the existing data relating to abdominal wall tumours and suggest principles for managing soft tissue tumours at this site. Relevant articles were retrieved from a comprehensive literature search using the PubMed database. Key words included abdominal wall, soft tissue tumours, surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. No restrictions on publication date were used. The most common pathologies presenting in the abdominal wall are desmoid tumours, soft-tissue sarcoma and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP). Desmoid tumours should be managed with an initial period of observation, with surgery reserved for progressive lesions. Surgery should be the primary treatment for soft-tissue sarcomas and DFSP, with radiotherapy reserved for large-high grade tumours and preferentially given pre-operatively. Abdominal wall tumours are rare and should be managed in centres with experience in the management of soft tissue tumours. Management should be tailored to the biological behaviour of specific pathologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.
Woelk, Joshua L; Borah, Bijan J; Trabuco, Emanuel C; Heien, Herbert C; Gebhart, John B
To compare the costs of vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy with robotically assisted hysterectomy. We identified all cases of robotically assisted hysterectomy, with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, treated at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota) from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2009. Cases were propensity score-matched (one-to-one) to cases of vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy, selected randomly from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2006 (before acquisition of the robotic surgical system). All billed costs were abstracted through the sixth postoperative week from the Olmsted County Healthcare Expenditure and Utilization Database and compared between cohorts with a generalized linear modeling framework. Predicted costs were estimated with the recycled predictions method. Costs of operative complications also were estimated. The total number of abdominal hysterectomies collected for comparison was 234 and the total number of vaginal hysterectomies was 212. Predicted mean cost of robotically assisted hysterectomy was $2,253 more than that of vaginal hysterectomy ($13,619 compared with $11,366; P<.001), although costs of complications were not significantly different. The predicted mean costs of robotically assisted compared with abdominal hysterectomy were similar ($14,679 compared with $15,588; P=.35). The costs of complications were not significantly different. Overall, vaginal hysterectomy was less costly than robotically assisted hysterectomy. Abdominal hysterectomy and robotically assisted hysterectomy had similar costs. II.
Wang, Y-G; Wu, J-S; Jiang, B; Wang, J-H; Liu, C-P; Peng, C; Tian, B-Z
This study aims to investigate the causes and treatment experience of severe abdominal infection after orthotopic liver transplantation. Clinical data were retrospectively analysed in perioperative severe abdominal infection of 186 orthotopic liver transplantation cases from March 2004 to November 2011. Among the 186 patients, 16 cases had severe abdominal infection: five cases had bile duct anastomotic leakage-inducing massive hydrops and infection under liver interstice, 10 cases had extensive bleeding of surgical wound leading to massive haematocele and infection around the liver, and one case had postoperative lower oesophageal fistula leakage causing massive hydrops and infection under the left diaphragm. After definite diagnosis, 12 cases underwent surgery within three days, with no death. Among the four cases that underwent surgery three days after diagnosis, one case died of multiple-organ failure five days after abdominal cavity exploration, which was performed 21 days after liver transplantation. Severe abdominal infections after liver transplantation were the most common causes of death in perioperative liver transplantation. Comprehensive treatment with efficacious antibiotics, multiple-organ support, controlled surgical removal of the lesion, and adequate drainage establishment was the key to the entire treatment.
Sun, Bo-Yu; Zhang, Bing; Lin, Zhi-Jian; Li, Li-Yu; Wang, Hong-Po; Zhou, Jun
To investigate the efficacy mechanisme of chicory extract interventing abdominal obesity rat from the aspect of gut bacteria. Male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups, namely the normal group, model group, large and small dose group of chicory and the fenofibrate group. Normal group was given deionized water, the other group was given fructose water and give the medical treatment of chicory and fenofibrate. Assay triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL by biochemical methods and measure body weight and abdominal circumference and microscopicly observe the count changes of gut bacteria through real-time PCR method. Compared with normal group, the triglyceride level and abdominal circumference were significantly higher (P < 0.05), weight and high-density lipoprotein increased but no significant changes and E. coli, lactobacillus increased significantly. Compared with model group, chicory extract large and small dose group and the fenofibrate group can significantly reduce triglyceride levels (P < 0.05), reduce the number of E. coli and Lactobacillus and increase the number of bifidobacteria. The fenofibrate group can significantly reduce total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein levels. The chicory's treatment effect on abdominal obesity is significant. The efficacy mechanisme intervention abdominal obesity may be related to the reduction of the number of lactic acid bacteria and E. coli and the increase of bifidobacteria.
Ragle, Claude A.; Schneider, Robert K.; Mehl, Margo M.
Objective: To report a ventral abdominal approach and technique for laparoscopic bilateral ovariectomy in horses. Study Design: Prospective. Sample Population: Eleven mares and four mules, ranging in age from 5 months to 18 years were used in this study. Methods: A triangulation technique with a single laparoscopic portal and four instrument portals were used for ventral abdominal laparoscopic ovariectomy. Laparoscopic instruments were used to maneuver and secure each ovary through a ligating loop (modified Roeder knot) that was secured from outside the abdominal cavity. Minimal enlargement of one instrument portal was used to remove the ovaries. Results: Operative time, defined as the time from laparoscopic insertion to removal, ranged from 20 to 90 minutes. The mean operative time of the last seven animals was 26 minutes. Signs of estrus were observed in two mares within six months after ovariectomy. Conclusions: The reported technique allowed decreased tension on the tissues during ligation and removal of each ovary from the peritoneal cavity. Improved observation of the abdominal cavity, ligation security, shortened patient confinement time, and minimally invasive technique are all considered to be benefits of laparoscopic ovariectomy. Clinical Relevance: The ventral abdominal laparoscopic approach permitted efficient and safe ovariectomy in foals and adults.
Neal, P.N.; Jenkin, R.D.T.
One hundred and fifty-two consecutive children who had Wilms' tumor were treated from 1960 to 1976. This series was analysed to determine the effect of systemic treatment on the incidence of abdominal relapse. Primary treatment included abdominal irradiation in 151 of these patients. Twenty-two patients (14%) had abdominal disease alone or in part at first relapse. For stages I-IV combined, a first abdominal relapse within the irradiated volume occurred in 3/21 patients (14%) who received no systemic treatment; 6/83 patients (7%) who received actinomycin D (AMD) and 1/35 patients (3%) who received AMD and vincristine (VCR). The mean radiation dose, 2400 rad given in 100-125 rad fractions, was essentially constant. Overall two in-field abdominal relapses occurred among 85 patients with stage I or II disease. The optimal radiation dose could not be determined in this retrospective review, but for stages I and II it was not greater than 2400 rad in 24 fractions.
The present study aimed to investigate the use of ultrasound and differential diagnosis to diagnose a fetal abdominal cyst. A retrospective analysis of 41 cases of fetal abdominal cyst, which included ovarian cysts, choledochal cysts, intestinal duplication and mesenteric cysts, was performed. Imaging characteristics of various types of cysts were summarized, compared and discussed. Among 41 fetal abdominal cyst cases, there were 21 cases of ovarian cysts, 11 cases of bile duct cyst, six cases of intestinal duplication and three cases of mesenteric cyst. Each type of fetal cyst had its own distinctive characteristics on abdominal ultrasound examination. Ovarian cysts were located at one side of the bladder, round-shaped and observed in female fetuses; choledochal cysts were located in the hilar, were oblong- or oval-shaped and connected to the bile duct; intestinal duplication was located in the middle of abdomen, close to the intestine, and presented as an intestinal wall-like structure; mesenteric cysts were round-shaped with thin tensionless wall, presented with multiple chambers, and were easily deformable on compression. The findings of the present study demonstrated that a comprehensive analysis of the association between the cyst and its adjacent location, shape, wall thickness, motility and other aspects of dynamic changes via ultrasonography may provide a differential diagnosis of different types of fetal abdominal cysts.
The present study aimed to investigate the use of ultrasound and differential diagnosis to diagnose a fetal abdominal cyst. A retrospective analysis of 41 cases of fetal abdominal cyst, which included ovarian cysts, choledochal cysts, intestinal duplication and mesenteric cysts, was performed. Imaging characteristics of various types of cysts were summarized, compared and discussed. Among 41 fetal abdominal cyst cases, there were 21 cases of ovarian cysts, 11 cases of bile duct cyst, six cases of intestinal duplication and three cases of mesenteric cyst. Each type of fetal cyst had its own distinctive characteristics on abdominal ultrasound examination. Ovarian cysts were located at one side of the bladder, round-shaped and observed in female fetuses; choledochal cysts were located in the hilar, were oblong- or oval-shaped and connected to the bile duct; intestinal duplication was located in the middle of abdomen, close to the intestine, and presented as an intestinal wall-like structure; mesenteric cysts were round-shaped with thin tensionless wall, presented with multiple chambers, and were easily deformable on compression. The findings of the present study demonstrated that a comprehensive analysis of the association between the cyst and its adjacent location, shape, wall thickness, motility and other aspects of dynamic changes via ultrasonography may provide a differential diagnosis of different types of fetal abdominal cysts. PMID:28123506
Mongolu, S; Sharp, P
Although uncommon, lead poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of unexplained acute abdominal pain in both adults and children. We present the case of a 35-year-old Asian male who presented with abdominal pain and constipation secondary to lead poisoning. Initially, the source of lead exposure was not apparent; this was later found to be due to ingestion of an Ayurvedic herbal medicine for the treatment of infertility. Lead poisoning due to the ingestion of Ayurvedic remedies is well described. We discuss the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of lead poisoning. This case illustrates one of the rarer medical causes of acute abdominal pain and emphasizes the need to take a thorough history (including specific questioning regarding the use of over-the-counter and traditional/ herbal remedies) in cases of suspected poisoning or drug toxicity.
Kamamoto, Fabio; Batista, Bernardo Nogueira; Tokeshi, Flavio
Advances in care of trauma patients and severe abdominal infections are responsible for an increasing number of laparostomies. The management of this entity is complex and several techniques have been described for its treatment. Recently the concept of dynamic closure of the abdominal wall was introduced in the literature with high success rates. The objective of this report is to serve as a foreword for a new approach for the treatment of laparostomy developed at the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo. This is a simple and low cost method, easily performed by a general surgeon. The procedure was also used prophylactically as reinforcement in tight abdominal closures. It is described in detail as well as the results in the first patients. Although promising, refinements and further studies are needed to validate the technique.
López-Cano, Manuel; Pereira, José Antonio; Villanueva, Borja; Vallribera, Francesc; Espin, Eloy; Armengol Carrasco, Manuel; Arbós Vía, María Antonia; Feliu, Xavier; Morales-Conde, Salvador
The closure of a temporary stoma involves 2 different surgical procedures: the stoma reversal procedure and the abdominal wall reconstruction of the stoma site. The management of the abdominal wall has different areas that should be analyzed such us how to avoid surgical site infection (SSI), the technique to be used in case of a concomitant hernia at the stoma site or to prevent an incisional hernia in the future, how to deal with the incision when the stoma reversal procedure is performed by laparoscopy and how to close the skin at the stoma site. The aim of this paper is to analyze these aspects in relation to abdominal wall reconstruction during a stoma reversal procedure.
Ge, Dong-Jian; Qi, Bin; Tang, Gang; Li, Jin-Yu
Abstract Surgery-induced acute postoperative pain may lead to prolonged convalescence. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of intraoperative dexmedetomidine on postoperative analgesia following abdominal colectomy surgeries. Eighty patients scheduled for abdominal colectomy surgery under general anesthesia were divided into 2 groups, which were maintained using propofol/remifentanil/dexmedetomidine (PRD) or propofol/remifentanil/saline (PRS). During surgery, patients in the PRD group had a lower bispectral index (BIS) value, which indicated a deeper anesthetic state, and a higher sedation score right after extubation than patients in the PRS group. During the first 24 hours post surgery, PRD patients consumed less morphine in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and had a lower score in the visual analog scale (VAS) testing than their controls from the PRS group. Intraoperative administration of dexmedetomidine appears to promote the analgesic property of morphine-based PCA in patients after abdominal colectomy. PMID:26376397
Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N; Groenewald, Hermanus B
Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in six adult captive caracals (Caracal caracal) to describe the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy. Consistently, the splenic parenchyma was hyperechoic to the liver and kidneys. The relative echogenicity of the right kidney's cortex was inconsistent to the liver. The gall bladder was prominent in five animals and surrounded by a clearly visualized thin, smooth, regular echogenic wall. The wall thickness of the duodenum measured significantly greater compared with that of the jejunum and colon. The duodenum had a significantly thicker mucosal layer compared with that of the stomach. Such knowledge of the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy of individual species is important for accurate diagnosis and interpretation of routine health examinations.
Iaselli, Francesco; Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Firetto, Cristina; D'Elia, Domenico; Squitieri, Nevada Cioffi; Biondetti, Pietro Raimondo; Danza, Francesco Maria; Scaglione, Mariano
The bowel and the mesentery represent the third most frequently involved structures in blunt abdominal trauma after the liver and the spleen. Clinical assessment alone in patients with suspected intestinal and/or mesenteric injury from blunt abdominal trauma is associated with unacceptable diagnostic delays. Multi-detector computed tomography, thanks to its high spatial, time and contrast resolutions, allows a prompt identification and proper classification of such conditions. The radiologist, in fact, is asked not only to identify the signs of trauma but also to provide an indication of their clinical significance, suggesting the chance of conservative treatment in the cases of mild and moderate, non-complicated or self-limiting injuries and focusing on life-threatening conditions which may benefit from immediate surgical or interventional procedures. Specific and non-specific CT signs of bowel and mesenteric injuries from blunt abdominal trauma are reviewed in this paper.
Dalainas, I; Nano, G; Ranucci, M; Bianchi, P; Stegher, S; Casana, R; Malacrida, G; Tealdi, D G
The aim of the study was to report a 20-year single Institution experience, with the early and late outcomes of surgical treatment of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms. In a 20-year period, 2 275 consecutive patients underwent elective surgical repair for non-rupture abdominal aortic aneurysm. Fifty-two patients (2.3%) were classified as inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms. Early and late outcomes were analyzed. One patient died in the perioperative period, giving a mortality rate of 1.92%. One patient died from a pseudoaneurysm rupture 7 months after operation. Three patients developed an aortic pseudoaneurysm in the follow-up period (mean 12.1 years, range 1-20 years) and underwent a redo operation. Overall surgical outcome of these patients, in terms of short-term and long-term is good. A high rate of pseudoaneurysm formation was observed.
Marcellin, Louis; Ménard, Sophie; Lamau, Marie-Charlotte; Mignon, Alexandre; Aubelle, Marie Stephanie; Grangé, Gilles; Goffinet, François
Objective We report an uneventful conservative approach of an advanced abdominal pregnancy discovered at 22 weeks of gestation. Study Design This study is a case report. Results Attempting to extend gestation of an advanced abdominal pregnancy is not a common strategy and is widely questioned. According to the couple's request, the management consisted in continuous hospitalization, regular ultrasound scan, and antenatal corticosteroids. While the woman remained asymptomatic, surgery was planned at 32 weeks, leading to the birth of a preterm child without any long-term complications. Placenta was left in situ with a prophylactic embolization, and its resorption was monitored. Conclusion Depending on multidisciplinary cares and agreement of the parents, when late discovered, prolonging advanced abdominal pregnancy appears to be a reasonable option. PMID:25032062
Aquino, Michael R; Gibson, Donald P; Bloom, David A
Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare but aggressive malignancy in children and adolescents. Prognosis is related to initial tumor resectability as well as staging of the disease based on tumor invasiveness, tumor bulk, nodal disease and metastases. We report the unusual presentation of paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma with metastatic extension through the inguinal canal and encasement of the abdominal aorta. These features portend a poor prognosis given their association with a greater stage of disease and unresectable nature at presentation. Delayed surgical resection follows a regimen of chemotherapy and radiation therapy in such cases of extensive disease. Encasement of the abdominal aorta has been shown to increase presurgical risk for intraoperative vascular injury when related to other malignancies, but its role in relation to metastatic paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma has not been investigated. Also, rhabdomyosarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnoses of tumors that demonstrate encasement of the abdominal aorta.
Wang, Frederick; Buonocore, Samuel; Narayan, Deepak
This study describes the treatment of two patients with recurrent, infected abdominal wall defects using bilateral delayed and tunnelled pedicled tensor fascia lata (TFL) myofascial flaps. TFL flaps were elevated and delayed for 4 weeks in both cases. In the second case, Parietex Composite mesh was positioned underneath the TFL flap and allowed to incorporate. After a delay of 4 weeks, the flaps were harvested and tunnelled subcutaneously to repair the abdominal wall defect. Both patients have stable repairs but had donor site seromas requiring drainage. Cadaver dissection was also performed to identify structures related to TFL flap harvest. We identified a variant of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve that traversed the TFL flap, necessitating meticulous dissection during surgery. In summary, we describe a new technique of incorporating mesh into the TFL prior to flap harvest for reconstruction of complex abdominal wall. PMID:22707661
Petros, Firas G; Patel, Manish N; Kheterpal, Emil; Siddiqui, Sameer; Ross, James; Bhandari, Akshay; Diaz, Mireya; Menon, Mani; Rogers, Craig G
• To evaluate our experience with robotic partial nephrectomy in patients with previous abdominal surgery and evaluate the effect of previous abdominal surgery on perioperative outcomes. We also describe a technique for intraperitoneal access for patients with prior abdominal surgery utilizing the 8 mm robotic camera for direct-vision trocar placement. • From a prospective cohort of 197 consecutive patients who underwent robotic renal surgery at a single academic institution, a total of 95 patients underwent transperitoneal robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN). • Patients with and without previous abdominal surgery were compared. Patients with prior abdominal surgery were subcategorized into two groups: upper midline or ipsilateral upper quadrant scar or lower abdominal, contralateral, or minimally-invasive scar. • Demographic and perioperative variables were compared between the surgery and no surgery groups. Access was obtained using a Veress needle or Hassan technique. • We utilized a technique of direct vision placement of the initial trocar on our 10 most recent cases, using an 8 mm robotic camera placed through the obturator of 12 mm clear-tipped trocar. • Lysis of adhesions was performed as needed to allow for placement of additional robotic ports. • A total of 95 patients underwent transperitoneal RPN, of which 41 (43%) had a history of prior abdominal surgery and six had upper midline or ipsilateral upper quadrant scars. • There were no statistically significant differences between patients with previous abdominal surgery and patients with no previous abdominal surgery in BMI (30.4 vs 29.4 kg/m(2) ), median tumor size (2.5 cm vs 2.3), median total operative time (246 vs 250 min), median warm ischemia time (21 vs 16 min), median EBL (150 vs100 ml), clinical stage, transfusion rate, or complications. • A total of six patients underwent 7 previous upper midline or ipsilateral upper quadrant surgeries, including open cholecystectomy-2 patients
Balén, E; Herrera, J; Miranda, C; Tarifa, A; Zazpe, C; Lera, J M
Abdominal emergencies can also be operated on through the laparoscopic approach: the approach can be diagnostic laparoscopy, surgery assisted by laparoscopy or laparotomy directed according to the findings of the laparoscopy. The general contraindications refer above all to the state of haemodynamic instability of the patient and to seriously ill patients (ASA IV). In the absence of any specific counter-indications for the specific laparoscopic procedure to be carried out, many abdominal diseases requiring emergency surgery can be performed with the laparoscopic approach. The most frequent indications are appendicitis, acute colecistitis, gastroduodenal perforation, occlusion of the small intestine, and some abdominal traumas. With a correct selection of patients and the appropriate experience of the surgeon, the results are excellent and better than open surgery (less infection of the wound, complications, hospital stay and postoperative pain). A detailed explanation is given of the basic aspects of the surgical technique in the most frequent procedures of emergency laparoscopy.
Acquired abdominal intercostal hernia (AAIH) is a rare disease phenomenon where intra-abdominal contents reach the intercostal space directly from the peritoneal cavity through an acquired defect in the abdominal wall musculature and fascia. We discuss a case of a 51-year-old obese female who arrived to the emergency room with a painful swelling between her left 10th rib and 11th rib. She gave a history of a stab wound to the area 15 years earlier. A CT scan revealed a fat containing intercostal hernia with no diaphragmatic defect. An open operative approach with a hernia patch was used to repair this hernia. These hernias are difficult to diagnose, so a high clinical suspicion and thorough history and physical exam are important. This review discusses pathogenesis, clinical presentation, complications, and appropriate treatment strategies of AAIH. PMID:25197605
Pannu, Deepika; Bharti, Rekha; Anand, HP; Sharma, Manjula
Term, live abdominal pregnancy secondary to rupture of a uterine rudimentary horn is a rare condition. Pregnancies conceived in the rudimentary horn of the uterus usually rupture during early gestation and present as a catastrophic event. However, rarely, after rupture of the uterine horn the foetus may continue to grow in the abdominal cavity and reach term gestation. A primigravida with a term pregnancy was referred to our centre for caesarean section with ultrasonography findings of transverse lie and placenta previa. During surgery, a live baby was extracted from the abdominal cavity, revealing a bicornuate uterus with rupture of the rudimentary horn. The early peroperative diagnosis and prompt control of the bleeding with excision of the rudimentary horn and transfusion of multiple blood products saved the patient’s life. The case is presented for its rarity and to highlight the importance of a high index of suspicion in cases presenting with abnormal foetal presentation. PMID:27904431
Sosa-Durán, Erik Efraín; Aboharp-Hasan, Ziad; Mendoza-Morales, Roberto Cuauhtémoc; García-Rodríguez, Francisco Mario; Jiménez-Villanueva, Xicoténcatl; Peñavera-Hernández, José Rafael
Clear cell carcinoma originating in the abdominal wall is a rare event. It is generally associated with endometrial tissue implants left behind after a caesarean section or other gynaecological operations. Its pathophysiology is complex and controversial. The case is presented of a 45 year-old female with history of three caesarean sections, who was seen due to having a tumour mass of 6 months onset in the anterior abdominal wall. Imaging studies confirmed its location, and due to measuring 9 by 7 cm it was suspected to be an urachal tumour. A resection with wide margins was performed. The histopathology report was of a clear cell adenocarcinoma originated in ectopic endometrial tissue, with negative margins. This is a very rare case, with few cases reported in the literature. This diagnosis should be included in tumours of the abdominal wall. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.
Humphrey, J.D.; Holzapfel, G.A.
Biomechanical factors play fundamental roles in the natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and their responses to treatment. Advances during the past two decades have increased our understanding of the mechanics and biology of the human abdominal aorta and AAAs, yet there remains a pressing need for considerable new data and resulting patient-specific computational models that can better describe the current status of a lesion and better predict the evolution of lesion geometry, composition, and material properties and thereby improve interventional planning. In this paper, we briefly review data on the structure and function of the human abdominal aorta and aneurysmal wall, past models of the mechanics, and recent growth and remodeling models. We conclude by identifying open problems that we hope will motivate studies to improve our computational modeling and thus general understanding of AAAs. PMID:22189249
Park, Sung-Hyun; Song, Min-Young; Park, Hyeon-Ji; Park, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Hyun-Young; Lim, Da-Som
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective strength levels of abdominal muscle contraction using the bracing contraction method. [Subjects] The experiment was conducted with 31 healthy male (M=15) and female (F=16) adults attending D University in Busan; all participants had less than obesity level BMI (BMI<30). [Methods] Bracing contraction was performed by the subjects in the hook-lying position at maximum and minimum pressure levels, five times each, using a Pressure Biofeedback Unit (PBU), and the mean measurement value was calculated. The maximum pressure level was set at 100% and the half maximum pressure level was set at 50%. Each subject’s left and right abdominal muscle thicknesses were then measured by ultrasound imaging in each state: at rest, 100% contraction, and 50% contraction. [Results] No significant differences were found between the left and right sides of the transversus abdominis (TrA) at rest, 50%, or 100% contraction. The external oblique abdominis (EO) and internal oblique abdominis (IO) showed no significant difference at rest or at the 50% contraction. However, a significant difference was noted at 100% contraction for the EO and IO. [Conclusion] Application of abdominal contraction using bracing can achieve symmetry in the left and right abdominal muscles at less than the maximum contractile strength. The occurrence of asymmetry in the left and right abdominal muscles at the maximum contractile strength suggests that the most suitable contractile strength in this exercise is less than the maximum contractile strength. PMID:25540478
Park, Sung-Hyun; Song, Min-Young; Park, Hyeon-Ji; Park, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Hyun-Young; Lim, Da-Som
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective strength levels of abdominal muscle contraction using the bracing contraction method. [Subjects] The experiment was conducted with 31 healthy male (M=15) and female (F=16) adults attending D University in Busan; all participants had less than obesity level BMI (BMI<30). [Methods] Bracing contraction was performed by the subjects in the hook-lying position at maximum and minimum pressure levels, five times each, using a Pressure Biofeedback Unit (PBU), and the mean measurement value was calculated. The maximum pressure level was set at 100% and the half maximum pressure level was set at 50%. Each subject's left and right abdominal muscle thicknesses were then measured by ultrasound imaging in each state: at rest, 100% contraction, and 50% contraction. [Results] No significant differences were found between the left and right sides of the transversus abdominis (TrA) at rest, 50%, or 100% contraction. The external oblique abdominis (EO) and internal oblique abdominis (IO) showed no significant difference at rest or at the 50% contraction. However, a significant difference was noted at 100% contraction for the EO and IO. [Conclusion] Application of abdominal contraction using bracing can achieve symmetry in the left and right abdominal muscles at less than the maximum contractile strength. The occurrence of asymmetry in the left and right abdominal muscles at the maximum contractile strength suggests that the most suitable contractile strength in this exercise is less than the maximum contractile strength.
Ishida, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Susumu
All lateral abdominal muscles contract more strongly during maximum expiration than during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM). However, little is known about which of the lateral abdominal muscles is activated during maximum expiration. Thus, the purpose of this study is to quantify changes in the thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles immediately after the ADIM and maximum expiration. The thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscles was measured by ultrasound imaging in 30 healthy men before and after the ADIM and maximum expiration. After the ADIM, there was no significant change in the thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles. After maximum expiration, the thickness of the TrA muscle significantly increased, and there was no significant change in the thickness of the IO and EO muscles. Thus, maximum expiration may be an effective method for TrA, rather than IO and EO, muscle training. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Silva, C A G; Motta, M E F A
The effect of muscular training, abdominal massage and diaphragmatic breathing was compared with medical treatment in a prospective randomized trial of patients with chronic functional constipation. Patients aged 4-18 years old with functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria were randomized to physiotherapy or medical treatment. In the physiotherapy group, exercises (isometric training of the abdominal muscles, diaphragmatic breathing exercises and abdominal massage) were employed during 12 40-min sessions twice a week by a trained physiotherapist, with laxatives. Patients in the medication group were only given laxatives. Primary outcome measures were frequency of defaecation and faecal incontinence. The analysis was performed by intention-to-treat. After 6 weeks of treatment, the frequency of bowel movements was higher in the physiotherapy group [5.1 (2.1) days/week] than in the medication group [3.9 (2.0) days/week] (P = 0.01). The frequency of faecal incontinence was no different between the groups [3.6 (1.9) days/week vs 3.0 (2.1) days/week] (P = 0.31). The combined use of isometric training of abdominal muscles, breathing exercises and abdominal massage increased defaecation frequency after 6 weeks but faecal incontinence remained unchanged. Physiotherapy may be a useful treatment for constipation. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Lattuada, Marco; Maripuu, Enn; Segerstad, Carl Hard af; Lundqvist, Hans; Hedenstierna, Göran
Abdominal oedema is common in sepsis. A technique for the study of such oedema may guide in the fluid regime of these patients. We modified a double-isotope technique to evaluate abdominal organ oedema and fluid extravasation in 24 healthy or endotoxin-exposed ('septic') piglets. Two different markers were used: red blood cells (RBC) labelled with Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) and Transferrin labelled with Indium111 ((111)In). Images were acquired on a dual-head gamma camera. Microscopic evaluation of tissue biopsies was performed to compare data with the isotope technique. No (99m)Tc activity was measured in the plasma fraction in blood sampled after labelling. Similarly, after molecular size gel chromatography, (111)In activity was exclusively found in the high molecular fraction of the plasma. Extravasation of transferrin, indicating the degree of abdominal oedema, was 4·06 times higher in the LPS group compared to the healthy controls (P<0·0001). Abdominal free fluid, studied in 3 animals, had as high (111)In activity as in plasma, but no (99m)Tc activity. Intestinal lymphatic vessel size was higher in LPS (3·7 ± 1·1 μm) compared to control animals (0·6 + 0·2 μm; P<0·001) and oedema correlated to villus diameter (R(2) = 0·918) and lymphatic diameter (R(2) = 0·758). A correlation between a normalized index of oedema formation (NI) and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was also found: NI = 0·46*IAP-3·3 (R(2) = 0·56). The technique enables almost continuous recording of abdominal oedema formation and may be a valuable tool in experimental research, with the potential to be applied in the clinic. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.
Sugimoto, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Yasuaki; Hirose, Sou; Michiura, Toshiya; Fujita, Shigeo; Yamabe, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Satoru; Nagaoka, Makio
A 78 -year-old man with rectal cancer underwent abdominoperineal resection of the rectum. In the postoperative period, the patient experienced wound infection, leading to an abdominal wall hernia. Two years following surgery, a rise in the serum CEA level was seen. A metastatic tumor was detected in the right lung on chest CT. VATS right lung inferior lobe segmental resection was performed. After lobectomy, the serum CEA level continued to increase. Another metastatic tumor was detected in the right lung on chest CT. Chemotherapy with capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab was commenced. The erosive part of the abdominal wall scar hernia extended during the nine weeks of chemotherapy. The chemotherapy was then discontinued. In the follow-up CT scan, a right pleural recurrence, local recurrence in the pelvis, and a liver metastasis were detected. Chemotherapy was re-introduced 3 years after surgery. The erosive part of the abdominal wall hernia again began to spread with chemotherapy recommencement. Four months after restarting chemotherapy, the hernia ruptured, with a loop of the small intestine protruding out of it. The patient covered this with a sheet of vinyl and was taken by the ambulance to our hospital. The erosive part of the abdominal wall hernia had split by 10 cm, and a loop of the small intestine was protruding. As ischemia of the small intestine was not observed, we replaced it into the abdominal cavity, and performed a temporary suture repair of the hernia sac. Following this, bevacizumab was discontinued, and the erosive part reduced. We performed a radical operation for abdominal wall scar hernia repair 11 weeks after the discontinuation of bevacizumab.
Ko, Ara; Zaw, Andrea A; Barmparas, Galinos; Hoang, David M; Murry, Jason S; Li, Tong; Ashrafian, Sogol; McNeil, Nathan J; Margulies, Daniel R; Ley, Eric J
We sought to investigate the incidence of abdominal injuries in "found down" trauma patients to better understand the value of emergency department (ED) imaging. Found down patients are at high risk for injuries to the head or neck and low risk to the abdomen or pelvis, so imaging with CT of the abdomen/pelvis (AP) or Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) is of questionable value. The trauma registry was queried over a 10-year period ending December 2013 for found down patients. Demographics, CT AP, FAST scans, and injuries were abstracted from the trauma registry and then through a confirmatory chart review. The primary outcome was significant abdominal or pelvis injury, defined as abdomen/pelvis Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥ 3 or an abdominal injury that required operative intervention. The secondary outcome was mortality due to abdominal injury. Of the 342 patients who met inclusion criteria, mean Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was 11.0, and 189 (60%) of those tested for alcohol were intoxicated. Abdominal imaging included: CT AP only, 88 (57%); FAST only, 37 (24%); and CT AP and FAST, 29 (19%). Neither CT AP nor FAST scan led to a change in treatment and no patient had abdomen/pelvis AIS ≥ 3. Overall mortality was 33 (10%).The 24 trauma deaths were attributed to serious head trauma (n = 16) or traumatic arrest in the ED (n = 8); the 9 medical deaths were due to cerebral vascular accident (n = 5) or sepsis (n = 4). Although patients found down have a high mortality, abdominal injuries identified by imaging are highly unlikely. Efforts should focus on rapidly identifying and treating other causes of mortality, especially trauma to the head and neck, or medical diagnoses such as cerebral vascular accident or sepsis. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wildman, Rachel P; McGinn, Aileen P; Lin, Juan; Wang, Dan; Muntner, Paul; Cohen, Hillel W; Reynolds, Kristi; Fonseca, Vivian; Sowers, MaryFran R
It remains unclear whether abdominal obesity increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk independent of the metabolic abnormalities that often accompany it. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the independent effects of abdominal obesity vs. metabolic syndrome and diabetes on the risk for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. The Framingham Offspring, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, and Cardiovascular Health studies were pooled to assess the independent effects of abdominal obesity (waist circumference >102 cm for men and >88 cm for women) vs. metabolic syndrome (excluding the waist circumference criterion) and diabetes on risk for incident CHD and stroke in 20,298 men and women aged ≥45 years. The average follow-up was 8.3 (s.d. 1.9) years. There were 1,766 CVD events. After adjustment for demographic factors, smoking, alcohol intake, number of metabolic syndrome components, and diabetes, abdominal obesity was not significantly associated with an increased risk of CVD (hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval): 1.09 (0.98, 1.20)). However, after adjustment for demographics, smoking, alcohol intake, and abdominal obesity, having 1-2 metabolic syndrome components, the metabolic syndrome and diabetes were each associated with a significantly increased risk of CVD (2.12 (1.80, 2.50), 2.82 (1.92, 4.12), and 5.33 (3.37, 8.41), respectively). Although abdominal obesity is an important clinical tool for identification of individuals likely to possess metabolic abnormalities, these data suggest that the metabolic syndrome and diabetes are considerably more important prognostic indicators of CVD risk.
Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Fusun F; Kendir, Tulin; Dalay, Remzi A; Akbayir, Nihat; Sokmen, Mehmet H; Ince, Ali T; Guran, Mithat; Ceylan, Erkan; Kilic, Guray; Ovunc, Oya
Background The accurate diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis usually takes a long time and requires a high index of suspicion in clinic practice. Eighty-eight immune-competent patients with abdominal tuberculosis were grouped according to symptoms at presentation and followed prospectively in order to investigate the effect of symptomatic presentation on clinical diagnosis and prognosis. Methods Based upon the clinical presentation, the patients were divided into groups such as non-specific abdominal pain & less prominent in bowel habit, ascites, alteration in bowel habit, acute abdomen and others. Demographic, clinical and laboratory features, coexistence of pulmonary tuberculosis, diagnostic procedures, definitive diagnostic tests, need for surgical therapy, and response to treatment were assessed in each group. Results According to clinical presentation, five groups were constituted as non-specific abdominal pain (n = 24), ascites (n = 24), bowel habit alteration (n = 22), acute abdomen (n = 9) and others (n = 9). Patients presenting with acute abdomen had significantly higher white blood cell counts (p = 0.002) and abnormalities in abdominal plain radiographs (p = 0.014). Patients presenting with alteration in bowel habit were younger (p = 0.048). The frequency of colonoscopic abnormalities (7.5%), and need for therapeutic surgery (12.5%) were lower in patients with ascites, (p = 0.04) and (p = 0.001), respectively. There was no difference in gender, disease duration, diagnostic modalities, response to treatment, period to initial response, and mortality between groups (p > 0.05). Gastrointestinal tract alone was the most frequently involved part (38.5%), and this was associated with acid-fast bacteria in the sputum (p = 0.003). Conclusion Gastrointestinal tract involvement is frequent in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Although different clinical presentations of patients with abdominal tuberculosis determine diagnostic work up and need for