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Sample records for abdominal constriction test

  1. Factors involved in the antinatriuretic effects of acute constriction of the thoracic and abdominal inferior vena cava.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrier, R. W.; Humphreys, M. H.

    1971-01-01

    Study of the antinatriuretic effect of acute thoracic inferior vena cava (TIVC) constriction in the absence of alterations in renal perfusion pressure. A comparison is made of the effects of equivalent degrees of TIVC and abdominal inferior vena cava constriction on arterial pressure, renal hemodynamics, and electrolyte excretion.

  2. Red Blood Cells from Individuals with Abdominal Obesity or Metabolic Abnormalities Exhibit Less Deformability upon Entering a Constriction

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Nancy F.; Mancuso, Jordan E.; Zivkovic, Angela M.; Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; Ristenpart, William D.

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) are multifactorial conditions associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Previous work has demonstrated that the hemorheological profile is altered in patients with abdominal obesity and MS, as evidenced for example by increased whole blood viscosity. To date, however, no studies have examined red blood cell (RBC) deformability of blood from individuals with obesity or metabolic abnormalities under typical physiological flow conditions. In this study, we pumped RBCs through a constriction in a microfluidic device and used high speed video to visualize and track the mechanical behavior of ~8,000 RBCs obtained from either healthy individuals (n = 5) or obese participants with metabolic abnormalities (OMA) (n = 4). We demonstrate that the OMA+ cells stretched on average about 25% less than the healthy controls. Furthermore, we examined the effects of ingesting a high-fat meal on RBC mechanical dynamics, and found that the postprandial period has only a weak effect on the stretching dynamics exhibited by OMA+ cells. The results suggest that chronic rigidification of RBCs plays a key role in the increased blood pressure and increased whole blood viscosity observed in OMA individuals and was independent of an acute response triggered by consumption of a high-fat meal. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01803633 PMID:27258098

  3. Relationship between Shyness in Children and Constricted Cognitive Control as Measured by the Stroop Color-Word Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Robert P.; Lazarus, Philip J.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the relationship of shyness in children (N=103) to the constricted flexible dimension of cognitive control. Findings showed a significant difference in performance of the shy and nonshy group on the Stroop Color-Word Test. The shy group was less effective in maintaining performance in the presence of interfering stimuli. (JAC)

  4. Pressure Change in an Arterial Constriction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2015-01-01

    Consider the following ConcepTest. A platelet is drifting with the blood flowing through a horizontal artery. As the platelet enters a constriction, does the blood pressure increase, decrease, or stay the same?

  5. Pressure Change in an Arterial Constriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2015-12-01

    Consider the following ConcepTest. A platelet is drifting with the blood flowing through a horizontal artery. As the platelet enters a constriction, does the blood pressure increase, decrease, or stay the same?

  6. Electrophysiology of Axonal Constrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christopher; Jung, Peter; Brown, Anthony

    2013-03-01

    Axons of myelinated neurons are constricted at the nodes of Ranvier, where they are directly exposed to the extracellular space and where the vast majority of the ion channels are located. These constrictions are generated by local regulation of the kinetics of neurofilaments the most important cytoskeletal elements of the axon. In this paper we discuss how this shape affects the electrophysiological function of the neuron. Specifically, although the nodes are short (about 1 μm) in comparison to the distance between nodes (hundreds of μm) they have a substantial influence on the conduction velocity of neurons. We show through computational modeling that nodal constrictions (all other features such as numbers of ion channels left constant) reduce the required fiber diameter for a given target conduction velocity by up to 50% in comparison to an unconstricted axon. We further show that the predicted optimal fiber morphologies closely match reported fiber morphologies. Supported by The National Science Foundation (IOS 1146789)

  7. ENDOCOM : abdominal aortic aneurysm test bench for in vitro simulation.

    PubMed

    Mazeyrat, Johan; Romain, Olivier; Garda, Patrick; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Destrade, Michel; Karouia, Mourad; Leprince, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilatation of the aorta at the abdominal level, whose rupture is a life threatening complication. Recent treatment procedures of AAA consists in endovascular treatment with covered stent grafts. Despite improving design of these devices, this treatment is still associated with close to 25% of failure, due to persisting pressure into the excluded aneurysmal sac. The follow-up becomes thus crucial and demands frequent examinations (CT-scan, IRM) which are not so liable given the complications. In order to evaluate the post-operative period of an AAA treatment, we designed a communicative stent, comprising of an integrated pressure sensor. This paper presents the conception of a communicative sensor, the elaboration of a numerical model, and the development of an experimental testbench reproducing the aortic flux across an AAA and allowing the optimization and validation of the measurement principle. PMID:18002457

  8. Size, but not experience, affects the ontogeny of constriction performance in ball pythons (Python regius).

    PubMed

    Penning, David A; Dartez, Schuyler F

    2016-03-01

    Constriction is a prey-immobilization technique used by many snakes and is hypothesized to have been important to the evolution and diversification of snakes. However, very few studies have examined the factors that affect constriction performance. We investigated constriction performance in ball pythons (Python regius) by evaluating how peak constriction pressure is affected by snake size, sex, and experience. In one experiment, we tested the ontogenetic scaling of constriction performance and found that snake diameter was the only significant factor determining peak constriction pressure. The number of loops applied in a coil and its interaction with snake diameter did not significantly affect constriction performance. Constriction performance in ball pythons scaled differently than in other snakes that have been studied, and medium to large ball pythons are capable of exerting significantly higher pressures than those shown to cause circulatory arrest in prey. In a second experiment, we tested the effects of experience on constriction performance in hatchling ball pythons over 10 feeding events. By allowing snakes in one test group to gain constriction experience, and manually feeding snakes under sedation in another test group, we showed that experience did not affect constriction performance. During their final (10th) feedings, all pythons constricted similarly and with sufficiently high pressures to kill prey rapidly. At the end of the 10 feeding trials, snakes that were allowed to constrict were significantly smaller than their non-constricting counterparts.

  9. Does relative out-group size in neighborhoods drive down associational life of Whites in the U.S.? Testing constrict, conflict and contact theories.

    PubMed

    Savelkoul, Michael; Hewstone, Miles; Scheepers, Peer; Stolle, Dietlind

    2015-07-01

    We test whether a larger percentage of non-Whites in neighborhoods decreases associational involvement and build on earlier research in three ways. First, we explicitly consider the ethnic composition of organizations, distinguishing involvement in bridging (with out-group members) and bonding (only in-group members) organizations. Second, we start from constrict theory and test competing sets of predictions derived from conflict and contact theories to explain these relationships. Third, we examine whether relative out-group size affects involvement in different types of voluntary organizations equally. Using data from the 2005 U.S. 'Citizenship, Involvement, Democracy' survey, the percentage of non-Whites in neighborhoods is largely unrelated with associational involvement or perceived ethnic threat. However, perceiving ethnic threat is consistently negatively related with involvement in bridging organizations. Simultaneously, a larger percentage of non-Whites fosters intergroup contact, which is negatively related with perceptions of ethnic threat and involvement in bonding leisure organizations. Our results shed more light on the relationship between the relative out-group size in neighborhoods and associational involvement as well as underlying explanations for this link. PMID:26004460

  10. Reliability of ultrasound thickness measurement of the abdominal muscles during clinical isometric endurance tests.

    PubMed

    ShahAli, Shabnam; Arab, Amir Massoud; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Bahmani, Andia; Karimi, Noureddin; Nabavi, Hoda

    2015-07-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the intra-examiner reliability of ultrasound (US) thickness measurement of abdominal muscles activity when supine lying and during two isometric endurance tests in subjects with and without Low back pain (LBP). A total of 19 women (9 with LBP, 10 without LBP) participated in the study. Within-day reliability of the US thickness measurements at supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests were assessed in all subjects. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the relative reliability of thickness measurement. The standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were used to evaluate the absolute reliability. Results indicated high ICC scores (0.73-0.99) and also small SEM and MDC scores for within-day reliability assessment. The Bland-Altman plots of agreement in US measurement of the abdominal muscles during the two isometric endurance tests demonstrated that 95% of the observations fall between the limits of agreement for test and retest measurements. Together the results indicate high intra-tester reliability for the US measurement of the thickness of abdominal muscles in all the positions tested. According to the study's findings, US imaging can be used as a reliable method for assessment of abdominal muscles activity in supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests employed, in participants with and without LBP.

  11. Occupational causes of constrictive bronchiolitis

    PubMed Central

    Kreiss, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review New literature from 2009 to 2012 regarding occupational constrictive bronchiolitis challenges textbook descriptions of this disease, formerly thought to be limited to fixed airflow limitation arising in the wake of accidental overexposure to noxious chemicals. Indolent evolution of dyspnea without a recognized hazardous exposure is a more common presentation. Recent findings Biopsy-confirmed case series of constrictive bronchiolitis from US soldiers, Iranian survivors of sulfur mustard gassing, hospital-based studies, and flavoring-related cases document that indolent constrictive bronchiolitis cases can have normal spirometry or either restrictive or obstructive abnormalities. High-resolution computerized tomography studies can be normal or reflect air-trapping and mosaic attenuation on expiratory films. Thus, in the absence of noninvasive abnormalities, the diagnosis in dyspneic patients may require thoracoscopic biopsy in settings in which exposure risk has not been recognized. Many workers with occupational constrictive bronchiolitis stabilize with cessation of exposures causing bronchiolar epithelial necrosis. Summary Clinicians need a high index of suspicion for constrictive bronchiolitis in young patients with rapidly progressing exertional dyspnea, regardless of spirometric and radiologic findings. Identification of novel causes and exposure-response relations for known causes are needed to provide guidance for protecting workers at risk for this largely irreversible lung disease. PMID:23407121

  12. Aetiology of chronic constrictive pericarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Blake, S; Bonar, S; O'Neill, H; Hanly, P; Drury, I; Flanagan, M; Garrett, J

    1983-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 32 cases of chronic constrictive pericarditis treated by pericardiectomy during the past 25 years, four were attributable to rheumatoid disease, two to trauma, one to sarcoidosis, and four, at a maximum, to tuberculosis. In the remaining 21 cases of undetermined aetiology there was no evidence of tuberculosis. It appears, therefore, that tuberculosis was not a common cause of chronic constrictive pericarditis during the period under review, which included the 1950s and early 1960s when tuberculosis was widespread. PMID:6615663

  13. Influence of Hamstring and Abdominal Muscle Activation on a Positive Ober's Test in People with Lumbopelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Tenney, H. Rich; DeBord, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the immediate effect of hamstring and abdominal activation on pain levels as measured by the Numeric Pain Scale (NPS) and hip range of motion as measured by Ober's Test in people with lumbopelvic pain. Methods: Thirteen participants with lumbopelvic pain and positive Ober's Tests completed an exercise developed by the Postural Restoration Institute™ to recruit hamstrings and abdominal muscles. Results: There was a significant increase in passive hip-adduction angles (p<0.01) and decrease in pain (p<0.01) immediately after the intervention. Conclusion: Specific exercises that activate hamstrings and abdominal muscles appear to immediately improve Ober's Test measurements and reduce pain as measured by the NPS in people with lumbo-pelvic pain. Hamstring/abdominal activation, rather than iliotibial band stretching, may be an effective intervention for addressing lumbopelvic pain and a positive Ober's Test. PMID:24381375

  14. Constricted glow discharge plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre; Anders, Simone; Dickinson, Michael; Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan

    2000-01-01

    A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

  15. Water Load Test in Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain: No Relation to Food Intake and Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; Speridião, Patricia da Graça Leite; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the relations between the water load test in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders with food intake and nutritional status. Patients with functional dyspepsia required a lower maximum water intake to produce fullness (n = 11, median = 380 mL) than patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n = 10, median = 695 mL) or functional abdominal pain (n = 10, median = 670 mL) (P < 0.05). Among patients who ingested ≤560 mL (n = 17) or >560 mL (n = 14) in the water load test, there was no relation between the maximum drinking capacity and food intake, body mass index, or height. PMID:26317680

  16. Isolation of microorganisms using sub-micrometer constrictions.

    PubMed

    Tandogan, Nil; Abadian, Pegah N; Epstein, Slava; Aoi, Yoshiteru; Goluch, Edgar D

    2014-01-01

    We present an automated method for isolating pure bacterial cultures from samples containing multiple species that exploits the cell's own physiology to perform the separation. Cells compete to reach a chamber containing nutrients via a constriction whose cross-sectional area only permits a single cell to enter, thereby blocking the opening and preventing other cells from entering. The winning cell divides across the constriction and its progeny populate the chamber. The devices are passive and require no user interaction to perform their function. Device fabrication begins with the creation of a master mold that contains the desired constriction and chamber features. Replica molding is used to create patterned polymer chips from the master, which are bonded to glass microscope cover slips to create the constrictions. We tested constriction geometries ranging from 500 nanometers to 5 micrometers in width, 600 to 950 nanometers in height, and 10 to 40 micrometers in length. The devices were used to successfully isolate a pure Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture from a mixture that also contained Escherichia coli. We demonstrated that individual strains of the same species can be separated out from mixtures using red and green fluorescently-labeled E. coli. We also used the devices to isolate individual environmental species. Roseobacter sp. was separated from another marine species, Psychroserpens sp.

  17. Asymmetrical quartz crystallographic fabrics formed during constrictional deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, W. A.; Beane, R. J.

    2010-10-01

    Numerical simulations predict unique quartz crystallographic fabric patterns for plane strain, flattening, and constriction. Multiple studies support the predictions for plane strain and flattening. To test predictions for constriction, this paper analyzes five examples of quartz crystallographic fabrics from a 1-km-wide domain of L tectonites in the Pigeon Point high-strain zone, Klamath Mountains, California, U.S.A. These samples were deformed under greenschist- to amphibolite-facies conditions. Quartz c-axis fabrics are similar to the predicted double-girdle fabrics except that amphibolite-facies samples exhibit c-axis maxima and are distinctly asymmetrical about the elongation lineations. Activation of different slip systems combined with small deviations from pure constriction account for the c-axis maxima, and noncoaxial flow accounts for the fabric asymmetry. The simple-shear component is randomly oriented in geographic coordinates throughout the domain of L tectonites. These data confirm that numerical simulations predict the quartz c-axis fabric geometry developed during constriction for some deformation conditions, and they confirm the quartz a-axis patterns predicted for constriction for the first time. These data also demonstrate that the relationship between quartz crystallographic fabrics and strain geometry is not straightforward, and they indicate that a-axis fabrics may be more useful indicators of strain geometry variations.

  18. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... abdominal cavity ( most often cancer of the ovaries ) Cirrhosis of the liver Damaged bowel Heart disease Infection ...

  19. Unsaturated Oral Fat Load Test Improves Glycemia, Insulinemia and Oxidative Stress Status in Nondiabetic Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Navarro, Inmaculada; Real, Jose T.; Artero, Ana; Peiro, Marta; Gonzalez-Navarro, Herminia; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative stress markers during an oral fat load test in nondiabetic subjects with abdominal obesity and to analyze the association between postprandial oxidative stress markers and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Methods We included 20 subjects with abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women) and 20 healthy lean controls (waist circumference < 102 cm for men and < 88 cm for women). After 12 hours of fasting we performed a standardized fat load test (0–8 hours) with supracal® (50 g/m2). We determined metabolic parameters, oxidized and reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde. Results In both groups, insulin, HOMA, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and malondialdehyde significantly decreased in the postprandial state after the OFLT. All these parameters were significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group at baseline and during all the postprandial points, but the reduction from the baseline levels was significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group. Conclusion Unsaturated fat improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress status. It is possible that a consumption of unsaturated fat could be beneficial even in subjects with abdominal obesity in postprandial state. PMID:27537847

  20. MR imaging evaluation of pericardial constriction.

    PubMed

    Groves, Robert; Chan, Danielle; Zagurovskaya, Marianna; Teague, Shawn D

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal thickening or rigidity of the pericardium may compromise normal cardiac function. This condition is known as pericardial constriction, or constrictive pericarditis. Several imaging modalities are used to evaluate the pericardium, including MR, computed tomography, and echocardiography, which can all play a complementary role aiding diagnosis. This article focuses on MR imaging and its role in the detection and evaluation of pericardial constriction. MR imaging has many advantages compared with other modalities including precise delineation of the pericardial thickness, evaluation of ventricular function, detection of wall motion abnormalities, and provision of information about common (and potentially harmful) sequelae of pericardial constriction. PMID:25476676

  1. Constrictive Pericarditis Long after a Gunshot Wound

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Ho; Uhm, Jae-Sun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Chun, Kyung-Hyeon; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Lee, Seung Hyun; Hong, Geu-Ru

    2015-01-01

    Constrictive pericarditis is an uncommon post-inflammatory disorder characterized by a variably thickened, fibrotic, and frequently calcified, pericardium. Etiology of the constriction can occur for many reasons. Although foreign bodies are not the common cause of constrictive pericarditis, the long-term presence of foreign bodies, like bullets, is presumed to cause chronic constrictive pericarditis even after a very long asymptomatic period. A 69-year-old patient with atrial flutter was admitted to the hospital. A cardiac computed tomography showed a bullet located adjacent to the right atrium. The transthoracic echocardiography showed a thickened pericardium and septal bouncing motion, which were compatible with constrictive pericarditis. The history of the patient revealed an injury by gunshot during the Korean War in 1950. Radiofrequency ablation of the atrial flutter was performed, and after ablation, the bullet was removed surgically. The patient was discharged home after surgery without complications. PMID:26240588

  2. Gas arc constriction for plasma arc welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, William F. (Inventor); Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A welding torch for plasma arc welding apparatus has an inert gas applied circumferentially about the arc column externally of the constricting nozzle so as to apply a constricting force on the arc after it has exited the nozzle orifice and downstream of the auxiliary shielding gas. The constricting inert gas is supplied to a plenum chamber about the body of the torch and exits through a series of circumferentially disposed orifices in an annular wall forming a closure at the forward end of the constricting gas plenum chamber. The constricting force of the circumferential gas flow about the arc concentrates and focuses the arc column into a more narrow and dense column of energy after exiting the nozzle orifice so that the arc better retains its energy density prior to contacting the workpiece.

  3. What is the ideal surgical approach for intra-abdominal testes? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Carolyn; Chan, Emily; Nasr, Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    There is controversy regarding the ideal surgical management of intra-abdominal testes (IAT) to preserve fertility; we conducted a systematic review to address this problem. We performed a comprehensive electronic search of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL from 2008 to September 2014 (the date range was limited due to an abundance of literature), as well as reference lists of included studies. Two researchers screened all studies for inclusion, and quality assessed each relevant study using AMSTAR for systematic reviews (SRs), Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and MINORS for non-randomized studies. We identified two relevant SRs and 29 non-randomized studies. Due to the heterogeneity of the data, meta-analysis was not possible. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are insufficient for identification or localization of IAT; laparoscopic or surgical exploration is necessary. Primary orchiopexy is effective for low IAT, and Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy (FSO) is effective for high IAT. There is no clear benefit of one- vs. two-stage FSO, or of open vs. laparoscopic technique. Several alternative or modified techniques also show promise. RCTs are needed to confirm the validity of these findings, and to assess long-term outcomes.

  4. Constricted tube system for presumptive identification and differentiation of group D streptococci.

    PubMed

    Takeguchi, M M; Simpson, L B

    1979-04-01

    A single, constricted tube containing two differential media to identify and differentiate group D streptococci was developed. Test results with a limited number of group D streptococcal isolates were in complete agreement with results of conventional procedures.

  5. Surgical Management of the Constricted or Obliterated Vagina.

    PubMed

    Gebhart, John B; Schmitt, Jennifer J

    2016-08-01

    Management of the constricted or obliterated vagina demands an understanding and recognition of the potential etiologies leading to this presentation. A thorough and comprehensive medical and surgical review is required to arrive at an accurate diagnosis, which then will guide medical or surgical intervention. It is paramount to recognize when underlying medical conditions are contributing to these conditions and to begin medical therapy; failure to do so will often yield suboptimal results. When these conditions arise after surgical interventions, compensatory surgical techniques that correct upper and lower vaginal strictures or obliteration include incision through the stricture, vaginal advancement, Z-plasty, skin grafts, perineal flaps, and abdominal flaps and grafts. Postoperative surveillance and dilation are critical to optimize long-term success. PMID:27399991

  6. Nanoscale constrictions in superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Mark David; Naether, Uta; Ciria, Miguel; Zueco, David; Luis, Fernando; Sesé, Javier; Atkinson, James; Barco, Enrique del; Sánchez-Azqueta, Carlos; Majer, Johannes

    2014-10-20

    We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators with nanoscopic constrictions. By reducing the size of the center line down to 50 nm, the radio frequency currents are concentrated and the magnetic field in its vicinity is increased. The device characteristics are only slightly modified by the constrictions, with changes in resonance frequency lower than 1% and internal quality factors of the same order of magnitude as the original ones. These devices could enable the achievement of higher couplings to small magnetic samples or even to single molecular spins and have applications in circuit quantum electrodynamics, quantum computing, and electron paramagnetic resonance.

  7. Mechanics of Constriction during Cell Division: A Variational Approach

    PubMed Central

    Almendro-Vedia, Victor G.; Monroy, Francisco; Cao, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    During symmetric division cells undergo large constriction deformations at a stable midcell site. Using a variational approach, we investigate the mechanical route for symmetric constriction by computing the bending energy of deformed vesicles with rotational symmetry. Forces required for constriction are explicitly computed at constant area and constant volume, and their values are found to be determined by cell size and bending modulus. For cell-sized vesicles, considering typical bending modulus of , we calculate constriction forces in the range . The instability of symmetrical constriction is shown and quantified with a characteristic coefficient of the order of , thus evidencing that cells need a robust mechanism to stabilize constriction at midcell. PMID:23990888

  8. Apical constriction initiates new bud formation during monopodial branching of the embryonic chicken lung.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Young; Varner, Victor D; Nelson, Celeste M

    2013-08-01

    Branching morphogenesis sculpts the airway epithelium of the lung into a tree-like structure to conduct air and promote gas exchange after birth. In the avian lung, a series of buds emerges from the dorsal surface of the primary bronchus via monopodial branching to form the conducting airways; anatomically, these buds are similar to those formed by domain branching in the mammalian lung. Here, we show that monopodial branching is initiated by apical constriction of the airway epithelium, and not by differential cell proliferation, using computational modeling and quantitative imaging of embryonic chicken lung explants. Both filamentous actin and phosphorylated myosin light chain were enriched at the apical surface of the airway epithelium during monopodial branching. Consistently, inhibiting actomyosin contractility prevented apical constriction and blocked branch initiation. Although cell proliferation was enhanced along the dorsal and ventral aspects of the primary bronchus, especially before branch formation, inhibiting proliferation had no effect on the initiation of branches. To test whether the physical forces from apical constriction alone are sufficient to drive the formation of new buds, we constructed a nonlinear, three-dimensional finite element model of the airway epithelium and used it to simulate apical constriction and proliferation in the primary bronchus. Our results suggest that, consistent with the experimental results, apical constriction is sufficient to drive the early stages of monopodial branching whereas cell proliferation is dispensable. We propose that initial folding of the airway epithelium is driven primarily by apical constriction during monopodial branching of the avian lung.

  9. Exploring the potential of telmisartan in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal

    2011-09-30

    The present study was designed to investigate the potential of telmisartan, an angiotensin AT(1) receptor, in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Four loose ligatures were placed around the sciatic nerve to induce chronic constriction injury and neuropathic pain. Acetone drop, pin-prick, hot plate and paint brush tests were performed to assess cold allodynia; mechanical and heat hyperalgesia; and dynamic mechanical allodynia, respectively along with assessment of spontaneous pain and postural index in terms of foot deformity. The levels of TNF-α were measured in the sciatic nerve as an index of inflammation. Chronic constriction injury was associated with development of cold allodynia; mechanical and heat hyperalgesia; dynamic mechanical allodynia; and spontaneous pain and foot deformity along with rise in the levels of TNF-α. Telmisartan (1, 2, 5 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 14 days in chronic constriction injury subjected rats. Administration of telmisartan (2, 5 mg/kg) significantly attenuated chronic constriction injury-induced pain related behavior, foot deformity and rise in TNF-α level. It may be concluded that telmisartan has a potential in attenuating neuropathic pain behavior in chronic constriction injury model which may possibly be attributed to its anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:21741378

  10. Apical constriction initiates new bud formation during monopodial branching of the embryonic chicken lung

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Young; Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2013-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis sculpts the airway epithelium of the lung into a tree-like structure to conduct air and promote gas exchange after birth. In the avian lung, a series of buds emerges from the dorsal surface of the primary bronchus via monopodial branching to form the conducting airways; anatomically, these buds are similar to those formed by domain branching in the mammalian lung. Here, we show that monopodial branching is initiated by apical constriction of the airway epithelium, and not by differential cell proliferation, using computational modeling and quantitative imaging of embryonic chicken lung explants. Both filamentous actin and phosphorylated myosin light chain were enriched at the apical surface of the airway epithelium during monopodial branching. Consistently, inhibiting actomyosin contractility prevented apical constriction and blocked branch initiation. Although cell proliferation was enhanced along the dorsal and ventral aspects of the primary bronchus, especially before branch formation, inhibiting proliferation had no effect on the initiation of branches. To test whether the physical forces from apical constriction alone are sufficient to drive the formation of new buds, we constructed a nonlinear, three-dimensional finite element model of the airway epithelium and used it to simulate apical constriction and proliferation in the primary bronchus. Our results suggest that, consistent with the experimental results, apical constriction is sufficient to drive the early stages of monopodial branching whereas cell proliferation is dispensable. We propose that initial folding of the airway epithelium is driven primarily by apical constriction during monopodial branching of the avian lung. PMID:23824575

  11. An update on the etiology of abdominal aortic aneurysms: implications for future diagnostic testing.

    PubMed

    Miner, Grace H; Faries, Peter L; Costa, Kevin D; Hanss, Basil G; Marin, Michael L

    2015-10-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease is multifactorial with both environmental and genetic risk factors. The current research in AAA revolves around genetic profiles and expression studies in both human and animal models. Variants in genes involved in extracellular matrix degradation, inflammation, the renin-angiotensin system, cell growth and proliferation and lipid metabolism have been associated with AAA using a variety of study designs. However, the results have been inconsistent and without a standard animal model for validation. Thus, despite the growing body of knowledge, the specific variants responsible for AAA development, progression and rupture have yet to be determined. This review explores some of the more significant genetic studies to provide an overview of past studies that have influenced the current understanding of AAA etiology. Expanding our understanding of disease pathogenesis will inform research into novel diagnostics and therapeutics and ultimately to improve outcomes for patients with AAA.

  12. Vowel constrictions are recoverable from formants

    PubMed Central

    Iskarous, Khalil

    2010-01-01

    The area function of the vocal tract in all of its spatial detail is not directly computable from the speech signal. But is partial, yet phonetically distinctive, information about articulation recoverable from the acoustic signal that arrives at the listener’s ear? The answer to this question is important for phonetics, because various theories of speech perception predict different answers. Some theories assume that recovery of articulatory information must be possible, while others assume that it is impossible. However, neither type of theory provides firm evidence showing that distinctive articulatory information is or is not extractable from the acoustic signal. The present study focuses on vowel gestures and examines whether linguistically significant information, such as the constriction location, constriction degree, and rounding, is contained in the speech signal, and whether such information is recoverable from formant parameters. Perturbation theory and linear prediction were combined, in a manner similar to that in Mokhtari (1998) [Mokhtari, P. (1998). An acoustic-phonetic and articulatory study of speech-speaker dichotomy. Doctoral dissertation, University of New South Wales], to assess the accuracy of recovery of information about vowel constrictions. Distinctive constriction information estimated from the speech signal for ten American English vowels were compared to the constriction information derived from simultaneously collected X-ray microbeam articulatory data for 39 speakers [Westbury (1994). Xray microbeam speech production database user’s handbook. University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI]. The recovery of distinctive articulatory information relies on a novel technique that uses formant frequencies and amplitudes, and does not depend on a principal components analysis of the articulatory data, as do most other inversion techniques. These results provide evidence that distinctive articulatory information for vowels can be recovered from the

  13. [Semeiotics of abdominal tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Guseĭnov, G K; Ramazanova, A M; Guseĭnov, A G

    1984-01-01

    Examination of 119 patients with abdominal tuberculosis permitted the description of the characteristic semiotics of the illness. Today the patients with abdominal tuberculosis are mainly women of child-bearing age with a long-term tuberculosis catamnesis and intoxication, with a history of tuberculosis of different sites, those suffering from tuberculosis or its sequels at present (64%), those with pains (94%), discomfort or swelling of the abdomen (79%), malfunction of the gastrointestinal tract (65%), weight loss (86%), malnutrition (72%), anemia (63%), not infrequently with inflammatory induration (43%) or ascites in the abdominal cavity (39%). In addition to this characteristic semiotics, the patients with abdominal tuberculosis may demonstrate the most different and unexpected symptoms up to acute abdomen (23%). To make differential diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis, one has often to resort to diagnostic laparotomy, laparoscopy, Koch's test and to trial therapy.

  14. [Chronic constrictive pericarditis: MR imaging features].

    PubMed

    Dacher, J-N; Caudron, J; Fares, J; Germain, P

    2010-05-01

    Chronic constrictive pericarditis is defined by an increase in the rigidity of the pericardium resulting in impairment of the ventricular filling conditions. Cardiac MR is both a morphological and functional study always complemented by multi-detector CT. Morphological analysis is based on axial, longitudinal long axis and short axis views on Turbo (fast) SE Dark Blood and CINE sequences. Functional analysis is based on real-time acquisitions in the short axis at the base of the ventricles by comparing spontaneous breathing and deep breathing. The excursion of the interventricular septum is a reliable sign of constriction. The study is supplemented by phase contrast acquisitions. In the setting of persistent inflammation or free pericardial fluid, delayed enhancement 3D and 2D sequences including Phase Sensitive Inversion Recovery (PSIR) are useful.

  15. Constriction of subglacial arteries via supercooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creyts, T.; Clarke, G.

    2003-04-01

    Beneath many glaciers and ice sheets, hydrology modulates basal processes, including sliding and erosion. Recently, the role of glaciohydraulic supercooling was exposed as an important process in the overdeepening near the toe of Matanuska Glacier, Alaska. Further investigations have shown that supercooling beneath wet-based glaciers occurs in other basins. With discharges for these environments exceeding 0.1 m3 s-1 m-1, one would expect high bedload transport in the glaciohydraulic system. However, recent field studies have shown that bedload transport is supply-limited. This limitation is either caused by a lack of clasts at the glacier's sole, by constricted hydraulic arteries that cannot pass larger clasts, or a combination of these hypotheses. The constriction occurs as a result of either supercooled water condensing and plugging the subglacial arteries, ice overburden pressures enhancing the collapse of pathways, or through a blend of these processes. We investigate these constrictions and the corresponding ice condensation using a numerical model of transient water flow up an overdeepened subglacial water system.

  16. Mechanism of Cytokinetic Contractile Ring Constriction in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Stachowiak, Matthew R.; Laplante, Caroline; Chin, Harvey F.; Guirao, Boris; Karatekin, Erdem; Pollard, Thomas D.; O’Shaughnessy, Ben

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Cytokinesis involves constriction of a contractile actomyosin ring. The mechanisms generating ring tension and setting the constriction rate remain unknown, since the organization of the ring is poorly characterized, its tension was rarely measured, and constriction is coupled to other processes. To isolate ring mechanisms we studied fission yeast protoplasts, where constriction occurs without the cell wall. Exploiting the absence of cell wall and actin cortex, we measured ring tension and imaged ring organization, which was dynamic and disordered. Computer simulations based on the amounts and biochemical properties of the key proteins showed that they spontaneously self-organize into a tension-generating bundle. Together with rapid component turnover, the self-organization mechanism continuously reassembles and remodels the constricting ring. Ring constriction depended on cell shape, revealing that the ring operates close to conditions of isometric tension. Thus, the fission yeast ring sets its own tension, but other processes set the constriction rate. PMID:24914559

  17. Mast cell mediators in citric acid-induced airway constriction of guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-H.; Lai, Y.-L. . E-mail: tiger@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2005-08-15

    We demonstrated previously that mast cells play an important role in citric acid (CA)-induced airway constriction. In this study, we further investigated the underlying mediator(s) for this type of airway constriction. At first, to examine effects caused by blocking agents, 67 young Hartley guinea pigs were divided into 7 groups: saline + CA; methysergide (serotonin receptor antagonist) + CA; MK-886 (leukotriene synthesis inhibitor) + CA; mepyramine (histamine H{sub 1} receptor antagonist) + CA; indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor) + CA; cromolyn sodium (mast cell stabilizer) + CA; and compound 48/80 (mast cell degranulating agent) + CA. Then, we tested whether leukotriene C{sub 4} (LTC{sub 4}) or histamine enhances CA-induced airway constriction in compound 48/80-pretreated guinea pigs. We measured dynamic respiratory compliance (Crs) and forced expiratory volume in 0.1 s (FEV{sub 0.1}) during either baseline or recovery period. In addition, we detected histamine level, an index of pulmonary mast cell degranulation, in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. Citric acid aerosol inhalation caused decreases in Crs and FEV{sub 0.1}, indicating airway constriction in the control group. This airway constriction was significantly attenuated by MK-886, mepyramine, cromolyn sodium, and compound 48/80, but not by either methysergide or indomethacin. Both LTC{sub 4} and histamine infusion significantly increased the magnitude of CA-induced airway constriction in compound 48/80-pretreated guinea pigs. Citric acid inhalation caused significant increase in histamine level in the BAL sample, which was significantly suppressed by compound 48/80. These results suggest that leukotrienes and histamine originating from mast cells play an important role in CA inhalation-induced noncholinergic airway constriction.

  18. Constrictive Pericarditis as a Never Ending Story: What's New?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, we have a better understanding of the natural history of constrictive pericarditis such as transient constriction. In addition, we have acquired the correct understanding of hemodynamic features that are unique to constrictive pericarditis. This understanding has allowed us to diagnose constrictive pericarditis reliably with Doppler echocardiography and differentiation between constrictive pericarditis and restrictive cardiomyopathy is no longer a clinical challenge. The advent of imaging modalities such as CT or MR is another advance in the diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis. We can accurately measure pericardial thickness and additional information such as the status of coronary artery and the presence of myocardial fibrosis can be obtained. We no longer perform cardiac catheterization for the diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis. However, these advances are useless unless we suspect and undergo work-up for constrictive pericarditis. In constrictive pericarditis, the most important diagnostic tool is clinical suspicion. In a patient with signs and symptoms of increased systemic venous pressure i.e. right sided heart failure, that are disproportionate to pulmonary or left sided heart disease, possibility of constrictive pericarditis should always be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:22493608

  19. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... can help the overall situation for the child. Teaching kids self-hypnosis [8] or guided imagery [8a] ... related topics? Functional Abdominal Pain (English, French or Spanish)—from The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, ...

  20. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is ...

  1. Myeloid Mineralocorticoid Receptor Deficiency Inhibits Aortic Constriction-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiao Jun; Zhang, Wu Chang; Sun, Xue Nan; Yang, Qing Zhen; Ma, Shu Min; Huang, Baozhuan; Berger, Stefan; Wang, Wang; Wu, Yong; Yu, Ying; Duan, Sheng Zhong; Mortensen, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockade has been shown to suppress cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling in animal models of pressure overload (POL). This study aims to determine whether MR deficiency in myeloid cells modulates aortic constriction-induced cardiovascular injuries. Myeloid MR knockout (MMRKO) mice and littermate control mice were subjected to abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) or sham operation. We found that AAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis were significantly attenuated in MMRKO mice. Expression of genes important in generating reactive oxygen species was decreased in MMRKO mice, while that of manganese superoxide dismutase increased. Furthermore, expression of genes important in cardiac metabolism was increased in MMRKO hearts. Macrophage infiltration in the heart was inhibited and expression of inflammatory genes was decreased in MMRKO mice. In addition, aortic fibrosis and inflammation were attenuated in MMRKO mice. Taken together, our data indicated that MR deficiency in myeloid cells effectively attenuated aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, as well as aortic fibrosis and inflammation. PMID:25354087

  2. Constrictive pericarditis after lung transplantation: an under-recognized complication.

    PubMed

    Karolak, Wojtek; Cypel, Marcelo; Chen, Fengshi; Daniel, Lorretta; Chaparro, Cecilia; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2010-05-01

    Primary graft dysfunction, acute rejection, and infection account for most of the early morbidity after lung transplantation, with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome accounting for most late morbidity. Mediastinal and pericardial complications, in the form of constriction, are not common. We present 4 patients with constrictive pericarditis after lung transplantation and recommend that constrictive pericarditis be considered in the differential diagnosis in lung transplant recipients who present with signs and symptoms of systemic and pulmonary venous congestion. PMID:20207169

  3. Theory of quantum conduction of supercurrent through a constriction

    SciTech Connect

    Furusaki, A.; Takayanagi, H.; Tsukada, M. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation Basic Research Laboratories, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180, Japan)

    1991-07-01

    The dc Josephson current through a constriction in a two-dimensional superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor junction is calculated. It is shown that when the Fermi wavelength is comparable with the width of the constriction, the critical current shows a steplike variation as a function of the width of the constriction; this is reminiscent of the quantization of the normal-state conductance of point contacts in a two-dimensional electron gas.

  4. Control of closure/constriction duration in lingual consonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofqvist, Anders

    2003-10-01

    This study examines tongue movements in the production of lingual consonants where the duration of the oral closure/constriction is varied for linguistic purposes. Earlier work has shown that the tongue continues to move during the closure/constriction. The magnitude of the movement path during the closure/constriction is influenced by the vowel environment. Since the tongue has to stay in contact with the hard palate to maintain the closure/constriction, one might expect that the movement during the closure will be about the same for short and long consonants. To maintain the contact, a speaker would thus have to make a slower movement for the long consonants. Tongue and jaw movements were recorded in native Japanese speakers using a magnetometer system. Preliminary results for three speakers show that the closure/constriction duration for the long consonants was usually more than twice as long as that for the short consonants. The results also show a slightly longer movement path during the closure/constriction for the long consonants. As expected, the average speed of the tongue movement during the closure/constriction was systematically slower for the long consonants. In addition there was a positive correlation between closure/constriction duration and the path during the closure/constriction. [Work supported by NIH.

  5. Snake modulates constriction in response to prey's heartbeat.

    PubMed

    Boback, Scott M; Hall, Allison E; McCann, Katelyn J; Hayes, Amanda W; Forrester, Jeffrey S; Zwemer, Charles F

    2012-06-23

    Many species of snakes use constriction-the act of applying pressure via loops of their trunk-to subdue and kill their prey. Constriction is costly and snakes must therefore constrict their prey just long enough to ensure death. However, it remains unknown how snakes determine when their prey is dead. Here, we demonstrate that boas (Boa constrictor) have the remarkable ability to detect a heartbeat in their prey and, based on this signal, modify the pressure and duration of constriction accordingly. We monitored pressure generated by snakes as they struck and constricted warm cadaveric rats instrumented with a simulated heart. Snakes responded to the beating heart by constricting longer and with greater total pressure than when constricting rats with no heartbeat. When the heart was stopped midway through the constriction, snakes abandoned constriction shortly after the heartbeat ceased. Furthermore, snakes naive to live prey also responded to the simulated heart, suggesting that this behaviour is at least partly innate. These results are an example of how snakes integrate physiological cues from their prey to modulate a complex and ancient behavioural pattern.

  6. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy. PMID:27363829

  7. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition.

  8. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePlus

    ... call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing abdominal thrusts, ... American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ... Red Cross; 2014. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, et al. Part 5: ...

  9. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  10. Carbohydrate digestion in congenital sucrase isomaltase deficient and recurrent abdominal pain children assesed by 13C- starch breath test

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starches contribute about half of the food energy needs to the weaned child's diet. Malabsorption of sucrose is associated with abdominal pain, bloating and diarrhea. A genetic disorder called Congenital Sucrase-Isomaltase Deficiency (CSID) is suspected when these symptoms follow sugar ingestion and...

  11. Ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Bali, Anjana; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar S

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum and its saponin rich fraction in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats. The chronic constriction injury was induced by placing four loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve, proximal to its trifurcation. The mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, paw heat hyperalgesia and cold tail hyperalgesia were assessed by performing the pinprick, acetone, hot plate and cold tail immersion tests, respectively. Biochemically, the tissue thio-barbituric acid reactive species, super-oxide anion content (markers of oxidative stress) and total calcium levels were measured. Chronic constriction injury was associated with the development of mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, heat and cold hyperalgesia along with an increase in oxidative stress and calcium levels. However, administration of Ocimum sanctum (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) and its saponin rich fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) for 14 days significantly attenuated chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain as well as decrease the oxidative stress and calcium levels. It may be concluded that saponin rich fraction of Ocimum sanctum has ameliorative potential in attenuating painful neuropathic state, which may be attributed to a decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels. PMID:25673470

  12. Tenascin-C induces prolonged constriction of cerebral arteries in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Masashi; Suzuki, Hidenori; Shiba, Masato; Shimojo, Naoshi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Kanamaru, Kenji; Matsushima, Satoshi; Taki, Waro

    2013-07-01

    Tenascin-C (TNC), a matricellular protein, is induced in association with cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. The aim of this study was to assess the vasoconstrictive effects of TNC and its mechanisms of action on cerebral arteries in vivo. Two dosages (1 and 10μg) of TNC were administered intracisternally to healthy rats, and the effects were evaluated by neurobehavioral tests and India-ink angiography at 24, 48, and 72h after the administration. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to explore the underlying mechanisms on constricted cerebral arteries after 24h. The effects of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonists (LPS-RS), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 inhibitors (SP600125 and SB203580) on TNC-induced vasoconstriction were evaluated at 24h. Higher dosages of TNC induced more severe cerebral arterial constriction, which continued for more than 72h. TNC administration also upregulated TLR4, and activated JNK and p38 in the smooth muscle cell layer of the constricted cerebral artery. LPS-RS blocked TNC-induced TLR4 upregulation, JNK and p38 activation, and vasoconstrictive effects. SP600125 and SB203580 abolished TNC-induced TLR4 upregulation and vasoconstrictive effects. TNC may cause prolonged cerebral arterial constriction via TLR4 and activation of JNK and p38, which may upregulate TLR4. These findings suggest that TNC causes cerebral vasospasm and provides a novel therapeutic approach against it.

  13. Viscoelastic effects on electrokinetic particle focusing in a constricted microchannel

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xinyu; DuBose, John; Joo, Sang Woo; Qian, Shizhi

    2015-01-01

    Focusing suspended particles in a fluid into a single file is often necessary prior to continuous-flow detection, analysis, and separation. Electrokinetic particle focusing has been demonstrated in constricted microchannels by the use of the constriction-induced dielectrophoresis. However, previous studies on this subject have been limited to Newtonian fluids only. We report in this paper an experimental investigation of the viscoelastic effects on electrokinetic particle focusing in non-Newtonian polyethylene oxide solutions through a constricted microchannel. The width of the focused particle stream is found NOT to decrease with the increase in DC electric field, which is different from that in Newtonian fluids. Moreover, particle aggregations are observed at relatively high electric fields to first form inside the constriction. They can then either move forward and exit the constriction in an explosive mode or roll back to the constriction entrance for further accumulations. These unexpected phenomena are distinct from the findings in our earlier paper [Lu et al., Biomicrofluidics 8, 021802 (2014)], where particles are observed to oscillate inside the constriction and not to pass through until a chain of sufficient length is formed. They are speculated to be a consequence of the fluid viscoelasticity effects. PMID:25713690

  14. Snake constriction rapidly induces circulatory arrest in rats.

    PubMed

    Boback, Scott M; McCann, Katelyn J; Wood, Kevin A; McNeal, Patrick M; Blankenship, Emmett L; Zwemer, Charles F

    2015-07-01

    As legless predators, snakes are unique in their ability to immobilize and kill their prey through the process of constriction, and yet how this pressure incapacitates and ultimately kills the prey remains unknown. In this study, we examined the cardiovascular function of anesthetized rats before, during and after being constricted by boas (Boa constrictor) to examine the effect of constriction on the prey's circulatory function. The results demonstrate that within 6 s of being constricted, peripheral arterial blood pressure (PBP) at the femoral artery dropped to 1/2 of baseline values while central venous pressure (CVP) increased 6-fold from baseline during the same time. Electrocardiographic recordings from the anesthetized rat's heart revealed profound bradycardia as heart rate (fH) dropped to nearly half of baseline within 60 s of being constricted, and QRS duration nearly doubled over the same time period. By the end of constriction (mean 6.5±1 min), rat PBP dropped 2.9-fold, fH dropped 3.9-fold, systemic perfusion pressure (SPP=PBP-CVP) dropped 5.7-fold, and 91% of rats (10 of 11) had evidence of cardiac electrical dysfunction. Blood drawn immediately after constriction revealed that, relative to baseline, rats were hyperkalemic (serum potassium levels nearly doubled) and acidotic (blood pH dropped from 7.4 to 7.0). These results are the first to document the physiological response of prey to constriction and support the hypothesis that snake constriction induces rapid prey death due to circulatory arrest.

  15. Cellular mechanisms mediating rat renal microvascular constriction by angiotensin II.

    PubMed Central

    Takenaka, T; Suzuki, H; Fujiwara, K; Kanno, Y; Ohno, Y; Hayashi, K; Nagahama, T; Saruta, T

    1997-01-01

    To assess cellular mechanisms mediating afferent (AA) and efferent arteriolar (EA) constriction by angiotensin II (AngII), experiments were performed using isolated perfused hydronephrotic kidneys. In the first series of studies, AngII (0.3 nM) constricted AAs and EAs by 29+/-3 (n = 8, P < 0.01) and 27+/-3% (n = 8, P < 0.01), respectively. Subsequent addition of nifedipine restored AA but not EA diameter. Manganese (8 mM) reversed EA constriction by 65+/-9% (P < 0.01). In the second group, the addition of N-ethylmaleimide (10 microM), a Gi/Go protein antagonist, abolished AngII- induced EA (n = 6) but not AA constriction (n = 6). In the third series of experiments, treatment with 2-nitro-4-carboxyphenyl-N, N-diphenyl-carbamate (200 microM), a phospholipase C inhibitor, blocked both AA and EA constriction by AngII (n = 6 for each). In the fourth group, thapsigargin (1 microM) prevented AngII-induced AA constriction (n = 8) and attenuated EA constriction (8+/-2% decrease in EA diameter at 0.3 nM AngII, n = 8, P < 0.05). Subsequent addition of manganese (8 mM) reversed EA constriction. Our data provide evidence that in AAs, AngII stimulates phospholipase C with subsequent calcium mobilization that is required to activate voltage-dependent calcium channels. Our results suggest that AngII constricts EAs by activating phospholipase C via the Gi protein family, thereby eliciting both calcium mobilization and calcium entry. PMID:9329977

  16. Furrow Constriction in Animal Cell Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Turlier, Hervé; Audoly, Basile; Prost, Jacques; Joanny, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Cytokinesis is the process of physical cleavage at the end of cell division; it proceeds by ingression of an acto-myosin furrow at the equator of the cell. Its failure leads to multinucleated cells and is a possible cause of tumorigenesis. Here, we calculate the full dynamics of furrow ingression and predict cytokinesis completion above a well-defined threshold of equatorial contractility. The cortical acto-myosin is identified as the main source of mechanical dissipation and active forces. Thereupon, we propose a viscous active nonlinear membrane theory of the cortex that explicitly includes actin turnover and where the active RhoA signal leads to an equatorial band of myosin overactivity. The resulting cortex deformation is calculated numerically, and reproduces well the features of cytokinesis such as cell shape and cortical flows toward the equator. Our theory gives a physical explanation of the independence of cytokinesis duration on cell size in embryos. It also predicts a critical role of turnover on the rate and success of furrow constriction. Scaling arguments allow for a simple interpretation of the numerical results and unveil the key mechanism that generates the threshold for cytokinesis completion: cytoplasmic incompressibility results in a competition between the furrow line tension and the cell poles’ surface tension. PMID:24411243

  17. Understanding cell passage through constricted microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartas-Ayala, Marco A.; Karnik, Rohit

    2012-11-01

    Recently, several microfluidic platforms have been proposed to characterize cells based on their behaviour during cell passage through constricted channels. Variables like transit time have been analyzed in disease states like sickle cell anemia, malaria and sepsis. Nevertheless, it is hard to make direct comparisons between different platforms and cell types. We present experimental results of the relationship between solid deformable particle properties, i.e. stiffness and relative particle size, and flow properties, i.e. particle's velocity. We measured the hydrodynamic variables during the flow of HL-60 cells, a white myeloid cell type, in narrow microfluidic square channels using a microfluidic differential manometer. We measured the flow force required to move cells of different sizes through microchannels and quantified friction forces opposing cell passage. We determined the non-dimensional parameters that influence the flow of cells and we used them to obtain a non dimensional expression that can be used to predict the forces needed to drive cells through microchannels. We found that the friction force needed to flow HL-60 through a microfluidic channel is the sum of two parts. The first part is a static friction force that is proportional to the force needed to keep the force compressed. The second part is a factor that is proportional to the cell velocity, hence a dynamic term, and slightly sensitive to the compressive force. We thank CONACYT (Mexican Science and Technology Council) for supporting this project, grant 205899.

  18. Constrictive pericarditis associated with Marlex mesh. Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Chen, R F; Lai, C P

    2001-01-01

    Two patients were referred to our hospital with constrictive pericarditis approximately 1 year after undergoing mitral valve repair at another institution. Both repairs had included the use of a pericardial substitute, Marlex mesh, to prevent adhesion and to facilitate possible reoperations. Computed tomography and cardiac catheterization were used to establish the diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis. During surgery, dense, thickened fibrous tissue, the result of a Marlex mesh-related reaction, was found tightly adhered to the epicardium in each of the patients. It appeared that the Marlex mesh, which had been inserted to facilitate reoperation, had contributed to the development of constrictive pericarditis. PMID:11330746

  19. Constrictive Pericarditis Associated with Marlex Mesh: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Robert F.; Lai, Cha Po

    2001-01-01

    Two patients were referred to our hospital with constrictive pericarditis approximately 1 year after undergoing mitral valve repair at another institution. Both repairs had included the use of a pericardial substitute, Marlex mesh, to prevent adhesion and to facilitate possible reoperations. Computed tomography and cardiac catheterization were used to establish the diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis. During surgery, dense, thickened fibrous tissue, the result of a Marlex mesh-related reaction, was found tightly adhered to the epicardium in each of the patients. It appeared that the Marlex mesh, which had been inserted to facilitate reoperation, had contributed to the development of constrictive pericarditis. PMID:11330746

  20. Vascular ENaC proteins are required for renal myogenic constriction.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, Nikki L; Drummond, Heather A

    2005-10-01

    The myogenic response is an essential component of renal blood flow autoregulation and is the inherent ability of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to contract in response to increases in intraluminal pressure. Although mechanosensitive ion channels are thought to initiate VSMC stretch-induced contraction, their molecular identity is unknown. Recent reports suggest degenerin/epithelial Na(+) channels (DEG/ENaC) may form mechanotransducers in sensory neurons and VSMCs; however, the role of DEG/ENaC proteins in myogenic constriction of mouse renal arteries has not been established. To test the hypothesis that DEG/ENaC proteins are required for myogenic constriction in renal vessels, we first determined expression of ENaC transcripts and proteins in mouse renal VSMCs. Then, we determined pressure- and agonist-induced constriction and changes in vascular smooth muscle cytosolic Ca(2+) and Na(+) in isolated mouse renal interlobar arteries following DEG/ENaC inhibition with amiloride and benzamil. We detect alpha-, beta-, and gammaENaC transcript and protein expression in cultured mouse renal VSMC. In contrast, we detect only beta- and gamma- but not alphaENaC protein in freshly dispersed mrVMSC. Selective DEG/ENaC inhibition, with low doses of amiloride and benzamil, abolishes pressure-induced constriction and increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) and Na(+) without diminishing agonist-induced responses in isolated mouse interlobar arteries. Our findings indicate that DEG/ENaC proteins are required for myogenic constriction in mouse interlobar arteries and are consistent with our hypothesis that DEG/ENaC proteins may be components of mechanosensitive ion channel complexes required for myogenic vasoconstriction. PMID:15914781

  1. Differential effect of spironolactone in chronic constriction injury and vincristine-induced neuropathic pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal

    2010-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of spironolactone in chronic constriction injury and vincristine-induced neuropathic pain in rats. The chronic constriction injury was induced by placing four loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve, while vincristine (50 μg/kg) was administered for 10 days to induce chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. Acetone drop, pin-prick, hot plate and paint brush tests were performed to assess cold allodynia; mechanical and heat hyperalgesia; dynamic mechanical allodynia, respectively. The spontaneous pain and postural index in terms of foot deformity was also assessed. The levels of TNF-α were measured in the sciatic nerve as an index of inflammation. Chronic constriction injury led to significant development of cold allodynia; mechanical and heat hyperalgesia; dynamic mechanical allodynia; spontaneous pain and foot deformity along with rise in the levels of TNF-α. Administration of vincristine was associated with the development of allodynia and hyperalgesia without spontaneous pain, foot deformity and elevation in the levels of TNF-α. Administration of spironolactone (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly attenuated chronic constriction injury-induced pain related behaviour and foot deformity along with attenuation of TNF-α levels, without modulating vincristine-induced neuropathic pain. The attenuating effect of spironolactone in chronic constriction injury may be due to its anti-inflammatory properties and ability to decrease pro-inflammatory cytokines, while involvement of non-inflammatory mechanisms in the pathogenesis of vincristine-induced pain may probably explain its lack of beneficial effect in chemotherapy associated pain. PMID:20846523

  2. Forced transport of deformable containers through narrow constrictions.

    PubMed

    Kusters, Remy; van der Heijden, Thijs; Kaoui, Badr; Harting, Jens; Storm, Cornelis

    2014-09-01

    We study, numerically and analytically, the forced transport of deformable containers through a narrow constriction. Our central aim is to quantify the competition between the constriction geometry and the active forcing, regulating whether and at which speed a container may pass through the constriction and under what conditions it gets stuck. We focus, in particular, on the interrelation between the force that propels the container and the radius of the channel, as these are the external variables that may be directly controlled in both artificial and physiological settings. We present lattice Boltzmann simulations that elucidate in detail the various phases of translocation and present simplified analytical models that treat two limiting types of these membrane containers: deformational energy dominated by the bending or stretching contribution. In either case we find excellent agreement with the full simulations, and our results reveal that not only the radius but also the length of the constriction determines whether or not the container will pass.

  3. Wall shear stress estimates in coronary artery constrictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Crawford, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Wall shear stress estimates from laminar boundary layer theory were found to agree fairly well with the magnitude of shear stress levels along coronary artery constrictions obtained from solutions of the Navier Stokes equations for both steady and pulsatile flow. The relatively simple method can be used for in vivo estimates of wall shear stress in constrictions by using a vessel shape function determined from a coronary angiogram, along with a knowledge of the flow rate.

  4. Responsiveness of the double limb lowering test and lower abdominal muscle progression to core stabilization exercise programs in healthy adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Haladay, Douglas E; Miller, Sayers J; Challis, John H; Denegar, Craig R

    2014-07-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent and expensive health care problems in the United States. Studies suggest that stabilization exercise may be effective in the management of people with LBP. To accurately assess the effect of stabilization programs on muscle performance, clinicians need an objective measure that is both valid and reliable. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the double limb lowering test (DLLT) and lower abdominal muscle progression (LAMP) can detect a change in abdominal muscle performance after stabilization exercises. Eleven healthy participants (4 men and 7 women) were randomly assigned to either a specific stabilization exercise (SSE) or general stabilization exercise (GSE) group and were evaluated by the DLLT and LAMP before, during, and at the end of 8 weeks of training. Subjects attended exercise sessions twice per week over 8 weeks. No significant difference in pretest performance existed between the 2 groups. No significant difference was detected with the DLLT for either the SSE or GSE over time or when groups were combined. The LAMP detected a significant difference for the combined groups and GSE but not SSE over time. These data indicate that the LAMP is sensitive to change after a spinal stabilization program, whereas the DLLT does not detect a change after these programs. Furthermore, the GSE was more effective in producing these changes. Additional testing of these assessments is necessary to further validate these tests and to identify specific populations for which these tests may be most appropriate.

  5. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  6. Lymphatic Pump Treatment Increases Thoracic Duct Lymph Flow in Conscious Dogs with Edema Due to Constriction of the Inferior Vena Cava

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Parna; Shah, Pankhil; King, Hollis H.; Williams, Arthur G.; Desai, Pratikkumar

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Osteopathic lymphatic pump treatments (LPT) are used to treat edema, but their direct effects on lymph flow have not been studied. In the current study, we examined the effects of LPT on lymph flow in the thoracic duct of instrumented conscious dogs in the presence of edema produced by constriction of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Methods and Results Six dogs were surgically instrumented with an ultrasonic flow transducer on the thoracic lymph duct and catheters in the descending thoracic aorta and in IVC. After postoperative recovery, lymph flow and hemodynamic variables were measured 1) pre-LPT, 2) during 4 min LPT, 3) post-LPT, in the absence and presence of edema produced by IVC constriction. This constriction increased abdominal girth from 60 ± 2.6 to 75 ± 2.9 cm. Before IVC constriction, LPT increased lymph flow (P < 0.05) from 1.9 ± 0.2 ml/min to a maximum of 4.7 ± 1.2 ml/min, whereas after IVC constriction, LPT increased lymph flow (P < 0.05) from 7.9 ± 2.2 to a maximum of 11.7 ± 2.2 ml/min. The incremental lymph flow mobilized by 4 min of LPT (ie, the flow that exceeded 4 min of baseline flow), was 10.6 ml after IVC constriction. This incremental flow was not significantly greater than that measured before IVC constriction. Conclusions Edema caused by IVC constriction markedly increased lymph flow in the thoracic duct. LPT increased thoracic duct lymph flow before and after IVC constriction. The lymph flow mobilized by 4 min of LPT in presence of edema was not significantly greater than that mobilized prior to edema. PMID:20863267

  7. Granular flow over inclined channels with constrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunuguntla, Deepak; Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony; Bokhove, Onno

    2013-04-01

    Study of granular flows down inclined channels is essential in understanding the dynamics of natural grain flows like landslides and snow avalanches. As a stepping stone, dry granular flow over an inclined channel with a localised constriction is investigated using both continuum methods and particle simulations. Initially, depth-averaged equations of motion (Savage & Hutter 1989) containing an unknown friction law are considered. The shallow-layer model for granular flows is closed with a friction law obtained from particle simulations of steady flows (Weinhart et al. 2012) undertaken in the open source package Mercury DPM (Mercury 2010). The closed two-dimensional (2D) shallow-layer model is then width-averaged to obtain a novel one-dimensional (1D) model which is an extension of the one for water flows through contraction (Akers & Bokhove 2008). Different flow states are predicted by this novel one-dimensional theory. Flow regimes with distinct flow states are determined as a function of upstream channel Froude number, F, and channel width ratio, Bc. The latter being the ratio of the channel exit width and upstream channel width. Existence of multiple steady states is predicted in a certain regime of F - Bc parameter plane which is in agreement with experiments previously undertaken by (Akers & Bokhove 2008) and for granular flows (Vreman et al. 2007). Furthermore, the 1D model is verified by solving the 2D shallow granular equations using an open source discontinuous Galerkin finite element package hpGEM (Pesch et al. 2007). For supercritical flows i.e. F > 1 the 1D asymptotics holds although the two-dimensional oblique granular jumps largely vary across the converging channel. This computationally efficient closed 1D model is validated by comparing it to the computationally more expensiveaa three-dimensional particle simulations. Finally, we aim to present a quasi-steady particle simulation of inclined flow through two rectangular blocks separated by a gap

  8. Frequency domain analysis of spreading-constriction thermal impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalegno, Francesco; De Marchi, Andrea; Giaretto, Valter

    2013-02-01

    Spreading-constriction effects are analyzed in the frequency domain. The existence of a half-pole altering the steady state solution at high frequencies is pointed out. Application to the case of thermoelectric devices allows direct comparison with experimental data because thermal quantities can be measured as electrical signals at the very spot where spreading takes place. Good agreement with theory is shown here for a thermoelectric device in which the particular constriction geometry enhances its effect, making easily observable the difference between frequency domain and the steady state approaches.

  9. Frequency domain analysis of spreading-constriction thermal impedance.

    PubMed

    Casalegno, Francesco; De Marchi, Andrea; Giaretto, Valter

    2013-02-01

    Spreading-constriction effects are analyzed in the frequency domain. The existence of a half-pole altering the steady state solution at high frequencies is pointed out. Application to the case of thermoelectric devices allows direct comparison with experimental data because thermal quantities can be measured as electrical signals at the very spot where spreading takes place. Good agreement with theory is shown here for a thermoelectric device in which the particular constriction geometry enhances its effect, making easily observable the difference between frequency domain and the steady state approaches.

  10. Constrictive pericarditis following open-heart surgery in a child

    PubMed Central

    Deepti, Siddharthan; Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Talwar, Sachin; Kothari, Shyam Sunder

    2016-01-01

    A 6-year- old child developed constrictive pericarditis 2 years after undergoing an open-heart surgery for a congenital cardiac disorder. No other cause of pericarditis was identified. The clinical condition improved after pericardiectomy. The case is reported for its rarity. PMID:27011697

  11. Shooting quasiparticles from Andreev bound states in a superconducting constriction

    SciTech Connect

    Riwar, R.-P.; Houzet, M.; Meyer, J. S.; Nazarov, Y. V.

    2014-12-15

    A few-channel superconducting constriction provides a set of discrete Andreev bound states that may be populated with quasiparticles. Motivated by recent experimental research, we study the processes in an a.c. driven constriction whereby a quasiparticle is promoted to the delocalized states outside the superconducting gap and flies away. We distinguish two processes of this kind. In the process of ionization, a quasiparticle present in the Andreev bound state is transferred to the delocalized states leaving the constriction. The refill process involves two quasiparticles: one flies away while another one appears in the Andreev bound state. We notice an interesting asymmetry of these processes. The electron-like quasiparticles are predominantly emitted to one side of the constriction while the hole-like ones are emitted to the other side. This produces a charge imbalance of accumulated quasiparticles, that is opposite on opposite sides of the junction. The imbalance may be detected with a tunnel contact to a normal metal lead.

  12. COGNITIVE CONSTRICTION IN AGING AND ATTITUDES TOWARD INTERNATIONAL ISSUES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BACK, KURT W.; GERGEN, KENNETH J.

    THE MAJOR FOCUS OF THIS STUDY WAS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSTRICTION OF TIME PERSPECTIVE AND PREFERENCES FOR CERTAIN TYPES OF SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS OF INTERNATIONAL, NATIONAL, AND LOCAL AFFAIRS. THREE GROUPS WERE FORMED ACCORDING TO AGE--UNDER 40, 40-59, AND 60 AND OVER. TABLES SHOW, IN PERCENTAGES, THE RESPONSES TO SUCH QUESTIONS AS WHAT THE…

  13. Theoretical study on the constricted flow phenomena in arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, S.; Chakravarty, S.

    2012-12-01

    The present study is dealt with the constricted flow characteristics of blood in arteries by making use of an appropriate mathematical model. The constricted artery experiences the generated wall shear stress due to flow disturbances in the presence of constriction. The disturbed flow in the stenosed arterial segment causes malfunction of the cardiovascular system leading to serious health problems in the form of heart attack and stroke. The flowing blood contained in the stenosed artery is considered to be non-Newtonian while the flow is treated to be two-dimensional. The present pursuit also accounts for the motion of the arterial wall and its effect on local fluid mechanics. The flow analysis applies the time-dependent, two-dimensional incompressible nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations for non-Newtonian fluid representing blood. An extensive quantitative analysis presented at the end of the paper based on large scale numerical computations of the quantities of major physiological significance enables one to estimate the constricted flow characteristics in the arterial system under consideration which deviates significantly from that of normal physiological flow conditions.

  14. [Severe disseminated constrictive polyserositis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Blagova, O V; Tsaregorodtsev, D A; Nedostup, A V; Maevskaia, I V; Petukhova, N V; Troitskaia, M P; Shadaniia, Ia R

    2010-01-01

    Constrictive polyserositis (pleuritis, pericarditis) is a syndrome within the underlying disease (tuberculosis, periodic disease, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, asbestos, silicosis, uremia, some genetic diseases), a complication due to chest surgery or radiation or drug therapy, is occasionally idiopathic (fibrosing mediastinitis). There are frequently great difficulties in making its nosological diagnosis. The paper describes a patient in whom the onset of disease was exudative pleurisy with the signs of constriction, arthralgias; pleural punctures provided serous exudates with 80% lymphocytes. A year later there was ascitis and shin and foot edemas, which concurrent with hepatomegaly and cholestasis was regarded as cryptogenic liver cirrhosis. The signs of constrictive pericarditis were further revealed. The disease was complicated by the development of pulmonary artery thromboembolism (PATE) (which required the use of warfarin) and hemorrhagic vasculitis. Therapy with metipred in combination with isoniazid yielded a slight effect. The diagnoses of tuberculosis, liver cirrhosis, and autoimmune hepatitis, systemic vasculitis were consecutively rejected; the diagnosis of rheumatoid polyarthritis with systemic manifestations was made, by taking into account persistent arthalgias with the minimum signs of arthritis, noticeably increased C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factor, and cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (CCPA); plasmapheresis, therapy with metipred and methotrexate, and subtotal pericardectomy were performed. Constrictive polyserositis concurrent with PATE, hemorrhagic vasculitis (probably, drug-induced one), and hepatic lesion has been first described in a CCPA-positive patient with rheumatoid arthritis in the presence of moderate true arthritis (during steroid therapy).

  15. Apical constriction and epithelial invagination are regulated by BMP activity

    PubMed Central

    Jidigam, Vijay K.; Srinivasan, Raghuraman C.; Patthey, Cedric; Gunhaga, Lena

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epithelial invagination is a morphological process in which flat cell sheets transform into three-dimensional structures through bending of the tissue. It is accompanied by apical constriction, in which the apical cell surface is reduced in relation to the basal cell surface. Although much is known about the intra-cellular molecular machinery driving apical constriction and epithelial invagination, information of how extra-cellular signals affect these processes remains insufficient. In this study we have established several in vivo assays of placodal invagination to explore whether the external signal BMP regulates processes connected to epithelial invagination. By inhibiting BMP activity in prospective cranial placodes, we provide evidence that BMP signals are required for RhoA and F-actin rearrangements, apical constriction, cell elongation and epithelial invagination. The failure of placode invagination after BMP inhibition appears to be a direct consequence of disrupted apical accumulation of RhoA and F-actin, rather than changes in cell death or proliferation. In addition, our results show that epithelial invagination and acquisition of placode-specific identities are two distinct and separable developmental processes. In summary, our results provide evidence that BMP signals promote epithelial invagination by acting upstream of the intracellular molecular machinery that drives apical constriction and cell elongation. PMID:26621830

  16. Talk to Your Doctor about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... español Talk to Your Doctor about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Browse Sections The Basics Overview What is AAA? ... doctor about getting screened (tested) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). If AAA isn't found and treated ...

  17. Reconstruction of Moderately Constricted Ears by Combining V-Y Advancement of Helical Root, Conchal Cartilage Graft, and Mastoid Hitch

    PubMed Central

    Lashin, Riham

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Despite the multitude of corrective procedures described in the literature, adequate surgical correction of the congenital constricted ear remains a challenge. The maintenance of the shape and size of the reconstructed upper neohelix poses a particular problem. Methods: In the present study, a total of 12 cases of reconstruction were undertaken. All of them were moderate (type IIA Tanzer classification) deformities. A combined procedure was adopted using a V-Y advancement of the helical root, cartilage scoring, and cartilage grafting from the contralateral concha to reconstruct the upper helix. A mastoid hitch was used as an adjunct to these procedures to maintain helical elevation and prevent recurrence. Mean follow-up period was 6 months. Results: Results were excellent (n = 7), good (n = 4), and fair (n = 1). Paired t test showed a significant increase in the height of the constricted ear postoperatively (P < .001) and a nonsignificant difference between the height of the constricted and contralateral ears postoperatively (P > .05). Apart from dislodgment of the mastoid hitch suture in 1 patient, no complications were recorded. Conclusion: This combined technique is useful in correcting moderately constricted ear deformities. PMID:27468330

  18. Constrictive Pericarditis Versus Restrictive Cardiomyopathy?

    PubMed

    Garcia, Mario J

    2016-05-01

    About one-half of the patients with congestive heart failure have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF). Although the etiology of HFpEF is most commonly related to long-standing hypertension and atherosclerosis, a significant number of suspected HFpEF patients have a restrictive cardiomyopathy or chronic pericardial disease. Recognizing these syndromes is important because early diagnosis may lead to instituting specific therapy that may prolong survival, improve quality of life, and/or recognize and treat an underlying systemic disorder. Advances in diagnostic imaging, biomarkers, and genetic testing today allow identification of the specific etiology in most cases. Novel pharmacological, immunologic, and surgical therapies are leading to improved quality of life and survival. PMID:27126534

  19. Constrictive Pericarditis Versus Restrictive Cardiomyopathy?

    PubMed

    Garcia, Mario J

    2016-05-01

    About one-half of the patients with congestive heart failure have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF). Although the etiology of HFpEF is most commonly related to long-standing hypertension and atherosclerosis, a significant number of suspected HFpEF patients have a restrictive cardiomyopathy or chronic pericardial disease. Recognizing these syndromes is important because early diagnosis may lead to instituting specific therapy that may prolong survival, improve quality of life, and/or recognize and treat an underlying systemic disorder. Advances in diagnostic imaging, biomarkers, and genetic testing today allow identification of the specific etiology in most cases. Novel pharmacological, immunologic, and surgical therapies are leading to improved quality of life and survival.

  20. Expansion of Severely Constricted Visual Field Using Google Glass.

    PubMed

    Trese, Matthew G J; Khan, Naheed W; Branham, Kari; Conroy, Erin Brown; Moroi, Sayoko E

    2016-05-01

    Google Glass (Google, Mountain View, CA) is a wearable technology with a computer and camera mounted on an eyeglass frame. The camera captures wide-angle video and projects it onto a prism located in the right superior temporal quadrant of the wearer's visual field. The authors present a case of an individual who used Google Glass' video projection feature to expand his severely constricted right visual field. This patient reported improved ambulatory navigation. Using Google Glass, the patient's peripheral vision, measured using Goldmann kinetic perimetry, expanded impressively. Based on these preliminary results, the authors propose further characterization on the potential utility of such head-mount display technology as a tool to improve the lives of patients with severely constricted visual fields. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:486-489.].

  1. [TUBERCULOUS CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS DETECTED ON POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY].

    PubMed

    Takakura, Hiroki; Sunada, Kouichi; Shimizu, Kunihiko

    2016-02-01

    A 72-year-old man presented with fever, dyspnea, and weight loss. He was referred to our hospital for further examination of the cause of the pleural effusions. Chest computed tomography showed pleural effusions, a pericardial effusion, and enlarged lymph nodes in the carina tracheae. We administered treatment for heart failure and conducted analyses for a malignant tumor. The pericardial effusion improved, but the pericardium was thickened. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) showed fluorine-18 deoxyglucose accumulation at the superior fovea of the right clavicle, carina tracheae, superior mediastinum lymph nodes, and a thickened pericardium. Because these findings did not suggest malignancy, we assumed this was a tuberculous lesion. Echocardiography confirmed this finding as constrictive pericarditis; therefore, pericardiolysis was performed. Pathological examination showed features of caseous necrosis and granulomatous changes. Hence, the patient was diagnosed with tuberculous constrictive pericarditis. PET-CT serves as a useful tool for the diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis. PMID:27263228

  2. Automated control of linear constricted plasma source array

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre; Maschwitz, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for controlling an array of constricted glow discharge chambers are disclosed. More particularly a linear array of constricted glow plasma sources whose polarity and geometry are set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the sources are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The quality of film along deposition "tracks" opposite the plasma sources can be measured and compared to desired absolute or relative values by optical and/or electrical sensors. Plasma quality can then be adjusted by adjusting the power current values, gas feed pressure/flow, gas mixtures or a combination of some or all of these to improve the match between the measured values and the desired values.

  3. Still and rotating myosin clusters determine cytokinetic ring constriction.

    PubMed

    Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Kruse, Karsten; Riveline, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    The cytokinetic ring is essential for separating daughter cells during division. It consists of actin filaments and myosin motors that are generally assumed to organize as sarcomeres similar to skeletal muscles. However, direct evidence is lacking. Here we show that the internal organization and dynamics of rings are different from sarcomeres and distinct in different cell types. Using micro-cavities to orient rings in single focal planes, we find in mammalian cells a transition from a homogeneous distribution to a periodic pattern of myosin clusters at the onset of constriction. In contrast, in fission yeast, myosin clusters rotate prior to and during constriction. Theoretical analysis indicates that both patterns result from acto-myosin self-organization and reveals differences in the respective stresses. These findings suggest distinct functional roles for rings: contraction in mammalian cells and transport in fission yeast. Thus self-organization under different conditions may be a generic feature for regulating morphogenesis in vivo.

  4. Still and rotating myosin clusters determine cytokinetic ring constriction.

    PubMed

    Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Kruse, Karsten; Riveline, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The cytokinetic ring is essential for separating daughter cells during division. It consists of actin filaments and myosin motors that are generally assumed to organize as sarcomeres similar to skeletal muscles. However, direct evidence is lacking. Here we show that the internal organization and dynamics of rings are different from sarcomeres and distinct in different cell types. Using micro-cavities to orient rings in single focal planes, we find in mammalian cells a transition from a homogeneous distribution to a periodic pattern of myosin clusters at the onset of constriction. In contrast, in fission yeast, myosin clusters rotate prior to and during constriction. Theoretical analysis indicates that both patterns result from acto-myosin self-organization and reveals differences in the respective stresses. These findings suggest distinct functional roles for rings: contraction in mammalian cells and transport in fission yeast. Thus self-organization under different conditions may be a generic feature for regulating morphogenesis in vivo. PMID:27363521

  5. Experimental folding and boudinage under pure constrictional conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobberger, Gustav

    1995-07-01

    Constrictional folds are characterized by true fold-axis parallel extension if the rock-volume does not vary during deformation. Studies of such folds in experiments, using plasticine layers of different apparent viscosity and power-law exponent, clearly indicate that fold-axis parallel stretch may be accompanied by plastic elongation as well as boudinage of the competent layer. Characteristic aspects of the experimentally folded competent layers are: (1) coeval development of folds and boudins; (2) layer thickness not changing during deformation; (3) layer-parallel shortening in sections perpendicular to the fold (stretching) axis; (4) enlargement of the initial thickness of the competent layer results in increasing fold wavelength and decreasing number of boudins. The ratio of dominant wavelength to layer thickness of the constrictional folds can be described mathematically approximately by the equation developed for plane strain folding of power-law materials

  6. Still and rotating myosin clusters determine cytokinetic ring constriction

    PubMed Central

    Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Kruse, Karsten; Riveline, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The cytokinetic ring is essential for separating daughter cells during division. It consists of actin filaments and myosin motors that are generally assumed to organize as sarcomeres similar to skeletal muscles. However, direct evidence is lacking. Here we show that the internal organization and dynamics of rings are different from sarcomeres and distinct in different cell types. Using micro-cavities to orient rings in single focal planes, we find in mammalian cells a transition from a homogeneous distribution to a periodic pattern of myosin clusters at the onset of constriction. In contrast, in fission yeast, myosin clusters rotate prior to and during constriction. Theoretical analysis indicates that both patterns result from acto-myosin self-organization and reveals differences in the respective stresses. These findings suggest distinct functional roles for rings: contraction in mammalian cells and transport in fission yeast. Thus self-organization under different conditions may be a generic feature for regulating morphogenesis in vivo. PMID:27363521

  7. Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocysts.

    PubMed

    Erşahin, Y; Mutluer, S; Tekeli, G

    1996-12-01

    Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst in an infrequent complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. We reviewed ten patients with abdominal pseudocyst. There were five girls and five boys, aged between 4 months and 14 years. The number of shunt procedures prior to the presentation varied between one and five. Only one patient had had a previous shunt infection. No patients had undergone prior abdominal surgery other than VP shunting. The time from the last shunting procedure to the development of abdominal pseudocyst ranged from 3 weeks to 5 years. Presenting symptoms and signs were mainly related to abdominal complaints in all patients. Three patients also had signs of shunt malfunction. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound in all patients. Shunt infection was determined in six patients. Repositioning if the peritoneal catheter seemed to have a higher rate of recurrence. The diagnosis of abdominal pseudocyst should be considered in VP-shunted patients presenting with abdominal complaints.

  8. Abdominal Circulatory Interactions.

    PubMed

    Dagar, Gaurav; Taneja, Amit; Nanchal, Rahul S

    2016-04-01

    The abdominal compartment is separated from the thoracic compartment by the diaphragm. Under normal circumstances, a large portion of the venous return crosses the splanchnic and nonsplanchnic abdominal regions before entering the thorax and the right side of the heart. Mechanical ventilation may affect abdominal venous return independent of its interactions at the thoracic level. Changes in pressure in the intra-abdominal compartment may have important implications for organ function within the thorax, particularly if there is a sustained rise in intra-abdominal pressure. It is important to understand the consequences of abdominal pressure changes on respiratory and circulatory physiology. This article elucidates important abdominal-respiratory-circulatory interactions and their clinical effects. PMID:27016167

  9. Properties of a constricted-tube air-flow levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, J. E.; Stephens, W. K.; Ethridge, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of a constricted-tube gas flow levitator first developed by Berge et al. (1981) have been investigated experimentally in order to predict its behavior in a gravity-free environment and at elevated temperatures. The levitator consists of a constricted (quartz) tube fed at one end by a source of heated air or gas. A spherical sample is positioned by the air stream on the downstream side of the constriction, where it can be melted and resolidified without touching the tube. It is shown experimentally that the kinematic viscosity is the important fluid parameter for operation in thermal equilibrium at high temperatures. If air is heated from room temperature to 1200 C, the kinematic viscosity increases by a factor of 14. To maintain a given value of the Reynolds number, the flow rate would have to be increased by the same factor for a specific geometry of tube and sample. Thus, to maintain stable equilibrium, the flow rate should be increased as the air or other gas is heated. The other stability problem discussed is associated with changes in the shape of a cylindrical sample as it melts.

  10. Size quantization of Dirac fermions in graphene constrictions

    PubMed Central

    Terrés, B.; Chizhova, L. A.; Libisch, F.; Peiro, J.; Jörger, D.; Engels, S.; Girschik, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Rotkin, S. V.; Burgdörfer, J.; Stampfer, C.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum point contacts are cornerstones of mesoscopic physics and central building blocks for quantum electronics. Although the Fermi wavelength in high-quality bulk graphene can be tuned up to hundreds of nanometres, the observation of quantum confinement of Dirac electrons in nanostructured graphene has proven surprisingly challenging. Here we show ballistic transport and quantized conductance of size-confined Dirac fermions in lithographically defined graphene constrictions. At high carrier densities, the observed conductance agrees excellently with the Landauer theory of ballistic transport without any adjustable parameter. Experimental data and simulations for the evolution of the conductance with magnetic field unambiguously confirm the identification of size quantization in the constriction. Close to the charge neutrality point, bias voltage spectroscopy reveals a renormalized Fermi velocity of ∼1.5 × 106 m s−1 in our constrictions. Moreover, at low carrier density transport measurements allow probing the density of localized states at edges, thus offering a unique handle on edge physics in graphene devices. PMID:27198961

  11. Effect of aortic constriction on the functional border zone

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, K.P.; Ning, X.H.; Gerren, R.A.; Drake, D.H.; Dunham, W.R.

    1987-04-01

    To evaluate how aortic constriction affects nonischemic myocardium adjacent to the perfusion boundary (the functional border zone) the authors measured systolic wall thickening (dWT) with sonomicrometers in eight anesthetized, open-chest dogs. The locations of the wall thickening measurements relative to the perfusion boundary (PB) were determined with myocardial blood flow (radioactivity-labelled microspheres) maps constructed from multiple, small tissue samples. In nonischemic myocardium more than 10 mm from the PB produced by circumflex coronary occlusion, dWT increased significantly from 2.57 +/- 0.62 to 3.24 +/- 0.73 mm. Within 10 mm of the PB, however, dWT did not change significantly. When the aorta was mechanically constricted, peak systolic pressure increased approx.50%. Wall thickening decreased to the same relative degree in nonischemic muscle less than 10 mm and more than 10 mm from the perfusion boundary. By fitting sigmoid curves to the data, they estimated the extent of nonischemic dysfunction. It averaged 26 +/- 6/sup 0/ (6-8 mm of endocardial circumference) during coronary occlusion alone and it was not significantly different (29 +/- 11/sup 0/) after aortic constriction. Thus elevated afterload affects nonischemic myocardium uniformly and does not increase the size ore relative severity of the functional border zone.

  12. Transient dynamics of an elastic capsule in a microfluidic constriction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun-Young; Dimitrakopoulos, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate computationally the transient dynamics of an elastic capsule flowing in a square microchannel with a rectangular constriction, and compare it with that of a droplet. The confinement and expansion dynamics of the fluid flow results in a rich deformation behavior for the capsule, from an elongated shape at the constriction entrance, to a flattened parachute shape at its exit. Larger capsules are shown to take more time to pass the constriction and cause higher additional pressure difference, owing to higher flow blocking. Our work highlights the effects of two different mechanisms for non-tank-treading transient capsule dynamics. The capsule deformation results from the combined effects of the surrounding and inner fluids’ normal stresses on the soft particle’s interface, and thus when the capsule viscosity increases, its transient deformation decreases, as for droplets. However, the capsule deformation is not able to create a strong enough inner circulation (owing to restrictions imposed by the material membrane), and thus the viscosity ratio does not affect much the capsule velocity and the additional pressure difference. In addition, the weak inner circulation results in a positive additional pressure difference ΔP+ even for low-viscosity capsules, in direct contrast to low-viscosity droplets which create a negative ΔP+. Our findings suggest that the high cytoplasmatic viscosity, owing to the protein hemoglobin required for oxygen transport, does not affect adversely the motion of non-tank-trading erythrocytes in vascular capillaries. PMID:24223621

  13. Role of calcium in the constriction of isolated cerebral arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wendling, W.W.

    1987-01-01

    Calcium entry blockers (CEB) have been used in the experimental treatment or prevention of many cerebrovascular disorders including stroke, post-ischemic hypoperfusion after cardiac arrest, cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage, and migraine headache. However, the mechanism of action of these drugs on the cerebral circulation is poorly understood. This study examined the effects of calcium antagonists, Ca/sup 2 +/-deficient solutions, and vasocostrictors on cerebrovascular tone and /sup 45/Ca fluxes, to determine the role of calcium in cerebral arterial constriction. A Scatchard plot of /sup 45/Ca binding to BMCA showed that Ca/sup 2 +/ was bound at either low or high affinity binding sties. The four vasoconstrictors (potassium, serotonin, PGF/sub 2 ..cap alpha../, or SQ-26,655) each increased low affinity /sup 45/Ca uptake into BMCA. The results demonstrate that: (1) Potassium and serotonin constrict BMCA mainly by promoting Ca/sup 2 +/ influx through CEB-sensitive channels; (2) PGF/sub 2 ..cap alpha../ and SQ-26,655 constrict BMCA in part by promoting Ca/sup 2 +/ influx through CEB-sensitive channels, and in part by releasing Ca/sup 2 +/ from depletable internal stores; (3) The major action of CEB on BMCA is to block vasoconstrictor-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake through both potential-operated (K/sup +/-stimulated) and receptor-operated channels.

  14. Influence of Hamstring and Abdominal Muscle Activation on a Positive Ober's Test in People with Lumbopelvic Pain.

    PubMed

    Tenney, H Rich; Boyle, Kyndall L; Debord, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Objectif : Évaluer l'effet immédiat de l'activation des ischiojambiers et des muscles abdominaux sur le degré de douleur mesuré à l'échelle numérique (EN) de la douleur et sur l'amplitude de mouvement de la hanche mesurée dans le cadre d'un test d'Ober chez les sujets souffrant de douleurs lombo-pelviennes. Méthode : Un échantillon de 13 participants souffrant de douleurs lombo-pelviennes et ayant un test d'Ober positif ont été soumis à un programme d'exercices conçus par le Postural Restoration Institute™ en vue de redonner leur force aux muscles ischiojambiers et aux muscles abdominaux. Résultats : Une augmentation considérable de l'angle d'adduction passive de la hanche a été constatée (p<0,01) de même qu'une diminution de la douleur (p<0,01) immédiatement après l'intervention. Conclusion : Des exercices spécifiques qui permettent d'activer les muscles ischiojambiers et les muscles abdominaux semblent améliorer immédiatement les mesures obtenues au test d'Ober et réduire la douleur mesurée à l'EN chez les sujets aux prises avec des douleurs lombo-pelviennes. L'activation des abdominaux et des ischiojambiers peut être plus efficace que les étirements de la bande ilio-tibiale pour contrer la douleur lombo-pelvienne et obtenir un test d'Ober positif.

  15. Characterization of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with artificial constrictions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Dengkuan; Wu, Junjie; He, Yuhao; Lv, Chaolin; You, Lixing Zhang, Weijun; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhen Xie, Xiaoming

    2014-06-15

    Statistical studies on the performance of different superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) on one chip suggested that random constrictions existed in the nanowire that were barely registered by scanning electron microscopy. With the aid of advanced e-beam lithography, artificial geometric constrictions were fabricated on SNSPDs as well as single nanowires. In this way, we studied the influence of artificial constrictions on SNSPDs in a straight forward manner. By introducing artificial constrictions with different wire widths in single nanowires, we concluded that the dark counts of SNSPDs originate from a single constriction. Further introducing artificial constrictions in SNSPDs, we studied the relationship between detection efficiency and kinetic inductance and the bias current, confirming the hypothesis that constrictions exist in SNSPDs.

  16. Piezoelectric control of the static behaviour of flextensional actuators with constricted hinges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybylski, Jacek

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the mathematical modelling and computational testing of the static operational performance and effectiveness of flextensional actuators comprised of two rectilinear or initially deflected beams placed equidistantly from a centrally located piezoceramic stack in the form of a rod. The beams are mounted by stiff links with an offset to a piezoelectric transformer. A monolithic hinge lever mechanism is applied by cutting constricted hinges at the links to generate and magnify the in-plane displacement created by the application of a voltage to the piezorod. Structures of such a type have been commonly used as passive or active actuators since the manufacturing of the mechanism’s prototypes in the form of Moonie or cymbal actuators. An analytical model of the actuator is developed on the basis of stationary values of the total potential energy principle with the use of the von Kármán non-linear strains theory. During the numerical computations, the deflection and internal axial force generated by both the externally distributed load and the the application of an electric field are determined by changing the actuator properties such as the distance between the beams and the rod, the amplitude of the beam’s initial displacement as well as the stiffness of the constricted hinges. Additionally, the application of structure prestressing is considered to avoid an undesired stretching of the piezo stack. It has been shown that for the flextensional actuator with a very high flexibility of constricted hinges, the generated transverse displacement is limited by the maximum electric field as the characteristic property for each piezoceramic material. A vast number of numerical results exhibit the mechanical responses of the transducer of different geometrical and physical properties to piezoelectric stimulation; this has potential applications in the design process of such actuators.

  17. Intraneural dexamethasone applied simultaneously to rat sciatic nerve constriction delays the development of hyperalgesia and allodynia.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Leandro F S; Medeiros, Daniel C; Vieira, Rafael P; Watkins, Linda R; Coelho, Márcio M; Moraes, Márcio F D

    2012-02-21

    Although neuroimmune interactions associated with the development of pain sensitization in models of neuropathic pain have been widely studied, there are some aspects that require further investigation. Thus, we aimed to evaluate whether the local intraneural or perineural injections of dexamethasone, an efficacious anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant drug, delays the development of both thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in an experimental model of neuropathic pain in rats. Hargreaves and electronic von Frey tests were applied. The chronic constriction injury (CCI) of right sciatic nerve was performed. Single intraneural dexamethasone administration at the moment of constriction delayed the development of sensitization for thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. However, perineural administration of dexamethasone, at the highest dose, did not delay experimental pain development. These results show that inflammation/immune response at the site of nerve lesion is an essential trigger for the pathological changes that lead to both hyperalgesia and allodynia. In conclusion, this approach opens new opportunities to study cellular and molecular neuroimmune interactions associated with the development of pain derived from peripheral neuropathies. PMID:22240103

  18. Ring cycle for dilating and constricting the nuclear pore

    PubMed Central

    Solmaz, Sozanne R.; Blobel, Günter; Melčák, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    We recently showed that the three “channel” nucleoporins, Nup54, Nup58, and Nup62, interact with each other through only four distinct sites and established the crystal structures of the two resulting “interactomes,” Nup54•Nup58 and Nup54•Nup62. We also reported instability of the Nup54•Nup58 interactome and previously determined the atomic structure of the relevant Nup58 segment by itself, demonstrating that it forms a twofold symmetric tetramer. Here, we report the crystal structure of the relevant free Nup54 segment and show that it forms a tetrameric, helical bundle that is structurally “conditioned” for instability by a central patch of polar hydrogen-bonded residues. Integrating these data with our previously reported results, we propose a “ring cycle” for dilating and constricting the nuclear pore. In essence, three homooligomeric rings, one consisting of eight modules of Nup58 tetramers, and two, each consisting of eight modules of Nup54 tetramers, are stacked in midplane and characterize a constricted pore of 10- to 20-nm diameter. In going to the dilated state, segments of one Nup58 and two Nup54 tetrameric modules reassort into a dodecameric module, eight of which form a single, heterooligomeric midplane ring, which is flexible in a diameter range of 40–50 nm. The ring cycle would be regulated by phenylalanine–glycine regions (“FG repeats”) of channel nups. Akin to ligand-gated channels, the dilated state of the midplane ring may be stabilized by binding of [cargo•transport-factor] complexes to FG repeats, thereby linking the ratio of constricted to dilated nuclear pores to cellular transport need. PMID:23479651

  19. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Keisler, Brian; Carter, Chuck

    2015-04-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm refers to abdominal aortic dilation of 3.0 cm or greater. The main risk factors are age older than 65 years, male sex, and smoking history. Other risk factors include a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery disease, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, and previous myocardial infarction. Diagnosis may be made by physical examination, an incidental finding on imaging, or ultrasonography. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released updated recommendations for abdominal aortic aneurysm screening in 2014. Men 65 to 75 years of age with a history of smoking should undergo one-time screening with ultrasonography based on evidence that screening will improve abdominal aortic aneurysm-related mortality in this population. Men in this age group without a history of smoking may benefit if they have other risk factors (e.g., family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, other vascular aneurysms, coronary artery disease). There is inconclusive evidence to recommend screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in women 65 to 75 years of age with a smoking history. Women without a smoking history should not undergo screening because the harms likely outweigh the benefits. Persons who have a stable abdominal aortic aneurysm should undergo regular surveillance or operative intervention depending on aneurysm size. Surgical intervention by open or endovascular repair is the primary option and is typically reserved for aneurysms 5.5 cm in diameter or greater. There are limited options for medical treatment beyond risk factor modification. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is a medical emergency presenting with hypotension, shooting abdominal or back pain, and a pulsatile abdominal mass. It is associated with high prehospitalization mortality. Emergent surgical intervention is indicated for a rupture but has a high operative mortality rate. PMID:25884861

  20. Transition from positive to negative magnetoresistance induced by a constriction in semiconductor nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wołoszyn, M.; Spisak, B. J.; Wójcik, P.; Adamowski, J.

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the magnetotransport through an indium antimonide (InSb) nanowire grown in [111] direction, with a geometric constriction and in an external magnetic field applied along the nanowire axis. We have found that the magnetoresistance is negative for the narrow constriction, nearly zero for the constriction of some intermediate radius, and takes on positive values for the constriction with the radius approaching that of the nanowire. For all magnitudes of the magnetic field, the radius of constriction at which the change of the magnetoresistance sign takes place has been found to be almost the same as long as other geometric parameters of the nanowire are fixed. The sign reversing of the magnetoresistance is explained as a combined effect of two factors: the influence of the constriction on the transverse states and the spin Zeeman effect.

  1. Epidermal growth factor-like repeats of tenascin-C-induced constriction of cerebral arteries via activation of epidermal growth factor receptors in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Masashi; Shiba, Masato; Kawakita, Fumihiro; Liu, Lei; Nakasaki, Asuka; Shimojo, Naoshi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2016-07-01

    Tenascin-C (TNC), one of matricellular proteins, has been suggested to be involved in cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, the mechanisms of how TNC constricts cerebral arteries remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine if epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats of TNC is involved in TNC-induced constriction of cerebral arteries in rats via EGF receptor (EGFR) activation. Two dosages of recombinant TNC (r-TNC) consisting of the EGF-like repeats was administered intracisternally to healthy rats, and its vasoconstrictor effects were evaluated by neurobehavioral tests and India-ink angiography at 24, 48, and 72 hours after the administration. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to explore the underlying mechanisms on constricted cerebral arteries after 24 hours. The effects of a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (AG1478) on r-TNC-induced vasoconstriction were evaluated by neurobehavioral tests, India-ink angiography and immunohistochemistry at 24 hours after the administration. A higher dosage of r-TNC induced cerebral arterial constriction more severely, which continued for 48 hours. The effects were associated with the activation of EGFR and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in the smooth muscle cell layer of the constricted cerebral artery, while c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 were not activated. AG1478 blocked r-TNC-induced vasoconstrictive effects, as well as activation of EGFR and ERK1/2. These findings demonstrate that TNC induces constriction of cerebral arteries via activation of EGFR and ERK1/2.

  2. [Abdominal compartment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pottecher, T; Segura, P; Launoy, A

    2001-04-01

    French physicians dealing with abdominal emergencies are not very familiar with the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Increased abdominal pressure has deleterious consequences on local (intestine, liver, kidney) circulation, leading to death in the absence of correct treatment. Abdominal trauma and ruptured aortic aneurism are the main causes of ACS. Clinical presentation may be misleading: respiratory failure, oliguria or circulatory symptoms are often predominant. Abdominal palpation is inefficient for evaluating intra-abdominal pressure (IAP); only measurement of cystic pressure allows precise evaluation of IAP. Abdominal decompression is the treatment of choice. It must be performed as soon as IAP exceeds 25 mmHg. The procedure may be risky with a high incidence of severe complications when ischaemic territories are reperfused. Recent data underline the importance of compensation of hypovolemia before decompression. Abdominal closure may necessitate various techniques (aponevrotomy, Bogota bags, etc.). At any rate, IAP must remain low at the end of the procedure. In case of suspicion of ACS, early measurement of IAP is mandatory. If pressure is over 25 mmHg, a decompressive procedure must be initiated. PMID:11340703

  3. Mechanical response of red blood cells entering a constriction

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Nancy F.; Ristenpart, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Most work on the dynamic response of red blood cells (RBCs) to hydrodynamic stress has focused on linear velocity profiles. Relatively little experimental work has examined how individual RBCs respond to pressure driven flow in more complex geometries, such as the flow at the entrance of a capillary. Here, we establish the mechanical behaviors of healthy RBCs undergoing a sudden increase in shear stress at the entrance of a narrow constriction. We pumped RBCs through a constriction in a microfluidic device and used high speed video to visualize and track the flow behavior of more than 4400 RBCs. We show that approximately 85% of RBCs undergo one of four distinct modes of motion: stretching, twisting, tumbling, or rolling. Intriguingly, a plurality of cells (∼30%) exhibited twisting (rotation around the major axis parallel to the flow direction), a mechanical behavior that is not typically observed in linear velocity profiles. We present detailed statistical analyses on the dynamics of each motion and demonstrate that the behavior is highly sensitive to the location of the RBC within the channel. We further demonstrate that the observed tumbling, twisting, and rolling rotations can be rationalized qualitatively in terms of rigid body mechanics. The detailed experimental statistics presented here should serve as a useful resource for modeling of RBC behavior under physiologically important flow conditions. PMID:25553197

  4. Tuberculous constrictive pericarditis complicated with tuberculous mediastinitis - case report.

    PubMed

    Man, Milena Adina; NiŢu, Mimi Floarea; Strâmbu, Lelia; Florescu, Cristina; Streba, Costin Teodor; Trofor, Antigona Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Constrictive pericarditis is a rare and severe disease. A 37-year-old patient was admitted in the hospital for dyspnea, precordial pain, right-sided cardiac failure. Chest X-ray showed cardiac enlargement and an opacity suggestive for pleural effusion. Echocardiography revealed an adhesive-effusive-constrictive pericarditis, a very thickened pericardium and bilateral pleural effusion. After a pericardiectomy done to restore cardiac compensation and to identify etiological factors, a tuberculous pericarditis (TBP) was diagnosed. After surgery and starting anti-TB treatment, the patient presented altered clinical status, dyspnea, dry cough, fever and delayed callus formation at sternum level. Thoracic scan revealed mediastinal air collections, pericarditis and pleurisy. Thus, the TBP diagnosis was extended to mediastinal TB and anti-TB therapy was continued. After four months of treatment, another thoracic scan showed disappearance of the mediastinal air-leakage bubbles, multiple new micronodules in both lungs and lymph nodes of up to 15 mm; also increasing pericardial and pleural effusions. This case was interpreted as a TB treatment failure situation. A retreatment regimen was started, resulting in a slow favorable outcome. Pericardial TB is a rare condition, usually with delayed diagnosis and poor treatment benefits. Whenever possible, earlier diagnostic can contribute to better management of these cases.

  5. Surgical correction of constricted ear combined with Stahl's ear.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ye; Lin, Lin; Yang, Qinhua; Pan, Bo; Zhao, Yanyong; He, Leren; Jiang, Haiyue

    2015-07-01

    Constricted ear combined with Stahl's ear is a rare ear deformity, which is a kind of complex congenital auricular deformity. From 1 January 2007 to 1 January 2014, 19 patients with constricted ear combined with Stahl's ear (Spock ear) were enrolled in this study, most of which were unilaterally deformed. To correct the deformity, a double Z-shaped skin incision was made on the posterior side of the auricle, with the entire layer of cartilage cut parallel to the helix traversing the third crus to form a fan-shaped cartilage flap. The superior crura of the antihelix were shaped by the folding cartilage rim. The cartilage of the abnormal third crus was made part of the new superior crura of antihelix, and the third crus was eliminated. The postoperative aesthetic assessment of the reshaped auricle was graded by both doctors and patients (or their parents). Out of the 19 patients, the number of satisfying cases of the symmetry, helix stretch, elimination of the third crus, the cranioauricular angle, and the substructure of the reshaped ears was 14 (nine excellent and five good), 16 (six excellent and 10 good), 17 (eight excellent and nine good), 15 (five excellent and 10 good), and 13 (two excellent and 11 good), respectively. With a maximum of a 90-month follow-up, no complication was observed. The results of the study suggested that this rare deformity could be corrected by appropriate surgical treatment, with a satisfied postoperative appearance.

  6. Tuberculous constrictive pericarditis complicated with tuberculous mediastinitis - case report.

    PubMed

    Man, Milena Adina; NiŢu, Mimi Floarea; Strâmbu, Lelia; Florescu, Cristina; Streba, Costin Teodor; Trofor, Antigona Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Constrictive pericarditis is a rare and severe disease. A 37-year-old patient was admitted in the hospital for dyspnea, precordial pain, right-sided cardiac failure. Chest X-ray showed cardiac enlargement and an opacity suggestive for pleural effusion. Echocardiography revealed an adhesive-effusive-constrictive pericarditis, a very thickened pericardium and bilateral pleural effusion. After a pericardiectomy done to restore cardiac compensation and to identify etiological factors, a tuberculous pericarditis (TBP) was diagnosed. After surgery and starting anti-TB treatment, the patient presented altered clinical status, dyspnea, dry cough, fever and delayed callus formation at sternum level. Thoracic scan revealed mediastinal air collections, pericarditis and pleurisy. Thus, the TBP diagnosis was extended to mediastinal TB and anti-TB therapy was continued. After four months of treatment, another thoracic scan showed disappearance of the mediastinal air-leakage bubbles, multiple new micronodules in both lungs and lymph nodes of up to 15 mm; also increasing pericardial and pleural effusions. This case was interpreted as a TB treatment failure situation. A retreatment regimen was started, resulting in a slow favorable outcome. Pericardial TB is a rare condition, usually with delayed diagnosis and poor treatment benefits. Whenever possible, earlier diagnostic can contribute to better management of these cases. PMID:27151714

  7. Twisting of Red Blood Cells Entering a Constriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Nancy; Ristenpart, William

    2014-11-01

    Most work on the dynamic response of red blood cells (RBCs) to hydrodynamic stress has focused on linear velocity profiles. Relatively little experimental work has examined how individual RBCs respond to pressure driven flow in more complex geometries, such as the flow at the entrance of a capillary. Here, we establish the mechanical behaviors of healthy RBCs undergoing a sudden increase in shear stress at the entrance of a narrow constriction. We pumped RBCs through a constriction in an ex vivo microfluidic device and used high speed video to visualize and track the flow behavior of more than 4,400 RBCs. We show that approximately 85% of RBCs undergo one of four distinct modes of motion: stretching, twisting, tumbling, or rolling. Intriguingly, a plurality of cells (~30%) exhibited twisting (rotation around the major axis parallel to the flow direction), a mechanical behavior that is not typically observed in linear velocity profiles. We examine the mechanical origin of twisting using, as a limiting case, the equations of motion for rigid ellipsoids, and we demonstrate that the observed rotation is qualitatively consistent with rigid body theory.

  8. Mechanical Response of Red Blood Cells Entering a Constriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Nancy; Ristenpart, William

    2013-11-01

    Most work on RBC dynamic response to hydrodynamic stress has focused on linear velocity gradients. Relatively little experimental work has examined how RBCs respond to pressure driven flow in more complex geometries, such as in an abrupt contraction. Here, we establish the mechanical behaviors of RBCs undergoing a sudden increase in shear stress at the entrance of a narrow constriction. We pumped RBCs through a constriction in an ex vivo microfluidic device and used high speed video to visualize and track the flow behavior of more than 4,000 RBCs. We show that approximately 90% of RBCs undergo one of four distinct modes of motion: stretching, twisting, tumbling, or rolling. Intriguingly, almost 40% of the cells exhibited twisting (rotation around the major axis parallel to the flow direction), a mechanical behavior that is not typically observed in linear velocity gradients. We present detailed statistical analyses on the dynamics of each motion and demonstrate that the behavior is highly sensitive to the location of the RBC within the channel. Finally, we show that the tumbling and rolling motions can be rationalized qualitatively in terms of rigid body rotation, whereas twisting motion cannot, suggesting that twisting is a consequence of the viscoelastic nature of the RBCs.

  9. Berberine Ameliorates Allodynia Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury of the Sciatic Nerve in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jee

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether berberine could ameliorate allodynia induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats. After inducement of CCI, significant increases in the number of paw lifts from a cold plate test (cold allodynia) and decreased paw withdrawal threshold in the von Frey hair stimulation test (mechanical allodynia) were observed. However, these cold and mechanical allodynia were markedly alleviated by berberine administration in a dose-dependent manner. Sciatic nerve myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde activities were also attenuated by berberine administration. Continuous injection for 7 days induced no development of tolerance. The antiallodynic effect of 20 mg/kg berberine was comparable to that of amitriptyline 10 mg/kg. This study demonstrated that berberine could mitigate allodynia induced by CCI, a neuropathic pain model, and it suggested that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of berberine contributed to the antiallodynic effect in the CCI model.

  10. Berberine Ameliorates Allodynia Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury of the Sciatic Nerve in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jee

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether berberine could ameliorate allodynia induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats. After inducement of CCI, significant increases in the number of paw lifts from a cold plate test (cold allodynia) and decreased paw withdrawal threshold in the von Frey hair stimulation test (mechanical allodynia) were observed. However, these cold and mechanical allodynia were markedly alleviated by berberine administration in a dose-dependent manner. Sciatic nerve myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde activities were also attenuated by berberine administration. Continuous injection for 7 days induced no development of tolerance. The antiallodynic effect of 20 mg/kg berberine was comparable to that of amitriptyline 10 mg/kg. This study demonstrated that berberine could mitigate allodynia induced by CCI, a neuropathic pain model, and it suggested that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of berberine contributed to the antiallodynic effect in the CCI model. PMID:25674823

  11. Dynamics of single inclusions in channels with constrictions in the acoustic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimov, A. Yu.; Gubaidullin, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    The process of mobilization of viscous droplets, trapped in the channel with a sinusoidal constriction under the influence of an external acoustic field have been studied. The dependence of the amplitude of acoustic impact from the frequency has been found. The problem of the free longitudinal oscillations of a droplet in the absence of viscous friction forces in the channels with the constrictions was considered. The influence of surface tension, droplet volume and shape of constrictions on the natural frequency of the longitudinal oscillations of a droplet pinned at the constriction of the capillary were studied.

  12. Efficacy of advice from healthcare professionals to pregnant women on avoiding constrictive clothing around the trunk: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Takehara, Kenji; Kato, Sachiko; Sasaki, Aiko; Jwa, Seung Chik; Kakee, Naoko; Sago, Haruhiko; Noguchi, Yuko; Aoki, Tomoko; Inoue, Eisuke; Nitta, Chieko; Ishii, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As a component of midwife care, eliminating clothing that constricts the trunk has been shown to markedly elevate the uterine fundus, soften the uterus and abdomen, and reduce the abdominal wall tension in women admitted to hospital due to the risk of miscarriage or premature delivery. However, no prospective study has conclusively verified the efficacy of avoiding constrictive clothes around the trunk in pregnant women. We aim to verify the efficacy of instructing pregnant women to wear loose clothing that does not constrict the trunk to reduce the risk of premature birth and improve quality of life (QoL) during pregnancy. Methods and analysis We will conduct a randomised controlled trial of pregnant women scheduled to deliver at the National Center for Child Health and Development in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 616 pregnant women, from whom written informed consent will be obtained, will be allocated randomly to an intervention group or a control group. Women in the control group will be provided with anaemia prevention leaflets at 20 weeks’ gestation and skin-care leaflets at 30 weeks’ gestation. Women in the intervention group will be provided with the same leaflets and will also receive health advice from health professionals to avoid constrictive clothing around the trunk. The primary outcome will be a difference between these groups in the frequency of any one of the following category variables: (1) cervical length <30 mm up to 28 weeks’ gestation, (2) hospital admission for threatened premature delivery, or (3) premature delivery. Secondary outcomes will include QoL during pregnancy, maternal state of health, and status of fetal development. Ethics and dissemination The Institutional Review Board and Ethics Committee at the National Center for Child Health and Development, Japan, has approved this study. Our findings will be widely disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration

  13. Whole-body electromyostimulation as a means to impact muscle mass and abdominal body fat in lean, sedentary, older female adults: subanalysis of the TEST-III trial

    PubMed Central

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 months of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) exercise on appendicular muscle mass and abdominal fat mass in subjects specifically at risk for sarcopenia and abdominal obesity, but unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally. Methods Forty-six lean, nonsportive (<60 minutes of exercise per week), elderly women (aged 75 ± 4 years) with abdominal obesity according to International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n=23) which performed 18 minutes of intermittent, bipolar WB-EMS (85 Hz) three sessions in 14 days or an “active” control group (n=23). Whole-body and regional body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine appendicular muscle mass, upper leg muscle mass, abdominal fat mass, and upper leg fat mass. Maximum strength of the leg extensors was determined isometrically by force plates. Results After 12 months, significant intergroup differences were detected for the primary end-points of appendicular muscle mass (0.5% ± 2.0% for the WB-EMS group versus −0.8% ± 2.0% for the control group, P=0.025) and abdominal fat mass (−1.2% ± 5.9% for the WB-EMS group versus 2.4% ± 5.8% for the control group, P=0.038). Further, upper leg lean muscle mass changed favorably in the WB-EMS group (0.5% ± 2.5% versus −0.9% ± 1.9%, in the control group, P=0.033), while effects for upper leg fat mass were borderline nonsignificant (−0.8% ± 3.5% for the WB-EMS group versus 1.0% ± 2.6% for the control group, P=0.050). With respect to functional parameters, the effects for leg extensor strength were again significant, with more favorable changes in the WB-EMS group (9.1% ± 11.2% versus 1.0% ± 8.1% in the control group, P=0.010). Conclusion In summary, WB-EMS showed positive effects on the parameters of sarcopenia and regional fat accumulation. Further, considering the good acceptance of this technology by

  14. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T

    2000-01-01

    The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  15. Exercise training reverses aging-induced impairment of myogenic constriction in skeletal muscle arterioles.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Payal; Mora Solis, Fredy R; Dominguez, James M; Spier, Scott A; Donato, Anthony J; Delp, Michael D; Muller-Delp, Judy M

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether exercise training can reverse age-related impairment of myogenic vasoconstriction in skeletal muscle arterioles, young (4 mo) and old (22 mo) male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to either sedentary or exercise-trained groups. The roles of the endothelium and Kv1 channels in age- and exercise training-induced adaptations of myogenic responses were assessed through evaluation of pressure-induced constriction in endothelium-intact and denuded soleus muscle arterioles in the presence and absence of the Kv1 channel blocker, correolide. Exercise training enhanced myogenic constriction in arterioles from both old and young rats. In arterioles from old rats, exercise training restored myogenic constriction to a level similar to that of arterioles from young sedentary rats. Removal of the endothelium did not alter myogenic constriction of arterioles from young sedentary rats, but reduced myogenic constriction in arterioles from young exercise-trained rats. In contrast, endothelial removal had no effect on myogenic constriction of arterioles from old exercise-trained rats, but increased myogenic vasoconstriction in old sedentary rats. The effect of Kv1 channel blockade was also dependent on age and training status. In arterioles from young sedentary rats, Kv1 blockade had little effect on myogenic constriction, whereas in old sedentary rats Kv1 blockade increased myogenic constriction. After exercise training, Kv1 channel blockade increased myogenic constriction in arterioles from both young and old rats. Thus exercise training restores myogenic constriction of arterioles from old rats and enhances myogenic constriction from young rats through adaptations of the endothelium and smooth muscle Kv1 channels. PMID:25634999

  16. Acute Abdominal Pain in Children.

    PubMed

    Reust, Carin E; Williams, Amy

    2016-05-15

    Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound tenderness. The age of the child can help focus the differential diagnosis. In infants and toddlers, clinicians should consider congenital anomalies and other causes, including malrotation, hernias, Meckel diverticulum, or intussusception. In school-aged children, constipation and infectious causes of pain, such as gastroenteritis, colitis, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections, are more common. In female adolescents, clinicians should consider pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy, ruptured ovarian cysts, or ovarian torsion. Initial laboratory tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, urinalysis, and a pregnancy test. Abdominal radiography can be used to diagnose constipation or obstruction. Ultrasonography is the initial choice in children for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, pancreatitis, ovarian cyst, ovarian or testicular torsion, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy-related pathology, and appendicitis. Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgery, with a peak incidence during adolescence. When the appendix is not clearly visible on ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:27175718

  17. Abdominal Distension and Vascular Collapse.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Gina; Uwaifo, Gabriel I

    2016-04-01

    We present the case of a 43-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency room with acute abdominal distension, confusion and vascular collapse. The emergent radiologic imaging obtained showed massive bilateral adrenal enlargement, but despite the initial clinical suspicion of possible overwhelming sepsis and/or massive abdominal/intralesional hemorrhage, lab tests based obtained rapidly confirmed the diagnosis of acute Addisonian crisis which responded dramatically to adrenocorticoid hormone replacement therapy and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The patient's established history of metastatic lung cancer confirmed this as a case of metastatic massive bilateral adrenal metastases with an initial presentation of acute adrenal insufficiency which is uncommon in the setting of metastatic carcinomatosis but more typically associated with lymphomas. Recognition of this clinical possibility is vital to enable rapid diagnosis and consequent life saving therapy. PMID:27328473

  18. [Diagnostic difficulties in a case of constricted tubular visual field].

    PubMed

    Dogaru, Oana-Mihaela; Rusu, Monica; Hâncu, Dacia; Horvath, Kárin

    2013-01-01

    In the paper below we present the clinical case of a 48 year old female with various symptoms associated with functional visual disturbance -constricted tubular visual fields, wich lasts from 6 years; the extensive clinical and paraclinical ophthalmological investigations ruled out the presence of an organic disorder. In the present, we suspect a diagnosis of hysteria, still uncertain, wich represented over time a big challenge in psychology and ophthalmology. The mechanisms and reasons for hysteria are still not clear and it could represent a fascinating research theme. The tunnel, spiral or star-shaped visual fields are specific findings in hysteria for patients who present visual disturbance. The question of whether or not a patient with hysterical visual impairment can or cannot "see" is still unresolved.

  19. Equivalence ratio and constriction effects on RBCC thrust augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koupriyanov, M.; Etele, J.

    2011-06-01

    A theoretical analysis of a variable area rocket based combined cycle engine with and without simultaneous mixing and combustion is presented. The flowfield is solved using a steady, quasi-one-dimensional, inviscid control volume formulation with combustion effects included via a generalized equilibrium calculation. Compression augmentation is shown to be sensitive to the equivalence ratio within the primary rocket chamber, where ejector section performance is greatest at both low and high equivalence ratios but near a minimum at stoichiometric conditions. The thrust generated by the RBCC engine compared to that generated by the same rocket in isolation can be increased by as much as 12% at constriction ratios of between 45% and 50%. Thrust augmentation is also shown to vary with equivalence ratio, where for a fixed geometry the maximum thrust is generated at equivalence ratios slightly below unity.

  20. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  1. Current constriction of high-current vacuum arc in vacuum interrupters

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Lijun; Jia Shenli; Zhang Ling; Yang Dingge; Shi Zongqian; Gentils, Francois; Jusselin, Benoit

    2008-03-15

    Compared with previous paper [L. Wang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 100, 113304 (2006)], higher-current vacuum arc is simulated and analyzed based on magnetohydrodynamics model, and current constriction phenomenon in arc column is mainly paid attention to and analyzed in this paper. According to simulation results, it can be found that significant current constriction only appears near anode regions for lower-current vacuum arc. However, with the increase of arc current, current constriction also appears near the cathode side, and with the further increase of arc current, current constriction near the cathode side can become more significant than that near the anode side. The current constriction near the cathode side can be mainly caused by very high current level. The increase of axial magnetic field (AMF) strength will inhibit current constriction in the whole arc column. For influence of AMF distribution, saddle-shaped distributed AMF can more efficiently inhibit current constriction of arc column than bell-shaped AMF. The phenomenon of current constriction near the cathode side has also been found by many experiments, which also can verify the correctness of simulation results.

  2. Embryo as an active granular fluid: stress-coordinated cellular constriction chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Guo-Jie Jason; Holcomb, Michael C.; Thomas, Jeffrey H.; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2016-10-01

    Mechanical stress plays an intricate role in gene expression in individual cells and sculpting of developing tissues. However, systematic methods of studying how mechanical stress and feedback help to harmonize cellular activities within a tissue have yet to be developed. Motivated by our observation of the cellular constriction chains (CCCs) during the initial phase of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, we propose an active granular fluid (AGF) model that provides valuable insights into cellular coordination in the apical constriction process. In our model, cells are treated as circular particles connected by a predefined force network, and they undergo a random constriction process in which the particle constriction probability P is a function of the stress exerted on the particle by its neighbors. We find that when P favors tensile stress, constricted particles tend to form chain-like structures. In contrast, constricted particles tend to form compact clusters when P favors compression. A remarkable similarity of constricted-particle chains and CCCs observed in vivo provides indirect evidence that tensile-stress feedback coordinates the apical constriction activity. Our particle-based AGF model will be useful in analyzing mechanical feedback effects in a wide variety of morphogenesis and organogenesis phenomena.

  3. Flow of a Casson fluid through a locally-constricted porous channel: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amlimohamadi, Haleh; Akram, Maryammosadat; Sadeghy, Kayvan

    2016-05-01

    Flow of a Casson fluid through a two-dimensional porous channel containing a local constriction is numerically investigated assuming that the resistance offered by the porous medium obeys the Darcy's law. Treating the constriction as another porous medium which obeys the Darcy-Forcheimer model, the equations governing fluid flow in the main channel and the constriction itself are numerically solved using the finite-volume method (FVM) based on the pseudo-transient SIMPLE algorithm. It is shown that an increase in the porosity of the channel decreases the shear stress exerted on the constriction. On the other hand, an increase in the fluid's yield stress is predicted to increase the maximum shear stress experienced by the constriction near its crest. The porosity of the constriction itself is predicted to have a negligible effect on the plaque's shear stress. But, the momentum of the weak flow passing through the constriction is argued to lower the bulk fluid from separating downstream of the constriction.

  4. Embryo as an active granular fluid: stress-coordinated cellular constriction chains.

    PubMed

    Jason Gao, Guo-Jie; Holcomb, Michael C; Thomas, Jeffrey H; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2016-10-19

    Mechanical stress plays an intricate role in gene expression in individual cells and sculpting of developing tissues. However, systematic methods of studying how mechanical stress and feedback help to harmonize cellular activities within a tissue have yet to be developed. Motivated by our observation of the cellular constriction chains (CCCs) during the initial phase of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, we propose an active granular fluid (AGF) model that provides valuable insights into cellular coordination in the apical constriction process. In our model, cells are treated as circular particles connected by a predefined force network, and they undergo a random constriction process in which the particle constriction probability P is a function of the stress exerted on the particle by its neighbors. We find that when P favors tensile stress, constricted particles tend to form chain-like structures. In contrast, constricted particles tend to form compact clusters when P favors compression. A remarkable similarity of constricted-particle chains and CCCs observed in vivo provides indirect evidence that tensile-stress feedback coordinates the apical constriction activity. Our particle-based AGF model will be useful in analyzing mechanical feedback effects in a wide variety of morphogenesis and organogenesis phenomena. PMID:27545101

  5. Fully nonlinear Goertler vortices in constricted channel flows and their effect on the onset of separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denier, James P.; Hall, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The development of fully nonlinear Goertler vortices in high Reynolds number flow in a symmetrically constricted channel is investigated. Attention is restricted to the case of 'strongly' constricted channels considered by Smith and Daniels (1981) for which the scaled constriction height is asymptotically large. Such flows are known to develop a Goldstein singularity and subsequently become separated at some downstream station past the point of maximum channel constriction. It is shown that these flows can support fully nonlinear Goertler vortices, of the form elucidated by Hall and Lakin (1988), for constrictions which have an appreciable region of local concave curvature upstream of the position at which separation occurs. The effect on the onset of separation due to the nonlinear Goertler modes is discussed. A brief discussion of other possible nonlinear states which may also have a dramatic effect in delaying (or promoting) separation is given.

  6. Effect of Strain Rate on the Mechanical Behavior of Red Blood Cells Entering a Constriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, Jordan; Ristenpart, William

    2014-11-01

    Most work on the effect of hydrodynamic stress on red blood cells (RBCs) has focused on linear velocity profiles. Microfluidic devices have provided a means to examine the mechanical behavior of RBCs undergoing a sudden increase in shear stress at the entrance of a constriction, with previous work primarily focused on a fixed constriction taper angle and corresponding hydrodynamic strain rate. Here we investigate the effect of strain rate on the stretching dynamics exhibited by RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. Systematic variations in the constriction taper angle allow the strain rate to be precisely tuned, and high speed video yields precise measurements of the corresponding RBC deformations. We demonstrate that maximal RBC stretching occurs at an intermediate constriction taper angle, despite the lower magnitude of the strain rate. We interpret the results in terms of the time integral of the elongational strain rate, and we discuss the implications for shear-induced mechanotransduction.

  7. Fully nonlinear Goertler vortices in constricted channel flows and their effect on the onset of separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denier, James P.; Hall, Philip

    1992-07-01

    The development of fully nonlinear Goertler vortices in high Reynolds number flow in a symmetrically constricted channel is investigated. Attention is restricted to the case of 'strongly' constricted channels considered by Smith and Daniels (1981) for which the scaled constriction height is asymptotically large. Such flows are known to develop a Goldstein singularity and subsequently become separated at some downstream station past the point of maximum channel constriction. It is shown that these flows can support fully nonlinear Goertler vortices, of the form elucidated by Hall and Lakin (1988), for constrictions which have an appreciable region of local concave curvature upstream of the position at which separation occurs. The effect on the onset of separation due to the nonlinear Goertler modes is discussed. A brief discussion of other possible nonlinear states which may also have a dramatic effect in delaying (or promoting) separation is given.

  8. Lulu Regulates Shroom-Induced Apical Constriction during Neural Tube Closure

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chih-Wen; Gerstenzang, Emma; Ossipova, Olga; Sokol, Sergei Y.

    2013-01-01

    Apical constriction is an essential cell behavior during neural tube closure, but its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Lulu, or EPB4.1l5, is a FERM domain protein that has been implicated in apical constriction and actomyosin contractility in mouse embryos and cultured cells. Interference with the function of Lulu in Xenopus embryos by a specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotide or a carboxy-terminal fragment of Lulu impaired apical constriction during neural plate hinge formation. This effect was likely due to lack of actomyosin contractility in superficial neuroectodermal cells. By contrast, overexpression of Lulu RNA in embryonic ectoderm cells triggered ectopic apico-basal elongation and apical constriction, accompanied by the apical recruitment of F-actin. Depletion of endogenous Lulu disrupted the localization and activity of Shroom3, a PDZ-containing actin-binding protein that has also been implicated in apical constriction. Furthermore, Lulu and Shroom3 RNAs cooperated in triggering ectopic apical constriction in embryonic ectoderm. Our findings reveal that Lulu is essential for Shroom3-dependent apical constriction during vertebrate neural tube closure. PMID:24282618

  9. [Abdominal actinomycosis: four cases].

    PubMed

    Ghannouchi Jaafoura, N; Kaabia, N; Khalifa, M; Ben Jazia, I; Hachfi, W; Braham, A; Letaief, A; Bahri, F

    2008-12-01

    The abdominal actinomycosis (AA) is a rare and often unrecognised suppurative chronic illness. It is caused by an anaerobic Gram positive bacteria, Actinomyces israelii. Abdominal actinomycosis is responsible for pseudotumoral syndrome often leading, to a large and mutilating surgery whereas a prolonged treatment by antibiotics would have permitted to cure the disease. The diagnosis is obtained generally from anatomopathologic exam. We report four cases of abdominal actinomycosis being revealed by a pseudotumoral syndrome. The diagnosis was only made after surgery. In spite of an active treatment by antibiotics during several months, two of our patients had a relapse of the infectious process. These four observations confirm the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties previously reported by other authors.

  10. Theory of nonlinear ballistic transport in quasi-one-dimensional constrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hongqi

    1993-06-01

    We report on quantum-mechanical calculations of the differential conductance G of a ballistic and uniform constriction in the nonlinear-response regime of transport. The constriction has been connected to two semi-infinite two-dimensional electron gases, which serve as emitter and collector when a source-drain voltage Vsd is applied. In accordance with the fact that there should not be any electron backscatterings in the idealized constriction, it is assumed, in the calculations, that the electrostatic potential is flat in the constriction along the transport direction and the voltage drops of the applied source-drain voltage occur only at the ends of the constriction. Our calculations show that in addition to the conductance plateaus, which are quantized at multiples of 2e2/h in the linear-response regime of transport, new plateau structure develops as the source-drain voltage is increased. We predict that the edges of the conductance plateaus are shifted linearly with the applied source-drain voltage. Based on this prediction we discuss a method proposed for measuring the energy spacings of the sublevels of the constriction. Under the assumption that the transmission of an electron depends only on the difference between the energy of the electron incident on the constriction and the bottom of the electrostatic confining potential, a simple analytical form is derived for the nonlinear differential conductance of the constriction. This form complements our exact calculational results and shows that at zero temperature the differential conductance at a given finite Vsd and a given Fermi energy EF is a weighted average of two zero-Vsd conductances at Fermi energies of EF+(1-α)eVsd and EF-αeVsd, where α describes the fraction of the source-drain voltage that drops on the connection between the constriction and the drain reservoir.

  11. The Acute Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Heiken, Jay P

    2015-11-01

    Acute disorders of the abdominal aorta are potentially lethal conditions that require prompt evaluation and treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging method for evaluating these conditions because of its availability and speed. Volumetric CT acquisition with multiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional analysis is now the standard technique for evaluating the aorta. MR imaging may be useful for select applications in stable patients in whom rupture has been excluded. Imaging is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment planning, because management has shifted toward endoluminal repair. Acute abdominal aortic conditions most commonly are complications of aneurysms and atherosclerosis. PMID:26526434

  12. Sodium Hydrosulfide Relieves Neuropathic Pain in Chronic Constriction Injured Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-qing; Luo, Hui-qin; Lin, Cai-zhu; Chen, Jin-zhuan; Lin, Xian-zhong

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant neuronal activity in injured peripheral nerves is believed to be an important factor in the development of neuropathic pain (NPP). Channel protein pCREB of that activity has been shown to mitigate the onset of associated molecular events in the nervous system, and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) could inhibit the expression of pCREB. However, whether NaHS could relieve the pain, it needs further experimental research. Furthermore, the clinical potential that NaHS was used to relieve pain was limited so it would be required. To address these issues, the rats of sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) were given intraperitoneal injection of NaHS containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The experimental results showed that NaHS inhibited the reduction of paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL), mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT), and the level of pCREB in CCI rats in a dose-dependent manner and they were greatly decreased in NaHSM group (P < 0.05). NaHS alleviates chronic neuropathic pain by inhibiting expression of pCREB in the spinal cord of Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:25506383

  13. Snap-off in constricted capillary with elastic interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, P.; Alvarado, V.; Carvalho, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Snap-off of bubbles and drops in constricted capillaries occurs in many different situations, from bio-fluid to multiphase flow in porous media. The breakup process has been extensively analyzed both by theory and experiments, but most work has been limited to pure interfaces, at which the surface stress is isotropic and fully defined by the interfacial tension and interface curvature. Complex interfaces may present viscous and elastic behavior leading to a complex stress state that may change the dynamics of the interface deformation and breakup. We extend the available asymptotic model based on lubrication approximation to include elastic interfacial stress. Drop breakup time is determined as a function of the capillary geometry and liquid properties, including the interfacial elastic modulus. Results show that the interfacial elasticity has a stabilizing effect by slowing down the growth of the liquid collar, leading to a larger break-up time. This stabilizing effect has been observed experimentally in different, but related flows [Alvarado et al., "Interfacial visco-elasticity of crude oil-brine: An alternative EOR mechanism in smart waterflooding," in SPE-169127 Improved Oil Recovery Symposium (Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2014)].

  14. Noninvasive detection of airway constriction in awake guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Silbaugh, S.A.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Tidal volume measured by the barometric method is very sensitive to increases in compression and expansion of alveolar gas, such as would be expected to occur during airway narrowing or closure. By comparing a barometric method tidal volume signal (VT') with a reference tidal volume (VT) obtained with a head-out pressure plethysmograph, a simple index related to gas compressibility effects was calculated (VT/VT'). Changes in this index were compared with decreases in dynamic compliance (Cdyn) during histamine aerosol challenge of 15 Charles River Hartley guinea pigs. Decreases in VT/VT' occurred during all aerosol challenges and were correlated with decreases in Cdyn. Decreases in VT/VT' were most marked at Cdyn values of less than 50% of base line. At Cdyn of less than 15% of base line, VT' was 3.1-4.8 times the VT reference signal. No increase in total pulmonary resistance was noted, and Cdyn and VT/VT' returned to base line after histamine exposure was stopped. The authors conclude that gas compressibility effects become substantial during histamine-induced airway constriction in the guinea pig and that the VT/VT' ratio appears to provide a simple noninvasive method of detecting these changes.

  15. Sodium hydrosulfide relieves neuropathic pain in chronic constriction injured rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-Qing; Luo, Hui-Qin; Lin, Cai-Zhu; Chen, Jin-Zhuan; Lin, Xian-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant neuronal activity in injured peripheral nerves is believed to be an important factor in the development of neuropathic pain (NPP). Channel protein pCREB of that activity has been shown to mitigate the onset of associated molecular events in the nervous system, and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) could inhibit the expression of pCREB. However, whether NaHS could relieve the pain, it needs further experimental research. Furthermore, the clinical potential that NaHS was used to relieve pain was limited so it would be required. To address these issues, the rats of sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) were given intraperitoneal injection of NaHS containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The experimental results showed that NaHS inhibited the reduction of paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL), mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT), and the level of pCREB in CCI rats in a dose-dependent manner and they were greatly decreased in NaHSM group (P < 0.05). NaHS alleviates chronic neuropathic pain by inhibiting expression of pCREB in the spinal cord of Sprague-Dawley rats.

  16. Duodenal perforation as result of blunt abdominal trauma in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hartholt, Klaas Albert; Dekker, Jan Willem T

    2015-01-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma may cause severe intra-abdominal injuries, while clinical findings could be mild or absent directly after the trauma. The absence of clinical findings could mislead physicians into underestimating the severity of the injury at the primary survey, and inevitably leads to a delay in the diagnosis. The Blunt Abdominal Trauma in Children (BATiC) score may help to identify children who are at a high risk for intra-abdominal injuries in an early stage and requires additional tests directly. A case of a 10-year-old girl with a duodenal perforation after a blunt abdominal trauma is presented. A delay in diagnosis may lead to an increased morbidity and mortality rate. A low admission threshold for children with abdominal pain after a blunt trauma is recommended. PMID:26698210

  17. Duodenal perforation as result of blunt abdominal trauma in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hartholt, Klaas Albert; Dekker, Jan Willem T

    2015-12-23

    Blunt abdominal trauma may cause severe intra-abdominal injuries, while clinical findings could be mild or absent directly after the trauma. The absence of clinical findings could mislead physicians into underestimating the severity of the injury at the primary survey, and inevitably leads to a delay in the diagnosis. The Blunt Abdominal Trauma in Children (BATiC) score may help to identify children who are at a high risk for intra-abdominal injuries in an early stage and requires additional tests directly. A case of a 10-year-old girl with a duodenal perforation after a blunt abdominal trauma is presented. A delay in diagnosis may lead to an increased morbidity and mortality rate. A low admission threshold for children with abdominal pain after a blunt trauma is recommended.

  18. A Case of Haemorrhagic Constrictive Pericarditis with Bilateral Pleural Effusions

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Julie; Talebi, Soheila; Cativo, Eder; Mushiyev, Savi; Pekler, Gerald; Visco, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Presentation of pericardial disease is diverse, with the viral aetiology being the most common cause; however, when haemorrhagic pericardial effusion is present, these causes are narrowed to few aetiologies. We present a case of a young female of African descent who presented with diffuse abdominal pain and vomiting. Initial work-up showed pericardial effusion with impending echocardiographic findings of cardiac tamponade and bilateral pleural effusions. Procedures included a left video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) with pericardial window. We consider that it is important for all physicians to be aware of not only typical presentation but also atypical and unusual clinical picture of pericardial disease. PMID:27807484

  19. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation statement applies to adults ages ...

  20. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  1. The big squeeze: scaling of constriction pressure in two of the world's largest snakes, Python reticulatus and Python molurus bivittatus.

    PubMed

    Penning, David A; Dartez, Schuyler F; Moon, Brad R

    2015-11-01

    Snakes are important predators that have radiated throughout many ecosystems, and constriction was important in their radiation. Constrictors immobilize and kill prey by using body loops to exert pressure on their prey. Despite its importance, little is known about constriction performance or its full effects on prey. We studied the scaling of constriction performance in two species of giant pythons (Python reticulatus and Python molurus bivittatus) and propose a new mechanism of prey death by constriction. In both species, peak constriction pressure increased significantly with snake diameter. These and other constrictors can exert pressures dramatically higher than their prey's blood pressure, suggesting that constriction can stop circulatory function and perhaps kill prey rapidly by over-pressurizing the brain and disrupting neural function. We propose the latter 'red-out effect' as another possible mechanism of prey death from constriction. These effects may be important to recognize and treat properly in rare cases when constrictors injure humans.

  2. Cytoplasmic constriction and vesiculation after axotomy in the squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Gallant, P E; Hammar, K; Reese, T S

    1995-12-01

    The squid giant axon responded to a transection injury by producing a gradient of cytoplasmic and vesicular changes at the cut end. At the immediate opening of the cut axon the cytoplasm was fragmented and dispersed and the vesicles in this region were in rapid Brownian movement. Approximately 0.1 mm further in, at the site of maximal axonal constriction, the axoplasm was condensed into a compact, constricted mass containing many large vesicles. The axoplasm was normal a few millimetres beyond this constricted, vesiculated end. It appears that transection triggered the transformation of normal axoplasm into a tightly constricted, highly vesiculated structure. This modified axoplasm at the cut end may slow the spread of damage and degeneration by preventing the bulk outflow of axoplasm, by slowing down the loss of intracellular molecules and by slowing down the influx of destructive extracellular ions (like calcium and chloride).

  3. Apical constriction: themes and variations on a cellular mechanism driving morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam C.; Goldstein, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Apical constriction is a cell shape change that promotes tissue remodeling in a variety of homeostatic and developmental contexts, including gastrulation in many organisms and neural tube formation in vertebrates. In recent years, progress has been made towards understanding how the distinct cell biological processes that together drive apical constriction are coordinated. These processes include the contraction of actin-myosin networks, which generates force, and the attachment of actin networks to cell-cell junctions, which allows forces to be transmitted between cells. Different cell types regulate contractility and adhesion in unique ways, resulting in apical constriction with varying dynamics and subcellular organizations, as well as a variety of resulting tissue shape changes. Understanding both the common themes and the variations in apical constriction mechanisms promises to provide insight into the mechanics that underlie tissue morphogenesis. PMID:24803648

  4. Vessel constriction correlated with local singlet oxygen generation during vascular targeted photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lisheng; Li, Yirong; Zhang, Jinde; Tan, Zou; Chen, Defu; Xie, Shusen; Gu, Ying; Li, Buhong

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the vessel constriction was measured as a biological indicator of acute vascular response after vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (V-PDT). During V-PDT treatment, the near-infrared (NIR) singlet oxygen (1O2) luminescence at 1270 nm generated in blood vessels in a dorsal skinfold window chamber model in vivo was directly monitored using a custom built high-sensitive NIR imaging system. In order to compare the acute vascular response, various irradiances with the same light dose were utilized for treatments. The obtained results show that the complete arteriole constriction occurred frequently, while some of the larger veins were constricted partially. For the vessels that have significant constriction after V-PDT, our preliminary data suggest that the vasoconstriction in the selected ROIs are roughly correlated with the local cumulative 1O2 luminescence intensities. This study implies that the 1O2 luminescence dosimetry maybe also effective for evaluating V-PDT efficiency.

  5. Effect of acoustic flows on the structure of a constricted glow discharge in argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saifutdinov, A. I.; Fadeev, S. A.; Saifutdinova, A. A.; Kashapov, N. F.

    2015-11-01

    Numerical experiments on the effect of acoustic flows on the structure of a constricted glow discharge in argon have been performed in the hybrid approximation. The possibility of controlling the combustion regime of the glow discharge with an extended positive column at a high pressure by means of the formation of acoustic flows at the excitation of a standing acoustic wave has been demonstrated. In this case, the discharge transfers from the constricted combustion regime to the diffuse one and becomes stable.

  6. Quantitative visualization of asymmetric gas flow in constricted microchannels by using pressure-sensitive paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Yung; Chen, Ying-Hsuan; Wan, Shaw-An; Wang, Yu-Chuan

    2016-10-01

    Asymmetric flow in constricted microchannel devices was quantitatively investigated using a pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) technique. For microchannel devices with constriction ratios of 2 : 1 and 5 : 1, detailed pressure maps for the region around the constriction structure were obtained and enabled visualization of the flow field. Symmetric flow was observed in the microchannel device with a constriction ratio of 2 : 1 at the Reynolds number range 2-165. In the microchannel with a constriction ratio of 5 : 1, a deflected flow pattern was clearly identified from PSP measurements at Reynolds numbers exceeding 107. Furthermore, PSP measurements showed a pressure difference of up to 2.5 kPa between the two lateral locations corresponding to y  =  ±0.15 W (W is the microchannel width) downstream of the constriction at a Reynolds number of 279. The pressure difference resulted from asymmetric bifurcation of the flow.

  7. An unusual cause of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Terneu, S; Verhelst, D; Thys, F; Ketelslegers, E; Hantson, P; Wittebole, X

    2003-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Room because of abdominal pain associated with hematuria and red blood blending to stool. On admission, the physical examination revealed abdominal tenderness and diffuse cutaneous hematoma. The laboratory findings showed abnormal clotting tests with high International Normalised Ratio (INR) and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Hemoperitoneum and ureteral hematoma were noted on the abdomen computed tomography. The patient confessed she had ingested difenacoum for several weeks. All the symptoms resolved with fresh frozen plasma perfusion and vitamin K. PMID:14635532

  8. Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, W; Longstreth, G; Drossman, D; Heaton, K; Irvine, E; Muller-Lissner, S

    1999-01-01

    The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised. A functional bowel disorder (FBD) is diagnosed by characteristic symptoms for at least 12 weeks during the preceding 12 months in the absence of a structural or biochemical explanation. The irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal bloating, functional constipation, and functional diarrhea are distinguished by symptom-based diagnostic criteria. Unspecified FBD lacks criteria for the other FBDs. Diagnostic testing is individualized, depending on patient age, primary symptom characteristics, and other clinical and laboratory features. Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is defined as either the FAP syndrome, which requires at least six months of pain with poor relation to gut function and loss of daily activities, or unspecified FAP, which lacks criteria for the FAP syndrome. An organic cause for the pain must be excluded, but aspects of the patient's pain behavior are of primary importance. Treatment of the FBDs relies upon confident diagnosis, explanation, and reassurance. Diet alteration, drug treatment, and psychotherapy may be beneficial, depending on the symptoms and psychological features.


Keywords: functional bowel disorder; functional constipation; functional diarrhea; irritable bowel syndrome; functional abdominal pain; functional abdominal bloating; Rome II PMID:10457044

  9. Abdominal Sarcoidosis May Mimic Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Gorkem, Umit; Gungor, Tayfun; Bas, Yılmaz; Togrul, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. It shows a great variety of clinical presentation, organ involvement, and disease progression. Lungs and lymphoid system are the most common sites involved with a frequency of 90% and 30%, respectively. Extrapulmonary involvement of sarcoidosis is reported in 30% of patients and abdomen is the most frequent site. Furthermore, peritoneal involvement is extremely rare in sarcoidosis. The case presented here described peritoneal manifestations of sarcoidosis without involvement of lungs. A 78-year-old woman possessing signs of malignancy on blood test and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging underwent laparatomy with a suspicion of ovarian malignancy. The macroscopic interpretation during surgery was peritoneal carcinomatosis. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, peritoneal biopsies, total omentectomy, and appendectomy were performed. Final histopathological result revealed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Clinicians must keep in mind that peritoneal sarcoidosis can mimic intra-abdominal malignancies. PMID:26558122

  10. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  11. Abdominal SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Van Heertum, R.L.; Brunetti, J.C.; Yudd, A.P.

    1987-07-01

    Over the past several years, abdominal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has evolved from a research tool to an important clinical imaging modality that is helpful in the diagnostic assessment of a wide variety of disorders involving the abdominal viscera. Although liver-spleen imaging is the most popular of the abdominal SPECT procedures, blood pool imaging is becoming much more widely utilized for the evaluation of cavernous hemangiomas of the liver as well as other vascular abnormalities in the abdomen. Adjunctive indium leukocyte and gallium SPECT studies are also proving to be of value in the assessment of a variety of infectious and neoplastic diseases. As more experience is acquired in this area, SPECT should become the primary imaging modality for both gallium and indium white blood cells in many institutions. Renal SPECT, on the other hand, has only recently been used as a clinical imaging modality for the assessment of such parameters as renal depth and volume. The exact role of renal SPECT as a clinical tool is, therefore, yet to be determined. 79 references.

  12. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management.

  13. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  14. Assessment of oxidative parameters in rat spinal cord after chronic constriction of the sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Goecks, Cristina S B; Horst, Andréa; Moraes, Maira S; Scheid, Taína; Kolberg, Carolina; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Partata, Wania A

    2012-09-01

    Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in neuropathic pain, the direct relationship between these species and chronic constriction of sciatic nerve (CCI) has not been studied in spinal cord. Thus, this study induced CCI in rats and these animals were sacrificed 3 and 10 days after the surgical procedure to determine the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, as well as ascorbic acid, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and lipid hydroperoxide levels in lumbosacral spinal cord. Von Frey Hair and hot plate tests were performed to assess the degree of mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia at days 0, 3 and 10. The results showed that CCI significantly induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia at days 3 and 10. Parallel there was increase in spinal cord lipid hydroperoxide at days 3 and 10 in rats submitted to CCI. In Sham rats a significant increase in this parameter occurred at day 10. H(2)O(2) decreased at day 10 only in CCI group. SOD activity was decreased in Sham and CCI groups at day 3, while catalase activity was increased in CCI rats at days 3 and 10. Ascorbic acid levels were reduced only in CCI rats at day 3. Although the role of such changes is unclear, many were not specific to neuropathic pain and the differences could be related to different degrees of central sensitization in Sham and CCI rats. PMID:22674084

  15. Velocity reversals and sediment sorting in pools and riffles controlled by channel constrictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, D.M.; Wohl, E.E.; Jarrett, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Keller [Keller, E.A., 1971. Areal sorting of bed-load material; the hypothesis of velocity reversal. Geological Society of America Bulletin 82, 753-756] hypothesized that at high flow, near-bed velocities in pools exceed velocities in riffles and create pool scour. Pools, however, typically have larger cross-sectional areas of flow at bankfull discharge. This condition raises an inconsistency with Keller's velocity reversal hypothesis and the one-dimensional continuity of mass equation. To address this problem, a model of pool maintenance and sediment sorting is proposed that relies on constriction of flow by recirculating eddies and flow divergence over the exit-slopes of pools. According to the model, a narrow zone of high velocity occurs in the center of pools, creating scour. Along the downstream end of pools, an uphill climb of particles up the pool exit-slope promotes sediment deposition. The model is tested with field and flume measurements of velocity, water-surface elevation, and size of bed sediments in recirculating-eddy influenced pools. Local reversals of the water-surface gradient were measured in the field and a velocity reversal was created in the flume. The reversals that were measured indicate higher gradients of the water surface over the upstream portions of pools and higher velocities in pools at high flow. The distribution of bed sediments collected in the field also support the proposed model of pool maintenance.

  16. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure constricts the mouse ductus arteriosus in utero.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Christopher W; Delaney, Cassidy; Streeter, Taylor; Yarboro, Michael T; Poole, Stanley; Brown, Naoko; Slaughter, James C; Cotton, Robert B; Reese, Jeff; Shelton, Elaine L

    2016-09-01

    Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is common during pregnancy. Fetal exposure to SSRIs is associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN); however, a direct link between the two has yet to be established. Conversely, it is well known that PPHN can be caused by premature constriction of the ductus arteriosus (DA), a fetal vessel connecting the pulmonary and systemic circulations. We hypothesized that SSRIs could induce in utero DA constriction. Using isolated vessels and whole-animal models, we sought to determine the effects of two commonly prescribed SSRIs, fluoxetine and sertraline, on the fetal mouse DA. Cannulated vessel myography studies demonstrated that SSRIs caused concentration-dependent DA constriction and made vessels less sensitive to prostaglandin-induced dilation. Moreover, in vivo studies showed that SSRI-exposed mice had inappropriate DA constriction in utero. Taken together, these findings establish that SSRIs promote fetal DA constriction and provide a potential mechanism by which SSRIs could contribute to PPHN. PMID:27371685

  17. Sub-cellular modeling of platelet transport in blood flow through microchannels with constriction.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Alireza; Karniadakis, George Em

    2016-05-11

    Platelet transport through arterial constrictions is one of the controlling processes influencing their adhesive functions and the formation of thrombi. We perform high-fidelity mesoscopic simulations of blood flow in microchannels with constriction, resembling arterial stenoses. The wall shear rates inside the constrictions reach levels as high as ≈8000 s(-1), similar to those encountered in moderate atherosclerotic plaques. Both red blood cells and platelets are resolved at sub-cellular resolution using the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. We perform a systematic study on the red blood cell and platelet transport by considering different levels of constriction, blood hematocrit and flow rates. We find that higher levels of constriction and wall shear rates lead to significantly enhanced margination of platelets, which may explain the experimental observations of enhanced post-stenosis platelet aggregation. We also observe similar margination effects for stiff particles of spherical shapes such as leukocytes. To our knowledge, such numerical simulations of dense blood through complex geometries have not been performed before, and our quantitative findings could shed new light on the associated physiological processes such as ATP release, plasma skimming, and thrombus formation. PMID:27087267

  18. Vangl2 cooperates with Rab11 and Myosin V to regulate apical constriction during vertebrate gastrulation

    PubMed Central

    Ossipova, Olga; Chuykin, Ilya; Chu, Chih-Wen; Sokol, Sergei Y.

    2015-01-01

    Core planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins are well known to regulate polarity in Drosophila and vertebrate epithelia; however, their functions in vertebrate morphogenesis remain poorly understood. In this study, we describe a role for PCP signaling in the process of apical constriction during Xenopus gastrulation. The core PCP protein Vangl2 is detected at the apical surfaces of cells at the blastopore lip, and it functions during blastopore formation and closure. Further experiments show that Vangl2, as well as Daam1 and Rho-associated kinase (Rock), regulate apical constriction of bottle cells at the blastopore and ectopic constriction of ectoderm cells triggered by the actin-binding protein Shroom3. At the blastopore lip, Vangl2 is required for the apical accumulation of the recycling endosome marker Rab11. We also show that Rab11 and the associated motor protein Myosin V play essential roles in both endogenous and ectopic apical constriction, and might be involved in Vangl2 trafficking to the cell surface. Overexpression of Rab11 RNA was sufficient to partly restore normal blastopore formation in Vangl2-deficient embryos. These observations suggest that Vangl2 affects Rab11 to regulate apical constriction during blastopore formation. PMID:25480917

  19. Essential role for smooth muscle BK channels in alcohol-induced cerebrovascular constriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pengchong; Xi, Qi; Ahmed, Abu; Jaggar, Jonathan H.; Dopico, Alejandro M.

    2004-12-01

    Binge drinking is associated with increased risk for cerebrovascular spasm and stroke. Acute exposure to ethanol at concentrations obtained during binge drinking constricts cerebral arteries in several species, including humans, but the mechanisms underlying this action are largely unknown. In a rodent model, we used fluorescence microscopy, patch-clamp electrophysiology, and pharmacological studies in intact cerebral arteries to pinpoint the molecular effectors of ethanol cerebrovascular constriction. Clinically relevant concentrations of ethanol elevated wall intracellular Ca2+ concentration and caused a reversible constriction of cerebral arteries (EC50 = 27 mM; Emax = 100 mM) that depended on voltage-gated Ca2+ entry into myocytes. However, ethanol did not directly increase voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents in isolated myocytes. Constriction occurred because of an ethanol reduction in the frequency (-53%) and amplitude (-32%) of transient Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) currents. Ethanol inhibition of BK transients was caused by a reduction in Ca2+ spark frequency (-49%), a subsarcolemmal Ca2+ signal that evokes the BK transients, and a direct inhibition of BK channel steady-state activity (-44%). In contrast, ethanol failed to modify Ca2+ waves, a major vasoconstrictor mechanism. Selective block of BK channels largely prevented ethanol constriction in pressurized arteries. This study pinpoints the Ca2+ spark/BK channel negative-feedback mechanism as the primary effector of ethanol vasoconstriction.

  20. Acquired constricting and restricting lesions of the descending duodenum.

    PubMed

    Carbo, Alberto I; Sangster, Guillermo P; Caraway, Jessica; Heldmann, Maureen G; Thomas, Jaiyeola; Takalkar, Amol

    2014-01-01

    The descending duodenum is a structure with distinct pathologic processes and anatomic relationships that requires a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis. Because of its tubular shape and fixed position in the retroperitoneum, both intrinsic duodenal and juxtaduodenal diseases are capable of producing luminal narrowing and obstruction. Duodenal lesions may be located in the mucosa or submucosa. Extraduodenal lesions may originate in adjacent structures--such as the pancreas, liver, gallbladder, colon, and lymph nodes--or from other retroperitoneal structures. Causes of duodenal obstruction include intraluminal masses, such as bezoars; duodenal inflammation, such as as peptic ulcers and Crohn disease; hematomas; and benign or malignant mucosal and intramural tumors. Pancreatic inflammation; tumors; and extrinsic compression caused by gallbladder processes, hepatic masses, retroperitoneal fluid collections, and tumors, including lymphoma, may produce duodenal obstruction. Abdominal radiography, barium studies, multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography may be used to depict and characterize duodenal strictures. Integration of imaging, clinical, laboratory, and endoscopic findings plays a major role in establishing a diagnosis of obstructive duodenal strictures. PMID:25208276

  1. Leaking mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sing, T M; Young, N; O'Rourke, I C; Tomlinson, P

    1994-11-01

    A case of leaking mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm is reported, with a brief review of the literature. A 58 year old female presented with shoulder and abdominal pain associated with diarrhoea, vomiting and fever with leucocytosis. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed pooling of contrast in the retroperitoneum anterior to a non-dilated abdominal aorta. There was considerable retroperitoneal blood accumulating in a mass-like lesion in the right lower abdomen and pelvis obstructing the right renal collecting system. Laparotomy revealed a 4 cm diameter saccular aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, with a 1 cm diameter neck. Culture of the thrombus grew Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:7993259

  2. Hypnosis for functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Gottsegen, David

    2011-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other somatic symptoms are easily adaptable for use with functional abdominal pain. The author discusses 2 contrasting hypnotic approaches to functional abdominal pain and provides implications for further research. These approaches may provide new insights into this common and complex disorder. PMID:21922712

  3. Classification of the pattern of intrauterine amputations of the upper limb in constriction ring syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, M M

    2000-06-01

    Twenty patients with congenital upper limb amputations caused by constriction rings were reviewed to classify the pattern of these amputations. In the 20 patients studied, 31 upper limbs had congenital amputations. The pattern of amputation was classified into three types. Proximal upper limb amputation was considered type I and was only seen in one limb. The most common pattern of amputation was digital amputation associated with "coning" or "superimposition" of the digits (type II) and was seen in 20 hands. Type II amputations were subclassified according to the involvement of all, ulnar, radial, or central digits by the constriction ring. In type III amputations (N = 10 limbs), there was no associated coning or superimposition of the digits. This type of amputation was subclassified into type IIIA (multiple-digit amputations within the same hand) and type III B (single-digit amputation). Associated anomalies are reviewed and the pathogenesis of constriction rings is discussed.

  4. Value of reference tracings in diagnosis and assessment of constrictive epi- and pericarditis

    PubMed Central

    Kesteloot, H.; Denef, B.

    1970-01-01

    Reference tracings are of great value in the diagnosis and assessment of constrictive pericarditis. The Q-h interval in the jugular venous pulse tracing is strongly correlated with the mean right atrial pressure (r=0·91). The left ventricular ejection time, the Q-A2 interval, and the Q-h interval are independent during atrial fibrillation from the preceding diastolic filling interval. This differentiates constrictive pericarditis from valvular heart disease. Cases with haemodynamically significant constrictive epicarditis are characterized by a rapid evolution, absence of pericardial calcification and absence of an early diastolic filling sound, a dominant a wave in the jugular venous pulse tracing, and a high early diastolic ventricular pressure. The haemodynamic behaviour is similar to that found in cases with myocardial fibrosis. Images PMID:5470050

  5. Apical domain polarization localizes actin-myosin activity to drive ratchet-like apical constriction.

    PubMed

    Mason, Frank M; Tworoger, Michael; Martin, Adam C

    2013-08-01

    Apical constriction promotes epithelia folding, which changes tissue architecture. During Drosophila gastrulation, mesoderm cells exhibit repeated contractile pulses that are stabilized such that cells apically constrict like a ratchet. The transcription factor Twist is required to stabilize cell shape. However, it is unknown how Twist spatially coordinates downstream signals to prevent cell relaxation. We find that during constriction, Rho-associated kinase (Rok) is polarized to the middle of the apical domain (medioapical cortex), separate from adherens junctions. Rok recruits or stabilizes medioapical myosin II (Myo-II), which contracts dynamic medioapical actin cables. The formin Diaphanous mediates apical actin assembly to suppress medioapical E-cadherin localization and form stable connections between the medioapical contractile network and adherens junctions. Twist is not required for apical Rok recruitment, but instead polarizes Rok medioapically. Therefore, Twist establishes radial cell polarity of Rok/Myo-II and E-cadherin and promotes medioapical actin assembly in mesoderm cells to stabilize cell shape fluctuations.

  6. Integrins regulate apical constriction via microtubule stabilization in the Drosophila eye disc epithelium.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Vilaiwan M; McCormack, Kasandra; Lewellyn, Lindsay; Verheyen, Esther M

    2014-12-24

    During morphogenesis, extracellular signals trigger actomyosin contractility in subpopulations of cells to coordinate changes in cell shape. To illuminate the link between signaling-mediated tissue patterning and cytoskeletal remodeling, we study the progression of the morphogenetic furrow (MF), the wave of apical constriction that traverses the Drosophila eye imaginal disc preceding photoreceptor neurogenesis. Apical constriction depends on actomyosin contractility downstream of the Hedgehog (Hh) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways. We identify a role for integrin adhesion receptors in MF progression. We show that Hh and BMP regulate integrin expression, the loss of which disrupts apical constriction and slows furrow progression; conversely, elevated integrins accelerate furrow progression. We present evidence that integrins regulate MF progression by promoting microtubule stabilization, since reducing microtubule stability rescues integrin-mediated furrow acceleration. Thus, integrins act as a genetic link between tissue-level signaling events and morphological change at the cellular level, leading to morphogenesis and neurogenesis in the eye.

  7. Effusive-constrictive pericarditis as the manifestation of an unexpected diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Marta, Liliana; Alves, Miguel; Peres, Marisa; Ferreira, Ricardo; Ferreira, Hugo; Leal, Margarida; Nobre, Ângelo

    2015-01-01

    Constrictive pericarditis is a clinical condition characterized by the appearance of signs and symptoms of right heart failure due to loss of pericardial compliance. Cardiac surgery is now one of the most frequent causes in developed countries, while tuberculosis remains the most prevalent cause in developing countries. Malignancy is a rare cause but usually has a poor prognosis. The diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis remains a clinical challenge and requires a combination of noninvasive diagnostic methods (echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance and computed tomography); in some cases, cardiac catheterization is needed to confirm the diagnosis. The authors present the case of a 51-year-old man, hospitalized due to cardiac tamponade. Diagnostic investigation was suggestive of tuberculous etiology. Despite directed medical therapy, the patient developed effusive-constrictive physiology. He underwent pericardiectomy and anatomopathologic study suggested a neoplastic etiology. The patient died in the postoperative period from biventricular failure.

  8. Nitric oxide alterations following acute ductal constriction in the fetal lamb: a role for superoxide.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jong-Hau; Oishi, Peter; Wiseman, Dean A; Hou, Yali; Chikovani, Omar; Datar, Sanjeev; Sajti, Eniko; Johengen, Michael J; Harmon, Cynthia; Black, Stephen M; Fineman, Jeffrey R

    2010-06-01

    Acute partial compression of the fetal ductus arteriosus (DA) results in an initial abrupt increase in pulmonary blood flow (PBF), which is followed by a significant reduction in PBF to baseline values over the ensuing 2-4 h. We have previously demonstrated that this potent vasoconstricting response is due, in part, to an endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated decrease in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. In addition, in vitro data demonstrate that ET-1 increases superoxide levels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and that oxidative stress alters NOS activity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the potential role of superoxide in the alterations of hemodynamics and NOS activity following acute ductal constriction in the late-gestation fetal lamb. Eighteen anesthetized near-term fetal lambs were instrumented, and a lung biopsy was performed. After a 48-h recovery, acute constriction of the DA was performed by inflating a vascular occluder. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD; 1,000-1,500 units/kg, n = 7) or PEG-alone (vehicle control group, n = 5) was injected into the pulmonary artery before ductal constriction. Six animals had a sham operation. In PEG-alone-treated lambs, acute ductal constriction rapidly decreased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) by 88%. However, by 4 h, PVR returned to preconstriction baseline. This vasoconstriction was associated with an increase in lung superoxide levels (82%), a decrease in total NOS activity (50%), and an increase in P-eNOS-Thr495 (52%) (P < 0.05). PEG-SOD prevented the increase of superoxide after ductal constriction, attenuated the vasoconstriction, preserved NOS activity, and increased P-eNOS Ser1177 (307%, P < 0.05). Sham procedure induced no changes. These data suggest that an acute decrease in NOS activity that is mediated, in part, by increased superoxide levels, and alterations in the phosphorylation status of the endothelial NOS isoform, underlie the pulmonary vascular

  9. Pressure-induced constriction is inhibited in a mouse model of reduced betaENaC.

    PubMed

    VanLandingham, Lauren G; Gannon, Kimberly P; Drummond, Heather A

    2009-09-01

    Recent studies suggest certain epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) proteins may be components of mechanosensitive ion channel complexes in vascular smooth muscle cells that contribute to pressure-induced constriction in middle cerebral arteries (MCA). However, the role of a specific ENaC protein, betaENaC, in pressure-induced constriction of MCAs has not been determined. The goal of this study was to determine whether pressure-induced constriction in the MCA is altered in a mouse model with reduced levels of betaENaC. Using quantitative immunofluorescence, we found whole cell betaENaC labeling in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was suppressed 46% in betaENaC homozygous mutant (m/m) mice compared with wild-type littermates (+/+). MCAs from betaENaC +/+ and m/m mice were isolated and placed in a vessel chamber for myographic analysis. Arteries from betaENaC+/+ mice constricted to stepwise increases in perfusion pressure and developed maximal tone of 10 +/- 2% at 90 mmHg (n = 5). In contrast, MCAs from betaENaC m/m mice developed significantly less tone (4 +/- 1% at 90 mmHg, n = 5). Vasoconstrictor responses to KCl (4-80 mM) were identical between genotypes and responses to phenylephrine (10(-7)-10(-4) M) were marginally altered, suggesting that reduced levels of VSMC betaENaC specifically inhibit pressure-induced constriction. Our findings indicate betaENaC is required for normal pressure-induced constriction in the MCA and provide further support for the hypothesis that betaENaC proteins are components of a mechanosensor in VSMCs. PMID:19553501

  10. Mechanotransduction in mechanically coupled pulsating cells: transition to collective constriction and mesoderm invagination simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driquez, Benjamin; Bouclet, Adrien; Farge, Emmanuel

    2011-12-01

    Embryonic differentiation and morphogenesis require the coordination of the cascades of gene product expression with the morphogenetic sequence of development. The influence of mechanical deformations driven by morphogenetic movements on biochemical activities was recently revealed by the existence of mechanotransduction processes in development, involving both gene transcription and protein behaviour. In the early Drosophila embryo, apical stabilization of Myosin-II leading to mesoderm invagination at the onset of gastrulation was proposed to be triggered in response to the activation of the Fog mechanotransduction pathway by the Snail-dependent active mechanical oscillations of cell apex sizes. Here we simulate the mesoderm as mechanically coupled cells, with pulsatile forces of constriction at the cell level mimicking Snail-dependent active fluctuations of apexes. We define a critical apex diameter triggering active constriction that mimics the activation of the Fog mechanotransduction pathway leading to cell constriction. We find that collective movements trigger the dynamical transition to constriction predicting the experimental dynamics of mesoderm cell apex size decrease with a modulus of contractility four times higher than the passive modulus of elastic deformation of the cells. The contraction wave is activated in a pulsation frequency-dependent process, and propagates at multicellular scales through local cell-cell mechanical interactions. By reproducing the pattern of Snail and Fog gene product protein expression in a simulation of ventral cells, the model phenocopies the pattern of Myo-II apical stabilization, and the dynamic pattern of constriction that initiates along a central sub-domain of the mesoderm. We propose that multicellular mechanical collective effects couple with mechanotransduction biochemical mechanisms to trigger the transition of collective coordinated constriction, through a mechano-genetic process ensuring efficient and regular

  11. Mechanotransduction in mechanically coupled pulsating cells: transition to collective constriction and mesoderm invagination simulation.

    PubMed

    Driquez, Benjamin; Bouclet, Adrien; Farge, Emmanuel

    2011-12-01

    Embryonic differentiation and morphogenesis require the coordination of the cascades of gene product expression with the morphogenetic sequence of development. The influence of mechanical deformations driven by morphogenetic movements on biochemical activities was recently revealed by the existence of mechanotransduction processes in development, involving both gene transcription and protein behaviour. In the early Drosophila embryo, apical stabilization of Myosin-II leading to mesoderm invagination at the onset of gastrulation was proposed to be triggered in response to the activation of the Fog mechanotransduction pathway by the Snail-dependent active mechanical oscillations of cell apex sizes. Here we simulate the mesoderm as mechanically coupled cells, with pulsatile forces of constriction at the cell level mimicking Snail-dependent active fluctuations of apexes. We define a critical apex diameter triggering active constriction that mimics the activation of the Fog mechanotransduction pathway leading to cell constriction. We find that collective movements trigger the dynamical transition to constriction predicting the experimental dynamics of mesoderm cell apex size decrease with a modulus of contractility four times higher than the passive modulus of elastic deformation of the cells. The contraction wave is activated in a pulsation frequency-dependent process, and propagates at multicellular scales through local cell-cell mechanical interactions. By reproducing the pattern of Snail and Fog gene product protein expression in a simulation of ventral cells, the model phenocopies the pattern of Myo-II apical stabilization, and the dynamic pattern of constriction that initiates along a central sub-domain of the mesoderm. We propose that multicellular mechanical collective effects couple with mechanotransduction biochemical mechanisms to trigger the transition of collective coordinated constriction, through a mechano-genetic process ensuring efficient and regular

  12. Childhood functional abdominal pain: mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Korterink, Judith; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Vlieger, Arine; Benninga, Marc A

    2015-03-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is one of the most common clinical syndromes encountered in day to day clinical paediatric practice. Although common, its definition is confusing, predisposing factors are poorly understood and the pathophysiological mechanisms are not clear. The prevailing viewpoint in the pathogenesis involves the inter-relationship between changes in hypersensitivity and altered motility, to which several risk factors have been linked. Making a diagnosis of functional abdominal pain can be a challenge, as it is unclear which further diagnostic tests are necessary to exclude an organic cause. Moreover, large, well-performed, high-quality clinical trials for effective agents are lacking, which undermines evidence-based treatment. This Review summarizes current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors and diagnostic work-up of functional abdominal pain. Finally, management options for children with functional abdominal pain are discussed including medications, dietary interventions, probiotics and psychological and complementary therapies, to improve understanding and to maximize the quality of care for children with this condition. PMID:25666642

  13. Myxoid Liposarcoma in the Abdominal Wall

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhe; Tian, Xiao Feng; Tang, Shun Xiong; Zhang, Ying Yi; Pan, Ji Yong; Wang, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A liposarcoma is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma, and most liposarcomas are malignant. The extremities are the most common site for liposarcomas. There are 5 histologic types of liposarcoma, as follows: well differentiated; myxoid; round cell; pleomorphic; and dedifferentiated. Myxoid liposarcomas (MLSs) represent a subgroup of liposarcomas. There has been no report of MLSs in the abdominal wall. We report a rare case of a MLS of a 43-year-old male who presented with tensile force on the abdominal wall. Computed tomography (CT) found a tumor in abdominal wall. There was no other abnormal symptom and the laboratory testing was also unusual. At last, the tumor was successfully excised, which was diagnosed MLSs in pathology. Following standard principles, after complete excision, the patient received radiotherapy. The patient was followed up for 8 month and no disease recurrence was identified. MLSs are rarely seen in the clinic, irrespective of the presenting signs, but also based on histologic features. The aim of this report was to present the differential diagnosis of an abdominal wall mass, and to remind us of MLSs. PMID:25526446

  14. [Abdominal approaches and drainages of the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Hagel, C; Schilling, M

    2006-04-01

    Appropriate access to the abdominal cavity is the first and crucial step for successful abdominal surgical intervention. In planning the incision, several variables have to be considered, such as anatomy of the abdominal wall, localization of the target organ, and individual conditions (previous incisions, minimal access surgery, etc). Medial laparotomy is the preferred incision for emergency cases and ill-defined pathologies, allowing access and hence exploration to all quadrants. Transverse laparotomies give superior access to the dorsal and right aspects of the liver and cause less pain in patients unfit for regional anesthetic procedures. Draining of the abdominal cavity is used after various resective and reconstructive procedures, but there is little evidence for its use in a number of operations such as gastric, hepatic, and colorectal resections. Advantages and disadvantages of different abdominal wall incisions and drainages are discussed.

  15. Peptide-induced prostaglandin biosynthesis in the renal-vein-constricted kidney

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Stuart I.; Zipser, Robert; Needleman, Philip

    1981-01-01

    The ipsilateral kidney was removed from a rabbit 48h after unilateral partial renal-vein-constriction and was perfused with Krebs–Henseleit media at 37°C. Hourly administration of a fixed dose of bradykinin to the renal-vein-constricted kidney demonstrated a marked time-dependent increase in the release of bioassayable prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2 into the venous effluent as compared with the response of the contralateral control kidney. The renal-vein-constricted kidney produced up to 60 times more prostaglandin E2 in response to bradykinin after 6h of perfusion as compared with the contralateral kidney; thromboxane A2 was not demonstratable in the contralateral kidney. Inhibition of protein synthesis de novo in the perfused renal-vein-constricted kidney with cycloheximide lessened the hormone-stimulated increase in prostaglandin E2 by 94% and in thromboxane A2 by 90% at 6h of perfusion. Covalent acetylation of the renal cyclo-oxygenase by prior oral administration of aspirin to the rabbit inhibited initial bradykinin-stimulated prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis 71% at 1h of perfusion. However, there was total recovery from aspirin in the renal-vein-constricted kidney by 2h of perfusion after bradykinin stimulation. Total cyclo-oxygenase activity as measured by [14C]arachidonate metabolism to labelled prostaglandins by renal cortical and renal medullary microsomal fractions prepared from 6h-perfused kidneys demonstrated that renal-vein-constricted kidney-cortical cyclo-oxygenase activity was significantly greater than the contralateral-kidney-cortical conversion, whereas medullary arachidonate metabolism was comparable in both the renal-vein-constricted kidney and contralateral kidney. These data suggest that perfusion of a renal-vein-constricted kidney initiates a time-dependent induction of synthesis of prostaglandin-producing enzymes, which appear to be primarily localized in the renal cortex. The presence of the synthetic capacity to generate very potent

  16. Gas-dynamic disturbances created by surface dielectric barrier discharge in the constricted mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moralev, I.; Boytsov, S.; Kazansky, P.; Bityurin, V.

    2014-05-01

    Three-dimensional structure of the gas-dynamic disturbances, created by surface dielectric barrier discharge in a constricted (saturated) mode, was analyzed simultaneously with the discharge morphology. Discharge was created in the still air under normal conditions. Flow visualization was performed by shadowgraphy and stereo-PIV technique. The wall-normal jets with the origins located in between the positions of the constricted filaments are found. Velocity magnitude in the wall-normal direction is comparable with the tangential component. Flow structure is similar to the one created by the serpentine actuator.

  17. Abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance in obese men.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert; Aru, James; Freeman, Jennifer; Hudson, Robert; Janssen, Ian

    2002-03-01

    We examined the independent relationships among various visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) depots, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity in 89 obese men. Measurements included an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, and abdominal and nonabdominal (e.g., peripheral) AT by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). OGTT glucose and glucose disposal rates were related (P < 0.05) to visceral AT (r = 0.50 and -0.41, respectively). These observations remained significant (P < 0.05) after control for nonabdominal and abdominal subcutaneous AT, and maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)). Abdominal subcutaneous AT was not a significant correlate (P > 0.05) of any metabolic variable after control for nonabdominal and visceral AT and VO(2 max). Division of abdominal subcutaneous AT into deep and superficial depots and visceral AT into intra- and extraperitoneal AT depots did not alter the observed relationships. Further analysis matched two groups of men for abdominal subcutaneous AT but also for low and high visceral AT. Men with high visceral AT had higher OGTT glucose values and lower glucose disposal rates compared with those with low visceral AT values (P < 0.05). A similar analysis performed on two groups of men matched for visceral AT but also for high and low abdominal subcutaneous AT revealed no statistically different values for any metabolic variable (P > 0.10). In conclusion, visceral AT alone is a strong correlate of insulin resistance independent of nonabdominal and abdominal subcutaneous AT and cardiovascular fitness. Subdivision of visceral and abdominal subcutaneous AT by MRI did not provide additional insight into the relationship between abdominal obesity and metabolic risk in obese men.

  18. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  19. [The abdominal drop flap].

    PubMed

    Bodin, F; Liverneaux, P; Seigle-Murandi, F; Facca, S; Bruant-Rodier, C; Dissaux, C; Chaput, B

    2015-08-01

    The skin between the mastectomy scar and the future infra-mammary fold may be managed in different ways in delayed breast reconstruction using a DIEP (deep inferior epigastric perforator). Conserving this skin and positioning the flap skin paddle in the middle of the breast usually highlights skin color disparity because of two visible transition zones. Resection of the entire skin under the scar may be more aesthetic but limits direct closure possibility in case of flap failure. In order to benefit from both aesthetic result and safe surgical method, we propose the abdominal drop flap. The inferior thoracic skin flap is detached from the thoracic wall beyond the future infra-mammary fold, preserved and pushed under the breast.

  20. A stone miner with both silicosis and constrictive pericarditis: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The working environment of stone miners has been believed to cause their susceptibility to respiratory diseases. Silicosis is an occupational disease caused by exposure to crystalline silica dust which is marked by inflammation and scarring in the lung. The immune system boosted after the silica invasion led to self-damage and lay the foundation of silicosis pathogenesis. Silicosis coexisting with other diseases in one patient has been reported, however, was not reported to coexist with constrictive pericarditis. We, for the first time, reported a patient with silicosis and constrictive pericarditis and thought the immune response was probably the link between the two. Case presentation A 59-year-old Chinese stone miner complained of chest distress was found to have lung nodules which were found to be silica deposits by biopsy. This patient was also found to have constrictive pericarditis at the same time. Later surgical decortication cured his symptoms. Conclusion We provided the first case having constrictive pericarditis concomitant with silicosis. A probable link between the two diseases was the immune response boosted by the silica deposits. PMID:24314106

  1. Distinct constrictive processes, separated in time and space, divide caulobacter inner and outer membranes.

    PubMed

    Judd, Ellen M; Comolli, Luis R; Chen, Joseph C; Downing, Kenneth H; Moerner, W E; McAdams, Harley H

    2005-10-01

    Cryoelectron microscope tomography (cryoEM) and a fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) assay were used to characterize progression of the terminal stages of Caulobacter crescentus cell division. Tomographic cryoEM images of the cell division site show separate constrictive processes closing first the inner membrane (IM) and then the outer membrane (OM) in a manner distinctly different from that of septum-forming bacteria. FLIP experiments had previously shown cytoplasmic compartmentalization (when cytoplasmic proteins can no longer diffuse between the two nascent progeny cell compartments) occurring 18 min before daughter cell separation in a 135-min cell cycle so the two constrictive processes are separated in both time and space. In the very latest stages of both IM and OM constriction, short membrane tether structures are observed. The smallest observed pre-fission tethers were 60 nm in diameter for both the inner and outer membranes. Here, we also used FLIP experiments to show that both membrane-bound and periplasmic fluorescent proteins diffuse freely through the FtsZ ring during most of the constriction procession.

  2. Effects of renal lymphatic occlusion and venous constriction on renal function.

    PubMed Central

    Stolarczyk, J.; Carone, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of renal lymphatic occlusion or increased lymph flow due to renal vein constriction on renal function were investigated in rats. In each experiment, the renal lymphatics or vein of the left kidney were occluded or constricted and the right kidney served as a control. Occlusion of renal lymphatics caused renal enlargement, no change in glomerular filtration rate, a marked increase in urine flow and solute excretion without any change in urine osmolality, and enhanced urinary loss of urea, potassium, sodium and ammonium. Urea concentrations in medullary and papillary tissues were significantly elevated. Renal vein constriction caused renal enlargement and a marked drop in glomerular filtration rate, urine volume, urine osmolality and solute excretion. tissue concentrations of urea and potassium were decreased in the medulla and papilla and total tissue solute was significantly decreased in the papilla. The data indicate that in the rat, renal lymphatic occlusion traps urea in the medulla and induces a urea diuresis resulting in a large flow of normally concentrated urine. On the other hand, increased lymph flow secondary to renal vein constriction decreases medullary urea and potassium concentrations and papillary osmolality. These changes and the reduced glomerular filtration rate result in a small flow if dilute urine. Thus both renal lymphatic occlusion and enhanced lymph flow have a significant effect on renal function. Images Fig 1 PMID:1122006

  3. Localization of endothelin ETA and ETB receptor-mediated constriction in the renal microcirculation of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Endlich, K; Hoffend, J; Steinhausen, M

    1996-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to visualize endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated constriction in renal vessels of cortical and juxtamedullary glomeruli in the split hydronephrotic rat kidney in vivo and to functionally characterize the ET receptor subtypes involved. 2. ET-1 (10(-9) M) constricted preglomerular vessels (by 6-18%) and efferent arterioles (by 11-13%), and decreased glomerular blood flow (GBF, by 55%) of cortical and juxtamedullary glomeruli. 3. The ETA antagonist BQ-123 (10(-6) M), as well as the ETB antagonist BQ-788 (2 x 10(-7) M) and IRL 1038 (10(-6) M), shifted the concentration-response curve of GBF for ET-1 to the right by one order of magnitude. While BQ-123 antagonized ET-1 constriction only in preglomerular vessels, BQ-788 and IRL 1038 were effective both in preglomerular vessels and efferent arterioles. 4. The ETB agonist IRL 1620 (10(-8) M) reduced GBF by 50% and constricted efferent arterioles (by 20-33%) about two times more than preglomerular vessels (by 6-14%). 5. Our results suggest that in renal cortical and juxtamedullary vessels of rats, ET-1-induced preglomerular vasoconstriction is mediated by ETA and ETB receptors, while efferent vasoconstriction is predominantly mediated by ETB receptors, which might have important consequences for the regulation of glomerular filtration pressure by ET. PMID:8951723

  4. Visual field constriction as a cause of blindness or visual impairment.

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, I. E.; Jones, B. R.; Cousens, S.; Liman, I.; Babalola, O. E.; Dauda, J.; Abiose, A.

    1997-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study of onchocerciasis in communities mesoendemic for savanna onchocerciasis in Kaduna State, northern Nigeria. The study involved 6831 individuals aged > or = 5 years who underwent an extensive screening examination for visual function including Friedmann field analysis. A total of 185 (2.7%) were bilaterally blind by acuity and an additional 28 (0.4%) were blind by visual field constriction. Also 118 (1.7%) individuals were visually impaired by acuity criteria. No criteria for visual impairment by field constriction have been established, and we therefore investigated three potential criteria. As a result, a further 60 (0.9%) individuals were identified with significant visual impairment due to field loss by the various definitions. Small islands of remaining peripheral field occurred in 50 individuals, while 40 individuals had marked reduction of binocular visual field below the horizontal meridian. Concentric visual field constriction to < 20 degrees was found in seven individuals. The WHO definition of blindness currently includes visual field damage criteria for blindness but not for visual impairment. Visual field loss is recognized as a major disability. We hope that these findings stimulate international discussion leading to the development of satisfactory definitions for visual impairment by visual field constriction. PMID:9185366

  5. Coordination of peptidoglycan synthesis and outer membrane constriction during Escherichia coli cell division

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Andrew N; Egan, Alexander JF; van't Veer, Inge L; Verheul, Jolanda; Colavin, Alexandre; Koumoutsi, Alexandra; Biboy, Jacob; Altelaar, A F Maarten; Damen, Mirjam J; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Breukink, Eefjan; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Typas, Athanasios; Gross, Carol A; Vollmer, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    To maintain cellular structure and integrity during division, Gram-negative bacteria must carefully coordinate constriction of a tripartite cell envelope of inner membrane, peptidoglycan (PG), and outer membrane (OM). It has remained enigmatic how this is accomplished. Here, we show that envelope machines facilitating septal PG synthesis (PBP1B-LpoB complex) and OM constriction (Tol system) are physically and functionally coordinated via YbgF, renamed CpoB (Coordinator of PG synthesis and OM constriction, associated with PBP1B). CpoB localizes to the septum concurrent with PBP1B-LpoB and Tol at the onset of constriction, interacts with both complexes, and regulates PBP1B activity in response to Tol energy state. This coordination links PG synthesis with OM invagination and imparts a unique mode of bifunctional PG synthase regulation by selectively modulating PBP1B cross-linking activity. Coordination of the PBP1B and Tol machines by CpoB contributes to effective PBP1B function in vivo and maintenance of cell envelope integrity during division. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07118.001 PMID:25951518

  6. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  7. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  8. Effects of exposure to intermittent versus continuous red light on human circadian rhythms, melatonin suppression, and pupillary constriction.

    PubMed

    Ho Mien, Ivan; Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Lau, Pauline; Tan, Luuan-Chin; Lee, Ivan Tian-Guang; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Tan, Sara Shuhui; Gooley, Joshua J

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to light is a major determinant of sleep timing and hormonal rhythms. The role of retinal cones in regulating circadian physiology remains unclear, however, as most studies have used light exposures that also activate the photopigment melanopsin. Here, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to alternating red light and darkness can enhance circadian resetting responses in humans by repeatedly activating cone photoreceptors. In a between-subjects study, healthy volunteers (n = 24, 21-28 yr) lived individually in a laboratory for 6 consecutive days. Circadian rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, body temperature, and heart rate were assessed before and after exposure to 6 h of continuous red light (631 nm, 13 log photons cm(-2) s(-1)), intermittent red light (1 min on/off), or bright white light (2,500 lux) near the onset of nocturnal melatonin secretion (n = 8 in each group). Melatonin suppression and pupillary constriction were also assessed during light exposure. We found that circadian resetting responses were similar for exposure to continuous versus intermittent red light (P = 0.69), with an average phase delay shift of almost an hour. Surprisingly, 2 subjects who were exposed to red light exhibited circadian responses similar in magnitude to those who were exposed to bright white light. Red light also elicited prolonged pupillary constriction, but did not suppress melatonin levels. These findings suggest that, for red light stimuli outside the range of sensitivity for melanopsin, cone photoreceptors can mediate circadian phase resetting of physiologic rhythms in some individuals. Our results also show that sensitivity thresholds differ across non-visual light responses, suggesting that cones may contribute differentially to circadian resetting, melatonin suppression, and the pupillary light reflex during exposure to continuous light.

  9. Effects of Exposure to Intermittent versus Continuous Red Light on Human Circadian Rhythms, Melatonin Suppression, and Pupillary Constriction

    PubMed Central

    Ho Mien, Ivan; Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Lau, Pauline; Tan, Luuan-Chin; Lee, Ivan Tian-Guang; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Tan, Sara Shuhui; Gooley, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to light is a major determinant of sleep timing and hormonal rhythms. The role of retinal cones in regulating circadian physiology remains unclear, however, as most studies have used light exposures that also activate the photopigment melanopsin. Here, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to alternating red light and darkness can enhance circadian resetting responses in humans by repeatedly activating cone photoreceptors. In a between-subjects study, healthy volunteers (n = 24, 21–28 yr) lived individually in a laboratory for 6 consecutive days. Circadian rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, body temperature, and heart rate were assessed before and after exposure to 6 h of continuous red light (631 nm, 13 log photons cm−2 s−1), intermittent red light (1 min on/off), or bright white light (2,500 lux) near the onset of nocturnal melatonin secretion (n = 8 in each group). Melatonin suppression and pupillary constriction were also assessed during light exposure. We found that circadian resetting responses were similar for exposure to continuous versus intermittent red light (P = 0.69), with an average phase delay shift of almost an hour. Surprisingly, 2 subjects who were exposed to red light exhibited circadian responses similar in magnitude to those who were exposed to bright white light. Red light also elicited prolonged pupillary constriction, but did not suppress melatonin levels. These findings suggest that, for red light stimuli outside the range of sensitivity for melanopsin, cone photoreceptors can mediate circadian phase resetting of physiologic rhythms in some individuals. Our results also show that sensitivity thresholds differ across non-visual light responses, suggesting that cones may contribute differentially to circadian resetting, melatonin suppression, and the pupillary light reflex during exposure to continuous light. PMID:24797245

  10. Ameliorative effects of amiloride and pralidoxime in chronic constriction injury and vincristine induced painful neuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Muthuraman, Arunachalam; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal; Singh, Dhandeep

    2008-06-10

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of clinically available drugs, with Na+/Ca2+ and Na+/H+ exchange inhibitory actions, in chronic constriction injury and vincristine induced painful neuropathy in rats. Sciatic nerve ligation and vincristine treatment (50 microg/kg for 10 days) was employed to induce neuropathy in rats. Paw pressure, von Frey hair, acetone drop, and tail heat immersion tests were performed to assess degree of mechano-hyperalgesia, mechano-allodynia, cold chemical allodynia and spinal thermal sensation respectively. Axonal degeneration of sciatic nerve was assessed histopathologically. The levels of thio-barbituric acid reactive species, reduced glutathione, and total calcium were determined to assess biochemical alterations. Amiloride (15 mg/kg i.p.), Na+/Ca2+ and Na+/H+ exchange inhibitor, and pralidoxime (20 mg/kg i.p.), Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibitor, were administered for 10 consecutive days starting from the day of surgery or vincristine administration. Sciatic nerve ligation and vincristine treatment resulted in significant axonal degeneration, development of mechano-hyperalgesia, mechano-allodynia, cold chemical allodynia and spinal heat hyperalgesia and also resulted in rise in thio-barbituric acid reactive species, total calcium and decrease in reduced glutathione levels. Administration of amiloride and pralidoxime attenuated chronic constriction injury and vincristine induced axonal degeneration and reduction of nociceptive threshold along with reduction in calcium levels and oxidative stress. The observed anti-nociceptive effects of amiloride and pralidoxime may possibly be attributed to inhibition of Na+/Ca2+ and Na+/H+ exchangers with subsequent decrease in Ca2+ ions and oxidative stress. PMID:18486127

  11. Effects of exposure to intermittent versus continuous red light on human circadian rhythms, melatonin suppression, and pupillary constriction.

    PubMed

    Ho Mien, Ivan; Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Lau, Pauline; Tan, Luuan-Chin; Lee, Ivan Tian-Guang; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Tan, Sara Shuhui; Gooley, Joshua J

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to light is a major determinant of sleep timing and hormonal rhythms. The role of retinal cones in regulating circadian physiology remains unclear, however, as most studies have used light exposures that also activate the photopigment melanopsin. Here, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to alternating red light and darkness can enhance circadian resetting responses in humans by repeatedly activating cone photoreceptors. In a between-subjects study, healthy volunteers (n = 24, 21-28 yr) lived individually in a laboratory for 6 consecutive days. Circadian rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, body temperature, and heart rate were assessed before and after exposure to 6 h of continuous red light (631 nm, 13 log photons cm(-2) s(-1)), intermittent red light (1 min on/off), or bright white light (2,500 lux) near the onset of nocturnal melatonin secretion (n = 8 in each group). Melatonin suppression and pupillary constriction were also assessed during light exposure. We found that circadian resetting responses were similar for exposure to continuous versus intermittent red light (P = 0.69), with an average phase delay shift of almost an hour. Surprisingly, 2 subjects who were exposed to red light exhibited circadian responses similar in magnitude to those who were exposed to bright white light. Red light also elicited prolonged pupillary constriction, but did not suppress melatonin levels. These findings suggest that, for red light stimuli outside the range of sensitivity for melanopsin, cone photoreceptors can mediate circadian phase resetting of physiologic rhythms in some individuals. Our results also show that sensitivity thresholds differ across non-visual light responses, suggesting that cones may contribute differentially to circadian resetting, melatonin suppression, and the pupillary light reflex during exposure to continuous light. PMID:24797245

  12. Cost and Reimbursement for Three Fibroid Treatments: Abdominal Hysterectomy, Abdominal Myomectomy, and Uterine Fibroid Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Jay Bussard, Anne; McNeil, Jean; Diamond, James

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. To compare costs and reimbursements for three different treatments for uterine fibroids. Methods. Costs and reimbursements were collected and analyzed from the Thomas Jefferson University Hospital decision support database from 540 women who underwent abdominal hysterectomy (n 299), abdominal myomectomy (n = 105), or uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) (n = 136) for uterine fibroids during 2000-2002. We used the chi-square test and ANOVA, followed by Fisher's Least Significant Difference test, for statistical analysis. Results. The mean total hospital cost (US$) for UFE was $2,707, which was significantly less than for hysterectomy ($5,707) or myomectomy ($5,676) (p < 0.05). The mean hospital net income (hospital net reimbursement minus total hospital cost) for UFE was $57, which was significantly greater than for hysterectomy (-$572) or myomectomy (-$715) (p < 0.05). The mean professional (physician) reimbursements for UFE, hysterectomy, and myomectomy were $1,306, $979, and $1,078, respectively. Conclusion. UFE has lower hospital costs and greater hospital net income than abdominal hysterectomy or abdominal myomectomy for treating uterine fibroids. UFE may be more financially advantageous than hysterectomy or myomectomy for the insurer, hospital, and health care system. Costs and reimbursements may vary amongst different hospitals and regions.

  13. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-11-14

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer.

  14. Simulations of gravity-induced trapping of a deformable drop in a three-dimensional constriction.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Thomas; Zinchenko, Alexander Z; Davis, Robert H

    2012-10-01

    An efficient algorithm is developed to determine the three-dimensional shape of a deformable drop trapped under gravity in a constriction, employing an artificial evolution to a steady state. During the simulation, the drop surface is advanced using a rationally-devised normal "velocity", based on local deviation from the Young-Laplace equation and the adjacent solid shape, to approach the trapped drop shape. The artificial "time-dependent" evolution of the drop to the static, trapped shape requires that the free portions of the drop interface eventually satisfy the Young-Laplace equation, and the drop-solid contact portions of the drop interface conform to the solid surface. The significant advantage of this solution method is that a simple, numerically-efficient "velocity" is used to construct the evolution to the steady state; the coated areas where the drop is in near contact with solid boundaries of the constriction do not have to be specified a priori, but are found in the course of the solution. Alternative methods (e.g., boundary integral) based on realistic time-marching would be much more costly for determining the trapped state. Trapping conditions and drop shapes are studied for gravity-induced settling of a deformable drop into a three-dimensional constriction. For conditions near critical, where the trapped-drop steady state ceases to exist, severe surface-mesh distortions are treated by a combination of 'passive mesh stabilization', mesh relaxation and topological mesh transformations through node reconnections. For Bond numbers above a critical value, the drop is deformable enough to pass through the hole of the constriction, with no trapping. Critical Bond numbers are determined by linearly fitting minima of the root-mean-squared (rms) surface velocities versus corresponding Bond numbers greater than critical, and then extrapolating the Bond number to where the minimum rms velocity is zero (i.e., the drop becomes trapped). For ring and hyperbolic

  15. [ENDOVASCULAR ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM REPAIR].

    PubMed

    Maĭstrenko, D N; Generalov, M I; Tarazov, P G; Zherebtsov, F K; Osovskikh, V V; Ivanov, A S; Oleshchuk, A N; Granov, D A

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the single-center experience of treatment of 72 patients with abdominal aortic aneurisms and severe accompanied pathology. The aneurisms were repaired by stent-grafts. All the patients had abdominal aortic aneurisms with the diameters from 41 to 84 mm against the background of severe somatic pathology. It was a contraindication to planned open surgery. An installation of stent-graft was successful in all 72 follow-ups. It wasn't necessary to use a conversion to open surgery. The follow-up period consisted of 44,6?2,1 months. Control ultrasound and computer tomography studies hadn't revealed an increase of aneurism sack sizes or "eakages". A reduction of abdominal aortic aneurism sizes was noted in 37 patients on 4-5% during first year after operation. The stent-graft implantation extends the possibilities of abdominal aortic aneurism treatment for patients from a high surgical risk group. PMID:26234059

  16. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... At low doses, these medicines can be excellent pain relievers for some children. A fearful, anxious, or depressed child however should be fully assessed by a psychiatrist or psychologist. Some psychological treatments that help children cope with functional abdominal pain ...

  17. Abdominal ultrasonography, 2nd Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    This volume is a new and updated edition of an extensively illustrated text and reference on the capabilities and imaging of gray scale ultrasonography for each major abdominal organ. Each major organ system is treated separately, including liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, pancreas, kidney, retroperitoneum, abdominal vasculature, and more. There are over 500 illustrations and ten pages of full color plates for cross sectional anatomy.

  18. Common Functional Gastroenterological Disorders Associated With Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Sletten, Christopher D

    2016-08-01

    Although abdominal pain is a symptom of several structural gastrointestinal disorders (eg, peptic ulcer disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 4 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with abdominal pain: functional dyspepsia, constipation-predominant and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, and functional abdominal pain syndrome. Together, these conditions affect approximately 1 in 4 people in the United States. They are associated with comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia and depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Symptoms are explained by disordered gastrointestinal motility and sensation, which are implicated in various peripheral (eg, postinfectious inflammation and luminal irritants) and/or central (eg, stress and anxiety) factors. These disorders are defined and can generally be diagnosed by symptoms alone. Often prompted by alarm features, selected testing is useful to exclude structural disease. Identifying the specific diagnosis (eg, differentiating between functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome) and establishing an effective patient-physician relationship are the cornerstones of therapy. Many patients with mild symptoms can be effectively managed with limited tests, sensible dietary modifications, and over-the-counter medications tailored to symptoms. If these measures are not sufficient, pharmacotherapy should be considered for bowel symptoms (constipation or diarrhea) and/or abdominal pain; opioids should not be used. Behavioral and psychological approaches (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy) can be helpful, particularly in patients with chronic abdominal pain who require a multidisciplinary pain management program without opioids. PMID:27492916

  19. Abdominal emergencies in the geriatric patient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons that elderly people visit the emergency department (ED). In this article, we review the deadliest causes of abdominal pain in this population, including mesenteric ischemia, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and appendicitis and potentially lethal non-abdominal causes. We also highlight the pitfalls in diagnosing, or rather misdiagnosing, these clinical entities. PMID:25635203

  20. Enhanced central and conduit pulmonary arterial reservoir function offsets reduced ductal systolic outflow during constriction of the fetal ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Smolich, Joseph J; Penny, Daniel J; Mynard, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    Constriction of the fetal ductus arteriosus (DA) has disparate effects on mean and phasic hemodynamics, as mean DA blood flow is preserved until constriction is severe, but DA systolic and diastolic blood velocities change with only mild constriction. To determine the basis of this disparity and its physiological significance, seven anesthetized late-gestation fetal sheep were instrumented with pulmonary trunk (PT), DA, and left pulmonary artery (PA) micromanometer catheters and transit-time flow probes. Blood flow profile and wave intensity analyses were performed at baseline and during mild, moderate, and severe DA constriction (defined as pulmonary-aortic mean pressure differences of 4, 8, and 14 mmHg, respectively), produced with an adjustable snare. With DA constriction, mean DA flow was initially maintained but decreased with severe constriction (P < 0.05) in conjunction with a reduction (P < 0.05) in PT flow (i.e., right ventricular output). By contrast, DA systolic flow fell progressively during DA constriction (P < 0.001), due to decreased transmission of both early and midsystolic proximal flow-enhancing forward-running compression waves into the DA. However, DA constriction was also accompanied by greater systolic storage of blood in the PT and main PA (P < 0.025), and increased retrograde diastolic flow from compliant major branch PA (P < 0.001). Transductal discharge of these central and conduit PA blood reservoirs in diastole offset systolic DA flow reductions. These data suggest that, during DA constriction in the fetus, enhanced central and conduit PA reservoir function constitutes an important compensatory mechanism that contributes to preservation of mean DA flow via a systolic-to-diastolic redistribution of phasic DA flow.

  1. Go-sha-jinki-Gan (GJG) ameliorates allodynia in chronic constriction injury model mice via suppression of TNF-α expression in the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Miho; Nakae, Aya; Kishida, Yuki; Baba, Kousuke; Sakashita, Noriko; Shibata, Masahiko; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Background Alternative medicine is noted for its clinical effect and minimal invasiveness in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Go-sha-jinki-Gan, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, has been used for meralgia and numbness in elderly patients. However, the exact mechanism of GJG is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of the analgesic effect of GJG in a chronic constriction injury model. Results GJG significantly reduced allodynia and hyperalgesia from the early phase (von Frey test, p < 0.0001; cold-plate test, p < 0.0001; hot-plate test p = 0.011; two-way repeated measures ANOVA). Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed that GJG decreased the expression of Iba1 and tumor necrosis factor-α in the spinal cord. Double staining immunohistochemistry showed that most of the tumor necrosis factor-α was co-expressed in Iba1-positive cells at day 3 post-operation. GJG decreased the phosphorylation of p38 in the ipsilateral dorsal horn. Moreover, intrathecal injection of tumor necrosis factor-α opposed the anti-allodynic effect of GJG in the cold-plate test. Conclusions Our data suggest that GJG ameliorates allodynia in chronic constriction injury model mice via suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α expression derived from activated microglia. GJG is a promising drug for the treatment of neuropathic pain induced by neuro-inflammation. PMID:27296622

  2. Intra-abdominal pulmonary secuestration as an exceptional cause of abdominal mass in the adult☆

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Sanz, C.; Herrero Bogajo, M.L.; Picazo-Yeste, J.; Morandeira Rivas, A.; Manzanera-Diaz, M.; Sedano-Vizcaino, C.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pulmonary sequestration (PS) is an extremely rare malformation defined as a portion of lung tissue isolated from the pulmonary system. PSs are classified into intralobar type and intra-abdominal PS that represents only 2.5% of cases. There are 20 cases of PS reported in adults and only two were managed by laparoscopic approach. We report a case of intra-abdominal PS mimicking a gastroesophageal duplication cyst in an adult. Besides its rarity, this is the first intra-abdominal PS in an adult managed by an anterior laparoscopic approach. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 60-year-old female patient had had epigastric and left upper quadrant pain for several days. Physical examination was normal. Image test were consistent with a gastroesophageal duplication. The patient was taken to the operating room for laparoscopic exploration and resection. The pathological diagnosis was extralobar pulmonary sequestration. DISCUSSION Less than 20 cases of PS have been reported in adults and only two cases were managed by a lateral laparoscopic approach. In contrast to these reports, we used an anterior approach due to the GEJ suspected origin of the mass. CONCLUSION Extralobar intra-abdominal PS is an extremely rare condition during adulthood but this diagnosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a left-sided suprarenal mass. Due to the difficulty in achieving a definitive preoperative diagnosis, surgery is recommended. Laparoscopic resection is safe and effective but careful preoperative imaging studies are recommended in order to plan the most suitable approach. PMID:24091075

  3. [Restrictive cardiomyopathy versus constrictive pericarditis in patients with diastolic dysfunction: MR imaging features].

    PubMed

    Croisille, P

    2010-05-01

    Restrictive cardiomyopathies are characterized by diastolic dysfunction while systolic function is usually preserved. MRI is helpful by its ability to characterize tissues, especially the demonstration of interstitial or nodular fibrosis based on the underlying etiology. In the presence of constrictive pericarditis from pericardial inflammation, fibrosis or calcifications, diastolic expansion is impaired resulting in poor diastolic ventricular filling, resulting in a characteristic type of diastolic impairment, adiastole. MRI can demonstrate the underlying anatomical lesion: pericardial thickening, though the presence of a pericardium or normal thickness does not entirely exclude the possibility of constriction. As such, the presence of additional imaging features such as abnormal right ventricular shape, vena cava dilatation, and paradoxical movement of the intraventricular septum, during operator-guided deep respiration. PMID:20657369

  4. Experimental study of sound production for constricted channels: application to simplified vocal tract geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estienne, O.; van Hirtum, A.; Bailliet, H.; Pelorson, X.

    Previous experiments on vocal tract mechanical models for fricatives consonants production -like /s/, /f/,/ch/ for unvoiced ones -has shown the importance of the geometrical configuration on the complex aeroacoustical noise signal produced [3]: the shape of the constriction, the shape and area function of the vocal tract downstream of the constriction, the presence of obstacles like teeth and upstream flow conditions are key points of the frication. From these results, and other observations made on human subjects by Narayanan et al. [2] by means of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Howe and McGowan [1] established an aeroacoustical model for the pronunciation of the sibilant /s/ based on the assumption of a jet passing in the gap formed between lower and upper teeth. Predicted spectrum and SPL agreed reasonably well with measurements made previously by different authors, but Howe and McGowan noted that further experimental work is necessary to validate their assumption on turbulent jet interaction with teeth.

  5. An optofluidic constriction chip for monitoring metastatic potential and drug response of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez Vazquez, R; Nava, G; Veglione, M; Yang, T; Bragheri, F; Minzioni, P; Bianchi, E; Di Tano, M; Chiodi, I; Osellame, R; Mondello, C; Cristiani, I

    2015-04-01

    Cellular mechanical properties constitute good markers to characterize tumor cells, to study cell population heterogeneity and to highlight the effect of drug treatments. In this work, we describe the fabrication and validation of an integrated optofluidic chip capable of analyzing cellular deformability on the basis of the pressure gradient needed to push a cell through a narrow constriction. We demonstrate the ability of the chip to discriminate between tumorigenic and metastatic breast cancer cells (MCF7 and MDA-MB231) and between human melanoma cells with different metastatic potential (A375P and A375MC2). Moreover, we show that this chip allows highlighting the effect of drugs interfering with microtubule organization (paclitaxel, combretastatin A-4 and nocodazole) on cancer cells, which leads to changes in the pressure-gradient required to push cells through the constriction. Our single-cell microfluidic device for mechanical evaluation is compact and easy to use, allowing for an extensive use in different laboratory environments.

  6. FtsZ protofilaments use a hinge-opening mechanism for constrictive force generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Hsin, Jen; Zhao, Lingyun; Cheng, Yiwen; Shang, Weina; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Wang, Hong-Wei; Ye, Sheng

    2013-07-26

    The essential bacterial protein FtsZ is a guanosine triphosphatase that self-assembles into a structure at the division site termed the "Z ring". During cytokinesis, the Z ring exerts a constrictive force on the membrane by using the chemical energy of guanosine triphosphate hydrolysis. However, the structural basis of this constriction remains unresolved. Here, we present the crystal structure of a guanosine diphosphate-bound Mycobacterium tuberculosis FtsZ protofilament, which exhibits a curved conformational state. The structure reveals a longitudinal interface that is important for function. The protofilament curvature highlights a hydrolysis-dependent conformational switch at the T3 loop that leads to longitudinal bending between subunits, which could generate sufficient force to drive cytokinesis.

  7. The effect of gradually constricted channel on the I-V characteristics of graphene sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanella, Fernando; Nobrega, K. Z.; Dartora, C. A.

    2016-10-01

    Ideal graphene is a gapless semiconductor consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms regularly arranged in a honeycomb lattice having infinite spatial extent in the (x,y)-plane, in which electrons behave as Dirac massless fermions. Even neglecting interactions with the anchoring substrate, a graphene sheet in real world has finite extent, leading to distinctive features in the conductivity of a given sample. In this letter we study the effect of a gradual channel constriction in graphene nanoribbons on their I-V characteristics, using non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The constriction width and the border cutting angle are the main parameters to be varied. We found that transmission through the channel is considerably affected by these parameters, presenting sharp peaks at specific energies, which can be attributed to a resonance due to the tuning of energy eigenvalues.

  8. A 10-year restrospective evaluation of ultrasound in pregnant abdominal trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Meisinger, Quinn C; Brown, Michele A; Dehqanzada, Zia A; Doucet, Jay; Coimbra, Raul; Casola, Giovanna

    2016-04-01

    The pregnant abdominal trauma patient presents a unique diagnostic challenge. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of abdominal sonography for the detection of clinically important injuries in pregnant abdominal trauma patients. A retrospective review was performed of a trauma center database from 2001 to 2011. Medical records were reviewed to determine initial abdominal imaging test results and clinical course. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of ultrasound for detection of traumatic injury were calculated. Of 19,128 patients with suspected abdominal trauma, 385 (2 %) were pregnant. Of these, 372 (97 %) received ultrasound as the initial abdominal imaging test. All 13 pregnant patients who did not receive ultrasound received abdominal CT. Seven pregnant patients underwent both ultrasound and CT. Seven ultrasound examinations were positive, leading to one therapeutic Cesarean section and one laparotomy. One ultrasound was considered false positive (no injury was seen on subsequent CT). There were 365 negative ultrasound examinations. Of these, 364 were true negative (no abdominal injury subsequently found). One ultrasound was considered false negative (a large fetal subchorionic hemorrhage seen on subsequent dedicated obstetrical ultrasound). Sensitivity and positive predictive value were 85.7 %. Specificity and negative predictive value were 99.7 %. Abdominal sonography is an effective and sufficient imaging examination in pregnant abdominal trauma patients. When performed as part of the initial assessment using an abbreviated trauma protocol with brief modifications for pregnancy, ultrasound minimizes diagnostic delay, obviates radiation risk, and provides high sensitivity for injury in the pregnant population.

  9. Conservative management of abdominal injuries

    PubMed Central

    Okuş, Ahmet; Sevinç, Barış; Ay, Serden; Arslan, Kemal; Karahan, Ömer; Eryılmaz, Mehmet Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Non-operative management of abdominal injuries has recently become more common. Especially non-operative treatment of blunt abdominal trauma is gaining wide acceptance. In this study, the efficacy of non-operative treatment in abdominal trauma (blunt penetrating) is discussed. Material and Methods: All patients who received treatment due to abdominal trauma from November 2008 to January 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The demographic characteristics, type of injury, injured organ, type of treatment (operative vs. nonoperative) and mortality data were evaluated. Results: The study includes 115 patients treated for abdominal trauma in our department. The mechanism of trauma was stab wounds in 60%, blunt abdominal trauma in 23.5% and gunshot wounds in 16.5%. Forty-two patients (36.5%) were operated for hemodynamic instability and/or peritonitis on admission. The remaining 63.5% of patients (n=73) were treated nonoperatively, 10 of whom required laparotomy during follow-up. The remaining 63 patients were treated with non-operative management. The success rate for non-operative treatment was 86.3% and there was no difference in terms of the types of injuries. The mortality rate was 4.3% (n= 5) in the whole series, but there were no deaths among the patients who had received non-operative treatment. In the whole patient group 54.2% (n=63) were treated nonoperatively. Conclusion: Nonoperative treatment in abdominal trauma is safe and effective. Patients with clinical stability and normal physical examination findings can be treated nonoperatively with close monitoring. PMID:25931868

  10. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Mediates Caffeine Antagonism of Alcohol-Induced Cerebral Artery Constriction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jennifer; Fedinec, Alexander L; Kuntamallappanavar, Guruprasad; Leffler, Charles W; Bukiya, Anna N; Dopico, Alex M

    2016-01-01

    Despite preventive education, the combined consumption of alcohol and caffeine (particularly from "energy drinks") continues to rise. Physiologic perturbations by separate intake of ethanol and caffeine have been widely documented. However, the biologic actions of the alcohol-caffeine combination and their underlying subcellular mechanisms have been scarcely studied. Using intravital microscopy on a closed-cranial window and isolated, pressurized vessels, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro action of ethanol-caffeine mixtures on cerebral arteries from rats and mice, widely recognized models to address cerebrovascular pathophysiology and pharmacology. Caffeine at concentrations found in human circulation after ingestion of one to two cups of coffee (10 µM) antagonized the endothelium-independent constriction of cerebral arteries evoked by ethanol concentrations found in blood during moderate-heavy alcohol intoxication (40-70 mM). Caffeine antagonism against alcohol was similar whether evaluated in vivo or in vitro, suggesting independence of systemic factors and drug metabolism, but required a functional endothelium. Moreover, caffeine protection against alcohol increased nitric oxide (NO•) levels over those found in the presence of ethanol alone, disappeared upon blocking NO• synthase, and could not be detected in pressurized cerebral arteries from endothelial nitric-oxide synthase knockout (eNOS(-/-)) mice. Finally, incubation of de-endothelialized cerebral arteries with the NO• donor sodium nitroprusside (10 µM) fully restored the protective effect of caffeine. This study demonstrates for the first time that caffeine antagonizes ethanol-induced cerebral artery constriction and identifies endothelial NO• as the critical caffeine effector on smooth muscle targets. Conceivably, situations that perturb endothelial function and/or NO• availability will critically alter caffeine antagonism of alcohol-induced cerebrovascular constriction without

  11. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Mediates Caffeine Antagonism of Alcohol-Induced Cerebral Artery Constriction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jennifer; Fedinec, Alexander L; Kuntamallappanavar, Guruprasad; Leffler, Charles W; Bukiya, Anna N; Dopico, Alex M

    2016-01-01

    Despite preventive education, the combined consumption of alcohol and caffeine (particularly from "energy drinks") continues to rise. Physiologic perturbations by separate intake of ethanol and caffeine have been widely documented. However, the biologic actions of the alcohol-caffeine combination and their underlying subcellular mechanisms have been scarcely studied. Using intravital microscopy on a closed-cranial window and isolated, pressurized vessels, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro action of ethanol-caffeine mixtures on cerebral arteries from rats and mice, widely recognized models to address cerebrovascular pathophysiology and pharmacology. Caffeine at concentrations found in human circulation after ingestion of one to two cups of coffee (10 µM) antagonized the endothelium-independent constriction of cerebral arteries evoked by ethanol concentrations found in blood during moderate-heavy alcohol intoxication (40-70 mM). Caffeine antagonism against alcohol was similar whether evaluated in vivo or in vitro, suggesting independence of systemic factors and drug metabolism, but required a functional endothelium. Moreover, caffeine protection against alcohol increased nitric oxide (NO•) levels over those found in the presence of ethanol alone, disappeared upon blocking NO• synthase, and could not be detected in pressurized cerebral arteries from endothelial nitric-oxide synthase knockout (eNOS(-/-)) mice. Finally, incubation of de-endothelialized cerebral arteries with the NO• donor sodium nitroprusside (10 µM) fully restored the protective effect of caffeine. This study demonstrates for the first time that caffeine antagonizes ethanol-induced cerebral artery constriction and identifies endothelial NO• as the critical caffeine effector on smooth muscle targets. Conceivably, situations that perturb endothelial function and/or NO• availability will critically alter caffeine antagonism of alcohol-induced cerebrovascular constriction without

  12. Distinct constrictive processes, separated in time and space,divide Caulobacter inner and outer membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Ellen M.; Comolli, Luis R.; Chen, Joseph C.; Downing,Kenneth H.; Moerner, W.E.; McAdams, Harley H.

    2005-05-01

    Cryo-electron microscope tomography (cryoEM) and a fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) assay were used to characterize progression of the terminal stages of Caulobacter crescentus cell division. Tomographic cryoEM images of the cell division site show separate constrictive processes closing first the inner, and then the outer, membrane in a manner distinctly different from septum-forming bacteria. The smallest observed pre-fission constrictions were 60 nm for both the inner and outer membrane. FLIP experiments had previously shown cytoplasmic compartmentalization, when cytoplasmic proteins can no longer diffuse between the two nascent progeny cell compartments, occurring 18 min before daughter cell separation in a 135 min cell cycle. Here, we used FLIP experiments with membrane-bound and periplasmic fluorescent proteins to show that (1) periplasmic compartmentalization occurs after cytoplasmic compartmentalization, consistent with the cryoEM observations, and (2) inner membrane and periplasmic proteins can diffuse past the FtsZ constriction site, indicating that the cell division machinery does not block membrane diffusion.

  13. FtsZ does not initiate membrane constriction at the onset of division

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Daniel O.; Skoglund, Ulf; Söderström, Bill

    2016-01-01

    The source of constriction required for division of a bacterial cell remains enigmatic. FtsZ is widely believed to be a key player, because in vitro experiments indicate that it can deform liposomes when membrane tethered. However in vivo evidence for such a role has remained elusive as it has been challenging to distinguish the contribution of FtsZ from that of peptidoglycan-ingrowth. To differentiate between these two possibilities we studied the early stages of division in Escherichia coli, when FtsZ is present at the division site but peptidoglycan synthesizing enzymes such as FtsI and FtsN are not. Our approach was to use correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-CLEM) to monitor the localization of fluorescently labeled FtsZ, FtsI or FtsN correlated with the septal ultra-structural geometry in the same cell. We noted that the presence of FtsZ at the division septum is not sufficient to deform membranes. This observation suggests that, although FtsZ can provide a constrictive force, the force is not substantial at the onset of division. Conversely, the presence of FtsN always correlated with membrane invagination, indicating that allosteric activation of peptidoglycan ingrowth is the trigger for constriction of the cell envelope during cell division in E. coli. PMID:27609565

  14. Combination of Mandibular Constriction and Intraoral Vertical Ramus Osteotomies for a Transverse Jaw Discrepancy

    PubMed Central

    Mitsugi, Masaharu; Hirose, Hisamitsu; Tatemoto, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the treatment of patients developing a transverse jaw width discrepancy who exhibited class III malocclusion and/or facial asymmetry by a combination of mandibular constriction (MC) and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomies (IVROs). Subjects and methods: In a retrospective study, functional results, postoperative complications, and skeletal stability were analyzed for all the patients who had undergone MC and IVRO, with more than 2 years of follow-up. A mandibular midline osteotomy for constriction with lag screw technique and IVROs was used for MC and setback. Results: Sixteen patients were included in the present study. The average degree of MC was 6.34 mm. Both the occlusal relationship and facial appearance in all patients were significantly improved by the surgical orthodontic treatment, with no harmful clinical symptoms. In addition, our original MC using lag screw technique provided the most reliable results in terms of skeletal stability. Conclusions: This study showed that MC using lag screw technique gives a very stable mandibular width constriction, and the combination of MC and IVROs offers a promising treatment alternative for patients with mandibular prognathism developing a transverse jaw width discrepancy. PMID:26495234

  15. Constriction structures related to viscous collision, southern Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corvino, Adrian F.; Boger, Steven D.; Fay, Clement

    2016-09-01

    Macroscopic structures are investigated in a zone of highly contorted migmatites from the southern Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica. Here, L-tectonite fabrics, rods, mullions, boudin pods, elongate enclaves, and fold hinges, are persistent linear features all plunging gently to the northeast. In contrast, amoeboid folds, ptygmatic folds and folded boudins with different orientations are the characteristic structures in transverse sections (perpendicular to the lineation). No consistent shear sense is recognised in any dimension. Together with strain and shape analysis, these observations strongly suggest that the deformation pattern is one of folding and stretching by constriction. Previous timing constraints indicate that this deformation overlapped with the waning stages of anatexis during decompression at approximately 510 Ma, up to 30 million years after initial orogeny at 540 Ma. The zone affected by constriction is several kilometres wide and has a contorted flower-like shape confined between two broad domal antiforms. In this context, the constricted zone is interpreted as a relatively late tectonic feature that could have formed via deep-seated viscous collision in response to orogenic collapse and doming.

  16. FtsZ does not initiate membrane constriction at the onset of division.

    PubMed

    Daley, Daniel O; Skoglund, Ulf; Söderström, Bill

    2016-01-01

    The source of constriction required for division of a bacterial cell remains enigmatic. FtsZ is widely believed to be a key player, because in vitro experiments indicate that it can deform liposomes when membrane tethered. However in vivo evidence for such a role has remained elusive as it has been challenging to distinguish the contribution of FtsZ from that of peptidoglycan-ingrowth. To differentiate between these two possibilities we studied the early stages of division in Escherichia coli, when FtsZ is present at the division site but peptidoglycan synthesizing enzymes such as FtsI and FtsN are not. Our approach was to use correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-CLEM) to monitor the localization of fluorescently labeled FtsZ, FtsI or FtsN correlated with the septal ultra-structural geometry in the same cell. We noted that the presence of FtsZ at the division septum is not sufficient to deform membranes. This observation suggests that, although FtsZ can provide a constrictive force, the force is not substantial at the onset of division. Conversely, the presence of FtsN always correlated with membrane invagination, indicating that allosteric activation of peptidoglycan ingrowth is the trigger for constriction of the cell envelope during cell division in E. coli. PMID:27609565

  17. FtsZ does not initiate membrane constriction at the onset of division.

    PubMed

    Daley, Daniel O; Skoglund, Ulf; Söderström, Bill

    2016-09-09

    The source of constriction required for division of a bacterial cell remains enigmatic. FtsZ is widely believed to be a key player, because in vitro experiments indicate that it can deform liposomes when membrane tethered. However in vivo evidence for such a role has remained elusive as it has been challenging to distinguish the contribution of FtsZ from that of peptidoglycan-ingrowth. To differentiate between these two possibilities we studied the early stages of division in Escherichia coli, when FtsZ is present at the division site but peptidoglycan synthesizing enzymes such as FtsI and FtsN are not. Our approach was to use correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-CLEM) to monitor the localization of fluorescently labeled FtsZ, FtsI or FtsN correlated with the septal ultra-structural geometry in the same cell. We noted that the presence of FtsZ at the division septum is not sufficient to deform membranes. This observation suggests that, although FtsZ can provide a constrictive force, the force is not substantial at the onset of division. Conversely, the presence of FtsN always correlated with membrane invagination, indicating that allosteric activation of peptidoglycan ingrowth is the trigger for constriction of the cell envelope during cell division in E. coli.

  18. Biventricular Failure due to Stress Cardiomyopathy after Pericardiectomy for Constrictive Pericarditis

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Elliott M.

    2013-01-01

    Importance. Constrictive pericarditis is a rare clinical entity that frequently necessitates surgical intervention. Here we present a case of biventricular failure due to stress cardiomyopathy after pericardiectomy. This is an extremely rare complication that is not well described and does not have a definitive mechanism. Observations. A 40-year-old Ecuadorian woman who was found to have constrictive pericarditis due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection was referred to our institution. The presence of constrictive pericarditis was confirmed by echocardiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and cardiac catheterization. Following pericardiectomy, the patient developed biventricular failure consistent with stress cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo cardiomyopathy), based on the echocardiographic assessment of the ventricles, which demonstrated an akinetic apex and hyperactive base in both ventricles, the absence of significant epicardial coronary atherosclerosis, and prompt normalization of the cardiac function after intensive medical therapy. Conclusions and Relevance. Biventricular failure in the form of stress cardiomyopathy after pericardiectomy in the manner presented here has not been previously described in the literature. While postulations as to the cause of single ventricle dysfunction have been described, the exact mechanism is unclear and current theories do not explain the clinical features in this case of stress cardiomyopathy after pericardiectomy. PMID:24369470

  19. Abdominal aortic grafting for spontaneous infrarenal abdominal aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Hiroto; Shibuya, Takashi; Shintani, Takashi; Uenaka, Hisazumi; Suehiro, Shigefumi; Satoh, Hisashi

    2010-02-01

    This case report concerns a 62-year-old woman with spontaneous infrarenal abdominal aortic dissection, which developed into claudication and rest pain in the lower extremity. Multi-row detector computed tomography showed the entry site of the abdominal aortic dissection at the second lumbar artery, while the reentry site was found intraoperatively at the median sacral artery, indicating that the false lumen had progressed and compressed the true lumen. A direct approach involving grafting appears to be an effective procedure for resolving mesenteric and lower extremity hypoperfusion due to aortic dissection with a dilated false channel, even during the acute period. PMID:19879731

  20. Sensitization of lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons parallels heat hyperalgesia in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Andrew, David

    2009-05-01

    It has been proposed that spinal lamina I neurons with ascending axons that project to the midbrain play a crucial role in hyperalgesia. To test this hypothesis the quantitative properties of lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain were compared to those of unoperated and sham-operated controls. Behavioural testing showed that animals with a CCI exhibited heat hyperalgesia within 4 days of the injury, and this hyperalgesia persisted throughout the 14-day post-operative testing period. In the CCI, nociceptive lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons had heat thresholds that were significantly lower than controls (43.0 +/- 2.8 degrees C vs. 46.7 +/- 2.6 degrees C; P < 10(-4), ANOVA). Nociceptive lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons were also significantly more responsive to graded heat stimuli in the CCI, compared to controls (P < 0.02, 2-factor repeated-measures ANOVA), and increased after-discharges were also observed. Furthermore, the heat-evoked stimulus-response functions of lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons in CCI animals co-varied significantly (P < 0.03, ANCOVA) with the amplitude of heat hyperalgesia determined behaviourally. Taken together these results are consistent with the hypothesis that lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons have an important mechanistic role in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain.

  1. c-Myc alters substrate utilization and O-GlcNAc protein posttranslational modifications without altering cardiac function during early aortic constriction

    SciTech Connect

    Ledee, Dolena; Smith, Lincoln; Bruce, Margaret; Kajimoto, Masaki; Isern, Nancy; Portman, Michael A.; Olson, Aaron K.; Bertrand, Luc

    2015-08-12

    Pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy alters substrate metabolism. Prior work showed that myocardial inactivation of c-Myc (Myc) attenuated hypertrophy and decreased expression of metabolic genes after aortic constriction. Accordingly, we hypothesize that Myc regulates substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle during pressure overload hypertrophy from transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and that these metabolic changes impact cardiac function and growth. To test this hypothesis, we subjected mice with cardiac specific, inducible Myc inactivation (MycKO-TAC) and non-transgenic littermates (Cont-TAC) to transverse aortic constriction (TAC; n=7/group). A separate group underwent sham surgery (Sham, n=5). After two weeks, function was measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate fractional contributions to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate with 13C labeled mixed fatty acids, lactate, ketone bodies and unlabeled glucose and insulin. Cardiac function was similar between groups after TAC although +dP/dT and -dP/dT trended towards improvement in MycKO-TAC versus Cont-TAC. Compared to Sham, Cont-TAC had increased free fatty acid fractional contribution with a concurrent decrease in unlabeled (predominately glucose) contribution. The changes in free fatty acid and unlabeled fractional contributions were abrogated by Myc inactivation during TAC (MycKO-TAC). Additionally, protein posttranslational modification by O-GlcNAc was significantly greater in Cont-TAC versus both Sham and MycKO-TAC. Lastly, Myc alters substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle during early pressure overload hypertrophy without negatively affecting cardiac function. Myc also affects protein posttranslational modifications by O-GlcNAc during hypertrophy.

  2. c-Myc alters substrate utilization and O-GlcNAc protein posttranslational modifications without altering cardiac function during early aortic constriction

    DOE PAGES

    Ledee, Dolena; Smith, Lincoln; Bruce, Margaret; Kajimoto, Masaki; Isern, Nancy; Portman, Michael A.; Olson, Aaron K.; Bertrand, Luc

    2015-08-12

    Pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy alters substrate metabolism. Prior work showed that myocardial inactivation of c-Myc (Myc) attenuated hypertrophy and decreased expression of metabolic genes after aortic constriction. Accordingly, we hypothesize that Myc regulates substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle during pressure overload hypertrophy from transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and that these metabolic changes impact cardiac function and growth. To test this hypothesis, we subjected mice with cardiac specific, inducible Myc inactivation (MycKO-TAC) and non-transgenic littermates (Cont-TAC) to transverse aortic constriction (TAC; n=7/group). A separate group underwent sham surgery (Sham, n=5). After two weeks, function was measured in isolated workingmore » hearts along with substrate fractional contributions to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate with 13C labeled mixed fatty acids, lactate, ketone bodies and unlabeled glucose and insulin. Cardiac function was similar between groups after TAC although +dP/dT and -dP/dT trended towards improvement in MycKO-TAC versus Cont-TAC. Compared to Sham, Cont-TAC had increased free fatty acid fractional contribution with a concurrent decrease in unlabeled (predominately glucose) contribution. The changes in free fatty acid and unlabeled fractional contributions were abrogated by Myc inactivation during TAC (MycKO-TAC). Additionally, protein posttranslational modification by O-GlcNAc was significantly greater in Cont-TAC versus both Sham and MycKO-TAC. Lastly, Myc alters substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle during early pressure overload hypertrophy without negatively affecting cardiac function. Myc also affects protein posttranslational modifications by O-GlcNAc during hypertrophy.« less

  3. Electromyography study of the portions of the abdominal rectus muscle.

    PubMed

    Negrao Filho, R de F; Bérzin, F; Souza, G da C

    1997-01-01

    This study objective was to verify the behavior of three portions of the abdominal rectus muscle through a quantitative analysis of the electromyographic signal in different types of abdominal exercises. Ten young male between 16 and 27 years old were studied and they had no previous history of muscle and joint illness. They were well-trained and did seven abdominal exercises chosen considering the types of contraction (isotonic and isometric) as well as the muscle fixation points. The electric activity of the superior, medium (above umbilicus) and inferior (below umbilicus) portions at the left side of the abdominal rectus muscle was taken using Beckman type surface mini-electrodes. The registers were collected from computerized 8-channel Nicholet electromyography equipment, model Viking II. The signals were quantified using the MVA (Maximum Volunteer Activity) software, being considered for analysis the values of RMS (Root Mean Square). The obtained data were submitted to a parametric analysis using the variance analysis (F test) and also the Tukey test, besides a descriptive graphic analysis starting from the average RMS values of each muscle portion. This study results suggest that for the majority of the subjects, the functional activities of the abdominal rectus muscle are performed with electric activity differences among their portions, showing a tendency of producing more electric activity in the superior portion than in the medium and inferior portions. The experiment also demonstrated an absence of a common behavior pattern in the three portions of the ten tested subjects. PMID:9444489

  4. Abdominal actinomycosis mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Robert Joseph; Riela, Steven; Patel, Ravi; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old Hispanic woman presented to the emergency department, reporting worsening sharp lower right quadrant abdominal pain for 3 days. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed evidence of inflammation in the peritoneal soft tissues adjacent to an enlarged and thick-walled appendix, an appendicolith, no abscess formation and a slightly thickened caecum consistent with acute appendicitis. During laparoscopic appendectomy, the caecum was noted to be firm, raising suspicion of malignancy. Surgical oncology team was consulted and open laparotomy with right hemicolectomy was performed. Pathology reported that the ileocaecal mass was not a malignancy but was, rather, actinomycosis. The patient was discharged after 10 days of intravenous antibiotics in the hospital, with the diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis. Although the original clinical and radiological findings in this case were highly suggestive of acute appendicitis, abdominal actinomycosis should be in the differential for right lower quadrant pain as it may be treated non-operatively.

  5. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  6. [Abdominal pain and gastritis in children].

    PubMed

    Gottrand, Frédéric

    2011-05-01

    Gastritis, as gastric and duodenal ulcer, is associated with epigastric abdominal pain, influenced by meals, associated with nausea and vomiting and weight loss. Diagnosis s based upon upper gastrointestinal fibre endoscopy that allows direct visualisation of gastric lesions and realization of antral and fundic biopsies for anatomopathology and culture. Main etiologies are drug induced, stress and H. pylori infection. Looking for H. pylori is only justified in those children presenting with digestive symptoms requiring upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Therefore non invasive test are only indicated for control of eradication. Treatment of H. pylori infection associates proton pump inhibitors and two antibiotics for 7 to 10 days.

  7. [Pheochromocytoma with retroperitoneal hemorrhage after abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takuji; Nin, Mikio; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Kamoto, Akihito; Ujike, Takeshi; Nishimura, Kensaku; Miyoshi, Susumu

    2009-11-01

    A 35-year-old man was delivered to the emergency room complaining of right flank pain because of blunt abdominal trauma sustained while playing baseball. Enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed a right adrenal mass and fluid collection around the mass. We diagnosed the mass as pheochromocytoma by endocrinological examination and radioisotopical imaging test. After absorption of the hematoma three months after the injury, laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed. He had an uncomplicated postoperative course without supplementation of catecholamine. Pathological findings were compatible with pheochromocytoma. Eight months after the operation, he had no evidence of recurrence.

  8. High-resolution ultrasonographic evaluation of "hourglass-like fascicular constriction" in peripheral nerves: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yuko; Sunagawa, Toru; Shinomiya, Rikuo; Ochi, Mitsu

    2014-07-01

    An hourglass-like constriction is a focal fascicular lesion observed in one or a few places in one or a few fascicles of a peripheral nerve trunk, and usually affects the anterior interosseous (AIN) or posterior interosseous (PIN) nerve. Constrictions have previously been discovered only by surgical exploration, and have been unable to be recognized on pre-operative imaging. We encountered some cases in which the lesion was able to be diagnosed pre-operatively by high-resolution ultrasonography; these findings were then confirmed intra-operatively. Five consecutive cases were included in this study. In three cases with constrictions revealed on pre-operative ultrasound, the findings were confirmed intra-operatively. In the remaining two cases in which no constrictions were detected pre-operatively, no constriction was revealed intra-operatively. High-resolution ultrasonography may play a significant role in the diagnosis of hourglass-like constrictions, and may thus lead to significant changes in treatment strategies for AIN and PIN palsy.

  9. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: case report

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Rajwani, Moez

    1998-01-01

    A 71-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with subacute low back pain. While the pain appeared to be mechanical in nature, radiographic evaluation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which required the patient to have vascular surgery. This case report illustrates the importance of the history and physical examination in addition to a thorough knowledge of the features of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The application of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with (AAA) is also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  10. Recurrent abdominal pain during childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain is a common presenting complaint among children. A thorough history and physical examination and limited laboratory investigation should enable a physician to make a positive diagnosis of "functional" recurrent abdominal pain in 90% to 95% of cases; an organic cause is identified in only 5% to 10%. The care and thoroughness of the history and physical examination establish the physician's credibility; explaining the clinical basis for the diagnosis and educating the child and parents on what is known about the condition reassures the parents. PMID:8199511

  11. Abdominal Bloating: Pathophysiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seo, A Young; Oh, Dong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004

  12. Radiological management of abdominal abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Mac Erlean, D P; Gibney, R G

    1983-01-01

    Forty-two abdominal and retroperitoneal abscesses were drained percutaneously under ultrasound guidance. A success rate of 85.7% was achieved. Subsequent surgery was required in only 5 patients. Postoperative and spontaneous abscesses did equally well. Most intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal abscesses are amenable to this form of percutaneous drainage. The procedure requires only local anaesthesia and is well tolerated. Surgical management should probably now be reserved for those cases which are considered unsuitable for percutaneous drainage or which fail to resolve following this procedure. PMID:6842496

  13. Laparoscopic excision of intra-abdominal paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Young; Kang, Chang-Moo; Choi, Gi-Hong; Yang, Woo-Ick; Sim, Seo-Bo; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Sik; Choi, Jin-Sub; Lee, Woo-Jung; Kim, Byong-Ro

    2007-12-01

    Lung fluke, Paragonimus westermani of Paragonimus species usually are accompanied by a persistent cough, hemoptysis, and chest pain. Extrapulmonary paragonimiasis caused by ectopic parasites in aberrant locations such as the abdominal wall, abdominal organs, and brain has been reported and the most commonly involved extrapulmonary organ is the brain. We present a case of 56-year-old male patient with intra-abdominal paragonimiasis who underwent laparoscopic excision of abdominal granuloma caused by parasite infection. An intra-abdominal mass associated with eosinophilia might be related to parasite infection. A laparoscopic approach is the most appropriate treatment modality in such benign abdominal pathology.

  14. Fatigue and cardiorespiratory function following abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Christensen, T; Bendix, T; Kehlet, H

    1982-07-01

    Subjective feelings of fatigue were assessed before operation and 10, 20 and 30 days after uncomplicated elective abdominal surgery in 16 otherwise healthy patients, using a constructed fatigue scale model. In addition, all patients had an orthostatic stress test performed at the same times. Six of the patients also underwent a bicycle ergometer test measuring heart rate and oxygen consumption. Subjective feelings of fatigue were increased (P less than 0.01) at all three postoperative observations, and only 5 of 16 patients returned to their preoperative level. The increased subjective feeling of fatigue correlated positively (RS = 0.53, P less than 0.001) with the increased pulse rate seen during orthostatic stress after operation. Heart rate was about 5 per cent higher (n.s.) after operation when bicycling at the same work loads, while oxygen consumption decreased by about 2 per cent (P less than 0.01) at all three postoperative bicycle tests. It is concluded that even electric uncomplicated abdominal surgery is followed by a pronounced feeling of fatigue, which may persist 1 month after surgery in about one-third of patients. The fatigue scale model seems applicable for future studies on the pathogenesis and treatment of the postoperative fatigue syndrome.

  15. Pericarditis - constrictive

    MedlinePlus

    ... slowly and gets worse Fatigue Long-term swelling ( edema ) of the legs and ankles Swollen abdomen Weakness ... Damage to the coronary arteries Heart failure Pulmonary edema Scarring of the heart muscle When to Contact ...

  16. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  17. Surgeon activity in robotic versus abdominal gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sarah A; O'Sullivan, David M; Tulikangas, Paul K

    2012-12-01

    One proposed advantage of robotic surgery is improved ergonomics and decreased surgeon fatigue. The objective of this study is to quantify and compare the physical activity of surgeons during robotic and abdominal surgery using accelerometers. Eight gynecologic surgeons who perform both abdominal and robotic surgery were the subjects of this study. Each wore an accelerometer on the hip during one procedure performed abdominally and during a similar procedure performed robotically. Activity parameters analyzed were average activity counts (AAC) and percentage of time spent in sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous activity. The paired t-test was used to evaluate differences between robotic and abdominal procedures. AAC was similar between the robotic and abdominal approaches (mean ± SD: 83.9 ± 50.9 versus 79.1 ± 37.8 counts/min, respectively, P = 0.820). The majority of activity spent in robotic and abdominal surgery was sedentary (79.0% ± 5.9% versus 80.9% ± 8.6%, respectively; P = 0.625) followed by light activity (14.7% ± 3.9% versus 12.8% ± 6.1%, respectively; P = 0.541) and then by moderate activity (6.3% ± 3.4% versus 6.3% ± 2.8%, respectively; P = 0.981). None of the activity for either surgical approach qualified as vigorous. There were no differences in activity parameters by surgical approach. Accelerometer data demonstrate that surgeon activity expenditure is similar in robotic and abdominal surgery. Future studies comparing measures of physical activity and strain between surgical approaches are needed to determine whether the robot's improved ergonomics translates to improved surgeon experience. PMID:27628474

  18. In vivo constriction of the fetal and neonatal ductus arteriosus by a prostanoid EP4-receptor antagonist in rats.

    PubMed

    Momma, Kazuo; Toyoshima, Katsuaki; Takeuchi, Daiji; Imamura, Shinichiro; Nakanishi, Toshio

    2005-11-01

    Indomethacin is used to constrict the patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants. To clarify possible prostanoid receptor antagonists that can constrict the ductus, we studied in vivo constriction of the fetal and neonatal ductus arteriosus by AE3-208, a prostanoid EP4-receptor antagonist, in rats. Following quick cesarean section of near-term pregnant rats (21 d), neonates were incubated in room air at 33 degrees C. The inner diameter of the ductus was measured with a microscope and a micrometer following rapid whole-body freezing of the fetus and neonate, and sectioning of the thorax in the frontal plane on a freezing microtome. In the control, the ductus arteriosus constricted quickly after birth, and the inner diameter was 0.80 mm in the fetus and 0.06 mm at 90 min after birth. AE3-208, administered orogastrically to the dam, constricted the fetal ductus dose dependently. Maximal ductal constriction was observed 4 h after administration, and the ductal diameters were 0.06 mm and 0.26 mm after administration of 10 mg/kg and 10 ng/kg of AE3-208, respectively. In neonatal rats, AE3-208 injected subcutaneously at 30 min after birth, inhibited dilatation of the ductus by PGE1 dose dependently. PGE1 (10 microg/kg) was injected subcutaneously to the 1-h-old neonatal rat, and the ductal diameters were 0.53 mm and 0.19 mm without and with pretreatment of AE3-208 (10 microg/kg), respectively. These results indicate the major role of EP4 in the fetal and neonatal ductus and show that an EP4 antagonist can be used to constrict the patent ductus of premature infants.

  19. Sources of activator calcium for potassium- and serotonin-induced constriction of isolated bovine cerebral arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    Previous in vitro studies with the calcium channel blockers (CCB) indirectly suggest that K/sup +/ and serotonin (5HT) constrict bovine middle cerebral arteries (BMCA) by promoting the influx of extracellular calcium (Ca) through CCB-sensitive channels. In this study, the authors directly determined the sources of activator Ca for K/sup +/- and 5HT-induced constriction of BMCA, using radiolabelled /sup 4/)2%Ca and /sup 3/H-sorbitol. EGTA-resistant Ca uptake, an estimate of Ca influx into vascular smooth muscle, was determined by exposure to Ca-deficient 2 mM EGTA solutions at 1/sup 0/C. The total Ca content of BMCA was 4.4 nmole/mg (wet wt.) after equilibration at 37/sup 0/C. The total exchangeable Ca content was 1.64 nmole/mg after 1 hr of /sup 45/Ca loading; the Ca content of the extracellular water was 0.30 nmole/mg, as estimated from the /sup 3/H-sorbitol space (0.25 ul/mg). The EGTA-resistant Ca uptake at 1 hr was 134 pmole/mg. K/sup +/ and 5HT significantly increased EGTA-resistant Ca uptake during 5 min of /sup 45/Ca loading; for K/sup +/, Ca uptake increased from 71 to 202 pmole/mg, and for 5HT, from 65 to 102 pmole/mg. Verapamil (10/sup -5/ M) or nifedipine (3.3 x 10/sup -7/ M) significantly blocked the increase in EGTA-resistant Ca uptake induced by K/sup +/ or 5HT. These results provide direct evidence that K/sup +/ or 5HT may constrict BMCA by promoting the influx of extracellular Ca through CCB-sensitive channels.

  20. Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:25239980

  1. The Antinociceptive Effects of Tramadol and/or Gabapentin on Rat Neuropathic Pain Induced by a Chronic Constriction Injury.

    PubMed

    Corona-Ramos, Janette Nallely; De la O-Arciniega, Minarda; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Medina-López, José Raúl; Domínguez-Ramírez, Adriana Miriam; Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar Antonio; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué Vidal; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical Research The current work evaluates the interaction between two commonly used drugs, tramadol (Tra) and gabapentin (Gbp). Dose-response curves (DRC) and isobolographic analysis were used to confirm their synergistic antihyperalgesic and anti-allodynic responses in a rat neuropathic pain model involving chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve and in von Frey and acetone tests. Tra and Gbp produced dose-dependent antihyperalgesic and anti-allodynic effects. Dose-response studies of combinations of Tra and Gbp in combination showed the DRC was leftward-shifted compared to the DRCs for each compound alone. One combination demonstrated both antihyperalgesic and anti-allodynic effects greater than those observed after individual administration. The remaining combinations demonstrated an additive effect. The Tra+Gbp combination demonstrated a potentiative effect with smaller doses of Tra. Additionally, it was determined lethal dose 50 (LD50 ) of Tra alone and tramadol + Gbp 10 using mice to 48 h post administration. The DRC (death) were similar for Tra alone and in Tra in combination, despite the improved effectiveness of Tra in the presence of GBP, 10 mg/kg. A combination of these drugs could be effective in neuropathic pain therapy because they can produce potentiative (at a low dose) or additive effects. Drug Dev Res 77 : 217-226, 2016.   © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Antinociceptive Effects of Tramadol and/or Gabapentin on Rat Neuropathic Pain Induced by a Chronic Constriction Injury.

    PubMed

    Corona-Ramos, Janette Nallely; De la O-Arciniega, Minarda; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Medina-López, José Raúl; Domínguez-Ramírez, Adriana Miriam; Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar Antonio; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué Vidal; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical Research The current work evaluates the interaction between two commonly used drugs, tramadol (Tra) and gabapentin (Gbp). Dose-response curves (DRC) and isobolographic analysis were used to confirm their synergistic antihyperalgesic and anti-allodynic responses in a rat neuropathic pain model involving chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve and in von Frey and acetone tests. Tra and Gbp produced dose-dependent antihyperalgesic and anti-allodynic effects. Dose-response studies of combinations of Tra and Gbp in combination showed the DRC was leftward-shifted compared to the DRCs for each compound alone. One combination demonstrated both antihyperalgesic and anti-allodynic effects greater than those observed after individual administration. The remaining combinations demonstrated an additive effect. The Tra+Gbp combination demonstrated a potentiative effect with smaller doses of Tra. Additionally, it was determined lethal dose 50 (LD50 ) of Tra alone and tramadol + Gbp 10 using mice to 48 h post administration. The DRC (death) were similar for Tra alone and in Tra in combination, despite the improved effectiveness of Tra in the presence of GBP, 10 mg/kg. A combination of these drugs could be effective in neuropathic pain therapy because they can produce potentiative (at a low dose) or additive effects. Drug Dev Res 77 : 217-226, 2016.   © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27300150

  3. Infected abdominal aortic aneurysm due to Morganella morganii: CT findings.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Young; Lee, Jong Seok; Choi, Han Sung; Hong, Hoon Pyo; Ko, Young Gwan

    2011-02-01

    An infected aortic aneurysm, or mycotic aneurysm, is a rare arterial dilatation due to destruction of the infected vessel wall. Common pathogens resulting in an infected aortic aneurysm are Salmonella and Clostridium species, as well as Staphylococcus aureus; Morganella morganii, on the other hand, is very rare. An infected abdominal aortic aneurysm has tendencies to grow rapidly and to rupture. The mortality rate is high in patients undergoing emergent surgical intervention. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm caused by M. morganii. A high index of suspicion and imaging tests are necessary in order to diagnose an infected aortic aneurysm.

  4. Abdominal breathing manoeuvre reduces passive drag acting on gliding swimmers.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yusuke; Yanai, Toshimasa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the passive drag acting on a gliding swimmer is reduced if the swimmer adopts an abdominal breathing manoeuvre (expanding the abdominal wall) rather than chest breathing manoeuvre (expanding the rib cage). Eleven male participants participated in this study. A specialised towing machine was used to tow each participant with tension set at various magnitudes and to record time series data of towing velocity. Participants were asked to inhale air by expanding the abdominal wall or the rib cage and to maintain the same body configuration throughout gliding. The steady-state velocity was measured and the coefficient of drag was calculated for each towing trial to compare between the breathing manoeuvres. The results showed that the towing velocity was increased by 0.02 m/s with a towing force of 34.3 N and by 0.06 m/s with a towing force of 98.1 N. The coefficient of drag was reduced by 5% with the abdominal breathing manoeuvre, which was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). These results indicate that adopting the abdominal breathing manoeuvre during gliding reduces the passive drag and the hypothesis was supported.

  5. Intraoperative Dexmedetomidine Promotes Postoperative Analgesia in Patients After Abdominal Colectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Dong-Jian; Qi, Bin; Tang, Gang; Li, Jin-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Surgery-induced acute postoperative pain may lead to prolonged convalescence. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of intraoperative dexmedetomidine on postoperative analgesia following abdominal colectomy surgeries. Eighty patients scheduled for abdominal colectomy surgery under general anesthesia were divided into 2 groups, which were maintained using propofol/remifentanil/dexmedetomidine (PRD) or propofol/remifentanil/saline (PRS). During surgery, patients in the PRD group had a lower bispectral index (BIS) value, which indicated a deeper anesthetic state, and a higher sedation score right after extubation than patients in the PRS group. During the first 24 hours post surgery, PRD patients consumed less morphine in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and had a lower score in the visual analog scale (VAS) testing than their controls from the PRS group. Intraoperative administration of dexmedetomidine appears to promote the analgesic property of morphine-based PCA in patients after abdominal colectomy. PMID:26376397

  6. Running barbed suture quilting reduces abdominal drainage in perforator-based breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Liang, D G; Dusseldorp, J R; van Schalkwyk, C; Hariswamy, S; Wood, S; Rose, V; Moradi, P

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged abdominal drainage after perforator-based breast reconstruction is a common problem that can result in seroma formation, patient morbidity, and increased duration of hospital stay. Abdominal quilting with progressive tension sutures has been effective in reducing abdominal drainage in abdominoplasty patients prompting a change of practice in our unit. We studied consecutive unilateral mastectomy patients undergoing breast reconstruction with a deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap. The initial 27 patients underwent breast reconstruction without any form of abdominal flap plication. The subsequent 26 patients underwent an identical DIEP flap raise procedure after which the abdominal flap was progressively tensioned using a running barbed suture quilting technique. All patients had closed suction drains inserted bilaterally until daily drain output was <40 ml in 2 consecutive days. Primary outcome measures were total volume of abdominal drainage and length of hospital stay. Independent statistical analyses were performed using Welch's t-test. There were no demographic differences between the two groups. A statistically significant decrease in the mean total abdominal drainage was found after quilting (238 ml vs. 528 ml; p = 0.0005). Patients in the quilting group also showed a reduction in mean duration of hospital stay. Quilting of the abdominal flap helps to reduce abdominal drainage not only in abdominoplasty patients but also in patients undergoing breast reconstruction with DIEP flap. PMID:26601878

  7. Constriction model of actomyosin ring for cytokinesis by fission yeast using a two-state sliding filament mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yong-Woon; Mascagni, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We developed a model describing the structure and contractile mechanism of the actomyosin ring in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The proposed ring includes actin, myosin, and α-actinin, and is organized into a structure similar to that of muscle sarcomeres. This structure justifies the use of the sliding-filament mechanism developed by Huxley and Hill, but it is probably less organized relative to that of muscle sarcomeres. Ring contraction tension was generated via the same fundamental mechanism used to generate muscle tension, but some physicochemical parameters were adjusted to be consistent with the proposed ring structure. Simulations allowed an estimate of ring constriction tension that reproduced the observed ring constriction velocity using a physiologically possible, self-consistent set of parameters. Proposed molecular-level properties responsible for the thousand-fold slower constriction velocity of the ring relative to that of muscle sarcomeres include fewer myosin molecules involved, a less organized contractile configuration, a low α-actinin concentration, and a high resistance membrane tension. Ring constriction velocity is demonstrated as an exponential function of time despite a near linear appearance. We proposed a hypothesis to explain why excess myosin heads inhibit constriction velocity rather than enhance it. The model revealed how myosin concentration and elastic resistance tension are balanced during cytokinesis in S. pombe.

  8. Constriction model of actomyosin ring for cytokinesis by fission yeast using a two-state sliding filament mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Yong-Woon; Mascagni, Michael

    2014-09-28

    We developed a model describing the structure and contractile mechanism of the actomyosin ring in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The proposed ring includes actin, myosin, and α-actinin, and is organized into a structure similar to that of muscle sarcomeres. This structure justifies the use of the sliding-filament mechanism developed by Huxley and Hill, but it is probably less organized relative to that of muscle sarcomeres. Ring contraction tension was generated via the same fundamental mechanism used to generate muscle tension, but some physicochemical parameters were adjusted to be consistent with the proposed ring structure. Simulations allowed an estimate of ring constriction tension that reproduced the observed ring constriction velocity using a physiologically possible, self-consistent set of parameters. Proposed molecular-level properties responsible for the thousand-fold slower constriction velocity of the ring relative to that of muscle sarcomeres include fewer myosin molecules involved, a less organized contractile configuration, a low α-actinin concentration, and a high resistance membrane tension. Ring constriction velocity is demonstrated as an exponential function of time despite a near linear appearance. We proposed a hypothesis to explain why excess myosin heads inhibit constriction velocity rather than enhance it. The model revealed how myosin concentration and elastic resistance tension are balanced during cytokinesis in S. pombe.

  9. MRCK-1 Drives Apical Constriction in C. elegans by Linking Developmental Patterning to Force Generation.

    PubMed

    Marston, Daniel J; Higgins, Christopher D; Peters, Kimberly A; Cupp, Timothy D; Dickinson, Daniel J; Pani, Ariel M; Moore, Regan P; Cox, Amanda H; Kiehart, Daniel P; Goldstein, Bob

    2016-08-22

    Apical constriction is a change in cell shape that drives key morphogenetic events including gastrulation and neural tube formation. Apical force-producing actomyosin networks drive apical constriction by contracting while connected to cell-cell junctions. The mechanisms by which developmental patterning regulates these actomyosin networks and associated junctions with spatial precision are not fully understood. Here we identify a myosin light-chain kinase MRCK-1 as a key regulator of C. elegans gastrulation that integrates spatial and developmental patterning information. We show that MRCK-1 is required for activation of contractile actomyosin dynamics and elevated cortical tension in the apical cell cortex of endoderm precursor cells. MRCK-1 is apically localized by active Cdc42 at the external, cell-cell contact-free surfaces of apically constricting cells, downstream of cell fate determination mechanisms. We establish that the junctional components α-catenin, β-catenin, and cadherin become highly enriched at the apical junctions of apically constricting cells and that MRCK-1 and myosin activity are required in vivo for this enrichment. Taken together, our results define mechanisms that position a myosin activator to a specific cell surface where it both locally increases cortical tension and locally enriches junctional components to facilitate apical constriction. These results reveal crucial links that can tie spatial information to local force generation to drive morphogenesis. PMID:27451898

  10. The physical nature of the phenomenon of positive column plasma constriction in low-pressure noble gas direct current discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Kurbatov, P. F.

    2014-02-15

    The essence of the positive-column plasma constriction for static (the diffusion mode) and dynamic ionization equilibrium (the stratificated and constricted modes) is analyzed. Two physical parameters, namely, the effective ionization rate of gas atoms and the ambipolar diffusion coefficient of electrons and ions, determine the transverse distribution of discharge species and affect the current states of plasma. Transverse constriction of the positive column takes place as the gas ionization level (discharge current) and pressure increase. The stratified mode (including the constricted one) is observed between the two adjacent types of self-sustained discharge phases when they coexist together at the same time or in the same place as a coherent binary mixture. In the case, a occurrence of the discharge phase with more high electron density presently involve a great decrease in the cross-section of the current channel for d.c. discharges. Additional physical factors, such as cataphoresis and electrophoresis phenomena and spatial gas density inhomogeneity correlated with a circulatory flow in d.c. discharges, are mainly responsible for the current hysteresis and partially constricted discharge.

  11. [Abdominal bruit associated with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Fontseré, N; Bonet, J; Bonal, J; Romero, R

    2004-01-01

    First cause of secondary hypertension is renovascular hypertension which presents abdominal bruit in 16 to 20% of cases. This clinical sign is also associated with other vascular disease of the abdomen such as celiac trunk stenosis and/or aneurysms located on the pancreaticoduodenal or gastroduodenal arcs level, with little representation among aneurysm. They usually appear on a context of digestive complications like neoplasias, chronic pancreatitis or gastric obstructions possibly with obstructive icterus, hemorrhage and acute abdomen episodes. Its presentation in other contexts is rare and constitutes a diagnostic challenge. Diagnosis is made by abdominal arteriography which is the best method because you can locate the problem as well as intervene therapeutically with embolization of the aneurysme. We would like to emphasize the importance of a quick diagnosis due to the risk of rupture and the high morbi-mortality associated.

  12. Congenital lateral abdominal wall hernia.

    PubMed

    Montes-Tapia, Fernando; Cura-Esquivel, Idalia; Gutiérrez, Susana; Rodríguez-Balderrama, Isaías; de la O-Cavazos, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Congenital abdominal wall defects that are located outside of the anterior wall are extremely rare and difficult to classify because there are no well accepted guidelines. There are two regions outside of the anterior wall: the flank or lateral wall; and the lumbar region. We report the case of a patient with an oval 3 cm-diameter hernia defect located above the anterior axillary line, which affects all layers of the muscular wall. An anorectal malformation consisting of a recto-vestibular fistula was also identified, and chest X-ray showed dextrocardia. The suggested treatment is repair of the defect before 1 year of age. Given that the anomalies described may accompany lateral abdominal wall hernia, it is important to diagnose and treat the associated defects.

  13. [Abdominal cystic tumor revealing lymphangioleiomyomatosis].

    PubMed

    Barbier, L; Ebbo, M; Andrac-Meyer, L; Schneilitz, N; Le Treut, Y-P; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Hardwigsen, J

    2009-02-01

    We report the case of a 39 year-old woman with many years of intermittent abdominal pain who was found to have cystic masses evocative of cystic lymphangioma involving the posterior mediastinal and retroperitoneum. Worsening abdominal pain led to a recommendation for laparoscopic unroofing and decompression of the cysts. During the postoperative period, hemorrhagic shock required reintervention with excision of the tumoral mass. Pathologic examination revealed lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). On the 15th postoperative day, the patient developed a chylopneumothorax which required prolonged chest tube drainage. The presence of multiple polycystic lesions in the pulmonary parenchyma supported the diagnosis of diffuse LAM with primary extrapulmonary presentation. This diagnosis should be considered preoperatively since it modifies the treatment: a complete excision of the cystic lesions seems to be necessary in order to prevent bleeding and lymphatic extravasation.

  14. Antinociceptive activity of astragaloside IV in the animal model of chronic constriction injury.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guo-Bing; Fan, Rong; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Chen; Wang, Qi; Song, Juan; Gao, Yue; Hou, Ming-Xiao; Chen, Yu-Feng; Wang, Tong-Chao; Cai, Guo-Jun

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the applicability of astragaloside IV (AG) for the treatment of refractory neuropathic pain, we systemically evaluated the antinociceptive activity of AG in the animal model of chronic constriction injury. We studied behaviors, electrophysiology, and biochemistry from day 2 to day 23 after the surgery. We found that when administered intraperitoneally at the dose of 60 mg/kg, AG caused significant inhibition of allodynia and hyperalgesia induced by mechanic and thermal stimuli as well as downregulation of the expressions of a series of proteins involved in mediating neuropathic pain in the dorsal root ganglia, such as P2X purinoceptor 3, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor α1, and transient receptor potential cation channel subtypes A1 and V1. Further investigation showed that AG restored the nerve conduction velocity and the histological structure of the damaged sciatic nerve on day 23 after the surgery. Moreover, results from immunoelectron microscope showed that glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor α1 induced by AG could form a circular band in the myelin debris between the injured axons and Schwann cells, contributing toward restoration of the damaged nerve. In conclusion, in our animal model, AG effectively inhibited the neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury.

  15. Apical constriction drives tissue-scale hydrodynamic flow to mediate cell elongation

    PubMed Central

    He, Bing; Doubrovinski, Konstantin; Polyakov, Oleg; Wieschaus, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial folding mediated by apical constriction converts flat epithelial sheets into multilayered, complex tissue structures and is employed throughout the development in most animals1. Little is known, however, how forces produced near the apical surface of the tissue are transmitted within individual cells to generate the global changes in cell shape that characterize tissue deformation. Here we apply particle tracking velocimetry in gastrulating Drosophila embryos to measure the movement of cytoplasm and plasma membrane during ventral furrow (VF) formation2, 3. We find that cytoplasmic redistribution during the lengthening phase of VF formation can be precisely described by viscous flows that quantitatively match the predictions of hydrodynamics. Cell membranes move with the ambient cytoplasm, with little resistance to or driving force on the flow. Strikingly, apical constriction produces similar flow patterns in mutant embryos that fail to form cells prior to gastrulation (“acellular” embryos), such that the global redistribution of cytoplasm mirrors the summed redistribution occurring in individual cells of wild type embryos. Our results suggest that during the lengthening phase of VF formation, hydrodynamic behavior of the cytoplasm provides the predominant mechanism transmitting apically generated forces deep into the tissue and that cell individualization is dispensable. PMID:24590071

  16. Effusive-constrictive calcific pericarditis associated with Streptococcus salivarius. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rafailidis, Petros I; Prapas, Sotirios N; Kasiakou, Sofia K; Costeas, Xenofon F; Falagas, Matthew E

    2005-01-01

    We report the case of a 40-year-old patient presenting with a 6-month history of dyspnea and edema, with significant worsening of his clinical manifestations for the 2 weeks before admission to our department. During this 14-day preadmission period, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was prescribed elsewhere for management of a working diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. The patient presented to us hemodynamically compromised. Management of the patient included emergency cardiac surgery for tamponade caused by effusive-constrictive, calcific pericarditis in addition to antimicrobial treatment as a result of the growth of Streptococcus salivarius from the pericardial fluid. This is the first report in the literature of association of this microorganism with pericarditis. The use of CPAP made the patient's symptoms worse as a result of an increase of the intrathoracic pressure, which was a pathophysiological mechanism, added to the interference of the localized pericardial effusion and the effect of the pericardial constriction. In an era of rapidly increasing use of CPAP systems, clinicians should be aware of their possible detrimental effects on patients with some types of cardiopulmonary diseases. PMID:15831142

  17. Probing weak localization in chemical vapor deposition graphene wide constriction using scanning gate microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, C.; Matsunaga, M.; Liu, F.-H.; Woo, T.-P.; Aoki, N.; Lin, L.-H.; Wu, B.-Y.; Ochiai, Y.; Liang, C.-T.

    2016-02-01

    Low-temperature scanning gate microscopy (LT-SGM) studies of graphene allow one to obtain important spatial information regarding coherent transport such as weak localization (WL) and universal conductance fluctuations. Although fascinating LT-SGM results on pristine graphene prepared by mechanical exfoliation have been reported in the literature, there appears to be a dearth of LT-SGM results on chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene whose large scale and flexible substrate transferability make it an ideal candidate for coherent electronic applications. To this end, we have performed LT-SGM studies on CVD-grown graphene wide constriction (0.8 μm), which can be readily prepared by cost-effective optical lithography fully compatible with those in wafer foundry, in the WL regime. We find that the movable local gate can sensitively modulate the total conductance of the CVD graphene constriction possibly due to the intrinsic grain boundaries and merged domains, a great advantage for applications in coherent electronics. Moreover, such a conductance modulation by LT-SGM provides an additional, approximately magnetic-field-independent probe for studying coherent transport such as WL in graphene and spatial conductance variation.

  18. Gabapentin attenuates neuropathic pain and improves nerve myelination after chronic sciatic constriction in rats.

    PubMed

    Câmara, Carlos C; Araújo, Celina V; de Sousa, Kalina Kelma Oliveira; Brito, Gerly A C; Vale, Mariana L; Raposo, Ramon da Silva; Mendonça, Fabiana Evaristo; Mietto, Bruno S; Martinez, Ana Maria B; Oriá, Reinaldo B

    2015-10-21

    Gabapentin (GBP) is an anti-convulsive drug often used as analgesic to control neuropathic pain. This study aimed at evaluating oral GBP treatment (30, 60, 120 mg/kg, 60 min prior to chronic constriction of the sciatic nerve (CCSN) along 15-day treatment post-injury, 12 h/12 h) by monitoring spontaneous and induced-pain behaviors in Wistar rats on 5th and 15th days post-injury during early neuropathic events. CCSN animals receiving saline were used as controls. Another aim of this study was to evaluate GBP effects on myelin basic protein (MBP) on the 5th and 15th days post-injury and nerve morphology by transmission electron microscopy to address nerve regeneration. On the 5th and 15th days, GBP (60 mg/kg) reduced neuropathic pain behaviors (scratching and biting) in the ipsilateral paw and alleviated mechanical allodynia in comparison with the neuropathic saline group. GBP significantly increased climbing and rearing behaviors in CCSN and CCSN-free animals suggesting increased motor activity rather than sedation. We found three-fold significant increase in MBP expression by western blots on the 15th day when compared to controls. In addition, GPB (60 mg/kg) improved nerve axonal, fiber and myelin area 15 days post-surgery. In conclusion, GBP alleviated mechanical and thermal allodynia and spontaneous pain-related behaviors and improved later nerve morphology. Our findings suggest that GBP improve nerve remyelination after chronic constriction of the sciatic nerve.

  19. Stretch-induced changes in constricted lung parenchymal strips: role of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Salerno, F G; Fust, A; Ludwig, M S

    2004-02-01

    Large amplitude oscillations of contracted airway smooth muscle cause relative relaxation of the preparation. However, little is known about the effect of mechanical stretch on distal lung behaviour. Rat parenchymal strips were suspended in an organ bath and attached at one end to a force transducer and at the other end to a servo-controlled lever arm that effected length changes. Mechanical impedance of the strip was measured by applying a complex signal consisting of pseudorandom length oscillations of varying frequencies (0.5-19.75 Hz). A constant phase model was fit to changes in length and tension to calculate tissue damping (G) and elastance (H). Hysteresivity was calculated as G/H. Impedance was measured before and after sinusoidal length oscillation at different amplitudes (1, 3, 10 and 25% of resting length) at a frequency of 1 Hz under baseline conditions and after acetylcholine-induced constriction. Oscillations of 10 and 25% amplitudes significantly decreased the G and H of the lung strip. The effect of length oscillations was no different in control versus constricted strips. These data suggest that in the distal lung, large stretches affect the structural components of the extracellular matrix rather than the contractile elements. PMID:14979490

  20. Congenital constriction ring of limbs in subjects with history of maternal substance use.

    PubMed

    Malik, Sajid; Lal, Karmoon; Fatima, Noreen Ghulam; Samo, Ayaz; Haque, Sayedul

    2015-05-01

    Congenital Constriction Ring (CCR) is a rare malformation which manifests itself in the form of ring-like constrictive bands. Due to its heterogeneous nature, its etiology remains unclear. Here, we present a series of seven independent individuals afflicted with CCR, which primarily involved the digits. The phenotypic manifestations included terminal phalangeal reduction, anonychia, digit hypoplasia, and acrosyndactyly. Mesoaxial digits in hands and preaxial digits in feet were most frequently affected. Camptodactyly and clubfoot were witnessed in four and one subject, respectively. Curiously, mothers of six of these subjects revealed that they consumed copious amounts of Multani mitti(Fuller's clay) and/or Naswar(nonsmoke-tobacco), during their respective pregnancies. Maternal substance use during pregnancy is not an unusual practice, however, its relationship with CCR as pregnancy outcome remains unexplored. Case-control studies are warranted to elucidate the relationship between the exposure to these substances and the etiology of CCR and/or other limb defects in the offspring. PMID:26008671

  1. Effects of vascular constriction on occlusive thrombus formation of rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Araki, H; Nishi, K

    1986-10-01

    Effects of vascular constriction on thrombotic occlusion was evaluated using rat mesenteric arteries and video-recording system attached to the microscope. Topical application of norepinephrine of 1, 10 and 100 micrograms/ml reduced the arterial diameter dose dependently from 297 +/- 41 mu to 166 +/- 50, 87 +/- 18 and 84 +/- 11 mu (mean +/- SD, n = 7), respectively. The diameter reduction by the higher 2 doses persisted for more than 30 minutes until the wash out of the agent. But, no thrombus formation was observed. A reproducible thrombus formation was induced by inserting a glass micropipette into the vascular lumen. The maximal percent occlusion by the thrombus was 80 +/- 11% (range; 67 to 95%, n = 7). The topical application of 10 micrograms/ml norepinephrine induced vasoconstriction and increased the percent occlusion significantly to 97 +/- 8% (p less than 0.05). Complete occlusion of the lumen developed in 6 of 7 rats after the agent and in 2 rats it was not released until the wash out of the agent for more than 30 minutes. Thrombus formation itself did not change the arterial diameter at the site of thrombus formation as well as at sites of 300 and 600 mu down stream. It is suggested that the vascular constriction alone does not necessarily cause thrombus formation but may aggravate the arterial flow reduction induced by thrombosis.

  2. Immune reactions in tuberculous and chronic constrictive pericarditis. Clinical data and diagnostic significance of antimyocardial antibodies.

    PubMed

    Maisch, B; Maisch, S; Kochsiek, K

    1982-11-01

    Humoral immune reactions were analyzed in 12 patients with exudative tuberculous pericarditis, 10 patients with constrictive pericarditis due to former tuberculosis, 10 patients with viral pericarditis, 20 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, and 98 healthy donors. Pericarditis occurred in 12.5% of the patients with tuberculosis, whereas the incidence of tuberculosis in the 149 patients with pericarditis was 8%. Repeated pericardial puncture and pericardial effusions of greater than 500 ml with impending cardiac tamponade had to be performed in 4 patients. Clinical data indicated probable myocardial involvement in 4 of 12 patients. Antimyolemmal antibodies, which are a muscle-specific subtype of antisarcolemmal antibodies, were found in all patients with exudative tuberculous pericarditis and viral perimyocarditis, in only 1 of 12 patients with constrictive pericarditis, and in no patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Antifibrillary antibodies--primarily of the antimyosin type--were missed in patients with viral heart disease but were demonstrated in 75% of patients with tuberculous pericarditis. Only sera with complement-fixing antimyolemmal antibodies of the IgG type in titers greater than 1:40 induced cytolysis of vital adult heterologous cardiocytes isolated and enriched by silica sol gradient centrifugation. These findings suggest not only that antimyolemmal antibodies are diagnostic indicators of perimyocardial involvement in tuberculous pericarditis, but also that they may play a significant role in its pathogenesis. PMID:6753555

  3. Management of voluminous abdominal incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Bouillot, J-L; Poghosyan, T; Pogoshian, T; Corigliano, N; Canard, G; Veyrie, N

    2012-10-01

    Incisional hernia is one of the classic complications after abdominal surgery. The chronic, gradual increase in size of some of these hernias is such that the hernia ring widens to a point where there is a loss of substance in the abdominal wall, herniated organs can become incarcerated or strangulated while poor abdominal motility can alter respiratory function. The surgical treatment of small (<5 cm) incisional hernias is safe and straightforward, by either laparotomy or laparoscopy. For large hernias, surgical repair is often difficult. After reintegration of herniated viscera into the abdominal cavity, the abdominal wall defect must be closed anatomically in order to restore the function to the abdominal wall. Prosthetic reinforcement of the abdominal wall is mandatory for long-term successful repair. There are multiple techniques for prosthetic hernia repair, but placement of Dacron mesh in the retromuscular plane is our preference. PMID:23137643

  4. Methods for abdominal respiratory motion tracking.

    PubMed

    Spinczyk, Dominik; Karwan, Adam; Copik, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive surface registration methods have been developed to register and track breathing motions in a patient's abdomen and thorax. We evaluated several different registration methods, including marker tracking using a stereo camera, chessboard image projection, and abdominal point clouds. Our point cloud approach was based on a time-of-flight (ToF) sensor that tracked the abdominal surface. We tested different respiratory phases using additional markers as landmarks for the extension of the non-rigid Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm to improve the matching of irregular meshes. Four variants for retrieving the correspondence data were implemented and compared. Our evaluation involved 9 healthy individuals (3 females and 6 males) with point clouds captured in opposite breathing phases (i.e., inhalation and exhalation). We measured three factors: surface distance, correspondence distance, and marker error. To evaluate different methods for computing the correspondence measurements, we defined the number of correspondences for every target point and the average correspondence assignment error of the points nearest the markers.

  5. Methods for abdominal respiratory motion tracking

    PubMed Central

    Karwan, Adam; Copik, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive surface registration methods have been developed to register and track breathing motions in a patient’s abdomen and thorax. We evaluated several different registration methods, including marker tracking using a stereo camera, chessboard image projection, and abdominal point clouds. Our point cloud approach was based on a time-of-flight (ToF) sensor that tracked the abdominal surface. We tested different respiratory phases using additional markers as landmarks for the extension of the non-rigid Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm to improve the matching of irregular meshes. Four variants for retrieving the correspondence data were implemented and compared. Our evaluation involved 9 healthy individuals (3 females and 6 males) with point clouds captured in opposite breathing phases (i.e., inhalation and exhalation). We measured three factors: surface distance, correspondence distance, and marker error. To evaluate different methods for computing the correspondence measurements, we defined the number of correspondences for every target point and the average correspondence assignment error of the points nearest the markers. PMID:24720494

  6. VMA Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... is primarily used to detect and rule out neuroblastomas in children with an abdominal mass or other ... homovanillic acid (HVA) test to help diagnose a neuroblastoma, to monitor the effectiveness of treatment, and to ...

  7. Abdominal Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma Associated With Lymphangiomatosis Involving Mesentery and Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Aisheng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yang; He, Tianlin; Zuo, Changjing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KH) is a rare vascular tumor of intermediate malignancy that occurs mainly in the childhood. Adult patients with KH are rare. Imaging findings of KH have rarely been reported before. We present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT findings in an adult patient with KH associated with lymphangiomatosis involving mesentery and ileum. A 22-year-old female complained of a 9-month history of intermittent melena, weakness, and palpitation. Laboratory tests revealed anemia and hypoproteinemia. Fecal occult blood test was positive. Abdominal enhanced MRI and CT showed a large abdominal mass involving mesentery and ileum. On enhanced MRI, there were many hypervascular nodules in the mass. On FDG PET/CT, the mass and the nodules showed slight FDG uptake. Small bowel capsule endoscopy showed numerous grape-shaped red nodules in the luminal wall of the involved ileum. The patient underwent resection of the abdominal mass and a segment of the ileum invaded by the abdominal mass. KH arising within lymphangiomatosis involving mesentery and ileum was confirmed by pathology. After surgery, the patient's symptoms improved. This is the first case of KH associated with lymphangiomatosis involving mesentery and ileum. In this case, the lymphangiomatosis overshadowed the small tumor nodules resulting in unusual imaging findings. Familiarity with these imaging findings is helpful for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of KH. PMID:26871848

  8. [Abdominal ischemia and lesions of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Myshanych, T V; Moskal', O M; Arkhiĭ, E Ĭ; Sozoniuk, O V

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the results of 50 patients with diseases of coronary heart disease (25 pers.) And chronic pancreatitis (25 people) are submitted. Along with the standard test from these patients underwent Doppler-ultrasonography of abdominal aorta and its visceral branches. Conclusions: A characteristic feature of Doppler indices in AIC is to reduce Vps and Ved, and PI BbA, increase Vps, Ved, IR and PI after exercise in chBA, chC and BbA. At patients with CP with IHD feature is the increase in Ved and IR in the chC, and Ved and PI in BbA under act of loading Bleed a feature at CP with IHD must be taken into account for optimization of treatment of IHD at CP. PMID:25796868

  9. Abdominal wall pain in obese women: frequently missed and easily treated

    PubMed Central

    Mishriki, Yehia Yousri

    2009-01-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common symptom with an extensive differential diagnosis. The work-up is frequently costly, yet many patients elude definitive diagnosis. We describe 12 obese women with long-standing abdominal pain, many of whom eluded diagnosis but who met criteria for abdominal wall pain. Each patient underwent a focused history and physical examination which included checking for Carnett’s sign and performing a “pinch test”. All patients had positive Carnett’s sign and pinch tests. An injection of local anaesthetic, with or without corticosteroid, completely relieved the pain within 10 min. Of the six patients seen in follow-up, four remained pain free and two responded to a second injection of local anaesthetic. Abdominal wall pain is an under-appreciated cause of chronic abdominal pain. Diagnosis is often straightforward and treatment with a local injection of anaesthetic is both diagnostic and curative. PMID:21686788

  10. Heating properties of non-invasive hyperthermia treatment for abdominal deep tumors by 3-D FEM.

    PubMed

    Morita, E; Kato, K; Ono, S; Shindo, Y; Tsuchiya, K; Kubo, M

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the heating properties of a new type of hyperthermia system composed of a re-entrant type resonant cavity applicator for deep tumors of the abdominal region. In this method, a human body is placed in the gap of two inner electrodes and is non-invasively heated with electromagnetic fields stimulated in the cavity. Here, we calculated temperature distributions of a simple human abdominal phantom model that we constructed to examine the heating properties of the developed hyperthermia system. First, the proposed heating method and a simple abdominal model to calculate the temperature distribution are presented. Second, the computer simulation results of temperature distribution by 3-D FEM are presented. From these results, it was found that the proposed simple human abdominal phantom model composed of muscle, fat and lung was useful to test the heating properties of our heating method. Our heating method was also effective to non-invasively heat abdominal deep tumors.

  11. Preoperative ultrasound and gallium-67 evaluation of abdominal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    White, L.; Miller, J.H.; Reid, B.S.

    1984-08-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of abdominal ultrasonography followed by gallium (Ga)-67 scintigraphy in 21 patients, aged 1 to 14 years, appearing with abdominal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was analyzed. All cases were confirmed by biopsy; in a majority (16 patients), the tissue was obtained from an abdominal mass at the time of laparotomy subsequent to the imaging studies. Nineteen satisfactory abdominal ultrasound examinations were performed; 18 were interpreted as characteristic of NHL. Sixteen of these were of masses involving the gastrointestinal tract. All 21 patients had /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy that demonstrated abnormal radionuclide accumulation in the abdomen. In no instance was the final diagnosis different from the one predicted by the combined imaging studies. Ultrasonography is recommended as the initial test in the evaluation of clinical presentations consistent with abdominal NHL to expedite suitable management and prevent inappropriate surgery.

  12. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Norwood, M G A; Lloyd, G M; Bown, M J; Fishwick, G; London, N J; Sayers, R D

    2007-01-01

    The operative mortality following conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair has not fallen significantly over the past two decades. Since its inception in 1991, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has provided an alternative to open AAA repair and perhaps an opportunity to improve operative mortality. Two recent large randomised trials have demonstrated the short and medium term benefit of EVAR over open AAA repair, although data on the long term efficacy of the technique are still lacking. This review aimed at providing an overview of EVAR and a discussion of the potential benefits and current limitations of the technique. PMID:17267674

  13. [Dirofilaria in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Révész, Erzsébet; Markovics, Gabriella; Darabos, Zoltán; Tóth, Ildikó; Fok, Eva

    2008-10-01

    Number of cases of filariasis have been recently reported in the Hungarian medical literature, most of them caused by Dirofilaria repens . Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted filarioid worm in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs and cats. Human infection manifests as either subcutaneous nodules or lung parenchymal disease, which may even be asymptomatic. The authors report a human Dirofilaria repens infection of the abdominal cavity in a 61-year-old man,who underwent laparotomy for acute abdomen. Intraoperatively, local peritonitis was detected caused by a white nemathhelminth, measured 8 cm in size. Histocytology confirmed that the infection was caused by Dirofilaria repens.

  14. [Abdominal pain, constipation and anemia].

    PubMed

    Barresi, Fabio; Kunz Caflish, Isabel; Bayly-Schinzel, Leena; Dressel, Holger

    2016-03-30

    We present the case of a 42-year old man who went to the emergency department because of spasmodic abdominal pain. The abdomen was soft. A gastroscopy and a colonoscopy were without pathological findings. The laboratory analyses indicated anemia. The differential blood count showed basophilic granules in the red blood cells. The blood lead level was elevated. A lead poisoning was diagnosed. The cause was the oral intake of an ayurvedic medication which the patient had received in Bangladesh to treat his vitiligo. PMID:27005735

  15. Treatment of neonatal abdominal cysts.

    PubMed

    Dénes, J; Lukäcs, F V; Léb, J; Bognár, M

    1974-01-01

    Intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal cystic structures in the newborn appear with a variable clinical picture and in the case of intra-abdominal cysts, surgery is performed mostly on an emergency basis. In such cases the exact preoperative diagnosis is difficult and is seldom made. With early laparotomy, extensive small bowel resection can usually be avoided. Retroperitoneal lesions are mostly of renal origin; in such cases, preoperative diagnosis is easy, being based on specific examinations. In the year 1973, 5 newborns with an intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal cyst have been treated surgically. In this series, one infant died after resection of 90% of the small bowel.

  16. Calmodulin Promotes N-BAR Domain-Mediated Membrane Constriction and Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Myers, Margaret D; Ryazantsev, Sergey; Hicke, Linda; Payne, Gregory S

    2016-04-18

    Membrane remodeling by BAR (Bin, Amphiphysin, RVS) domain-containing proteins, such as endophilins and amphiphysins, is integral to the process of endocytosis. However, little is known about the regulation of endocytic BAR domain activity. We have identified an interaction between the yeast Rvs167 N-BAR domain and calmodulin. Calmodulin-binding mutants of Rvs167 exhibited defects in endocytic vesicle release. In vitro, calmodulin enhanced membrane tubulation and constriction by wild-type Rvs167 but not calmodulin-binding-defective mutants. A subset of mammalian N-BAR domains bound calmodulin, and co-expression of calmodulin with endophilin A2 potentiated tubulation in vivo. These studies reveal a conserved role for calmodulin in regulating the intrinsic membrane-sculpting activity of endocytic N-BAR domains.

  17. Mycotic aortic arch aneurysm coexistent with constrictive pericarditis: is surgery a dangerous resort?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peter S. Y.; Yu, Simon C. H.; Chu, Cheuk-Man; Kwok, Micky W. T.; Lam, Yuk-Hoi; Underwood, Malcolm J.

    2016-01-01

    An elderly man presented with fever and evidence of Salmonella infection, and was diagnosed to have coexisting constrictive pericarditis and mycotic aneurysm of the aortic arch. Pericardiectomy was performed under cardiopulmonary bypass with good result. To avoid deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, an aorto-brachiocephalic bypass, instead of total arch replacement, was performed. This was followed by a staged carotid-carotid bypass, thoracic endovascular stent graft placement. He was subsequently treated with prolonged antibiotics, and inflammatory marker normalized afterwards. He was last seen well 2 years after the operation. Follow-up computer tomography (CT) scan at 18 months post-op showed no evidence of endoleak or fistulation. Our case demonstrated that a hybrid treatment of open pericardiectomy and aortic debranching followed by thoracic endovascular stent graft placement is feasible and associated with satisfactory mid-term outcome. PMID:27621905

  18. Experimental proof of faster-is-slower in systems of frictional particles flowing through constrictions.

    PubMed

    Pastor, José M; Garcimartín, Angel; Gago, Paula A; Peralta, Juan P; Martín-Gómez, César; Ferrer, Luis M; Maza, Diego; Parisi, Daniel R; Pugnaloni, Luis A; Zuriguel, Iker

    2015-12-01

    The "faster-is-slower" (FIS) effect was first predicted by computer simulations of the egress of pedestrians through a narrow exit [D. Helbing, I. J. Farkas, and T. Vicsek, Nature (London) 407, 487 (2000)]. FIS refers to the finding that, under certain conditions, an excess of the individuals' vigor in the attempt to exit causes a decrease in the flow rate. In general, this effect is identified by the appearance of a minimum when plotting the total evacuation time of a crowd as a function of the pedestrian desired velocity. Here, we experimentally show that the FIS effect indeed occurs in three different systems of discrete particles flowing through a constriction: (a) humans evacuating a room, (b) a herd of sheep entering a barn, and (c) grains flowing out a 2D hopper over a vibrated incline. This finding suggests that FIS is a universal phenomenon for active matter passing through a narrowing.

  19. Mycotic aortic arch aneurysm coexistent with constrictive pericarditis: is surgery a dangerous resort?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peter S. Y.; Yu, Simon C. H.; Chu, Cheuk-Man; Kwok, Micky W. T.; Lam, Yuk-Hoi; Underwood, Malcolm J.

    2016-01-01

    An elderly man presented with fever and evidence of Salmonella infection, and was diagnosed to have coexisting constrictive pericarditis and mycotic aneurysm of the aortic arch. Pericardiectomy was performed under cardiopulmonary bypass with good result. To avoid deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, an aorto-brachiocephalic bypass, instead of total arch replacement, was performed. This was followed by a staged carotid-carotid bypass, thoracic endovascular stent graft placement. He was subsequently treated with prolonged antibiotics, and inflammatory marker normalized afterwards. He was last seen well 2 years after the operation. Follow-up computer tomography (CT) scan at 18 months post-op showed no evidence of endoleak or fistulation. Our case demonstrated that a hybrid treatment of open pericardiectomy and aortic debranching followed by thoracic endovascular stent graft placement is feasible and associated with satisfactory mid-term outcome.

  20. Experimental proof of faster-is-slower in systems of frictional particles flowing through constrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, José M.; Garcimartín, Angel; Gago, Paula A.; Peralta, Juan P.; Martín-Gómez, César; Ferrer, Luis M.; Maza, Diego; Parisi, Daniel R.; Pugnaloni, Luis A.; Zuriguel, Iker

    2015-12-01

    The "faster-is-slower" (FIS) effect was first predicted by computer simulations of the egress of pedestrians through a narrow exit [D. Helbing, I. J. Farkas, and T. Vicsek, Nature (London) 407, 487 (2000), 10.1038/35035023]. FIS refers to the finding that, under certain conditions, an excess of the individuals' vigor in the attempt to exit causes a decrease in the flow rate. In general, this effect is identified by the appearance of a minimum when plotting the total evacuation time of a crowd as a function of the pedestrian desired velocity. Here, we experimentally show that the FIS effect indeed occurs in three different systems of discrete particles flowing through a constriction: (a) humans evacuating a room, (b) a herd of sheep entering a barn, and (c) grains flowing out a 2D hopper over a vibrated incline. This finding suggests that FIS is a universal phenomenon for active matter passing through a narrowing.

  1. Experimental proof of faster-is-slower in systems of frictional particles flowing through constrictions.

    PubMed

    Pastor, José M; Garcimartín, Angel; Gago, Paula A; Peralta, Juan P; Martín-Gómez, César; Ferrer, Luis M; Maza, Diego; Parisi, Daniel R; Pugnaloni, Luis A; Zuriguel, Iker

    2015-12-01

    The "faster-is-slower" (FIS) effect was first predicted by computer simulations of the egress of pedestrians through a narrow exit [D. Helbing, I. J. Farkas, and T. Vicsek, Nature (London) 407, 487 (2000)]. FIS refers to the finding that, under certain conditions, an excess of the individuals' vigor in the attempt to exit causes a decrease in the flow rate. In general, this effect is identified by the appearance of a minimum when plotting the total evacuation time of a crowd as a function of the pedestrian desired velocity. Here, we experimentally show that the FIS effect indeed occurs in three different systems of discrete particles flowing through a constriction: (a) humans evacuating a room, (b) a herd of sheep entering a barn, and (c) grains flowing out a 2D hopper over a vibrated incline. This finding suggests that FIS is a universal phenomenon for active matter passing through a narrowing. PMID:26764754

  2. Mycotic aortic arch aneurysm coexistent with constrictive pericarditis: is surgery a dangerous resort?

    PubMed

    Yu, Peter S Y; Yu, Simon C H; Chu, Cheuk-Man; Kwok, Micky W T; Lam, Yuk-Hoi; Underwood, Malcolm J; Wong, Randolph H L

    2016-08-01

    An elderly man presented with fever and evidence of Salmonella infection, and was diagnosed to have coexisting constrictive pericarditis and mycotic aneurysm of the aortic arch. Pericardiectomy was performed under cardiopulmonary bypass with good result. To avoid deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, an aorto-brachiocephalic bypass, instead of total arch replacement, was performed. This was followed by a staged carotid-carotid bypass, thoracic endovascular stent graft placement. He was subsequently treated with prolonged antibiotics, and inflammatory marker normalized afterwards. He was last seen well 2 years after the operation. Follow-up computer tomography (CT) scan at 18 months post-op showed no evidence of endoleak or fistulation. Our case demonstrated that a hybrid treatment of open pericardiectomy and aortic debranching followed by thoracic endovascular stent graft placement is feasible and associated with satisfactory mid-term outcome. PMID:27621905

  3. [General anesthesia with remifentanil for a patient having sinoatrial block and constrictive pulmonary disorder].

    PubMed

    Nishio, Yumiko; Hara, Koji; Obara, Goh; Sata, Takeyoshi

    2008-08-01

    There is little report describing the effect of remifentanil on cardiac conduction system. We present a successful anesthetic management with remifentanil in a patient with sick sinus syndrome. A 66-year-old woman (31-kg, 121-cm) having sinoatrial (SA) block was diagnosed as having hepatic cell carcinoma, and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was scheduled. She was also suffering from kyphosis due to the past history of tuberculous spondylitis. Preoperative examination of her respiratory function indicated a severe constrictive pulmonary disorder. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (30 mg), and maintained with sevoflurane (1-2%) and oxygen/air in combination with remifentanil (0.5 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Temporary pacemaker was prepared during anesthesia. Neither remifentanil nor sevoflurane deteriorated SA block and her heart rate was well controlled. Respiratory dysfunction was not seen in the postoperative course. Our case suggests that remifentanil may be a suitable analgesic for patients with cardiac conduction abnormalities.

  4. [Internationalization and innovation of abdominal acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Characteristics of abdominal acupuncture are analyzed through three aspects of inheriting and innovation, collaborated research as well as international visual field. It is pointed that abdominal acupuncture is based on clinical practice, focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effect and expending the clinical application. It also promots the thinking on how to recall the tradition and how to inherit tradition availably. The modern medical problems should be studied and innovation resolutions should be searched, which can help the internationalization and modernization of abdominal acupuncture.

  5. [FUNCTIONAL PLASTIC OF ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIAS].

    PubMed

    Grubnik, V V; Parfentyeva, N D; Parfentyev, R S

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve the treatment efficacy of postoperative anterior abdominal wall hernias the method of plastic with restoration of anatomical and physiological properties of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall was used. After the intervention by the improved method, regardless of the location of the hernia defect yielded promising results for the conservation of anterior abdominal wall muscle function in 75% of cases completely restored functional ability of muscles recti abdomini. PMID:26591212

  6. Evaluating Effects of Floodplain Constriction Along a High Energy Gravel-Bed River: Snake River, WY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Christina M.

    This study examined approximately 66 km of the Snake River, WY, USA, spanning a natural reach within Grand Teton National Park and a reach immediately downstream that is confined by artificial levees. We linked the channel adjustments observed within these two reaches between 2007 and 2012 to sediment transport processes by developing a morphological sediment budget. A pair of digital elevation models (DEMs) was generated by fusing LiDAR topography with depth estimates derived from optical image data within wetted channels. Errors for both components of the DEMs (LiDAR and optical bathymetry) were propagated through the DEM of difference and sediment budget calculations. Our results indicated that even with the best available methods for acquiring high resolution topographic data over large areas, the uncertainty associated with bed elevation estimates implied that net volumetric changes were not statistically significant. In addition to the terrain analysis, we performed a tracer study to assess the mobility of different grain size classes in different morphological units. Grain sizes, hydraulic conditions, and flow resistance characteristics along cross-sections were used to calculate critical discharges for entrainment, but this bulk characterization of fluid driving forces failed to predict bed mobility. Our results indicated that over seasonal timescales specific grain classes were not preferentially entrained. Surface and subsurface grain size data were used to calculate armoring and dimensionless sediment transport ratios for both reaches; sediment supply exceeded transport capacity in the natural reach and vice versa in the confined reach. We used a conceptual model to describe channel adjustments to lateral constriction by levees. Initially we suggest levees focused flow energy and incised the bed, resulting in bed armoring. Bed armoring promoted channel widening, but levees prevented this and instead the channel migrated more rapidly within the

  7. Dendritic atrophy constricts functional maps in resonance and impedance properties of hippocampal model neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dhupia, Neha; Rathour, Rahul K.; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2015-01-01

    A gradient in the density of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide gated (HCN) channels is necessary for the emergence of several functional maps within hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Here, we systematically analyzed the impact of dendritic atrophy on nine such functional maps, related to input resistance and local/transfer impedance properties, using conductance-based models of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We introduced progressive dendritic atrophy in a CA1 pyramidal neuron reconstruction through a pruning algorithm, measured all functional maps in each pruned reconstruction, and arrived at functional forms for the dependence of underlying measurements on dendritic length. We found that, across frequencies, atrophied neurons responded with higher efficiency to incoming inputs, and the transfer of signals across the dendritic tree was more effective in an atrophied reconstruction. Importantly, despite the presence of identical HCN-channel density gradients, spatial gradients in input resistance, local/transfer resonance frequencies and impedance profiles were significantly constricted in reconstructions with dendritic atrophy, where these physiological measurements across dendritic locations converged to similar values. These results revealed that, in atrophied dendritic structures, the presence of an ion channel density gradient alone was insufficient to sustain homologous functional maps along the same neuronal topograph. We assessed the biophysical basis for these conclusions and found that this atrophy-induced constriction of functional maps was mediated by an enhanced spatial spread of the influence of an HCN-channel cluster in atrophied trees. These results demonstrated that the influence fields of ion channel conductances need to be localized for channel gradients to express themselves as homologous functional maps, suggesting that ion channel gradients are necessary but not sufficient for the emergence of functional maps within single neurons

  8. Dietary niche constriction when invaders meet natives: evidence from freshwater decapods.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michelle C; Grey, Jonathan; Miller, Katie; Britton, J Robert; Donohue, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Invasive species are a key driver of global environmental change, with frequently strong negative consequences for native biodiversity and ecosystem processes. Understanding competitive interactions between invaders and functionally similar native species provides an important benchmark for predicting the consequences of invasion. However, even though having a broad dietary niche is widely considered a key factor determining invasion success, little is known about the effects of competition with functionally similar native competitors on the dietary niche breadths of invasive species. We used a combination of field experiments and field surveys to examine the impacts of competition with a functionally similar native crab species on the population densities, growth rates and diet of the globally widespread invasive red swamp crayfish in an African river ecosystem. The presence of native crabs triggered significant dietary niche constriction within the invasive crayfish population. Further, growth rates of both species were reduced significantly, and by a similar extent, in the presence of one another. In spite of this, crayfish maintained positive growth rates in the presence of crabs, whereas crabs lost mass in the presence of crayfish. Consequently, over the 3-year duration of the study, crab abundance declined at those sites invaded by the crayfish, becoming locally extinct at one. The invasive crayfish had a dramatic effect on ecosystem structure and functioning, halving benthic invertebrate densities and increasing decomposition rates fourfold compared to the crabs. This indicates that replacement of native crabs by invasive crayfish likely alters the structure and functioning of African river ecosystems significantly. This study provides a novel example of the constriction of the dietary niche of a successful invasive population in the presence of competition from a functionally similar native species. This finding highlights the importance of considering both

  9. Gas-bubble snap-off under pressure driven flow in constricted noncircular capillaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kovscek, A.R.; Radke, C.J.

    1996-04-01

    A model for snap-off of a gas thread in a constricted cornered pore is developed. The time for wetting liquid to accumulate at a pore throat into an unstable collar is examined, as for the resulting pore-spanning lens to be displaced from the pore so that snap-off is the time may repeat. A comer-flow hydrodynamic analysis for the accumulation rate of wetting liquid due to both gradients in interfacial curvature and in applied liquid-phase pressure reveals that wetting-phase pressure gradients significantly increase the frequency of liquid accumulation for snap-off as compared to liquid rearrangement driven only by differences in pore-wall curvature. For moderate and large pressure gradients, the frequency of accumulation increases linearly with pressure gradient because of the increased rate of wetting liquid flow along pore comers. Pore topology is important to the theory, for pores with relatively small throats connected to large bodies demonstrate excellent ability to snapoff gas threads even when the initial capillary pressure is high or equivalently when the liquid saturation is low. A macroscopic momentum balance across the lens resulting from snap-off reveals that lens displacement rates are not linear with the imposed pressure drop. Instead, the frequency of lens displacement scales with powers between 0.5 and 0.6 for pores with dimensionless constriction radii between 0.15 and 0.40. Statistical percolation arguments are employed to form a generation rate expression and connect pore-level foam generation events to macroscopic pressure gradients in porous media. The rate of foam generation by capillary snap-off increases linearly with the liquid-phase pressure gradient and according to a power-law relationship with respect to the imposed gas-phase pressure gradient.

  10. Prefission Constriction of Golgi Tubular Carriers Driven by Local Lipid Metabolism: A Theoretical Model

    PubMed Central

    Shemesh, Tom; Luini, Alberto; Malhotra, Vivek; Burger, Koert N. J.; Kozlov, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    Membrane transport within mammalian cells is mediated by small vesicular as well as large pleiomorphic transport carriers (TCs). A major step in the formation of TCs is the creation and subsequent narrowing of a membrane neck connecting the emerging carrier with the initial membrane. In the case of small vesicular TCs, neck formation may be directly induced by the coat proteins that cover the emerging vesicle. However, the mechanism underlying the creation and narrowing of a membrane neck in the generation of large TCs remains unknown. We present a theoretical model for neck formation based on the elastic model of membranes. Our calculations suggest a lipid-driven mechanism with a central role for diacylglycerol (DAG). The model is applied to a well-characterized in vitro system that reconstitutes TC formation from the Golgi complex, namely the pearling and fission of Golgi tubules induced by CtBP/BARS, a protein that catalyzes the conversion of lysophosphatidic acid into phosphatidic acid. In view of the importance of a PA-DAG cycle in the formation of Golgi TCs, we assume that the newly formed phosphatidic acid undergoes rapid dephosphorylation into DAG. DAG possesses a unique molecular shape characterized by an extremely large negative spontaneous curvature, and it redistributes rapidly between the membrane monolayers and along the membrane surface. Coupling between local membrane curvature and local lipid composition results, by mutual enhancement, in constrictions of the tubule into membrane necks, and a related inhomogeneous lateral partitioning of DAG. Our theoretical model predicts the exact dimensions of the constrictions observed in the pearling Golgi tubules. Moreover, the model is able to explain membrane neck formation by physiologically relevant mole fractions of DAG. PMID:14645071

  11. Role of cardiac output and the autonomic nervous system in the antinatriuretic response to acute constriction of the thoracic superior vena cava.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrier, R. W.; Humphreys, M. H.; Ufferman, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Study of the differential characteristics of hepatic congestion and decreased cardiac output in terms of potential afferent stimuli in the antinatriuretic effect of acute thoracic inferior vena cava (TIVC) constriction. An attempt is made to see if the autonomic nervous system is involved in the antinatriuretic effect of acute TIVC or thoracic superior vena cava constriction.

  12. Abdominal Pain-Predominant Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Jordanian School Children

    PubMed Central

    Altamimi, Eyad M.; Al-Safadi, Mohammad H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common complaint in children. Significant portion of them are of functional origin. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) and its types in Jordanian school children. Methods This is a school-based survey at south Jordan. Information using the self-reporting form of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version (QPGS-RIII) - the official Arabic translation - was collected. Classes from academic years (grades) 6 - 8 were selected. SPSS Statistical Package Version 17 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) was used. Categorical data were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test, and continuous data were analyzed using t-test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Five hundred questionnaires were distributed, and 454 returned answered (91%). Two hundred twenty-nine (50.8%) were males. The average age of participants was 12.7 years (11 - 15 years). One hundred sixteen (25.7%) had abdominal pain-predominant FGID. Seventy-nine (68%) of them were females. Forty-seven (10.6%) had irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Thirty-six (8%), 17 (3.8%), 11 (2.4%) and five (1.1%) had abdominal migraine, functional abdominal pain, functional abdominal pain syndrome and functional dyspepsia, respectively. Conclusion Abdominal pain-predominant FGID has become a major health issue in Jordanian children. One of four children between the ages of 11 and 15 years exhibits at least one abdominal pain-predominant FGID. The most common form of abdominal pain-predominant FGID in our children was IBS. Females are affected more often than males. Intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms are seen regularly with abdominal pain-predominant FGIDs.

  13. Systemic administration of vitamins C and E attenuates nociception induced by chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in rats.

    PubMed

    Riffel, Ana Paula K; de Souza, Jéssica A; Santos, Maria do Carmo Q; Horst, Andréa; Scheid, Taína; Kolberg, Carolina; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Partata, Wania A

    2016-03-01

    Antioxidants have been tested to treat neuropathic pain, and α-Tocopherol (vitamin E--vit. E) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C--vit. C) are potent antioxidants. We assessed the effect of intraperitoneal administration of vit. C (30 mg/kg/day) and vit. E (15 mg/kg/day), given alone or in combination, on the mechanical and thermal thresholds and the sciatic functional index (SFI) in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. We also determined the lipid hydroperoxides and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the injured sciatic nerve. Further, we assessed the effects of oral administration of vit. C+vit. E (vit. C+E) and of a combination of vit. C+E and gabapentin (100mg/kg/day, i.p.) on the mechanical and thermal thresholds of CCI rats. The vitamins, whether administered orally or i.p., attenuated the reductions in the mechanical and thermal thresholds induced by CCI. The antinociceptive effect was greater with a combination of vit. C+E than with each vitamin given alone. The SFI was also improved in vitamin-treated CCI rats. Co-administration of vit. C+E and gabapentin induced a greater antinociceptive effect than gabapentin alone. No significant change occurred in TAC and lipid hydroperoxide levels, but TAC increased (45%) while lipid hydroperoxides decreased (38%) in the sciatic nerve from vit. C+E-treated CCI rats. Thus, treatment with a combination of vit. C+E was more effective to treat CCI-induced neuropathic pain than vitamins alone, and the antinociceptive effect was greater with co-administration of vit. C+E and gabapentin than with gabapentin alone. PMID:26855326

  14. Enhanced Expression of TREK-1 Is Related with Chronic Constriction Injury of Neuropathic Pain Mouse Model in Dorsal Root Ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyo Jo; Lee, Seung Wook; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Kim, Eun-Jin; Kwon, Byeonghun; Kang, Dawon; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Seo, Kwang-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a complex state showing increased pain response with dysfunctional inhibitory neurotransmission. The TREK family, one of the two pore domain K+ (K2P) channel subgroups were focused among various mechanisms of neuropathic pain. These channels influence neuronal excitability and are thought to be related in mechano/thermosensation. However, only a little is known about the expression and role of TREK-1 and TREK-2, in neuropathic pain. It is performed to know whether TREK-1 and/or 2 are positively related in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of a mouse neuropathic pain model, the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Following this purpose, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses were performed using mouse DRG of CCI model and compared to the sham surgery group. Immunofluorescence staining of isolectin-B4 (IB4) and TREK were performed. Electrophysiological recordings of single channel currents were analyzed to obtain the information about the channel. Interactions with known TREK activators were tested to confirm the expression. While both TREK-1 and TREK-2 mRNA were significantly overexpressed in DRG of CCI mice, only TREK-1 showed significant increase (∼9 fold) in western blot analysis. The TREK-1-like channel recorded in DRG neurons of the CCI mouse showed similar current-voltage relationship and conductance to TREK-1. It was easily activated by low pH solution (pH 6.3), negative pressure, and riluzole. Immunofluorescence images showed the expression of TREK-1 was stronger compared to TREK-2 on IB4 positive neurons. These results suggest that modulation of the TREK-1 channel may have beneficial analgesic effects in neuropathic pain patients. PMID:27133259

  15. Advanced techniques in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Monson, J R

    1993-01-01

    Almost every abdominal organ is now amenable to laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic appendicectomy is a routine procedure which also permits identification of other conditions initially confused with an inflamed appendix. However, assessment of appendiceal inflammation is more difficult. Almost all colonic procedures can be performed laparoscopically, at least partly, though resection for colonic cancer is still controversial. For simple patch repair of perforated duodenal ulcers laparoscopy is ideal, and inguinal groin hernia can be repaired satisfactorily with a patch of synthetic mesh. Many upper abdominal procedures, however, still take more time than the open operations. These techniques reduce postoperative pain and the incidence of wound infections and allow a much earlier return to normal activity compared with open surgery. They have also brought new disciplines: surgeons must learn different hand-eye coordination, meticulous haemostasis is needed to maintain picture quality, and delivery of specimens may be problematic. The widespread introduction of laparoscopic techniques has emphasised the need for adequate training (operations that were straight-forward open procedures may require considerable laparoscopic expertise) and has raised questions about trainee surgeons acquiring adequate experience of open procedures. Images FIG 9 p1347-a p1347-b p1349-a p1350-a p1350-b PMID:8257893

  16. Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

  17. [Abdominal cavity adhesions. Some issues of pathogenesis, prophylaxis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Tishchenko, V V

    2010-07-01

    The abdominal cavity adhesions (ACA) constitute frequent consequence of various abdominal cavity diseases and traumas and frequent cause of the abdominal adhesive disease and its complications. In spite of the known pathogenesis of ACA, the surgeons had failed throughout the decades of years to find out the measures and methods of its prophylaxis. There are several causes of such a situation and the main of them is that ACA in its origin constitutes a philogenetically developed defense biologic reaction of organism. Because of the fact, that an organism constitutes the self-regulated biological system, any external inputs (including the treatment), directed on qualitative or quantitative signs of these reactions, meet systemic counteraction and become annihilated. The forced overcome of such a counteraction may cause the development of severe systemic disorders in organism. The only prophylactic measures against ACA, which were already tested throughout the time, are the tactical and technical methods, promoting the reduction of severity of morphological changes in peritoneum and abdominal organs, thus causing reduction of natural reaction of organism. When the adhesions formation is inevitable it is necessary to apply surgical methods of governing such a process, and omentoparietopexy may constitutes one of such methods.

  18. Characteristics of colorectal cancer diagnosed with screening abdominal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    TOMIZAWA, MINORU; SHINOZAKI, FUMINOBU; HASEGAWA, RUMIKO; FUGO, KAZUNORI; SHIRAI, YOSHINORI; MOTOYOSHI, YASUFUMI; SUGIYAMA, TAKAO; YAMAMOTO, SHIGENORI; KISHIMOTO, TAKASHI; ISHIGE, NAOKI

    2016-01-01

    Patient records were retrospectively analyzed to elucidate the characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed with screening abdominal ultrasound (US). Patients diagnosed with CRC using abdominal US [localized irregular wall thickening (W) or a hypoechoic mass with a hyperechoic mass (M)] were enrolled. The patients were subjected to colonoscopy and treated surgically between March, 2010 and January, 2015. A total of 5 men (aged 74.0±0.8 years) and 10 women (aged 73.0±12.0 years) were analyzed. Stratification was analyzed with abdominal US. The threshold value of wall thickness to diagnose CRC was investigated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The average wall thickness was 2.8±0.4 mm in the surrounding normal tissue and 12.7±5.2 mm in CRC (one-way analysis of variance, P<0.0001). The wall was significantly thicker in CRC compared with the normal colonic wall. The calculated threshold value was 4.3 mm for the diagnosis of CRC. Stratification was preserved in W, while it was lost in M (Chi-squared test, P=0.0196). The hemoglobin concentration was lower, while the C-reactive protein, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels were elevated above normal values. The threshold value was 4.3 mm for the diagnosis of CRC with abdominal US. PMID:27330768

  19. The Effect of Abdominal Radical Trachelectomy on Ovarian Reserve: Serial Changes in Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Muraji, Miho; Sudo, Tamotsu; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Ueno, Sayaka; Wakahashi, Senn; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Kiyoshi; Nishimura, Ryuichiro

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of abdominal radical trachelectomy on ovarian reserve and compare it with abdominal radical hysterectomy and a control group that did not have surgery. Method: We enrolled eighteen women who had abdominal radical trachelectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and sixteen patients who had abdominal radical hysterectomy for this study. Ten thousand one hundred eighty-six women were also included as a control group for comparison. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of patient characteristics and comparison of serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels between the three groups. Results: Serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels in patients with abdominal radical trachelectomy were significantly higher than those of patients with abdominal radical hysterectomy (P<0.05). Serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels in the abdominal radical hysterectomy group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P=0.02), with no significant difference between the abdominal radical trachelectomy and control groups. These data indicated that abdominal radical trachelectomy did not affect ovarian function with respect to ovarian reserve and the response to ovarian stimulation. Conclusions: Serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels could be useful as a marker of ovarian reserve after abdominal radical trachelectomy. It is important to avoid postoperative complications causing a reduction in ovarian function to accomplish fertility-sparing surgery. PMID:22606208

  20. Caveolin-1 prevents sustained angiotensin II-induced resistance artery constriction and obesity-induced high blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Czikora, Istvan; Feher, Attila; Lucas, Rudolf; Fulton, David J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The type 1 angiotensin II (ANG II) receptor (AT1R) undergoes internalization following stimulation by ANG II. Internalization reduces cell surface AT1Rs, and it is required for AT1R resensitization. In this process AT1R may interact with caveolin-1 (Cav1), the main scaffolding protein of caveolae. We hypothesized that the interaction between Cav1 and AT1R delays AT1R resensitization and thereby prevents sustained ANG II-induced resistance artery (RA) constriction under normal conditions and in experimental obesity. In rat and mouse skeletal muscle RA (diameter: ∼90–120 μm) ANG II-induced constrictions were reduced upon repeated (30-min apart) administrations. Upon disruption of caveolae with methyl-β-cyclodextrin or in RA of Cav1 knockout mice, repeated ANG II applications resulted in essentially maintained constrictions. In vascular smooth muscle cells, AT1R interacted with Cav1, and the degree of cell surface interactions was reduced by long-term (15-min), but not short-term (2-min), exposure to ANG II. When Cav1 was silenced, the amount of membrane-associated AT1R was significantly reduced by a short-term ANG II exposure. Moreover, Cav1 knockout mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited augmented and sustained RA constriction to ANG II and had elevated systemic blood pressure, when compared with normal or high-fat fed wild-type mice. Thus, Cav1, through a direct interaction, delays internalization and subsequent resensitization of AT1R. We suggest that this mechanism prevents sustained ANG II-induced RA constriction and elevated systemic blood pressure in diet-induced obesity. PMID:25527780

  1. Single cell rheometry with a microfluidic constriction: Quantitative control of friction and fluid leaks between cell and channel walls.

    PubMed

    Preira, Pascal; Valignat, Marie-Pierre; Bico, José; Théodoly, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    We report how cell rheology measurements can be performed by monitoring the deformation of a cell in a microfluidic constriction, provided that friction and fluid leaks effects between the cell and the walls of the microchannels are correctly taken into account. Indeed, the mismatch between the rounded shapes of cells and the angular cross-section of standard microfluidic channels hampers efficient obstruction of the channel by an incoming cell. Moreover, friction forces between a cell and channels walls have never been characterized. Both effects impede a quantitative determination of forces experienced by cells in a constriction. Our study is based on a new microfluidic device composed of two successive constrictions, combined with optical interference microscopy measurements to characterize the contact zone between the cell and the walls of the channel. A cell squeezed in a first constriction obstructs most of the channel cross-section, which strongly limits leaks around cells. The rheological properties of the cell are subsequently probed during its entry in a second narrower constriction. The pressure force is determined from the pressure drop across the device, the cell velocity, and the width of the gutters formed between the cell and the corners of the channel. The additional friction force, which has never been analyzed for moving and constrained cells before, is found to involve both hydrodynamic lubrication and surface forces. This friction results in the existence of a threshold for moving the cells and leads to a non-linear behavior at low velocity. The friction force can nevertheless be assessed in the linear regime. Finally, an apparent viscosity of single cells can be estimated from a numerical prediction of the viscous dissipation induced by a small step in the channel. A preliminary application of our method yields an apparent loss modulus on the order of 100 Pa s for leukocytes THP-1 cells, in agreement with the literature data.

  2. The Cerrillos Uplift, the La Bajada Constriction, and Hydrogeologic Framework of the Santo Domingo Basin, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    The geologic, geophysical, and hydrogeologic properties of the La Bajada constriction and Santo Domingo Basin, northern New Mexico, result from tectonic and volcanic processes of the late Tertiary and Quaternary Rio Grande rift. An integrated geologic and geophysical assessment in the La Bajada constriction allows development of a geologic framework that can provide input for regional ground-water flow models. These models then can provide better estimates of future water supplies in a region that largely subsists on aquifers in Rio Grande rift basins. The combination of surface geologic investigations (stratigraphic and structural studies; chapters A, B, C, and E), airborne geophysics (aeromagnetic and time-domain electromagnetic surveys; chapters D and F), ground geophysical measurements (gravity and magnetotelluric surveys; chapters D and F), and data from the few wells in the area (chapter G) provides new constraints on the hydrogeologic framework of this area. Summary results of our investigations are synthesized in chapter G. Through-going aquifers consisting of ancestral Rio Grande axial-river sand and gravel and of coarse western-piedmont gravel form the predominant ground-water pathways through the partly buried structural trough defining the La Bajada constriction between Espa?ola and Santo Domingo Basins. Thick, clay-rich Cretaceous marine shales of low hydraulic conductivity form a pervasive regional confining unit within the Cerrillos uplift on the southeast flank of the constriction. Numerous, dominantly north-northwest-striking, intrabasin faults that project part way across the La Bajada constriction create a matrix of laterally and vertically variable hydrogeologic compartments that locally partition and deflect ground-water flow parallel to faults.

  3. Single cell rheometry with a microfluidic constriction: Quantitative control of friction and fluid leaks between cell and channel walls

    PubMed Central

    Preira, Pascal; Valignat, Marie-Pierre; Bico, José; Théodoly, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    We report how cell rheology measurements can be performed by monitoring the deformation of a cell in a microfluidic constriction, provided that friction and fluid leaks effects between the cell and the walls of the microchannels are correctly taken into account. Indeed, the mismatch between the rounded shapes of cells and the angular cross-section of standard microfluidic channels hampers efficient obstruction of the channel by an incoming cell. Moreover, friction forces between a cell and channels walls have never been characterized. Both effects impede a quantitative determination of forces experienced by cells in a constriction. Our study is based on a new microfluidic device composed of two successive constrictions, combined with optical interference microscopy measurements to characterize the contact zone between the cell and the walls of the channel. A cell squeezed in a first constriction obstructs most of the channel cross-section, which strongly limits leaks around cells. The rheological properties of the cell are subsequently probed during its entry in a second narrower constriction. The pressure force is determined from the pressure drop across the device, the cell velocity, and the width of the gutters formed between the cell and the corners of the channel. The additional friction force, which has never been analyzed for moving and constrained cells before, is found to involve both hydrodynamic lubrication and surface forces. This friction results in the existence of a threshold for moving the cells and leads to a non-linear behavior at low velocity. The friction force can nevertheless be assessed in the linear regime. Finally, an apparent viscosity of single cells can be estimated from a numerical prediction of the viscous dissipation induced by a small step in the channel. A preliminary application of our method yields an apparent loss modulus on the order of 100 Pa s for leukocytes THP-1 cells, in agreement with the literature data. PMID:24404016

  4. Construction of Abdominal Probabilistic Atlases and Their Value in Segmentation of Normal Organs in Abdominal CT Scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunjin; Hero, Alfred; Bland, Peyton; Kessler, Marc; Seo, Jongbum; Meyer, Charles

    A good abdominal probabilistic atlas can provide important information to guide segmentation and registration applications in the abdomen. Here we build and test probabilistic atlases using 24 abdominal CT scans with available expert manual segmentations. Atlases are built by picking a target and mapping other training scans onto that target and then summing the results into one probabilistic atlas. We improve our previous abdominal atlas by 1) choosing a least biased target as determined by a statistical tool, i.e. multidimensional scaling operating on bending energy, 2) using a better set of control points to model the deformation, and 3) using higher information content CT scans with visible internal liver structures. One atlas is built in the least biased target space and two atlases are built in other target spaces for performance comparisons. The value of an atlas is assessed based on the resulting segmentations; whichever atlas yields the best segmentation performance is considered the better atlas. We consider two segmentation methods of abdominal volumes after registration with the probabilistic atlas: 1) simple segmentation by atlas thresholding and 2) application of a Bayesian maximum a posteriori method. Using jackknifing we measure the atlas-augmented segmentation performance with respect to manual expert segmentation and show that the atlas built in the least biased target space yields better segmentation performance than atlases built in other target spaces.

  5. Educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity: Pró-Saúde Study

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Ronaldo Fernandes Santos; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the degree of educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity in a population of non-faculty civil servants at university campi. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we used data from 3,117 subjects of both genders aged 24 to 65-years old, regarding the baseline of Pró-Saúde Study, 1999-2001. Abdominal obesity was defined according to abdominal circumference thresholds of 88 cm for women and 102 cm for men. A multi-dimensional, self-administered questionnaire was used to evaluate education levels and demographic variables. Slope and relative indices of inequality, and Chi-squared test for linear trend were used in the data analysis. All analyses were stratified by genders, and the indices of inequality were standardized by age. RESULTS Abdominal obesity was the most prevalent among women (43.5%; 95%CI 41.2;45.9), as compared to men (24.3%; 95%CI 22.1;26.7), in all educational strata and age ranges. The association between education levels and abdominal obesity was an inverse one among women (p < 0.001); it was not statistically significant among men (p = 0.436). The educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity in the female population, in absolute terms (slope index of inequality), was 24.0% (95%CI 15.5;32.6). In relative terms (relative index of inequality), it was 2.8 (95%CI 1.9;4.1), after the age adjustment. CONCLUSIONS Gender inequality in the prevalence of abdominal obesity increases with older age and lower education. The slope and relative indices of inequality summarize the strictly monotonous trend between education levels and abdominal obesity, and it described educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity among women. Such indices provide relevant quantitative estimates for monitoring abdominal obesity and dealing with health inequalities. PMID:26465669

  6. Puerperal endometritis after abdominal twin delivery.

    PubMed

    Suonio, S; Huttunen, M

    1994-04-01

    The infectious complications of 122 consecutive abdominal twin deliveries over the period 1984-1989 were analyzed in a prospective clinical study, comparing them with 761 singleton abdominal deliveries over the period 1984-1986. The incidence of endometritis was nearly three-fold after twin deliveries and the incidence of abdominal wound infections nearly two-fold compared with singleton abdominal pregnancies (13.1/4.7% and 5.6/3.0%). The risk of amnionitis was increased ten-fold, 6 hours after rupture of the membranes in abdominal twin delivery, but no connection was found between amnionitis and endometritis, as in singleton abdominal deliveries. Multiple regression analysis indicated only two risk factors as regards puerperal endometritis after abdominal twin delivery: age under 25 years (odds ratio 6.9, 95% confidence limits 1.9-24.8), an association also seen in singleton abdominal deliveries, and a period of more than 6 hours from rupture of membranes to delivery (odds ratio 7.8, 95% confidence limits 2.1-28.5). Multiple pregnancy appears to be associated with an increased risk of endometritis. The etiological factors remain unknown, but a large placental bed and/or immunological factors may be implicated. PMID:8160537

  7. Pediatric Abdominal Pain: An Emergency Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeremiah; Fox, Sean M

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain is a common complaint that leads to pediatric patients seeking emergency care. The emergency care provider has the arduous task of determining which child likely has a benign cause and not missing the devastating condition that needs emergent attention. This article reviews common benign causes of abdominal pain as well as some of the cannot-miss emergent causes. PMID:27133248

  8. Abdominal tuberculosis of the gastrointestinal tract: Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Debi, Uma; Ravisankar, Vasudevan; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal tuberculosis is an increasingly common disease that poses diagnostic challenge, as the nonspecific features of the disease which may lead to diagnostic delays and development of complications. This condition is regarded as a great mimicker of other abdominal pathology. A high index of suspicion is an important factor in early diagnosis. Abdominal involvement may occur in the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lymphnodes or solid viscera. Various investigative methods have been used to aid in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and initiation of antituberculous therapy and surgical treatment are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality. Most of the patients respond very well to standard antitubercular therapy and surgery is required only in a minority of cases. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis because early recognition of this condition is important. We reviewed our experience with the findings on various imaging modalities for diagnosis of this potentially treatable disease. PMID:25356043

  9. A fibromatosis case mimicking abdominal aorta aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, Arzu; Kahraman, Cemal; Tasdemir, Kutay; Mavili, Ertugrul

    2013-01-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a rare fibrosing reactive process that may be confused with mesenteric fibromatosis. Abdominal aorta aneurysm is rare too and mostly develops secondary to Behcet's disease, trauma, and infection or connective tissue diseases. Incidence of aneurysms occurring as a result of atherosclerotic changes increases in postmenopausal period. Diagnosis can be established with arteriography, tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging associated with clinical findings. Tumors and cysts should be considered in differential diagnosis. Abdominal ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computerized tomography revealed an infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysm in a 41-year-old woman, but, on surgery, retroperitoneal fibrosis surrounding the aorta was detected. We present this interesting case because retroperitoneal fibrosis encircling the abdominal aorta can mimic abdominal aorta aneurysm radiologically.

  10. Abdominal muscle and quadriceps strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Man, W; Hopkinson, N; Harraf, F; Nikoletou, D; Polkey, M; Moxham, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Quadriceps muscle weakness is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but is not observed in a small hand muscle (adductor pollicis). Although this could be explained by reduced activity in the quadriceps, the observation could also be explained by anatomical location of the muscle or fibre type composition. However, the abdominal muscles are of a similar anatomical and fibre type distribution to the quadriceps, although they remain active in COPD. Cough gastric pressure is a recently described technique that assesses abdominal muscle (and hence expiratory muscle) strength more accurately than traditional techniques. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that more severe weakness exists in the quadriceps than in the abdominal muscles of patients with COPD compared with healthy elderly controls. Methods: Maximum cough gastric pressure and quadriceps isometric strength were measured in 43 patients with stable COPD and 25 healthy elderly volunteers matched for anthropometric variables. Results: Despite a significant reduction in mean quadriceps strength (29.9 kg v 41.2 kg; 95% CI –17.9 to –4.6; p = 0.001), cough gastric pressure was preserved in patients with COPD (227.3 cm H2O v 204.8 cm H2O; 95% CI –5.4 to 50.6; p = 0.11). Conclusions: Abdominal muscle strength is preserved in stable COPD outpatients in the presence of quadriceps weakness. This suggests that anatomical location and fibre type cannot explain quadriceps weakness in COPD. By inference, we conclude that disuse and consequent deconditioning are important factors in the development of quadriceps muscle weakness in COPD patients, or that activity protects the abdominal muscles from possible systemic myopathic processes. PMID:15923239

  11. Multi-atlas segmentation for abdominal organs with Gaussian mixture models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Ryan P.; Xu, Zhoubing; Lee, Christopher P.; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Abramson, Richard G.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal organ segmentation with clinically acquired computed tomography (CT) is drawing increasing interest in the medical imaging community. Gaussian mixture models (GMM) have been extensively used through medical segmentation, most notably in the brain for cerebrospinal fluid / gray matter / white matter differentiation. Because abdominal CT exhibit strong localized intensity characteristics, GMM have recently been incorporated in multi-stage abdominal segmentation algorithms. In the context of variable abdominal anatomy and rich algorithms, it is difficult to assess the marginal contribution of GMM. Herein, we characterize the efficacy of an a posteriori framework that integrates GMM of organ-wise intensity likelihood with spatial priors from multiple target-specific registered labels. In our study, we first manually labeled 100 CT images. Then, we assigned 40 images to use as training data for constructing target-specific spatial priors and intensity likelihoods. The remaining 60 images were evaluated as test targets for segmenting 12 abdominal organs. The overlap between the true and the automatic segmentations was measured by Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). A median improvement of 145% was achieved by integrating the GMM intensity likelihood against the specific spatial prior. The proposed framework opens the opportunities for abdominal organ segmentation by efficiently using both the spatial and appearance information from the atlases, and creates a benchmark for large-scale automatic abdominal segmentation.

  12. Intra-abdominal pressure during swimming.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, S; Ogita, F; Huang, Z; Kurobe, K; Nagira, A; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, H; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the intra-abdominal pressure during front crawl swimming at different velocities in competitive swimmers and to clarify the relationships between stroke indices and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. The subjects were 7 highly trained competitive collegiate male swimmers. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured during front crawl swimming at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 m · s(-1) and during the Valsalva maneuver. Intra-abdominal pressure was taken as the difference between minimum and maximum values, and the mean of 6 stable front crawl stroke cycles was used. Stroke rate and stroke length were also measured as stroke indices. There were significant differences in stroke rate among all velocities (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in stroke length by velocity. Significant within-subject correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke rate or stroke length (P < 0.01) were observed, although there were no significant correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke indices when controlling for swimming velocity. These findings do not appear to support the effectiveness of trunk training performed by competitive swimmers aimed at increasing intra-abdominal pressure. PMID:23868677

  13. Intra-abdominal pressure during swimming.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, S; Ogita, F; Huang, Z; Kurobe, K; Nagira, A; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, H; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the intra-abdominal pressure during front crawl swimming at different velocities in competitive swimmers and to clarify the relationships between stroke indices and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. The subjects were 7 highly trained competitive collegiate male swimmers. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured during front crawl swimming at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 m · s(-1) and during the Valsalva maneuver. Intra-abdominal pressure was taken as the difference between minimum and maximum values, and the mean of 6 stable front crawl stroke cycles was used. Stroke rate and stroke length were also measured as stroke indices. There were significant differences in stroke rate among all velocities (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in stroke length by velocity. Significant within-subject correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke rate or stroke length (P < 0.01) were observed, although there were no significant correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke indices when controlling for swimming velocity. These findings do not appear to support the effectiveness of trunk training performed by competitive swimmers aimed at increasing intra-abdominal pressure.

  14. The Effect of Verbascoside in Neuropathic Pain Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Amin, Bahareh; Poureshagh, Ehsan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of verbascoside in rats subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI). Verbascoside (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, i.p.), was administered from the day of surgery for 14 days. Spinal cord levels of apoptotic factors and glia markers were quantified on days 3, 7, and 14 post-CCI. Oxidative stress markers were assessed on days 7 and 14. CCI rats exhibited a marked mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, and thermal hyperalgesia on days 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 post-CCI. A significant increase in the levels of Iba (a marker of microglia activation) and Bax (a proapoptotic factor) was observed on day 3. Iba remained high on day 7. In contrast, there were no differences in glial fibrillary acidic protein contents between sham and CCI animals. Malondialdehyde increased and reduced glutathione decreased on day 14. Verbascoside significantly attenuated behavioral changes associated with neuropathy. Bax decreased, while Bcl-2 was increased by verbascoside on day 3. Verbascoside also reduced Iba protein on days 3 and 7. The results support evidence that microglial activation, apoptotic factors, and oxidative stress may have a pivotal role in the neuropathic pain pathogenesis. It is suggested that antinociceptive effects elicited by verbascoside might be through the inhibition of microglia activation, apoptotic pathways, and antioxidant properties. PMID:26537351

  15. Flow of colloidal solids and fluids through constrictions: dynamical density functional theory versus simulation.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Urs; Smallenburg, Frank; Löwen, Hartmut

    2016-06-22

    Using both dynamical density functional theory and particle-resolved Brownian dynamics simulations, we explore the flow of two-dimensional colloidal solids and fluids driven through a linear channel with a constriction. The flow is generated by a constant external force acting on all colloids. The initial configuration is equilibrated in the absence of flow and then the external force is switched on instantaneously. Upon starting the flow, we observe four different scenarios: a complete blockade, a monotonic decay to a constant particle flux (typical for a fluid), a damped oscillatory behaviour in the particle flux, and a long-lived stop-and-go behaviour in the flow (typical for a solid). The dynamical density functional theory describes all four situations but predicts infinitely long undamped oscillations in the flow which are always damped in the simulations. We attribute the mechanisms of the underlying stop-and-go flow to symmetry conditions on the flowing solid. Our predictions are verifiable in real-space experiments on magnetic colloidal monolayers which are driven through structured microchannels and can be exploited to steer the flow throughput in microfluidics.

  16. Investigation of helium ion production in constricted direct current plasma ion source with layered-glows

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Park, Yeong-Shin; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    Generation of helium ions is experimentally investigated with a constricted direct current (DC) plasma ion source operated at layered-glow mode, in which electrons could be accelerated through multiple potential structures so as to generate helium ions including He{sup 2+} by successive ionization collisions in front of an extraction aperture. The helium discharge is sustained with the formation of a couple of stable layers and the plasma ball with high density is created near the extraction aperture at the operational pressure down to 0.6 Torr with concave cathodes. The ion beam current extracted with an extraction voltage of 5 kV is observed to be proportional to the discharge current and inversely proportional to the operating pressure, showing high current density of 130 mA/cm{sup 2} and power density of 0.52 mA/cm{sup 2}/W. He{sup 2+} ions, which were predicted to be able to exist due to multiple-layer potential structure, are not observed. Simple calculation on production of He{sup 2+} ions inside the plasma ball reveals that reduced operating pressure and increased cathode area will help to generate He{sup 2+} ions with the layered-glow DC discharge.

  17. The Effect of Pulsed Radiofrequency Applied to the Peripheral Nerve in Chronic Constriction Injury Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun-Beom; Byun, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Young; Lee, Ji Shin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) applied proximal to the injured peripheral nerve on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in a neuropathic pain rat model. Methods Nineteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. All rats underwent chronic constriction injury (CCI) procedure. After 7 days of CCI, withdrawal frequency of affected hind paw to mechanical stimuli and withdrawal latency of affected hind paw to heat stimulus were measured. They were randomly divided into two groups: group A, CCI group (n=9) and group B, CCI treated with PRF group (n=10). Rats of group B underwent PRF procedure on the sciatic nerve. Withdrawal frequency and withdrawal latency were measured at 12 hours, and 7 days after PRF. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were performed using a TNF-α antibody. Results Before PRF, withdrawal frequency and withdrawal latency were not different in both groups. After PRF, withdrawal frequency decreased and withdrawal latency prolonged over time in group B. There was significant interaction between time and group for each withdrawal frequency and withdrawal latency. Group B showed decreased TNF-α immunoreactivity of the spinal cord and sciatic nerve at 7 days. Conclusion PRF applied proximal to the peripheral nerve injury is potentially helpful for the reduction of neuropathic pain by neuromodulation of inflammatory markers. PMID:26605164

  18. A constriction resistance model of conjugated polymer based piezoresistive sensors for electronic skin applications.

    PubMed

    Khalili, N; Naguib, H E; Kwon, R H

    2016-05-14

    Human intervention can be replaced through the development of tools resulting from utilization of sensing devices possessing a wide range of applications including humanoid robots or remote and minimally invasive surgeries. Similar to the five human senses, sensors interface with their surroundings to stimulate a suitable response or action. The sense of touch which arises in human skin is among the most challenging senses to emulate due to its ultra high sensitivity. This has brought forth novel challenging issues to consider in the field of biomimetic robotics. In this work, using a multiphase reaction, a polypyrrole (PPy) based hydrogel is developed as a resistive type pressure sensor with an intrinsically elastic microstructure stemming from three dimensional hollow spheres. It is shown that the electrical conductivity of the fabricated PPy based piezoresistive sensors is enhanced as a result of adding conductive fillers and therefore, endowing the sensors with a higher sensitivity. A semi-analytical constriction resistance based model accounting for the real contact area between the PPy hydrogel sensors and the electrode along with the dependency of the contact resistance change on the applied load is developed. The model is then solved using a Monte Carlo technique and its corresponding sensitivity is obtained. Comparing the results with their experimental counterparts, the proposed modeling methodology offers a good tracking ability.

  19. A constriction resistance model of conjugated polymer based piezoresistive sensors for electronic skin applications.

    PubMed

    Khalili, N; Naguib, H E; Kwon, R H

    2016-05-14

    Human intervention can be replaced through the development of tools resulting from utilization of sensing devices possessing a wide range of applications including humanoid robots or remote and minimally invasive surgeries. Similar to the five human senses, sensors interface with their surroundings to stimulate a suitable response or action. The sense of touch which arises in human skin is among the most challenging senses to emulate due to its ultra high sensitivity. This has brought forth novel challenging issues to consider in the field of biomimetic robotics. In this work, using a multiphase reaction, a polypyrrole (PPy) based hydrogel is developed as a resistive type pressure sensor with an intrinsically elastic microstructure stemming from three dimensional hollow spheres. It is shown that the electrical conductivity of the fabricated PPy based piezoresistive sensors is enhanced as a result of adding conductive fillers and therefore, endowing the sensors with a higher sensitivity. A semi-analytical constriction resistance based model accounting for the real contact area between the PPy hydrogel sensors and the electrode along with the dependency of the contact resistance change on the applied load is developed. The model is then solved using a Monte Carlo technique and its corresponding sensitivity is obtained. Comparing the results with their experimental counterparts, the proposed modeling methodology offers a good tracking ability. PMID:27035514

  20. Genetic analysis of a novel invasion of Puerto Rico by an exotic constricting snake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, R. Graham; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R.; Reed, Robert N.; Revell, Liam J.

    2013-01-01

    The tropical island Puerto Rico is potentially vulnerable to invasion by some species of exotic snakes; however, until now no established populations had been reported. Here we report and genetically characterize the nascent invasion of Puerto Rico by an exotic constricting snake of the family Boidae (Boa constrictor) using mtDNA and microsatellite data. Over 150 individual B. constrictor have been removed from Mayagüez municipality since May 2011, and our results from the genetic analysis of 32 individuals suggest that this population was recently founded by individuals of one subspecies from a genetic lineage common to zoo and breeding collections, but that the potential propagule pool consists of two subspecies. We also suggest that anthropogenic long-distance dispersal within the island of Puerto Rico may be occurring from the established population, with implications for further establishment across the island. This study represents the first report of the naturalization of an invasive species of boid snake in Puerto Rico and will be important in determining mitigation strategies for this invasion as well as providing a basis for comparison to other on-going studies of invasive snakes.

  1. Flow of colloidal solids and fluids through constrictions: dynamical density functional theory versus simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Urs; Smallenburg, Frank; Löwen, Hartmut

    2016-06-01

    Using both dynamical density functional theory and particle-resolved Brownian dynamics simulations, we explore the flow of two-dimensional colloidal solids and fluids driven through a linear channel with a constriction. The flow is generated by a constant external force acting on all colloids. The initial configuration is equilibrated in the absence of flow and then the external force is switched on instantaneously. Upon starting the flow, we observe four different scenarios: a complete blockade, a monotonic decay to a constant particle flux (typical for a fluid), a damped oscillatory behaviour in the particle flux, and a long-lived stop-and-go behaviour in the flow (typical for a solid). The dynamical density functional theory describes all four situations but predicts infinitely long undamped oscillations in the flow which are always damped in the simulations. We attribute the mechanisms of the underlying stop-and-go flow to symmetry conditions on the flowing solid. Our predictions are verifiable in real-space experiments on magnetic colloidal monolayers which are driven through structured microchannels and can be exploited to steer the flow throughput in microfluidics.

  2. Regulated Crb accumulation controls apical constriction and invagination in Drosophila tracheal cells.

    PubMed

    Letizia, Annalisa; Sotillos, Sol; Campuzano, Sonsoles; Llimargas, Marta

    2011-01-15

    Many epithelial tissues undergo extensive remodelling during morphogenesis. How their epithelial features, such as apicobasal polarity or adhesion, are maintained and remodelled and how adhesion and polarity proteins contribute to morphogenesis are two important questions in development. Here, we approach these issues by investigating the role of the apical determinant protein Crumbs (Crb) during the morphogenesis of the embryonic Drosophila tracheal system. Crb accumulates differentially throughout tracheal development and is required for different tracheal events. The earliest requirement for Crb is for tracheal invagination, which is preceded by an enhanced accumulation of Crb in the invagination domain. There, Crb, acting in parallel with the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) pathway, is required for tracheal cell apical constriction and for organising an actomyosin complex, which we propose is mediated by Crb recruitment of moesin (Moe). The ability of a Crb isoform unable to rescue polarity in crb mutants to otherwise rescue their invagination phenotype, and the converse inability of a FERM-binding domain mutant Crb to rescue faulty invagination, support our hypothesis that it is the absence of Crb-dependent Moe enrichment, and not the polarity defect, that mainly underlies the crb invagination phenotype. This hypothesis is supported by the phenotype of lethal giant larvae (lgl); crb double mutants. These results unveil a link between Crb and the organisation of the actin cytoskeleton during morphogenesis. PMID:21172808

  3. Dynamics of trapped nonwetting phase droplet under seismic stimulation in constricted pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, W.; Beresnev, I. A.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic waves affect fluid flow and transport processes in porous media. Therefore, quantitative understanding of the role of elastic waves in subsurface hydrodynamics is important for the development of practical applications and prediction of natural phenomena. We present a theoretical fluid dynamics model to describe how low-frequency waves mobilize isolated droplets trapped in pores by capillary forces. The mobilization of droplets can result in the restoration of locally-reduced permeability and thus contributes to the large-scale increase in the permeability of reservoirs and aquifers. The ability of the theoretical model to predict the critical mobilization amplitudes and the displacement dynamics of the nonwetting droplet is compared with computational fluid dynamics simulations. The theoretical and computational models agree well in the low-frequency range but results begin diverge with increasing frequency of elastic waves. Furthermore, comparison of both the new theoretical model and a previous "viscous seismic model" with available experimental data shows that the new model performs better than the previous theoretical model. The model is thus more appropriate for predicting dynamics of trapped nonwetting droplets in pore constrictions subject to low-frequency elastic waves.

  4. Laparoscopic repair of abdominal incisional hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal incisional hernia is a common complication after open abdominal operations. Laparoscopic procedures have obvious mini-invasive advantages for surgical treatment of abdominal incisional hernia, especially to cases with big hernia defect. Laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia has routine mode but the actual operations will be various according to the condition of every hernia. Key points of these operations include design of the position of trocars, closure of defects and fixation of meshes. The details of these issues and experiences of perioperative evaluation and treatment will be talked about in this article. PMID:27761446

  5. Chylous Ascites after Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Ohki, Shinichi; Kurumisawa, Soki; Misawa, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was transferred for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. He had no history of abdominal surgeries. Grafting between the infra-renal abdominal aorta and the bilateral common iliac arteries was performed. Proximal and distal cross clamps were applied for grafting. He developed chylous ascites on the 5th post-operative day, 2 days after initiation of oral intake. Fortunately, he responded to treatment with total parenteral hyper-alimentation for 10 days, followed by a low-fat diet. There was no recurrence of ascites. PMID:27087873

  6. [Internationalization and innovation of abdominal acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Characteristics of abdominal acupuncture are analyzed through three aspects of inheriting and innovation, collaborated research as well as international visual field. It is pointed that abdominal acupuncture is based on clinical practice, focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effect and expending the clinical application. It also promots the thinking on how to recall the tradition and how to inherit tradition availably. The modern medical problems should be studied and innovation resolutions should be searched, which can help the internationalization and modernization of abdominal acupuncture. PMID:24298780

  7. Isolate abdominal bronchogenic cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cetinkurşun, S; Oztürk, H; Celasun, B; Sakarya, M T; Sürer, I

    1997-04-01

    Isolated abdominal bronchogenic cysts are rare abnormalities. They are usually asymptomatic unless secondarily infected or large enough to cause compression of other vital structures. The authors report on a 20-month-old girl who had an abdominal bronchogenic cyst and presented with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. The evaluation and treatment of this patient is presented as well as a review of the ten previously reported cases. A literature review showed only four cases in the pediatric age group. Excision is recommended to establish diagnosis and alleviate any symptoms. Abdominal bronchogenic cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses.

  8. Fully automated adipose tissue measurement on abdominal CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Sussman, Daniel L.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2011-03-01

    Obesity has become widespread in America and has been associated as a risk factor for many illnesses. Adipose tissue (AT) content, especially visceral AT (VAT), is an important indicator for risks of many disorders, including heart disease and diabetes. Measuring adipose tissue (AT) with traditional means is often unreliable and inaccurate. CT provides a means to measure AT accurately and consistently. We present a fully automated method to segment and measure abdominal AT in CT. Our method integrates image preprocessing which attempts to correct for image artifacts and inhomogeneities. We use fuzzy cmeans to cluster AT regions and active contour models to separate subcutaneous and visceral AT. We tested our method on 50 abdominal CT scans and evaluated the correlations between several measurements.

  9. Asymmetric constriction of dividing Escherichia coli cells induced by expression of a fusion between two min proteins.

    PubMed

    Rowlett, Veronica Wells; Margolin, William

    2014-06-01

    The Min system, consisting of MinC, MinD, and MinE, plays an important role in localizing the Escherichia coli cell division machinery to midcell by preventing FtsZ ring (Z ring) formation at cell poles. MinC has two domains, MinCn and MinCc, which both bind to FtsZ and act synergistically to inhibit FtsZ polymerization. Binary fission of E. coli usually proceeds symmetrically, with daughter cells at roughly 180° to each other. In contrast, we discovered that overproduction of an artificial MinCc-MinD fusion protein in the absence of other Min proteins induced frequent and dramatic jackknife-like bending of cells at division septa, with cell constriction predominantly on the outside of the bend. Mutations in the fusion known to disrupt MinCc-FtsZ, MinCc-MinD, or MinD-membrane interactions largely suppressed bending division. Imaging of FtsZ-green fluorescent protein (GFP) showed no obvious asymmetric localization of FtsZ during MinCc-MinD overproduction, suggesting that a downstream activity of the Z ring was inhibited asymmetrically. Consistent with this, MinCc-MinD fusions localized predominantly to segments of the Z ring at the inside of developing cell bends, while FtsA (but not ZipA) tended to localize to the outside. As FtsA is required for ring constriction, we propose that this asymmetric localization pattern blocks constriction of the inside of the septal ring while permitting continued constriction of the outside portion. PMID:24682325

  10. Asymmetric Constriction of Dividing Escherichia coli Cells Induced by Expression of a Fusion between Two Min Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rowlett, Veronica Wells

    2014-01-01

    The Min system, consisting of MinC, MinD, and MinE, plays an important role in localizing the Escherichia coli cell division machinery to midcell by preventing FtsZ ring (Z ring) formation at cell poles. MinC has two domains, MinCn and MinCc, which both bind to FtsZ and act synergistically to inhibit FtsZ polymerization. Binary fission of E. coli usually proceeds symmetrically, with daughter cells at roughly 180° to each other. In contrast, we discovered that overproduction of an artificial MinCc-MinD fusion protein in the absence of other Min proteins induced frequent and dramatic jackknife-like bending of cells at division septa, with cell constriction predominantly on the outside of the bend. Mutations in the fusion known to disrupt MinCc-FtsZ, MinCc-MinD, or MinD-membrane interactions largely suppressed bending division. Imaging of FtsZ-green fluorescent protein (GFP) showed no obvious asymmetric localization of FtsZ during MinCc-MinD overproduction, suggesting that a downstream activity of the Z ring was inhibited asymmetrically. Consistent with this, MinCc-MinD fusions localized predominantly to segments of the Z ring at the inside of developing cell bends, while FtsA (but not ZipA) tended to localize to the outside. As FtsA is required for ring constriction, we propose that this asymmetric localization pattern blocks constriction of the inside of the septal ring while permitting continued constriction of the outside portion. PMID:24682325

  11. [Churg-Strauss abdominal manifestation].

    PubMed

    Suarez-Moreno, Roberto; Ponce-Pérez, Luis Virgilio; Margain-Paredes, Miguel Angel; Garza-de la Llave, Heriberto; Madrazo-Navarro, Mario; Espinosa-Álvarez, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la enfermedad de Churg-Strauss es poco común, idiopática, caracterizada por hipereosinofilia en sangre y tejidos, aunada a vasculitis sistémica en pacientes con antecedentes de asma o rinitis alérgica. Las manifestaciones gastrointestinales del síndrome de Churg Strauss se caracterizan por dolor abdominal, seguido de diarrea y hemorragia en 31-45% de los casos. Caso clínico: paciente masculino con antecedente de asma que acudió a consulta por abdomen agudo con probable apendicitis aguda; durante el protocolo de estudio se diagnosticó síndrome de Churg Strauss, con manifestaciones intestinales. Conclusión: el síndrome de Churg Strauss es una vasculitis poco frecuente que puede manifestarse con síntomas intestinales, como en este caso; es importante tenerlo en mente a la hora de los diagnósticos diferenciales. Existen pocos reportes con este síndrome asociado con abdomen agudo, todos ellos con mal pronóstico.

  12. Mechanical Intestinal Obstruction in a Porcine Model: Effects of Intra-Abdominal Hypertension. A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Margallo, F. M.; Latorre, R.; López-Albors, O.; Wise, R.; Malbrain, M. L. N. G.; Castellanos, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mechanical intestinal obstruction is a disorder associated with intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. As the large intestine intraluminal and intra-abdominal pressures are increased, so the patient’s risk for intestinal ischaemia. Previous studies have focused on hypoperfusion and bacterial translocation without considering the concomitant effect of intra-abdominal hypertension. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a mechanical intestinal obstruction model in pigs similar to the human pathophysiology. Materials and Methods Fifteen pigs were divided into three groups: a control group (n = 5) and two groups of 5 pigs with intra-abdominal hypertension induced by mechanical intestinal obstruction. The intra-abdominal pressures of 20 mmHg were maintained for 2 and 5 hours respectively. Hemodynamic, respiratory and gastric intramucosal pH values, as well as blood tests were recorded every 30 min. Results Significant differences between the control and mechanical intestinal obstruction groups were noted. The mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, dynamic pulmonary compliance and abdominal perfusion pressure decreased. The systemic vascular resistance index, central venous pressure, pulse pressure variation, airway resistance and lactate increased within 2 hours from starting intra-abdominal hypertension (p<0.05). In addition, we observed increased values for the peak and plateau airway pressures, and low values of gastric intramucosal pH in the mechanical intestinal obstruction groups that were significant after 3 hours. Conclusion The mechanical intestinal obstruction model appears to adequately simulate the pathophysiology of intestinal obstruction that occurs in humans. Monitoring abdominal perfusion pressure, dynamic pulmonary compliance, gastric intramucosal pH and lactate values may provide insight in predicting the effects on endorgan function in patients with mechanical intestinal obstruction. PMID

  13. Surgical Management of Massive Pericardial Effusion and Predictors for Development of Constrictive Pericarditis in a Resource Limited Setting

    PubMed Central

    Okokhere, Peter O.; Iruolagbe, Christopher Ojemiega; Odike, Angela; Owobu, Clifford; Akhigbe, Theophilus

    2016-01-01

    Background. The diagnosis and treatment of massive pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade have evolved over the years with a tendency towards a more comprehensive diagnostic workup and less traumatic intervention. Method. We reviewed and analysed the data of 32 consecutive patients who underwent surgery on account of massive pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade in a semiurban university hospital in Nigeria from February 2010 to February 2016. Results. The majority of patients (34.4%) were between 31 and 40 years. Fourteen patients (43.8%) presented with clinical and echocardiographic feature of cardiac tamponade. The majority of patients (59.4%) presented with haemorrhagic pericardial effusion and the average volume of fluid drained intraoperatively was 846 mL  ± 67 mL. Pericardium was thickened in 50% of cases. Subxiphoid pericardiostomy was performed under local anaesthesia in 28 cases. No postoperative recurrence was observed; however 5 patients developed features of constrictive pericarditis. The relationship between pericardial thickness and development of pericardial constriction was statistically significant (p = 0.004). Conclusion. Subxiphoid pericardiostomy is a very effective way of treating massive pericardial effusion. Removing tube after adequate drainage (50 mL/day) and treatment of primary pathology are key to preventing recurrence. There is also a need to follow up patients to detect pericardial constriction especially those with thickened pericardium. PMID:27517082

  14. Nuclear Envelope Composition Determines the Ability of Neutrophil-type Cells to Passage through Micron-scale Constrictions*

    PubMed Central

    Rowat, Amy C.; Jaalouk, Diana E.; Zwerger, Monika; Ung, W. Lloyd; Eydelnant, Irwin A.; Olins, Don E.; Olins, Ada L.; Herrmann, Harald; Weitz, David A.; Lammerding, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophils are characterized by their distinct nuclear shape, which is thought to facilitate the transit of these cells through pore spaces less than one-fifth of their diameter. We used human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells as a model system to investigate the effect of nuclear shape in whole cell deformability. We probed neutrophil-differentiated HL-60 cells lacking expression of lamin B receptor, which fail to develop lobulated nuclei during granulopoiesis and present an in vitro model for Pelger-Huët anomaly; despite the circular morphology of their nuclei, the cells passed through micron-scale constrictions on similar timescales as scrambled controls. We then investigated the unique nuclear envelope composition of neutrophil-differentiated HL-60 cells, which may also impact their deformability; although lamin A is typically down-regulated during granulopoiesis, we genetically modified HL-60 cells to generate a subpopulation of cells with well defined levels of ectopic lamin A. The lamin A-overexpressing neutrophil-type cells showed similar functional characteristics as the mock controls, but they had an impaired ability to pass through micron-scale constrictions. Our results suggest that levels of lamin A have a marked effect on the ability of neutrophils to passage through micron-scale constrictions, whereas the unusual multilobed shape of the neutrophil nucleus is less essential. PMID:23355469

  15. A Multi-layered Protein Network Stabilizes the Escherichia coli FtsZ-ring and Modulates Constriction Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Jackson; Coltharp, Carla; Shtengel, Gleb; Yang, Xinxing; Hess, Harald; Xiao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The prokaryotic tubulin homolog, FtsZ, forms a ring-like structure (FtsZ-ring) at midcell. The FtsZ-ring establishes the division plane and enables the assembly of the macromolecular division machinery (divisome). Although many molecular components of the divisome have been identified and their interactions extensively characterized, the spatial organization of these proteins within the divisome is unclear. Consequently, the physical mechanisms that drive divisome assembly, maintenance, and constriction remain elusive. Here we applied single-molecule based superresolution imaging, combined with genetic and biophysical investigations, to reveal the spatial organization of cellular structures formed by four important divisome proteins in E. coli: FtsZ, ZapA, ZapB and MatP. We show that these interacting proteins are arranged into a multi-layered protein network extending from the cell membrane to the chromosome, each with unique structural and dynamic properties. Further, we find that this protein network stabilizes the FtsZ-ring, and unexpectedly, slows down cell constriction, suggesting a new, unrecognized role for this network in bacterial cell division. Our results provide new insight into the structure and function of the divisome, and highlight the importance of coordinated cell constriction and chromosome segregation. PMID:25848771

  16. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  17. Spontaneous rupture of the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, T. G.

    1977-01-01

    Fatal spontaneous rupture of the lower abdominal aorta in a previously healthy 61-year-old woman is reported; the possibility that she had the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:870895

  18. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... size and can usually be diagnosed early in fetal development, typically between the tenth and fourteenth weeks of ... organs at the abdominal wall opening late in fetal development may also contribute to organ injury. Intestinal damage ...

  19. Understanding noninguinal abdominal hernias in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Cabry, Robert J; Thorell, Erik; Heck, Keith; Hong, Eugene; Berkson, David

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal hernias are common with over 20 million hernia repairs performed worldwide. Inguinal hernias are the most common type of hernia. Inguinal and sports hernia have been discussed at length in recent literature, and therefore, they will not be addressed in this article. The noninguinal hernias are much less common but do occur, and knowledge of these hernias is important when assessing the athlete with abdominal pain. Approximately 25% of abdominal wall hernias are noninguinal, and new data show the order of frequency as umbilical, epigastric, incisional, femoral, and all others (i.e., Spigelian, obturator, traumatic). Return-to-play guidelines need to be tailored to the athlete and the needs of their sport. Using guidelines similar to abdominal strain injuries can be a starting point for the treatment plan. Laparoscopic repair is becoming more popular because of safety and efficacy, and it may lead to a more rapid return to play. PMID:24614421

  20. Magnetic Surgical Instruments for Robotic Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Leong, Florence; Garbin, Nicolo; Natali, Christian Di; Mohammadi, Alireza; Thiruchelvam, Dhan; Oetomo, Denny; Valdastri, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    This review looks at the implementation of magnetic-based approaches in surgical instruments for abdominal surgeries. As abdominal surgical techniques advance toward minimizing surgical trauma, surgical instruments are enhanced to support such an objective through the exploration of magnetic-based systems. With this design approach, surgical devices are given the capabilities to be fully inserted intraabdominally to achieve access to all abdominal quadrants, without the conventional rigid link connection with the external unit. The variety of intraabdominal surgical devices are anchored, guided, and actuated by external units, with power and torque transmitted across the abdominal wall through magnetic linkage. This addresses many constraints encountered by conventional laparoscopic tools, such as loss of triangulation, fulcrum effect, and loss/lack of dexterity for surgical tasks. Design requirements of clinical considerations to aid the successful development of magnetic surgical instruments, are also discussed.

  1. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    PubMed

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  2. Management of abdominal contusion in polytraumatized children.

    PubMed

    Canarelli, J P; Boboyono, J M; Ricard, J; Doidy, L; Collet, L M; Postel, J P

    1991-01-01

    Management of abdominal contusion in polytraumatized children is based on the conservative treatment of spleen and liver lesions when it is possible. Ultrasonography and CTScan can give a good evaluation of splenic, liver, pancreas or kidney lesions. In some cases, if the haemodynamic conditions are good, a non-operative treatment may be proposed. We report our experience of conservative management of intra abdominal lesions in children, about 91 cases in ten years. PMID:1869385

  3. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysmectomy in Renal Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jebara, Victor A.; Fabiani, Jean-Noël; Moulonguet-Deloris, L.; Acar, Christophe; Debauchez, Mathieu; Chachques, J.C.; Glotz, Denis; Duboust, Alain; Langanay, Thierry; Carpentier, Alain

    1990-01-01

    Because renal transplantation is allowing an increased number of patients to survive for prolonged periods, abdominal aortic aneurysms can be expected to occur with growing frequency in these patients. Surgical management of such cases involves the provision of allograft protection. To date, the literature contains 15 reports of abdominal aortic aneurysms in renal allograft recipients. We describe a 16th case and discuss the management of these patients. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1990;17:240-4) Images PMID:15227179

  4. Abdominal apoplexy resulting in small bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Le, Don; Guileyardo, Joseph; Casanova, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal apoplexy is a rare hemorrhagic condition involving the small arteries or veins within the abdominal cavity. A high degree of clinical suspicion, followed by appropriate diagnostic workup and therapeutic intervention, is critical, as nonoperative mortality approaches 100%. Contrary to most previously reported cases, which were associated with hemoperitoneum, we present a patient in which gastroduodenal artery dissection resulted in an organized retroperitoneal hematoma with local compression of the duodenum and subsequent bowel obstruction, resulting in vomiting, aspiration, and death. PMID:27695177

  5. Computed tomography of the postoperative abdominal aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, S.; Megibow, A.J.; Naidich, D.P.; Bosniak, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was performed on 46 patients who had undergone graft replacement of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Twelve post-operative complications were found in nine patients. They included hemorrhage, infection, anastomotic pseudoaneurysms, major vessel occlusion, postoperative pancreatitis, and others. The varied apperance of the normal postoperative graft is also presented. It is concluded that CT is a rapid, sensitive, and noninvasive method for detecting or excluding postoperative complications of abdominal aortic surgery.

  6. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug resistant infections such as

  7. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  8. Abdominal apoplexy resulting in small bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Le, Don; Guileyardo, Joseph; Casanova, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal apoplexy is a rare hemorrhagic condition involving the small arteries or veins within the abdominal cavity. A high degree of clinical suspicion, followed by appropriate diagnostic workup and therapeutic intervention, is critical, as nonoperative mortality approaches 100%. Contrary to most previously reported cases, which were associated with hemoperitoneum, we present a patient in which gastroduodenal artery dissection resulted in an organized retroperitoneal hematoma with local compression of the duodenum and subsequent bowel obstruction, resulting in vomiting, aspiration, and death.

  9. [Late primary abdominal pregnancy. Case report].

    PubMed

    Farías, Emigdio Torres; Gómez, Luis Guillermo Torres; Allegre, René Márquez; Higareda, Salvador Hernández

    2008-09-01

    Abdominal advanced pregnancy is an obstetric complication that put at risk maternal and fetal life. We report a case of advanced abdominal pregnancy with intact ovaries and fallopian tubes, without ureteroperitoneal fistulae and, late prenatal diagnosis, in a multiparous patient without risk factors, with alive newborn, and whose pregnancy was attended at Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad, Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia, Centro Medico Nacional de Occidente del IMSS, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

  10. Control of abdominal muscles by brain stem respiratory neurons in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Alan D.; Ezure, Kazuhisa; Suzuki, Ichiro

    1985-01-01

    The nature of the control of abdominal muscles by the brain stem respiratory neurons was investigated in decerebrate unanesthetized cats. First, it was determined which of the brain stem respiratory neurons project to the lumbar cord (from which the abdominal muscles receive part of their innervation), by stimulating the neurons monopolarly. In a second part of the study, it was determined if lumbar-projecting respiratory neurons make monosynaptic connections with abdominal motoneurons; in these experiments, discriminate spontaneous spikes of antidromically acivated expiratory (E) neurons were used to trigger activity from both L1 and L2 nerves. A large projection was observed from E neurons in the caudal ventral respiratory group to the contralateral upper lumber cord. However, cross-correlation experiments found only two (out of 47 neuron pairs tested) strong monosynaptic connections between brain stem neurons and abdominal motoneurons.

  11. Multidetector CT in emergency radiology: acute and generalized non-traumatic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Paolantonio, Pasquale; Rengo, Marco; Ferrari, Riccardo; Laghi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Multidetector CT (MDCT) is an imaging technique that provides otherwise unobtainable information in the diagnostic work-up of patients presenting with acute abdominal pain. A correct working diagnosis depends essentially on understanding the individual patient's clinical data and laboratory findings. In haemodynamically stable patients with acute severe and generalized abdominal pain, MDCT is now the preferred imaging test and gives invaluable diagnostic information, also in unstable patients after stabilization. In this descriptive review, we focus our attention on acute, severe and generalized or undifferentiated non-traumatic abdominal pain. The main differential diagnoses are acute pancreatitis, gastrointestinal perforation, ruptured abdominal aneurysm and acute mesenteric ischaemia. We will provide radiologist readers with a technical guide to optimize MDCT imaging protocols and list the major CT signs essential to reach a correct diagnosis and guide the best treatment. PMID:26689097

  12. 3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

  13. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  14. Effect of Pulsed Radiofrequency on Rat Sciatic Nerve Chronic Constriction Injury: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Duo-Yi; Meng, Lan; Ji, Nan; Luo, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) application to the dorsal root ganglia can reduce neuropathic pain (NP) in animal models, but the effect of PRF on damaged peripheral nerves has not been examined. We investigated the effect of PRF to the rat sciatic nerve (SN) on pain-related behavior and SN ultrastructure following chronic constriction injury (CCI). Methods: The analgesic effect was measured by hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL). Twenty rats with NP induced by ligating the common SN were then randomly divided into a PRF treatment group and a sham group. The contralateral SN served as a control. The MWT and TWL were determined again 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 days after the PRF or sham treatment. On day 14, ipsilateral and contralateral common SNs were excised and examined by electron microscopy. Results: Ipsilateral MWT was significantly reduced and TWL significantly shorter compared to the contralateral side 14 days after CCI (both P = 0.000). In the PRF group, MWT was significantly higher and TWL significantly longer 14 days after the PRF treatment compared to before PRF treatment (both P = 0.000), while no such difference was observed in the sham group (P > 0.05). Electron microscopy revealed extensive demyelination and collagen fiber formation in the ipsilateral SN of sham-treated rats but sparse demyelination and some nerve fiber regrowth in the PRF treatment group. Conclusions: Hyperalgesia is relieved, and ultrastructural damage ameliorated after direct PRF treatment to the SN in the CCI rat model of NP. PMID:25673460

  15. Differentiation of constrictive pericarditis from restrictive cardiomyopathy: The case for high-resolution dynamic tomographic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.M.; Otoadese, T.; Oren, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    The syndrome of constrictive pericarditis (CP) presents a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. This study was undertaken to determine whether cine computed tomography (CT), a cardiac imaging technique with excellent temporal and spatial resolution, can reliably demonstrate the unique abnormalities of pericardial anatomy and ventricular physiology present in patients with this condition. A second goal of this study was to determine whether the presence of diseased thickened pericardium, but itself, imparts cardiac impairment due to abnormalities of ventricular diastolic function. Twelve patients with CP suspected clinically, in whom invasive hemodynamic study was consistent with the diagnosis of CP, underwent cine CT. They were subdivided into Group 1 (CP, N = 5) and Group 2 (No CP, N = 7) based on histopathologic evaluation of tissue obtained at the time of surgery or autopsy. A third group consisted of asymptomatic patients with incidentally discovered thickened pericardium at the time of cine CT scanning: Group 3 (ThP, N = 7). Group 4 (Nl, N = 7) consisted of healthy volunteer subjects. Pericardial thickness measurements with cine CT clearly distinguished Group 1 (mean = 10 {+-} 2 mm) from Group 2 (mean = 2 {+-} 1 mm), with diagnostic accuracy of 100% compared to histopathological findings. In addition, patients in Group 1 had significantly more brisk early diastolic filling of both left and right ventricles than those in Group 2, which clearly distinguished all patients with and from all patients without CP. Patients in Group 3 had pericardial thicknesses similar to those in Group 1 (mean = 9 {+-} 1 mm, p = NS), but had patterns of diastolic ventricular filling that were nearly identical to Group 4 (NI).

  16. Flow structures and red blood cell dynamics in arteriole of dilated or constricted cross section.

    PubMed

    Gambaruto, Alberto M

    2016-07-26

    Vessel with 'circular' or 'star-shaped' cross sections are studied, representing respectively dilated or constricted cases where endothelial cells smoothly line or bulge into the lumen. Computational haemodynamics simulations are carried out on idealised periodic arteriole-sized vessels, with red blood cell 'tube' hematocrit value=24%. A further simulation of a single red blood cell serves for comparison purposes. The bulk motion of the red blood cells reproduces well-known effects, including the presence of a cell-free layer and the apparent shear-thinning non-Newtonian rheology. The velocity flow field is analysed in a Lagrangian reference frame, relative to any given red blood cell, hence removing the bulk coaxial motion and highlighting instead the complex secondary flow patterns. An aggregate formation becomes apparent, continuously rearranging and dynamic, brought about by the inter-cellular fluid mechanics interactions and the deformability properties of the cells. The secondary flow field induces a vacillating radial migration of the red blood cells. At different radial locations, the red blood cells express different residence times, orientation and shape. The shear stresses exerted by the flow on the vessel wall are influenced by the motion of red blood cells, despite the presence of the cell-free layer. Spatial (and temporal) variations of wall shear stress patters are observed, especially for the 'circular' vessel. The 'star-shaped' vessel bears considerable stress at the protruding endothelial cell crests, where the stress vectors are coaxially aligned. The bulging endothelial cells hence regularise the transmission of stresses on the vessel wall. PMID:26822224

  17. Intravascular pressure augments cerebral arterial constriction by inducing voltage-insensitive Ca2+ waves.

    PubMed

    Mufti, Rania E; Brett, Suzanne E; Tran, Cam Ha T; Abd El-Rahman, Rasha; Anfinogenova, Yana; El-Yazbi, Ahmed; Cole, William C; Jones, Peter P; Chen, S R Wayne; Welsh, Donald G

    2010-10-15

    This study examined whether elevated intravascular pressure stimulates asynchronous Ca(2+) waves in cerebral arterial smooth muscle cells and if their generation contributes to myogenic tone development. The endothelium was removed from rat cerebral arteries, which were then mounted in an arteriograph, pressurized (20-100 mmHg) and examined under a variety of experimental conditions. Diameter and membrane potential (V(M)) were monitored using conventional techniques; Ca(2+) wave generation and myosin light chain (MLC(20))/MYPT1 (myosin phosphatase targeting subunit) phosphorylation were assessed by confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis, respectively. Elevating intravascular pressure increased the proportion of smooth muscle cells firing asynchronous Ca(2+) waves as well as event frequency. Ca(2+) wave augmentation occurred primarily at lower intravascular pressures (<60 mmHg) and ryanodine, a plant alkaloid that depletes the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of Ca(2+), eliminated these events. Ca(2+) wave generation was voltage insensitive as Ca(2+) channel blockade and perturbations in extracellular [K(+)] had little effect on measured parameters. Ryanodine-induced inhibition of Ca(2+) waves attenuated myogenic tone and MLC(20) phosphorylation without altering arterial V(M). Thapsigargin, an SR Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor also attenuated Ca(2+) waves, pressure-induced constriction and MLC(20) phosphorylation. The SR-driven component of the myogenic response was proportionally greater at lower intravascular pressures and subsequent MYPT1 phosphorylation measures revealed that SR Ca(2+) waves facilitated pressure-induced MLC(20) phosphorylation through mechanisms that include myosin light chain phosphatase inhibition. Cumulatively, our findings show that mechanical stimuli augment Ca(2+) wave generation in arterial smooth muscle and that these transient events facilitate tone development particularly at lower intravascular pressures by providing a proportion of the Ca

  18. Role of alpha-1 adrenoceptor subtypes mediating constriction of the rabbit ear thermoregulatory microvasculature.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Silver, W P; Koman, L A; Strandhoy, J W; Rosencrance, E; Gordon, S; Smith, T L

    2000-01-01

    An acute in vivo preparation of the microvasculature of the rabbit ear was used to evaluate the functional role of alpha1 (alpha1)-adrenoceptor subtypes in thermoregulatory microcirculation. The effect of alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype blockade on phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction was assessed with the alpha1A, alpha1B, and alpha1D-adrenoceptor-selective antagonists 5-methyl-urapidil (10(-8) M), chloroethylclonidine (10(-5) M), and 8-[2-[4(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-8-azaspirol[4.5]deca ne-7,9-dione dihydrochloride (BMY7378) (10(-6) M), respectively. The results demonstrated that pretreatment of the ear microvasculature with 5-methyl-urapidil or BMY7378 shifted the phenylephrine concentration-response curve rightward and significantly changed the log of the phenylephrine concentration, causing half-maximum stimulation (EC50) in arterioles (p < 0.05). BMY7378 shifted the phenylephrine concentration-response curve of the arteriovenous anastomoses about 100-fold rightward (p < 0.05). All three alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists eliminated the vasoconstrictive effects of phenylephrine on venules. The results indicate that the ear microvasculature has a heterogenous distribution of alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes. The alpha1A and alpha1D-adrenoceptor subtypes appear to have a greater influence on constrictive function in arterioles, whereas the alpha1D-adrenoceptor is the dominant constrictor of arteriovenous anastomoses. In general, the alpha1-adrenoceptor does not play a major vasoconstrictor role in venules. Chloroethylclonidine, an irreversible alpha1B-adrenoceptor antagonist, induced contractile responses in the ear microvasculature, probably due to its alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist effects. This study extended our understanding of the adrenergic receptor control mechanisms of a cutaneous thermoregulatory end organ characterized by two parallel perfusion circuits providing nutritional and thermoregulatory functions. PMID:10716292

  19. Computation of backwater and discharge at width constrictions of heavily vegetated flood plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, V.R.; Board, J.W.; Colson, B.E.; Lee, F.N.; Druffel, Leroy

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, cooperated with the Federal Highway Administration and the State Highway Departments of Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana, to develop a proposed method for computing backwater and discharge at width constrictions of heavily vegetated flood plains. Data were collected at 20 single opening sites for 31 floods. Flood-plain width varied from 4 to 14 times the bridge opening width. The recurrence intervals of peak discharge ranged from a 2-year flood to greater than a 100-year flood, with a median interval of 6 years. Measured backwater ranged from 0.39 to 3.16 feet. Backwater computed by the present standard Geological Survey method averaged 29 percent less than the measured, and that computed by the currently used Federal Highway Administration method averaged 47 percent less than the measured. Discharge computed by the Survey method averaged 21 percent more then the measured. Analysis of data showed that the flood-plain widths and the Manning 's roughness coefficient are larger than those used to develop the standard methods. A method to more accurately compute backwater and discharge was developed. The difference between the contracted and natural water-surface profiles computed using standard step-backwater procedures is defined as backwater. The energy loss terms in the step-backwater procedure are computed as the product of the geometric mean of the energy slopes and the flow distance in the reach was derived from potential flow theory. The mean error was 1 percent when using the proposed method for computing backwater and 3 percent for computing discharge. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Flow structures and red blood cell dynamics in arteriole of dilated or constricted cross section.

    PubMed

    Gambaruto, Alberto M

    2016-07-26

    Vessel with 'circular' or 'star-shaped' cross sections are studied, representing respectively dilated or constricted cases where endothelial cells smoothly line or bulge into the lumen. Computational haemodynamics simulations are carried out on idealised periodic arteriole-sized vessels, with red blood cell 'tube' hematocrit value=24%. A further simulation of a single red blood cell serves for comparison purposes. The bulk motion of the red blood cells reproduces well-known effects, including the presence of a cell-free layer and the apparent shear-thinning non-Newtonian rheology. The velocity flow field is analysed in a Lagrangian reference frame, relative to any given red blood cell, hence removing the bulk coaxial motion and highlighting instead the complex secondary flow patterns. An aggregate formation becomes apparent, continuously rearranging and dynamic, brought about by the inter-cellular fluid mechanics interactions and the deformability properties of the cells. The secondary flow field induces a vacillating radial migration of the red blood cells. At different radial locations, the red blood cells express different residence times, orientation and shape. The shear stresses exerted by the flow on the vessel wall are influenced by the motion of red blood cells, despite the presence of the cell-free layer. Spatial (and temporal) variations of wall shear stress patters are observed, especially for the 'circular' vessel. The 'star-shaped' vessel bears considerable stress at the protruding endothelial cell crests, where the stress vectors are coaxially aligned. The bulging endothelial cells hence regularise the transmission of stresses on the vessel wall.

  1. An In-depth Study of Abdominal Injuries Sustained by Car Occupants in Frontal Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Frampton, Richard; Lenard, James; Compigne, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Currently, neither abdominal injury risk nor rear seat passenger safety is assessed in European frontal crash testing. The objective of this study was to provide real world in-depth analysis of the factors related to abdominal injury for belted front and rear seat occupants in frontal crashes. Rear occupants were significantly more at risk of AIS 2+ and 3+ abdominal injury, followed by front seat passengers and then drivers. This was still the case even after controlling for occupant age. Increasing age was separately identified as a factor related to increased abdominal injury risk in all seating positions. One exception to this trend concerned rear seated 15 to 19 year olds who sustained moderate to serious abdominal injury at almost the same rate as rear occupants aged 65+.No strong association was seen between AIS 2+ abdominal injury rates and gender. The majority of occupant body mass indices ranged from underweight to obese. Across that range, the AIS 2+ abdominal injury rates were very similar but a small number of very obese and extremely obese occupants outside of the range did exhibit noticeably higher rates. An analysis of variance in the rate of AIS 2+ abdominal injury with different restraint systems showed that simple belt systems, as used by most rear seat passengers, were the least protective. Increasing sophistication of the restraint system was related to lower rates of injury. The ANOVA also confirmed occupant age and crash severity as highly associated with abdominal injury risk. The most frequently injured abdominal organs for front seat occupants were the liver and spleen. Abdominal injury patterns for rear seat passengers were very different. While they also sustained significant injuries to solid organs, their rates of injury to the hollow organs (jejunum-ileum, mesentary, colon) were far higher even though the rate of fracture of two or more ribs did not differ significantly between seat positions. These results have implications for the

  2. Genes and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hinterseher, Irene; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Since first candidate gene studies were published 20 years ago, nearly 100 genetic association studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biologically relevant genes have been reported on AAA. The studies investigated SNPs in genes of the extracellular matrix, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and signaling pathways. Very few studies were large enough to draw firm conclusions and very few results could be replicated in another sample set. The more recent unbiased approaches are family-based DNA linkage studies and genome-wide genetic association studies, which have the potential of identifying the genetic basis for AAA, if appropriately powered and well-characterized large AAA cohorts are used. SNPs associated with AAA have already been identified in these large multicenter studies. One significant association was of a variant in a gene called CNTN3 which is located on chromosome 3p12.3. Two follow-up studies, however, could not replicate the association. Two other SNPs, which are located on chromosome 9p21 and 9q33 were replicated in other samples. The two genes with the strongest supporting evidence of contribution to the genetic risk for AAA are the CDKN2BAS gene, also known as ANRIL, which encodes an antisense RNA that regulates expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and DAB2IP, which encodes an inhibitor of cell growth and survival. Functional studies are now needed to establish the mechanisms by which these genes contribute to AAA pathogenesis. PMID:21146954

  3. Examinations of ascites from prophylactic drains can predict intra-abdominal infections after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Yukihiro; Kawano, Youichi; Urahashi, Taizen; Ihara, Yoshiyuki; Wakiya, Taiichi; Okada, Noriki; Yamada, Naoya; Hirata, Yuta; Tashiro, Masahisa; Mizuta, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Studies suggest that prophylactic intra-abdominal drains are unnecessary for cadaveric liver transplantation using whole liver grafts because there is no benefit from drainage. However, no studies have investigated on the necessity of prophylactic drains after LDLT using split-liver grafts or reduced-liver grafts, which may present a high risk of post-transplant intra-abdominal infections. This retrospective study investigated whether the ascitic data on POD 5 after LDLT can predict intra-abdominal infections and on the post-transplant management of prophylactic drains. Between March 2008 and March 2013, 90 LDLTs were performed. We assessed the number of ascitic cells, biochemical examinations, and cultivation tests at POD1 and POD5. The incidence rates of post-transplant intra-abdominal infections were 24.4%. The multivariate analysis showed that left lobe and S2 monosegment grafts were a significant risk factor for intra-abdominal infections (p = 0.006). The patients with intra-abdominal infections had significantly higher acsitic LDH levels and the positive rate of ascitic culture at POD5 in comparison with patients without infections (p < 0.001 and p = 0.014, respectively). LDLT using left lobe and S2 monosegment grafts yields a high risk for post-transplant intra-abdominal infections, and ascitic LDH and cultivation tests at POD5 via prophylactic drains can predict intra-abdominal infections. PMID:26152831

  4. Opposing roles of smooth muscle BK channels and ryanodine receptors in the regulation of nerve-evoked constriction of mesenteric resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Gayathri; Sonkusare, Swapnil K; Heppner, Thomas J; Nelson, Mark T

    2014-04-01

    In depolarized smooth muscle cells of pressurized cerebral arteries, ryanodine receptors (RyRs) generate "Ca2+ sparks" that activate large-conductance, Ca2+ -, and voltage-sensitive potassium (BK) channels to oppose pressure-induced (myogenic) constriction. Here, we show that BK channels and RyRs have opposing roles in the regulation of arterial tone in response to sympathetic nerve activation by electrical field stimulation. Inhibition of BK channels with paxilline increased both myogenic and nerve-induced constrictions of pressurized, resistance-sized mesenteric arteries from mice. Inhibition of RyRs with ryanodine increased myogenic constriction, but it decreased nerve-evoked constriction along with a reduction in the amplitude of nerve-evoked increases in global intracellular Ca2+. In the presence of L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDCC) antagonists, nerve stimulation failed to evoke a change in arterial diameter, and BK channel and RyR inhibitors were without effect, suggesting that nerve- induced constriction is dependent on activation of VDCCs. Collectively, these results indicate that BK channels and RyRs have different roles in the regulation of myogenic versus neurogenic tone: whereas BK channels and RyRs act in concert to oppose myogenic vasoconstriction, BK channels oppose neurogenic vasoconstriction and RyRs augment it. A scheme for neurogenic vasoregulation is proposed in which RyRs act in conjunction with VDCCs to regulate nerve-evoked constriction in mesenteric resistance arteries.

  5. Adenoviral-mediated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfer has a protective effect on sciatic nerve following constriction-induced spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Chou, An-Kuo; Yang, Ming-Chang; Tsai, Hung-Pei; Chai, Chee-Yin; Tai, Ming-Hong; Kwan, Aij-Li; Hong, Yi-Ren

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain due to peripheral nerve injury may be associated with abnormal central nerve activity. Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) can help attenuate neuropathic pain in different animal models of nerve injury. However, whether GDNF can ameliorate neuropathic pain in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) in constriction-induced peripheral nerve injury remains unknown. We investigated the therapeutic effects of adenoviral-mediated GDNF on neuropathic pain behaviors, microglial activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and programmed cell death in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) nerve injury animal model. In this study, neuropathic pain was produced by CCI on the ipsilateral SCDH. Mechanical allodynia was examined with von Frey filaments and thermal sensitivity was tested using a plantar test apparatus post-operatively. Target proteins GDNF-1, GDNFRa-1, MMP2, MMP9, p38, phospho-p38, ED1, IL6, IL1β, AIF, caspase-9, cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, PARP, cleaved PARP, SPECTRIN, cleaved SPECTRIN, Beclin-1, PKCσ, PKCγ, iNOS, eNOS and nNOS were detected. Microglial activity was measured by observing changes in immunoreactivity with OX-42. NeuN and TUNEL staining were used to reveal whether apoptosis was attenuated by GDNF. Results showed that administrating GDNF began to attenuate both allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7. CCI-rats were found to have lower GDNF and GDNFRa-1 expression compared to controls, and GDNF re-activated their expression. Also, GDNF significantly down-regulated CCI-induced protein expression except for MMP2, eNOS and nNOS, indicating that the protective action of GDNF might be associated with anti-inflammation and prohibition of microglia activation. Immunocytochemistry staining showed that GDNF reduced CCI-induced neuronal apoptosis. In sum, GDNF enhanced the neurotrophic effect by inhibiting microglia activation and cytokine production via p38 and PKC signaling. GDNF could be a good

  6. A Kinect™ camera based navigation system for percutaneous abdominal puncture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Deqiang; Luo, Huoling; Jia, Fucang; Zhang, Yanfang; Li, Yong; Guo, Xuejun; Cai, Wei; Fang, Chihua; Fan, Yingfang; Zheng, Huimin; Hu, Qingmao

    2016-08-01

    Percutaneous abdominal puncture is a popular interventional method for the management of abdominal tumors. Image-guided puncture can help interventional radiologists improve targeting accuracy. The second generation of Kinect™ was released recently, we developed an optical navigation system to investigate its feasibility for guiding percutaneous abdominal puncture, and compare its performance on needle insertion guidance with that of the first-generation Kinect™. For physical-to-image registration in this system, two surfaces extracted from preoperative CT and intraoperative Kinect™ depth images were matched using an iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm. A 2D shape image-based correspondence searching algorithm was proposed for generating a close initial position before ICP matching. Evaluation experiments were conducted on an abdominal phantom and six beagles in vivo. For phantom study, a two-factor experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of the operator’s skill and trajectory on target positioning error (TPE). A total of 36 needle punctures were tested on a Kinect™ for Windows version 2 (Kinect™ V2). The target registration error (TRE), user error, and TPE are 4.26  ±  1.94 mm, 2.92  ±  1.67 mm, and 5.23  ±  2.29 mm, respectively. No statistically significant differences in TPE regarding operator’s skill and trajectory are observed. Additionally, a Kinect™ for Windows version 1 (Kinect™ V1) was tested with 12 insertions, and the TRE evaluated with the Kinect™ V1 is statistically significantly larger than that with the Kinect™ V2. For the animal experiment, fifteen artificial liver tumors were inserted guided by the navigation system. The TPE was evaluated as 6.40  ±  2.72 mm, and its lateral and longitudinal component were 4.30  ±  2.51 mm and 3.80  ±  3.11 mm, respectively. This study demonstrates that the navigation accuracy of the proposed system is acceptable

  7. Internal abdominal hernia: Intestinal obstruction due to trans-mesenteric hernia containing transverse colon

    PubMed Central

    Crispín-Trebejo, Brenda; Robles-Cuadros, María Cristina; Orendo-Velásquez, Edwin; Andrade, Felipe P.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Internal abdominal hernias are infrequent but an increasing cause of bowel obstruction still often underdiagnosed. Among adults its usual causes are congenital anomalies of intestinal rotation, postsurgical iatrogenic, trauma or infection diseases. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the case of a 63-year-old woman with history of chronic constipation. The patient was hospitalized for two days with acute abdominal pain, abdominal distension and inability to eliminate flatus. The X-ray and abdominal computerized tomography scan (CT scan) showed signs of intestinal obstruction. Exploratory laparotomy performed revealed a trans-mesenteric hernia containing part of the transverse colon. The intestine was viable and resection was not necessary. Only the hernia was repaired. DISCUSSION Internal trans-mesenteric hernia constitutes a rare type of internal abdominal hernia, corresponding from 0.2 to 0.9% of bowel obstructions. This type carries a high risk of strangulation and even small hernias can be fatal. This complication is specially related to trans-mesenteric hernias as it tends to volvulize. Unfortunately, the clinical diagnosis is rather difficult. CONCLUSION Trans-mesenteric internal abdominal hernia may be asymptomatic for many years because of its nonspecific symptoms. The role of imaging test is relevant but still does not avoid the necessity of exploratory surgery when clinical features are uncertain. PMID:24880799

  8. The relationships between intra-abdominal echogenicity, cardiometabolic risk factors and physical performance in obese children.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji Won; Lee, Nam-Gi; Kim, Hee-Jung; Cho, Hyo-Min; You, Joshua H

    2014-01-01

    While the abdominal adipose tissue has been identified as an important pathomarker for the cardiometabolic syndrome in adults, the relationships between the cardiometabolic risk factors and abdominal adipose morphology or physical performance levels have not been examined in children with obesity. Therefore, the specific aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between risk factors (BMI and physical activity levels and abdominal fat layers including subcutaneous, intra-abdominal preperitoneal and mesenteric fat thickness in children with obesity. 30 children with obesity (mean ± SD = 10.0 ± 4.5 yrs; 9 girls; BMI > 20) underwent physical performance (curl-ups, sit and reach, push-ups, and a 400-m run), ultrasound measurement of thickness of fat composition of the abdomen, blood pressure, oxygen consumption. Pearson correlation analysis showed significant correlations, ranging from -0.523- 0.898 between the intra-abdominal adipose tissue thickness, cardiometabolic risk factors (BMI, blood pressure, heart rate), and the curl-up physical performance test. In conclusion, the present study provides a compelling evidence that the intra-abdominal adipose tissue morphological characteristics were associated with BMI, physical performance, and most importantly cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure and heart rate), which eventually contribute to the development of cardiometabolic syndrome in adulthood.

  9. Predictors of Abdominal Pain in Depressed Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Srinath, Arvind I.; Goyal, Alka; Zimmerman, Lori A.; Newara, Melissa C.; Kirshner, Margaret A.; McCarthy, F. Nicole; Keljo, David; Binion, David; Bousvaros, Athos; DeMaso, David R.; Youk, Ada; Szigethy, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have high rates of abdominal pain. The study aims were to (1) Evaluate biological and psychological correlates of abdominal pain in depressed youth with IBD, (2) Determine predictors of abdominal pain in Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods 765 patients ages 9–17 with IBD seen over 3 years at two sites were screened for depression. Depressed youth completed comprehensive assessments for abdominal pain, psychological (depression and anxiety), and biological (IBD-related, through disease activity indices and laboratory values) realms. Results 217 patients with IBD (161 CD, 56 UC) were depressed. 163 (120 CD, 43 UC) patients had complete API scores. In CD, abdominal pain was associated with depression (r=0.33; p<0.001), diarrhea (r=0.34; p=0.001), ESR (r=0.22; p=0.02), low albumin (r=0.24; p=.01), weight loss (r=0.33; p=0.001), and abdominal tenderness (r=0.38, p=0.002). A multivariate model with these significant correlates represented 32% of the variance in pain. Only depression (p=0.03), weight loss (p=0.04), and abdominal tenderness (p=0.01) predicted pain for CD patients. In UC, pain was associated with depression (r=0.46; p=0.002) and nocturnal stools (r=.32; p=.046). In the multivariate model with these significant correlates 23% of the variance was explained, and only depression (p=0.02) predicted pain. Conclusions The psychological state of pediatric patients with IBD may increase the sensitivity to abdominal pain. Thus, screening for and treating comorbid depression may prevent excessive medical testing and unnecessary escalation of IBD medications. PMID:24983975

  10. The Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Training on Abdominal Strength, Endurance, and Selected Anthropometric Measures

    PubMed Central

    Porcari, John P.; Miller, Jennifer; Cornwell, Kelly; Foster, Carl; Gibson, Mark; McLean, Karen; Kernozek, Tom

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of self-administered neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on changes in strength, endurance, selected anthropometric measures, and subject’s perceived shape and satisfaction of the abdominal wall. Twenty-four adults (experimental group) stimulated their abdominals 5 days per week (20-40 minutes per session) for 8 weeks and refrained from engaging in any additional exercise during the study. A control group (N=16) refrained from exercising the abdominals or engaging in any other exercise training during the study. Subjects were tested at the beginning, mid-point, and end of the study. Isometric strength of the abdominal muscles was tested using a isokinetic dynamometer, endurance was measured using the ACSM curl-up test, abdominal circumference was measured using a steel tape measure, and body shape and satisfaction were assessed via questionnaire. The stimulation group had a 58% increase in abdominal strength, whereas the control group did not change. The stimulation group also had a 100% increase in abdominal endurance versus a 28% increase in the control group. Waist circumference decreased by of 3.5 cm in the stimulation group compared to no significant change in the control group. All 24 subjects in the stimulation group felt that their midsections were more “toned” and “firmed” and 13/24 (54%) felt that their posture had improved as a result of the stimulation. None of the control group subjects reported changes in these parameters. There were no significant differences in body weight, BMI, or skinfold thickness over the course of the study in either group. NMES, as used in the current study, resulted in significant improvements in the muscular strength and endurance of the abdominal region, as well as subject’s perceived shape and satisfaction of the mid-section. Key Points Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) was effective in increasing muscle strength and endurance All subjects perceived their abdominal muscles to be

  11. The nitroxyl donor, Angeli's salt, reduces chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Longhi-Balbinot, Daniela T; Rossaneis, Ana C; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Bertozzi, Mariana M; Cunha, Fernando Q; Alves-Filho, José C; Cunha, Thiago M; Peron, Jean P S; Miranda, Katrina M; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2016-08-25

    Chronic pain is a major health problem worldwide. We have recently demonstrated the analgesic effect of the nitroxyl donor, Angeli's salt (AS) in models of inflammatory pain. In the present study, the acute and chronic analgesic effects of AS was investigated in chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain in mice. Acute (7th day after CCI) AS treatment (1 and 3 mg/kg; s.c.) reduced CCI-induced mechanical, but not thermal hyperalgesia. The acute analgesic effect of AS was prevented by treatment with 1H-[1,2, 4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor), KT5823 (an inhibitor of protein kinase G [PKG]) or glibenclamide (GLB, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker). Chronic (7-14 days after CCI) treatment with AS (3 mg/kg, s.c.) promoted a sustained reduction of CCI-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Acute AS treatment reduced CCI-induced spinal cord allograft inflammatory factor 1 (known as Iba-1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and ST2 receptor mRNA expression. Chronic AS treatment reduced CCI-induced spinal cord glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Iba-1, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-33 (IL-33) and ST2 mRNA expression. Chronic treatment with AS (3 mg/kg, s.c.) did not alter aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, urea or creatinine plasma levels. Together, these results suggest that the acute analgesic effect of AS depends on activating the cGMP/PKG/ATP-sensitive potassium channel signaling pathway. Moreover, chronic AS diminishes CCI-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia by reducing the activation of spinal cord microglia and astrocytes, decreasing TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-33 cytokines expression. This spinal cord immune modulation was more prominent in the chronic treatment with AS. Thus, nitroxyl limits CCI-induced neuropathic pain by reducing spinal cord glial cells activation. PMID:27287419

  12. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  13. Methods of Patient Warming during Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Li; Zheng, Hong; Jia, Feng-Ju; Wang, Hui-Qin; Liu, Li; Sun, Qi; An, Meng-Ying; Zhang, Xiu-Hua; Wen, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Background Keeping abdominal surgery patients warm is common and warming methods are needed in power outages during natural disasters. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost, low-power warming methods for maintaining normothermia in abdominal surgery patients. Methods Patients (n = 160) scheduled for elective abdominal surgery were included in this prospective clinical study. Five warming methods were applied: heated blood transfusion/fluid infusion vs. unheated; wrapping patients vs. not wrapping; applying moist dressings, heated or not; surgical field rinse heated or not; and applying heating blankets or not. Patients’ nasopharyngeal and rectal temperatures were recorded to evaluate warming efficacy. Significant differences were found in mean temperatures of warmed patients compared to those not warmed. Results When we compared temperatures of abdominal surgery patient groups receiving three specific warming methods with temperatures of control groups not receiving these methods, significant differences were revealed in temperatures maintained during the surgeries between the warmed groups and controls. Discussion The value of maintaining normothermia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia is accepted. Three effective economical and practically applicable warming methods are combined body wrapping and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and warmed surgical rinse fluid, with or without heating blanket. These methods are practically applicable when low-cost method is indeed needed. PMID:22808045

  14. Hydatidemesis: a bizarre presentation of abdominal hydatidosis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S; Mishra, M C; Kriplani, A K; Kapur, B M

    1993-06-01

    A 31 year old male presented with high grade fever and abdominal pain of 20 days duration. At the age of 9 he had been operated on for a solitary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst and had been asymptomatic until the age of 21 when he sustained a blunt injury to the abdomen. An exploratory laparotomy for splenic rupture revealed multiple intra-abdominal hydatid cysts, which were removed. The patient remained well until the present episode. An ultrasound examination revealed multiple intra-abdominal hydatid cysts. Seven days after admission, the patient developed hydatidemesis (hydatid cysts and membranes in the vomitus) and hydatidenteria (passage of hydatid membranes in the stools), and his pain and fever subsided. A Gastrografin study and a computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed hydatid cysts communicating with the stomach and duodenum. In view of his disseminated recurrent abdominal hydatidosis, he was treated with high dose, long-term albendazole along with regular follow up. This is the first documented case of disseminated abdominal hydatidosis presenting with a cystogastric fistula and hydatidemesis.

  15. SU-E-J-190: Development of Abdominal Compression & Respiratory Guiding System Using Gas Pressure Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S; Cho, M; Kim, K; Shin, D; Suh, T; Kim, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Abdominal compression is known to be effective but, often makes external-marker-based monitoring of breathing motion not feasible. In this study, we developed and evaluated a system that enables both abdominal compression and monitoring of residual abdominal motion simultaneously. The system can also provide visual-biofeedback capability. Methods: The system developed consists of a compression belt, an abdominal motion monitoring sensor (gas pressure sensor) and a visual biofeedback device. The compression belt was designed to be able to compress the frontal side of the abdomen. The pressure level of the belt is controlled by air volume and monitored in real time using the gas pressure sensor. The system displays not only the real-time monitoring curve but also a guiding respiration model (e.g., a breath hold or shallow breathing curve) simultaneously on the head mounted display to help patients keep their breathing pattern as consistent as possible. Three healthy volunteers were enrolled in this pilot study and respiratory signals (pressure variations) were obtained both with and without effective abdominal compression to investigate the feasibility of the developed system. Two guidance patterns, breath hold and shallow breathing, were tested. Results: All volunteers showed smaller abdominal motion with compression (about 40% amplitude reduction compared to without compression). However, the system was able to monitor residual abdominal motion for all volunteers. Even under abdominal compression, in addition, it was possible to make the subjects successfully follow the guide patterns using the visual biofeedback system. Conclusion: The developed abdominal compression & respiratory guiding system was feasible for residual abdominal motion management. It is considered that the system can be used for a respiratory motion involved radiation therapy while maintaining the merit of abdominal compression. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R

  16. Changes in the expression of voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.3, Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 in rat trigeminal ganglia following chronic constriction injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenhua; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yuanyin; Wang, Liecheng; Wang, Xuxia

    2016-08-17

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), especially the tetrodotoxin-sensitive Nav1.3 and Nav1.7, and the tetrodotoxin-resistant Nav1.8 and Nav1.9, have been implicated in acute and chronic neuropathic pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of VGSC Nav1.3, Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 after nerve injury and their roles in the development of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). We used the infraorbital nerve-chronic constriction injury model of TN in the rat. The time course of changes in the mechanical pain threshold was examined. In addition, real-time PCR and double immunofluorescence staining of VGSC α subunits were used to evaluate messenger RNA and protein expression, respectively, in the trigeminal ganglion. Behavioral tests showed that the mechanical pain threshold decreased significantly 4-42 days after surgery and reached the lowest observed value by day 12. Compared with sham-operated controls, we found that trigeminal ganglion in rats subjected to an infraorbital nerve-chronic constriction injury showed upregulation of Nav1.3 and downregulation of Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 messenger RNA and protein levels. Our findings suggest that VGSC may participate in the regulation of TN. PMID:27327156

  17. Maximum opening of the mouth by mouth prop during dental procedures increases the risk of upper airway constriction

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroshi; Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yamazaki, Shinya; Suzuki, Yosuke

    2010-01-01

    From a retrospective evaluation of data on accidents and deaths during dental procedures, it has been shown that several patients who refused dental treatment died of asphyxia during dental procedures. We speculated that forcible maximum opening of the mouth by using a mouth prop triggers this asphyxia by affecting the upper airway. Therefore, we assessed the morphological changes of the upper airway following maximal opening of the mouth. In 13 healthy adult volunteers, the sagittal diameter of the upper airway on lateral cephalogram was measured between the two conditions; closed mouth and maximally open mouth. The dyspnea in each state was evaluated by a visual analog scale. In one subject, a computed tomograph (CT) was taken to assess the three-dimensional changes in the upper airway. A significant difference was detected in the mean sagittal diameter of the upper airway following use of the prop (closed mouth: 18.5 ± 3.8 mm, maximally open mouth: 10.4 ± 3.0 mm). All subjects indicated upper airway constriction and significant dyspnea when their mouth was maximally open. Although a CT scan indicated upper airway constriction when the mouth was maximally open, muscular compensation was admitted. Our results further indicate that the maximal opening of the mouth narrows the upper airway diameter and leads to dyspnea. The use of a prop for the patient who has communication problems or poor neuromuscular function can lead to asphyxia. When the prop is used for patient refusal in dentistry, the respiratory condition should be monitored strictly, and it should be kept in mind that the “sniffing position” is effective for avoiding upper airway constriction. Practitioners should therefore consider applying not only systematic desensitization, but also general anesthesia to the patient who refuses treatment, because the safety of general anesthesia has advanced, and general anesthesia may be safer than the use of a prop and restraints. PMID:20526442

  18. Psychosocial factors and childhood recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Boey, Christopher Chiong-Meng; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2002-12-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain in children is not a single condition but a description of a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, some of which fit into a definite pattern, such as the irritable bowel syndrome, while others do not. Organic disorders may be present, but in the majority of children they cannot be detected. Although children with recurrent abdominal pain do not generally have psychological or psychiatric illness, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that psychosocial stress plays an important role in this condition. This review will look into some of this evidence. The precise pathophysiology that results in abdominal pain is still not clearly understood, but the current belief is that visceral hypersensitivity or hyperalgesia and changes in the brain-gut axis linking the central and enteric nervous systems are important mechanisms. PMID:12423267

  19. Thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Toribio, R E; Kohn, C W; Lawrence, A E; Hardy, J; Hutt, J A

    1999-05-01

    A 5-year-old Quarter Horse mare was examined because of lethargy, fever, and weight loss of 1 month's duration. Thoracic auscultation revealed decreased lung sounds cranioventrally. Thoracic ultrasonography revealed bilateral anechoic areas with hyperechoic strands, consistent with pleural effusion and fibrin tags. A large amount of free fluid was evident during abdominal ultrasonography. Abnormalities included anemia, hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Thoracic radiography revealed alveolar infiltrates in the cranial and caudoventral lung fields. A cavitary mass, consistent with an abscess, could be seen caudodorsal to the crura of the diaphragm. Ultrasonographic evaluation of this area revealed a hypoechoic mass with septations. Bilateral thoracocentesis was performed. Bacterial culture of the pleural fluid did not yield growth, but Blastomyces dermatitidis was isolated from pleural fluid, abdominal fluid, and an aspirate of the abscess. The mare was euthanatized, and a diagnosis of thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis was confirmed at necropsy. PMID:10319179

  20. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal cysts in children].

    PubMed

    Józsa, Gergő; Mohay, Gabriella; Pintér, András; Vástyán, Attila

    2015-09-13

    19 children were diagnosed with abdominal cysts of different origin in the Surgical Unit of the Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Pécs, Hungary between 2010 and 2013. The authors discuss the details of representative cases of a parovarial cyst, an intestinal duplication, and an omental cyst with emphasis on the clinical symptoms, diagnostic tools, and surgical interventions. The authors conclude that abdominal cysts often cause mild symptoms only, and they are discovered accidentally by ultrasound imaging performed for other reasons. In some cases, the cyst can cause severe complaints or even acute abdomen requiring emergency surgery. Laporoscopy may be a valuable method both in diagnosis and surgical therapy. Abdominal CT or MRI are not required in the majority of the patients.

  1. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter and Visceral Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Henry S.; Gasevic, Danijela; Liang, Zhe; Frediani, Jennifer K.; Torres, William E.; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Lin, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background In the context of increasing obesity prevalence, the relationship between large visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is unclear. In a clinical sample of severely obese women (mean body mass index [BMI], 46 kg/m2) with fasting normoglycemia (n=40) or dysglycemia (impaired fasting glucose+diabetes; n=20), we sought to determine the usefulness of anthropometric correlates of VAT and associations with dysglycemia. Methods VAT volume was estimated using multi-slice computer tomography; anthropometric surrogates included sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), waist circumference (WC) and BMI. Insulin sensitivity (Si), and beta-cell dysfunction, measured by insulin secretion (AIRg) and the disposition index (DI), were determined by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Results Compared to fasting normoglycemic women, individuals with dysglycemia had greater VAT (P<0.001) and SAD (P=0.04), but BMI, total adiposity and Si were similar. VAT was inversely associated with AIRg and DI after controlling for ancestry, Si, and total adiposity (standardized beta, −0.32 and −0.34, both P<0.05). In addition, SAD (beta=0.41, P=0.02) was found to be a better estimate of VAT volume than WC (beta=0.32, P=0.08) after controlling for covariates. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that VAT volume, followed by SAD, outperformed WC and BMI in identifying dysglycemic participants. Conclusions Increasing VAT is associated with beta-cell dysfunction and dysglycemia in very obese women. In the presence of severe obesity, SAD is a simple surrogate of VAT, and an indicator of glucose dysregulation. PMID:23408092

  2. Ductal constriction during dexamethasone treatment in an anti-SSA-antibody-exposed fetus with signs of myocardial inflammation.

    PubMed

    Talemal, Lauren; Olivieri, Laura; Krishnan, Anita

    2016-06-01

    This report describes the clinical course and multi-modality imaging findings in an anti-SSA-antibody-exposed fetus with suspected myocardial inflammation. Postnatal cardiac MRI - using fast acquisition, free-breathing with feed-and-swaddle technique - was used to evaluate for myocardial fibrosis/inflammation. This is the first published report, to our knowledge, of ductal constriction temporally associated with oral dexamethasone therapy in an anti-SSA-antibody-exposed fetus and of the use of this unique postnatal MRI protocol in this setting. PMID:27087593

  3. Enabling New Modes of Reactivity via Constrictive Binding in a Supramolecular-Assembly-Catalyzed Aza-Prins Cyclization.

    PubMed

    Kaphan, David M; Toste, F Dean; Bergman, Robert G; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2015-07-29

    Supramolecular assembly 1 catalyzes a bimolecular aza-Prins cyclization featuring an unexpected transannular 1,5-hydride transfer. This reaction pathway, which is promoted by constrictive binding within the supramolecular cavity of 1, is kinetically disfavored in the absence of 1, as evidenced by the orthogonal reactivity observed in bulk solution. Mechanistic investigation through kinetic analysis and isotopic labeling studies indicates that the rate-limiting step of the transformation is the encapsulation of a transient iminium ion and supports the proposed 1,5-hydride transfer mechanism. This represents a rare example of such an extreme divergence of product selectivity observed within a catalytic metal-ligand supramolecular enzyme mimic.

  4. Office-based ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Blois, Beau

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the efficacy of an office-based, family physician–administered ultrasound examination to screen for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Design A prospective observational study. Consecutive patients were approached by nonphysician staff. Setting Rural family physician offices in Grand Forks and Revelstoke, BC. Participants The Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery screening recommendations for AAA were used to help select patients who were at risk of AAA. All men 65 years of age or older were included. Women 65 years of age or older were included if they were current smokers or had diabetes, hypertension, a history of coronary artery disease, or a family history of AAA. Main outcome measures A focused “quick screen,” which measured the maximal diameter of the abdominal aorta using point-of-care ultrasound technology, was performed in the office by a resident physician trained in emergency ultrasonography. Each patient was then booked for a criterion standard scan (ie, a conventional abdominal ultrasound scan performed by a technician and interpreted by a radiologist). The maximal abdominal aortic diameter measured by ultrasound in the office was compared with that measured by the criterion standard method. The time to screen each patient was recorded. Results Forty-five patients were included in data analysis; 62% of participants were men. The mean age was 73 years. The mean pairwise difference between the office-based ultrasound scan and the criterion standard scan was not statistically significant. The mean absolute difference between the 2 scans was 0.20 cm (95% CI 0.15 to 0.25 cm). Correlation between the scans was 0.81. The office-based ultrasound scan had both a sensitivity and a specificity of 100%. The mean time to screen each patient was 212 seconds (95% CI 194 to 230 seconds). Conclusion Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening can be safely performed in the office by family physicians who are trained to use point

  5. Decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, E.; Malbrain, M.; Nesbitt, I.; Cohen, J.; Kaloiani, V.; Ivatury, R.; Mone, M.; Debergh, D.; Björck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of decompressive laparotomy on outcomes in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome has been poorly investigated. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to describe the effect of decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome on organ function and outcomes. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in adult patients who underwent decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. The primary endpoints were 28‐day and 1‐year all‐cause mortality. Changes in intra‐abdominal pressure (IAP) and organ function, and laparotomy‐related morbidity were secondary endpoints. Results Thirty‐three patients were included in the study (20 men). Twenty‐seven patients were surgical admissions treated for abdominal conditions. The median (i.q.r.) Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 26 (20–32). Median IAP was 23 (21–27) mmHg before decompressive laparotomy, decreasing to 12 (9–15), 13 (8–17), 12 (9–15) and 12 (9–14) mmHg after 2, 6, 24 and 72 h. Decompressive laparotomy significantly improved oxygenation and urinary output. Survivors showed improvement in organ function scores, but non‐survivors did not. Fourteen complications related to the procedure developed in eight of the 33 patients. The abdomen could be closed primarily in 18 patients. The overall 28‐day mortality rate was 36 per cent (12 of 33), which increased to 55 per cent (18 patients) at 1 year. Non‐survivors were no different from survivors, except that they tended to be older and on mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Decompressive laparotomy reduced IAP and had an immediate effect on organ function. It should be considered in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome. PMID:26891380

  6. Different pathophysiology underlying animal models of fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain: comparison of reserpine-induced myalgia and chronic constriction injury rats.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Yukinori; Takahashi, Masayasu; Noto, Takahisa; Sekizawa, Toshihiro; Oe, Tomoya; Yoshimi, Eiji; Tamaki, Keisuke; Shimizu, Yasuaki

    2012-01-01

    The reserpine-induced myalgia (RIM) rat manifests fibromyalgia-like chronic pain symptoms. The present study explored the pathophysiology underlying the pain symptoms in the RIM rat and the chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat, an animal model of neuropathic pain as a reference. Nerve tissue samples were collected from the nociception-tested animals for pathological examinations. Additionally, the therapeutic efficacy of a sodium channel blocker mexiletine was assessed in both rats. A slight vacuolization in the substantia nigra (SN) occurred in some of the RIM rats without any other histopathological changes in the brain or peripheral neurons. All the RIM rats, with or without vacuolization, showed hypersensitivity to tactile, muscle pressure, and cold stimuli. In the CCI rat, neurodegenerative changes were apparent in the sciatic nerve and the spinal cord only. CCI rats displayed muscle hyperalgesia in addition to tactile and cold allodynia. Pharmacotherapy with mexiletine did not attenuate the pain in the RIM rat, although it was effective in the CCI rat. Taken together, it is not likely that pain symptoms in RIM rats are caused by degenerative changes at the level of primary afferents and spinal cord, as is the case for CCI rats. The significance of the vacuolization in the SN is less clear at present because of the minor extent of the change and the lack of correlation with nociceptive sensitivity. The pain symptoms in RIM rats could be associated with dysfunction of biogenic amines-mediated CNS pain control even without apparent pathologies in the nervous system. PMID:21945299

  7. Effects of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Stigma Extract and its Active Constituent Crocin on Neuropathic Pain Responses in a Rat Model of Chronic Constriction Injury.

    PubMed

    Safakhah, Hossein Ali; Taghavi, Tahereh; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Sokhanvar, Mina; Mohebbi, Narges; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its main constituent crocin on neuropathic pain behavioral responses induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats. Adult male Wistar rats (200 to 250 g) were randomly assigned into 5 groups: Sham + saline, CCI + saline, CCI+ saffron (30 mg/kg), CCI + crocin (15 mg/kg) and CCI + crocin (30 mg/kg). CCI was induced by applying 4 loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve. Two weeks after nerve lesion, injections of saline, saffron or crocin were started and continued until 26(th) day post-surgery. Pain behavioral responses including mechanical allodynia (von Frey filament testing) and thermal hyperalgesia were measured in 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, and 40(th) days after CCI. CCI significantly increased pain behavioral responses. Saffron and crocin (30 mg/kg) decreased thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia on day 26, and this effect continued until the day 40. Crocin at lower dose (15 mg/kg) was ineffective. These findings indicate that treatment of saffron and crocin after CCI may have a therapeutic effect against neuropathic pain, suggesting that these substances may offer new strategies for the treatment of this highly debilitating condition. PMID:27610166

  8. Effects of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Stigma Extract and its Active Constituent Crocin on Neuropathic Pain Responses in a Rat Model of Chronic Constriction Injury.

    PubMed

    Safakhah, Hossein Ali; Taghavi, Tahereh; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Sokhanvar, Mina; Mohebbi, Narges; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its main constituent crocin on neuropathic pain behavioral responses induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats. Adult male Wistar rats (200 to 250 g) were randomly assigned into 5 groups: Sham + saline, CCI + saline, CCI+ saffron (30 mg/kg), CCI + crocin (15 mg/kg) and CCI + crocin (30 mg/kg). CCI was induced by applying 4 loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve. Two weeks after nerve lesion, injections of saline, saffron or crocin were started and continued until 26(th) day post-surgery. Pain behavioral responses including mechanical allodynia (von Frey filament testing) and thermal hyperalgesia were measured in 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, and 40(th) days after CCI. CCI significantly increased pain behavioral responses. Saffron and crocin (30 mg/kg) decreased thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia on day 26, and this effect continued until the day 40. Crocin at lower dose (15 mg/kg) was ineffective. These findings indicate that treatment of saffron and crocin after CCI may have a therapeutic effect against neuropathic pain, suggesting that these substances may offer new strategies for the treatment of this highly debilitating condition.

  9. Effects of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Stigma Extract and its Active Constituent Crocin on Neuropathic Pain Responses in a Rat Model of Chronic Constriction Injury

    PubMed Central

    Safakhah, Hossein Ali; Taghavi, Tahereh; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Sokhanvar, Mina; Mohebbi, Narges; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its main constituent crocin on neuropathic pain behavioral responses induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats. Adult male Wistar rats (200 to 250 g) were randomly assigned into 5 groups: Sham + saline, CCI + saline, CCI+ saffron (30 mg/kg), CCI + crocin (15 mg/kg) and CCI + crocin (30 mg/kg). CCI was induced by applying 4 loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve. Two weeks after nerve lesion, injections of saline, saffron or crocin were started and continued until 26th day post-surgery. Pain behavioral responses including mechanical allodynia (von Frey filament testing) and thermal hyperalgesia were measured in 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, and 40th days after CCI. CCI significantly increased pain behavioral responses. Saffron and crocin (30 mg/kg) decreased thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia on day 26, and this effect continued until the day 40. Crocin at lower dose (15 mg/kg) was ineffective. These findings indicate that treatment of saffron and crocin after CCI may have a therapeutic effect against neuropathic pain, suggesting that these substances may offer new strategies for the treatment of this highly debilitating condition. PMID:27610166

  10. An abdominal extraskeletal osteosarcoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WU, ZHIMING; CHU, XIUFENG; MENG, XINGCHENG; XU, CHAOYANG

    2013-01-01

    Primary abdominal extraskeletal osteosarcoma (EOS) is a rare carcinoma. The present study reports a case of a primary abdominal EOS involving the greater omentum and also presents a review of the literature on the etiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, pathological features, treatment and prognosis of the disease. The patient in the present study underwent laparoscopic surgery. A pathological examination revealed that the tumor tissues contained malignant and primitive spindle cells with varying amounts of neoplastic osteoid and osseous or cartilaginous tissue. The post-operative follow-up appointments were scheduled at three-month intervals for two years. The tumor recurred three months after the surgery. PMID:24137451

  11. Acellular dermal matrix in abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Ronald P

    2011-09-01

    Abdominal wall reconstruction is a complex and challenging surgical undertaking. While permanent prosthetic mesh is considered the gold standard for minimizing hernia recurrence, placement of synthetic mesh is sometimes imprudent due to contamination or risk of infection. Acellular dermal matrices (ADM) offer an exciting biologic alternative. This article provides a historical perspective on the evolution of complex ventral hernia repair leading up to and including the placement of ADM, an explanation of the biology of ADM as it relates to ventral hernia repair, and a description of the current indications, techniques, benefits, and shortcomings of its use in the abdominal wall.

  12. [Penetrating abdominal wounds. Apropos of 330 cases].

    PubMed

    Nejjar, M; Bennani, S; Zerouali, O N

    1991-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal wounds are frequent and serious. 330 cases have been treated in the Department of Emergencies and visceral Surgery at Averroes Hospital of Casablanca from 1980 to 1990. The predominance of male sex is noted, and these wounds are always the result of aggression by white arm. All patients have been operated, the white laparotomy rate is of 36%. The classic interventionist attitude is still recommended in spite of this high rate, because our present conditions can't permit us a rigorous watching. According to abdominal lesions, the different interventions are reviewed, and their indications are detailed. PMID:1960187

  13. [Abdominal migraine as a cause of chronic recurrent abdominal pain in a 9-years-old girl--case report].

    PubMed

    Kwiecień, Jarosław; Piasecki, Leszek; Kasner, Jacek; Karczewska, Krystyna

    2005-08-01

    Abdominal migraine is a rarely recognized functional intestinal disorder, manifesting as recurrent paroxysmal abdominal pain of neurogenic origin. The authors describe the 9-years old girl referred to the hospital because of chronic paroxysmal abdominal pain. She did not improve after medication used commonly in functional abdominal disorders (drotaverine, mebeverine, trimebutine). On the ground of various investigations organic causes of abdominal pain were excluded. Carefully completed anamnesis, as well as precise description of the clinical picture of abdominal pain attacks, has lead to the diagnosis of abdominal migraine. According to advice of neurologist the treatment with amitriptyline was introduced. Thereafter a significant improvement was observed. Abdominal migraine has to be taken in to account when diagnosing chronic abdominal pain in children. PMID:16245431

  14. Mechanical properties of rat thoracic and abdominal aortas.

    PubMed

    Assoul, N; Flaud, P; Chaouat, M; Letourneur, D; Bataille, I

    2008-07-19

    Mechanical properties of abdominal and thoracic arteries of 2mm in diameter were determined from adults Wistar rats. A tensile testing instrument was used to obtain stress/strain curves with arteries immersed in physiological buffer at 37 degrees C. A displacement was applied on all arteries with various frequencies (1-7.5Hz) and strains (5-60%). From each curve a Young modulus was obtained using a mathematical model based on a nonlinear soft tissue model. No influence of frequency on modulus was evidenced in the tested range. Abdominal aortas, which were found slightly thicker than thoracic aortas, were characterized by a higher modulus. Due to the interest of decellularized biological materials, we also used SDS/Triton treated arteries, and found that the chemical treatment increased modulus of thoracic arteries. Tensile tests were also performed on thoracic aortas in the longitudinal and transversal directions. Longitudinal moduli were found higher than transversal moduli and the difference could be related to the longitudinal orientation of collagen fibers. These data and mathematical model seem useful in the design of new vascular synthetic or biological prostheses for the field of tissue engineering.

  15. Effects of different core exercises on respiratory parameters and abdominal strength.

    PubMed

    Cavaggioni, Luca; Ongaro, Lucio; Zannin, Emanuela; Iaia, F Marcello; Alberti, Giampietro

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects a new modality of core stabilization exercises based on diaphragmatic breathing on pulmonary function, abdominal fitness, and movement efficiency. [Subjects] Thirty-two physically active, healthy males were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 16) and a control group (n = 16). [Methods] The experimental group combined diaphragmatic breathing exercises with global stretching postures, and the control group performed common abdominal exercises (e.g., crunch, plank, sit-up), both for 15 minutes twice weekly for 6 weeks. Pulmonary function (measured by forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and peak expiratory flow) and abdominal fitness (measured with the American College of Sports Medicine curl-up [cadence] test and the Functional Movement Screen(TM)) were evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] Significant changes in curl-up (cadence) test scores, Functional Movement Screen scores, and all pulmonary parameters were recorded in the experimental group at the posttraining assessment, whereas in the control group, no significant differences over baseline were observed in any parameters. [Conclusion] Compared with traditional abdominal exercises, core stabilization exercises based on breathing and global stretching postures are more effective in improving pulmonary function and abdominal fitness.

  16. Effects of different core exercises on respiratory parameters and abdominal strength

    PubMed Central

    Cavaggioni, Luca; Ongaro, Lucio; Zannin, Emanuela; Iaia, F. Marcello; Alberti, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects a new modality of core stabilization exercises based on diaphragmatic breathing on pulmonary function, abdominal fitness, and movement efficiency. [Subjects] Thirty-two physically active, healthy males were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 16) and a control group (n = 16). [Methods] The experimental group combined diaphragmatic breathing exercises with global stretching postures, and the control group performed common abdominal exercises (e.g., crunch, plank, sit-up), both for 15 minutes twice weekly for 6 weeks. Pulmonary function (measured by forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and peak expiratory flow) and abdominal fitness (measured with the American College of Sports Medicine curl-up [cadence] test and the Functional Movement ScreenTM) were evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] Significant changes in curl-up (cadence) test scores, Functional Movement Screen scores, and all pulmonary parameters were recorded in the experimental group at the posttraining assessment, whereas in the control group, no significant differences over baseline were observed in any parameters. [Conclusion] Compared with traditional abdominal exercises, core stabilization exercises based on breathing and global stretching postures are more effective in improving pulmonary function and abdominal fitness. PMID:26644685

  17. Heterogeneous constrictional deformation in a ductile shear zone resulting from the transposition of a lineation-parallel fold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xypolias, P.; Chatzaras, V.; Beane, R.; Papadopoulou, S.

    2013-07-01

    We use new (micro-)structural, petrofabric, strain and vorticity data to analyze the deformation path in a mesoscopic quartz mylonite zone. The mylonite zone resulted from the complete transposition of a stretching lineation-parallel isoclinal fold. Symmetric cleft-girdle quartz c-axis fabrics were recorded in the middle domain, which occupies the inner limbs of the precursor isoclinal fold, while asymmetric cleft- and crossed-girdle fabrics were observed in the upper and lower domains that represent the outer limbs. Constrictional strain, with increasing k values towards the middle domain, is inferred from petrofabric and 3D strain data. Oblique grain shape fabrics yield vorticity estimates of 0.72-0.90 in the zone. However, in the middle domain, pure shear dominated deformation is suggested by orthorhombic crystallographic fabrics. Strain rate is constant throughout the zone; a strain decrease towards the zone center implies that deformation ceased earlier in the middle domain. The data indicates that fold transposition and subsequent mylonitization started as pure-shear-dominated constrictional deformation and progressively changed to simple-shear-dominated, plane strain. During this flow path the asymmetric quartz c-axis fabrics likely developed by depopulation of cleft-girdle maxima rather than from the synthetic rotation of fabric maxima itself.

  18. Molecular Mechanism of Membrane Constriction and Tubulation Mediated by the F-BAR Protein Pacsin/Syndapin

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Navarro, M; Peng, G; Molinelli, E; Lin, G; Judson, B; Rajashankar, K; Sondermann, H

    2009-01-01

    Peripheral membrane proteins of the Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) and Fer-CIP4 homology-BAR (F-BAR) family participate in cellular membrane trafficking and have been shown to generate membrane tubules. The degree of membrane bending appears to be encoded in the structure and immanent curvature of the particular protein domains, with BAR and F-BAR domains inducing high- and low-curvature tubules, respectively. In addition, oligomerization and the formation of ordered arrays influences tubule stabilization. Here, the F-BAR domain-containing protein Pacsin was found to possess a unique activity, creating small tubules and tubule constrictions, in addition to the wide tubules characteristic for this subfamily. Based on crystal structures of the F-BAR domain of Pacsin and mutagenesis studies, vesiculation could be linked to the presence of unique structural features distinguishing it from other F-BAR proteins. Tubulation was suppressed in the context of the full-length protein, suggesting that Pacsin is autoinhibited in solution. The regulated deformation of membranes and promotion of tubule constrictions by Pacsin suggests a more versatile function of these proteins in vesiculation and endocytosis beyond their role as scaffold proteins.

  19. A rare chronic constrictive pericarditis with localized adherent visceral pericardium and normal parietal pericardium: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qingqiang; Yun, Lin; Xu, Rui; Li, Guohua; Yao, Yucai; Li, Jiamin

    2016-09-01

    Classic constrictive pericarditis (CP) is characterized by fibrous scarring and adhesion of both the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium, which leads to restricted cardiac filling. However, diagnosing CP with normal thickness pericardium and without calcification is still a challenge. The predominant cause in the developed world is idiopathic or viral pericarditis followed by post-cardiac surgery and post-radiation. Tuberculosis still remains a common cause of CP in developing countries. In this report, we describe a rare case of idiopathic localized constrictive visceral pericardium with normal thickness of the parietal pericardium in a middle-aged man. The patient presented with unexplained right heart failure and echocardiography showed moderate bi-atrial enlargement which should be identified with the restrictive cardiomyopathy. After 10 months of conservative treatment, the progression of right heart failure was remaining. A pericardiectomy was performed and the patient recovered. This case serves as a reminder to consider CP in patients with unexplained right heart failure, so that timely investigation and treatment can be initiated. PMID:27527362

  20. [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Cervantes Castro, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.

  1. Cardiopulmonary monitoring in intra-abdominal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; Ameloot, Koen; Gillebert, Carl; Cheatham, Michael L

    2011-07-01

    Cardiopulmonary dysfunction and failure are commonly encountered in the patient with intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) or abdominal compartment syndrome. Accurate assessment and optimization of preload, contractility, and afterload in conjunction with appropriate goal-directed resuscitation and assessment of fluid responsiveness are essential to restore end-organ perfusion. In patients with IAH, the traditional "barometric" preload indicators such as pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and central venous pressure are erroneously increased. Volumetric monitoring techniques have been proven to be superior in directing the appropriate resuscitation together with targeted abdominal perfusion pressure. If such limitations are not recognized, misinterpretation of the patient's cardiac status is likely, resulting in inappropriate and potentially detrimental therapy. IAH also markedly affects the mechanical properties of the chest wall and consequently also the respiratory function. Altered mechanical properties of the chest wall may limit ventilation, influence the work of breathing, affect the interaction between the respiratory muscles, hasten the development of respiratory failure, and interfere with gas exchange. Pulmonary monitoring is important to understand the relationships between intra-abdominal pressure and chest wall mechanics and the impact of IAH on ventilator-induced lung injury, lung distention, recruitment, and lung edema. PMID:21944448

  2. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  3. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Chronic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Flageole, Helene; Ouahed, Jodie; Walton, J. Mark; Yousef, Yasmin

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an elevated intraabdominal pressure with evidence of organ dysfunction. The majority of published reports of ACS are in neonates with abdominal wall defects and in adults following trauma or burns, but it is poorly described in children. We describe the unusual presentation of an 11-year-old boy with a long history of chronic constipation who developed acute ACS requiring resuscitative measures and emergent disimpaction. He presented with a 2-week history of increasing abdominal pain, nausea, diminished appetite and longstanding encopresis. On exam, he was emaciated with a massively distended abdomen with a palpable fecaloma. Abdominal XR confirmed these findings. Within 24 hours of presentation, he became tachycardic and oliguric with orthostatic hypotension. Following two enemas, he acutely deteriorated with severe hypotension, marked tachycardia, acute respiratory distress, and a declining mental status. Endotracheal intubation, fluid boluses, and vasopressors were commenced, followed by emergent surgical fecal disimpaction. This resulted in rapid improvement in vital signs. He has been thoroughly investigated and no other condition apart from functional constipation has been identified. Although ACS secondary to constipation is extremely unusual, this case illustrates the need to actively treat constipation and what can happen if it is not. PMID:22606517

  4. Laparoscopic management of an abdominal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Aarthi; Millican, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Background. Ectopic pregnancy is one of the leading causes of significant maternal morbidity and mortality. Abdominal surgeries increase the risk of postoperative adhesions. We here present a case of omental ectopic pregnancy in a patient with a prior history of cesarean section. Case. A 20-year-old female presented with a two-day history of crampy lower abdominal pain. Patient was hemodynamically stable with a beta HCG of 1057 mI/mL. Transvaginal ultrasound did not show an intrauterine pregnancy but revealed an ill-defined mass in the midline pelvis extending to the right of the midline. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed large clots in the pelvis with normal uterus and adnexa. Intra-abdominal survey revealed an omental adhesion close to the right adnexa with a hematoma. Partial omentectomy was completed and the portion of the omentum with the hematoma was sent to pathology for confirmation. Final pathology confirmed the presence of chorionic villi consistent with products of conception. Conclusion. Omental ectopic pregnancy is a rare diagnosis and often missed. We recommend careful intra-abdominal survey for an ectopic pregnancy in the presence of hemoperitoneum with normal uterus and adnexa. This can be safely achieved using laparoscopy in early gestational ages when the patient is hemodynamically stable. PMID:25478262

  5. [Two cases of abdominal bronchogenic cyst].

    PubMed

    Takeshita, K; Watabe, N; Sato, A; Watanabe, I; Yamaguchi, M; Tezuka, H; Abe, H; Sakamoto, K

    1990-09-01

    Two cases of abdominal bronchogenic cyst were reported. In the first case, the cyst was communicated with gastric fundus and existed as gastric abscess. In the second case, the cyst showed high CT number and chemical analysis of the contents revealed high range of Ca, Fe and Amylase levels.

  6. Intra-abdominal adhesions in ultrasound. Part II: The morphology of changes.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Starzyńska, Teresa; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bojko, Stefania; Gałdyńska, Maria; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta; Walecka, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Despite their frequent appearance, intra-abdominal adhesions are rarely the subject of clinical studies and academic discussions. For many years the operators have been trying to reduce such unfavourable consequences of interventions in the abdominal structures. The aim of this article is to present the possibilities of intra-abdominal adhesion diagnostics by means of ultrasound imaging based on authors' own experience and information included in pertinent literature. The anatomy and examination technique of the abdominal wall were discussed in Part I of the article. In order to evaluate intraperitoneal adhesions, one should use a convex transducer with the frequency of 3.5-6 MHz. The article provides numerous examples of US images presenting intra-abdominal adhesions, particularly those which appeared after surgical procedures. The significance of determining their localisation and extensiveness prior to a planned surgical treatment is emphasized. Four types of morphological changes in the ultrasound caused by intra-abdominal adhesions are distinguished and described: visceroperitoneal adhesions, intraperitoneal adhesions, adhesive obstructions as well as adhesions between the liver and abdominal wall with a special form of such changes, i.e. hepatic pseudotumour. Its ultrasound features are as follows:The lesion is localised below the scar in the abdominal wall after their incision.The lesion is localised in the abdominal part of the liver segments III, IV and V.With the US beam focus precisely set, the lack of fascia - peritoneum complex may be noticed. An uneven liver outline or its ventral displacement appears.A hepatic adhesion-related pseudotumour usually has indistinct margins, especially the posterior one, and, gradually, from top to bottom, loses its hypoechogenic nature.In a respiration test, this liver fragment does not present the sliding movement - a neoplastic tumour rarely shows such an effect. The immobility of the liver is a permanent symptom of

  7. Adequacy and quality of abdominal echographies requested by primary care professionals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The value of abdominal echography in primary care is great because it is innocuous, inexpensive, easy to perform and provides a great deal of information making this the first examination to be requested in cases of probable abdominal disease. However, too many abdominal echographies are probably requested overcrowding the Departments of Radiodiagnosis with not always justified petitions or with repetition of tests based on little clinical criteria. Methods/Design The aim of the study is to evaluate the adequacy and quality of abdominal echographies requested by primary care physicians in the Maresme County (North of Barcelona), develop guidelines for indicating echographies and reevaluate this adequacy after implementing these guidelines. We will perform a two-phase study: the first descriptive, and retrospective evaluating the adequacy and quality of petitions for abdominal echographies, and in the second phase we will evaluate the impact of recommendations for indicating abdominal echographies for PC physicians on the adequacy and quality of echography petitions thereafter. This study will be carried out in 10 primary care centres in the Maresme (Barcelona). 1067 abdominal echographies requested by primary care physicians from the above mentioned centres from January 2007 to April 2010 and referred to the Department of Radiology and the same number of applications after the intervention. All the petitions for abdominal echographies requested will be analysed and the clinical histories will be obtained to determine demographic variables, the reason for the visit and for the echography petition and diagnostic orientation, clinical and echographic data, evaluation of the echographies according to the quality and variables characterising the professionals requesting the echographies including: age, sex, laboral situation, length of time in work post, formation, etc. To achieve a consensus of the adequacy of abdominal echography, a work group including

  8. Intra-abdominal adhesions in ultrasound. Part II: The morphology of changes

    PubMed Central

    Starzyńska, Teresa; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bojko, Stefania; Gałdyńska, Maria; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta; Walecka, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Despite their frequent appearance, intra-abdominal adhesions are rarely the subject of clinical studies and academic discussions. For many years the operators have been trying to reduce such unfavourable consequences of interventions in the abdominal structures. The aim of this article is to present the possibilities of intra-abdominal adhesion diagnostics by means of ultrasound imaging based on authors’ own experience and information included in pertinent literature. The anatomy and examination technique of the abdominal wall were discussed in Part I of the article. In order to evaluate intraperitoneal adhesions, one should use a convex transducer with the frequency of 3.5–6 MHz. The article provides numerous examples of US images presenting intra-abdominal adhesions, particularly those which appeared after surgical procedures. The significance of determining their localisation and extensiveness prior to a planned surgical treatment is emphasized. Four types of morphological changes in the ultrasound caused by intra-abdominal adhesions are distinguished and described: visceroperitoneal adhesions, intraperitoneal adhesions, adhesive obstructions as well as adhesions between the liver and abdominal wall with a special form of such changes, i.e. hepatic pseudotumour. Its ultrasound features are as follows:The lesion is localised below the scar in the abdominal wall after their incision.The lesion is localised in the abdominal part of the liver segments III, IV and V.With the US beam focus precisely set, the lack of fascia – peritoneum complex may be noticed. An uneven liver outline or its ventral displacement appears.A hepatic adhesion-related pseudotumour usually has indistinct margins, especially the posterior one, and, gradually, from top to bottom, loses its hypoechogenic nature.In a respiration test, this liver fragment does not present the sliding movement – a neoplastic tumour rarely shows such an effect. The immobility of the liver is a permanent

  9. Combined Gastric and Duodenal Perforation Through Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Adarshpal; Singla, Archan Lal; Kumar, Ashwani; Yadav, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Blunt abdominal traumas are uncommonly encountered despite their high prevalence, and injuries to the organ like duodenum are relatively uncommon (occurring in only 3%-5% of abdominal injuries) because of its retroperitoneal location. Duodenal injury combined with gastric perforation from a single abdominal trauma impact is rarely heard. The aim of this case report is to present a rare case of blunt abdominal trauma with combined gastric and duodenal injuries. PMID:25738037

  10. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Mirosław

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents.

  11. [Approaches to the abdominal cavity and closure of the abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Y; Rauchfuss, F; Ardelt, M; Settmacher, U

    2011-12-01

    Although minimally invasive approaches to the abdominal cavity are becoming increasingly more important, open surgical techniques are still of essential interest and must be mastered by general and visceral surgeons. The choice of the particular approach depends on the specificity and location of the scheduled procedure. The following article is intended to give an overview on the current literature as well as experiences in the field of open surgical approaches to the abdominal cavity.

  12. Biomechanical considerations for abdominal loading by seat belt pretensioners.

    PubMed

    Rouhana, Stephen W; El-Jawahri, Raed E; Laituri, Tony R

    2010-11-01

    While seat belts are the most effective safety technology in vehicles today, there are continual efforts in the industry to improve their ability to reduce the risk of injury. In this paper, seat belt pretensioners and current trends towards more powerful systems were reviewed and analyzed. These more powerful systems may be, among other things, systems that develop higher belt forces, systems that remove slack from belt webbing at higher retraction speeds, or both. The analysis started with validation of the Ford Human Body Finite Element Model for use in evaluation of abdominal belt loading by pretensioners. The model was then used to show that those studies, done with lap-only belts, can be used to establish injury metrics for tests done with lap-shoulder belts. Then, previously-performed PMHS studies were used to develop AIS 2+ and AIS 3+ injury risk curves for abdominal interaction with seat belts via logistic regression and reliability analysis with interval censoring. Finally, some considerations were developed for a possible laboratory test to evaluate higher-powered pretensioners.

  13. Electromagnetic tracking for abdominal interventions in computer aided surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Banovac, Filip; Lin, Ralph; Glossop, Neil; Wood, Bradford J; Lindisch, David; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin

    2006-05-01

    Electromagnetic tracking has great potential for assisting physicians in precision placement of instruments during minimally invasive interventions in the abdomen, since electromagnetic tracking is not limited by the line-of-sight restrictions of optical tracking. A new generation of electromagnetic tracking has recently become available, with sensors small enough to be included in the tips of instruments. To fully exploit the potential of this technology, our research group has been developing a computer aided, image-guided system that uses electromagnetic tracking for visualization of the internal anatomy during abdominal interventions. As registration is a critical component in developing an accurate image-guided system, we present three registration techniques: 1) enhanced paired-point registration (time-stamp match registration and dynamic registration); 2) orientation-based registration; and 3) needle shape-based registration. Respiration compensation is another important issue, particularly in the abdomen, where respiratory motion can make precise targeting difficult. To address this problem, we propose reference tracking and affine transformation methods. Finally, we present our prototype navigation system, which integrates the registration, segmentation, path-planning and navigation functions to provide real-time image guidance in the clinical environment. The methods presented here have been tested with a respiratory phantom specially designed by our group and in swine animal studies under approved protocols. Based on these tests, we conclude that our system can provide quick and accurate localization of tracked instruments in abdominal interventions, and that it offers a user-friendly display for the physician.

  14. Electromagnetic tracking for abdominal interventions in computer aided surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Banovac, Filip; Lin, Ralph; Glossop, Neil; Wood, Bradford J.; Lindisch, David; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic tracking has great potential for assisting physicians in precision placement of instruments during minimally invasive interventions in the abdomen, since electromagnetic tracking is not limited by the line-of-sight restrictions of optical tracking. A new generation of electromagnetic tracking has recently become available, with sensors small enough to be included in the tips of instruments. To fully exploit the potential of this technology, our research group has been developing a computer aided, image-guided system that uses electromagnetic tracking for visualization of the internal anatomy during abdominal interventions. As registration is a critical component in developing an accurate image-guided system, we present three registration techniques: 1) enhanced paired-point registration (time-stamp match registration and dynamic registration); 2) orientation-based registration; and 3) needle shape-based registration. Respiration compensation is another important issue, particularly in the abdomen, where respiratory motion can make precise targeting difficult. To address this problem, we propose reference tracking and affine transformation methods. Finally, we present our prototype navigation system, which integrates the registration, segmentation, path-planning and navigation functions to provide real-time image guidance in the clinical environment. The methods presented here have been tested with a respiratory phantom specially designed by our group and in swine animal studies under approved protocols. Based on these tests, we conclude that our system can provide quick and accurate localization of tracked instruments in abdominal interventions, and that it offers a user friendly display for the physician. PMID:16829506

  15. Electromagnetic tracking for abdominal interventions in computer aided surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Banovac, Filip; Lin, Ralph; Glossop, Neil; Wood, Bradford J; Lindisch, David; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin

    2006-05-01

    Electromagnetic tracking has great potential for assisting physicians in precision placement of instruments during minimally invasive interventions in the abdomen, since electromagnetic tracking is not limited by the line-of-sight restrictions of optical tracking. A new generation of electromagnetic tracking has recently become available, with sensors small enough to be included in the tips of instruments. To fully exploit the potential of this technology, our research group has been developing a computer aided, image-guided system that uses electromagnetic tracking for visualization of the internal anatomy during abdominal interventions. As registration is a critical component in developing an accurate image-guided system, we present three registration techniques: 1) enhanced paired-point registration (time-stamp match registration and dynamic registration); 2) orientation-based registration; and 3) needle shape-based registration. Respiration compensation is another important issue, particularly in the abdomen, where respiratory motion can make precise targeting difficult. To address this problem, we propose reference tracking and affine transformation methods. Finally, we present our prototype navigation system, which integrates the registration, segmentation, path-planning and navigation functions to provide real-time image guidance in the clinical environment. The methods presented here have been tested with a respiratory phantom specially designed by our group and in swine animal studies under approved protocols. Based on these tests, we conclude that our system can provide quick and accurate localization of tracked instruments in abdominal interventions, and that it offers a user-friendly display for the physician. PMID:16829506

  16. Testicular Ectopia in the Anterior Abdominal Wall of a Neonate: A Rare Site of Ectopic Testis

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Salman Atiq; Marei, Tamer Ibrahim; Al-Makhaita, Ghada

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 3-day Final Diagnosis: Ectopic right testis in anterior abdominal wall Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Testicular ultrasound and MRI abdomen Specialty: Radiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Abnormal testicular descent can either be undescended or, less commonly, ectopic. Most undescended testes complete the course of descent by the first year of life only if these remain in the normal path of descent. The deviation of the testis may occur to an ectopic location during the transinguinal phase. Of the known ectopic sites, the anterior abdominal wall is the rarest site of testicular ectopia and to our knowledge only 3 cases of this nature have been reported in the available literature to date. Case Report: This rare case of testicular ectopia occurred in a 3-day-old boy in whom the right scrotal sac was empty; on abdominal ultrasound, the right testis was found in the subcutaneous tissues of the right antero-lateral abdominal wall. These findings were confirmed on abdominal MRI, where the right testis was seen beneath the skin between the subcutaneous tissues and external oblique aponeurosis. No aponeurotic or muscular defect was appreciable under the abdominal wall. The neonate underwent orchiopexy at the age of 6 months and remained uneventful postoperatively. Conclusions: Preoperative imaging is recommended to detect and confirm the ectopic site as well as the morphology of testis, thereby increasing the chance of surveillance and preservation of an ectopic testis. Imaging can serve as preoperative road mapping to localize the exact site for surgical exploration of an ectopic testis if there is no apparent or palpable swelling over the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:27411886

  17. Neural basis of singing in crickets: central pattern generation in abdominal ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

    2011-12-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying cricket singing behavior have been the focus of several studies, but the central pattern generator (CPG) for singing has not been localized conclusively. To test if the abdominal ganglia contribute to the singing motor pattern and to analyze if parts of the singing CPG are located in these ganglia, we systematically truncated the abdominal nerve cord of fictively singing crickets while recording the singing motor pattern from a front-wing nerve. Severing the connectives anywhere between terminal ganglion and abdominal ganglion A3 did not preclude singing, although the motor pattern became more variable and failure-prone as more ganglia were disconnected. Singing terminated immediately and permanently after transecting the connectives between the metathoracic ganglion complex and the first unfused abdominal ganglion A3. The contribution of abdominal ganglia for singing pattern generation was confirmed by intracellular interneuron recordings and current injections. During fictive singing, an ascending interneuron with its soma and dendrite in A3 depolarized rhythmically. It spiked 10 ms before the wing-opener activity and hyperpolarized in phase with the wing-closer activity. Depolarizing current injection elicited rhythmic membrane potential oscillations and spike bursts that elicited additional syllables and reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. Our results disclose that the abdominal ganglion A3 is directly involved in generating the singing motor pattern, whereas the more posterior ganglia seem to provide only stabilizing feedback to the CPG circuit. Localizing the singing CPG in the anterior abdominal neuromeres now allows analyzing its circuitry at the level of identified interneurons in subsequent studies.

  18. Systematic review and meta-analysis of prophylactic abdominal drainage after pancreatic resection

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Chang-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Kui; Jia, Yu-Li; Zheng, Xin; Tu, Kang-Sheng; Yao, Ying-Min; Liu, Qing-Guang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether prophylactic abdominal drainage is necessary after pancreatic resection. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched to obtain relevant articles published before January 2014. Publications were retrieved if they met the selection criteria. The outcomes of interest included: mortality, morbidity, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF), clinically relevant pancreatic fistula (CR-PF), abdominal abscess, reoperation rate, the rate of interventional radiology drainage, and the length of hospital stay. Subgroup analyses were also performed for pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and for distal pancreatectomy. Begg’s funnel plot and the Egger regression test were employed to assess potential publication bias. RESULTS: Nine eligible studies involving a total of 2794 patients were identified and included in this meta-analysis. Of the included patients, 1373 received prophylactic abdominal drainage. A fixed-effects model meta-analysis showed that placement of prophylactic drainage did not have beneficial effects on clinical outcomes, including morbidity, POPF, CR-PF, reoperation, interventional radiology drainage, and length of hospital stay (Ps > 0.05). In addition, prophylactic drainage did not significantly increase the risk of abdominal abscess. Overall analysis showed that omitting prophylactic abdominal drainage resulted in higher mortality after pancreatectomy (OR = 1.56; 95%CI: 0.93-2.92). Subgroup analysis of PD showed similar results to those in the overall analysis. Elimination of prophylactic abdominal drainage after PD led to a significant increase in mortality (OR = 2.39; 95%CI: 1.22-4.69; P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Prophylactic abdominal drainage after pancreatic resection is still necessary, though more evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing prophylactic drainage after PD and distal pancreatectomy are needed. PMID:25987799

  19. Can release of urinary retention trigger abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture?

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Andreas; Powell-Bowns, Matilda; Elseedawy, Emad

    2013-04-04

    Only 50% of abdominal aortic aneurysms present with the classic triad of hypotension, back pain and a pulsatile abdominal mass. This variability in symptoms can delay diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of a patient presenting with a unique combination of symptoms suggesting that decompression of urinary retention can lead to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture.

  20. 2013 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The 2013 update of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for the management of intra-abdominal infections contains evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with intra-abdominal infections. PMID:23294512

  1. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abdominal decompression chamber. 884.5225 Section... Devices § 884.5225 Abdominal decompression chamber. (a) Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief...

  2. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  3. Diagnostic yield of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in children with abdominal pain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abdominal pain is the most common indication for OGD in children. However, existing studies examining the diagnostic outcomes of OGD in children with abdominal pain are limited. We conducted the current study to examine the diagnostic yield of OGD with biopsy in the evaluation of abdominal pain and ...

  4. Dipole spring ferroelectrics in superlattice SrTiO3/BaTiO3 thin films exhibiting constricted hysteresis loops

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Pingping; Ma, Xingqiao; Li, Yulan; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Chen , L.Q.

    2012-03-01

    Ferroelectric superlattice heterostructures have recently been explored for potential applications in electronic devices. In this letter we employed the phase-field approach to simulate the domain structure and switching of a (BaTiO3)8/(SrTiO3)3 superlattice film constrained by a GdScO3 substrate. A constricted ferroelectric hysteresis loop was observed with a high saturation polarization but a small coercive field. The shape of the hysteresis loop is understood by analyzing the ferroelectric polarization distributions during switching. It is demonstrated that the constricted loop show a similar mechanism to the exchange coupling effect in magnetic multilayers.

  5. [Intra-Abdominal Germ Cell Tumor in Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mishima, Takao; Harada, Jiro; Kawa, Gen; Sakurai, Takanori; Okada, Takuya

    2016-08-01

    A 46-year-old man was admitted to hospital presenting with a lower abdominal mass. The patient's testes were not palpable in the scrotum, and the levels of lactic dehydrogenase, α-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin were all elevated. Enhanced computed tomography revealed that the lumen of the mass had penetrated the prostate. Pathological analysis of biopsy tissue indicated that the mass was a seminoma. Residual tumor resection was performed after chemotherapy. On histological examination, the lumen proved to be a Mullerian structure. Our diagnosis was an intra-abdominal germ cell tumor and persistent Mullerian duct syndrome. PMID:27624113

  6. Intra-abdominal abscess demonstrating an unusually large intra-abdominal pattern on an indium-111 leukocyte scan

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.R.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; ter Penning, B.; Yellin, J.

    1988-12-01

    Indium-111 WBC imaging of a patient with occult septicemia revealed a large focal pattern of radiopharmaceutical distribution within the abdominal cavity at 24 hours post radiopharmaceutical administration. This finding was felt to represent a large intra-abdominal abscess. A five liter peritoneal abscess was found at surgery. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of an intra-abdominal abscess.

  7. Paragonimiasis mimicking chest cancer and abdominal wall metastaisis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, RONGXING; ZHANG, MINJIA; CHENG, NANSHENG; ZHOU, YONG

    2016-01-01

    Typical human paragonimiasis demonstrates an elevated eosinophil count, positive immunoblot, nodular shadows of the lung and pleural thickening with pleural effusion, and these symptoms may be confused with chest cancer. In the present case, a rare case of human paragonimiasis mimicking chest cancer and abdominal wall metastasis is described, the 39-year-old male patient was admitted in our hospital for cough, weight loss 5 kg and a firm mass in right upper abdominal wall. The laboratory test showed unremarkable hematology and biochemistry results. Chest X-ray, Plain computed tomography of the chest and abdomen showed right pleural effusion, several nodules in right lower lung and a mass in the right upper abdominal wall. The initial diagnosis was lung or chest cancer with abdominal wall metastasis, and the abdominal wall mass was resected for the final diagnosis. The biopsy revealed eosinophilic granuloma with Charcot-Leyden crystal formation infiltrated in the muscular fibers. Subsequent to assessment of the antibodies against parasites, the final diagnosis of paragonimiasis was made. PMID:27313691

  8. Abdominal muscle strength is related to the quality of life among older adults with lumbar osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Suenimeire; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; Brandino, Hugo Evangelista; Ferreira, Vânia Tie Koga; Scheicher, Marcos Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the association between abdominal muscle strength and quality of life among older adults with lumbar osteoarthritis. A blind, cross-sectional study was conducted involving 40 older adults: 20 with lumbar osteoarthritis (12 women and 8 men, mean age of 65.90 ± 4.80 years) and 20 controls (14 women and 6 men, mean age of 67.90 ± 4.60 years). The volunteers were submitted to an abdominal muscle strength test. Quality of life was evaluated using the SF-36 questionnaire. Both abdominal muscle strength and quality of life scores were significantly lower in the group with lumbar osteoarthritis in comparison to the controls (p < 0.05). Moreover, significant and positive associations were found between abdominal muscle strength and the subscales of the SF-36 questionnaire (p < 0.05, 0.421 ≥ rs ≤ 0.694). Based on the present findings, older adults with lumbar osteoarthritis with greater abdominal muscle strength have a better quality of life.

  9. Abdominal ultrasonography findings in patients with spinal cord injury in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji Cheol; Park, Chang-il; Kim, Sang Hyun; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Eun Joo; Rha, Dong Wook

    2006-10-01

    This is a retrospective study of 500 patients with spinal cord injury who underwent abdominal ultrasonography as a routine screening test from 2000 to 2003. We analyzed the results according to the different abdominal organ systems. Among the 500 cases, 226 (45.2%) showed abnormal findings. 98 cases of abnormal findings in the liver included 75 of fatty liver and 13 of mass. The 88 cases of abnormal findings in the bladder included 56 of bladder wall thickening, 14 of cystitis and 10 of urinary stone. The 35 cases of abnormal findings in the kidney included 19 of renal cyst and 6 of pelvic dilatation. The 35 cases with gallbladder abnormalities included 19 with gallstones and 11 with biliary sludge. Excluding the cases with bladder wall thickening, there were still 170 cases with abnormal ultrasonographic findings. Abdominal sonography seems to be a useful tool in detecting hidden intraabdominal pathologies in patients with spinal cord injury.

  10. Vertebral destruction due to abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez Viseu Pinheiro, J.F.; Blanco Blanco, J.F.; Pescador Hernández, D.; García García, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low back pain is a common cause of medical consultation, and usually supposes a non-malignant prognostic. Presentation of case We report an atypical appearance of low back pain associated to shock and pulsatile abdominal mass that made us diagnose an abdominal aortic aneurysm as reason of vertebral lysis and pain. Discusion Surgical repair of contained AAA should be directed to secondary re-rupture prevention, with an approximate survival near to 100% at selected patients for elective surgery. Consequently, orthopedic surgery for back spine stabilization has to be elective in those cases when vertebral destruction is above 30% and clinic is directly related to spine instability. Conclusion We should consider AAA as other cause of low back pain and routinely examine the abdomen and seek complementary imaging proves when risk factors for AAA are present. PMID:25569196

  11. [Normal abdominal ultrasound anatomy. Examination procedure].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura Grau, A; Rodríguez Lorenzo, A; Segura Cabral, J M

    2014-01-01

    To carry out an abdominal ultrasound examination with the highest degree of accuracy and thoroughness, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the anatomy and the normal measurements of the different organs. In this way, we can determine their normal condition and identify the pathology and its location more easily. It is very important to adopt a correct examination procedure, systematically sweeping the scan in the same direction and not leaving any organ unexamined. We suggest a procedure consisting of longitudinal, cross-sectional and oblique scans to view all the abdominal organs, starting the examination in the epigastric region, scanning first the right upper quadrant, then the left upper quadrant, both iliac fossa, and lastly the hypogastric region.

  12. Solitary fibrous tumor of the abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Migita, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Akihiko; Nakagawa, Kenji; Ohyama, Takao; Sekigawa, Susumu

    2009-12-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are uncommon neoplasms of mesenchymal origin that usually arise from the pleura. SFTs of the abdominal wall are extremely rare, and only 12 cases have been reported in the English language literature. This report presents a new case of SFT of the abdominal wall in a 74-year-old female. Positron emission tomography demonstrated the heterogeneous 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake of the tumor (the maximum standardized uptake value was 2.8). Histologically, the mitotic count was 1 to 2/10 high-power fields. The patient is alive without recurrence at 10 months after undergoing a surgical excision. We discuss the clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis and present a review of the pertinent literature.

  13. Atrophic coarctation of the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Wiest, J W; Traverso, L W; Dainko, E A; Barker, W F

    1980-01-01

    Two cases illustrate the clinical manifestations and angiographic findings associated with segmental stenosis of the abdominal aorta. Such lesions represent the chronic occlusive stage of Takayasu's disease, a nonspecific inflammatory arteritis of uncertain etiology. While the disease is considered autoimmune, an infectious process may be involved. Complications typically associated with stenotic lesions of the abdominal aorta are secondary renal hypertension and ischemic symptoms secondary to vascular insufficiency. Surgical correction, the treatment of choice, has achieved excellent results for these well-localized lesions. Secondary renal hypertension was relieved by a spenorenal shunt and the disease has since been controlled with conservative management in the first patient. An aortofemoral bypass graft successfully alleviated the vascular insufficiency in the second patient, although the patient unfortunately expired from a refractory postoperative cardiac complication. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6102453

  14. Color Doppler ultrasonography of the abdominal aorta

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, S.; Danesino, G.M.; Danesino, V.; Castellani, S.

    2010-01-01

    Alterations of the abdominal aorta are relatively common, particularly in older people. Technological advances in the fields of ultrasonography, computed tomography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging have greatly increased the imaging options for the assessment of these lesions. Because it can be done rapidly and is also non-invasive, ultrasonography plays a major role in the exploration of the abdominal aorta, from its emergence from the diaphragm to its bifurcation. It is indicated for the diagnosis and follow-up of various aortic diseases, especially aneurysms. It can be used to define the shape, size, and location of these lesions, the absence or presence of thrombi and their characteristics. It is also useful for monitoring the evolution of the lesion and for postoperative follow-up. However, its value is limited in surgical planning and in emergency situations. PMID:23396814

  15. [Adrenal injury in blunt abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Abakumov, M M; Smoliar, A N; Barmina, T G; Boĭko, A V; Shalimova, I G

    2009-01-01

    10 patients with adrenal damage were observed during 2.5 years. It amounted 0.93% of all patients with closed abdominal injuries. The right adrenal gland was traumatized in all cases evidently due to it's compression between right lobe of liver and vertebral column. Adrenal damage is observed quite often in combination with injuries of right liver lobe, right kidney and retroperitoneal hematoma formation. 5 patients underwent laparotomy on account of intra-abdominal bleeding, but adrenal damage was never revealed. Ultrasound and tomographic semiotics of adrenal damage was worked out, which allowed ascertaining diagnosis in 80% on application of ultrasound study and in 100% at computer tomography. Injury of one adrenal gland was not accompanied by adrenal failure and did not require hormonal replacement therapy.

  16. Abdominal calcifications in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Pintér, A B; Weisenbach, J; Szemlédy, F

    1984-12-01

    Abdominal and pelvic calcifications are usually incidental findings and require further measures to determine their origin. Most laboratory investigations are of little help. Plain anteroposterior and lateral x-rays are essential. The time of appearance and localisation of a calcification is of diagnostic importance. Amorphous, granular and irregular calcification can be an early sign of malignancy. Mobility of a calcification also helps to clarify its origin. Over the past 15 years abdominal and pelvic calcifications, excluding urological radiodensities, have been found in 63 patients up to fourteen years of age at our institute. A migrating deposit in the omentum, a spontaneously amputated calcified ovary mimicking a vesical calculus and a congenital retroperitoneal xanthofibroma caused the greatest difficulty in establishing a preoperative diagnosis.

  17. Retroperitoneal lymphocele after abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Garrett, H E; Richardson, J W; Howard, H S; Garrett, H E

    1989-09-01

    Lymphoceles may occur as a result of lymphatic injury during abdominal aortic surgery. These lymphatic collections may occur as a retroperitoneal mass or as groin lymphoceles. Four cases are presented in which persistent retroperitoneal lymphoceles were discovered 2 to 8 years after surgery. Reexploration of the groin and repeated aspirations of lymphatic fluid failed to control the drainage. Reexploration of the retroperitoneum documented lymphatic injury, which was controlled by ligation of the lymphatics with suture. A review of the literature discloses five similar reported cases of retroperitoneal lymphocele and 12 cases of chylous ascites after abdominal aortic surgery. Clearly, avoiding lymphatic injury or immediate repair of any lymphatic injuries will prevent this problem. Once a persistent lymphocele has developed, aspiration will establish the diagnosis. Our experience would suggest that reexploration of the retroperitoneum is required to control the drainage and to prevent possible graft infection.

  18. [Traumatic and iatrogenic lesions of abdominal vessels].

    PubMed

    Farah, I; Tarabula, P; Voirin, L; Magne, J L; Delannoy, P; Gattaz, F; Guidicelli, H

    1997-01-01

    Gravity of abdominal vessels traumatisms is secondary to multiple factors. It depends on the type of injured vessels, aetiology and associated lesions. Between September 1984 and March 1995, 22 abdominal vessel traumatisms in 16 patients (mean age: 39 years) were treated. At surgical exploration, 4 aortic and 2 renal vein lesions, 7 iliac artery and 3 renal artery contusions, 2 superior mesenteric artery dissections; 3 infra-renal vena cava ruptures and 1 superior mesenteric vein dilaceration were found. All lesions were caused by penetrant wounds secondary to firearm or blade injury or secondary to injuries due to ski or traffic accidents. In 5 cases, lesions were iatrogenic. There was no mortality in the post-operative period, 14 patients out of the 16 patients operated on have been followed during a period from 1 to 120 months.

  19. Abdominal obesity, muscle composition, and insulin resistance in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert; Freeman, Jennifer; Hudson, Robert; Janssen, Ian

    2002-11-01

    The independent relationships between visceral and abdominal sc adipose tissue (AT) depots, muscle composition, and insulin sensitivity were examined in 40 abdominally obese, premenopausal women. Measurements included glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, muscle composition by computed tomography, abdominal and nonabdominal (e.g. leg) AT by magnetic resonance imaging and cardiovascular fitness. Glucose disposal rates were negatively related to visceral AT mass (r = -0.42, P < 0.01). These observations remained significant (P < 0.01) after control for nonabdominal and abdominal sc AT, muscle attenuation, and peak oxygen uptake. Total, abdominal, or leg sc AT or muscle attenuation was not significantly (P > 0.10) related to glucose disposal. Subdivision of abdominal sc AT into anterior and posterior depots did not alter the observed relationships. Further analysis matched two groups of women for abdominal sc AT but with low and high visceral AT. Women with high visceral AT had lower glucose disposal rates compared with those with low visceral AT (P < 0.05). A similar analysis performed on two groups of women matched for visceral AT but high and low abdominal sc AT revealed no statistically different values for insulin sensitivity (P > 0.10). In conclusion, visceral AT alone is a strong correlate of insulin resistance independent of nonabdominal, abdominal sc AT, muscle composition, and cardiovascular fitness. Subdivision of abdominal sc AT did not provide additional insight into the relationship between abdominal obesity and metabolic risk.

  20. Multiscale modeling of mechanosensing channels on vesicles and cell membranes in 3D constricted flows and shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhangli; Pak, On Shun; Young, Yuan-Nan; Liu, Allen; Stone, Howard

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the gating of mechanosensing channels (Mscls) on vesicles and cell membranes under different flow conditions using a multiscale approach. At the cell level (microns), the membrane tension is calculated using a 3D two-component whole-cell membrane model based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), including the cortex cytoskeleton and its interactions with the lipid bilayer. At the Mscl level (nanometers), we predict the relation between channel gating and the membrane tension obtained from a cell-level model using a semi-analytical model based on the bilayer hydrophobic mismatch energy. We systematically study the gating of Mscls of vesicles and cell membranes in constricted channel flows and shear flows, and explore the dependence of the gating on flow rate, cell shape and size. The results provide guidance for future experiments in inducing Mscl opening for various purposes such as drug delivery.

  1. Introduction and pinning of domain walls in 50 nm NiFe constrictions using local and external magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnd, G.; Pham, V. T.; Marty, A.; Jamet, M.; Beigné, C.; Notin, L.; Vergnaud, C.; Rortais, F.; Vila, L.; Attané, J.-P.

    2016-05-01

    We study domain wall injection in 100 nm wide NiFe nanowires, followed by domain wall propagation and pinning on 50 nm wide constrictions. The injection is performed using local and external magnetic fields. Using several nucleation pad geometries, we show that at these small dimensions the use of an external field only does not allow obtaining a reproducible injection/pinning process. However, the use of an additional local field, created by an Oersted line, allows to nucleate a reversed domain at zero external applied field. Then, an external field of 5 mT enables the domain wall to propagate far from the Oersted line, and the pinning occurs reproducibly. We also show that notwithstanding the reproducibility of the pinning process, the depinning field is found to be stochastic, following a bimodal distribution. Using micromagnetic simulation we link two different DW configurations, vortex and transverse, to the two typical depinning fields.

  2. Very low threshold-current temperature sensitivity in constricted double-heterojunction AlGaAs lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botez, D.; Connolly, J. C.; Gilbert, D. B.; Ettenberg, M.

    1981-01-01

    The temperature dependence of threshold currents in constricted double-heterojunction diode lasers with strong lateral mode confinement is found to be significantly milder than for other types of lasers. The threshold-current relative variations with ambient temperature are typically two to three times less than for other devices of CW-operation capability. Over the interval 10-70 C the threshold currents fit the empirical exponential law exp/(T2-T1)/T0/ with T0 values in the 240-375 C range in pulsed operation, and in the 200-310 C range in CW operation. The external differential quantum efficiency and the mode far-field pattern near threshold are virtually invariant with temperature. The possible causes of high-T0 behavior are analyzed, and a new phenomenon - temperature-dependent current focusing - is presented to explain the results.

  3. [Vaginal hysterectomy following previous abdominal and gynecologic surgery].

    PubMed

    Draca, P; Vuleta, P; Miljković, S

    1976-01-01

    The authors analyse 125 cases of vaginal histerectomy (V.H.) preceded by vaginal and abdominal operations (15.3% of a total of 817 V.H.) There were 95 cases of previous abdominal operations and 30 cases of previous gynecological operations (19 vaginal and 11 abdominal). The most frequent previously performed vaginal operation was anterior and posterior colporrhaphy. The authors have come to the conclusion that neither previous abdominal nor previous gynecological surgical interventions make the carrying out of vaginal histerectomy more difficult. Only Doleris's operation, among abdominal ones, may represent a relative contraindication for V.H. In one case the authors had to complete the already started histerectomy abdominally owing to some technical difficulties. The authors maintain that it would be good to use vaginal histerectomy more frequently after previously applied gynecological, vaginal, and abdominal operations.

  4. Focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cerminara, Caterina; El Malhany, Nadia; Roberto, Denis; Curatolo, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain is an unusual partial epilepsy characterized by paroxysmal episodes of abdominal or visceral pain, disturbance of awareness and electroencephalographic abnormalities. We describe a new case of ictal abdominal pain in which gastrointestinal complaints were the only manifestation of seizures and review the previously described pediatric patients. In our patient clinical findings, ictal EEG abnormalities, and a good response to antiepileptic drugs allowed us to make a diagnosis of focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain. This is a rare epileptic phenomenon that should be suspected in patients with unexplained paroxysmal abdominal pain and migraine-like symptoms. We suggest that, after the exclusion of more common etiologies, focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain should be considered in patients with paroxysmal abdominal pain and ictal EEG abnormalities. PMID:24321431

  5. [Role of surgery in closed abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Panis, Y; Charbit, L; Valleur, P

    1997-05-01

    Over the past twenty years, nonoperative management has increasingly been recommended for the care of patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Emergency laparotomy remains the rule in patients with hemodynamic instability or in those with peritonitis due to intestinal perforation. Surgical treatment of liver and splenic lesions tends to be more conservative. After assessment of the lesions by computed tomography, nonoperative management in intensive care unit is allowed in the majority of patients. PMID:9208689

  6. A Novel Diagnostic Aid for Detection of Intra-Abdominal Adhesions to the Anterior Abdominal Wall Using Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Randall, David; Fenner, John; Gillott, Richard; ten Broek, Richard; Strik, Chema; Spencer, Paul; Bardhan, Karna Dev

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal adhesions can cause serious morbidity and complicate subsequent operations. Their diagnosis is often one of exclusion due to a lack of a reliable, non-invasive diagnostic technique. Development and testing of a candidate technique are described below. Method. During respiration, smooth visceral sliding motion occurs between the abdominal contents and the walls of the abdominal cavity. We describe a technique involving image segmentation and registration to calculate shear as an analogue for visceral slide based on the tracking of structures throughout the respiratory cycle. The presence of an adhesion is attributed to a resistance to visceral slide resulting in a discernible reduction in shear. The abdominal movement due to respiration is captured in sagittal dynamic MR images. Results. Clinical images were selected for analysis, including a patient with a surgically confirmed adhesion. Discernible reduction in shear was observed at the location of the adhesion while a consistent, gradually changing shear was observed in the healthy volunteers. Conclusion. The technique and its validation show encouraging results for adhesion detection but a larger study is now required to confirm its potential. PMID:26880884

  7. Flow of two immiscible fluids in a periodically constricted tube: Transitions to stratified, segmented, churn, spray, or segregated flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraggedakis, D.; Kouris, Ch.; Dimakopoulos, Y.; Tsamopoulos, J.

    2015-08-01

    We study the flow of two immiscible, Newtonian fluids in a periodically constricted tube driven by a constant pressure gradient. Our volume-of-fluid algorithm is used to solve the governing equations. First, the code is validated by comparing its predictions to previously reported results for stratified and pulsing flow. Then, it is used to capture accurately all the significant topological changes that take place. Initially, the fluids have a core-annular arrangement, which is found to either remain the same or change to a different arrangement depending on the fluid properties, the pressure driving the flow, or the flow geometry. The flow-patterns that appear are the core-annular, segmented, churn, spray, and segregated flow. The predicted scalings near pinching of the core fluid concur with similarity predictions and earlier numerical results [I. Cohen et al., "Two fluid drop snap-off problem: Experiments and theory," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1147-1150 (1999)]. Flow-pattern maps are constructed in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. Our result provides deeper insights into the mechanism of the pattern transitions and is in agreement with previous studies on core-annular flow [Ch. Kouris and J. Tsamopoulos, "Core-annular flow in a periodically constricted circular tube, I. Steady state, linear stability and energy analysis," J. Fluid Mech. 432, 31-68 (2001) and Ch. Kouris et al., "Comparison of spectral and finite element methods applied to the study of interfacial instabilities of the core-annular flow in an undulating tube," Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids 39(1), 41-73 (2002)], segmented flow [E. Lac and J. D. Sherwood, "Motion of a drop along the centreline of a capillary in a pressure-driven flow," J. Fluid Mech. 640, 27-54 (2009)], and churn flow [R. Y. Bai et al., "Lubricated pipelining—Stability of core annular-flow. 5. Experiments and comparison with theory," J. Fluid Mech. 240, 97-132 (1992)].

  8. Feasibility of Human Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells in Alleviation of Neuropathic Pain in Chronic Constrictive Injury Nerve Model

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chien-Yi; Liu, Shih-An; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Chen, Fu-Chou; Chen, Chun-Jung; Su, Hong-Lin; Pan, Hung-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The neurobehavior of neuropathic pain by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve is very similar to that in humans, and it is accompanied by a profound local inflammation response. In this study, we assess the potentiality of human amniotic fluid derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAFMSCs) for alleviating the neuropathic pain in a chronic constriction nerve injury model. Methods and Methods This neuropathic pain animal model was conducted by four 3–0 chromic gut ligatures loosely ligated around the left sciatic nerve in Sprague—Dawley rats. The intravenous administration of hAFMSCs with 5x105 cells was conducted for three consecutive days. Results The expression IL-1β, TNF-α and synaptophysin in dorsal root ganglion cell culture was remarkably attenuated when co-cultured with hAFMSCs. The significant decrease of PGP 9.5 in the skin after CCI was restored by administration of hAFMSCs. Remarkably increased expression of CD 68 and TNF-α and decreased S-100 and neurofilament expression in injured nerve were rescued by hAFMSCs administration. Increases in synaptophysin and TNF-α over the dorsal root ganglion were attenuated by hAFMSCs. Significant expression of TNF-α and OX-42 over the dorsal spinal cord was substantially attenuated by hAFMSCs. The increased amplitude of sensory evoked potential as well as expression of synaptophysin and TNF-α expression was alleviated by hAFMSCs. Human AFMSCs significantly improved the threshold of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia as well as various parameters of CatWalk XT gait analysis. Conclusion Human AFMSCs administration could alleviate the neuropathic pain demonstrated in histomorphological alteration and neurobehavior possibly through the modulation of the inflammatory response. PMID:27441756

  9. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Arnaoutakis, Dean J; Zammert, Martin; Karthikesalingam, Alan; Belkin, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms is an important technique in the vascular surgeon's armamentarium, which has created a seismic shift in the management of aortic pathology over the past two decades. In comparison to traditional open repair, the endovascular approach is associated with significantly improved perioperative morbidity and mortality. The early survival benefit of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is sustained up to 3 years postoperatively, but longer-term life expectancy remains poor regardless of operative modality. Nonetheless, most abdominal aortic aneurysms are now repaired using endovascular stent grafts. The technology is not perfect as several postoperative complications, namely endoleak, stent-graft migration, and graft limb thrombosis, can develop and therefore lifelong imaging surveillance is required. In addition, a postoperative inflammatory response has been documented after endovascular repair of aortic aneurysms; the clinical significance of this finding has yet to be determined. Subsequently, the safety and applicability of endovascular stent grafts are likely to improve and expand with the introduction of newer-generation devices and with the simplification of fenestrated systems. PMID:27650343

  10. [Abdominal multi-organ transplantation in dogs].

    PubMed

    Kumagae, T

    1988-07-01

    Abdominal multi-organ transplantation including the liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, adrenal glands and gastrointestinal tract was attempted in 8 dogs. Each experiment was discontinued when the recipient deteriorated. Immersion hypothermia was introduced in both the donor and recipient until the esophageal temperature reached 27-30 degrees C. Whole abdominal organs of the donor were removed in an en-bloc fashion at 20 degrees C of the graft temperature after additional cooling by ice slush scattering into the abdominal cavity. Transplantation was carried out orthotopically in the following sequence: (1) the proximal aorta, (2) suprahepatic vena cava, (3) distal aorta, (4) infrahepatic vena cava. The alimentary tract was reconstructed by gastro-gastrostomy and colo-colostomy. The ureters were implanted in the bladder. Cold ischemic time of the graft was about 40 minutes. Heparin was not used throughout the procedure. Five out of eight dogs were alive for more than 24 hours and two of them survived for 60 hours with good recovery. No immunosuppressant was given. Though the result in the present study was far from satisfaction, the experiment may provide a possibility of a new experimental model for transplantation, especially regarding pathophysiology and interrelationship of the transplanted complex organs.

  11. [Abdominal aortic aneurysm: an uncommon presentation].

    PubMed

    Taborda, Lúcia; Pereira, Laurinda; Amona, Eurides; Pinto, Erique Guedes; Rodrigues, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Most abdominal aortic aneurysms are asymptomatic, being accidentally found on physical examination or in routinely performed imaging studies. They only require surveillance (which is variable according to the aneurism size) and medical therapy in order to achieve risk factor reduction. However, in certain situations, according to the risk of aneurism rupture, elective surgery or endovascular procedure may be necessary. About 80% of the cases of aneurism rupture occur into the retroperitoneal space, with a high mortality rate. There are uncommon presentations of aneurism rupture as the aorto-caval fistula, which also require fast diagnosis and intervention. The authors present the case of a 71-year-old man, with the previous diagnosis of hypertension, acute myocardial infarction 2 months earlier (undergone primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) and tabagism, who was admitted at the emergency department with intense 24-hour-evolution epigastric pain. On physical examination, the Blood Pressure values measured at the lower limbs were about half the ones measured at the upper limbs and there was an abdominal pulsatile mass, with a high-intensity murmur. As the authors suspected aortic dissection, aneurysm, coarctation or thrombosis, it was done a Computed Tomography scanning with intravenous contrast, which revealed a ruptured abdominal aorta aneurysm with a mural thrombus. The doppler ultrasound confirmed the presence of a high debit aorto-caval fistula. The patient was immediately transferred to the Vascular Surgery. However he died 2 hours later, during surgery. PMID:22525642

  12. [Hereditary angioedema: strange cause of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Salas-Lozano, Nereo Guillermo; Meza-Cardona, Javier; González-Fernández, Coty; Pineda-Figueroa, Laura; de Ariño-Suárez, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el angioedema hereditario es un trastorno inflamatorio episódico, que se hereda de manera autosómica dominante y se caracteriza por episodios de edema periférico. Los pacientes pueden tener edema de la pared de cualquier víscera hueca, incluido el intestino. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de un paciente masculino de 33 años de edad, sin antecedentes de importancia, con dolor abdominal, localizado en el epigastrio, irradiado al cuadrante inferior derecho, acompañado de 5 vómitos. La tomografía abdominal mostró engrosamiento de la pared de la segunda y tercera porción del duodeno, con infiltración de grasa y líquido libre. Los exámenes de laboratorio mostraron: concentraciones bajas del complemento C4 (5.5 mg/dL) y actividad del inhibidor de C1 del complemento de 30%. Conclusiones: el angioedema hereditario es consecuencia de la deficiencia (tipo I) o disfunción (tipo II) del inhibidor C1 del complemento. El dolor abdominal asociado con angioedema es de inicio súbito, como dolor cólico, recurrente y de intensidad moderada. En la actualidad existen dos medicamentos aprobados por la Food and Drug Administration para el tratamiento de pacientes con esta afección.

  13. Mesh Sutured Repairs of Abdominal Wall Defects

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Steven T.; Jordan, Sumanas W.; Miller, Kyle R.; Ali, Nada A.; Stock, Stuart R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A new closure technique is introduced, which uses strips of macroporous polypropylene mesh as a suture for closure of abdominal wall defects due to failures of standard sutures and difficulties with planar meshes. Methods: Strips of macroporous polypropylene mesh of 2 cm width were passed through the abdominal wall and tied as simple interrupted sutures. The surgical technique and surgical outcomes are presented. Results: One hundred and seven patients underwent a mesh sutured abdominal wall closure. Seventy-six patients had preoperative hernias, and the mean hernia width by CT scan for those with scans was 9.1 cm. Forty-nine surgical fields were clean-contaminated, contaminated, or dirty. Five patients had infections within the first 30 days. Only one knot was removed as an office procedure. Mean follow-up at 234 days revealed 4 recurrent hernias. Conclusions: Mesh sutured repairs reliably appose tissue under tension using concepts of force distribution and resistance to suture pull-through. The technique reduces the amount of foreign material required in comparison to sheet meshes, and avoids the shortcomings of monofilament sutures. Mesh sutured closures seem to be tolerant of bacterial contamination with low hernia recurrence rates and have replaced our routine use of mesh sheets and bioprosthetic grafts. PMID:27757361

  14. Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  15. Transversus abdominal plane block as a sole anesthetic technique for abdominal wall hematoma drainage.

    PubMed

    Varela, N; Golvano, M; Monedero, P

    2016-10-01

    Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block is a known and useful technique, widely used for postoperative pain management of abdominal wall incisions. During the past years, and following the expansion of ultrasound guided techniques, its use has even gained more adepts. It is usually used as an adjuvant technique, primarily in order to control postoperative pain and reduce opioids consumption. We report the case of an 82 years old patient admitted for drainage of a postoperative abdominal wall hematoma after correction of a McBurney incisional hernia. The corrective surgery had gone on without incident, under general anesthesia with laryngeal mask. Two weeks later, the patient came back to our emergency department with a clear hematoma of the abdominal wall. Surgery was decided. A sole local anesthetic technique was achieved, using a TAP block. The block was performed under ultrasound guidance, using a subcostal approach. The surgery went on without complications. Therefore, TAP block offers a hemodynamic stability, appropriate intra-operative anesthesia and post-surgical analgesia of the abdominal wall.

  16. Intrathecal Administration of Tempol Reduces Chronic Constriction Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats by Increasing SOD Activity and Inhibiting NGF Expression.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baisong; Pan, Yongying; Wang, Zixin; Tan, Yonghong; Song, Xingrong

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the antinociceptive effect of intrathecal and intraperitoneal tempol administration in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain and explore the underlying antinociceptive mechanisms of tempol. Rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8 per group): sham group, CCI group, Tem1 group (intrathecal injection of tempol), and Tem2 group (intraperitoneal injection of tempol). Neuropathic pain was induced by CCI of the sciatic nerve. Tempol was intrathecally or intraperitoneally administered daily for 7 days beginning on postoperative day one. The mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were tested on preoperative day 3 and postoperative days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21. Structural changes were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining, toluidine blue staining, and electron microscopy. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined using the thiobarbituric acid and nitroblue tetrazolium methods, respectively. Nerve growth factor (NGF) expression levels were determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Intrathecal, but not intraperitoneal, injection of tempol produced a persistent antinociceptive effect. Intraperitoneal injection of tempol did not result in high enough concentration of tempol in the cerebrospinal fluid. Intrathecal, but not intraperitoneal, injection of tempol inhibited CCI-induced structural damage in the spinal cord reduced MDA levels, and increased SOD activities in the spinal cord. Furthermore, intrathecal, but not intraperitoneal, injection of tempol further downregulated the expression of NGF in the spinal cord following CCI, and this effect was blocked by p38MAPK inhibitor. Intrathecal injection of tempol produces antinociceptive effects and reduces CCI-induced structural damage in the spinal cord by increasing SOD activities and downregulating the expression of NGF via the p38MAPK pathway. Intraperitoneal administration of tempol does

  17. Novel Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) Derivative as a New Therapeutic Strategy for Reducing Neuropathic Pain after Chronic Constriction Nerve Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xifró, Xavier; Vidal-Sancho, Laura; Boadas-Vaello, Pere; Turrado, Carlos; Alberch, Jordi; Puig, Teresa; Verdú, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is common in peripheral nerve injury and often fails to respond to ordinary medication. Here, we investigated whether the two novel epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) polyphenolic derivatives, compound 23 and 30, reduce the neuropathic pain in mice chronic constriction nerve injury (CCI). First, we performed a dose-response study to evaluate nociceptive sensation after administration of EGCG and its derivatives 23 and 30, using the Hargreaves test at 7 and 21 days after injury (dpi). We daily administered EGCG, 23 and 30 (10 to 100 mg/Kg; i.p.) during the first week post-CCI. None of the doses of compound 23 caused significant pain diminution, whereas 50mg/kg was optimal for both EGCG and 30 to delay the latency of paw withdrawal. With 50 mg/Kg, we showed that EGCC prevented the thermal hyperalgesia from 7 to 21 dpi and compound 30 from 14 to 56 dpi. To evaluate the molecular mechanisms underpinning why EGCG and compound 30 differentially prevented the thermal hyperalgesia, we studied several biochemical parameters in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord at 14 and 56 dpi. We showed that the effect observed with EGCG and compound 30 was related to the inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN), a known target of these polyphenolic compounds. Additionally, we observed that EGCG and compound 30 reduced the expression of CCI-mediated inflammatory proteins and the nuclear localization of nuclear factor-kappa B at 14 dpi, but not at 56 dpi. We also strongly detected a decrease of synaptic plasma membrane levels of N-methyl-D-asparte receptor 2B in CCI-mice treated with compound 30 at 56 dpi. Altogether, compound 30 reduced the chronic thermal hyperalgesia induced by CCI better than the natural compound EGCG. Thus, our findings provide a rationale for the preclinical development of compound 30 as an agent to treat neuropathic pain. PMID:25855977

  18. Novel epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) derivative as a new therapeutic strategy for reducing neuropathic pain after chronic constriction nerve injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Xifró, Xavier; Vidal-Sancho, Laura; Boadas-Vaello, Pere; Turrado, Carlos; Alberch, Jordi; Puig, Teresa; Verdú, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is common in peripheral nerve injury and often fails to respond to ordinary medication. Here, we investigated whether the two novel epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) polyphenolic derivatives, compound 23 and 30, reduce the neuropathic pain in mice chronic constriction nerve injury (CCI). First, we performed a dose-response study to evaluate nociceptive sensation after administration of EGCG and its derivatives 23 and 30, using the Hargreaves test at 7 and 21 days after injury (dpi). We daily administered EGCG, 23 and 30 (10 to 100 mg/Kg; i.p.) during the first week post-CCI. None of the doses of compound 23 caused significant pain diminution, whereas 50mg/kg was optimal for both EGCG and 30 to delay the latency of paw withdrawal. With 50 mg/Kg, we showed that EGCC prevented the thermal hyperalgesia from 7 to 21 dpi and compound 30 from 14 to 56 dpi. To evaluate the molecular mechanisms underpinning why EGCG and compound 30 differentially prevented the thermal hyperalgesia, we studied several biochemical parameters in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord at 14 and 56 dpi. We showed that the effect observed with EGCG and compound 30 was related to the inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN), a known target of these polyphenolic compounds. Additionally, we observed that EGCG and compound 30 reduced the expression of CCI-mediated inflammatory proteins and the nuclear localization of nuclear factor-kappa B at 14 dpi, but not at 56 dpi. We also strongly detected a decrease of synaptic plasma membrane levels of N-methyl-D-asparte receptor 2B in CCI-mice treated with compound 30 at 56 dpi. Altogether, compound 30 reduced the chronic thermal hyperalgesia induced by CCI better than the natural compound EGCG. Thus, our findings provide a rationale for the preclinical development of compound 30 as an agent to treat neuropathic pain.

  19. Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment at Various Stages following Chronic Constriction Injury Produces Different Antinociceptive Effects via Regulation of P2X4R Expression and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bai-Song; Song, Xing-Rong; Hu, Pei-Ying; Meng, Ling-Xin; Tan, Yong-Hong; She, Ying-Jun; Ding, Yuan-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment at various stages following chronic constriction injury (CCI) and to explore the underlying mechanisms of HBO treatment. Methods Forty adult male Sprague—Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 8 for each group): the sham group, CCI group, HBO1 group, HBO2 group, and HBO3 group. Neuropathic pain was induced by CCI of the sciatic nerve. HBO treatment began on postoperative days 1, 6, and 11 and continued for 5 days. The mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were tested on preoperative day 3 and postoperative days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21. The expression of P2X4R was determined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Cell apoptosis was measured using TUNEL staining. The expression of caspase 3 was measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Electron microscopy was used to determine the ultrastructural changes. Results Early HBO treatment beginning on postoperative day 1 produced a persistent antinociceptive effect and inhibited the CCI-induced increase in the expression of P2X4R without changing CCI-induced apoptosis. In contrast, late HBO treatment beginning on postoperative day 11 produced a persistent antinociceptive effect and inhibited CCI-induced apoptosis and upregulation of caspase-3 without changing the expression of P2X4R. In addition, late HBO treatment reduced CCI-induced ultrastructural damage. However, HBO treatment beginning on postoperative day 6 produced a transient antinociceptive effect without changing the expression of P2X4R or CCI-induced apoptosis. Conclusion HBO treatment at various stages following CCI can produce antinociceptive effects via different mechanisms. Early HBO treatment is associated with inhibition of P2X4R expression, and late HBO treatment is associated with inhibition of cell apoptosis. PMID:25789619

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of emergency-performed focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) in blunt abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Ghafouri, Hamed Basir; Zare, Morteza; Bazrafshan, Azam; Modirian, Ehsan; Farahmand, Shervin; Abazarian, Niloofar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intra-abdominal hemorrhage due to blunt abdominal trauma is a major cause of trauma-related mortality. Therefore, any action taken for facilitating the diagnosis of intra-abdominal hemorrhage could save the lives of patients more effectively. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) performed by emergency physicians. Methods In this cross-sectional study from February 2011 to January 2012 at 7th Tir Hospital in Tehran (Iran), 120 patients with abdominal blunt trauma were chosen and evaluated for abdominal fluid. FAST sonography was performed for all the subjects by emergency residents and radiologists while they were blind to the other tests. Abdominal CTs, which is the gold standard, were done for all of the cases. SPSS 20.0 was used to analyze the results. Results During the study, 120 patients with abdominal blunt trauma were evaluated; the mean age of the patients was 33.0 ± 16.6 and the gender ratio was 3/1 (M/F). The results of FAST sonography by emergency physicians showed free fluid in the abdomen or pelvic spaces in 33 patients (27.5%), but this was not observed by the results of CT scans of six patients; sensitivity and specificity were 93.1 and 93.4%, respectively. As for tests performed by radiology residents, sensitivity was a bit higher (96.5%) with lower specificity (92.3%). Conclusion The results suggested that emergency physicians can use ultrasonography as a safe and reliable method in evaluating blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:27790349

  1. [Intra-abdominal pressure as a surgery predictor in patients with acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Campos-Muñoz, Manuel Alejandro; Villarreal-Ríos, Enrique; Chimal-Torres, Mariano; Pozas-Medina, Josué Atila

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la presión intraabdominal es el estado de equilibrio de la presión de la cavidad abdominal en reposo y puede presentar cambios durante la ventilación mecánica o espontánea. El objetivo fue determinar la presión intraabdominal como predictor de cirugía en el paciente con dolor abdominal agudo. Métodos: se llevó a cabo un estudio de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte de pacientes con dolor abdominal agudo en el servicio de urgencias de un hospital de segundo nivel, en el periodo comprendido entre abril y diciembre de 2013. Se incluyeron 37 pacientes, todos fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente con previa toma de la presión intraabdominal. Se formaron los grupos con el resultado del estudio anatomopatológico: con evidencia de proceso inflamatorio abdominal agudo (n = 28) y sin evidencia de proceso inflamatorio abdominal agudo (n = 9). Resultados: en los casos el 100 % presentó presión intraabdominal alta con una p = 0.01, RM: 5 (IC 95 %: 2.578-9.699). En los casos la media de la presión intraabdominal fue de 11.46 y en los controles de 9.2 (p = 0.183). Conclusiones: el dolor abdominal que requiere cirugía para su resolución tiene relación directa con una presión intraabdominal > 5 mmHg.

  2. Abdominal compliance: A bench-to-bedside review.

    PubMed

    Blaser, Annika Reintam; Björck, Martin; De Keulenaer, Bart; Regli, Adrian

    2015-05-01

    Abdominal compliance (AC) is an important determinant and predictor of available workspace during laparoscopic surgery. Furthermore, critically ill patients with a reduced AC are at an increased risk of developing intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome, both of which are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite this, AC is a concept that has been neglected in the past.AC is defined as a measure of the ease of abdominal expansion, expressed as a change in intra-abdominal volume (IAV) per change in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP):AC = ΔIAV / ΔIAPAC is a dynamic variable dependent on baseline IAV and IAP as well as abdominal reshaping and stretching capacity. Whereas AC itself can only rarely be measured, it always needs to be considered an important component of IAP. Patients with decreased AC are prone to fulminant development of abdominal compartment syndrome when concomitant risk factors for intra-abdominal hypertension are present.This review aims to clarify the pressure-volume relationship within the abdominal cavity. It highlights how different conditions and pathologies can affect AC and which management strategies could be applied to avoid serious consequences of decreased AC.We have pooled all available human data to calculate AC values in patients acutely and chronically exposed to intra-abdominal hypertension and demonstrated an exponential abdominal pressure-volume relationship. Most importantly, patients with high level of IAP have a reduced AC. In these patients, only small reduction in IAV can significantly increase AC and reduce IAPs.A greater knowledge on AC may help in selecting a better surgical approach and in reducing complications related to intra-abdominal hypertension.

  3. USE OF ALLOPLASTIC MESHES IN ABDOMINAL WOUNDS OF RATS WITH INDUCED PERITONITIS

    PubMed Central

    BARBUTO, Rafael Calvão; DUVAL-ARAUJO, Ivana; BARRAL, Sumara Marques; ROCHA, Raphael Grossi; BECHARA, Cristiane de Souza; BARBOSA, Alfredo José Afonso

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of alloplastic meshes has been historically contra-indicated in patients with infection. Aim To evaluate the use of polypropylene meshes in the treatment of abdominal wall defects in rats with peritonitis. Methods Twenty Wistar female rats were divided into two groups: induction of peritonitis (test group) and without peritonitis (control group). An abdominal wall defect was created in all animals, and polypropylene mesh was applied. The evaluation of the tensile strength of the mesh was carried out using tensiometer and microscopic analysis of the healing area was done. Results More adhesion of the mesh to the rat abdominal wall was observed in test group. The histopathological analyses showed prevalence of moderate to accentuated granulation tissue in both groups, without significant differences. Conclusion The use of the mesh coverage on abdominal wall defects of rats with induced peritonitis did not show worse results than its use in healthy animals, nor was its integration to the resident tissue any worse. PMID:24676294

  4. Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Chaikof, Elliot L.; Lin, Peter H.; Brinkman, William T.; Dodson, Thomas F.; Weiss, Victor J.; Lumsden, Alan B.; Terramani, Thomas T.; Najibi, Sasan; Bush, Ruth L.; Salam, Atef A.; Smith, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Objective The impact of co-morbid conditions on early and late clinical outcomes after endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was assessed in concurrent cohorts of patients stratified with respect to risk for intervention. Summary Background Data As a minimally invasive strategy for the treatment of AAA, endovascular repair has been embraced with enthusiasm for all prospective patients who are suitable anatomical candidates because of the promise of achieving a durable result with a reduced risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Methods From April 1994 to March 2001, endovascular AAA repair was performed in 236 patients using commercially available systems. A subset of patients considered at increased risk for intervention (n = 123) were categorized, as such, based on a preexisting history of ischemic coronary artery disease, with documentation of myocardial infarction (60%) or congestive heart failure (35%), or due to the presence of chronic obstructive disease (21%), liver disease, or malignancy. Results Perioperative mortality (30-day) was 6.5% in the increased-risk patients as compared to 1.8% among those classified as low risk (P = NS). There was no difference between groups in age (74 ± 9 years vs. 72 ± 6 years; mean ± SD), surgical time (235 ± 95 minutes vs. 219 ± 84 minutes), blood loss (457 ± 432 mL vs. 351 ± 273 mL), postoperative hospital stay (4.8 ± 3.4 days vs. 4.0 ± 3.9 days), or days in the ICU (1.3 ± 1.8 days vs. 0.5 ± 1.6 days). Patients at increased risk of intervention had larger aneurysms than low-risk patients (59 ± 13 mm vs. 51 ± 14 mm;P < .05). Stent grafts were successfully implanted in 116 (95%) increased-risk versus 107 (95%) low-risk patients (P = NS). Conversion rates to open operative repair were similar in increased-risk and low-risk groups at 3% and 5%, respectively. The initial endoleak rate was 22% versus 20%, based on the first CT performed (either at discharge or 1 month;P = NS). To date

  5. The effects of abdominal draw-in maneuver and core exercise on abdominal muscle thickness and Oswestry disability index in subjects with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong-Doo; Yu, Seong-Hun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to effects of abdominal draw-in maneuver and core exercise with 4 weeks using the musculoskeletal ultrasonography on muscle thickness and disability in subjects with low back pain. Twenty patients with nonspecific back pain (abdominal draw-in maneuver group: n= 10, core exercise group: n= 10) were recruited in the study. Both group received exercise intervention 3 times a week for 4weeks. The test were based on muscle thickness (transversus abdominis; Tra, internal oblique; IO and external oblique; EO), disability (Oswestry disability index; ODI) measured immediately before and after intervention. The data was measured by SPSS program 12.0 version and analyzed by Paired t-test and Independent t-test. The following results were obtained. The thickness of IO, EO for both group significantly improved except for muscle thickness of Tra. The ODI were significant difference for both groups. As the results of this study, we suggest that it may be effective method to apply to increase for the thickness of Tra, EO using abdominal draw-in maneuver and thickness of IO using core exercise. PMID:24278873

  6. The role of antidepressants in the treatment of abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Rosmond, R; Björntorp, P

    2000-06-01

    The pathophysiology of abdominal obesity is unclear and controversial. Recent evidence now suggests that inadequate cortisol secretion is associated with abnormalities in glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, including hypertension, bringing the importance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the pathogenesis of abdominal obesity to the forefront. In addition, abnormal gonadal steroid concentrations and impaired plasma growth hormone levels accompany the abdominally obese state. Since the reproductive and growth axes are inhibited at many levels by various components of the HPA axis, increasing cortisol levels results in further depression of testosterone and growth hormone concentrations. Over the last decade, antidepressant (serotoninergic) drugs have proved useful as equalizers of HPA axis hyperactivity. Such therapy may interrupt the vicious circle of a hyperactive HPA axis leading to increasing abdominal obesity and endocrine perturbations that, in turn, leads to progressive accumulation of abdominal fat. Additionally, preliminary results indicate that serotoninergic agents decrease abdominal fat mass with improvements in related risk factors.

  7. Functional Abdominal Pain: "Get" the Function, Loose the Pain.

    PubMed

    Draeger-Muenke, Reinhild

    2015-07-01

    Functional abdominal pain is a mind-body, psychosocial, and self-reinforcing experience with significant consequences for the sufferer and the surrounding support network. The occurrence of unpredictable symptoms and their severity add an element of dread and feeling out-of-control to daily life and often reduce overall functioning in a downward spiral. Two clinical presentations of functional abdominal pain are offered in this article (composites to protect confidentiality) dealing with abdominal pain syndrome and abdominal migraines. The treatment demonstrates the use of hypnotic principles for self-regulation, exploration, and meaning-making. Hypnosis treatment is conducted in combination with mindfulness-based interventions and Traditional Chinese Medicine's (TCM) teachings regarding abdominal health and illness. The clinical examples illustrate medical findings that suggest children with early life stress and an early onset of gastrointestinal somatization may not simply outgrow their functional abdominal pain but may suffer into adulthood. PMID:26046716

  8. Surrogate Markers of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression.

    PubMed

    Wanhainen, Anders; Mani, Kevin; Golledge, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    The natural course of many abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is to gradually expand and eventually rupture and monitoring the disease progression is essential to their management. In this publication, we review surrogate markers of AAA progression. AAA diameter remains the most widely used and important marker of AAA growth. Standardized reporting of reproducible methods of measuring AAA diameter is essential. Newer imaging assessments, such as volume measurements, biomechanical analyses, and functional and molecular imaging, as well as circulating biomarkers, have potential to add important information about AAA progression. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to recommend their routine use in clinical practice. PMID:26715680

  9. Spinal ischemia following abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, L R; Bergan, J J; Conn, J; Yao, J S

    1975-03-01

    Serious spinal cord ischemia may follow infrarenal abdominal aortic surgery. Five cases are summarized and added to the 23 previously published cases in order to identify this syndrome, emphasize its importance, and draw attention to the possibility of spontaneous recovery which may occur. The multifactorial complex which comprises each patient's clinical picture clouds a precise and specific cause for paraplegia in these cases. However, neither hypotension, steal phenomena nor emboli are necessary for completion of the syndrome. The relevant spinal cord arterial anatomy indicates that the common anomalies which occur favor development of spinal cord ischemia in the arteriosclerotic population which requires aortic surgery. No means of prevention is possible at this time.

  10. [Unusual abdominal complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt].

    PubMed

    Guillén, A; Costa, J M; Castelló, I; Claramunt, E; Cardona, E

    2002-10-01

    The most common complications after CSF shunting to treat hydrocephalus are shunt infection and obstruction. Although ventriculoperitoneal (VP) diversion of the CSF using artificial shunt devices is an accepted method for the management of hydrocephalus, high rates of various complications have been reported, ranging from 24% to 47%. Among these, abdominal complications account for approximately 25%. The incidence of bowel perforation by shunt-catheter is known to be as low as 0.1-0.7%. We describe a case of migration af a peritoneal catheter through a congenital hernia of Morgagni.

  11. Large posterior abdominal masses: computed tomographic localization.

    PubMed

    Engel, I A; Auh, Y H; Rubenstein, W A; Whalen, J P; Kazam, E

    1983-10-01

    Large posterior abdominal masses, particularly those in the right upper abdomen, may be difficult to localize correctly into the peritoneal or retroperitoneal compartments. The following signs were found to be reliable CT indicators of retroperitoneal location: obliteration of the perinephric fat outlining the psoas muscle; lateral displacement of the fat outlining the posterior right lobe of the liver; rotation of the intrahepatic portal veins to the left; anterior displacement of the inferior vena cava and renal veins; and anterior displacement of the ascending colon, descending duodenum, or pancreatic head.

  12. Endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract induces constriction of bovine vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline (ERV) has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However preliminary in vitro tests show that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ERV alone indicating other compoun...

  13. [Abdominal spasms, meteorism, diarrhea: fructose intolerance, lactose intolerance or IBS?].

    PubMed

    Litschauer-Poursadrollah, Margaritha; El-Sayad, Sabine; Wantke, Felix; Fellinger, Christina; Jarisch, Reinhart

    2012-12-01

    Meteorism, abdominal spasms, diarrhea, casually obstipation, flatulence and nausea are symptoms of fructose malabsorption (FIT) and/or lactose intolerance (LIT), but are also symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Therefore these diseases should be considered primarily in patients with digestive complaints. For diagnosis an H(2)-breath test is used.In 1,935 patients (526 m, 1,409 f) a fructose intolerance test and in 1,739 patients (518 m,1,221 f) a lactose intolerance test was done.FIT is found more frequently than LIT (57 versus 52 % in adults (p < 0,02) and in children 90 versus 62 % (p < 0,001)) and is in polyintolerances most frequently correlated to histamine intolerance (HIT). Headache (ca. 10 %), fatigue (ca. 5 %) and dizziness (ca. 3 %) may occur after the test, irrespective whether the test was positive or negative.In more than 2/3 of patients a diet reduced in fructose or lactose may lead to improvement or remission of these metabolic disorders. IBS, which is often correlated with FIT (183/221 patients = 83 %), can be improved by relevant but also not relevant diets indicating that irritable bowel disease seems to be caused primarily by psychological disorders.

  14. Unclear Abdominal Discomfort: Pivotal Role of Carbohydrate Malabsorption

    PubMed Central

    Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Stengel, Andreas; Schmidtmann, Marco; van der Voort, Ivo; Kobelt, Peter; Mönnikes, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Carbohydrate malabsorption is frequent in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders and in healthy volunteers and can cause gastrointestinal symptoms mimicking irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of symptomatic lactose and fructose malabsorption in a large population of patients with IBS-like symptoms based on Rome II criteria. Methods Patients with unclear abdominal discomfort (n = 2,390) underwent lactose (50 g) and fructose (50 g) hydrogen (H2) breath tests and depending on the results further testing with 25 g fructose or 50 g glucose, or upper endoscopy with duodenal biopsies. Additionally, this population was investigated regarding the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) based on glucose breath test and celiac disease. Results Of the 2,390 patients with IBS-like symptoms, 848 (35%) were symptomatic lactose malabsorbers and 1,531 (64%) symptomatic fructose malabsorbers. A combined symptomatic carbohydrate malabsorption was found in 587 (25%) patients. Severe fructose malabsorbers (pathologic 25 g fructose test) exhaled significantly higher H2 concentrations in the 50 g test than patients with negative 25 g fructose test (P < 0.001). Out of 460/659 patients with early significant H2 increase in the lactose and fructose test who underwent a glucose breath test, 88 patients had positive results indicative of SIBO and they were significantly older than patients with negative test result (P < 0.01). Celiac disease was found in 1/161 patients by upper endoscopy. Conclusions Carbohydrate malabsorption is a frequent but underestimated condition in patients with IBS-like symptoms although diagnosis can be easily confirmed by H2 breath testing. PMID:24840375

  15. A Case of Pulmonary Paragonimiasis with Involvement of the Abdominal Muscle in a 9-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ah-Rum; Lee, Hae-Ran; Lee, Kwan-Sub; Lee, Sang-Eun

    2011-01-01

    In Korea, many people enjoy eating raw or underkooked freshwater crayfish and crabs which unfortunately may cause paragonimiasis. Here, we describe a case of pulmonary and abdominal paragonimiasis in a 9-year-old girl, who presented with a 1-month history of abdominal pain, especially in the right flank and the right inguinal area, with anorexia. A chest radiograph revealed pleural effusion in both lungs, and her abdominal sonography indicated an inflammatory lesion in the right psoas muscle. Peripheral blood analysis of the patient showed hypereosinophilia (66.0%) and an elevated total serum IgE level (>2,500 IU/ml). The pleural effusion tested by ELISA were also positive for antibodies against paragonimiasis. Her dietary history stated that she had ingested raw freshwater crab, 4 months previously. The diagnosis was pulmonary paragonimiasis accompanied by abdominal muscle involvement. She was improved after 5 cycles of praziquantel treatment and 2 times of pleural effusion drainage. In conclusion, herein, we report a case of pulmonary and abdominal paragonimiasis in a girl who presented with abdominal pain and tenderness in the inguinal area. PMID:22355209

  16. Handlebar Hernia: A Rare Type of Abdominal Wall Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Khairi A. F.; Elsharawy, Mohamed A.; Moghazy, Khaled; AlQurain, Abdulaziz

    2008-01-01

    Handlebar hernias are abdominal wall hernias resulting from direct trauma to the anterior abdominal wall. They usually result at weak anatomic locations of the abdominal wall. Such traumatic hernias are rare, requiring a high index of suspicion for a clinical diagnosis. We report the case of a handlebar hernia resulting from an injury sustained during a vehicular injury, and discuss the management of such injuries. PMID:19568493

  17. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Current Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Luckianow, Gina M.; Ellis, Matthew; Governale, Deborah; Kaplan, Lewis J.

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome's manifestations are difficult to definitively detect on physical examination alone. Therefore, objective criteria have been articulated that aid the bedside clinician in detecting intra-abdominal hypertension as well as the abdominal compartment syndrome to initiate prompt and potentially life-saving intervention. At-risk patient populations should be routinely monitored and tiered interventions should be undertaken as a team approach to management. PMID:22720147

  18. Prevalence of abdominal migraine and recurrent abdominal pain in a Japanese clinic.

    PubMed

    Hikita, Toshiyuki

    2016-07-01

    Prevalence of abdominal migraine (AM) and recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) was evaluated in patients who visited Hikita Pediatric Clinic between May 2010 and April 2015. Patient data were collected prospectively using a questionnaire. Out of a total of 3611 cases, observed prevalence was 2.44% for repeated abdominal pain over a period of ≥3 months, 1.47% for RAP, and 0.19% for AM. Duration of abdominal pain was longer for AM than for non-AM RAP. Certain clinical features were significantly different between AM and non-AM RAP. No correlations were found among age at onset, frequency of attack, and duration of attack for various types of RAP. It was difficult to determine useful diagnostic criteria for distinguishing between AM and non-AM RAP. They did not appear to be separate disease entities but, instead, lie on a disease spectrum. The present prevalence of AM (0.19%) was lower than that in many previous studies from countries other than Japan. PMID:27460403

  19. Teaching Cost-Conscious Medicine: Impact of a Simple Educational Intervention on Appropriate Abdominal Imaging at a Community-Based Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Covington, Matthew F.; Agan, Donna L.; Liu, Yang; Johnson, John O.; Shaw, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rising costs pose a major threat to US health care. Residency programs are being asked to teach residents how to provide cost-conscious medical care. Methods An educational intervention incorporating the American College of Radiology appropriateness criteria with lectures on cost-consciousness and on the actual hospital charges for abdominal imaging was implemented for residents at Scripps Mercy Hospital in San Diego, CA. We hypothesized that residents would order fewer abdominal imaging examinations for patients with complaints of abdominal pain after the intervention. We analyzed the type and number of abdominal imaging studies completed for patients admitted to the inpatient teaching service with primary abdominal complaints for 18 months before (738 patients) and 12 months following the intervention (632 patients). Results There was a significant reduction in mean abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans per patient (1.7–1.4 studies per patient, P < .001) and total abdominal radiology studies per patient (3.1–2.7 studies per patient, P  =  .02) following the intervention. The avoidance of charges solely due to the reduction in abdominal CT scans following the intervention was $129 per patient or $81,528 in total. Conclusions A simple educational intervention appeared to change the radiologic test-ordering behavior of internal medicine residents. Widespread adoption of similar interventions by residency programs could result in significant savings for the health care system. PMID:24404274

  20. Changes in muscle strength and pain in response to surgical repair of posterior abdominal wall disruption followed by rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Hemingway, A; Herrington, L; Blower, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Posterior abdominal wall deficiency (PAWD) is a tear in the external oblique aponeurosis or the conjoint tendon causing a posterior wall defect at the medial end of the inguinal canal. It is often known as sportsman's hernia and is believed to be caused by repetitive stress. Objective: To assess lower limb and abdominal muscle strength of patients with PAWD before intervention compared with matched controls; to evaluate any changes following surgical repair and rehabilitation. Methods: Sixteen subjects were assessed using a questionnaire, isokinetic testing of the lower limb strength, and pressure biofeedback testing of the abdominals. After surgery and a six week rehabilitation programme, the subjects were re-evaluated. A control group were assessed using the same procedure. Results: Quadriceps and hamstrings strength was not affected by this condition. A deficit hip muscle strength was found on the affected limb before surgery, which was significant for the hip flexors (p = 0.05). Before surgery, 87% of the patients compared with 20% of the controls failed the abdominal obliques test. Both the injured and non-injured sides had improved significantly in strength after surgery and rehabilitation. The strength of the abdominal obliques showed the most significant improvement over the course of the rehabilitation programme. Conclusions: Lower limb muscle strength may have been reduced as the result of disuse atrophy or pain inhibition. Abdominal oblique strength was deficient in the injured patients and this compromises rotational control of the pelvis. More sensitive investigations (such as electromyography) are needed to assess the link between abdominal oblique function and groin injury. PMID:12547744

  1. [Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. A rare form of presentation].

    PubMed

    Rettedal, E A; Vennesland, O

    1993-05-10

    In most cases a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurism is dramatic, with rapid deterioration of the clinical condition of the patient. With abdominal and back pain, pulsatile tumour, and development of bleeding shock the diagnosis is obvious. In some cases the symptoms are not clear and the condition can be misinterpreted. The authors describe a case to illustrate this. A 74 year-old male was admitted to hospital with vague abdominal pain and left inguinal hernia. It later turned out that a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurism was the reason for his symptoms and signs. 14 similar cases are reported in the literature. PMID:8332976

  2. [Abdominal pseudocyst as a complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt].

    PubMed

    Shakir, Shawnim; Hegelund, Sture

    2013-09-16

    The abdominal pseudocyst is an unfrequent complication in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Although many cases have been reported in children, it is rare in adult patients. However, a 47-year-old man with congenital hydrocephalus who had been treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt since the age of three months, was admitted to hospital due to abdominal pain. He was eventually diagnosed radiologically as having an abdominal pseudocyst. Despite this complication being rare, especially in adults, it should be highly suspected whenever an abdominal cyst co-occurs with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

  3. Abdominal alterations in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis: computed tomography findings*

    PubMed Central

    Vermelho, Marli Batista Fernandes; Correia, Ademir Silva; Michailowsky, Tânia Cibele de Almeida; Suzart, Elizete Kazumi Kuniyoshi; Ibanês, Aline Santos; Almeida, Lanamar Aparecida; Khoury, Zarifa; Barba, Mário Flores

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence and spectrum of abdominal computed tomography imaging findings in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of abdominal computed tomography images of 26 patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. Results Abnormal abdominal tomographic findings were observed in 18 patients (69.2%), while no significant finding was observed in the other 8 (30.8%) patients. Conclusion Computed tomography has demonstrated to play a relevant role in the screening and detection of abdominal abnormalities in patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:25987748

  4. Intra-abdominal bronchogenic cyst: report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kang Kook; Sung, Ji-Youn; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Hyojun; Choi, Dong Wook; Choi, Seong Ho; Heo, Jin Seok

    2012-05-01

    An intra-abdominal bronchogenic cyst (BC) is a very rare congenital anomaly caused by abnormal budding of the developing tracheobronchial tree. Intra-abdominal BCs are reported as retroperitoneal masses in most cases, many of which are located on the left side of the midline, the perigastric area, the left adrenal gland, or the superior body of the pancreas. Intra-abdominal BCs are frequently misdiagnosed due to the rarity, location, and variable cystic content. We report five patients with intra-abdominal BCs who underwent surgery in a single institution.

  5. Abdominal aneurysm and horseshoe kidney: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Bietz, D S; Merendino, K A

    1975-01-01

    Two patients with aortic abdominal aneurysms in association with horseshoe kidney are presented, making a total of 34 cases recorded in the literature. In 29 patients, the aneurysm was resected and five patients were non-resectable. Because of the abnormalities in vascular supply to the abnormal kidney, it is important to diagnose the combination of aneurysm and horseshoe kidney preoperatively. An error in diagnosis should be unusual if an intravenous pyelogram is routinely obtained on all patients. This study may reveal abnormalities which will allow the diagnosis of horseshoe kidney to be made or suspected. If the intravenous pyelogram is abnormal, it should be followed by an aortogram. This may substantiate the diagnosis of aneurysm and horseshoe kidney and provide the necessary detailed information regarding the pattern of blood supply and its relationship to functioning tissue. The amount and disposition of functioning renal parenchyma may be further amplified by renal scan. If this sequence is followed, the unanticipated combination of abdominal aneurysm and horseshoe kidney should be rare. PMID:1130850

  6. Abdominal Drainage Following Appendectomy and Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Stone, H. Harlan; Hooper, C. Ann; Millikan, William J.

    1978-01-01

    Consecutive patients undergoing emergency appendectomy (283) or urgent cholecystectomy (51) were prospectively studied for the development of post-operative incisional or peritoneal sepsis. Severity of the original peritoneal infection was carefully recorded, while use of a Penrose dam to drain the peritoneum was randomized according to pre-assigned hospital number. Both aerobic and anaerobic cultures were taken from the abdomen at the time of operation as well as from all postoperative infectious foci. Results demonstrated no essential differences in incidence of wound and peritoneal infection following appendectomy for simple or suppurative appendicitis (187) or following cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis (51). However, with gangrenous or perforative appendicitis (94), incisional and intra-abdominal infection rates were 43% and 45%, respectively, when a drain was used; yet only 29 and 13%, respectively, without a drain. These latter differences were significant (p < 0.001). In addition, intra-abdominal abscesses were three times as likely to drain through the incision than along any tract provided by the rubber conduit. Cultures revealed that hospital pathogens accounted for a greater proportion of wound and peritoneal sepsis after cholecystectomy and appendectomy for simple or suppurative appendicitis if a drain had been inserted than if managed otherwise. By contrast, a mixed bacterial flora was responsible for most infections following appendectomy for gangrenous or perforated appendicitis, irrespective as to use of a drain. PMID:646499

  7. Constipation Risk in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Sevim; Atar, Nurdan Yalcin; Ozturk, Nilgun; Mendes, Guler; Kuytak, Figen; Bakar, Esra; Dalgiran, Duygu; Ergin, Sumeyra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Problems regarding bowel elimination are quite common in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Objectives: To determine constipation risk before the surgery, bowel elimination during postoperative period, and the factors affecting bowel elimination. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a general surgery ward of a university hospital in Zonguldak, Turkey between January 2013 and May 2013. A total of 107 patients were included in the study, who were selected by convenience sampling. Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS), patient information form, medical and nursing records were used in the study. Results: The mean age of the patients was found to be 55.97 ± 15.74 (year). Most of the patients have undergone colon (37.4%) and stomach surgeries (21.5%). Open surgical intervention (83.2%) was performed on almost all patients (96.3%) under general anesthesia. Patients were at moderate risk for constipation with average scores of 11.71 before the surgery. A total of 77 patients (72%) did not have bowel elimination problem during postoperative period. The type of the surgery (P < 0.05), starting time for oral feeding after the surgery (P < 0.05), and mobilization (P < 0.05) were effective on postoperative bowel elimination. Conclusions: There is a risk for constipation after abdominal surgery. Postoperative practices are effective on the risk of constipation. PMID:26380107

  8. Ultrasound Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical Need Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm. In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 2% and 5.4%. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are found in 4% to 8% of older men and in 0.5% to 1.5% of women aged 65 years and older. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are largely asymptomatic. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. Often rupture may occur without warning, causing acute pain. Rupture is always life threatening and requires emergency surgical repair of the ruptured aorta. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. Over one-half of all deaths attributed to a ruptured aneurysm take place before the patient reaches hospital. In comparison, the rate of death in people undergoing elective surgery is 5% to 7%; however, symptoms of AAA rarely occur before rupture. Given that ultrasound can reliably visualize the aorta in 99% of the population, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AAA approaches 100%, screening for aneurysms is worth considering as it may reduce the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and hence reduce unnecessary deaths caused by AAA-attributable mortality. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Case reports, letters, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, non-human studies, and comments were excluded. Questions asked: Is population-based AAA screening effective in improving health outcomes in asymptomatic populations? Is AAA screening acceptable to the population? Does this affect the

  9. Serum amylase and lipase in the evaluation of acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Chase, C W; Barker, D E; Russell, W L; Burns, R P

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine 1) the incidence and magnitude of elevation in admission serum amylase and lipase levels in extrapancreatic etiologies of acute abdominal pain, and 2) the test most closely associated with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Serum amylase and lipase levels were obtained in 306 patients admitted for evaluation of acute abdominal pain. Patients were categorized by anatomic location of identified pathology. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the enzyme levels between patient groups and to determine the correlation between elevation in serum amylase and lipase. Twenty-seven (13%) of 208 patients with an extrapancreatic etiology of acute abdominal pain demonstrated an elevated admission serum amylase level with a maximum value of 385 units (U)/L (normal range 30-110 U/L). Twenty-six (12.5%) of these 208 patients had an elevated admission serum lipase value with a maximum of 3685 U/L (normal range 5-208 U/L). Of 48 patients with abdominal pain resulting from acute pancreatitis, admission serum amylase ranged from 30 to 7680 U/L and lipase ranged from 5 to 90,654 U/L. Both serum amylase and lipase elevations were positively associated with a correct diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (P < 0.001) with diagnostic efficiencies of 91 and 94 per cent, respectively. A close correlation between elevation of admission serum amylase and lipase was observed (r = 0.87) in both extrapancreatic and pancreatic disease processes. Serum amylase and lipase levels may be elevated in nonpancreatic disease processes of the abdomen. Significant elevations (greater than three times upper limit of normal) in either enzyme are uncommon in these disorders. The strong correlation between elevations in the two serum enzymes in both pancreatic and extrapancreatic etiologies of abdominal pain makes them redundant measures. Serum lipase is a better test than serum amylase either to exclude or to support a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis.

  10. A 7 years old girl with abdominal lump and per-vaginal bleeding of hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Roy, N; Nahar, K; Begum, B; Sarker, U K; Akter, F; Roy, J; Chakrabarty, R

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder resulting from decreased secretion of thyroid hormone. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is suggested from the clinical and laboratory findings. Here we present a case report on this disease with rare presentation of abdominal lump and pervaginal bleeding in childhood. A 7 years old girl admitted in a tertiary level hospital with abdominal lump and irregular per vaginal bleeding. Abdominal swelling was gradually increasing in size & associated with lower abdominal pain for last 5 months. On examination the girl was moderately anaemic, mildly oedematous, distended lower abdomen and a mass in left iliac region. Her thyroid function test, serum FSH, serum LH, serum Prolactin was done and high FSH, LH, Prolactin levels were found. Ultrasonography of lower abdomen revealed bulky uterus and bilateral ovarian cysts. MRI of Brain showed feature of pituitary microadenoma. Finally the patient was diagnosed as primary hypothyroidism and bilateral follicular ovarian cyst with pituitary adenoma developed as its consequence. The case is reported for clinical awareness & to share our experience. PMID:25725684

  11. A 7 years old girl with abdominal lump and per-vaginal bleeding of hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Roy, N; Nahar, K; Begum, B; Sarker, U K; Akter, F; Roy, J; Chakrabarty, R

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder resulting from decreased secretion of thyroid hormone. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is suggested from the clinical and laboratory findings. Here we present a case report on this disease with rare presentation of abdominal lump and pervaginal bleeding in childhood. A 7 years old girl admitted in a tertiary level hospital with abdominal lump and irregular per vaginal bleeding. Abdominal swelling was gradually increasing in size & associated with lower abdominal pain for last 5 months. On examination the girl was moderately anaemic, mildly oedematous, distended lower abdomen and a mass in left iliac region. Her thyroid function test, serum FSH, serum LH, serum Prolactin was done and high FSH, LH, Prolactin levels were found. Ultrasonography of lower abdomen revealed bulky uterus and bilateral ovarian cysts. MRI of Brain showed feature of pituitary microadenoma. Finally the patient was diagnosed as primary hypothyroidism and bilateral follicular ovarian cyst with pituitary adenoma developed as its consequence. The case is reported for clinical awareness & to share our experience.

  12. Atypical presentation of intra-abdominal extralobar pulmonary sequestration detected in prenatal care: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Márcio Rodrigues; Costa, Théo Rodrigues; Leite, Mauricio Sérgio Brasil; de Souza, Fernandes Rodrigues; Reis, Alexandre Magno Bahia; Pereira, Bruno Paiva; de Oliveira, Arthur Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe an unusual clinical presentation of intra-abdominal extralobar pulmonary sequestration in a 2-year, 9 month-old patient and assess diagnostic and treatment aspects of this pathology. Case description: An undefined intra-abdominal mass was identified in the right adrenal region in a male fetus. Postnatal evaluation with ultrasound images, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and laboratory testing was insufficient to determine the nature of the lesion. After two years, laparoscopic resection of the mass and histopathological examination of the surgical specimen allowed to establish the diagnosis of intra-abdominal extralobar pulmonary sequestration. Comments: This malformation can be monitored clinically; however, surgical excision is often performed, probably due to the impossibility of attaining diagnosis with non-invasive methods, such as in the present case, in which the lesion appeared in an unusual position for intra-abdominal extralobar pulmonary sequestration. Therefore, the surgical approach seems to be the key to attain the diagnosis and establish the conduct for this type of congenital malformation. PMID:26611889

  13. Structure of a bacterial virus DNA-injection protein complex reveals a decameric assembly with a constricted molecular channel

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Haiyan; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Matsui, Tsutomu; Lin, Zihan; Liang, Lingfei; Lynn, Anna Y.; Varnado, Brittany; Weiss, Thomas M.; Tang, Liang; Schuch, Raymond

    2016-02-16

    The multi-layered cell envelope structure of Gram-negative bacteria represents significant physical and chemical barriers for short-tailed phages to inject phage DNA into the host cytoplasm. Here we show that a DNA-injection protein of bacteriophage Sf6, gp12, forms a 465-kDa, decameric assembly in vitro. The electron microscopic structure of the gp12 assembly shows a ~150-Å, mushroom-like architecture consisting of a crown domain and a tube-like domain, which embraces a 25-Å-wide channel that could precisely accommodate dsDNA. The constricted channel suggests that gp12 mediates rapid, uni-directional injection of phage DNA into host cells by providing a molecular conduit for DNA translocation. Themore » assembly exhibits a 10-fold symmetry, which may be a common feature among DNA-injection proteins of P22-like phages and may suggest a symmetry mismatch with respect to the 6-fold symmetric phage tail. As a result, the gp12 monomer is highly flexible in solution, supporting a mechanism for translocation of the protein through the conduit of the phage tail toward the host cell envelope, where it assembles into a DNA-injection device.« less

  14. 5-Carboxamide tryptamine, a compound with high affinity for 5-hydroxytryptamine1 binding sites, dilates arterioles and constricts arteriovenous anastomoses.

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, P. R.; Verdouw, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of 5-carboxamide tryptamine, which activates non-5-hydroxytryptamine2-'atypical' receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the dog saphenous vein, was studied on the complete distribution of cardiac output and common carotid blood flow in anaesthetized pigs. The drug was infused for 10 min at the rate of 0.025, 0.1 and 0.4 micrograms kg-1 min-1 either intravenously (cardiac output distribution) or intra-arterially (carotid distribution). 5-Carboxamide tryptamine decreased arterial blood pressure due to a reduction of cardiac output. This reduction was confined to its arteriovenous anastomotic component; the component used for the tissue perfusion (nutrient part) in fact increased. Similar changes were observed in the carotid blood flow distribution. Vasodilation was observed in several tissues, but the skin, ears and stomach responded most prominently. The effects of 5-carboxamide tryptamine on the carotid distribution were not significantly modified by cyproheptadine (1 mg kg-1). It is concluded that, like 5-HT, 5-carboxamide tryptamine constricts arteriovenous anastomoses and dilates arterioles by activating non-5-HT2-'atypical' receptors. These 'atypical' 5-HT receptors appear to be of the 5-HT1 type since both 5-carboxamide tryptamine and BEA 1654, a new piperazine derivative, produced similar vascular effects in the carotid bed of the pig and also showed a high and selective affinity for the 5-HT1 binding sites. PMID:3978321

  15. Structure of a Bacterial Virus DNA-Injection Protein Complex Reveals a Decameric Assembly with a Constricted Molecular Channel

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Haiyan; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Matsui, Tsutomu; Lin, Zihan; Liang, Lingfei; Lynn, Anna Y.; Varnado, Brittany; Weiss, Thomas M.; Tang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    The multi-layered cell envelope structure of Gram-negative bacteria represents significant physical and chemical barriers for short-tailed phages to inject phage DNA into the host cytoplasm. Here we show that a DNA-injection protein of bacteriophage Sf6, gp12, forms a 465-kDa, decameric assembly in vitro. The electron microscopic structure of the gp12 assembly shows a ~150-Å, mushroom-like architecture consisting of a crown domain and a tube-like domain, which embraces a 25-Å-wide channel that could precisely accommodate dsDNA. The constricted channel suggests that gp12 mediates rapid, uni-directional injection of phage DNA into host cells by providing a molecular conduit for DNA translocation. The assembly exhibits a 10-fold symmetry, which may be a common feature among DNA-injection proteins of P22-like phages and may suggest a symmetry mismatch with respect to the 6-fold symmetric phage tail. The gp12 monomer is highly flexible in solution, supporting a mechanism for translocation of the protein through the conduit of the phage tail toward the host cell envelope, where it assembles into a DNA-injection device. PMID:26882199

  16. Flow of two immiscible fluids in a periodically constricted tube: Transitions to stratified, segmented, churn, spray or segregated flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsamopoulos, John; Fraggedakis, Dimitris; Dimakopoulos, Yiannis

    2015-11-01

    We study the flow of two immiscible, Newtonian fluids in a periodically constricted tube driven by a constant pressure gradient. Our Volume-of-Fluid algorithm is used to solve the governing equations. First the code is validated by comparing its predictions to previously reported results for stratified and pulsing flow. Then it is used to capture accurately all the significant topological changes that take place. Initially, the fluids have a core-annular arrangement, which is found to either remain the same or change to a different arrangement depending on the fluid properties, the pressure driving the flow or the flow geometry. The flow-patterns that appear are the core-annular, segmented, churn, spray and segregated flow. The predicted scalings near pinching of the core fluid concur with similarity predictions and earlier numerical results (Cohen et al. (1999)). Flow-pattern maps are constructed in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. Our results provide deeper insights in the mechanism of the pattern transitions and are in agreement with previous studies on core-annular flow (Kouris & Tsamopoulos (2001 & 2002)), segmented flow (Lac & Sherwood (2009)) and churn flow (Bai et al. (1992)). GSRT of Greece through the program ``Excellence'' (Grant No. 1918, entitled ``FilCoMicrA'').

  17. Medical diagnosis aboard submarines. Use of a computer-based Bayesian method of analysis in an abdominal pain diagnostic program.

    PubMed

    Osborne, S F

    1984-02-01

    The medical issues that arise in the isolated environment of a submarine can occasionally be grave. While crewmembers are carefully screened for health problems, they are still susceptible to serious acute illness. Currently, the submarine medical department representative, the hospital corpsman, utilizes a history and physical examination, clinical acumen, and limited laboratory testing in diagnosis. The application of a Bayesian method of analysis to an abdominal pain diagnostic system utilizing an onboard microcomputer is described herein. Early results from sea trials show an appropriate diagnosis in eight of 10 cases of abdominal pain, but the program should still be viewed as an extended "laboratory test" until proved effective at sea.

  18. Modeling the Growth of Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Marc A.; Baxter, Paul D.; Jiang, Tao; Charnell, Aimee M.; Griffin, Kathryn J.; Johnson, Anne B.; Bridge, Katherine I.; Sohrabi, Soroush; Scott, D. Julian A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) growth is a complex process that is incompletely understood. Significant heterogeneity in growth trajectories between patients has led to difficulties in accurately modeling aneurysm growth across cohorts of patients. We set out to compare four models of aneurysm growth commonly used in the literature and confirm which best fits the patient data of our AAA cohort. Methods: Patients with AAA were included in the study if they had two or more abdominal ultrasound scans greater than 3 months apart. Patients were censored from analysis once their AAA exceeded 5.5 cm. Four models were applied using the R environment for statistical computing. Growth estimates and goodness of fit (using the Akaike Information Criterion, AIC) were compared, with p-values based on likelihood ratio testing. Results: Of 510 enrolled patients, 264 met the inclusion criteria, yielding a total of 1861 imaging studies during 932 cumulative years of surveillance. Overall, growth rates were: (1) 0.35 (0.31,0.39) cm/yr in the growth/time calculation, (2) 0.056 (0.042,0.068) cm/yr in the linear regression model, (3) 0.19 (0.17,0.21) cm/yr in the linear multilevel model, and (4) 0.21 (0.18,0.24) cm/yr in the quadratic multilevel model at time 0, slowing to 0.15 (0.12,0.17) cm/yr at 10 years. AIC was lowest in the quadratic multilevel model (1508) compared to other models (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: AAA growth was heterogeneous between patients; the nested nature of the data is most appropriately modeled by multilevel modeling techniques. PMID:26798704

  19. PEarly Postoperative Emergency Department Care of Abdominal Transplant Recipients1

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Lisa M.; Schmidt, Kathryn A.; Richards, Christopher T.; Lapin, Brittany; Abecassis, Michael M.; Holl, Jane L.; Adams, James; Ladner, Daniela P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research on post-transplant care has predominantly focused on predictors of readmission with little attention to emergency department (ED) visits. The goal of this study was to describe early postoperative ED care of transplant recipients. Methods A secondary database analysis of adult patients who underwent abdominal organ transplantation between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2013 and sought ED care within one year post-transplantation was conducted. Survival was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to adjust for pertinent covariates. Results A total of 1,900 abdominal organ transplants were performed during the study period. Of these, 37% (N=711) transplant recipients sought care in the ED (1,343 total visits) with 1.89 mean ED visits per recipient. Of recipients seen in the ED, 58% received a kidney transplant and 28% received a liver transplant, with 45% of recipients presenting within the first 60 postoperative days. The most common chief complaints were gastroenterological (17%) and abnormal laboratory values or vital signs (17%). In total, 74% of recipients were readmitted and 50% of admitted patients were discharged in less than 24 hours. Transplant recipients with ED visits had lower 3-year graft (81% vs. 87%; p<0.001) and patient (89% vs. 93%; p=0.002) survival. Conclusion Transplant recipients have a high frequency of ED visits in the first post-transplantation year and high rates of subsequent hospital admission. Further investigation is needed to understand what drives recipient presentation to the ED and create care models that achieve the best outcomes. PMID:26050012

  20. Intra-abdominal adhesions in ultrasound. Part I: The visceroperitoneal bordeline, anatomy and the method of examination.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Starzyńska, Teresa; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bojko, Stefania; Gałdyńska, Maria; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta; Walecka, Anna

    2012-12-01

    It needs to be emphasized that ultrasonography is a primary test performed in order to evaluate the abdominal wall and structures located in their vicinity. It allows for the determination of the anatomy and lesions in this localization. Thorough knowledge concerning the ultrasound anatomy of the tested structures constitutes a basis of all diagnostic successes. Therefore, this part of the article is devoted to this subject matter. The possibility to diagnose intra-abdominal adhesions with ultrasound is underestimated and rarely used. The aim of this paper is to discuss and document the ultrasound anatomy of the posterior surface of the abdominal wall as well as to present techniques directed at the detection of adhesions, in particular the visceroperitoneal ones. The posterior surface of the abdominal wall constitutes an extensive tissue area of complex structure, with folds and ligaments surrounded by various amounts of the epiperitoneal fat. In some places, this tissue separates the components of the fascia and peritoneum complex. The ultrasound manifestation of this complex is two hyperechogenic lines placed parallelly to each other in the places where they are not separated by the accumulated adipose tissue. Another factor which separates the peritoneum from the viscera is of dynamic character. It is a so-called visceral slide induced by easy or deep breathing. Its size should not be lower than 1 cm and the deflections gradually and symmetrically diminish from the epigastric to hypogastric region. Last but not least, the evaluation of the reciprocal relation of the abdominal wall with viscera may be aided by rhythmical manual compressions on the abdominal wall (ballottement sign) performed below the applied ultrasound transducer. During this test, the size of the visceral slide in relation to the abdominal wall is observed. The maneuver is usually performed in uncooperative patients or those with shallow breath. The authors' own experiences indicate that the