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  1. The population distribution of the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and SAD/height ratio among Finnish adults

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, H. S.; Rissanen, H.; Bullard, K. M.; Knekt, P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD; ‘abdominal height’ measured in supine position) may improve upon conventional anthropometry for predicting incident cardiometabolic diseases. However, the SAD is used infrequently by practitioners and epidemiologists. A representative survey of Finnish adults in 2000–2001 collected body measurements including SAD (by sliding-beam calliper) using standardized protocols. Sampled non-pregnant adults (ages 30+ years; 79% participation) provided 6123 SAD measurements from 80 health centre districts. Through stratified, complex survey design, these data represented 2.86 million adults at ages 30+ years. SAD ranged from 13.5 to 38.0 cm, with a population mean (standard error) of 21.7 (0.05) cm and median (interquartile range) of 21.0 (19.1–23.4). Median SAD was higher at ages 50+ years compared with ages 30–49 both for men (22.4 [20.5–24.6] vs. 20.8 [19.3–22.7]) and women (21.7 [19.6–23.9] vs. 19.4 [17.8–21.4]). The SAD/height ratio was similar (0.118) for both sexes at 30–39 years, rising more steeply with age for women than men. Attaining only a basic education, compared with a high level, was associated with increased mean (95% confidence interval) SADs for men (22.6 [22.3–22.8] vs. 22.0 [21.7–22.2]) and women (21.8 [21.5–22.0] vs. 20.6 [20.4–20.8]). Finland’s early experience with nationally representative SAD measurements provides normative reference values and physiological insights useful for investigations of cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25826163

  2. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter as a Surrogate Marker of Insulin Resistance in an Admixtured Population—Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    PubMed Central

    Cassani, Roberta S. L.; Forti, Adriana C. e; Vilela, Brunna S.; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) has been proposed as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance (IR). However, the utilization of SAD requires specific validation for each ethnicity. We aimed to investigate the potential use of SAD, compared with classical anthropometrical parameters, as a surrogate marker of IR and to establish the cutoff values of SAD for screening for IR. Methods A multicenter population survey on metabolic disorders was conducted. A race-admixtured sample of 824 adult women was assessed. The anthropometric parameters included: BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio and SAD. IR was determined by a hyperglycemic clamp and the HOMA-IR index. Results After adjustments for age and total body fat mass, SAD (r = 0.23 and r = -0.70) and BMI (r = 0.20 and r = -0.71) were strongly correlated with the IR measured by the HOMA-IR index and the clamp, respectively (p < 0.001). In the ROC analysis, the optimal cutoff for SAD in women was 21.0 cm. The women with an increased SAD presented 3.2 (CI 95%: 2.1-5.0) more likelihood of having IR, assessed by the HOMA-IR index compared with those with normal SAD (p < 0.001); whereas women with elevated BMI and WC were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.4-3.3) and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.7-4.5) more likely to have IR (p < 0.001), respectively. No statistically significant results were found for waist-to-hip ratio. Conclusions SAD can be a suitable surrogate marker of IR. Understanding and applying routine and simplified methods is essential because IR is associated with an increased risk of obesity-related diseases even in the presence of normal weight, slight overweight, as well as in obesity. Further prospective analysis will need to verify SAD as a determinant of clinical outcomes, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events, in the Brazilian population. PMID:25951458

  3. Sagittal abdominal diameter is a more independent measure compared with waist circumference to predict arterial stiffness in subjects with type 2 diabetes - a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anthropometric measurements are useful in clinical practice since they are non-invasive and cheap. Previous studies suggest that sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) may be a better measure of visceral fat depots. The aim of this study was to prospectively explore and compare how laboratory and anthropometric risk markers predicted subclinical organ damage in 255 patients, with type 2 diabetes, after four years. Methods Baseline investigations were performed in 2006 and were repeated at follow-up in 2010. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was evaluated by ultrasonography and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured with applanation tonometry over the carotid and femoral arteries at baseline and at follow-up in a cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes aged 55–65 years old. Results There were significant correlations between apolipoprotein B (apoB) (r = 0.144, p = 0.03), C - reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.172, p = 0.009) at baseline and IMT measured at follow-up. After adjustment for sex, age, treatment with statins and Hba1c, the associations remained statistically significant. HbA1c, total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol did not correlate to IMT at follow-up. Baseline body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.130, p = 0.049), waist circumference (WC) (r = 0.147, p = 0.027) and sagittal Abdominal Diameter (SAD) (r = 0.184, p = 0.007) correlated to PWV at follow-up. Challenged with sex, SBP and HbA1c, the association between SAD, not WC nor BMI, and PWV remained statistically significant (p = 0.036). In a stepwise linear regression, entering both SAD and WC, the association between SAD and PWV was stronger than the association between WC and PWV. Conclusions We conclude that apoB and CRP, but not LDL-cholesterol predicted subclinical atherosclerosis. Furthermore, SAD was more independent in predicting arterial stiffness over time, compared with WC, in middle-aged men and women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23536999

  4. Efficacy of Transcerebellar Diameter/Abdominal Circumference Versus Head Circumference/Abdominal Circumference in Predicting Asymmetric Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Bhimarao; Bhat, Venkataramana; Gowda, Puttanna VN

    2015-01-01

    Background The high incidence of IUGR and its low recognition lead to increasing perinatal morbidity and mortality for which prediction of IUGR with timely management decisions is of paramount importance. Many studies have compared the efficacy of several gestational age independent parameters and found that TCD/AC is a better predictor of asymmetric IUGR. Aim To compare the accuracy of transcerebellar diameter/abdominal circumference with head circumference/abdominal circumference in predicting asymmetric intrauterine growth retardation after 20 weeks of gestation. Materials and Methods The prospective study was conducted over a period of one year on 50 clinically suspected IUGR pregnancies who were evaluated with 3.5 MHz frequency ultrasound scanner by a single sonologist. BPD, HC, AC and FL along with TCD were measured for assessing the sonological gestational age. Two morphometric ratios- TCD/AC and HC/AC were calculated. Estimated fetal weight was calculated for all these pregnancies and its percentile was determined. Statistical Methods The TCD/AC and HC/AC ratios were correlated with advancing gestational age to know if these were related to GA. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy (DA) for TCD/AC and HC/AC ratios in evaluating IUGR fetuses were calculated. Results In the present study, linear relation of TCD and HC in IUGR fetuses with gestation was noted. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV & DA were 88%, 93.5%, 77.1%, 96.3% & 92.4% respectively for TCD/AC ratio versus 84%, 92%, 72.4%, 95.8% & 90.4% respectively for HC/AC ratio in predicting IUGR. Conclusion Both ratios were gestational age independent and can be used in detecting IUGR with good diagnostic accuracy. However, TCD/AC ratio had a better diagnostic validity and accuracy compared to HC/AC ratio in predicting asymmetric IUGR. PMID:26557588

  5. Abdominal Aortic Diameter and Vascular Atherosclerosis: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Gail A.; Allison, Matthew A.; Jensky, Nicole; Aboyans, Victor; Wong, Nathan D.; Detrano, Robert; Criqui, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To gain insight into early mechanisms of aortic widening, we examined associations between the diameter of the abdominal aorta (AD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and biomarkers, as well as measures of subclinical atherosclerosis, in a multi-ethnic population. Design Cross-sectional cohort Methods A total of 1926 participants (mean age 62, 50% women) underwent chest and abdomen scanning by computed tomography, ultrasound of the carotid arteries, and CVD risk factor assessment. AD was measured 5 cm above and at the bifurcation. Results In a model containing traditional CVD risk factors, biomarkers and ethnicity, only age (standardized β=0.97), male sex (β=1.88), body surface area (standardized β=0.92), current smoking (β=0.42), D-dimer levels (β=0.19) and hypertension (β=0.53) were independently and significantly associated with increasing AD (in mm) at the bifurcation; use of cholesterol-lowering medications predicted smaller AD (β=-0.70) (P<.01 for all). These findings were similar for AD 5 cm above the bifurcation with one exception: compared to Caucasian-Americans, Americans of Chinese, African and Hispanic descent had significantly smaller AD 5 cm above the bifurcation (β's= -0.59, -0.49, and -0.52, respectively, all P<.01), whereas AD at the bifurcation did not differ by ethnicity. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, diabetes and levels of IL-6, CRP and homocysteine were not independently associated with AD. Higher aortic and coronary artery calcium burden, but not common carotid artery intima-media thickness, were independently, but modestly (β=0.11 to 0.19), associated with larger AD. Conclusions Incremental widening of the aortic diameter shared some, but not all, risk factors for occlusive vascular disease. PMID:21236707

  6. Automated pediatric abdominal effective diameter measurements versus age-predicted body size for normalization of CT dose.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Phillip M; Vachon, Linda A; Duddalwar, Vinay A

    2013-12-01

    There has been increasing interest in adjusting CT radiation dose data for patient body size. A method for automated computation of the abdominal effective diameter of a patient from a CT image has previously only been tested in adult patients. In this work, we tested the method on a set of 128 pediatric patients aged 0.8 to 12.9 years (average 8.0 years, SD = 3.7 years) who had CT abdomen/pelvis exams performed on a Toshiba Aquilion 64 scanner. For this set of patients, age-predicted abdominal effective diameter extrapolated based on data from the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements was a relatively poor predictor of measured effective diameter. The mean absolute percentage error between the CTDI normalization coefficient calculated from a manually measured effective diameter and the coefficient determined by age-predicted effective diameter was 12.3 % with respect to a 32 cm phantom (range 0.0-52.8 %, SD 8.7 %) and 12.9 % with respect to a 16 cm phantom (range 0.0-56.4 %, SD 9.2 %). In contrast, there is a close correspondence between the automated and manually measured patient effective diameters, with a mean absolute error of 0.6 cm (error range 0.2-1.3 cm). This correspondence translates into a high degree of correspondence between normalization coefficients determined by automated and manual measurements; the mean absolute percentage error was 2.1 % with respect to a 32 cm phantom (range 0.0-8.1 %, SD = 1.4 %) and 2.3 % with respect to a 16 cm phantom (range 0.0-9.3 %, SD = 1.6 %).

  7. Sadness and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression A A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  8. Sadness and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression Print A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  9. Abdominal aortic aneurysm imaging with 3-D ultrasound: 3-D-based maximum diameter measurement and volume quantification.

    PubMed

    Long, A; Rouet, L; Debreuve, A; Ardon, R; Barbe, C; Becquemin, J P; Allaire, E

    2013-08-01

    The clinical reliability of 3-D ultrasound imaging (3-DUS) in quantification of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was evaluated. B-mode and 3-DUS images of AAAs were acquired for 42 patients. AAAs were segmented. A 3-D-based maximum diameter (Max3-D) and partial volume (Vol30) were defined and quantified. Comparisons between 2-D (Max2-D) and 3-D diameters and between orthogonal acquisitions were performed. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was evaluated. Intra- and inter-observer coefficients of repeatability (CRs) were less than 5.18 mm for Max3-D. Intra-observer and inter-observer CRs were respectively less than 6.16 and 8.71 mL for Vol30. The mean of normalized errors of Vol30 was around 7%. Correlation between Max2-D and Max3-D was 0.988 (p < 0.0001). Max3-D and Vol30 were not influenced by a probe rotation of 90°. Use of 3-DUS to quantify AAA is a new approach in clinical practice. The present study proposed and evaluated dedicated parameters. Their reproducibility makes the technique clinically reliable.

  10. New approach of assessing hypovolemic shock class 1 during acute emergencies: Ultrasonographic inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta diameter ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Rashidi; Kunji, Mohamad Iqhbal; Hj Abd Kareem, Meera Mohaideen; Halim, Shamimi A.

    2013-09-01

    In a patient with hypovolemic shock class 1, the vital signs and biochemical properties are almost normal. The alteration of hemodynamic parameters and biochemical values occurs mainly in advanced hypovolemia state (neuroendocrine response). The availability of ultrasound machine at healthcare centers makes the measurement of vascular calibre feasible and possible. Inspiration and expiration inferior vena cava diameter changes predict hypovolemic shock class 1 but in acute emergencies this method is impractical. The purpose of this study is to develop a new approach in identifying hypovolemic shock at early phase by measuring the inferior vena cava and aorta diameter ratio using bedside ultrasound machine.

  11. Native SAD is maturing

    PubMed Central

    Rose, John P.; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Weiss, Manfred S.

    2015-01-01

    Native SAD phasing uses the anomalous scattering signal of light atoms in the crystalline, native samples of macromolecules collected from single-wavelength X-ray diffraction experiments. These atoms include sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium and calcium. Native SAD phasing is challenging and is critically dependent on the collection of accurate data. Over the past five years, advances in diffraction hardware, crystallographic software, data-collection methods and strategies, and the use of data statistics have been witnessed which allow ‘highly accurate data’ to be routinely collected. Today, native SAD sits on the verge of becoming a ‘first-choice’ method for both de novo and molecular-replacement structure determination. This article will focus on advances that have caught the attention of the community over the past five years. It will also highlight both de novo native SAD structures and recent structures that were key to methods development. PMID:26175902

  12. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... do a thorough evaluation, which generally includes: Physical exam. Your doctor may do a physical exam and ask in-depth questions about your health. ... to cope with SAD Learn how to manage stress In addition to your treatment plan for seasonal ...

  13. Sad music induces pleasant emotion.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion.

  14. Why Am I So Sad?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Why Am I So Sad? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Am I So Sad? A A A What's in this ... ON THIS TOPIC My Pet Died - How Can I Feel Better? Five Steps for Fighting Stress What ...

  15. Changes in abdominal aortic diameter in response to the cold pressor test and nitroglycerin: a new noninvasive model for the assessment of endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vascular relaxation.

    PubMed

    Chandraratna, Premindra Anthony N; Wijegunaratne, Kanishka; Farag, Kameel F; Nimalasuriya, Anoshie R; Mathews, Sajen J

    2009-11-01

    Coronary vascular responses to the cold pressor test (CPT) have been shown to parallel changes caused by infusion of acetylcholine. Whereas the CPT is a method of assessing endothelial-dependent vasodilation, nitroglycerin produces endothelial-independent vasodilation. We performed histological studies on autopsy specimens of abdominal aorta and demonstrated that it is predominantly muscular artery. To test the hypothesis that vasodilatory responses of the abdominal aorta to interventions would parallel those of peripheral vessels, 33 normal males without hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia, and 10 younger male smokers had ultrasound imaging of the abdominal aorta conducted in the control state, 2 minutes after immersion of the hand in cold water and 10 minutes after rewarming the hand (i.e., cold pressor test). The internal diameter of the abdominal aorta at the onset of the QRS complex was determined for each intervention by averaging 4 beats. It was found that the cold pressor test and nitroglycerin resulted in similar degrees of dilation of the abdominal aorta in nonsmoking subjects, and that these responses were attenuated in smokers. Thus, both endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vascular relaxation were impaired in smokers.

  16. Using SAD data in Phaser

    SciTech Connect

    Read, Randy J. McCoy, Airlie J.

    2011-04-01

    SAD data can be used in Phaser to solve novel structures, supplement molecular-replacement phase information or identify anomalous scatterers from a final refined model. Phaser is a program that implements likelihood-based methods to solve macromolecular crystal structures, currently by molecular replacement or single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD). SAD phasing is based on a likelihood target derived from the joint probability distribution of observed and calculated pairs of Friedel-related structure factors. This target combines information from the total structure factor (primarily non-anomalous scattering) and the difference between the Friedel mates (anomalous scattering). Phasing starts from a substructure, which is usually but not necessarily a set of anomalous scatterers. The substructure can also be a protein model, such as one obtained by molecular replacement. Additional atoms are found using a log-likelihood gradient map, which shows the sites where the addition of scattering from a particular atom type would improve the likelihood score. An automated completion algorithm adds new sites, choosing optionally among different atom types, adds anisotropic B-factor parameters if appropriate and deletes atoms that refine to low occupancy. Log-likelihood gradient maps can also identify which atoms in a refined protein structure are anomalous scatterers, such as metal or halide ions. These maps are more sensitive than conventional model-phased anomalous difference Fouriers and the iterative completion algorithm is able to find a significantly larger number of convincing sites.

  17. Explaining Sad People's Memory Advantage for Faces.

    PubMed

    Hills, Peter J; Marquardt, Zoe; Young, Isabel; Goodenough, Imogen

    2017-01-01

    Sad people recognize faces more accurately than happy people (Hills et al., 2011). We devised four hypotheses for this finding that are tested between in the current study. The four hypotheses are: (1) sad people engage in more expert processing associated with face processing; (2) sad people are motivated to be more accurate than happy people in an attempt to repair their mood; (3) sad people have a defocused attentional strategy that allows more information about a face to be encoded; and (4) sad people scan more of the face than happy people leading to more facial features to be encoded. In Experiment 1, we found that dysphoria (sad mood often associated with depression) was not correlated with the face-inversion effect (a measure of expert processing) nor with response times but was correlated with defocused attention and recognition accuracy. Experiment 2 established that dysphoric participants detected changes made to more facial features than happy participants. In Experiment 3, using eye-tracking we found that sad-induced participants sampled more of the face whilst avoiding the eyes. Experiment 4 showed that sad-induced people demonstrated a smaller own-ethnicity bias. These results indicate that sad people show different attentional allocation to faces than happy and neutral people.

  18. Friendship and the Socialization of Sadness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillery, Rachel; Cohen, Robert; Parra, Gilbert R.; Kitzmann, Katherine M.; Sharp, Katianne M. Howard

    2015-01-01

    Children's ability to manage the expression of sadness is critical to their development and adjustment. Although parents have been the primary focus of research examining sadness socialization, many acknowledge the influence of other agents such as children's peers. The present research evaluated one type of emotion socialization--reactions to…

  19. Multidirectional age differences in anger and sadness.

    PubMed

    Kunzmann, Ute; Thomas, Stefanie

    2014-03-01

    Age differences in anger and sadness were explored, focusing on the intensity and frequency of these experiences in everyday life and their implicit associations with the self. Ninety-six young and older adults participated in the Day Reconstruction Method, in which emotional experiences on a typical day were recorded, and in 2 implicit association tests assessing implicit self-concepts for anger and sadness. Older adults experienced anger less frequently and less intensively than young adults, but there were no age differences in sadness. In comparison with their younger counterparts, older adults showed a greater IAT effect in the implicit anger test, suggesting a weaker association between the self and anger, but there were no age differences in the implicit sadness test, suggesting age-invariant associations between the self and sadness. Together these findings suggest multidirectional age differences in negative affect and the usefulness of a discrete emotions approach for research interested in emotional aging.

  20. The Communicative Function of Sad Facial Expressions.

    PubMed

    Reed, Lawrence Ian; DeScioli, Peter

    2017-01-01

    What are the communicative functions of sad facial expressions? Research shows that people feel sadness in response to losses but it's unclear whether sad expressions function to communicate losses to others and if so, what makes these signals credible. Here we use economic games to test the hypothesis that sad expressions lend credibility to claims of loss. Participants play the role of either a proposer or recipient in a game with a fictional backstory and real monetary payoffs. The proposers view a (fictional) video of the recipient's character displaying either a neutral or sad expression paired with a claim of loss. The proposer then decided how much money to give to the recipient. In three experiments, we test alternative theories by using situations in which the recipient's losses were uncertain (Experiment 1), the recipient's losses were certain (Experiment 2), or the recipient claims failed gains rather than losses (Experiment 3). Overall, we find that participants gave more money to recipients who displayed sad expressions compared to neutral expressions, but only under conditions of uncertain loss. This finding supports the hypothesis that sad expressions function to increase the credibility of claims of loss.

  1. Sadness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia P; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2014-02-01

    Research shows that attention is ineluctably captured away from a focal visual task by rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards). The fundamental cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect have been the object of an increasing number of studies but their sensitivity to mood and emotions remains relatively unexplored despite suggestion of greater distractibility in negative emotional contexts. In this study, we examined the effect of sadness, a widespread form of emotional distress and a symptom of many disorders, on distraction by deviant sounds. Participants received either a sadness induction or a neutral mood induction by means of a mixed procedure based on music and autobiographical recall prior to taking part in an auditory-visual oddball task in which they categorized visual digits while ignoring task-irrelevant sounds. The results showed that although all participants exhibited significantly longer response times in the visual categorization task following the presentation of rare and unexpected deviant sounds relative to that of the standard sound, this distraction effect was significantly greater in participants who had received the sadness induction (a twofold increase). The residual distraction on the subsequent trial (postdeviance distraction) was equivalent in both groups, suggesting that sadness interfered with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound and back toward the target stimulus. We propose that this disengagement impairment reflected the monopolization of cognitive resources by sadness and/or associated ruminations. Our findings suggest that sadness can increase distraction even when distractors are emotionally neutral.

  2. Infants' discrimination of happy and sad music.

    PubMed

    Flom, Ross; Gentile, Douglas A; Pick, Anne D

    2008-12-01

    Infants can detect information specifying affect in infant- and adult-directed speech, familiar and unfamiliar facial expressions, and in point-light displays of facial expressions. We examined 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of musical excerpts judged by adults and preschoolers as happy and sad. In Experiment 1, using an infant-controlled habituation procedure, 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds heard three musical excerpts that were rated as either happy or sad. Following habituation, infants were presented with two new musical excerpts from the other affect group. Nine-month-olds discriminated the musical excerpts rated as affectively different. Five- and seven-month-olds discriminated the happy and sad excerpts when they were habituated to sad excerpts but not when they were habituated to happy excerpts. Three-month-olds showed no evidence of discriminating the sad and happy excerpts. In Experiment 2, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds were presented with two new musical excerpts from the same affective group as the habituation excerpts. At no age did infants discriminate these novel, yet affectively similar, musical excerpts. In Experiment 3, we examined 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of individual excerpts rated as affectively similar. Only the 9-month-olds discriminated the affectively similar individual excerpts. Results are discussed in terms of infants' ability to discriminate affect across a variety of events and its relevance for later social-communicative development.

  3. Abdominal ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney - blood and urine flow Abdominal ultrasound References Chen L. Abdominal ultrasound imaging. In: Sahani DV, Samir ... the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should not be used ...

  4. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    ... tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap Images Digestive system Peritoneal sample References Garcia-Tiso G. ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  5. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... call your doctor. In Spanish— Dolor abdominal en niños menores de 12 años What is recurrent abdominal ... Functional abdominal pain (FAP) typically affects kids ages 4-12, and is quite common, affecting up to ...

  6. The paradox of music-evoked sadness: an online survey.

    PubMed

    Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores listeners' experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no "real-life" implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life.

  7. The Paradox of Music-Evoked Sadness: An Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores listeners’ experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no “real-life” implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life. PMID:25330315

  8. Enjoying Sad Music: Paradox or Parallel Processes?

    PubMed

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-01-01

    Enjoyment of negative emotions in music is seen by many as a paradox. This article argues that the paradox exists because it is difficult to view the process that generates enjoyment as being part of the same system that also generates the subjective negative feeling. Compensation theories explain the paradox as the compensation of a negative emotion by the concomitant presence of one or more positive emotions. But compensation brings us no closer to explaining the paradox because it does not explain how experiencing sadness itself is enjoyed. The solution proposed is that an emotion is determined by three critical processes-labeled motivational action tendency (MAT), subjective feeling (SF) and Appraisal. For many emotions the MAT and SF processes are coupled in valence. For example, happiness has positive MAT and positive SF, annoyance has negative MAT and negative SF. However, it is argued that in an aesthetic context, such as listening to music, emotion processes can become decoupled. The decoupling is controlled by the Appraisal process, which can assess if the context of the sadness is real-life (where coupling occurs) or aesthetic (where decoupling can occur). In an aesthetic context sadness retains its negative SF but the aversive, negative MAT is inhibited, leaving sadness to still be experienced as a negative valanced emotion, while contributing to the overall positive MAT. Individual differences, mood and previous experiences mediate the degree to which the aversive aspects of MAT are inhibited according to this Parallel Processing Hypothesis (PPH). The reason for hesitancy in considering or testing PPH, as well as the preponderance of research on sadness at the exclusion of other negative emotions, are discussed.

  9. Enjoying Sad Music: Paradox or Parallel Processes?

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-01-01

    Enjoyment of negative emotions in music is seen by many as a paradox. This article argues that the paradox exists because it is difficult to view the process that generates enjoyment as being part of the same system that also generates the subjective negative feeling. Compensation theories explain the paradox as the compensation of a negative emotion by the concomitant presence of one or more positive emotions. But compensation brings us no closer to explaining the paradox because it does not explain how experiencing sadness itself is enjoyed. The solution proposed is that an emotion is determined by three critical processes—labeled motivational action tendency (MAT), subjective feeling (SF) and Appraisal. For many emotions the MAT and SF processes are coupled in valence. For example, happiness has positive MAT and positive SF, annoyance has negative MAT and negative SF. However, it is argued that in an aesthetic context, such as listening to music, emotion processes can become decoupled. The decoupling is controlled by the Appraisal process, which can assess if the context of the sadness is real-life (where coupling occurs) or aesthetic (where decoupling can occur). In an aesthetic context sadness retains its negative SF but the aversive, negative MAT is inhibited, leaving sadness to still be experienced as a negative valanced emotion, while contributing to the overall positive MAT. Individual differences, mood and previous experiences mediate the degree to which the aversive aspects of MAT are inhibited according to this Parallel Processing Hypothesis (PPH). The reason for hesitancy in considering or testing PPH, as well as the preponderance of research on sadness at the exclusion of other negative emotions, are discussed. PMID:27445752

  10. Do you remember your sad face? The roles of negative cognitive style and sad mood.

    PubMed

    Caudek, Corrado; Monni, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of negative cognitive style, sad mood, and facial affect on the self-face advantage in a sample of 66 healthy individuals (mean age 26.5 years, range 19-47 years). The sample was subdivided into four groups according to inferential style and responsivity to sad mood induction. Following a sad mood induction, we examined the effect on working memory of an incidental association between facial affect, facial identity, and head-pose orientation. Overall, head-pose recognition was more accurate for the self-face than for nonself face (self-face advantage, SFA). However, participants high in negative cognitive style who experienced higher levels of sadness displayed a stronger SFA for sad expressions than happy expressions. The remaining participants displayed an opposite bias (a stronger SFA for happy expressions than sad expressions), or no bias. These findings highlight the importance of trait-vulnerability status in the working memory biases related to emotional facial expressions.

  11. Indicators of abdominal size relative to height associated with sex, age, socioeconomic position and ancestry among US adults

    PubMed Central

    Bullard, Kai McKeever

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives The supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and standing waist circumference (WC) describe abdominal size. The SAD/height ratio (SADHtR) or WC/height ratio (WHtR) may better identify cardiometabolic disorders than BMI (weight/height2), but population-based distributions of SADHtR and WHtR are not widely available. Abdominal adiposity may differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Subjects/Methods Anthropometry, including SAD by sliding-beam caliper, was performed on 9894 non-pregnant adults ≥20 years in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2011–2014. Applying survey design factors and sampling weights, we estimated nationally representative SADHtR and WHtR distributions by sex, age, educational attainment, and four ancestral groups. Results The median (10th percentile, 90th percentile) for men’s SADHtR was 0.130 (0.103, 0.165) and WHtR 0.569 (0.467, 0.690). For women, median SADHtR was 0.132 (0.102, 0.175) and WHtR 0.586 (0.473, 0.738). Medians for SADHtR and WHtR increased steadily through age 79. The median BMI, however, reached maximum values at ages 40–49 (men) or 60–69 (women) and then declined. Low educational attainment, adjusted for age and ancestry, was associated with elevated SADHtR more strongly than elevated BMI. While non-Hispanic Asians had substantially lower BMI compared to all other ancestral groups (adjusted for sex, age and education), their relative reductions in SADHtR and WHtR, were less marked. Conclusions These cross-sectional data are consistent with monotonically increasing abdominal adipose tissue through the years of adulthood but decreasing mass in non-abdominal regions beyond middle age. They suggest also that visceral adipose tissue, estimated by SADHtR, expands differentially in association with low socioeconomic position. Insofar as Asians have lower BMIs than other populations, employing abdominal indicators may attenuate the adiposity differences reported between ancestral

  12. [Abdominal paracentesis].

    PubMed

    Glauser, Frédéric; Barras, Anne-Catherine; Pache, Isabelle; Monti, Matteo

    2008-10-29

    Abdominal paracentesis is frequently performed in the clinical setting. Every newly developed ascites need to be investigated by abdominal paracentesis. Any clinical or biological deterioration in patients with chronic ascites also requires a new paracentesis. Therapeutically abdominal paracentesis is performed for refractory or symptomatic ascites. As other invasive procedures, it is critical to master its indications, contra-indications and complications. The aim of this article is to review the basics of abdominal paracentesis in order to help physicians to carry out this technical skill.

  13. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  14. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is ...

  15. [Abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Gschossmann, J M; Holtmann, G; Netzer, P; Essig, M; Balsiger, B M; Scheurer, U

    2005-10-01

    Abdominal pain can result from a variety of different intra- and extra-abdominal disorders. Given the wide variety of etiological triggers for this pain, the primary task during the first stage of the diagnostic work-up is to determine as soon as possible the underlying cause and the degree of emergency. The aim of this evaluation is to adapt the therapeutic measures which are necessary for a causal treatment to the individual situation. Contrary to somatic causes of abdominal pain, the availability of such a causal therapy for functional bowel disorders is still very limited. Given this dilemma, the therapeutic focus of abdominal pain associated with these functional syndromes has to be placed on symptom-oriented treatment.

  16. Explaining Sad People’s Memory Advantage for Faces

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Peter J.; Marquardt, Zoe; Young, Isabel; Goodenough, Imogen

    2017-01-01

    Sad people recognize faces more accurately than happy people (Hills et al., 2011). We devised four hypotheses for this finding that are tested between in the current study. The four hypotheses are: (1) sad people engage in more expert processing associated with face processing; (2) sad people are motivated to be more accurate than happy people in an attempt to repair their mood; (3) sad people have a defocused attentional strategy that allows more information about a face to be encoded; and (4) sad people scan more of the face than happy people leading to more facial features to be encoded. In Experiment 1, we found that dysphoria (sad mood often associated with depression) was not correlated with the face-inversion effect (a measure of expert processing) nor with response times but was correlated with defocused attention and recognition accuracy. Experiment 2 established that dysphoric participants detected changes made to more facial features than happy participants. In Experiment 3, using eye-tracking we found that sad-induced participants sampled more of the face whilst avoiding the eyes. Experiment 4 showed that sad-induced people demonstrated a smaller own-ethnicity bias. These results indicate that sad people show different attentional allocation to faces than happy and neutral people. PMID:28261138

  17. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  18. Do sadness-primes make me work harder because they make me sad?

    PubMed

    Lasauskaite, Ruta; Gendolla, Guido H E; Silvestrini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This experiment sought to clarify the potential role of emotional feelings in the systematic impact of implicitly processed affective stimuli on mental effort mobilisation. Participants worked on an attention task during which they were primed with suboptimally presented happiness versus sadness expressions. Before the task, half the participants received a cue for the possible affective influence of "flickers" to be presented during the task. This manipulation usually reduces the impact of conscious feelings on resource mobilisation. As anticipated, sadness primes resulted in higher experienced task demand and higher mental effort (stronger cardiac contractility assessed as shortened pre-ejection period) than happiness primes. Most importantly, instead of reducing the prime effects on mental effort, the cue manipulation significantly increased participants' effort in general, reflecting additional cognitive demand. The results speak against the idea that affect primes influence effort mobilisation by eliciting conscious emotional feelings.

  19. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91–111. Seek Help for ... and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website ... Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders 700 West Virginia ...

  20. Monitoring the Foetal Phase of Gestation in the Queen With a 12.5-MHz Ultrasound Probe and Prediction of the Parturition by Combining the Measurements of Head and Abdominal Diameters.

    PubMed

    Topie, E; Bencharif, D; Briand, L; Tainturier, D

    2015-08-01

    Ten gestations in six domestic shorthair cats (Europeans) were monitored daily during the foetal phase of gestation, from the 28th day after the first mating until parturition, using ultrasound with a 12.5-MHz probe. The development of the various organs over this period was recorded. The diameters of the head (HD) and abdomen (AD) were measured. Skeletal calcification visible on ultrasound occurred in a defined order between the 34th and 40th day of gestation. During the last 30 days of gestation, there was a significant correlation between HD and days before parturition (DBP) (r(2)  = 0.99) and between AD and DBP (r(2)  = 0.98). The following equations were obtained: DBP = -2.10*HD (mm) + 50.74; DBP = -1.01*AD (mm) + 42.19. The confidence intervals were stable over the last 30 days of gestation. For the HD, the confidence interval was ±1 day in 53% of cases and ±2 days in 85% of cases. For the AD, the confidence interval was ±1 day in 45% of cases and ±2 days in 77% of cases. A table obtained by combining the HD and AD measurements made it possible to estimate the date of parturition within 2 days with a reliability of over 85%.

  1. Use of the SADS Diagnostic Interview in Evaluating Legal Insanity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Richard; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined clinical usefulness of the Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) diagnostic interview in evaluations of criminal responsibility. Findings, based on 78 evaluations from a forensic clinic, indicated that SADS successfully differentiated between sane and insane evaluatees. Differences were primarily in severity of symptoms…

  2. Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

  3. Ball driven type MEMS SAD for artillery fuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seok, Jin Oh; Jeong, Ji-hun; Eom, Junseong; Lee, Seung S.; Lee, Chun Jae; Ryu, Sung Moon; Oh, Jong Soo

    2017-01-01

    The SAD (safety and arming device) is an indispensable fuse component that ensures safe and reliable performance during the use of ammunition. Because the application of electronic devices for smart munitions is increasing, miniaturization of the SAD has become one of the key issues for next-generation artillery fuses. Based on MEMS technology, various types of miniaturized SADs have been proposed and fabricated. However, none of them have been reported to have been used in actual munitions due to their lack of high impact endurance and complicated explosive train arrangements. In this research, a new MEMS SAD using a ball driven mechanism, is successfully demonstrated based on a UV LIGA (lithography, electroplating and molding) process. Unlike other MEMS SADs, both high impact endurance and simple structure were achieved by using a ball driven mechanism. The simple structural design also simplified the fabrication process and increased the processing yield. The ball driven type MEMS SAD performed successfully under the desired safe and arming conditions of a spin test and showed fine agreement with the FEM simulation result, conducted prior to its fabrication. A field test was also performed with a grenade launcher to evaluate the SAD performance in the firing environment. All 30 of the grenade samples equipped with the proposed MEMS SAD operated successfully under the high-G setback condition.

  4. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Anomalous signal in SAD phasing

    PubMed Central

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li-Wei; Zwart, Peter H.; Smith, Janet L.; Akey, David L.; Adams, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. A simple theoretical framework for describing measurements of anomalous differences and the resulting useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD experiment is presented. Here, the useful anomalous correlation is defined as the correlation of anomalous differences with ideal anomalous differences from the anomalous substructure. The useful anomalous correlation reflects the accuracy of the data and the absence of minor sites. The useful anomalous correlation also reflects the information available for estimating crystallographic phases once the substructure has been determined. In contrast, the anomalous signal (the peak height in a model-phased anomalous difference Fourier at the coordinates of atoms in the anomalous substructure) reflects the information available about each site in the substructure and is related to the ability to find the substructure. A theoretical analysis shows that the expected value of the anomalous signal is the product of the useful anomalous correlation, the square root of the ratio of the number of unique reflections in the data set to the number of sites in the substructure, and a function that decreases with increasing values of the atomic displacement factor for the atoms in the substructure. This means that the ability to find the substructure in a SAD experiment is increased by high data quality and by a high ratio of reflections to sites in the substructure, and is decreased by high atomic displacement factors for the substructure. PMID:26960122

  5. Predicting Sympathy and Prosocial Behavior from Young Children's Dispositional Sadness.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Alison; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Reiser, Mark; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D; Liew, Jeffrey

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether dispositional sadness predicted children's prosocial behavior and if sympathy mediated this relation. Constructs were measured when children (N = 256 at Time 1) were 18-, 30-, and 42-months old. Mothers and non-parental caregivers rated children's sadness; mothers, caregivers, and fathers rated children's prosocial behavior; sympathy (concern and hypothesis testing) and prosocial behavior (indirect and direct, as well as verbal at older ages) were assessed with a task in which the experimenter feigned injury. In a panel path analysis, 30-month dispositional sadness predicted marginally higher 42-month sympathy; in addition, 30-month sympathy predicted 42-month sadness. Moreover, when controlling for prior levels of prosocial behavior, 30-month sympathy significantly predicted reported and observed prosocial behavior at 42 months. Sympathy did not mediate the relation between sadness and prosocial behavior (either reported or observed).

  6. The pleasures of sad music: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Matthew E; Damasio, Antonio; Habibi, Assal

    2015-01-01

    Sadness is generally seen as a negative emotion, a response to distressing and adverse situations. In an aesthetic context, however, sadness is often associated with some degree of pleasure, as suggested by the ubiquity and popularity, throughout history, of music, plays, films and paintings with a sad content. Here, we focus on the fact that music regarded as sad is often experienced as pleasurable. Compared to other art forms, music has an exceptional ability to evoke a wide-range of feelings and is especially beguiling when it deals with grief and sorrow. Why is it, then, that while human survival depends on preventing painful experiences, mental pain often turns out to be explicitly sought through music? In this article we consider why and how sad music can become pleasurable. We offer a framework to account for how listening to sad music can lead to positive feelings, contending that this effect hinges on correcting an ongoing homeostatic imbalance. Sadness evoked by music is found pleasurable: (1) when it is perceived as non-threatening; (2) when it is aesthetically pleasing; and (3) when it produces psychological benefits such as mood regulation, and empathic feelings, caused, for example, by recollection of and reflection on past events. We also review neuroimaging studies related to music and emotion and focus on those that deal with sadness. Further exploration of the neural mechanisms through which stimuli that usually produce sadness can induce a positive affective state could help the development of effective therapies for disorders such as depression, in which the ability to experience pleasure is attenuated.

  7. The pleasures of sad music: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Matthew E.; Damasio, Antonio; Habibi, Assal

    2015-01-01

    Sadness is generally seen as a negative emotion, a response to distressing and adverse situations. In an aesthetic context, however, sadness is often associated with some degree of pleasure, as suggested by the ubiquity and popularity, throughout history, of music, plays, films and paintings with a sad content. Here, we focus on the fact that music regarded as sad is often experienced as pleasurable. Compared to other art forms, music has an exceptional ability to evoke a wide-range of feelings and is especially beguiling when it deals with grief and sorrow. Why is it, then, that while human survival depends on preventing painful experiences, mental pain often turns out to be explicitly sought through music? In this article we consider why and how sad music can become pleasurable. We offer a framework to account for how listening to sad music can lead to positive feelings, contending that this effect hinges on correcting an ongoing homeostatic imbalance. Sadness evoked by music is found pleasurable: (1) when it is perceived as non-threatening; (2) when it is aesthetically pleasing; and (3) when it produces psychological benefits such as mood regulation, and empathic feelings, caused, for example, by recollection of and reflection on past events. We also review neuroimaging studies related to music and emotion and focus on those that deal with sadness. Further exploration of the neural mechanisms through which stimuli that usually produce sadness can induce a positive affective state could help the development of effective therapies for disorders such as depression, in which the ability to experience pleasure is attenuated. PMID:26257625

  8. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Nakane, Takanori; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nakatsu, Toru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Sugahara, Michihiro

    2015-11-27

    Sulfur SAD phasing facilitates the structure determination of diverse native proteins using femtosecond X-rays from free-electron lasers via serial femtosecond crystallography. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures.

  9. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Anomalous signal in SAD phasing

    DOE PAGES

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li-Wei; ...

    2016-03-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. We present a simple theoretical framework for describing measurements of anomalous differences and the resulting useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD experiment. Here, the useful anomalous correlation is defined as the correlation of anomalous differences with ideal anomalous differences from the anomalous substructure. The useful anomalous correlation reflects the accuracy of the data and the absence of minor sites. The useful anomalous correlation also reflects the information available for estimating crystallographic phases once the substructure has been determined.more » In contrast, the anomalous signal (the peak height in a model-phased anomalous difference Fourier at the coordinates of atoms in the anomalous substructure) reflects the information available about each site in the substructure and is related to the ability to find the substructure. A theoretical analysis shows that the expected value of the anomalous signal is the product of the useful anomalous correlation, the square root of the ratio of the number of unique reflections in the data set to the number of sites in the substructure, and a function that decreases with increasing values of the atomic displacement factor for the atoms in the substructure. In conclusion, this means that the ability to find the substructure in a SAD experiment is increased by high data quality and by a high ratio of reflections to sites in the substructure, and is decreased by high atomic displacement factors for the substructure.« less

  10. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Anomalous signal in SAD phasing

    SciTech Connect

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li-Wei; Zwart, Peter H.; Smith, Janet L.; Akey, David L.; Adams, Paul D.

    2016-03-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. We present a simple theoretical framework for describing measurements of anomalous differences and the resulting useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD experiment. Here, the useful anomalous correlation is defined as the correlation of anomalous differences with ideal anomalous differences from the anomalous substructure. The useful anomalous correlation reflects the accuracy of the data and the absence of minor sites. The useful anomalous correlation also reflects the information available for estimating crystallographic phases once the substructure has been determined. In contrast, the anomalous signal (the peak height in a model-phased anomalous difference Fourier at the coordinates of atoms in the anomalous substructure) reflects the information available about each site in the substructure and is related to the ability to find the substructure. A theoretical analysis shows that the expected value of the anomalous signal is the product of the useful anomalous correlation, the square root of the ratio of the number of unique reflections in the data set to the number of sites in the substructure, and a function that decreases with increasing values of the atomic displacement factor for the atoms in the substructure. In conclusion, this means that the ability to find the substructure in a SAD experiment is increased by high data quality and by a high ratio of reflections to sites in the substructure, and is decreased by high atomic displacement factors for the substructure.

  11. Sadness prediction and response: effects of age and agreeableness.

    PubMed

    Pearman, Ann; Andreoletti, Carrie; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2010-04-01

    Research has suggested that both age and personality play a role in emotional experience and regulation, but these variables have not been considered together to determine the relative contribution of each. This study simultaneously examined age and agreeableness differences in the experience of sad stimuli. Participants were 46 younger adults (age, M = 22.04 years, SD = 5.41 years) and 48 older adults (age, M = 74.23, SD = 7.82 years). Participants were asked to predict how sad stimuli (i.e., sad photos) would make them feel and were then measured on their actual reaction to the stimuli (reactivity) as well as on their emotional recovery. Agreeableness, but not age, was related to predicted levels of sadness, such that the more agreeable, the higher the predicted sadness (beta = 0.37). In contrast to expectations, prediction accuracy was not related to age or agreeableness. For emotional reactivity, agreeableness (beta = 0.16), but not age, was related to reactivity to sad stimuli (i.e., more agreeable, higher reactivity). Finally, age (beta = 0.14) was significantly related to emotional recovery such that the older adults reported lower levels of sadness at posttest than did the younger adults. Similarly, people who were more agreeable also reported better emotional recovery (beta = 0.15). These relationships were not affected by depression or pretest sadness ratings. Overall, these findings suggest distinct roles for age and agreeableness in predicting different components of the emotion regulation process. An individual with advanced age, high levels of agreeableness, or both may be well-positioned for resilience throughout the emotion regulation process.

  12. Sad man's nose: Emotion induction and olfactory perception.

    PubMed

    Flohr, Elena L R; Erwin, Elena; Croy, Ilona; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Emotional and olfactory processing is frequently shown to be closely linked both anatomically and functionally. Depression, a disease closely related to the emotional state of sadness, has been shown to be associated with a decrease in olfactory sensitivity. The present study focuses on the state of sadness in n = 31 healthy subjects in order to investigate the specific contribution of this affective state in the modulation of olfactory processing. A sad or indifferent affective state was induced using 2 movies that were presented on 2 separate days. Afterward, chemosensory-evoked potentials were recorded after stimulation with an unpleasant (hydrogen sulfide: "rotten eggs") or a pleasant (phenyl ethyl alcohol: "rose") odorant. Latencies of N1 and P2 peaks were longer after induction of the sad affective state. Additionally, amplitudes were lower in a sad affective state when being stimulated with the unpleasant odorant. Processing of olfactory input has thus been reduced under conditions of the sad affective state. We argue that the affective state per se could at least partially account for the reduced olfactory sensitivity in depressed patients. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to show influence of affective state on chemosensory event-related potentials. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, V. K.

    1998-01-01

    Tuberculosis has staged a global comeback and forms a dangerous combination with AIDS. The abdomen is one of the common sites of extrapulmonary involvement. Patients with abdominal tuberculosis have a wide range and spectrum of symptoms and signs; the disease is therefore a great mimic. Diagnosis, mainly radiological and supported by endoscopy, is difficult to make and laparotomy is required in a large number of patient. Management involves judicious combination of antitubercular therapy and surgery which may be required to treat complications such as intestinal obstruction and perforation. The disease, though potentially curable, carries a significant morbidity and mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:9926119

  14. The Pleasure Evoked by Sad Music Is Mediated by Feelings of Being Moved.

    PubMed

    Vuoskoski, Jonna K; Eerola, Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    Why do we enjoy listening to music that makes us sad? This question has puzzled music psychologists for decades, but the paradox of "pleasurable sadness" remains to be solved. Recent findings from a study investigating the enjoyment of sad films suggest that the positive relationship between felt sadness and enjoyment might be explained by feelings of being moved (Hanich et al., 2014). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feelings of being moved also mediated the enjoyment of sad music. In Experiment 1, 308 participants listened to five sad music excerpts and rated their liking and felt emotions. A multilevel mediation analysis revealed that the initial positive relationship between liking and felt sadness (r = 0.22) was fully mediated by feelings of being moved. Experiment 2 explored the interconnections of perceived sadness, beauty, and movingness in 27 short music excerpts that represented independently varying levels of sadness and beauty. Two multilevel mediation analyses were carried out to test competing hypotheses: (A) that movingness mediates the effect of perceived sadness on liking, or (B) that perceived beauty mediates the effect of sadness on liking. Stronger support was obtained for Hypothesis A. Our findings suggest that - similarly to the enjoyment of sad films - the aesthetic appreciation of sad music is mediated by being moved. We argue that felt sadness may contribute to the enjoyment of sad music by intensifying feelings of being moved.

  15. In-House Zinc SAD Phasing at Cu Kα Edge

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Kyu; Lee, Sangmin; An, Young Jun; Jeong, Chang-Sook; Ji, Chang-Jun; Lee, Jin-Won; Cha, Sun-Shin

    2013-01-01

    De novo zinc single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (Zn-SAD) phasing has been demonstrated with the 1.9 Å resolution data of glucose isomerase and 2.6 Å resolution data of Staphylococcus aureus Fur (SaFur) collected using in-house Cu Kα X-ray source. The successful in-house Zn-SAD phasing of glucose isomerase, based on the anomalous signals of both zinc ions introduced to crystals by soaking and native sulfur atoms, drove us to determine the structure of SaFur, a zinc-containing transcription factor, by Zn-SAD phasing using in-house X-ray source. The abundance of zinc-containing proteins in nature, the easy zinc derivatization of the protein surface, no need of synchrotron access, and the successful experimental phasing with the modest 2.6 Å resolution SAD data indicate that in-house Zn-SAD phasing can be widely applicable to structure determination. PMID:23686432

  16. The Pleasure Evoked by Sad Music Is Mediated by Feelings of Being Moved

    PubMed Central

    Vuoskoski, Jonna K.; Eerola, Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    Why do we enjoy listening to music that makes us sad? This question has puzzled music psychologists for decades, but the paradox of “pleasurable sadness” remains to be solved. Recent findings from a study investigating the enjoyment of sad films suggest that the positive relationship between felt sadness and enjoyment might be explained by feelings of being moved (Hanich et al., 2014). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feelings of being moved also mediated the enjoyment of sad music. In Experiment 1, 308 participants listened to five sad music excerpts and rated their liking and felt emotions. A multilevel mediation analysis revealed that the initial positive relationship between liking and felt sadness (r = 0.22) was fully mediated by feelings of being moved. Experiment 2 explored the interconnections of perceived sadness, beauty, and movingness in 27 short music excerpts that represented independently varying levels of sadness and beauty. Two multilevel mediation analyses were carried out to test competing hypotheses: (A) that movingness mediates the effect of perceived sadness on liking, or (B) that perceived beauty mediates the effect of sadness on liking. Stronger support was obtained for Hypothesis A. Our findings suggest that – similarly to the enjoyment of sad films – the aesthetic appreciation of sad music is mediated by being moved. We argue that felt sadness may contribute to the enjoyment of sad music by intensifying feelings of being moved. PMID:28377740

  17. Interpreting stem diameter changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölttä, T.; Sevanto, S.; Nikinmaa, E.

    2009-12-01

    Detecting phloem transport in stem diameter changes Teemu Hölttä1, Sanna Sevanto2, Eero Nikinmaa1 1Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland 2Department of Physics, P.O. Box 48, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland Introduction The volume of living cells and xylem conduits vary according to pressures they are subjected to. Our proposition is that the behavior of the inner bark diameter variation which cannot be explained by changes in xylem water status arise from changes in the osmotic concentration of the phloem and cambial growth. Materials and methods Simultaneous xylem and stem diameter measurements were conducted between June 28th to October 4th 2006 in Southern Finland on a 47-year old, 15 meter tall, Scots pine tree (DBH 15 cm) at heights of 1.5 and 10 meters. The difference between the measured inner bark diameter and the inner bark diameter predicted from xylem diameter change with a simple model (assuming there was no change in the osmotic concentration of the phloem) is hypothesized to give the changes in the osmotic concentration of the inner bark. The simple model calculates the radial water exchange between the xylem and phloem driven by the water potential changes in the xylem. Results and Discussion The major signal in the inner bark diameter was the transpiration rate as assumed, but also a signal arising from the change in the osmotic concentration (Fig 1a). The predicted osmotic concentration of the phloem typically increased during the afternoon due to the loading of photosynthesized sugars to the phloem. Inner bark osmotic concentration followed the photosynthesis rate with a 3 and 4 hour time-lag at the top and base, respectively (Fig 1b). The connection between photosynthesis and the predicted change in phloem osmotic concentration was stronger in the upper part of the tree compared to lower part. The changes in the predicted osmotic concentration were not similar every day, indicating that

  18. A Season of Sadness--"Responding to Tragedy in School"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havlland, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    In January, four juniors died in an automobile accident; in February a member of the previous year's graduating class committed suicide; in March a member of the faculty died suddenly; and a crazed gunman killed three current and one former student. Spring 1999 was a season of sadness. Several Penncrest faculty meetings were devoted to reviewing…

  19. Do Poor Readers Feel Angry, Sad, and Unpopular?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Wu, Qiong

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether being poorly skilled in reading contributes to children's reported feelings of anger, distractibility, anxiety, sadness, loneliness, and social isolation. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal subsample of children (N = 3,308) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort. Multilevel logistic…

  20. Flexible parasympathetic responses to sadness facilitate spontaneous affect regulation.

    PubMed

    Stange, Jonathan P; Hamilton, Jessica L; Fresco, David M; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-03-23

    The ability of the parasympathetic nervous system to flexibly adapt to changes in environmental context is thought to serve as a physiological indicator of self-regulatory capacity, and deficits in parasympathetic flexibility appear to characterize affective disorders such as depression. However, whether parasympathetic flexibility (vagal withdrawal to emotional or environmental challenges such as sadness, and vagal augmentation during recovery from sadness) could facilitate the effectiveness of adaptive affect regulation strategies is not known. In a study of 178 undergraduate students, we evaluated whether parasympathetic flexibility in response to a sad film involving loss would enhance the effectiveness of regulatory strategies (reappraisal, distraction, and suppression) spontaneously employed to reduce negative affect during a 2-min uninstructed recovery period following the induction. Parasympathetic reactivity and recovery were indexed by fluctuations in respiratory sinus arrhythmia and high-frequency heart rate variability. Cognitive reappraisal and distraction were more effective in attenuating negative affect among individuals with more parasympathetic flexibility, particularly greater vagal augmentation during recovery, relative to individuals with less parasympathetic flexibility. In contrast, suppression was associated with less attenuation of negative affect, but only among individuals who also had less vagal withdrawal during the sad film. Alternative models provided partial support for reversed directionality, with reappraisal predicting greater parasympathetic recovery, but only when individuals also experienced greater reductions in negative affect. These results suggest that contextually appropriate parasympathetic reactivity and recovery may facilitate the success of affect regulation. Impairments in parasympathetic flexibility could confer risk for affective disorders due to attenuated capacity for effective self-regulation.

  1. Laughter exaggerates happy and sad faces depending on visual context.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Aleksandra; Sweeny, Timothy D; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-04-01

    Laughter is an auditory stimulus that powerfully conveys positive emotion. We investigated how laughter influenced the visual perception of facial expressions. We presented a sound clip of laughter simultaneously with a happy, a neutral, or a sad schematic face. The emotional face was briefly presented either alone or among a crowd of neutral faces. We used a matching method to determine how laughter influenced the perceived intensity of the happy, neutral, and sad expressions. For a single face, laughter increased the perceived intensity of a happy expression. Surprisingly, for a crowd of faces, laughter produced an opposite effect, increasing the perceived intensity of a sad expression in a crowd. A follow-up experiment revealed that this contrast effect may have occurred because laughter made the neutral distractor faces appear slightly happy, thereby making the deviant sad expression stand out in contrast. A control experiment ruled out semantic mediation of the laughter effects. Our demonstration of the strong context dependence of laughter effects on facial expression perception encourages a reexamination of the previously demonstrated effects of prosody, speech content, and mood on face perception, as they may be similarly context dependent.

  2. Being Moved by Unfamiliar Sad Music Is Associated with High Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Eerola, Tuomas; Vuoskoski, Jonna K.; Kautiainen, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    The paradox of enjoying listening to music that evokes sadness is yet to be fully understood. Unlike prior studies that have explored potential explanations related to lyrics, memories, and mood regulation, we investigated the types of emotions induced by unfamiliar, instrumental sad music, and whether these responses are consistently associated with certain individual difference variables. One hundred and two participants were drawn from a representative sample to minimize self-selection bias. The results suggest that the emotional responses induced by unfamiliar sad music could be characterized in terms of three underlying factors: Relaxing sadness, Moving sadness, and Nervous sadness. Relaxing sadness was characterized by felt and perceived peacefulness and positive valence. Moving sadness captured an intense experience that involved feelings of sadness and being moved. Nervous sadness was associated with felt anxiety, perceived scariness and negative valence. These interpretations were supported by indirect measures of felt emotion. Experiences of Moving sadness were strongly associated with high trait empathy and emotional contagion, but not with other previously suggested traits such as absorption or nostalgia-proneness. Relaxing sadness and Nervous sadness were not significantly predicted by any of the individual difference variables. The findings are interpreted within a theoretical framework of embodied emotions. PMID:27695424

  3. Genetic characterisation of attenuated SAD rabies virus strains used for oral vaccination of wildlife.

    PubMed

    Geue, Lutz; Schares, Susann; Schnick, Christina; Kliemt, Jeannette; Beckert, Aline; Freuling, Conrad; Conraths, Franz J; Hoffmann, Bernd; Zanoni, Reto; Marston, Denise; McElhinney, Lorraine; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R; Tordo, Noel; Müller, Thomas

    2008-06-19

    The elimination of rabies from the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Western Europe has been achieved by the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of wildlife with a range of attenuated rabies virus strains. With the exception of the vaccinia rabies glycoprotein recombinant vaccine (VRG), all strains were originally derived from a common ancestor; the Street Alabama Dufferin (SAD) field strain. However, after more than 30 years of ORV it is still not possible to distinguish these vaccine strains and there is little information on the genetic basis for their attenuation. We therefore sequenced and compared the full-length genome of five commercially available SAD vaccine viruses (SAD B19, SAD P5/88, SAG2, SAD VA1 and SAD Bern) and four other SAD strains (the original SAD Bern, SAD VA1, ERA and SAD 1-3670 Wistar). Nucleotide sequencing allowed identifying each vaccine strain unambiguously. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of the currently used commercial attenuated rabies virus vaccines appear to be derived from SAD B19 rather than from SAD Bern. One commercially available vaccine virus did not contain the SAD strain mentioned in the product information of the producer. Two SAD vaccine strains appeared to consist of mixed genomic sequences. Furthermore, in-del events targeting A-rich sequences (in positive strand) within the 3' non-coding regions of M and G genes were observed in SAD-derivates developed in Europe. Our data also supports the idea of a possible recombination that had occurred during the derivation of the European branch of SAD viruses. If confirmed, this recombination event would be the first one reported among RABV vaccine strains.

  4. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis or plaque buildup causes the ... weak and bulge outward like a balloon. An AAA develops slowly over time and has few noticeable ...

  5. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000162.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ...

  6. Fast native-SAD phasing for routine macromolecular structure determination.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Tobias; Olieric, Vincent; Waltersperger, Sandro; Panepucci, Ezequiel; Chen, Lirong; Zhang, Hua; Zhou, Dayong; Rose, John; Ebihara, Akio; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Li, Dianfan; Howe, Nicole; Schnapp, Gisela; Pautsch, Alexander; Bargsten, Katja; Prota, Andrea E; Surana, Parag; Kottur, Jithesh; Nair, Deepak T; Basilico, Federica; Cecatiello, Valentina; Pasqualato, Sebastiano; Boland, Andreas; Weichenrieder, Oliver; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Steinmetz, Michel O; Caffrey, Martin; Wang, Meitian

    2015-02-01

    We describe a data collection method that uses a single crystal to solve X-ray structures by native SAD (single-wavelength anomalous diffraction). We solved the structures of 11 real-life examples, including a human membrane protein, a protein-DNA complex and a 266-kDa multiprotein-ligand complex, using this method. The data collection strategy is suitable for routine structure determination and can be implemented at most macromolecular crystallography synchrotron beamlines.

  7. Data-collection strategy for challenging native SAD phasing

    PubMed Central

    Olieric, Vincent; Weinert, Tobias; Finke, Aaron D.; Anders, Carolin; Li, Dianfan; Olieric, Natacha; Borca, Camelia N.; Steinmetz, Michel O.; Caffrey, Martin; Jinek, Martin; Wang, Meitian

    2016-01-01

    Recent improvements in data-collection strategies have pushed the limits of native SAD (single-wavelength anomalous diffraction) phasing, a method that uses the weak anomalous signal of light elements naturally present in macromolecules. These involve the merging of multiple data sets from either multiple crystals or from a single crystal collected in multiple orientations at a low X-ray dose. Both approaches yield data of high multiplicity while minimizing radiation damage and systematic error, thus ensuring accurate measurements of the anomalous differences. Here, the combined use of these two strategies is described to solve cases of native SAD phasing that were particular challenges: the integral membrane diacylglycerol kinase (DgkA) with a low Bijvoet ratio of 1% and the large 200 kDa complex of the CRISPR-associated endonuclease (Cas9) bound to guide RNA and target DNA crystallized in the low-symmetry space group C2. The optimal native SAD data-collection strategy based on systematic measurements performed on the 266 kDa multiprotein/multiligand tubulin complex is discussed. PMID:26960129

  8. Data-collection strategy for challenging native SAD phasing.

    PubMed

    Olieric, Vincent; Weinert, Tobias; Finke, Aaron D; Anders, Carolin; Li, Dianfan; Olieric, Natacha; Borca, Camelia N; Steinmetz, Michel O; Caffrey, Martin; Jinek, Martin; Wang, Meitian

    2016-03-01

    Recent improvements in data-collection strategies have pushed the limits of native SAD (single-wavelength anomalous diffraction) phasing, a method that uses the weak anomalous signal of light elements naturally present in macromolecules. These involve the merging of multiple data sets from either multiple crystals or from a single crystal collected in multiple orientations at a low X-ray dose. Both approaches yield data of high multiplicity while minimizing radiation damage and systematic error, thus ensuring accurate measurements of the anomalous differences. Here, the combined use of these two strategies is described to solve cases of native SAD phasing that were particular challenges: the integral membrane diacylglycerol kinase (DgkA) with a low Bijvoet ratio of 1% and the large 200 kDa complex of the CRISPR-associated endonuclease (Cas9) bound to guide RNA and target DNA crystallized in the low-symmetry space group C2. The optimal native SAD data-collection strategy based on systematic measurements performed on the 266 kDa multiprotein/multiligand tubulin complex is discussed.

  9. The effect of sad facial expressions on weight judgment

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Trent D.; Hass, Norah C.; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2015-01-01

    Although the body weight evaluation (e.g., normal or overweight) of others relies on perceptual impressions, it also can be influenced by other psychosocial factors. In this study, we explored the effect of task-irrelevant emotional facial expressions on judgments of body weight and the relationship between emotion-induced weight judgment bias and other psychosocial variables including attitudes toward obese persons. Forty-four participants were asked to quickly make binary body weight decisions for 960 randomized sad and neutral faces of varying weight levels presented on a computer screen. The results showed that sad facial expressions systematically decreased the decision threshold of overweight judgments for male faces. This perceptual decision bias by emotional expressions was positively correlated with the belief that being overweight is not under the control of obese persons. Our results provide experimental evidence that task-irrelevant emotional expressions can systematically change the decision threshold for weight judgments, demonstrating that sad expressions can make faces appear more overweight than they would otherwise be judged. PMID:25914669

  10. Solar Diameter Latitude Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Laclare, F.

    The observing programs of the Sun for determining the fundamental system of reference enable, as a by-product, to measure the apparent solar diameter (Poppe, P.C.R. et al. 1996; Leister et al. 1996; Laclare et al. 1991). The diameter obtained at the Calern Observatory (φ = 43-circ 44' 55''.9; λ = -0h 27m 42s.44) and at Abrahao de Moraes Observatory (OAM) (φ = -23-circ 00'6''.0; λ = 3h 07m 52s.22) was analyzed searching for periodicity evidences. For this we utilized the temporal methods CLEAN and CLEANEST. The analysis in function of heliographic latitude shows a dependence that may be correlated to mode of pulsation non-radial gravity. A discussion is made in terms of physical parameters like temperature luminosity and magnetic field involving the solar radius (Emilio M. 1997; Laclare et al. 1996).

  11. Abdominal aortic aneurysms in women

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ruby C.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has long been recognized as a condition predominantly afflicting males, with sex-associated differences described for almost every aspect of the disease from pathophysiology and epidemiology to morbidity and mortality. Women are generally spared from AAA formation by the immunomodulating effects of estrogen but once they develop, the natural history of AAAs in women appears to be more aggressive, with more rapid expansion, a higher tendency to rupture at smaller diameters, and higher mortality following rupture. However, simply repairing AAA at smaller diameters in women is a debatable solution, as even elective endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) is fraught with higher morbidity and mortality in women compared to men. The goal of this review is to summarize what is currently known about the effect of gender on AAA presentation, treatment, and outcomes. Additionally, we aim to review current controversies over screening recommendations and threshold for repair in women. PMID:26747679

  12. Affinity for Poetry and Aesthetic Appreciation of Joyful and Sad Poems

    PubMed Central

    Kraxenberger, Maria; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2017-01-01

    Artworks with sad and affectively negative content have repeatedly been reported to elicit positive aesthetic appreciation. This topic has received much attention both in the history of poetics and aesthetics as well as in recent studies on sad films and sad music. However, poetry and aesthetic evaluations of joyful and sad poetry have received only little attention in empirical studies to date. We collected beauty and liking ratings for 24 sad and 24 joyful poems from 128 participants. Following previous studies, we computed an integrated measure for overall aesthetic appreciation based on the beauty and liking ratings to test for differences in appreciation between joyful and sad poems. Further, we tested whether readers' judgments are related to their affinity for poetry. Results show that sad poems are rated significantly higher for aesthetic appreciation than joyful poems, and that aesthetic appreciation is influenced by the participants' affinity for poetry. PMID:28119649

  13. Affinity for Poetry and Aesthetic Appreciation of Joyful and Sad Poems.

    PubMed

    Kraxenberger, Maria; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Artworks with sad and affectively negative content have repeatedly been reported to elicit positive aesthetic appreciation. This topic has received much attention both in the history of poetics and aesthetics as well as in recent studies on sad films and sad music. However, poetry and aesthetic evaluations of joyful and sad poetry have received only little attention in empirical studies to date. We collected beauty and liking ratings for 24 sad and 24 joyful poems from 128 participants. Following previous studies, we computed an integrated measure for overall aesthetic appreciation based on the beauty and liking ratings to test for differences in appreciation between joyful and sad poems. Further, we tested whether readers' judgments are related to their affinity for poetry. Results show that sad poems are rated significantly higher for aesthetic appreciation than joyful poems, and that aesthetic appreciation is influenced by the participants' affinity for poetry.

  14. Reduced artery diameters in Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Foresta, C; Caretta, N; Palego, P; Ferlin, A; Zuccarello, D; Lenzi, A; Selice, R

    2012-10-01

    Various epidemiological studies in relatively large cohorts of patients with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) described the increased morbidity and mortality in these subjects. Our aim was to study the structure and function of arteries in different districts to investigate in these subjects possible alterations. A total of 92 patients having non-mosaic KS, diagnosed in Centre for Human Reproduction Pathology at the University of Padova, and 50 age-matched healthy male controls were studied. Klinefelter syndrome subjects and controls evaluation included complete medical history, physical examination, measurement of concentrations of the reproductive hormones, lipidic and glycidic metabolism, AR function and sensitivity, ultrasound examinations (diameters, carotid intima-media thickness and brachial flow-mediated dilation) of brachial, common carotid and common femoral artery and abdominal aorta. Klinefelter syndrome patients showed significantly reduced artery diameters in all districts evaluated. On the contrary no statistically significant difference was found in cIMT and brachial FMD values between KS patients and controls. Furthermore, we found no statistically significant correlation of artery diameters with reproductive hormones, metabolic parameters, anthropometric measures and weighted CAG repeats. To our knowledge, this is the first study finding a reduced artery diameter in several districts in KS patients compared with that of normal male subjects and overlapping to that of female subjects. We have not an explanation for this phenomenon, even if a possible involvement of genes controlling the development of vascular system might be hypothesized, and further research is required to verify this hypothesis.

  15. Double diameter boring tool

    DOEpatents

    Ashbaugh, Fred N.; Murry, Kenneth R.

    1988-12-27

    A boring tool and a method of operation are provided for boring two concentric holes of precision diameters and depths in a single operation. The boring tool includes an elongated tool body, a shank for attachment to a standard adjustable boring head which is used on a manual or numerical control milling machine and first and second diametrically opposed cutting edges formed for cutting in opposite directions. The diameter of the elongated tool body is substantially equal to the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation plus the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the tool is spaced from the tool centerline a distance substantially equal to one-half the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation minus one-half the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The method includes the step of inserting the boring tool into the boring head, adjusting the distance between the tool centerline and the tool axis of rotation as described above and boring the two concentric holes.

  16. Double diameter boring tool

    DOEpatents

    Ashbaugh, F.A.; Murry, K.R.

    1986-02-10

    A boring tool and a method of operation are provided for boring two concentric holes of precision diameters and depths in a single operation. The boring tool includes an elongated tool body, a shank for attachment to a standard adjustable boring head which is used on a manual or numerical control milling machine and first and second diametrically opposed cutting flutes formed for cutting in opposite directions. The diameter of the elongated tool body is substantially equal to the distance from the first flute tip to the axis of rotation plus the distance from the second flute tip to the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the tool is spaced from the tool centerline a distance substantially equal to one-half the distance from the second flute tip to the axis of rotation minus one-half the distance from the first flute tip to the axis of rotation. The method includes the step of inserting the boring tool into the boring head, adjusting the distance between the tool centerline and the tool axis of rotation as described above and boring the two concentric holes.

  17. The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenland is related to latitude.

    PubMed

    Kegel, Mogens; Dam, Henrik; Ali, Fatuma; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenlanders and Danes living at four different latitudes in Greenland. A Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was mailed to 6021 men and women between the ages of 18 and 59 years living in four different municipalities in Greenland. The recipients were randomly selected from the National Population Register. Approximately 9% of the respondents met the criteria for SAD, and the incidence of SAD varied between a southern municipality and three northern municipalities. The prevalence of SAD was particularly high in northern municipalities. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of SAD between Greenlanders and Danes. The results are comparable with other population studies that have reported a high prevalence of SAD in arctic areas. The clinical implications of our findings and the possibilities for introducing light therapy should be assessed in future studies.

  18. Misery loves company: when sadness increases the desire for social connectedness.

    PubMed

    Gray, Heather M; Ishii, Keiko; Ambady, Nalini

    2011-11-01

    In three experiments, the authors investigated the effects of sadness on the desire for social connectedness. They hypothesized that sadness serves an adaptive function by motivating people to reach out to others and preferentially attend to information related to one's current level of social connectedness, but only when it is instigated by social loss. Consistent with this hypothesis, the authors observed that sadness induced by an emotional depiction of social loss enhanced (a) attention to nonverbal cues, an important source of information concerning an individual's current level of social connectedness (Experiment 1), and (b) the desire to engage in social behaviors (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3 the authors found that sadness that results from imagined social loss uniquely produced this pattern of effects. Sadness that resulted from imagined failure had different effects on motivation and no effect on sensitivity to nonverbal cues. These results support and refine functional explanations for the universality of sadness.

  19. Mona Lisa is always happy – and only sometimes sad

    PubMed Central

    Liaci, Emanuela; Fischer, Andreas; Heinrichs, Markus; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Kornmeier, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide fascination of da Vinci’s Mona Lisa has been dedicated to the emotional ambiguity of her face expression. In the present study we manipulated Mona Lisa’s mouth curvature as one potential source of ambiguity and studied how a range of happier and sadder face variants influences perception. In two experimental conditions we presented different stimulus ranges with different step sizes between stimuli along the happy-sad axis of emotional face expressions. Stimuli were presented in random order and participants indicated the perceived emotional face expression (first task) and the confidence of their response (second task). The probability of responding ‘happy’ to the original Mona Lisa was close to 100%. Furthermore, in both conditions the perceived happiness of Mona Lisa variants described sigmoidal functions of the mouth curvature. Participants’ confidence was weakest around the sigmoidal inflection points. Remarkably, the sigmoidal functions, as well as confidence values and reaction times, differed significantly between experimental conditions. Finally, participants responded generally faster to happy than to sad faces. Overall, the original Mona Lisa seems to be less ambiguous than expected. However, perception of and reaction to the emotional face content is relative and strongly depends on the used stimulus range. PMID:28281547

  20. Recognizing induced emotions of happiness and sadness from dance movement.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Edith; Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Lenoir, Matthieu; Lesaffre, Micheline; Leman, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Recent research revealed that emotional content can be successfully decoded from human dance movement. Most previous studies made use of videos of actors or dancers portraying emotions through choreography. The current study applies emotion induction techniques and free movement in order to examine the recognition of emotional content from dance. Observers (N = 30) watched a set of silent videos showing depersonalized avatars of dancers moving to an emotionally neutral musical stimulus after emotions of either sadness or happiness had been induced. Each of the video clips consisted of two dance performances which were presented side-by-side and were played simultaneously; one of a dancer in the happy condition and one of the same individual in the sad condition. After every film clip, the observers were asked to make forced-choices concerning the emotional state of the dancer. Results revealed that observers were able to identify the emotional state of the dancers with a high degree of accuracy. Moreover, emotions were more often recognized for female dancers than for their male counterparts. In addition, the results of eye tracking measurements unveiled that observers primarily focus on movements of the chest when decoding emotional information from dance movement. The findings of our study show that not merely portrayed emotions, but also induced emotions can be successfully recognized from free dance movement.

  1. Mona Lisa is always happy - and only sometimes sad.

    PubMed

    Liaci, Emanuela; Fischer, Andreas; Heinrichs, Markus; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Kornmeier, Jürgen

    2017-03-10

    The worldwide fascination of da Vinci's Mona Lisa has been dedicated to the emotional ambiguity of her face expression. In the present study we manipulated Mona Lisa's mouth curvature as one potential source of ambiguity and studied how a range of happier and sadder face variants influences perception. In two experimental conditions we presented different stimulus ranges with different step sizes between stimuli along the happy-sad axis of emotional face expressions. Stimuli were presented in random order and participants indicated the perceived emotional face expression (first task) and the confidence of their response (second task). The probability of responding 'happy' to the original Mona Lisa was close to 100%. Furthermore, in both conditions the perceived happiness of Mona Lisa variants described sigmoidal functions of the mouth curvature. Participants' confidence was weakest around the sigmoidal inflection points. Remarkably, the sigmoidal functions, as well as confidence values and reaction times, differed significantly between experimental conditions. Finally, participants responded generally faster to happy than to sad faces. Overall, the original Mona Lisa seems to be less ambiguous than expected. However, perception of and reaction to the emotional face content is relative and strongly depends on the used stimulus range.

  2. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy.

  3. Depression and the medicalization of sadness: Conceptualization and recommended help-seeking

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Roland; Leavey, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Background: Critiques of the validity of the DSM diagnostic criteria for depressive disorder argue that it fails to differentiate between abnormal sadness due to internal dysfunction or depression (sadness without an identifiable cause), and normal sadness (sadness with a clear cause). Aims and Methods: A population survey was undertaken in adult education centres in Spain aiming to explore beliefs about depression and normal sadness. Two hypothetical case vignettes portrayed individuals experiencing deep sadness, both fulfilling criteria for major depressive disorder (DSM-IV), one with a clear cause, the other without an identifiable cause. Three hundred and forty-four (344) questionnaires were obtained (95% response rate). Results: Participants statistically significantly differentiated between the sadness-with-cause vignette, seen more frequently as a normal response, while the one without a cause was seen as pathological. Help-seeking behaviour recommendations followed this distinction: a medical option was statistically significantly more common when there was no cause for sadness. Socio-cultural variation in how people understand and deal with sadness was also found. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the importance of taking into account the context in which depressive symptoms occur as it seems that the absence of an appropriate context is what makes people conceptualize them as abnormal. It also raises questions about the lack of face validity of the current diagnostic classification for depressive disorder that exclusively uses descriptive criteria. PMID:22187003

  4. Surrogate Markers of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression.

    PubMed

    Wanhainen, Anders; Mani, Kevin; Golledge, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    The natural course of many abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is to gradually expand and eventually rupture and monitoring the disease progression is essential to their management. In this publication, we review surrogate markers of AAA progression. AAA diameter remains the most widely used and important marker of AAA growth. Standardized reporting of reproducible methods of measuring AAA diameter is essential. Newer imaging assessments, such as volume measurements, biomechanical analyses, and functional and molecular imaging, as well as circulating biomarkers, have potential to add important information about AAA progression. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to recommend their routine use in clinical practice.

  5. SAD5 Stereo Correlation Line-Striping in an FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villalpando, Carlos Y.; Morfopoulos, Arin C.

    2011-01-01

    High precision SAD5 stereo computations can be performed in an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) at much higher speeds than possible in a conventional CPU (central processing unit), but this uses large amounts of FPGA resources that scale with image size. Of the two key resources in an FPGA, Slices and BRAM (block RAM), Slices scale linearly in the new algorithm with image size, and BRAM scales quadratically with image size. An approach was developed to trade latency for BRAM by sub-windowing the image vertically into overlapping strips and stitching the outputs together to create a single continuous disparity output. In stereo, the general rule of thumb is that the disparity search range must be 1/10 the image size. In the new algorithm, BRAM usage scales linearly with disparity search range and scales again linearly with line width. So a doubling of image size, say from 640 to 1,280, would in the previous design be an effective 4 of BRAM usage: 2 for line width, 2 again for disparity search range. The minimum strip size is twice the search range, and will produce an output strip width equal to the disparity search range. So assuming a disparity search range of 1/10 image width, 10 sequential runs of the minimum strip size would produce a full output image. This approach allowed the innovators to fit 1280 960 wide SAD5 stereo disparity in less than 80 BRAM, 52k Slices on a Virtex 5LX330T, 25% and 24% of resources, respectively. Using a 100-MHz clock, this build would perform stereo at 39 Hz. Of particular interest to JPL is that there is a flight qualified version of the Virtex 5: this could produce stereo results even for very large image sizes at 3 orders of magnitude faster than could be computed on the PowerPC 750 flight computer. The work covered in the report allows the stereo algorithm to run on much larger images than before, and using much less BRAM. This opens up choices for a smaller flight FPGA (which saves power and space), or for other algorithms

  6. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T

    2000-01-01

    The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  7. Medical Physics Education at the University of Novi Sad - Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanković, Slobodanka; Vesković, Miroslav; Klisurić, Olivera; Spasić, Vesna

    2007-04-01

    Overview of new educational program and training in Medical Physics at the University of Novi Sad is presented, where the medical physics education from undergraduate to doctoral study is established in the last decade. Necessity for basic and additional education and hospital training for medical physicists becomes the evident subject in clinical practice in which physicists and physicians are in close collaboration to ensure high quality of patient care. Learning objectives: to incorporate the latest scientific and professional findings in the field of medical physics, medical diagnostics, therapy and instruments; to accomodate students' pursuits of individual fields by offering elective courses from different areas of current medical practice; to reflect the multidisciplinary spirit of the studies, since teaching is performed by experts from diverse fields.

  8. Does sadness impair color perception? Flawed evidence and faulty methods

    PubMed Central

    Holcombe, Alex O.; Brown, Nicholas J. L.; Goodbourn, Patrick T.; Etz, Alexander; Geukes, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    In their 2015 paper, Thorstenson, Pazda, and Elliot offered evidence from two experiments that perception of colors on the blue–yellow axis was impaired if the participants had watched a sad movie clip, compared to participants who watched clips designed to induce a happy or neutral mood. Subsequently, these authors retracted their article, citing a mistake in their statistical analyses and a problem with the data in one of their experiments. Here, we discuss a number of other methodological problems with Thorstenson et al.’s experimental design, and also demonstrate that the problems with the data go beyond what these authors reported. We conclude that repeating one of the two experiments, with the minor revisions proposed by Thorstenson et al., will not be sufficient to address the problems with this work. PMID:27606051

  9. On the interaction between sad mood and cognitive control: the effect of induced sadness on electrophysiological modulations underlying Stroop conflict processing.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Elena; Liddle, Peter F; Nixon, Neil L; Liotti, Mario

    2013-03-01

    The present study employed high-density ERPs to examine the effect of induced sad mood on the spatiotemporal correlates of conflict monitoring and resolution in a colour-word Stroop interference task. Neuroimaging evidence and dipole modelling implicates the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regions in conflict-laden interference control. On the basis that these structures have been found to mediate emotion-cognition interactions in negative mood states, it was predicted that Stroop-related cognitive control, which relies heavily on anterior neural sources, would be affected by effective sad mood provocation. Healthy participants (N=14) were induced into transient sadness via use of autobiographical sad scripts, a well-validated mood induction technique (Liotti et al., 2000a, 2002). In accord with previous research, interference effects were shown at both baseline and sad states while Stroop conflict was associated with early (N450) and late (Late Positive Component; LPC) electrophysiological modulations at both states. Sad mood induction attenuated the N450 effect in line with our expectation that it would be susceptible to modulation by mood, given its purported anterior limbic source. The LPC effect was displayed at the typical posterior lateral sites but, as predicted, was not affected by sad mood. However, frontocentral LPC activity-presumably generated from an additional anterior limbic source-was affected at sad state, hinting a role in conflict monitoring. Although the neurophysiological underpinnings of interference control are yet to be clarified, this study provided further insight into emotion-cognition interactions as indexed by Stroop conflict-laden processing.

  10. The DIAMET campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, G.

    2012-04-01

    DIAMET (DIAbatic influences on Mesoscale structures in ExTratropical storms) is a joint project between the UK academic community and the Met Office. Its focus is on understanding and predicting mesoscale structures in synoptic-scale storms, and in particular on the role of diabatic processes in generating and maintaining them. Such structures include fronts, rain bands, secondary cyclones, sting jets etc, and are important because much of the extreme weather we experience (e.g. strong winds, heavy rain) comes from such regions. The project conducted two field campaigns in the autumn of 2011, from September 14 - 30 and November 24 - December 14, based around the FAAM BAe146 aircraft with support from ground-based radar and radiosonde measurements. Detailed modelling, mainly using the Met Office Unified model, supported the planning and interpretation of these campaigns. This presentation will give a brief overview of the campaigns. Both in September and November-December the weather regime was westerly, with a strong jet stream directed across the Atlantic. Three IOPs were conducted in September, to observe a convective band ahead of an upper-level trough, waves on a long trailing cold front, and a warm conveyor belt associated with a secondary cyclone. In November-December six IOPs were conducted, to observe frontal passages and high winds. This period was notable for a number of very strong windstorms passing across the north of the UK, and gave us an opportunity to examine bent-back warm fronts in the southern quadrant of these storms where the strongest winds are found. The case studies fell into two basic patterns. In the majority of cases, dropsonde legs at high level were used to obtain a cross-section of winds and thermodynamic structure (e.g. across a front), followed by in situ legs at lower levels (generally where the temperature was between 0 and -10°) to examine microphysical processes, especially ice multiplication and the extent of supercooled water

  11. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cancer Infection of the tubes (salpingitis) Ectopic pregnancy Fibroid tumors of the uterus (womb) Malignant tumors of the uterus or cervix Endometriosis Adhesions (scars) Screening and Diagnosis How is the cause of abdominal pain determined? ...

  12. [The abdominal catastrophe].

    PubMed

    Seiler, Christian A

    2011-08-01

    Patients with an abdominal catastrophe are in urgent need of early, interdisciplinary medical help. The treatment plan should be based on medical priorities and clear leadership. First priority should be given to achieve optimal oxygenation of blood and stabilization of circulation during all treatment-phases. The sicker the patient, the less invasive the (surgical) treatment should to be, which means "damage control only". This short article describes 7 important, pragmatic rules that will help to increase the survival of a patient with an abdominal catastrophe. Preexisting morbidity and risk factors must be included in the overall risk-evaluation for every therapeutic intervention. The challenge in patients with an abdominal catastrophe is to carefully balance the therapeutic stress and the existing resistance of the individual patient. The best way to avoid abdominal disaster, however, is its prevention.

  13. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  14. Acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Stone, R

    1998-01-01

    Abdominal pain is among the most frequent ailments reported in the office setting and can account for up to 40% of ailments in the ambulatory practice. Also, it is in the top three symptoms of patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) and accounts for 5-10% of all ED primary presenting ailments. There are several common sources for acute abdominal pain and many for subacute and chronic abdominal pain. This article explores the history-taking, initial evaluation, and examination of the patient presenting with acute abdominal pain. The goal of this article is to help differentiate one source of pain from another. Discussion of acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis, appendicitis, ectopic pregnancy, diverticulitis, gastritis, and gastroenteritis are undertaken. Additionally, there is discussion of common laboratory studies, diagnostic studies, and treatment of the patient with the above entities.

  15. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease , pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis. cancers of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as ... injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, kidneys or other internal organs in cases of ...

  16. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... the results of abdominoplasty. Many feel a new sense of self-confidence. Alternative Names Cosmetic surgery of the abdomen; Tummy tuck; Abdominoplasty Images Abdominoplasty - series Abdominal muscles References McGrath MH, Pomerantz J. Plastic surgery. In: Townsend ...

  17. Anger and Sadness Perception in Clinically Referred Preschoolers: Emotion Processes and Externalizing Behavior Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sarah E.; Boekamp, John R.; McConville, David W.; Wheeler, Elizabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined emotion perception processes in preschool aged children presenting with clinically significant emotional and behavior problems, with emphasis on sadness perception accuracy (i.e., the ability to correctly identify sadness from expressive and situational cues) and anger perception bias (i.e., the tendency to perceive anger in…

  18. Parental Socialization of Sadness Regulation in Middle Childhood: The Role of Expectations and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Michael C.; Zeman, Janice L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this study investigated mothers' and fathers' socialization of their children's sadness. The particular focus was an examination of how socialization practices changed when parents' expectancies concerning their child's sadness management abilities were violated. Methods included an experimental manipulation and direct observation…

  19. The Sad, the Angry, and the Asymmetrical Brain: Dichotic Listening Studies of Negative Affect and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadea, Marien; Espert, Raul; Salvador, Alicia; Marti-Bonmati, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Dichotic Listening (DL) is a valuable tool to study emotional brain lateralization. Regarding the perception of sadness and anger through affective prosody, the main finding has been a left ear advantage (LEA) for the sad but contradictory data for the anger prosody. Regarding an induced mood in the laboratory, its consequences upon DL were a…

  20. Responses to Children's Sadness: Mothers' and Fathers' Unique Contributions and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Michael C.; Zeman, Janice L.; Sanders, Wesley M.

    2014-01-01

    Parental socialization of children's sadness was examined through self-report, spouse report, and a parent-child sadness discussion task. A total of 79 two-parent, predominantly White, middle-class families participated with one child in grades 2-5 (44 sons; M = 9 years, 8 months). Analyses revealed that mothers and fathers respond differently to…

  1. Abdominal involvement in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Neyman, Edward G; Georgiades, Christos S; Fishman, Elliot K

    2002-10-01

    Rising incidence of disseminated and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB), especially in immunocompromised hosts and patients with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, has resulted in an increase of unusual clinical and radiographic presentations of TB. With CT being a common part of emergency room (ER) evaluation of abdominal pain, it is imperative that radiologists be able to recognize abdominal presentations of TB. We discuss and illustrate typical and less common CT manifestations of tuberculosis in the abdomen to help ER radiologists in this task.

  2. Reconstruction of small diameter arteries using decellularized vascular scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Yuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Kishida, Akio; Fujisato, Toshia; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2014-03-19

    Although artificial vessels are available for large diameter arteries, there are no artificial vessels for small diameter arteries of < 4 mm. We created a decellularized vascular scaffold (length, 10 mm; outer diameter, 1.5 mm; inner diameter, 1.3 mm) from rat abdominal arteries. We measured the biomechanical characteristics of the scaffolds, implanted them to defects made in rat carotid arteries, and evaluated their patency and the endothelial cell linings. Silastic grafts were implanted as controls. The decellularized scaffolds demonstrated similar mechanical characteristics to normal arteries. All of the control grafts were occluded. Fibroblast-like cells were discovered in the thrombus, and fibrous organization was apparent. In contrast, patency of the grafts in 10 of 12 animals was observed 4 weeks after implantation. The internal cavity of the patent scaffold was completely lined by endotheliallike cells. Thus, the possibility of small artery reconstruction using decellularized scaffolds was demonstrated.

  3. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Savarese, R P; Rosenfeld, J C; DeLaurentis, D A

    1986-05-01

    Between January 1976 and December 1982, 181 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were treated surgically, and in 13 patients the aneurysms were found to be inflammatory. Inflammatory aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (IAAA) share important characteristics with typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysms. Diagnosis and surgical management of IAAA are distinctive which suggests that IAAA should be considered separately, as a varient of typical abdominal aortic aneurysms. IAAA occur predominantly in males. The presenting symptoms are often idiosyncratic and include severe abdominal or back pain, or both, and ureteral obstruction; the diagnosis of IAAA should be considered when these symptoms are present. Although grossly and microscopically, the perianeurysmal fibrosis resembles idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, the two conditions can be differentiated. At the present time, ultrasonography and computed tomography appear to offer reliable means for diagnosing IAAA. The presence of IAAA, whether established preoperatively or discovered unexpectedly at operation, necessitate certain modifications in the surgical approach, in order to avoid injuring the duodenum and the venous structures. Most patients can be successfully treated by resection and graft replacement. Rupture of the aneurysm in IAAA appears to be less frequent than in typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  4. Structural insight into the mechanism of synergistic autoinhibition of SAD kinases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing-Xiang; Cheng, Yun-Sheng; Wang, Jue; Chen, Lei; Ding, Mei; Wu, Jia-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The SAD/BRSK kinases participate in various important life processes, including neural development, cell cycle and energy metabolism. Like other members of the AMPK family, SAD contains an N-terminal kinase domain followed by the characteristic UBA and KA1 domains. Here we identify a unique autoinhibitory sequence (AIS) in SAD kinases, which exerts autoregulation in cooperation with UBA. Structural studies of mouse SAD-A revealed that UBA binds to the kinase domain in a distinct mode and, more importantly, AIS nestles specifically into the KD-UBA junction. The cooperative action of AIS and UBA results in an ‘αC-out' inactive kinase, which is conserved across species and essential for presynaptic vesicle clustering in C. elegans. In addition, the AIS, along with the KA1 domain, is indispensable for phospholipid binding. Taken together, these data suggest a model for synergistic autoinhibition and membrane activation of SAD kinases. PMID:26626945

  5. Structural insight into the mechanism of synergistic autoinhibition of SAD kinases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Xiang; Cheng, Yun-Sheng; Wang, Jue; Chen, Lei; Ding, Mei; Wu, Jia-Wei

    2015-12-02

    The SAD/BRSK kinases participate in various important life processes, including neural development, cell cycle and energy metabolism. Like other members of the AMPK family, SAD contains an N-terminal kinase domain followed by the characteristic UBA and KA1 domains. Here we identify a unique autoinhibitory sequence (AIS) in SAD kinases, which exerts autoregulation in cooperation with UBA. Structural studies of mouse SAD-A revealed that UBA binds to the kinase domain in a distinct mode and, more importantly, AIS nestles specifically into the KD-UBA junction. The cooperative action of AIS and UBA results in an 'αC-out' inactive kinase, which is conserved across species and essential for presynaptic vesicle clustering in C. elegans. In addition, the AIS, along with the KA1 domain, is indispensable for phospholipid binding. Taken together, these data suggest a model for synergistic autoinhibition and membrane activation of SAD kinases.

  6. Verbal and facial-emotional Stroop tasks reveal specific attentional interferences in sad mood.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Linda; Vrijsen, Janna N; Eling, Paul; van Oostrom, Iris; Speckens, Anne; Becker, Eni S

    2012-01-01

    Mood congruence refers to the tendency of individuals to attend to information more readily when it has the same emotional content as their current mood state. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether attentional interference occurred for participants in sad mood states for emotionally relevant stimuli (mood-congruence), and to determine whether this interference occurred for both valenced words and valenced faces. A mood induction procedure was administered to 116 undergraduate females divided into two equal groups for the sad and happy mood condition. This study employed three versions of the Stroop task: color, verbal-emotional, and a facial-emotional Stroop. The two mood groups did not differ on the color Stroop. Significant group differences were found on the verbal-emotional Stroop for sad words with longer latencies for sad-induced participants. Main findings for the facial-emotional Stroop were that sad mood is associated with attentional interference for angry-threatening faces as well as longer latencies for neutral faces. Group differences were not found for positive stimuli. These findings confirm that sad mood is associated with attentional interference for mood-congruent stimuli in the verbal domain (sad words), but this mood-congruent effect does not necessarily apply to the visual domain (sad faces). Attentional interference for neutral faces suggests sad mood participants did not necessarily see valence-free faces. Attentional interference for threatening stimuli is often associated with anxiety; however, the current results show that threat is not an attentional interference observed exclusively in states of anxiety but also in sad mood.

  7. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition.

  8. Sad or Fearful? The Influence of Body Posture on Adults' and Children's Perception of Facial Displays of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigated the influence of body posture on adults' and children's perception of facial displays of emotion. In each of two experiments, participants categorized facial expressions that were presented on a body posture that was congruent (e.g., a sad face on a body posing sadness) or incongruent (e.g., a sad face on a body…

  9. Degree of extraversion and physiological responses to physical pain and sadness.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Sook; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Sohn, Sunju; Eom, Jin-Sup; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2014-10-01

    Extraversion is a personality frequently discussed as one of the strongest and most consistent factors that relates to individual subjective wellbeing. The goal of this study was to better understand how people with varying degrees of extraversion psychologically and physiologically respond differently to unpleasant circumstances. Emotional responses (e.g., levels of intensity, valence, and arousal) were assessed in determining the sensitivity level to negative stimuli that were specifically designed to provoke physical pain and sadness emotion. Physiological changes (e.g., heart rate (HR), blood volume pulse (BVP), and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)) were also measured during pain and sadness to observe sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. Our results showed that the degree of extraversion was associated with less unpleasant responses to sadness, less HR responses to both pain and sadness, and greater RSA responses to sadness. The findings suggest that the lower HR reactivity to painful and sad situations and greater RSA reactivity to sad situations in extraversion could be possibly due to increased parasympathetic activity. Additionally, enhanced parasympathetic activity to negative situations may explain an important mechanism underlying the positive connection between extraversion and subjective wellbeing.

  10. Prediction of Happy-Sad mood from daily behaviors and previous sleep history.

    PubMed

    Sano, Akane; Yu, Amy Z; McHill, Andrew W; Phillips, Andrew J K; Taylor, Sara; Jaques, Natasha; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Picard, Rosalind W

    2015-01-01

    We collected and analyzed subjective and objective data using surveys and wearable sensors worn day and night from 68 participants for ~30 days each, to address questions related to the relationships among sleep duration, sleep irregularity, self-reported Happy-Sad mood and other daily behavioral factors in college students. We analyzed this behavioral and physiological data to (i) identify factors that classified the participants into Happy-Sad mood using support vector machines (SVMs); and (ii) analyze how accurately sleep duration and sleep regularity for the past 1-5 days classified morning Happy-Sad mood. We found statistically significant associations amongst Sad mood and poor health-related factors. Behavioral factors including the frequency of negative social interactions, and negative emails, and total academic activity hours showed the best performance in separating the Happy-Sad mood groups. Sleep regularity and sleep duration predicted daily Happy-Sad mood with 65-80% accuracy. The number of nights giving the best prediction of Happy-Sad mood varied for different individuals.

  11. The error-related negativity relates to sadness following mood induction among individuals with high neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Hajcak, Greg

    2012-01-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential (ERP) that indexes error monitoring. Research suggests that the ERN is increased in internalizing disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Although studies indicate that the ERN is insensitive to state-related fluctuations in anxiety, few studies have carefully examined the effect of state-related changes in sadness on the ERN. In the current study, we sought to determine whether the ERN would be altered by a sad mood induction using a between-subjects design. Additionally, we explored if this relationship would be moderated by individual differences in neuroticism—a personality trait related to both anxiety and depression. Forty-seven undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to either a sad or neutral mood induction prior to performing an arrow version of the flanker task. Participants reported greater sadness following the sad than neutral mood induction; there were no significant group differences on behavioral or ERP measures. Across the entire sample, however, participants with a larger increase in sad mood from baseline to post-induction had a larger (i.e. more negative) ERN. Furthermore, this effect was larger among individuals reporting higher neuroticism. These data indicate that neuroticism moderates the relationship between the ERN and changes in sad mood. PMID:21382967

  12. Wheel Diameter and Speedometer Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Clifton

    2010-01-01

    Most introductory physics students have seen vehicles with nonstandard wheel diameters; some may themselves drive "low-rider" cars or "big-wheel" pickup trucks. But how does changing wheel diameter affect speedometer readout for a given speed? Deriving the answer can be followed readily by students who have been introduced to rotation, and it…

  13. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Mikami, Y; Kyogoku, M

    1994-08-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is a distinct clinicopathological entity, characterized by: (1) clinical presentation, such as back pain, weight loss, and increased ESR, (2) patchy and/or diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and (3) marked periaortic fibrosis resulting in thickening of the aneurysmal wall and occasional retroperitoneal fibrosis. Its pathogenesis is unknown, but some authors support the theory that IAAA is a subtype of atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm because of close relationship between IAAA and atherosclerotic change. In this article, we describe clinical and histological features of IAAA on the basis of the literature and our review of 6 cases of IAAA, emphasizing the similarity and difference between IAAA and atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. Our review supports that marked lamellar fibrosis completely replacing the media and adventitia, patchy lymphocytic infiltration (mostly B cells) and endarteritis obliterans are characteristic features of IAAA.

  14. [Abdominal actinomycosis with IUD].

    PubMed

    Kamprath, S; Merker, A; Kühne-Heid, R; Schneider, A

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of abdominal actinomycosis in a 54 year old woman using an intrauterine device for a period of 8 years. The most important finding was a tuboovarialabscess at the left pelvic side with involvement of the serosa of the jejunum, ileum, sigma, and omentum majus. Intraoperative exploration showed a solid retroperitoneal infiltration between the pelvic side wall and sigma. Another infiltration was found on the left side of the abdominal wall. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and the patient was treated by a combination of Aminopenicillin and Metronidazol. After a period of three months we observed a complete regression of the clinical and the MRI findings.

  15. Effects of anger and sadness on attentional patterns in decision making: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Xing, Cai

    2014-02-01

    Past research examining the effect of anger and sadness on decision making has associated anger with a relatively more heuristic decision-making approach. However, it is unclear whether angry and sad individuals differ while attending to decision-relevant information. An eye-tracking experiment (N=87) was conducted to examine the role of attention in links between emotion and decision making. Angry individuals looked more and earlier toward heuristic cues while making decisions, whereas sad individuals did not show such bias. Implications for designing persuasive messages and studying motivated visual processing were discussed.

  16. Diagnostic imaging of intra-abdominal cyst in heifer using the computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Otomaru, Konosuke; Fujikawa, Takuro; Saito, Yasuo; Ando, Takaaki; Obi, Takeshi; Miura, Naoki; Kubota, Chikara

    2015-09-01

    A 10-month-old Japanese black heifer was diagnosed as having an intra-abdominal cyst using computed tomography (CT). Through a posterior ventral midline incision, the cyst was removed, and the heifer completely recovered after the surgery. CT scans enabled detection of the intra-abdominal cyst and measurements of the diameter of the cyst before the surgery.

  17. Fiber diameter control in electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanyan, R.; Subbotin, A.; Cuperus, L.; Boonen, P.; Dorschu, M.; Oosterlinck, F.; Bulters, M.

    2014-10-01

    A simple model is proposed to predict the fiber diameter in electrospinning. We show that the terminal diameter is determined by the kinetics of the jet elongation—under the influence of the electric and viscous forces—and the solvent evaporation. Numerical and simple scaling analyses are performed, predicting the fiber diameter to scale as a power 1/3 of viscosity and 2/3 of polymer solution throughput divided by electrical current. Model predictions show a good agreement to our own electrospinning experiments on polyamide-6 solutions as well as to the data available in the literature.

  18. Abdominal exploration - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100049.htm Abdominal exploration - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 4 Go to slide 2 ...

  19. Incision for abdominal laparoscopy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal laparoscopy is a useful aid in diagnosing disease or trauma in the abdominal cavity with less scarring than ... as liver and pancreatic resections may begin with laparoscopy to exclude the presence of additional tumors (metastatic ...

  20. Advancements in identifying biomechanical determinants for abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Metaxa, Eleni; Papaharilaou, Yannis; Tavlas, Emmanouil; Tsetis, Dimitrios; Ioannou, Christos

    2015-02-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms are a common health problem and currently the need for surgical intervention is determined based on maximum diameter and growth rate criteria. Since these universal variables often fail to predict accurately every abdominal aortic aneurysms evolution, there is a considerable effort in the literature for other markers to be identified towards individualized rupture risk estimations and growth rate predictions. To this effort, biomechanical tools have been extensively used since abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is in fact a material failure of the diseased arterial wall to compensate the stress acting on it. The peak wall stress, the role of the unique geometry of every individual abdominal aortic aneurysm as well as the mechanical properties and the local strength of the degenerated aneurysmal wall, all confer to rupture risk. In this review article, the assessment of these variables through mechanical testing, advanced imaging and computational modeling is reviewed and the clinical perspective is discussed.

  1. Multi-crystal native SAD analysis at 6 keV

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qun; Guo, Youzhong; Chang, Yanqi; Cai, Zheng; Assur, Zahra; Mancia, Filippo; Greene, Mark I.; Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2014-01-01

    Anomalous diffraction signals from typical native macro­molecules are very weak, frustrating their use in de novo structure determination. Here, native SAD procedures are described to enhance signal to noise in anomalous diffraction by using multiple crystals in combination with synchrotron X-rays at 6 keV. Increased anomalous signals were obtained at 6 keV compared with 7 keV X-ray energy, which was used for previous native SAD analyses. A feasibility test of multi-crystal-based native SAD phasing was performed at 3.2 Å resolution for a known tyrosine protein kinase domain, and real-life applications were made to two novel membrane proteins at about 3.0 Å resolution. The three applications collectively serve to validate the robust feasibility of native SAD phasing at lower energy. PMID:25286840

  2. Wheel Diameter and Speedometer Reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Clifton

    2010-09-01

    Most introductory physics students have seen vehicles with nonstandard wheel diameters; some may themselves drive "low-rider" cars or "big-wheel" pickup trucks. But how does changing wheel diameter affect speedometer readout for a given speed? Deriving the answer can be followed readily by students who have been introduced to rotation, and it makes a good illustration of how reasoning in physics can lead to a result that is useful outside the classroom.

  3. [Myxofibrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Janů, F

    2016-01-01

    A number of benign and malignant tumors may develop in the abdominal cavity. Sarcomas are rather rare tumors of the abdominal cavity. They are often diagnosed at advanced growth stages as their local growth can cause clinical problems to the patients. The author presents a case report of myxofibrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity.Key words: myxofibrosarcoma.

  4. Gender Differences in Empathic Sadness towards Persons of the Same- versus Other-sex during Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Stuijfzand, Suzannah; De Wied, Minet; Kempes, Maaike; Van de Graaff, Jolien; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Although gender differences in affective empathy are well established, evidence of gender differences in the development of affective empathy is inconsistent. Consideration of same-sex versus other-sex affective empathy may assist in elucidating these inconsistencies. Gender differences were investigated in the experience of empathic sadness towards same- versus other-sex targets. The relationships were studied cross-sectionally (N = 730) and longitudinally (N = 318) with Dutch adolescents using the empathic sadness scale of the Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents (IECA; Bryant 1982). In both studies, female adolescents reported more empathic sadness than did male adolescents. Female targets also received more affective empathy than did male targets, and, more importantly, gender differences were observed in same-sex versus other-sex affective empathy. Specifically, in both studies male adolescents reported less empathic sadness towards same-sex than towards other-sex targets. In contrast, female adolescents reported more empathic sadness towards same-sex than towards other-sex targets in the cross-sectional study, and equal levels of empathic sadness towards both types of targets in the longitudinal study. Findings highlight the importance of considering same-sex versus other-sex affective empathy. Gender differences in same-sex and other-sex affective empathy have implications for assisting adolescents in social conflict resolution and interventions for bullying and aggressive behaviour in adolescence using empathy training.

  5. Chocolate eating in healthy men during experimentally induced sadness and joy.

    PubMed

    Macht, M; Roth, S; Ellgring, H

    2002-10-01

    The study compared influences of qualitatively different emotions on eating. Motivation to eat, affective responses to chocolate and chewing of chocolate were investigated in healthy normal weight males during experimentally induced emotions. Subjects abstained from eating 2 h (n = 24) or 8 h (n = 24) before testing. They received pieces of chocolate after viewing film clips presented to induce anger, fear, sadness and joy. Motivation to eat and most affective responses to eating chocolate were higher after 8 h than after 2 h of deprivation. Sadness and joy affected motivation to eat in opposite directions: joy increased and sadness decreased appetite (p < 0.001). In joy, a higher tendency to eat more chocolate was reported (p < 0.001), and chocolate tasted more pleasant (p < 0.001) and was experienced as more "stimulating" than in sadness (p < 0.01). No effects of deprivation could be found for chewing time and number of chews. Results indicate that the quality of emotions can affect motivation to eat and affective responses to eating chocolate. Our findings on decreased eating responses to sadness in healthy males and the contradictory increased eating responses to sadness reported by others supports two types of emotion-induced changes of eating: emotion-congruent modulation of eating and eating to regulate emotions.

  6. The minor third communicates sadness in speech, mirroring its use in music.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Meagan E; Bharucha, Jamshed J

    2010-06-01

    There is a long history of attempts to explain why music is perceived as expressing emotion. The relationship between pitches serves as an important cue for conveying emotion in music. The musical interval referred to as the minor third is generally thought to convey sadness. We reveal that the minor third also occurs in the pitch contour of speech conveying sadness. Bisyllabic speech samples conveying four emotions were recorded by 9 actresses. Acoustic analyses revealed that the relationship between the 2 salient pitches of the sad speech samples tended to approximate a minor third. Participants rated the speech samples for perceived emotion, and the use of numerous acoustic parameters as cues for emotional identification was modeled using regression analysis. The minor third was the most reliable cue for identifying sadness. Additional participants rated musical intervals for emotion, and their ratings verified the historical association between the musical minor third and sadness. These findings support the theory that human vocal expressions and music share an acoustic code for communicating sadness.

  7. Effects of mindfulness, reappraisal, and suppression on sad mood and cognitive resources.

    PubMed

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Tan, Elysia Li Yan; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Smoski, Moria J

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the relative effects of mindfulness, reappraisal and suppression in reducing sadness, and the extent to which implementation of these strategies affects cognitive resources in a laboratory context. A total of 171 Singaporean undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to receive brief training in mindfulness, reappraisal, or suppression prior to undergoing a sad mood induction. Individual adherence to Asian cultural values was assessed as a potential moderator of strategy effectiveness. Participants rated their mood and completed a Color-Word Stroop task before and after mood regulation instructions. Analyses using multi-level modelling showed that the suppression condition caused less robust declines in sadness over time compared to mindfulness. There was also a nonsignificant trend in which mindfulness was associated with greater sadness recovery compared to reappraisal. Suppression resulted in lower average sadness compared to mindfulness among those high on Asian cultural values, but not those low on Asian cultural values. Both mindfulness and reappraisal buffered against increases in Stroop interference from pre-to post-regulation compared to suppression. The findings highlight the advantage of mindfulness as a strategy effective not only in the regulation of sad mood, but also in the preservation of cognitive resources in the context of mood regulation.

  8. Regulation of sadness via acceptance or suppression in adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra; Lackner, Helmut Karl; Sadohara, Chiharu; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2014-12-15

    Emotion dysregulation is a recognized symptom of adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study is to induce sadness in adults suffering from ADHD and to investigate the impact of emotion regulation strategies on sadness intensity, and psychophysiological measures. Thirty-six adults diagnosed with ADHD were randomly assigned to either expressive suppression (SUPP) or acceptance (ACC) of emotion. Sadness was induced using a film clip. Participants estimated the intensity of sadness and the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion before (T1), immediately after (T2) and 2 min after the film (T3). Physiological measures were obtained. Sadness induction was effective in both conditions. The perception of being overwhelmed with emotion increased between T1 and T2 in both conditions, but persisted until T3 only in the expressive suppression condition whereas a decrease was observed in the acceptance condition. In ADHD expressive suppression of sadness seems to be associated to a prolonged recovery from the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion. Emotion-regulation via acceptance in contrast appears to allow faster recovery from the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify suppression as a critical mediator between an induced emotion and delayed recovery from emotional reactions in adult ADHD.

  9. PIPE-chipSAD: A Pipeline for the Analysis of High Density Arrays of Bacterial Transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Bottini, Silvia; Del Tordello, Elena; Fagnocchi, Luca; Donati, Claudio; Muzzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    PIPE-chipSAD is a pipeline for bacterial transcriptome studies based on high-density microarray experiments. The main algorithm chipSAD, integrates the analysis of the hybridization signal with the genomic position of probes and identifies portions of the genome transcribing for mRNAs. The pipeline includes a procedure, align-chipSAD, to build a multiple alignment of transcripts originating in the same locus in multiple experiments and provides a method to compare mRNA expression across different conditions. Finally, the pipeline includes anno-chipSAD a method to annotate the detected transcripts in comparison to the genome annotation. Overall, our pipeline allows transcriptional profile analysis of both coding and non-coding portions of the chromosome in a single framework. Importantly, due to its versatile characteristics, it will be of wide applicability to analyse, not only microarray signals, but also data from other high throughput technologies such as RNA-sequencing. The current PIPE-chipSAD implementation is written in Python programming language and is freely available at https://github.com/silviamicroarray/chipSAD.

  10. PIPE-chipSAD: A Pipeline for the Analysis of High Density Arrays of Bacterial Transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Bottini, Silvia; Del Tordello, Elena; Fagnocchi, Luca; Donati, Claudio; Muzzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    PIPE-chipSAD is a pipeline for bacterial transcriptome studies based on high-density microarray experiments. The main algorithm chipSAD, integrates the analysis of the hybridization signal with the genomic position of probes and identifies portions of the genome transcribing for mRNAs. The pipeline includes a procedure, align-chipSAD, to build a multiple alignment of transcripts originating in the same locus in multiple experiments and provides a method to compare mRNA expression across different conditions. Finally, the pipeline includes anno-chipSAD a method to annotate the detected transcripts in comparison to the genome annotation. Overall, our pipeline allows transcriptional profile analysis of both coding and non-coding portions of the chromosome in a single framework. Importantly, due to its versatile characteristics, it will be of wide applicability to analyse, not only microarray signals, but also data from other high throughput technologies such as RNA-sequencing. The current PIPE-chipSAD implementation is written in Python programming language and is freely available at https://github.com/silviamicroarray/chipSAD. PMID:28066774

  11. A sad mood increases attention to unhealthy food images in women with food addiction.

    PubMed

    Frayn, Mallory; Sears, Christopher R; von Ranson, Kristin M

    2016-05-01

    Food addiction and emotional eating both influence eating and weight, but little is known of how negative mood affects the attentional processes that may contribute to food addiction. The purpose of this study was to compare attention to food images in adult women (N = 66) with versus without food addiction, before and after a sad mood induction (MI). Participants' eye fixations were tracked and recorded throughout 8-s presentations of displays with healthy food, unhealthy food, and non-food images. Food addiction was self-reported using the Yale Food Addiction Scale. The sad MI involved watching an 8-min video about a young child who passed away from cancer. It was predicted that: (1) participants in the food addiction group would attend to unhealthy food significantly more than participants in the control group, and (2) participants in the food addiction group would increase their attention to unhealthy food images following the sad MI, due to increased emotional reactivity and poorer emotional regulation. As predicted, the sad MI had a different effect for those with versus without food addiction: for participants with food addiction, attention to unhealthy images increased following the sad MI and attention to healthy images decreased, whereas for participants without food addiction the sad MI did not alter attention to food. These findings contribute to researchers' understanding of the cognitive factors underlying food addiction.

  12. Stellar diameters and temperatures. IV. Predicting stellar angular diameters

    SciTech Connect

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Van Belle, Gerard; Von Braun, Kaspar

    2014-03-01

    The number of stellar angular diameter measurements has greatly increased over the past few years due to innovations and developments in the field of long baseline optical interferometry. We use a collection of high-precision angular diameter measurements for nearby, main-sequence stars to develop empirical relations that allow the prediction of stellar angular sizes as a function of observed photometric color. These relations are presented for a combination of 48 broadband color indices. We empirically show for the first time a dependence on metallicity of these relations using Johnson (B – V) and Sloan (g – r) colors. Our relations are capable of predicting diameters with a random error of less than 5% and represent the most robust and empirical determinations of stellar angular sizes to date.

  13. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sachs, T; Schermerhorn, M

    2010-06-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) continues to be one of the most lethal vascular pathologies we encounter. Its management demands prompt and efficient evaluation and repair. Open repair has traditionally been the mainstay of treatment. However, the introduction of endovascular techniques has altered the treatment algorithm for ruptured AAA in most major medical centers. We present recent literature and techniques for ruptured AAA and its surgical management.

  14. The Abdominal Circulatory Pump

    PubMed Central

    Aliverti, Andrea; Bovio, Dario; Fullin, Irene; Dellacà, Raffaele L.; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Pedotti, Antonio; Macklem, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs) is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 50–75 ml with an ejection fraction of 4–6% and an output of 750–1500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.61±0.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.57±0.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart. PMID:19440240

  15. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  16. [Abdominal catastrophe--surgeon's view].

    PubMed

    Vyhnánek, F

    2010-07-01

    Abdominal catastrophe is a serious clinical condition, usually being a complication arising during treatment of intraabdominal nontraumatic disorders or abdominal injuries. Most commonly, inflamation- secondary peritonitis, is concerned. Abdominal catastrophe also includes secondary signs of sepsis, abdominal compartment syndrome and enterocutaneous fistules. Most septic abdominal disorders which show signs of abdominal catastrophy, require surgical intervention and reinterventions--planned or "on demand" laparotomies. During the postoperative period, the patient requires intensive care management, including steps taken to stabilize his/hers condition, management of sepsis and metabolic and nutritional support measures, as well as adequate indication for reoperations. New technologies aimed at prevention of complications in laparostomies and to improve conditions for final laparotomy closure are used in phase procedures for surgical management of intraabdominal infections. Despite the new technologies, abdominal catastrophe has higher morbidity and lethality risk rates.

  17. Abdominal SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Van Heertum, R.L.; Brunetti, J.C.; Yudd, A.P.

    1987-07-01

    Over the past several years, abdominal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has evolved from a research tool to an important clinical imaging modality that is helpful in the diagnostic assessment of a wide variety of disorders involving the abdominal viscera. Although liver-spleen imaging is the most popular of the abdominal SPECT procedures, blood pool imaging is becoming much more widely utilized for the evaluation of cavernous hemangiomas of the liver as well as other vascular abnormalities in the abdomen. Adjunctive indium leukocyte and gallium SPECT studies are also proving to be of value in the assessment of a variety of infectious and neoplastic diseases. As more experience is acquired in this area, SPECT should become the primary imaging modality for both gallium and indium white blood cells in many institutions. Renal SPECT, on the other hand, has only recently been used as a clinical imaging modality for the assessment of such parameters as renal depth and volume. The exact role of renal SPECT as a clinical tool is, therefore, yet to be determined. 79 references.

  18. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management.

  19. Functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, P; Aziz, Q

    2005-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is an uncommon functional gut disorder characterised by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain attributed to the gut but poorly related to gut function. It is associated with abnormal illness behaviour and patients show psychological morbidity that is often minimised or denied in an attempt to discover an organic cause for symptoms. Thus the conventional biomedical approach to the management of such patients is unhelpful and a person's symptom experience is more usefully investigated using a biopsychosocial evaluation, which necessarily entails a multidisciplinary system of healthcare provision. Currently the pathophysiology of the disorder is poorly understood but is most likely to involve a dysfunction of central pain mechanisms either in terms of attentional bias, for example, hypervigilance or a failure of central pain modulation/inhibition. Although modern neurophysiological investigation of patients is promising and may provide important insights into the pathophysiology of FAPS, current clinical management relies on an effective physician-patient relationship in which limits on clinical investigation are set and achievable treatment goals tailored to the patient's needs are pursued. PMID:15998821

  20. Abdominal tumors in children

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chaeyoun; Youn, Joong Kee; Han, Ji-Won; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in pediatric patients has been steadily increasing in recent years. However, its use for diagnosing and treating abdominal tumors in children is still limited compared with adults, especially when malignancy is a matter of debate. Here, we describe the experience at our center with pediatric abdominal tumors to show the safety and feasibility of MIS. Based on a retrospective review of patient records, we selected for study those pediatric patients who had undergone diagnostic exploration or curative resection for abdominal tumors at a single center from January 2010 through August 2015. Diagnostic exploration for abdominal tumors was performed in 32 cases and curative resection in 173 cases (205 operations). MIS was performed in 11 cases of diagnostic exploration (34.4%) and 38 cases of curative resection (21.9%). The mean age of the children who underwent MIS was 6.09 ± 5.2 years. With regard to diagnostic exploration, patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were found to be similar for MIS and open surgery. With regard to curative resection, however, the mean age was significantly lower among the patients who underwent open surgery (4.21 ± 4.20 vs 6.02 ± 4.99 for MIS, P = 0.047), and the proportion of malignancies was significantly higher (80% vs 39.4% for MIS, P < 0.001). MIS compared favorably with open surgery with respect to the rate of recurrence (6.7% vs 35.1%, P = 0.035), the rate of intraoperative transfusions (34.2% vs 58.5%, P = 0.01), the median amount of blood transfused (14 vs 22 mL/kg, P = 0.001), and the mean number of hospital days (4.66 ± 2.36 vs 7.21 ± 5.09, P < 0.001). Complication rates did not differ significantly between the MIS and open surgery groups. The operation was converted to open surgery in 3 cases (27.2%) of diagnostic MIS and in 5 cases (13.1%) of curative MIS. MIS was found to be both feasible and effective for the

  1. The Effects of Distraction and Reappraisal On Children's Parasympathetic Regulation of Sadness and Fear

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elizabeth L.; Quiñones-Camacho, Laura; Buss, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Children commonly experience negative emotions like sadness and fear, and much recent empirical attention has been devoted to understanding the factors supporting and predicting effective emotion regulation. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a cardiac index of parasympathetic function, has emerged as a key physiological correlate of children's self-regulation. But, little is known about how children's use of specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies corresponds to concurrent parasympathetic regulation (i.e., RSA reactivity while watching an emotion-eliciting video). The current study describes an experimental paradigm in which 101 5- to 6-year-olds were randomly assigned to one of three different emotion regulation conditions (Control, Distraction, Reappraisal). All children watched a sad and a scary film (order counterbalanced), and children in the Distraction and Reappraisal conditions received instructions to deploy the target strategy to manage sadness/fear while they watched. Consistent with predictions, children assigned to use either emotion regulation strategy showed greater RSA augmentation from baseline than children in the Control condition (all children showed an overall increase in RSA levels from baseline), suggesting enhanced parasympathetic calming when children used Distraction or Reappraisal to regulate sadness and fear. But, this pattern was found only among children who viewed the sad film before the scary film. Among children who viewed the scary film first, Reappraisal promoted marginally better parasympathetic regulation of fear (no condition differences emerged for parasympathetic regulation of sadness when the sad film was viewed second). Results are discussed in terms of their implications for our understanding of children's emotion regulation and affective physiology. PMID:26601786

  2. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOEpatents

    Vanacek, D.L.; Pike, C.D.

    1982-07-13

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly having a tubular insulator extending between the ground plane ring and the high voltage ring. The insulator is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring to the high voltage ring, producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall of the insulator to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly.

  3. Implicit happiness and sadness are associated with ease and difficulty: evidence from sequential priming.

    PubMed

    Lasauskaite, Ruta; Gendolla, Guido H E; Bolmont, Mylène; Freydefont, Laure

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments tested the hypothesis of implicit associations between happiness and the performance ease concept and between sadness and the performance difficulty concept. All three studies applied a sequential priming paradigm: participants categorized emotion words (Experiment 1) or facial expressions (Experiment 2) as positive or negative or as referring to ease or difficulty (Experiment 3). These targets were preceded by briefly flashed ease- or difficulty-related words or neutral non-words (Experiments 1 and 2) or by happy, sad, or neutral facial expressions (Experiment 3) as primes. As predicted, all three experiments revealed increases in reaction times in the sequential priming task from congruent trials (happiness/ease and sadness/difficulty) over neutral trials to incongruent trials (sadness/ease and happiness/difficulty). The findings provide evidence for implicit associative links of happiness with ease and sadness with difficulty, as posited by the implicit-affect-primes-effort model (Gendolla, Int J Psychophysiol 86:123-135, 2012; Soc Pers Psychol Compass 9:606-619, 2015).

  4. Puerarin attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shan-shan; Yang, Wei-na; Jin, Hui; Ma, Kai-ge; Feng, Gai-feng

    2015-12-01

    Puerarin (PUE), an isoflavone purified from the root of Pueraria lobata (Chinese herb), has been reported to attenuate learning and memory impairments in the transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we tested PUE in a sporadic AD (SAD) mouse model which was induced by the intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The mice were administrated PUE (25, 50, or 100mg/kg/d) for 28 days. Learning and memory abilities were assessed by the Morris water maze test. After behavioral test, the biochemical parameters of oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutases (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were measured in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The SAD mice exhibited significantly decreased learning and memory ability, while PUE attenuated these impairments. The activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased while MDA was increased in the SAD animals. After PUE treatment, the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were elevated, and the level of MDA was decreased. The middle dose PUE was more effective than others. These results indicate that PUE attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice. PUE may be a promising therapeutic agent for SAD.

  5. Role of tempo entrainment in psychophysiological differentiation of happy and sad music?

    PubMed

    Khalfa, Stéphanie; Roy, Mathieu; Rainville, Pierre; Dalla Bella, Simone; Peretz, Isabelle

    2008-04-01

    Respiration rate allows to differentiate between happy and sad excerpts which may be attributable to entrainment of respiration to the rhythm or the tempo rather than to emotions [Etzel, J.A., Johnsen, E.L., Dickerson, J., Tranel, D., Adolphs, R., 2006. Cardiovascular and respiratory responses during musical mood induction. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 61(1), 57-69]. In order to test for this hypothesis, this study intended to verify whether fast and slow rhythm, and/or tempo alone are sufficient to induce differential physiological effects. Psychophysiological responses (electrodermal responses, facial muscles activity, blood pressure, heart and respiration rate) were then measured in fifty young adults listening to fast/happy and slow/sad music, and to two control versions of these excerpts created by removing pitch variations (rhythmic version) and both pitch and temporal variations (beat-alone). The results indicate that happy and sad music are significantly differentiated (happy>sad) by diastolic blood pressure, electrodermal activity, and zygomatic activity, while the fast and slow rhythmic and tempo control versions did not elicit such differentiations. In contrast, respiration rate was faster with stimuli presented at fast tempi relative to slow stimuli in the beat-alone condition. It was thus demonstrated that the psychophysiological happy/sad distinction requires the tonal variations and cannot be explained solely by entrainment to tempo and rhythm. The tempo entrainment exists in the tempo alone condition but our results suggest this effect may disappear when embedded in music or with rhythm.

  6. Prediction of Happy-Sad Mood from Daily Behaviors and Previous Sleep History

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Akane; Yu, Amy; McHill, Andrew W.; Phillips, Andrew J. K.; Taylor, Sara; Jaques, Natasha; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Picard, Rosalind W.

    2016-01-01

    We collected and analyzed subjective and objective data using surveys and wearable sensors worn day and night from 68 participants, for 30 days each, to address questions related to the relationships among sleep duration, sleep irregularity, self-reported Happy-Sad mood and other factors in college students. We analyzed daily and monthly behavior and physiology and identified factors that affect mood, including how accurately sleep duration and sleep regularity for the past 1-5 days classified the participants into high/low mood using support vector machines. We found statistically significant associations among sad mood and poor health-related factors. Behavioral factors such as the percentage of neutral social interactions and the total academic activity hours showed the best performance in separating the Happy-Sad mood groups. Sleep regularity was a more important discriminator of mood than sleep duration for most participants, although both variables predicted happy/sad mood with from 70-82% accuracy. The number of nights giving the best prediction of happy/sad mood varied for different groups of individuals. PMID:26737854

  7. Abdominal perfusion computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis.

  8. Abdominal Perfusion Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M. Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis. PMID:25610249

  9. Recurrent pneumothorax following abdominal paracentesis.

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    A 62 year old man presented with abdominal ascites, without pleural effusion, due to peritoneal mesothelioma. He had chronic obstructive airways disease and a past history of right upper lobectomy for tuberculosis. On two occasions abdominal paracentesis was followed within 72 hours by pneumothorax. This previously unreported complication of abdominal paracentesis may be due to increased diaphragmatic excursion following the procedure and should be considered in patients with preexisting lung disease. PMID:2385561

  10. Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo, Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    COW 03 PUBLICATION REPORT 94-30227 * ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS IN CAIRO, BY RWIavni 0. IHibbs6 M. Kuanmm ad Z. Fun .Y .~ ... W I Form ApprovedREPORT...Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 8 April 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo...abdominal tuberculosis patients seen at Abbassia Fever Hospital in Cairo, Egypt from January 1990 to August 1992 are described; their mean age was 21.5

  11. Abdominal pregnancy- a case report.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Ii; Ude, Ac; Aderibigbe, Aso; Amu, Oc; Udeh, Pe; Obianyo, Nen; Ani, Coc

    2011-01-01

    A case of abdominal pregnancy in a 39 year old female gravida 4, para 0(+3) is presented. Ultrasonography revealed a viable abdominal pregnancy at 15 weeks gestational age. She was initially managed conservatively. Surgical intervention became necessary at 20 weeks gestational age following Ultrasound detection of foetal demise. The maternal outcome was favourable. This case is presented to highlight the dilemma associated with diagnosis and management of abdominal pregnancy with a review of literature.

  12. Large-diameter astromast development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The 15-m-long by 0.75-diameter deployable supermast was delivered. The performance characteristics, design parameters, and developmental work associated with this mast are described. The main differences, besides the length of these two mast sections, are a change in the longeron material (the principal structural member) to a circular cross section and the incorporation of a lanyard-bridle system which makes unaided deployment and retraction possible in zero gravity.

  13. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOEpatents

    Vanecek, David L.; Pike, Chester D.

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly (10) having a tubular insulator (15) extending between the ground plane ring (16) and the high voltage ring (30). The insulator (15) is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring (16) to the high voltage ring (30), producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall (27) of the insulator (15) to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly (10).

  14. The special status of sad infant faces: age and valence differences in adults' cortical face processing.

    PubMed

    Colasante, Tyler; Mossad, Sarah I; Dudek, Joanna; Haley, David W

    2016-12-20

    Understanding the relative and joint prioritization of age- and valence-related face characteristics in adults' cortical face processing remains elusive because these two characteristics have not been manipulated in a single study of neural face processing. We used electroencephalography to investigate adults' P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses to infant and adult faces with happy and sad facial expressions. Viewing infant vs adult faces was associated with significantly larger P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses, with hemisphere and/or participant gender moderating this effect in select cases. Sad faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses than happy faces. Sad infant faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses in the right hemisphere than all other combinations of face age and face valence characteristics. We discuss the relative and joint neural prioritization of infant face characteristics and negative facial affect, and their biological value as distinct caregiving and social cues.

  15. Temporal pole activity during perception of sad faces, but not happy faces, correlates with neuroticism trait.

    PubMed

    Jimura, Koji; Konishi, Seiki; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2009-03-27

    It is known that the temporal cortex is involved in perception of emotional facial expressions, and the involvement is relatively independent of the emotional valence of those expressions. The present study revealed a valence-dependent aspect of the temporal cortex through individual differences analyses involving the neuroticism trait, one of the representative affective personality traits. Functional MRI was administered while subjects classified expressions of faces, and neuroticism scores were obtained from individual subjects. Significant brain activity was observed in the temporal pole (TP) during perception of both happy and sad expressions relative to neutral expressions. Correlational analyses revealed that TP activity during perception of sad expressions, but not happy expressions, correlated with the neuroticism scores. These results demonstrate differential roles for the temporal cortex in perception of happy and sad faces, and suggest that TP recruitment during understanding of negative emotions is dependent on the personality of the individuals.

  16. Biased processing of sad faces: an ERP marker candidate for depression susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Bistricky, Steven L; Atchley, Ruth Ann; Ingram, Rick; O'Hare, Aminda

    2014-04-01

    Depression has been associated with task-relevant increased attention toward negative information, reduced attention toward positive information, or reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant negative information. This study employed behavioural and psychophysiological measures (event-related potentials; ERP) to examine whether groups with risk factors for depression (past depression, current dysphoria) would show attentional biases or inhibitory deficits related to viewing facial expressions. In oddball task blocks, young adult participants responded to an infrequently presented target emotion (e.g., sad) and inhibited responses to an infrequently presented distracter emotion (e.g., happy) in the context of frequently presented neutral stimuli. Previous depression was uniquely associated with greater P3 ERP amplitude following sad targets, reflecting a selective attention bias. Also, dysphoric individuals less effectively inhibited responses to sad distracters than non-dysphoric individuals according to behavioural data, but not psychophysiological data. Results suggest that depression risk may be most reliably characterised by increased attention toward others' depressive facial emotion.

  17. Together we cry: Social motives and preferences for group-based sadness.

    PubMed

    Porat, Roni; Halperin, Eran; Mannheim, Ittay; Tamir, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Group-based emotions play an important role in helping people feel that they belong to their group. People are motivated to belong, but does this mean that they actively try to experience group-based emotions to increase their sense of belonging? In this investigation, we propose that people may be motivated to experience even group-based emotions that are typically considered unpleasant to satisfy their need to belong. To test this hypothesis, we examined people's preferences for group-based sadness in the context of the Israeli National Memorial Day. In two correlational (Studies 1a and 1b) and two experimental (Studies 2 and 3) studies, we demonstrate that people with a stronger need to belong have a stronger preference to experience group-based sadness. This effect was mediated by the expectation that experiencing sadness would be socially beneficial (Studies 1 and 2). We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding motivated emotion regulation and intergroup relations.

  18. Heterogeneity of Drosophila nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: SAD, a novel developmentally regulated alpha-subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Sawruk, E; Schloss, P; Betz, H; Schmitt, B

    1990-01-01

    Two genes, ard and als, are known to encode subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in Drosophila. Here we describe the isolation of cDNA clones encoding a novel member (SAD, or alpha 2) of this receptor protein family. The deduced amino acid sequence displays high homology to the ALS protein and shares structural features with ligand binding nAChR alpha-subunits. Sad transcripts accumulate during major periods of neuronal differentiation and, in embryos, are localized in the central nervous system. Expression of SAD cRNA in Xenopus oocytes generates cation channels that are gated by nicotine. These data indicate heterogeneity of nAChRs in Drosophila. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1697262

  19. Sadness is unique: neural processing of emotions in speech prosody in musicians and non-musicians

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mona; Gutyrchik, Evgeny; Welker, Lorenz; Carl, Petra; Pöppel, Ernst; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Meindl, Thomas; Blautzik, Janusch; Reiser, Maximilian; Bao, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Musical training has been shown to have positive effects on several aspects of speech processing, however, the effects of musical training on the neural processing of speech prosody conveying distinct emotions are yet to be better understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether the neural responses to speech prosody conveying happiness, sadness, and fear differ between musicians and non-musicians. Differences in processing of emotional speech prosody between the two groups were only observed when sadness was expressed. Musicians showed increased activation in the middle frontal gyrus, the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, the posterior cingulate cortex and the retrosplenial cortex. Our results suggest an increased sensitivity of emotional processing in musicians with respect to sadness expressed in speech, possibly reflecting empathic processes. PMID:25688196

  20. Anger and sadness as adaptive emotion expression strategies in response to negative competence and warmth evaluations.

    PubMed

    Celik, Pinar; Storme, Martin; Myszkowski, Nils

    2016-12-01

    Previous literature suggested that anger and sadness may be necessary to restore social bonds in the face of immediate relationship threat. The present research compared the social effectiveness of expressing anger and sadness in response to a negative personal evaluation. Results indicated that target anger in response to a negative competence evaluation, and target sadness in response to a negative warmth evaluation, had the most positive effects on the evaluators' subjectively perceived persuasiveness of the targets' communication (Study 1) and on the subjectively perceived fluency of the interaction by both interaction partners (Study 2). Results are discussed in light of the social functionality of emotion expression and the importance of interpersonal emotion congruency with evaluation content.

  1. Coping with the 10th anniversary of 9/11: Muslim Americans' sadness, fear, and anger.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Mosquera, Patricia M; Khan, Tasmiha; Selya, Arielle

    2013-01-01

    The events of 9/11 marked an increase in prejudice, discrimination, and other forms of unfair treatment toward Muslim Americans. We present a study that examined the emotions of Muslim Americans in the days preceding the ten-year 9/11 anniversary. We measured the antecedents (concerns) and consequences (coping) of sadness, fear, and anger. The 9/11 anniversary precipitated intense concerns with loss and discrimination, and intense feelings of sadness, fear, and anger. We measured three coping responses: rumination, avoidance of public places, and religious coping. Participants engaged in all three coping responses, with seeking solace in one's religion being the most frequent response. Moreover, emotions mediated the relationship between concerns and coping responses. Sadness accounted for the association between concern with loss and rumination. Fear explained the association between concern with discrimination and avoidance. Anger accounted for the association between concern with discrimination and religious coping.

  2. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® pulsatile abdominal mass, suspected abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Benoit; Dill, Karin E; Flamm, Scott D; Francois, Christopher J; Gerhard-Herman, Marie D; Kalva, Sanjeeva P; Mansour, M Ashraf; Mohler, Emile R; Oliva, Isabel B; Schenker, Matthew P; Weiss, Clifford; Rybicki, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    Clinical palpation of a pulsating abdominal mass alerts the clinician to the presence of a possible abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Generally an arterial aneurysm is defined as a localized arterial dilatation ≥50% greater than the normal diameter. Imaging studies are important in diagnosing the cause of a pulsatile abdominal mass and, if an AAA is found, in determining its size and involvement of abdominal branches. Ultrasound (US) is the initial imaging modality of choice when a pulsatile abdominal mass is present. Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) may be substituted in patients for whom US is not suitable. When aneurysms have reached the size threshold for intervention or are clinically symptomatic, contrast-enhanced multidetector CT angiography (CTA) is the best diagnostic and preintervention planning study, accurately delineating the location, size, and extent of aneurysm and the involvement of branch vessels. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) may be substituted if CT cannot be performed. Catheter arteriography has some utility in patients with significant contraindications to both CTA and MRA. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria(®) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  3. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Siebenmann, R; Schneider, K; von Segesser, L; Turina, M

    1988-06-11

    348 cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm were reviewed for typical features of inflammatory aneurysm (IAAA) (marked thickening of aneurysm wall, retroperitoneal fibrosis and rigid adherence of adjacent structures). IAAA was present in 15 cases (14 male, 1 female). When compared with patients who had ordinary aneurysms, significantly more patients complained of back or abdominal pain (p less than 0.01). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was highly elevated. Diagnosis was established in 7 of 10 computed tomographies. 2 patients underwent emergency repair for ruptured aneurysm. Unilateral ureteral obstruction was present in 4 cases and bilateral in 1. Repair of IAAA was performed by a modified technique. Histological examination revealed thickening of the aortic wall, mainly of the adventitial layer, infiltrated by plasma cells and lymphocytes. One 71-year-old patient operated on for rupture of IAAA died early, and another 78-year-old patient after 5 1/2 months. Control computed tomographies revealed spontaneous regression of inflammatory infiltration after repair. Equally, hydronephrosis due to ureteral obstruction could be shown to disappear or at least to decrease. IAAA can be diagnosed by computed tomography with high sensitivity. Repair involves low risk, but modification of technique is necessary. The etiology of IAAA remains unclear.

  4. Fertility after abdominal myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Connolly, G; Doyle, M; Barrett, T; Byrne, P; De Mello, M; Harrison, R F

    2000-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the morbidity and pregnancy outcome of myomectomy in infertile women with uterine fibroids. This was a cross-sectional study. Records were reviewed for 100 consecutive women in the Rotunda Hospital who underwent myomectomy in the years 1995-1996. A questionnaire regarding subsequent fertility was sent. The study was carried out in the infertility unit at the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Seventy-five women responded. Multiple myomectomy was performed in 52 (70%). Mean fibroid size was 6.8 cm (range 2-14.5 cm). Nine women (12%) developed complications; five had menstrual problems, two had wound discomfort and two had abdominal discomfort. Twenty-five women (33%) became pregnant. Seven (28%) were IVF pregnancies. Overall six (24%) miscarried. In 19 of 25, pregnancy occurred where fibroids were the only identifiable cause of infertility. We conclude that abdominal myomectomy is associated with a favourable outcome in infertile women particularly if no other confounding variable is present.

  5. [Intra-abdominal mycoses].

    PubMed

    Boos, C; Kujath, P; Bruch, H-P

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of invasive mycoses in patients undergoing abdominal surgery amounts to approximately 8% and shows an upward trend in epidemiological studies. The lethality of these systemic mycoses, which are mostly based on Candida infections constitutes up to 60%. The development of a sytemic mycosis is marked by exogenic, endogenic and iatrogenic risk factors and typically displays tissue invasion after an initial fungal contamination or systemic dissemination via fungal sepsis. Fungal peritonitis is generally a monoinfection with Candida spp., where Candida albicans outweighs in 70% of cases. Aspergillus spp. are only detected abdominally in rare cases. The histological verification of a fungal invasion is regarded as proof of the existence of an invasive mycosis, but typical macroscopic findings with corresponding cultural findings can also confirm the diagnosis. Systemic mycosis requires an early initiation of a consistent antimycotic therapy as well as definitive surgical eradication of the focus in order to reduce high lethal rate. Resistances or incorrect dosages can be validated objectively by means of histological monitoring of the antimycotic therapy, thus affording early recognition of the need to change the substance class.

  6. Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Umiltà, Maria Allessandra; Wood, Rachel; Loffredo, Francesca; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors) were tested in order to assess participants' ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions, participants were most likely to label the expressed emotion as sadness. In addition, while for three of the four emotions participants were better able to make a correct identification the greater the intensity of the expression, this pattern was not observed for sadness. During movies presentation the recognition of sadness was significantly worse for soldiers. While both former child soldiers and civilians were found to be able to identify facial emotions, a significant response bias in their attribution of negative emotions was observed. Such bias was particularly pronounced in former child soldiers. These findings point to a pervasive long-lasting effect of childhood exposure to violence on emotion processing in later life.

  7. [Exploration on Electroencephalogram Mechanism Differences of Negative Emotions Induced by Disgusted and Sad Situation Images].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Jin, Jingna; Li, Song; Liu, Zhipeng; Yin, Tao

    2015-12-01

    Evolutionary psychology holds such an opinion that negative situation may threaten survival, trigger avoidance motive and have poor effects on the human-body function and the psychological quality. Both disgusted and sad situations can induce negative emotions. However, differences between the two situations on attention capture and emotion cognition during the emotion induction are still not well known. Typical disgusted and sad situation images were used in the present study to induce two negative emotions, and 15 young students (7 males and 8 females, aged 27 ± 3) were recruited in the experiments. Electroencephalogram of 32 leads was recorded when the subjects were viewing situation images, and event-related potentials (ERP) of all leads were obtained for future analysis. Paired sample t tests were carried out on two ERP signals separately induced by disgusted and sad situation images to get time quantum with significant statistical differences between the two ERP signals. Root-mean-square deviations of two ERP signals during each time quantum were calculated and the brain topographic map based on root-mean-square deviations was drawn to display differences of two ERP signals in spatial. Results showed that differences of ERP signals induced by disgusted and sad situation images were mainly manifested in T1 (120-450 ms) early and T2 (800-1,000 ms) later. During the period of T1, the occipital lobe reflecting attention capture was activated by both disgusted and sad situation images, but the prefrontal cortex reflecting emotion sense was activated only by disgusted situation images. During the period of T2, the prefrontal cortex was activated by both disgusted and sad situation images. However, the parietal lobe was activated only by disgusted situation images, which showed stronger emotional perception. The research results would have enlightenment to deepen understanding of negative emotion and to exploredeep cognitive neuroscience mechanisms of negative

  8. Volumetric analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, Kevin M.; Kusnick, Catherine A.; Shamsolkottabi, Susanne; Lang, Elvira V.; Corson, J. D.; Stanford, William; Thompson, Brad H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid, reliable and accurate system of measurement of abdominal aortic aneurysms, using volumetric analysis of x-ray computed tomographic data. This study evaluates illustrative cases, and compares measurements of AAA phantoms, using standard 2D versus volumetric methods. To validate the volumetric analysis, four phantom aneurysms were constructed in a range of diameters (4.5 - 7.0 cm) which presents the greatest management challenge to the clinician. These phantoms were imaged using a Toshiba Xpress SX helical CT. Separate scans were obtained at conventional (10 mm X 10 mm) and thin slice (5 mm X 5 mm) collimations. The thin slices were reconstructed at 2 mm intervals. Data from each of the 96 scans were interpreted using a standard 2D approach, then analyzed using task-oriented volumetric software. We evaluate patient assessments, and compare greatest outer diameters of phantoms, by standard versus volumetric methods. Qualitative differences between solutions based on standard versus volumetric analysis of illustrative patient cases are substantial. Expert radiologists' standard measurements of phantom aneurysms are highly reliable (r2 equals 0.901 - 0.958; p < 0.001), but biased toward significant overestimation of aneurysm diameters in the range of clinical interest. For the same phantoms, volumetric analysis was both more reliable (r2 equals 0.986 - 0.996; p < 0.001), and more accurate, with no significant bias in the range of interest. Volumetric analysis promotes selection of more valid management strategies, by providing vital information not otherwise available, and allowing more reliable and accurate assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. It is particularly valuable in the presence of aortic tortuosity, vessel eccentricity, and uncertain involvement of critical vessels.

  9. [Abdominal approaches and drainages of the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Hagel, C; Schilling, M

    2006-04-01

    Appropriate access to the abdominal cavity is the first and crucial step for successful abdominal surgical intervention. In planning the incision, several variables have to be considered, such as anatomy of the abdominal wall, localization of the target organ, and individual conditions (previous incisions, minimal access surgery, etc). Medial laparotomy is the preferred incision for emergency cases and ill-defined pathologies, allowing access and hence exploration to all quadrants. Transverse laparotomies give superior access to the dorsal and right aspects of the liver and cause less pain in patients unfit for regional anesthetic procedures. Draining of the abdominal cavity is used after various resective and reconstructive procedures, but there is little evidence for its use in a number of operations such as gastric, hepatic, and colorectal resections. Advantages and disadvantages of different abdominal wall incisions and drainages are discussed.

  10. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a line running from the stem to the...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a line running from the stem to the...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a line running from the stem to the...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a...

  15. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  16. CT of abdominal tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, B.M.; Mann, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.

  17. A Combination of Thoracic and Abdominal Stent-Grafts to Treat An Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Hostile Proximal Neck.

    PubMed

    Massara, Mafalda; Prunella, Roberto; Gerardi, Pasquale; De Caridi, Giovanni; Serra, Raffaele; Notarstefano, Stefano; Impedovo, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) actually represents the treatment of choice for most patients affected by abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, the feasibility of EVAR depends on anatomical characteristics of abdominal aorta and iliofemoral axis. We present the case of an 82-year-old man affected by severe left hydronephrosis, kidney tumor, and ureteral tumor requiring nephrectomy, who also presented a very voluminous AAA with a large diameter (96 mm), and a large proximal neck (39 mm) with severe angulation of the proximal neck (>60°). The patient was considered unfit for traditional EVAR and open surgery. Possible alternatives such as fenestrated endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and chimney technique were excluded; therefore he was treated combining Valiant Captivia endoprosthesis with the AFX unibody, with a good final result. However, this particular alternative adopted for hostile proximal neck needs long-term follow-up.

  18. Influence of trait empathy on the emotion evoked by sad music and on the preference for it.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ai; Katahira, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Some people experience pleasant emotion when listening to sad music. Therefore, they can enjoy listening to it. In the current study, we aimed to investigate such apparently paradoxical emotional mechanisms and focused on the influence of individuals' trait empathy, which has been reported to associate with emotional responses to sad music and a preference for it. Eighty-four elementary school children (42 males and 42 females, mean age 11.9 years) listened to two kinds of sad music and rated their emotional state and liking toward them. In addition, trait empathy was assessed using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index scale, which comprises four sub-components: Empathic Concern, Personal Distress, Perspective Taking, and Fantasy (FS). We conducted a path analysis and tested our proposed model that hypothesized that trait empathy and its sub-components would affect the preference for sad music directly or indirectly, mediated by the emotional response to the sad music. Our findings indicated that FS, a sub-component of trait empathy, was directly associated with liking sad music. Additionally, perspective taking ability, another sub-component of trait empathy, was correlated with the emotional response to sad music. Furthermore, the experience of pleasant emotions contributed to liking sad music.

  19. Influence of trait empathy on the emotion evoked by sad music and on the preference for it

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ai; Katahira, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Some people experience pleasant emotion when listening to sad music. Therefore, they can enjoy listening to it. In the current study, we aimed to investigate such apparently paradoxical emotional mechanisms and focused on the influence of individuals’ trait empathy, which has been reported to associate with emotional responses to sad music and a preference for it. Eighty-four elementary school children (42 males and 42 females, mean age 11.9 years) listened to two kinds of sad music and rated their emotional state and liking toward them. In addition, trait empathy was assessed using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index scale, which comprises four sub-components: Empathic Concern, Personal Distress, Perspective Taking, and Fantasy (FS). We conducted a path analysis and tested our proposed model that hypothesized that trait empathy and its sub-components would affect the preference for sad music directly or indirectly, mediated by the emotional response to the sad music. Our findings indicated that FS, a sub-component of trait empathy, was directly associated with liking sad music. Additionally, perspective taking ability, another sub-component of trait empathy, was correlated with the emotional response to sad music. Furthermore, the experience of pleasant emotions contributed to liking sad music. PMID:26578992

  20. Parental Personality and Its Relationship to Socialization of Sadness in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race, Eleanor; Brand, Ann E.

    The relationship between parental personality traits and how parents socialize their children's emotions is largely unexplored. This study examined the association of personality traits such as Neuroticism and Agreeableness, and emotion traits such as Anxiety and Trait Depression to the strategies parents use to socialize their children's sadness,…

  1. The Experience of Anger and Sadness in Everyday Problems Impacts Age Differences in Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Coats, Abby Heckman

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined regulation of the discrete emotions anger and sadness in adolescents through older adults in the context of describing everyday problem situations. The results support previous work; in comparison to younger age groups, older adults reported that they experienced less anger and reported that they used more passive and fewer…

  2. Anticipated Coping with Interpersonal Stressors: Links with the Emotional Reactions of Sadness, Anger, and Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Skinner, Ellen A.; Morris, Helen; Thomas, Rae

    2013-01-01

    The same stressor can evoke different emotions across individuals, and emotions can prompt certain coping responses. Responding to four videotaped interpersonal stressors, adolescents ("N" = 230, the average values of "X"[subscript age] = 10 years) reported their sadness, fear "and" anger, and 12 coping strategies.…

  3. The Influence of Mother-Child Emotion Regulation Strategies on Children's Expression of Anger and Sadness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Silk, Jennifer S.; Morris, Michael D. S.; Steinberg, Laurence; Aucoin, Katherine J.; Keyes, Angela W.

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 153 children from preschool through second grade, relations between the use of emotion regulation strategy and children's expression of anger and sadness were coded during an observational task in which children were intentionally disappointed in the presence of the mother. Multilevel modeling was used to examine strategy use and…

  4. Parental socialization of sadness regulation in middle childhood: the role of expectations and gender.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Michael C; Zeman, Janice L

    2010-09-01

    The authors of this study investigated mothers' and fathers' socialization of their children's sadness. The particular focus was an examination of how socialization practices changed when parents' expectancies concerning their child's sadness management abilities were violated. Methods included an experimental manipulation and direct observation of parent-child interactions in 62 families of White, middle-class children in 3rd and 4th grades. Families were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions. After parents were provided with a description of normative child behavior on a sadness-induction task, feedback was manipulated such that parents in the control condition were told their child had demonstrated typical regulation while parents in the violated-expectancy condition were informed their child did not manage sadness as well as peers. The hypothesis that violated expectancies influence socialization processes was supported, with greater evidence emerging for fathers than mothers. In certain circumstances within the violated-expectancy condition, there was more parental similarity in socialization practices than in the control condition. Further, mother-father comparisons indicated differences in socialization as a function of parent and child gender that were generally consistent with gender stereotypes.

  5. The Sad, the Mad and the Bad: Co-Existing Discourses of Girlhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Three significant, prevailing and overlapping narratives of teenage girls have dominated North American popular consciousness since the early 1990s: the sad girl, victimized by male privilege and misogyny of adolescence and beyond; the mad grrrls who rejected this vulnerability through music and media; and the bad girls of much current popular…

  6. Maternal Socialization of Children's Anger, Sadness, and Physical Pain in Two Communities in Gujarat, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Vaishali Vidhatri; Martini, Tanya Susan

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recognition of cultural influences in child socialization, little is known about socialization of emotion in children from different cultures. This study examined (a) Gujarati Indian mothers' reports concerning their beliefs, affective and behavioral responses to their children's displays of anger, sadness, and physical pain, and (b)…

  7. The relationship between coping style and loneliness in adolescents: can "sad passivity" be adaptive?

    PubMed

    Van Buskirk, A M; Duke, M P

    1991-06-01

    The authors' purpose in this paper was to examine how the use of the "sad passive" coping style may be related to adolescent self-reported loneliness. Subjects were asked to complete the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980) to determine self-reported loneliness and the Coping with Loneliness Questionnaire (CLQ; Rubenstein & Shaver, 1980) in order to examine coping styles. We hypothesized that those adolescents whose coping strategies fell into the category of sad passivity described by Rubenstein and Shaver would indicate greater loneliness than those adolescents whose coping strategies fell into other categories. Results indicated that sad passivity was used by both lonely and nonlonely adolescents, but that nonlonely youngsters resorted to this method only temporarily and in preparation for a more active coping style. Lonely teens, on the other hand, appeared to remain in the sad-passive mode to a maladaptive degree. These results were discussed in terms of their importance for theories of adolescent loneliness and for possible intervention strategies.

  8. Use of europium ions for SAD phasing of lysozyme at the Cu Kα wavelength.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Balakrishnan; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2013-01-01

    Europium is shown to be a good anomalous scatterer in SAD phasing for solving the structure of biological macromolecules. The large value of the anomalous contribution of europium, f'' = 11.17 e(-), at the Cu Kα wavelength is an advantage in de novo phasing and automated model building. Tetragonal crystals of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) incorporating europium(III) chloride (50 mM) were obtained which diffracted to a resolution of 2.3 Å at a wavelength of 1.54 Å (Cu Kα). The master data set (360° frames) was split and analyzed for anomalous signal-to-noise ratio, multiplicity, completeness, SAD phasing and automated building. The structure solution and model building of the split data sets were carried out using phenix.autosol and phenix.autobuild. The contributions of the Eu ions to SAD phasing using in-house data collection are discussed. This study revealed successful lysozyme phasing by SAD using laboratory-source data involving Eu ions, which are mainly coordinated by the side chains of Asn46, Asp52 and Asp101 together with some water molecules.

  9. Sad and happy emotion discrimination in music by children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Hopyan, Talar; Manno, Francis A M; Papsin, Blake C; Gordon, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Children using cochlear implants (CIs) develop speech perception but have difficulty perceiving complex acoustic signals. Mode and tempo are the two components used to recognize emotion in music. Based on CI limitations, we hypothesized children using CIs would have impaired perception of mode cues relative to their normal hearing peers and would rely more heavily on tempo cues to distinguish happy from sad music. Study participants were children with 13 right CIs and 3 left CIs (M = 12.7, SD = 2.6 years) and 16 normal hearing peers. Participants judged 96 brief piano excerpts from the classical genre as happy or sad in a forced-choice task. Music was randomly presented with alterations of transposed mode, tempo, or both. When music was presented in original form, children using CIs discriminated between happy and sad music with accuracy well above chance levels (87.5%) but significantly below those with normal hearing (98%). The CI group primarily used tempo cues, whereas normal hearing children relied more on mode cues. Transposing both mode and tempo cues in the same musical excerpt obliterated cues to emotion for both groups. Children using CIs showed significantly slower response times across all conditions. Children using CIs use tempo cues to discriminate happy versus sad music reflecting a very different hearing strategy than their normal hearing peers. Slower reaction times by children using CIs indicate that they found the task more difficult and support the possibility that they require different strategies to process emotion in music than normal.

  10. Scaffolding Young Children's Prosocial Responsiveness: Preschoolers' Responses to Adult Sadness, Anger, and Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; And Others

    Two studies investigated children's responsiveness to an adult's negative emotions (anger, sadness, and pain). The studies also evaluated effects of adult scaffolding (labeling and explaining negative emotions, and requesting help). In the first study, subjects were 55 preschool children between the ages of 33 and 56 months. During individual play…

  11. The moderating role of personal relevance on differential priming of anxiety and sadness on perceived travel risk: a replication.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Chang, Ming-Hsu; Chen, Chien-Lung

    2009-04-01

    Raghunathan and Pham conducted a pioneer study in 1999 on the motivational influences of anxiety and sadness on decision making and indicated that anxiety would motivate individuals to be risk averse, whereas sadness would motivate individuals to be risk taking. A replication study was employed in the domain of perceived travel risk. Compared to participants in a neutral mood, anxious participants showed higher perceived travel risk than sad participants. Moreover, the differential effect of anxiety and sadness on perceived travel risk was only pronounced under the high personal relevance condition, in which participants made personal decisions and expected that they would be affected by the outcomes. In general, the results extend the notion proposed by Raghunathan and Pham suggesting that travelers' implicit goals primed by anxiety or sadness used for mood-repair purposes appear to be moderated by personal relevance.

  12. A Functional MRI Study of Happy and Sad Emotions in Music with and without Lyrics

    PubMed Central

    Brattico, Elvira; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Nieminen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants’ self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects’ selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca’s area), and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics for sad musical emotions

  13. A Functional MRI Study of Happy and Sad Emotions in Music with and without Lyrics.

    PubMed

    Brattico, Elvira; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Nieminen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants' self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects' selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca's area), and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics for sad musical emotions.

  14. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias.

  15. A bizarre abdominal cystic lesion.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Giorgia; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Ricci, Claudio; Casadei, Riccardo; Santini, Donatella; Calculli, Lucia; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2010-09-06

    In spite of careful intraoperative precautions and gauze counts, mistakes can still occur during surgery. In the case reported, a retained gauze leaved during a surgical approach for removing a solid-cystic papillary tumor localized in the pancreatic tail, caused both persistent abdominal discomfort and the presence of an abdominal cystic lesion at imaging techniques. When a previous operative history is present, a foreign body should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an intra-abdominal cystic mass. Finally, radio-opaque marker should be routinely used by surgeons in order to reach a correct diagnosis in operated patients having retained gauze.

  16. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  17. Understanding the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kuivaniemi, Helena; Ryer, Evan J.; Elmore, James R.; Tromp, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Summary An aortic aneurysm is a dilatation in which the aortic diameter is ≥ 3.0 cm. If left untreated, the aortic wall continues to weaken and becomes unable to withstand the forces of the luminal blood pressure resulting in progressive dilatation and rupture, a catastrophic event associated with a mortality of 50 – 80%. Smoking and positive family history are important risk factors for the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Several genetic risk factors have also been identified. On the histological level, visible hallmarks of AAA pathogenesis include inflammation, smooth muscle cell apoptosis, extracellular matrix degradation, and oxidative stress. We expect that large genetic, genomic, epigenetic, proteomic and metabolomic studies will be undertaken by international consortia to identify additional risk factors and biomarkers, and to enhance our understanding of the pathobiology of AAA. Collaboration between different research groups will be important in overcoming the challenges to develop pharmacological treatments for AAA. PMID:26308600

  18. [Penetrating abdominal injuries].

    PubMed

    Nesbakken, A; Pillgram-Larsen, J; Naess, F; Gerner, T; Solheim, K; Stadaas, J O; Gjøra, O

    1990-02-28

    We have reviewed the medical records of 111 patients treated for abdominal stab wounds during the period 1980-87. Our two hospitals serve a catchment area of about 450,000 people. Exploratory laparotomy was performed in 89 patients with suspected peritoneal penetration. In 16 patients the laparotomy was negative, and in 15 patients only minor injuries were noted. There were no serious complications in these 31 patients. Twenty-seven patients had thoracic wounds below the fourth intercostal space, 15 with intraabdominal injuries. The most common injuries were lacerations of the liver, the small bowel and the diaphragm. The mortality in the series was 2%. Stab wounds are infrequent in Norway, and most surgeons have limited experience of such injuries. We discuss whether to employ immediate exploratory laparotomy or selective management when the peritoneum has been penetrated. When there is no evidence of evisceration or omental protrusion, local exploration of the wound should be performed in order to confirm or exclude peritoneal penetration. Injury to the diaphragm and intraabdominal viscera should always be suspected in thoracic stab wounds below the fourth intercostal space.

  19. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-11-14

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer.

  20. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... signs or symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The final recommendation statement summarizes what the Task ... the potential benefits and harms of screening for AAA: (1) Men ages 65 to 75 who smoke ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ...

  2. Incentive spirometry after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, Suja P

    Patients face various possible complications after abdominal surgery. This article examines best practice in guiding and teaching them how to use an incentive spirometer to facilitate recovery and prevent respiratory complications.

  3. Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy for Thrombocytopenia after Surgery for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Daichi; Okada, Hiroshi; Date, Kazuma; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Takeda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is known to be rarely accompanied by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). We report a case of AAA with DIC. An 81-year-old man with abdominal pain referred to our hospital. Computed tomography demonstrated an AAA (maximum diameter: 90 mm). The patient underwent a laparotomy, and an abdominal aorta replacement was performed. At the 3-month follow-up, the patient underwent Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment for 1 week. After treatment, the platelet count dramatically increased. The mechanism by which H. pylori eradication therapy improves hematological parameters has not been elucidated; however, this noninvasive treatment effectively resolved DIC associated with AAA. PMID:28018509

  4. Abdominal Complications after Severe Burns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    abdominal compartment syndrome, schemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic ulcer disease and astritis requiring laparotomy, small bowel obstruction, rimary fungal...complications in- luded trauma exploratory laparotomy, abdominal com- artment syndrome, ischemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic lcer disease and gastritis, large...70%); 13 for other compli- ations, such as biliary or perineal conditions (26%); and 4 or feeding access (8%). For the civilians, 2 had trauma

  5. Common abdominal emergencies in children.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, James

    2002-02-01

    Because young children often present to EDs with abdominal complaints, emergency physicians must have a high index of suspicion for the common abdominal emergencies that have serious sequelae. At the same time, they must realize that less serious causes of abdominal symptoms (e.g., constipation or gastroenteritis) are also seen. A gentle yet thorough and complete history and physical examination are the most important diagnostic tools for the emergency physician. Repeated examinations and observation are useful tools. Physicians should listen carefully to parents and their children, respect their concerns, and honor their complaints. Ancillary tests are inconsistent in their value in assessing these complaints. Abdominal radiographs can be normal in children with intussusception and even malrotation and early volvulus. Unlike the classic symptoms seen in adults, young children can display only lethargy or poor feeding in cases of appendicitis or can appear happy and playful between paroxysmal bouts of intussusception. The emergency physician therefore, must maintain a high index of suspicion for serious pathology in pediatric patients with abdominal complaints. Eventually, all significant abdominal emergencies reveal their true nature, and if one can be patient with the child and repeat the examinations when the child is quiet, one will be rewarded with the correct diagnosis.

  6. Visceral scalloping on abdominal computed tomography due to abdominal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal; Bhatia, Anmol; Malik, Sarthak; Singh, Navjeet; Rana, Surinder S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Scalloping of visceral organs is described in pseudomyxoma peritonei, malignant ascites, among other conditions, but not tuberculosis. Methods: We report findings from a retrospective study of patients with abdominal tuberculosis who had visceral scalloping on abdominal computed tomography (CT). Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis was made on the basis of combination of clinical, biochemical, radiological and microbiological criteria. The clinical data, hematological and biochemical parameters, and findings of chest X-ray, CT, Mantoux test, and HIV serology were recorded. Results: Of 72 patients with abdominal tuberculosis whose CT scans were included, seven patients had visceral scalloping. The mean age of these patients was 32.14 ± 8.43 years and four were men. While six patients had scalloping of liver, one had splenic scalloping. The patients presented with abdominal pain (all), abdominal distension (five patients), loss of weight or appetite (all), and fever (four patients). Mantoux test was positive in five, while none had HIV infection. The diagnosis was based on fluid (ascitic or collections) evaluation in four patients, ileo-cecal biopsy in one patient, fine needle aspiration from omental thickening in one patient, and sputum positivity for acid fast bacilli (AFB) in one patient. On CT examination, four patients had ascites, five had collections, one had lymphadenopathy, four had peritoneal involvement, three had pleural effusion, and two had ileo-cecal thickening. All except one patient received standard ATT for 6 months or 9 months (one patient). Pigtail drainage for collections was needed for two patients. Discussion: This report is the first description of visceral scalloping of liver and spleen in patients with abdominal tuberculosis. Previously, this finding has been reported primarily with pseudomyxoma peritonei and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Conclusion: Visceral scalloping may not conclusively distinguish peritoneal

  7. EFFECTS OF FOOD AND DRINK INGESTION ON BODY COMPOSITION VARIABLES OF ABDOMINAL BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE.

    PubMed

    Fernández Vázquez, Rosalía; Martínez Blanco, Javier; García Vega, María del Mar; Barbancho, Miguel Ángel; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón

    2015-11-01

    Objetivo: conocer los cambios en la grasa del tronco y el nivel de grasa visceral determinado por BIA abdominal, así como otras medidas antropométricas relacionadas con la grasa abdominal o central después de la ingestión de una comida. Métodos: se realizó un protocolo experimental para evaluar un estudio descriptivo de intervención longitudinal. Los participantes fueron 21 sujetos (10 hombres y 11 mujeres), voluntarios que tuvieron acceso a una evaluación médica, con una edad de 74 años ± 13,43. Las mediciones antropométricas fueron: circunferencia de la cintura máxima en posición de pie, circunferencia de la cintura a nivel del ombligo en posición de decúbito supino y diámetro sagital abdominal (SAD). Además se obtuvo la grasa del tronco y el nivel de grasa visceral, por análisis de impedancia bioeléctrica abdominal, con un dispositivo Tanita AB-140 (ViScan), todo ello antes y después de una ración de comida. Resultados: las medidas antropométricas, como la circunferencia de la cintura en posición supina y SAD, no mostraron diferencias significativas (P > 0,05), después de la ingestión de alimentos, a excepción de un aumento significativo de la circunferencia de la cintura máxima en posición de pie (P < 0,05). Además, la relación entre la grasa visceral y en tronco no cambió (P > 0,05). Los cambios porcentuales de las medidas fueron menores del 2% para la circunferencia de la cintura en posición de pie, para la circunferencia de cintura por Viscan, para el diámetro sagital abdominal y la grasa del tronco, y un 5,9% para el nivel de grasa visceral. Conclusiones: los efectos de una comida y bebida sobre la grasa del tronco y el nivel de grasa visceral, medidas por impedancia bioeléctrica abdominal, son mínimas, aunque siempre es recomendable hacerlo en condiciones de ayuno.

  8. 7 CFR 51.2656 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2656 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line from the stem to the blossom end of the cherry....

  9. SAD phasing with in-house cu Ka radiation using barium as anomalous scatterer.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, V; Velmurugan, D

    2011-12-01

    Phasing of lysozyme crystals using co-crystallized barium ions was performed using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) method using Cu Ka radiation with in-house source of data collection. As the ion binding sites vary with respect to the pH of the buffer during crystallization, the highly isomorphic forms of lysozyme crystals grown at acidic and alkaline pH were used for the study. Intrinsic sulphur anomalous signal was also utilized with anomalous signal from lower occupancy ions for phasing. The study showed that to solve the structure by SAD technique, 2.8-fold data redundancy was sufficient when barium was used as an anomalous marker in the in-house copper X-ray radiation source for data collection. Therefore, co-crystallization of proteins with barium containing salt can be a powerful tool for structure determination using lab source.

  10. Genetic stability (in vivo) of the attenuated oral rabies virus vaccine SAD B19.

    PubMed

    Beckert, Aline; Geue, Lutz; Vos, Ad; Neubert, Andreas; Freuling, Conrad; Müller, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of oral rabies vaccine baits containing replication-competent live viruses poses certain environmental safety risks; among others, the possibility of reversion to or an increase in virulence. Hence, the genetic stability of the complete genome of the most widely used oral rabies vaccine virus, SAD B19, was examined after four and 10 serial i.c. passages in foxes and mice, respectively. It was shown that the consensus strain of SAD B19 was extremely stable in vivo. After 10 consecutive passages in mice not a single mutation was observed. In foxes, seven single nucleotide exchanges were found between the first and fourth passage, of which only one resulted in an amino acid exchange at position 9240 of the L-gene. This mutation was not observed during the first three passages and, furthermore, it was shown that this mutation was not linked to enhanced virulence.

  11. Sadness shifts to anxiety over time and distance from the national tragedy in Newtown, Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Doré, Bruce; Ort, Leonard; Braverman, Ofir; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2015-04-01

    How do increasing temporal and spatial distance affect the emotions people feel and express in response to tragic events? Standard views suggest that emotional intensity should decrease but are silent on changes in emotional quality. Using a large Twitter data set, we identified temporal and spatial patterns in use of emotional and cognitive words in tweets about the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Although use of sadness words decreased with time and spatial distance, use of anxiety words showed the opposite pattern and was associated with concurrent increases in language reflecting causal thinking. In a follow-up experiment, we found that thinking about abstract causes (as opposed to concrete details) of this event similarly evoked decreased sadness but increased anxiety, which was associated with perceptions that a similar event might occur in the future. These data challenge current theories of emotional reactivity and identify time, space, and abstract causal thinking as factors that elicit categorical shifts in emotional responses to tragedy.

  12. Brain regions involved in the recognition of happiness and sadness in music.

    PubMed

    Khalfa, Stéphanie; Schon, Daniele; Anton, Jean-Luc; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2005-12-19

    Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to test for the lateralization of the brain regions specifically involved in the recognition of negatively and positively valenced musical emotions. The manipulation of two major musical features (mode and tempo), resulting in the variation of emotional perception along the happiness-sadness axis, was shown to principally involve subcortical and neocortical brain structures, which are known to intervene in emotion processing in other modalities. In particular, the minor mode (sad excerpts) involved the left orbito and mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex, which does not confirm the valence lateralization model. We also show that the recognition of emotions elicited by variations of the two perceptual determinants rely on both common (BA 9) and distinct neural mechanisms.

  13. Direct-method SAD phasing with partial-structure iteration: towards automation.

    PubMed

    Wang, J W; Chen, J R; Gu, Y X; Zheng, C D; Fan, H F

    2004-11-01

    The probability formula of direct-method SAD (single-wavelength anomalous diffraction) phasing proposed by Fan & Gu (1985, Acta Cryst. A41, 280-284) contains partial-structure information in the form of a Sim-weighting term. Previously, only the substructure of anomalous scatterers has been included in this term. In the case that the subsequent density modification and model building yields only structure fragments, which do not straightforwardly lead to the complete solution, the partial structure can be fed back into the Sim-weighting term of the probability formula in order to strengthen its phasing power and to benefit the subsequent automatic model building. The procedure has been tested with experimental SAD data from two known proteins with copper and sulfur as the anomalous scatterers.

  14. Safety studies of the oral rabies vaccine SAD B19 in striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Vos, A; Pommerening, E; Neubert, L; Kachel, S; Neubert, A

    2002-04-01

    Safety of the modified live rabies virus vaccine, SAD B19, was studied in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Seven skunks received 10(7.9) foci formatting units by direct oral administration. In four cages, a vaccinated animal was placed with a control animal, the other three vaccinated skunks were housed individually. Saliva and nasal swabs were collected 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 72 hr post-vaccination. From all vaccinated and control animals (n = 11) blood samples were collected 0, 28, 56, 84, and 296 days post-vaccination. Three of seven vaccinated skunks seroconverted. None of the control animals had detectable levels of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. Also no vaccine virus was isolated from the nasal and saliva swabs collected from any animal. Thus, SAD B19 was innocuous for skunks in our study after direct oral administration at field concentration.

  15. The Unique and Shared Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Fear, Anger, and Sadness in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Sierra; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which subordinate dimensions of negative emotionality were genetically and environmentally distinct in a sample of 1316 twins (51% female, 85.8% Caucasian, primarily middle class, mean age = 7.87 years, SD = .93), recruited from Wisconsin hospital birth records between 1989 and 2004. Cholesky, independent pathway, and common pathway models were fitted for mother-report, father-report, and in-home observation of temperament. Although findings support the use of negative emotionality, there were heritable aspects of anger and fear not explained by a common genetic factor, and shared environmental influences common to anger and sadness but not fear. Observed fear was independent from observed anger and sadness. Distinctions support specificity in measurement when considering implications for child development. PMID:26182850

  16. 7 CFR 51.587 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Diameter. 51.587 Section 51.587 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.587 Diameter. Diameter means... lowest outer branch to the base....

  17. 7 CFR 51.587 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Diameter. 51.587 Section 51.587 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.587 Diameter. Diameter means... lowest outer branch to the base....

  18. 7 CFR 51.587 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Diameter. 51.587 Section 51.587 Agriculture... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.587 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension of the stalk measured at a point 2 inches above the point of attachment of the lowest outer branch to the base....

  19. 7 CFR 51.587 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diameter. 51.587 Section 51.587 Agriculture... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.587 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension of the stalk measured at a point 2 inches above the point of attachment of the lowest outer branch to the base....

  20. American Muslims’ Anger and Sadness about In-group Social Image

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Mosquera, Patricia M.; Khan, Tasmiha; Selya, Arielle

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel study on the role of gender in perceptions of and emotions about in-group social image among American Muslims. Two hundred and five (147 females, 58 males) American Muslims completed a questionnaire on how Muslims feel in U.S. society. The study measured both stereotypical (i.e., ‘frightening,’ ‘oppressed’) as well as non-stereotypical in-group social images (i.e., ‘powerful,’ ‘honorable’). In particular, participants were asked how much they believe Muslims are seen as ‘frightening,’ ‘oppressed,’ ‘honorable,’ and ‘powerful’ in U.S. society, and how much anger and sadness they feel about the way U.S. society views Muslims. Participants believed Muslims are seen in stereotypical ways (i.e., as ‘frightening’ and ‘oppressed’) more than in non-stereotypical ways (i.e., as ‘powerful’ and ‘honorable’). Moreover, perceived in-group social image as ‘powerful’ or ‘honorable’ did not predict the intensity of felt anger or sadness. In contrast, the more participants believed Muslims are seen as ‘frightening,’ the more intense their anger and sadness. Furthermore, responses to perceived social image as ‘oppressed’ were moderated by gender. American Muslim female participants believed that Muslims are seen as ‘oppressed’ in U.S. society to a greater extent than male participants did. In addition, perceived social image as ‘oppressed’ only predicted anger for female participants: the more female participants believed Muslims are seen as ‘oppressed,’ the more intense their anger. This study contributes to the scarce literature on American Muslims in psychology, and shows that both anger and sadness are relevant to the study of perceived social image. PMID:28123374

  1. Quantitative Assessment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Shum, Judy; Martufi, Giampaolo; Di Martino, Elena; Washington, Christopher B.; Grisafi, Joseph; Muluk, Satish C.; Finol, Ender A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the maximum transverse diameter of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and expansion rate are not entirely reliable indicators of rupture potential. We hypothesize that aneurysm morphology and wall thickness are more predictive of rupture risk and can be the deciding factors in the clinical management of the disease. A non-invasive, image-based evaluation of AAA shape was implemented on a retrospective study of 10 ruptured and 66 unruptured aneurysms. Three-dimensional models were generated from segmented, contrast-enhanced computed tomography images. Geometric indices and regional variations in wall thickness were estimated based on novel segmentation algorithms. A model was created using a J48 decision tree algorithm and its performance was assessed using ten-fold cross validation. Feature selection was performed using the χ2-test. The model correctly classified 65 datasets and had an average prediction accuracy of 86.6% (κ = 0.37). The highest ranked features were sac length, sac height, volume, surface area, maximum diameter, bulge height, and intra-luminal thrombus volume. Given that individual AAAs have complex shapes with local changes in surface curvature and wall thickness, the assessment of AAA rupture risk should be based on the accurate quantification of aneurysmal sac shape and size. PMID:20890661

  2. Memorable Experiences with Sad Music—Reasons, Reactions and Mechanisms of Three Types of Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Peltola, Henna-Riikka

    2016-01-01

    Reactions to memorable experiences of sad music were studied by means of a survey administered to a convenience (N = 1577), representative (N = 445), and quota sample (N = 414). The survey explored the reasons, mechanisms, and emotions of such experiences. Memorable experiences linked with sad music typically occurred in relation to extremely familiar music, caused intense and pleasurable experiences, which were accompanied by physiological reactions and positive mood changes in about a third of the participants. A consistent structure of reasons and emotions for these experiences was identified through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across the samples. Three types of sadness experiences were established, one that was genuinely negative (Grief-Stricken Sorrow) and two that were positive (Comforting Sorrow and Sweet Sorrow). Each type of emotion exhibited certain individual differences and had distinct profiles in terms of the underlying reasons, mechanisms, and elicited reactions. The prevalence of these broad types of emotional experiences suggested that positive experiences are the most frequent, but negative experiences were not uncommon in any of the samples. The findings have implications for measuring emotions induced by music and fiction in general, and call attention to the non-pleasurable aspects of these experiences. PMID:27300268

  3. Emotional expressions in antismoking television advertisements: consequences of anger and sadness framing on pathways to persuasion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunny Jung; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    The authors conducted an experiment among U.S. college students (N = 115) to assess the effects of anger- and sadness-framed television antismoking advertisements on viewers' emotional response, impressions of the speaker, source likability, and empathy toward the speaker. The study was based on the fundamental assumptions of discrete emotions and was operationalized using the principles of universal facial expressions. The authors also constructed a path model to investigate how these variables predicted one's attitude toward smoking, attitude toward the tobacco industry, and intentions to smoke. Supporting study hypotheses, the anger-framed message increased the perceived dominance of the speaker relative to the other conditions. Perceived dominance, in turn, was negatively associated with smoking attitudes and, indirectly, smoking intentions. Contrary to study hypotheses, the sadness-framed message did not increase sad emotional responses, source likability, or empathy relative to the no emotion-framed message. The anger-framed message unexpectedly appeared to decrease these outcomes. Empathy and source likability were associated with positive attitudes toward the tobacco industry, but these attitudes did not predict intentions to smoke. The authors discuss the implications of these findings.

  4. [Diagnostic of ADHD in childhood and adolescence with the K-SADS-PL].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sören; Banaschewski, Tobias; Garbe, Edeltraut; Petermann, Franz; Petermann, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit-/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence, often accompanied by comorbid disorders. A high standard of diagnostic assessment combined with a demand for valid diagnostic instruments is necessary. The K-SADS-PL is an established semi-structured interview, focusing on the categorical assessment of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the following study was to examine specific characteristics of ADHD symptomatology including functional and behavioral assessment. Therefore correlations between the result in a diagnostic interview (K-SADS-PL) and different ADHD-specific instruments were performed. Groups were formed (exposed vs. unexposed), based on the diagnostic finding in the K-SADS-PL. Group-specific test score differences were calculated and compared by multivariate analyses of covariance. Children with ADHD showed a significantly higher impact of conduct and emotional problems than the unexposed group. Health related quality of life was more impaired in children and families suffering from ADHD which refers to the relevance of family-oriented psychotherapy.

  5. Relaxation of purifying selection on the SAD lineage of live attenuated oral vaccines for rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Austin L

    2009-09-01

    Analysis of patterns of nucleotide sequence diversity in wild-type rabies virus (RABV) genomes and in the SAD live attenuated oral vaccine lineage was used to test for the relaxation of purifying selection in the latter and provide evidence regarding the genomic regions where such relaxation of selection occurs. The wild-type sequences showed evidence of strong past and ongoing purifying selection both on nonsynonymous sites in coding regions and on non-coding regions, particularly the start, end and 5' UTR regions. SAD vaccine sequences showed a relaxation of purifying selection at nonsynonymous sites in coding regions, resulting a substantial number of amino acid sequence polymorphisms at sites that were invariant in the wild-type sequences. Moreover, SAD vaccine sequences showed high levels of mutation accumulation in the non-coding regions that were most conserved in the wild-type sequences. Understanding the biological effects of the unique mutations accumulated in the vaccine lineage is important because of their potential effects on antigenicity and effectiveness of the vaccine.

  6. Lost or fond? Effects of nostalgia on sad mood recovery vary by attachment insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Sarah R.; Glode, Ryan J.; Opitz, Philipp C.

    2015-01-01

    Nostalgia involves a fond recollection of people and events lost to time. Growing evidence indicates that nostalgia may ameliorate negative affective states such as loneliness and boredom. However, the effect of nostalgia on sadness is unknown, and there is little research on how social connectedness might impact nostalgia's effects. Grounded in a theoretical framework whereby people with lower levels of attachment insecurity benefit more from nostalgia, we exposed participants to a mortality-related sad mood and then randomly assigned them to reflect on a nostalgic or an ordinary event memory. We examined changes in mood and electrodermal activity (EDA) and found that nostalgic versus ordinary event memories led to a blunted recovery from sad mood, but that this effect was moderated by degree of attachment insecurity, such that participants with low insecurity benefited from nostalgia whereas people with high insecurity did not. These findings suggest that nostalgia's benefits may be tied to the degree of confidence one has in one's social relationships. PMID:26113829

  7. Distinctive effects of fear and sadness induction on anger and aggressive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Jun; Ren, Jun; Fan, Jin; Luo, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A recent study has reported that the successful implementation of cognitive regulation of emotion depends on higher-level cognitive functions, such as top-down control, which may be impaired in stressful situations. This calls for “cognition free” self-regulatory strategies that do not require top-down control. In contrast to the cognitive regulation of emotion that emphasizes the role of cognition, traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine views the relationship among different types of emotions as promoting or counteracting each other without the involvement of cognition, which provides an insightful perspective for developing “cognition free” regulatory strategies. In this study, we examined two hypotheses regarding the modulation of anger and aggressive behavior: sadness counteracts anger and aggressive behavior, whereas fear promotes anger and aggressive behavior. Participants were first provoked by reading extremely negative feedback on their viewpoints (Study 1) and by watching anger-inducing movie clips (Study 2). Then, these angry participants were assigned to three equivalent groups and viewed sad, fear-inducing, or neutral materials to evoke the corresponding emotions. The results showed that participants displayed a lower level of aggressive behavior when sadness was later induced and a higher level of anger when fear was later induced. These results provide evidence that supports the hypothesis of mutual promotion and counteraction relationships among these types of emotions and imply a “cognition free” approach to regulating anger and aggressive behavior. PMID:26124725

  8. S-SAD phasing study of death receptor 6 and its solution conformation revealed by SAXS

    PubMed Central

    Ru, Heng; Zhao, Lixia; Ding, Wei; Jiao, Lianying; Shaw, Neil; Liang, Wenguang; Zhang, Liguo; Hung, Li-Wei; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Liu, Zhi-Jie

    2012-01-01

    A subset of tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily members contain death domains in their cytoplasmic tails. Death receptor 6 (DR6) is one such member and can trigger apoptosis upon the binding of a ligand by its cysteine-rich domains (CRDs). The crystal structure of the ectodomain (amino acids 1–348) of human death receptor 6 (DR6) encompassing the CRD region was phased using the anomalous signal from S atoms. In order to explore the feasibility of S-SAD phasing at longer wavelengths (beyond 2.5 Å), a comparative study was performed on data collected at wavelengths of 2.0 and 2.7 Å. In spite of sub-optimal experimental conditions, the 2.7 Å wavelength used for data collection showed potential for S-SAD phasing. The results showed that the R ano/R p.i.m. ratio is a good indicator for monitoring the anomalous data quality when the anomalous signal is relatively strong, while d′′/sig(d′′) calculated by SHELXC is a more sensitive and stable indicator applicable for grading a wider range of anomalous data qualities. The use of the ‘parameter-space screening method’ for S-SAD phasing resulted in solutions for data sets that failed during manual attempts. SAXS measurements on the ectodomain suggested that a dimer defines the minimal physical unit of an unliganded DR6 molecule in solution. PMID:22525750

  9. Side effects of being blue: influence of sad mood on visual statistical learning.

    PubMed

    Bertels, Julie; Demoulin, Catherine; Franco, Ana; Destrebecqz, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that mood influences many cognitive processes, such as learning and executive functions. Although statistical learning is assumed to be part of our daily life, as mood does, the influence of mood on statistical learning has never been investigated before. In the present study, a sad vs. neutral mood was induced to the participants through the listening of stories while they were exposed to a stream of visual shapes made up of the repeated presentation of four triplets, namely sequences of three shapes presented in a fixed order. Given that the inter-stimulus interval was held constant within and between triplets, the only cues available for triplet segmentation were the transitional probabilities between shapes. Direct and indirect measures of learning taken either immediately or 20 minutes after the exposure/mood induction phase revealed that participants learned the statistical regularities between shapes. Interestingly, although participants from the sad and neutral groups performed similarly in these tasks, subjective measures (confidence judgments taken after each trial) revealed that participants who experienced the sad mood induction showed increased conscious access to their statistical knowledge. These effects were not modulated by the time delay between the exposure/mood induction and the test phases. These results are discussed within the scope of the robustness principle and the influence of negative affects on processing style.

  10. Memorable Experiences with Sad Music-Reasons, Reactions and Mechanisms of Three Types of Experiences.

    PubMed

    Eerola, Tuomas; Peltola, Henna-Riikka

    2016-01-01

    Reactions to memorable experiences of sad music were studied by means of a survey administered to a convenience (N = 1577), representative (N = 445), and quota sample (N = 414). The survey explored the reasons, mechanisms, and emotions of such experiences. Memorable experiences linked with sad music typically occurred in relation to extremely familiar music, caused intense and pleasurable experiences, which were accompanied by physiological reactions and positive mood changes in about a third of the participants. A consistent structure of reasons and emotions for these experiences was identified through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across the samples. Three types of sadness experiences were established, one that was genuinely negative (Grief-Stricken Sorrow) and two that were positive (Comforting Sorrow and Sweet Sorrow). Each type of emotion exhibited certain individual differences and had distinct profiles in terms of the underlying reasons, mechanisms, and elicited reactions. The prevalence of these broad types of emotional experiences suggested that positive experiences are the most frequent, but negative experiences were not uncommon in any of the samples. The findings have implications for measuring emotions induced by music and fiction in general, and call attention to the non-pleasurable aspects of these experiences.

  11. [Abdominal pregnancy care. Case report].

    PubMed

    Morales Hernández, Sara; Díaz Velázquez, Mary Flor; Puello Tamara, Edgardo; Morales Hernández, Jorge; Basavilvazo Rodríguez, Maria Antonia; Cruz Cruz, Polita del Rocío; Hernández Valencia, Marcelino

    2008-10-01

    Abdominal pregnancies are the implantation of gestation in some of the abdominal structures. This kind of pregnancies represents sevenfold maternal death risk than tubarian ectopic pregnancies, and 90-fold death risk than normal ones. Previous cases have erroneously reported as abscess in Douglas punch, and frequently result in obitus or postnatal deaths. We report a case of a patient with 27 years old, and diagnosis of 25.2 weeks of pregnancy, prior placenta and anhidramnios, referred due to difficult in uterine contour delimitation, easy palpation of fetal parts, cephalic pole in left hypochondrious and presence of mass in hypogastria, no delimitations, pain with mobilization, no transvaginal bleed and fetal movements. Interruption of pregnancy is decided by virtue of severe oligohidramnios, retardation in fetal intrabdominal growth, and recurrent maternal abdominal pain. Surgical intervention was carried out for resolution of the obstetrical event, in which was found ectopic abdominal pregnancy with bed placental in right uterine horn that corresponded to a pregnancy of 30 weeks of gestation. Abdominal pregnancy is still a challenge for obstetrics due to its diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis is oriented to prevent an intrabdominal hemorrhage that is the main maternal cause of mortality.

  12. An update on safety studies of SAD B19 rabies virus vaccine in target and non-target species.

    PubMed Central

    Vos, A.; Neubert, A.; Aylan, O.; Schuster, P.; Pommerening, E.; Müller, T.; Chivatsi, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    SAD B19 is an attenuated vaccine virus for oral vaccination of carnivores against rabies. The safety of SAD B19 was investigated in 16 animal species by different routes of administration. During the observation period all animals given the vaccine virus, irrespective of the route of administration, did not show any clinical signs of rabies, with the exception of certain rodent species. In these animals a low residual pathogenicity was observed, however transmission of the vaccine virus to control animals was not demonstrable. No vaccine virus could be detected in the saliva of the six mammal species examined. Furthermore, the genetical stability was shown for SAD B19 through passaging in neural tissue of dogs, foxes and mice. From the results presented here on innocuity and stability, it can be concluded that SAD B19 rabies vaccine is suitable for oral vaccination campaigns for carnivores against rabies. PMID:10487653

  13. From MAD to SAD: The Italian experience for the low-frequency aperture array of SKA1-LOW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolli, P.; Pupillo, G.; Virone, G.; Farooqui, M. Z.; Lingua, A.; Mattana, A.; Monari, J.; Murgia, M.; Naldi, G.; Paonessa, F.; Perini, F.; Pluchino, S.; Rusticelli, S.; Schiaffino, M.; Schillirò, F.; Tartarini, G.; Tibaldi, A.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes two small aperture array demonstrators called Medicina and Sardinia Array Demonstrators (MAD and SAD, respectively). The objectives of these instruments are to acquire experience and test new technologies for a possible application to the low-frequency aperture array of the low-frequency telescope of the Square Kilometer Array phase 1 (SKA1-LOW). The MAD experience was concluded in 2014, and it turned out to be an important test bench for implementing calibration techniques based on an artificial source mounted in an aerial vehicle. SAD is based on 128 dual-polarized Vivaldi antennas and is 1 order of magnitude larger than MAD. The architecture and the station size of SAD, which is along the construction phase, are more similar to those under evaluation for SKA1-LOW, and therefore, SAD is expected to provide useful hints for SKA1-LOW.

  14. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Planning an experiment, scaling data and evaluating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal.

    PubMed

    Terwilliger, Thomas C; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li Wei; Zwart, Peter H; Smith, Janet L; Akey, David L; Adams, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. Here, algorithms and tools for evaluating and optimizing the useful anomalous correlation and the anomalous signal in a SAD experiment are described. A simple theoretical framework [Terwilliger et al. (2016), Acta Cryst. D72, 346-358] is used to develop methods for planning a SAD experiment, scaling SAD data sets and estimating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD data set. The phenix.plan_sad_experiment tool uses a database of solved and unsolved SAD data sets and the expected characteristics of a SAD data set to estimate the probability that the anomalous substructure will be found in the SAD experiment and the expected map quality that would be obtained if the substructure were found. The phenix.scale_and_merge tool scales unmerged SAD data from one or more crystals using local scaling and optimizes the anomalous signal by identifying the systematic differences among data sets, and the phenix.anomalous_signal tool estimates the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal after collecting SAD data and estimates the probability that the data set can be solved and the likely figure of merit of phasing.

  15. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Planning an experiment, scaling data and evaluating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal

    DOE PAGES

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li-Wei; ...

    2016-03-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. Here, we describe algorithms and tools for evaluating and optimizing the useful anomalous correlation and the anomalous signal in a SAD experiment. A simple theoretical framework [Terwilliger et al.(2016),Acta Cryst.D72, 346–358] is used to develop methods for planning a SAD experiment, scaling SAD data sets and estimating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD data set. Thephenix.plan_sad_experimenttool uses a database of solved and unsolved SAD data sets and the expected characteristics of a SAD data set to estimatemore » the probability that the anomalous substructure will be found in the SAD experiment and the expected map quality that would be obtained if the substructure were found. Thephenix.scale_and_mergetool scales unmerged SAD data from one or more crystals using local scaling and optimizes the anomalous signal by identifying the systematic differences among data sets, and thephenix.anomalous_signaltool estimates the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal after collecting SAD data and estimates the probability that the data set can be solved and the likely figure of merit of phasing.« less

  16. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Planning an experiment, scaling data and evaluating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal

    SciTech Connect

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li-Wei; Zwart, Peter H.; Smith, Janet L.; Akey, David L.; Adams, Paul D.

    2016-03-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. Here, we describe algorithms and tools for evaluating and optimizing the useful anomalous correlation and the anomalous signal in a SAD experiment. A simple theoretical framework [Terwilliger et al.(2016),Acta Cryst.D72, 346–358] is used to develop methods for planning a SAD experiment, scaling SAD data sets and estimating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD data set. Thephenix.plan_sad_experimenttool uses a database of solved and unsolved SAD data sets and the expected characteristics of a SAD data set to estimate the probability that the anomalous substructure will be found in the SAD experiment and the expected map quality that would be obtained if the substructure were found. Thephenix.scale_and_mergetool scales unmerged SAD data from one or more crystals using local scaling and optimizes the anomalous signal by identifying the systematic differences among data sets, and thephenix.anomalous_signaltool estimates the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal after collecting SAD data and estimates the probability that the data set can be solved and the likely figure of merit of phasing.

  17. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Planning an experiment, scaling data and evaluating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal

    PubMed Central

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li-Wei; Zwart, Peter H.; Smith, Janet L.; Akey, David L.; Adams, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. Here, algorithms and tools for evaluating and optimizing the useful anomalous correlation and the anomalous signal in a SAD experiment are described. A simple theoretical framework [Terwilliger et al. (2016 ▸), Acta Cryst. D72, 346–358] is used to develop methods for planning a SAD experiment, scaling SAD data sets and estimating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD data set. The phenix.plan_sad_experiment tool uses a database of solved and unsolved SAD data sets and the expected characteristics of a SAD data set to estimate the probability that the anomalous substructure will be found in the SAD experiment and the expected map quality that would be obtained if the substructure were found. The phenix.scale_and_merge tool scales unmerged SAD data from one or more crystals using local scaling and optimizes the anomalous signal by identifying the systematic differences among data sets, and the phenix.anomalous_signal tool estimates the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal after collecting SAD data and estimates the probability that the data set can be solved and the likely figure of merit of phasing. PMID:26960123

  18. A new measure for assessing executive function across a wide age range: children and adults find happy-sad more difficult than day-night.

    PubMed

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Sayfan, Liat; Monsour, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Two experiments examined 4- to 11-year-olds' and adults' performance (N = 350) on two variants of a Stroop-like card task: the day-night task (say 'day' when shown a moon and 'night' when shown a sun) and a new happy-sad task (say 'happy' for a sad face and 'sad' for a happy face). Experiment 1 featured colored cartoon drawings. In Experiment 2, the happy-sad task featured photographs, and pictures for both measures were gray scale. All age groups made more errors and took longer to respond to the happy-sad versus the day-night versions. Unlike the day-night task, the happy-sad task did not suffer from ceiling effects, even in adults. The happy-sad task provides a methodological advance for measuring executive function across a wide age range.

  19. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-03-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study I was a systematic review of the existing standardized methods for assessing quality of life after incisional hernia repair. After a systematic search in the electronic databases Embase and PubMed, a total of 26 studies using standardized measures for assessment of quality of life after incisional hernia repair were found. The most commonly used questionnaire was the generic Short-Form 36, which assesses overall health-related quality of life, addressing both physical and mental health. The second-most common questionnaire was the Carolinas Comfort Scale, which is a disease specific questionnaire addressing pain, movement limitation and mesh sensation in relation to a current or previous hernia. In total, eight different questionnaires were used at varying time points in the 26 studies. In conclusion, standardization of timing and method of quality of life assessment after incisional hernia repair was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the

  20. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  1. Sad Dads

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pilyoung

    2007-01-01

    The postpartum period is associated with many adjustments to fathers that pose risks for depression. Estimates of the prevalence of paternal postpartum depression (PPD) in the first two months postpartum vary in the postpartum period from 4 to 25 percent. Paternal PPD has high comorbidity with maternal PPD and might also be associated with other postpartum psychiatric disorders. Studies so far have only used diagnostic criteria for maternal PPD to investigate paternal PPD, so there is an urgent need to study the validity of these scales for men and develop accurate diagnostic tools for paternal PPD. Paternal PPD has negative impacts on family, including increasing emotional and behavioral problems among their children (either directly or through the mother) and increasing conflicts in the marital relationship. Changes in hormones, including testosterone, estrogen, cortisol, vasopressin, and prolactin, during the postpartum period in fathers may be biological risk factors in paternal PPD. Fathers who have ecological risk factors, such as excessive stress from becoming a parent, lack of social supports for parenting, and feeling excluded from mother-infant bonding, may be more likely to develop paternal PPD. Support from their partner, educational programs, policy for paid paternal leave, as well as consideration of psychiatric care may help fathers cope with stressful experiences during the postpartum period. PMID:20805898

  2. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Médhi; Deliens, Gaétane; Leproult, Rachel; Bodart, Alice; Nonclercq, Antoine; Ercek, Rudy; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-12-29

    Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24) listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min) morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min) morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term.

  3. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, Médhi; Deliens, Gaétane; Leproult, Rachel; Bodart, Alice; Nonclercq, Antoine; Ercek, Rudy; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24) listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min) morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min) morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term. PMID:26729175

  4. Abdominal Bloating: Pathophysiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seo, A Young; Oh, Dong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004

  5. [Gallstone ileus. Abdominal CT usefulness].

    PubMed

    Sukkarieh, F; Brasseur, P; Bissen, L

    2004-06-01

    The authors report the case of a 93-year old woman referred to the emergency department and presenting with an intestinal obstruction. Abdominal CT reveals a biliary ileus caused by the migration and the impaction of a 3 cm gallstone in the small bowel. Surgical treatment by enterolithotomy was successful. In over 90% of cases, gallstone ileus is a complication of cholelithiasis and accounts for 25% of intestinal obstruction in patients over 65 years. To reduce morbidity and mortality, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential. Abdominal CT-scan is the gold standard technique.

  6. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Lemieux, Isabelle

    2006-12-14

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Proposed criteria for identifying patients with metabolic syndrome have contributed greatly to preventive medicine, but the value of metabolic syndrome as a scientific concept remains controversial. The presence of metabolic syndrome alone cannot predict global cardiovascular disease risk. But abdominal obesity - the most prevalent manifestation of metabolic syndrome - is a marker of 'dysfunctional adipose tissue', and is of central importance in clinical diagnosis. Better risk assessment algorithms are needed to quantify diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk on a global scale.

  7. Abdominal surgery in neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Bryant, James E; Gaughan, Earl M

    2005-08-01

    Abdominal surgery in foals under 30 days old has become more common with improved neonatal care. Early recognition of a foal at risk and better nursing care have increased the survival rates of foals that require neonatal care. The success of improved neonatal care also has increased the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal, umbilical, and bladder disorders in these foals. This chapter focuses on the early and accurate diagnosis of specific disorders that require abdominal exploratory surgery and the specific treatment considerations and prognosis for these disorders.

  8. Pupil Diameter Tracks Lapses of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Peter R.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to sustain attention for prolonged periods of time is limited. Studies on the relationship between lapses of attention and psychophysiological markers of attentional state, such as pupil diameter, have yielded contradicting results. Here, we investigated the relationship between tonic fluctuations in pupil diameter and performance on a demanding sustained attention task. We found robust linear relationships between baseline pupil diameter and several measures of task performance, suggesting that attentional lapses tended to occur when pupil diameter was small. However, these observations were primarily driven by the joint effects of time-on-task on baseline pupil diameter and task performance. The linear relationships disappeared when we statistically controlled for time-on-task effects and were replaced by consistent inverted U-shaped relationships between baseline pupil diameter and each of the task performance measures, such that most false alarms and the longest and most variable response times occurred when pupil diameter was both relatively small and large. Finally, we observed strong linear relationships between the temporal derivative of pupil diameter and task performance measures, which were largely independent of time-on-task. Our results help to reconcile contradicting findings in the literature on pupil-linked changes in attentional state, and are consistent with the adaptive gain theory of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine function. Moreover, they suggest that the derivative of baseline pupil diameter is a potentially useful psychophysiological marker that could be used in the on-line prediction and prevention of attentional lapses. PMID:27768778

  9. Diameter Effect In Initiating Explosives, Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lefrancois, A.; Benterou, J.; Roeske, F.; Roos, E.

    2006-02-10

    The ability to safely machine small pieces of HE with the femtosecond laser allows diameter effect experiments to be performed in initiating explosives in order to study the failure diameter, the reduction of the detonation velocity and curvature versus the diameter. The reduced diameter configuration needs to be optimized, so that the detonation products of the first cylinder will not affect the measurement of the detonation velocity of the second cylinder with a streak camera. Different 2D axi-symmetrical configurations have been calculated to identify the best solution using the Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for LX16 Pellet with Ls-Dyna.

  10. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... the child’s mood and emotions, and in turn cause depression and anxiety. Screening/Diagnosis Detailed information regarding the location of abdominal pain, the frequency (number of times per week) and ... about the cause, and will guide further testing. Other important pieces ...

  11. Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... myhealthfinder Immunization Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-termJust about everyone has had a " ... time or another. But sudden severe abdominal pain (stomach pain), also called acute pain, shouldn't be ...

  12. Imaging of gastrointestinal and abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Vanhoenacker, F M; De Backer, A I; Op de, Beeck B; Maes, M; Van Altena, R; Van Beckevoort, D; Kersemans, P; De Schepper, A M

    2004-03-01

    This article discusses the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the abdomen, including involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, the peritoneum, mesentery, omentum, abdominal lymph nodes, solid abdominal organs, the genital system and the abdominal aorta. Abdominal TB is a diagnostic challenge, particularly when pulmonary TB is absent. It may mimic many other abdominal diseases, both clinically and radiologically. An early correct diagnosis, however, is important in order to ensure proper treatment and a favorable outcome. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of abdominal TB and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Generally, CT appears to be the imaging modality of choice in the detection and assessment of abdominal tuberculosis, other than gastrointestinal TB. Barium studies remain superior for demonstrating mucosal intestinal lesions. Ultrasound may be used for follow-up to monitor therapy response. The diagnosis of abdominal TB should be considered if suggestive imaging findings are found in patients with a high index of suspicion.

  13. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  14. Unexpectedly ease surgery for a worrisome abdominal mass: Pedunculated GISTs☆

    PubMed Central

    Baskiran, Adil; Otan, Emrah; Aydin, Cemalettin; Kayaalp, Cuneyt

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Discovery of abdominal masses often poses significant diagnostic difficulties. GISTs are mesenchymal masses, with specific histological features. Dimensions may vary from millimeters to giant tumours. We would like to present our case, which had an unexpectedly easy operative course which was easily handled with a simple surgical excision with a short operative duration. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 38 years old female patient was diagnosed to have an abdominal heterogen mass of 15 cm × 12 cm × 10 cm in dimension. Abdominal computed tomography revealed the solid mass between the stomach and pancreas corpus and tail, possibly orginating from the pancreas. With the preoperative diagnosis of locally invasive distal pancreas cancer the patient underwent laparotomy, following the dissection, the mass was observed to be originating from the posterior gastric Wall, extending exophytically with a peduncle of 5 cm in width, without any visual evidence for peritoneal invasion and metastasis. The tumour and the peduncle was resected with stapler device. Total operation time was 30 min. Postoperative course was uneventful. Pathologic diagnosis was gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). DISCUSSION Pedunculated large GISTs are not frequent and they can enlarge as 15 cm in diameter and compress the neighbouring organs. When they were huge, it is difficult to differentiate the origin of the masses. GISTs should be considered in differential diagnosis of giant abdominal masses. CONCLUSION When GISTs are huge and pedunculated, it can be difficult to differentiate the origin of the masses. This case report presents unexpectedly ease surgery for a worrysome abdominal mass. PMID:23999120

  15. A functional MRI study of happy and sad affective states induced by classical music.

    PubMed

    Mitterschiffthaler, Martina T; Fu, Cynthia H Y; Dalton, Jeffrey A; Andrew, Christopher M; Williams, Steven C R

    2007-11-01

    The present study investigated the functional neuroanatomy of transient mood changes in response to Western classical music. In a pilot experiment, 53 healthy volunteers (mean age: 32.0; SD = 9.6) evaluated their emotional responses to 60 classical musical pieces using a visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging from 0 (sad) through 50 (neutral) to 100 (happy). Twenty pieces were found to accurately induce the intended emotional states with good reliability, consisting of 5 happy, 5 sad, and 10 emotionally unevocative, neutral musical pieces. In a subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal contrast was measured in response to the mood state induced by each musical stimulus in a separate group of 16 healthy participants (mean age: 29.5; SD = 5.5). Mood state ratings during scanning were made by a VAS, which confirmed the emotional valence of the selected stimuli. Increased BOLD signal contrast during presentation of happy music was found in the ventral and dorsal striatum, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus, and auditory association areas. With sad music, increased BOLD signal responses were noted in the hippocampus/amygdala and auditory association areas. Presentation of neutral music was associated with increased BOLD signal responses in the insula and auditory association areas. Our findings suggest that an emotion processing network in response to music integrates the ventral and dorsal striatum, areas involved in reward experience and movement; the anterior cingulate, which is important for targeting attention; and medial temporal areas, traditionally found in the appraisal and processing of emotions.

  16. Sadness might isolate you in a non-smelling world: olfactory perception and depression

    PubMed Central

    Schablitzky, Sylvia; Pause, Bettina M.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) occurs with a high prevalence among mental illnesses. MDD patients experience sadness and hopelessness, with blunted affective reactivity. However, such depressive episodes are also key symptoms in other depressive disorders, like Bipolar Disorder (BPD) or Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). Moreover, depressive symptoms can also be found in healthy individuals, but are experienced as less severe or for a shorter duration than in patients. Here, it is aimed to summarize studies investigating odor perception in depression, including depressive states in healthy individuals and patient populations. Odor perception in depression has been assessed with psychophysical methods (olfactory sensitivity, odor identification, and discrimination), and odor ratings (intensity, emotional valence, familiarity). In addition, some studies investigated affective reactions to odors, and physiological and anatomical correlates of odor perception in depression. The summary reveals that MDD is associated with reduced olfactory sensitivity. However, odor identification and discrimination scores seem to be unaffected by depression. The reduced olfactory sensitivity might be associated with a reduced ability to encode olfactory information and a reduced volume of the olfactory bulb. While similar processes seem to occur in healthy individuals experiencing depressive states, they have not been observed in BPD or SAD patients. However, in order to conclude that the reduced olfactory sensitivity is directly linked to depression, it is suggested that studies should implement control measures of cognitive performances or perceptual abilities in other stimulus modalities. It is concluded that the reduced olfactory performance in MDD patients seems to be disorder-, modality-, and test-specific, and that the application of an appropriate olfactory and cognitive test-battery might be highly useful in the differential diagnosis of MDD. PMID:24570666

  17. Challenges of sulfur SAD phasing as a routine method in macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Doutch, James; Hough, Michael A.; Hasnain, S. Samar; Strange, Richard W.

    2011-11-29

    The sulfur SAD phasing method allows the determination of protein structuresde novowithout reference to derivatives such as Se-methionine. The feasibility for routine automated sulfur SAD phasing using a number of current protein crystallography beamlines at several synchrotrons was examined using crystals of trimericAchromobacter cycloclastesnitrite reductase (AcNiR), which contains a near average proportion of sulfur-containing residues and two Cu atoms per subunit. Experiments using X-ray wavelengths in the range 1.9–2.4 Å show that we are not yet at the level where sulfur SAD is routinely successful forautomatedstructure solution and model building using existing beamlines and current software tools. On the other hand, experiments using the shortest X-ray wavelengths available on existing beamlines could be routinely exploited to solve and produce unbiased structural models using the similarly weak anomalous scattering signals from the intrinsic metal atoms in proteins. The comparison of long-wavelength phasing (the Bijvoet ratio for nine S atoms and two Cu atoms is ~1.25% at ~2 Å) and copper phasing (the Bijvoet ratio for two Cu atoms is 0.81% at ~0.75Å) forAcNiR suggests that lower data multiplicity than is currently required for success should in general be possible for sulfur phasing if appropriate improvements to beamlines and data collection strategies can be implemented.

  18. Blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruption with evisceration

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Ellen; Stawicki, Stanislaw PA; Bahner, David P

    2011-01-01

    Blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruptions associated with evisceration are very rare. The authors describe a case of traumatic abdominal wall disruption with bowel evisceration that occurred after a middle-aged woman sustained direct focal blunt force impact to the lower abdomen. Abdominal exploration and surgical repair of the abdominal wall defect were performed, with good clinical outcome. A brief overview of literature pertinent to this rare trauma scenario is presented. PMID:22229144

  19. Ultrasound guided percutaneous EVAR success is predicted by vessel diameter

    PubMed Central

    Bensley, Rodney P.; Hurks, Rob; Huang, Zhen; Pomposelli, Frank; Hamdan, Allen; Wyers, Mark; Chaikof, Elliot; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ultrasound guided access allows for direct visualization of the access artery during percutaneous endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. We hypothesize that the use of ultrasound guidance allowed us to safely increase the utilization of percutaneous endovascular aortic aneurysm repair to almost all patients and decrease access complications. Methods A retrospective chart review of all elective endovascular aortic aneurysm repairs, both abdominal and descending thoracic, from 2005-2010 was performed. Patients were identified using ICD9 codes and stratified based on access type: percutaneous vs. cutdown. We examined the success rate of percutaneous access and the cause of failure. Sheath size was large (18-24 Fr) or small (12-16 Fr). Minimum access vessel diameter was also measured. Outcomes were wound complications (infections or clinically significant hematomas that delayed discharge or required transfusion), operative and incision time, length of stay, and discharge disposition. Predictors of percutaneous failure were identified. Results 168 patients (296 arteries) had percutaneous access (P-EVAR) while 131 patients (226 arteries) had femoral cutdown access (C-EVAR). Ultrasound guided access was introduced in 2007. P-EVAR increased from zero cases in 2005 to 92.3% of all elective cases in 2010. The success rate with percutaneous access was 96%. Failures requiring open surgical repair of the artery included 7 for hemorrhage and 6 for flow limiting stenosis or occlusion of the femoral artery. P-EVAR had fewer wound complications (0.7% vs. 7.4%, P = .001) shorter operative time (153.3 vs. 201.5 minutes, P < .001) and larger minimal access vessel diameter (6.7 mm vs. 6.1 mm, P < .01). Patients with failed percutaneous access had smaller minimal access vessel diameters when compared to successful P-EVAR (4.9 mm vs. 6.8 mm, P < .001). More failures occurred in small sheaths than large ones (7.4% vs. 1.9%, P = .02). Access vessel diameter < 5 mm is predictive

  20. The experience of anger and sadness in everyday problems impacts age differences in emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Coats, Abby Heckman

    2008-11-01

    The authors examined regulation of the discrete emotions anger and sadness in adolescents through older adults in the context of describing everyday problem situations. The results support previous work; in comparison to younger age groups, older adults reported that they experienced less anger and reported that they used more passive and fewer proactive emotion-regulation strategies in interpersonal situations. The experience of anger partially mediated age differences in the use of proactive emotion regulation. This suggests that at least part of the reason why older adults use fewer proactive emotion-regulation strategies is their decreased experience of anger. Results are discussed in the context of lifespan theories of emotional development.

  1. Remote sensing of St. Augustine Decline (SAD) disease. [spectral reflectance of healthy and diseased grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odle, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field spectral reflectance measurements of healthy and infected St. Augustine grass were made using several different instruments. Spectral differences between healthy and infected grass occured in the visible and near infrared regions. Multiband and color infrared photographs were taken of healthy and diseased turf from ground-based platforms and low altitude aircraft. Qualitative (density slicing) and quantitative (transmission densitometry) analyses revealed distinct tonal differences between healthy and St. Augustine disease (SAD) infected grass. Similar experiments are described for determining if healthy and diseased grass can be distinguished from waterstressed grass and grass deficient in either nitrogen or iron.

  2. Use of iterative OASIS with low resolution SAD laboratory X-ray source (Cr Kα) data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvanayagam, S.; Velmurugan, D.; Yamane, T.; Suzuki, A.

    2009-12-01

    Anomalous scattering methods are widely used for phasing macromolecular structures. OASIS program works on a direct methods procedure and is used to break the phase ambiguity intrinsic in a single wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) experiment. An iterative phasing/model-building procedure for processing SAD data includes the initial direct method phasing of SAD data, density modification, automatic model building and direct methods phasing of SAD data with feed back from partial structure information. This dual-space procedure has been tested on two experimental Cr Kα SAD data sets, 2.3 Å for S-SAD and 2.4 Å for I-SAD, of an enzyme glucose isomerase with an approximate molecular weight of 44 kDa (388 residues). HYSS in PHENIX was used to locate the anomalous scatterers for both the data sets (11 sulfurs for 2.3 Å data and 9 iodines for 2.4 Å data). Phasing and density modification were carried out using OASIS, DM and model building was then carried out using ARP/wARP. Two iterative cycles were necessary for the successful structure solution and refinement of the 2.3 Å data set which built 384 residues out of 388. Regular ARP/wARP failed for the 2.4 Å resolution data and hence the modified version of REFMAC5 was used in ARP/wARP. A successful model could be built after three iterative cycles of OASIS using this modified version which built 382 residues out of 388 residues. Minimal manual model building was required at this stage and the structure determination was completed using regular REFMAC5. All the computations mentioned here were carried out using Pentium IV PC.

  3. Stellar angular diameters from occultation observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, B.-C.

    This paper reviews the history of measuring stellar angular diameters from lunar occultation observations and the techniques of data analysis. Several effects which can affect the results of measurement are discussed. The author finds that there may be systematic errors in angular diameters measured by various observatories for Aldebaran.

  4. Is Sadness Only One Emotion? Psychological and Physiological Responses to Sadness Induced by Two Different Situations: “Loss of Someone” and “Failure to Achieve a Goal”

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Mariko; Suzuki, Naoto

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether sadness elicited by two different situations—loss of someone (loss) and failure to achieve a goal (failure)—had different physiological responses. Seventy-four participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (loss, failure, and neutral). Physiological responses were recorded during an imagery task that was designed to evoke sadness. The results of characteristics in the subjective ratings indicated that loss-evoked sadness was only associated with expressive words relating to tears. For the results of physiological measures, skin conductance levels (SCLs) increased during the imagery task across all conditions and differed between conditions during the post-task. For the loss condition, restoration to baseline level took longer, while in the failure the SCL decreased sharply back to baseline. Furthermore, tear ratings correlated with blood pressures in the loss condition, while sadness intensity correlated with blood pressures in the failure condition. These results suggest that sadness includes at least two subtypes that produce different responses in subjective ratings and physiological measures. PMID:28316577

  5. Measurement of wire diameter by optical diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodier, Soraya A.

    2004-02-01

    A combined interference and diffraction pattern, in the form of equidistant interference fringes, resulting from illuminating a vertical metallic wire by a laser beam is analyzed to measure the diameter of four standard wires. The diameters range from 170 to 450 μm. It is found that the error in the diameter measurements increases for small metallic wires and for small distances between the wire and the screen due to scattering effects. The intensity of the incident laser beam was controlled by a pair of sheet polaroids to minimize the scattered radiation. The used technique is highly sensitive, but requires controlled environmental conditions and absence of vibration effects. The expanded uncertainty for k=2 is calculated and found to decrease from U(D)=±1.45 μm for the wire of nominal diameter 170 μm to ±0.57 μm for the diameter 450 μm.

  6. Semi-quantitative measurements of body hair in hirsute women compare well with direct diameter measurements of hair shafts.

    PubMed

    Barth, J H

    1997-07-01

    No standards exist for the evaluation of hair in hirsute women. This study compared the semi-quantitative visual scoring of body hair, using the Ferriman & Gallwey scale, in 88 hirsute women with direct objective measurements of hair shaft diameter and daily linear growth rates of hair growing on the pre-auricular area of the face, the forearm, the anterior abdominal wall and the anterior thigh. There was a significant correlation between the semi-quantitative score and diameter measurements on the forearm, abdominal wall and thigh. There was no relationship between linear growth rates at any of the four sites and the semi-quantitative score. The conclusion of this report is that suitably standardised and controlled semi-quantitative measurement of hair in hirsute women with visual analogue scores would appear to offer information similar to that obtained by direct measurement of hair diameter.

  7. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm: report of seven cases.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Kunihide; Matsuyama, Masakazu; Endou, Jouji; Nishimura, Masanori; Ishii, Hirohito; Yokota, Atsuko; Ikenoue, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed 575 cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair performed in our institution from 1979 to 2010. In this group, 7 (1.2%) patients (mean age, 72.6 years) had evidence of inflammatory AAA (IAAA). Mean aneurysmal diameter was 70.4 mm as measured on CT, and the mantle sign was present in all cases. They were male smokers. Two patients had hydronephrosis, and required a ureteral stent before surgery. All patients underwent laparotomy, and no perioperative deaths occured. We suggest that operative technique should be modified to avoid excessive dissection on both the proximal and distal sides of the IAAA.

  8. Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Report of Seven Cases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed 575 cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair performed in our institution from 1979 to 2010. In this group, 7 (1.2%) patients (mean age, 72.6 years) had evidence of inflammatory AAA (IAAA). Mean aneurysmal diameter was 70.4 mm as measured on CT, and the mantle sign was present in all cases. They were male smokers. Two patients had hydronephrosis, and required a ureteral stent before surgery. All patients underwent laparotomy, and no perioperative deaths occured. We suggest that operative technique should be modified to avoid excessive dissection on both the proximal and distal sides of the IAAA. PMID:24386030

  9. Intra-Abdominal Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Abdominal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oguejiofor, Njideka; Al-Abayechi, Sarah; Njoku, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease, caused by gram positive anaerobic bacteria, that may appear as an abdominal mass and/or abscess (Wagenlehner et al. 2003). This paper presents an unusual case of a hemodynamically stable 80-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with 4 weeks of worsening abdominal pain and swelling. He also complains of a 20-bound weight loss in 2 months. A large tender palpable mass in the right upper quadrant was noted on physical exam. Laboratory studies showed a normal white blood cell count, slightly decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, and mildly elevated total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase. A CT with contrast was done and showed a liver mass. Radiology and general surgery suspected malignancy and recommended CT guided biopsy. The sample revealed abundant neutrophils and gram positive rods. Cytology was negative for malignancy and cultures eventually grew actinomyces. High dose IV penicillin therapy was given for 4 weeks and with appropriate response transitioned to oral antibiotic for 9 months with complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:28299215

  10. Increased stiffness and cell-matrix interactions of abdominal aorta in two experimental nonhypertensive models: long-term chemically sympathectomized and sinoaortic denervated rats

    PubMed Central

    Bouissou, Camille; Lacolley, Patrick; Dabire, Hubert; Safar, Michel; Gabella, Giorgio; Duchatelle, Véronique; Challande, Pascal; Bezie, Yvonnick

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE Sinoaortic denervated (SAD) and chemically sympathectomized (SNX) rats are characterized by a decrease in arterial distensibility without hypertension and would thus be relevant for analyzing arterial wall stiffening independently of blood pressure level. The fibronectin network, which plays a pivotal role in cell matrix interactions, is a major determinant of arterial stiffness. We hypothesized that in SAD and SNX rats, arterial stiffness is increased, due to alterations of cell-matrix anchoring leading to spatial reorganization of the extracellular matrix. METHODS The intrinsic elastic properties of the arterial wall were evaluated in vivo by the relationship between incremental elastic modulus determined by echotracking and circumferential wall stress. The changes of cell-extracellular matrix links in the abdominal aorta were evaluated by studying fibronectin, vascular integrins receptors and ultrastructural features of the aorta by immunochemistry. RESULTS In both experimental conditions wall stiffness increased, associated with different modifications of cell-extracellular matrix adhesion. In SAD rats, increased media-cross sectional area was coupled with an increase of muscle cell attachments to its extracellular matrix via fibronectin and its α5-β1 integrin. In SNX rats, reduced media-cross sectional area was associated with up-regulation of αv-β3 integrin and more extensive connections between dense bands and elastic fibers despite the disruption of the elastic lamellae. CONCLUSION In aorta of SNX and SAD rats, a similar arterial stiffness is associated to different structural alterations. An increase in αvβ3 or α5β1 integrins together with the already reported increase in the proportion of less distensible (collagen) to more distensible (elastin) components in both models, contribute to remodeling and stiffening of the abdominal aorta. PMID:24356541

  11. Serial Measurements of Splanchnic Vein Diameters in Rats Using High-Frequency Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Bridget M.; Krieger-Burke, Teresa; Fink, Gregory D.; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate serial ultrasound imaging in rats as a fully non-invasive method to (1) quantify the diameters of splanchnic veins in real time as an indirect surrogate for the capacitance function of those veins, and (2) assess the effects of drugs on venous dimensions. A 21 MHz probe was used on anesthetized male Sprague–Dawley rats to collect images containing the portal vein (PV), superior mesenteric vein (SMV), abdominal inferior vena cava (IVC), and splenic vein (SpV; used as a landmark in timed studies) and the abdominal aorta (AA). Stable landmarks were established that allowed reproducible quantification of cross-sectional diameters within an animal. The average diameters of vessels measured every 5 min over 45 min remained within 0.75 ± 0.15% (PV), 0.2 ± 0.09% (SMV), 0.5 ± 0.12% (IVC), and 0.38 ± 0.06% (AA) of baseline (PV: 2.0 ± 0.12 mm; SMV: 1.7 ± 0.04 mm; IVC: 3.2 ± 0.1 mm; AA: 2.3 ± 0.14 mm). The maximal effects of the vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 2 mg/kg, i.v. bolus) on venous diameters were determined 5 min post SNP bolus; the diameters of all noted veins were significantly increased by SNP, while mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased 29 ± 4 mmHg. By contrast, administration of the venoconstrictor sarafotoxin (S6c; 5 ng/kg, i.v. bolus) significantly decreased PV and SpV, but not IVC, SMV, or AA, diameters 5 min post S6c bolus; MAP increased by 6 ± 2 mmHg. In order to determine if resting splanchnic vein diameters were stable over much longer periods of time, vessel diameters were measured every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. Measurements were found to be highly reproducible within animals over this time period. Finally, to evaluate the utility of vein imaging in a chronic condition, images were acquired from 4-week deoxycorticosterone acetate salt (DOCA-salt) hypertensive and normotensive (SHAM) control rats. All vessel diameters increased from baseline while MAP increased (67 ± 4 mmHg) in DOCA-salt rats

  12. Oxygen-dependent regulation of c-di-GMP synthesis by SadC controls alginate production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Annika; Hammerbacher, Anna Silke; Bastian, Mike; Nieken, Karen Jule; Klockgether, Jens; Merighi, Massimo; Lapouge, Karine; Poschgan, Claudia; Kölle, Julia; Acharya, K Ravi; Ulrich, Martina; Tümmler, Burkhard; Unden, Gottfried; Kaever, Volkhard; Lory, Stephen; Haas, Dieter; Schwarz, Sandra; Döring, Gerd

    2016-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces increased levels of alginate in response to oxygen-deprived conditions. The regulatory pathway(s) that links oxygen limitation to increased synthesis of alginate has remained elusive. In the present study, using immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that anaerobiosis-induced alginate production by planktonic PAO1 requires the diguanylate cyclase (DGC) SadC, previously identified as a regulator of surface-associated lifestyles. Furthermore, we found that the gene products of PA4330 and PA4331, located in a predicted operon with sadC, have a major impact on alginate production: deletion of PA4330 (odaA, for oxygen-dependent alginate synthesis activator) caused an alginate production defect under anaerobic conditions, whereas a PA4331 (odaI, for oxygen-dependent alginate synthesis inhibitor) deletion mutant produced alginate also in the presence of oxygen, which would normally inhibit alginate synthesis. Based on their sequence, OdaA and OdaI have predicted hydratase and dioxygenase reductase activities, respectively. Enzymatic assays using purified protein showed that unlike OdaA, which did not significantly affect DGC activity of SadC, OdaI inhibited c-di-GMP production by SadC. Our data indicate that SadC, OdaA and OdaI are components of a novel response pathway of P. aeruginosa that regulates alginate synthesis in an oxygen-dependent manner.

  13. It's Sad but I Like It: The Neural Dissociation Between Musical Emotions and Liking in Experts and Laypersons.

    PubMed

    Brattico, Elvira; Bogert, Brigitte; Alluri, Vinoo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Eerola, Tuomas; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Emotion-related areas of the brain, such as the medial frontal cortices, amygdala, and striatum, are activated during listening to sad or happy music as well as during listening to pleasurable music. Indeed, in music, like in other arts, sad and happy emotions might co-exist and be distinct from emotions of pleasure or enjoyment. Here we aimed at discerning the neural correlates of sadness or happiness in music as opposed those related to musical enjoyment. We further investigated whether musical expertise modulates the neural activity during affective listening of music. To these aims, 13 musicians and 16 non-musicians brought to the lab their most liked and disliked musical pieces with a happy and sad connotation. Based on a listening test, we selected the most representative 18 sec excerpts of the emotions of interest for each individual participant. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings were obtained while subjects listened to and rated the excerpts. The cortico-thalamo-striatal reward circuit and motor areas were more active during liked than disliked music, whereas only the auditory cortex and the right amygdala were more active for disliked over liked music. These results discern the brain structures responsible for the perception of sad and happy emotions in music from those related to musical enjoyment. We also obtained novel evidence for functional differences in the limbic system associated with musical expertise, by showing enhanced liking-related activity in fronto-insular and cingulate areas in musicians.

  14. It's Sad but I Like It: The Neural Dissociation Between Musical Emotions and Liking in Experts and Laypersons

    PubMed Central

    Brattico, Elvira; Bogert, Brigitte; Alluri, Vinoo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Eerola, Tuomas; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-related areas of the brain, such as the medial frontal cortices, amygdala, and striatum, are activated during listening to sad or happy music as well as during listening to pleasurable music. Indeed, in music, like in other arts, sad and happy emotions might co-exist and be distinct from emotions of pleasure or enjoyment. Here we aimed at discerning the neural correlates of sadness or happiness in music as opposed those related to musical enjoyment. We further investigated whether musical expertise modulates the neural activity during affective listening of music. To these aims, 13 musicians and 16 non-musicians brought to the lab their most liked and disliked musical pieces with a happy and sad connotation. Based on a listening test, we selected the most representative 18 sec excerpts of the emotions of interest for each individual participant. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings were obtained while subjects listened to and rated the excerpts. The cortico-thalamo-striatal reward circuit and motor areas were more active during liked than disliked music, whereas only the auditory cortex and the right amygdala were more active for disliked over liked music. These results discern the brain structures responsible for the perception of sad and happy emotions in music from those related to musical enjoyment. We also obtained novel evidence for functional differences in the limbic system associated with musical expertise, by showing enhanced liking-related activity in fronto-insular and cingulate areas in musicians. PMID:26778996

  15. Be Happy Not Sad for Your Youth: The Effect of Emotional Expression on Age Perception.

    PubMed

    Hass, Norah C; Weston, Trent D; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-01-01

    Perceived age is a psychosocial factor that can influence both with whom and how we choose to interact socially. Though intuition tells us that a smile makes us look younger, surprisingly little empirical evidence exists to explain how age-irrelevant emotional expressions bias the subjective decision threshold for age. We examined the role that emotional expression plays in the process of judging one's age from a face. College-aged participants were asked to sort the emotional and neutral expressions of male facial stimuli that had been morphed across eight age levels into categories of either "young" or "old." Our results indicated that faces at the lower age levels were more likely to be categorized as old when they showed a sad facial expression compared to neutral expressions. Mirroring that, happy faces were more often judged as young at higher age levels than neutral faces. Our findings suggest that emotion interacts with age perception such that happy expression increases the threshold for an old decision, while sad expression decreases the threshold for an old decision in a young adult sample.

  16. Mercury-induced crystallization and SAD phasing of the human Fe65-PTB1 domain

    SciTech Connect

    Radzimanowski, Jens; Ravaud, Stéphanie; Beyreuther, Konrad; Sinning, Irmgard; Wild, Klemens

    2008-05-01

    Crystals of the phosphotyrosine-binding domain 1 (PTB1) of the neuronal adaptor protein Fe65 grown in the presence of a mercury derivative show a dramatic improvement in resolution, permitting SAD phasing. Fe65 is a three-domain neuronal adaptor protein involved in brain development and amyloid precursor protein (APP) signalling. The phosphotyrosine-binding domain 1 (PTB1) of human Fe65 has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Native crystals belong to the space group R3 and diffract to 2.6 Å resolution. This crystal form suffered from high thermal B factors and pseudo-symmetry, resulting in a bisection of the c axis. Co-crystallization with a mercury compound under similar conditions induced an orthorhombic crystal form in the space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} diffracting to 2.2 Å resolution. SAD phases have been computed to the diffraction limit at the wavelength of maximum absorption (L{sub III} edge)

  17. Calculation of radiation hazard connected with the SAD spallation target replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohorecki, Władysław

    2007-09-01

    The Subcritical Assembly in Dubna (SAD) is a device coupled with existing 660 MeV proton accelerator (max beam current 3.2 μA). The main characteristic parameters of the core are: MOX fuel, keff=0.95, fission power 27.6 kW, Pb reflector. The SAD target consists of one central and 18 hexagonal (36 mm pitch) Pb prisms in two concentric layers. The main goal of the calculations, is the evaluation of the radiation hazard connected with replacement of the target elements after planned six months working period. The total induced radioactivity and its spatial distributions in the target elements were presented elsewhere. Here the longitudinal distribution and the time evolution of the gamma/beta emmiters activity, their spectra in the most active central target element and adequate radiation exposure are shown. The attenuation factors for these gamma ray spectra for commonly used shielding materials (Pb, Fe) are calculated as well. The MCNPX code is used for radioisotope production calculations. Gamma and beta spectra are calculated using modified EvIzo program and TORI database. Methods and tools used for gamma spectra simulation are checked using the results obtained in the experiment with bare Pb cylindrical target.

  18. Be Happy Not Sad for Your Youth: The Effect of Emotional Expression on Age Perception

    PubMed Central

    Hass, Norah C.; Weston, Trent D.; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-01-01

    Perceived age is a psychosocial factor that can influence both with whom and how we choose to interact socially. Though intuition tells us that a smile makes us look younger, surprisingly little empirical evidence exists to explain how age-irrelevant emotional expressions bias the subjective decision threshold for age. We examined the role that emotional expression plays in the process of judging one’s age from a face. College-aged participants were asked to sort the emotional and neutral expressions of male facial stimuli that had been morphed across eight age levels into categories of either “young” or “old.” Our results indicated that faces at the lower age levels were more likely to be categorized as old when they showed a sad facial expression compared to neutral expressions. Mirroring that, happy faces were more often judged as young at higher age levels than neutral faces. Our findings suggest that emotion interacts with age perception such that happy expression increases the threshold for an old decision, while sad expression decreases the threshold for an old decision in a young adult sample. PMID:27028300

  19. Increased involvement of the parahippocampal gyri in a sad mood predicts future depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Huffziger, Silke; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Kuehner, Christine; Kirsch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral studies suggest a relationship between autobiographical memory, rumination and depression. The objective of this study was to determine whether remitted depressed patients show alterations in connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, a node in the default mode network) with the parahippocampal gyri (PHG, a region associated with autobiographical memory) while intensively recalling negative memories and whether this is related to daily life symptoms and to the further course of depression. Sad mood was induced with keywords of personal negative life events in participants with remitted depression (n = 29) and matched healthy controls (n = 29) during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, daily life assessments of mood and rumination and a 6-month follow-up were conducted. Remitted depressed participants showed greater connectivity than healthy controls of the PCC with the PHG, which was even stronger in patients with more previous episodes. Furthermore, patients with increased PCC–PHG connectivity showed a sadder mood and more rumination in daily life and a worsening of rumination and depression scores during follow-up. A relationship of negative autobiographical memory processing, rumination, sad mood and depression on a neural level seems likely. The identified increased connectivity probably indicates a ‘scar’ of recurrent depression and may represent a prognostic factor for future depression. PMID:24493842

  20. Sad mood increases pain sensitivity upon thermal grill illusion stimulation: implications for central pain processing.

    PubMed

    Boettger, Michael Karl; Schwier, Christiane; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    In different fields of neuroscience research, illusions have successfully been used to unravel underlying mechanisms of stimulus processing. One such illusion existing for the field of pain research is the so-called thermal grill illusion. Here, painful sensations are elicited by interlacing warm and cold bars, with stimulus intensities (temperatures) of these bars being below the respective heat pain or cold pain thresholds. To date, the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not completely understood. There is some agreement, however, that the sensation evoked by this stimulation is generated by central nervous interactions. Therefore, we followed two approaches in this study: firstly, we aimed at developing and validating a water-driven device which might be used in fMRI scanners in future studies - subject to minor adaptations. Secondly, we aimed to interfere with this illusion by induction of a sad mood state, a procedure which is suggested to influence central nervous structures that are also involved in pain processing. The newly developed device induced thermal grill sensations similar to those reported in the literature. Induction of sad, but not neutral mood states, resulted in higher pain and unpleasantness ratings of the painful illusion. These findings might be of importance for the understanding of pain processing in healthy volunteers, but putatively even more so in patients with major depressive disorder. Moreover, our results might indicate that central nervous structures involved in the affective domain or cognitive domain of pain processing might be involved in the perception of the illusion.

  1. Gender Differences in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hannawa, Kevin K.; Eliason, Jonathan L.; Upchurch, Gilbert R.

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) comprise the 10th leading cause of death in Caucasian males 65–74 years of age, and accounted for nearly 16,000 deaths overall in the year 2000. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of AAAs is an important undertaking. Clinically, multiple risk factors are associated with the development of AAAs, including increasing age, positive smoking history, and hypertension. Male gender is also a well-established risk factor for the development of an AAA with a 4:1 male to female ratio. The reason for this gender disparity is unknown. The pathogenesis of AAAs formation is complex and multifactorial. Histologically, AAAs are characterized by early chemokine driven leukocyte infiltration into the aortic wall. Subsequent destruction of elastin and collagen in the media and adventitia ensues due to excessive local production of matrix degrading enzymes, and is accompanied by smooth muscle cell loss and thinning of the aortic wall. At present, there are no medical therapies available to treat patients with aortic aneurysms, using only the crude measurement of aortic diameter as a threshold for which patients must undergo life-threatening and costly surgery. Defining the early mechanisms underlying gender-related differences in AAA formation are critical, as understanding differences in disease patterns based on gender may allow us to develop new translational approaches to the prevention and treatment of patients with aortic aneurysms. PMID:19426607

  2. Medical management of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Norbert; Rodionov, Roman N; Mahlmann, Adrian

    2014-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are the most common arterial aneurysms. Endovascular or open surgical aneurysm repair is indicated in patients with large AAA ≥ 5.5 cm in diameter as this prevents aneurysm rupture. The presence even of small AAAs not in need of immediate repair is associated with a very high cardiovascular risk including myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death. This risk by far exceeds the risk of aneurysm rupture. These patients therefore should be considered as high-risk patients and receive optimal medical treatment and life-style modification of their cardiovascular risk factors to improve their prognosis. In addition, these patients should be followed-up for aneurysm growth and receive medical treatment to decrease aneurym progression and rupture rate. Treatment with statins has been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality in these patients, and also slows the rate of AAA growth. Use of beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors and AT1-receptor antagonists does not affect AAA growth but may be indicated for comorbidities. Antibiotic therapy with roxithromycin has a small effect on AAA growth, but this effect must be critically weighed against the potential risk of wide-spread use of antibiotics.

  3. On growth measurements of abdominal aortic aneurysms using maximally inscribed spheres

    PubMed Central

    Gharahi, H.; Zambrano, B. A.; Lim, C.; Choi, J.; Lee, W.; Baek, S.

    2015-01-01

    The maximum diameter, total volume of the abdominal aorta, and its growth rate are usually regarded as key factors for making a decision on the therapeutic operation time for an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patient. There is, however, a debate on what is the best standard method to measure the diameter. Currently, two dominant methods for measuring the maximum diameter are used. One is measured on the planes perpendicular to the aneurism's central line (orthogonal diameter) and the other one is measured on the axial planes (axial diameter). In this paper, another method called ‘inscribed-spherical diameter’ is proposed to measure the diameter. The main idea is to find the diameter of the largest sphere that fits within the aorta. An algorithm is employed to establish a centerline for the AAA geometries obtained from a set of longitudinal scans obtained from South Korea. This centerline, besides being the base of the inscribed spherical method, is used for the determination of orthogonal and axial diameter. The growth rate parameters are calculated in different diameters and the total volume and the correlations between them are studied. Furthermore, an exponential growth pattern is sought for the maximum diameters over time to examine a nonlinear growth pattern of AAA expansion both globally and locally. The results present the similarities and discrepancies of these three methods. We report the shortcomings and the advantages of each method and its performance in the quantification of expansion rates. While the orthogonal diameter measurement has an ability of capturing a realistic diameter, it fluctuated. On the other hand, the inscribed sphere diameter method tends to underestimate the diameter measurement but the growth rate can be bounded in a narrow region for aiding prediction capability. Moreover, expansion rate parameters derived from this measurement exhibit good correlation with each other and with growth rate of volume. In conclusion, although

  4. A New Measure for Assessing Executive Function across a Wide Age Range: Children and Adults Find "Happy-Sad" More Difficult than "Day-Night"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Sayfan, Liat; Monsour, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined 4- to 11-year-olds' and adults' performance (N = 350) on two variants of a Stroop-like card task: the "day-night task" (say "day" when shown a moon and "night" when shown a sun) and a new "happy-sad task" (say "happy" for a sad face and "sad" for a happy face). Experiment 1 featured colored cartoon drawings. In Experiment…

  5. The association of simple renal cysts with abdominal aortic aneurysms and their impact on renal function after endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Spanos, Konstantinos; Rountas, Christos; Saleptsis, Vasileios; Athanasoulas, Athanasios; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Giannoukas, Athanasios D

    2016-04-01

    We validated the association of simple renal cysts with abdominal aortic aneurysm and other cardiovascular factors and assessed simple renal cysts' impact on renal function before and after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted. Computed tomography angiograms of 100 consecutive male patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm who underwent endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (Group 1) were reviewed and compared with 100 computed tomography angiogram of aged-matched male patients without abdominal aortic aneurysm (Group 2). Patients' demographic data, risk factors, abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter, the presence of simple renal cyst and laboratory tests were recorded. No difference was observed between the two groups in respect to other cardiovascular risk factors except hyperlipidemia with higher prevalence in Group 1 (p < 0.05). Presence of simple renal cysts was independently associated with age (p < 0.05) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (p = 0.0157). There was no correlation between simple renal cysts and abdominal aortic aneurysm size or pre-operative creatinine and urea levels. No difference was observed in post-operative creatinine and urea levels either immediately after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair or in 12-month follow-up. In male patients, the presence of simple renal cysts is associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm and is increasing with age. However, their presence is neither associated with impaired renal function pre-endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and post-endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair nor after 12-month follow-up.

  6. Impact Structures: What Does Crater Diameter Mean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, E. P.; Pierazzo, E.; Collins, G. S.; Osinski, G. R.; Melosh, H. J.; Morgan, J. V.; Reimold, W. U.; Spray, J. G.

    2004-03-01

    Crater diameter is an important parameter in energy scaling and impact simulations. However, disparate types of data make the use of consistent metrics difficult. We suggest a consistent terminology and discuss it in the context of several examples.

  7. Growth of nanostructures with controlled diameter

    DOEpatents

    Pfefferle, Lisa; Haller, Gary; Ciuparu, Dragos

    2009-02-03

    Transition metal-substituted MCM-41 framework structures with a high degree of structural order and a narrow pore diameter distribution were reproducibly synthesized by a hydrothermal method using a surfactant and an anti-foaming agent. The pore size and the mesoporous volume depend linearly on the surfactant chain length. The transition metals, such as cobalt, are incorporated substitutionally and highly dispersed in the silica framework. Single wall carbon nanotubes with a narrow diameter distribution that correlates with the pore diameter of the catalytic framework structure were prepared by a Boudouard reaction. Nanostructures with a specified diameter or cross-sectional area can therefore be predictably prepared by selecting a suitable pore size of the framework structure.

  8. Anger and advancement versus sadness and subjugation: the effect of negative emotion expressions on social status conferral.

    PubMed

    Tiedens, L Z

    2001-01-01

    Four studies examined status conferral (decisions about who should be granted status). The studies show that people confer more status to targets who express anger than to targets who express sadness. In the 1st study, participants supported President Clinton more when they viewed him expressing anger about the Monica Lewinsky scandal than when they saw him expressing sadness about the scandal. This effect was replicated with an unknown politician in Study 2. The 3rd study showed that status conferral in a company was correlated with peers' ratings of the workers' anger. In the final study, participants assigned a higher status position and a higher salary to a job candidate who described himself as angry as opposed to sad. Furthermore, Studies 2-4 showed that anger expressions created the impression that the expresser was competent and that these perceptions mediated the relationship between emotional expressions and status conferral.

  9. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1992-08-11

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

  10. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Eldon D.; Hooper, Frederick M.; Reichenbach, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

  11. Controlling the Fiber Diameter during Electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridrikh, Sergey V.; Yu, Jian H.; Brenner, Michael P.; Rutledge, Gregory C.

    2003-04-01

    We present a simple analytical model for the forces that determine jet diameter during electrospinning as a function of surface tension, flow rate, and electric current in the jet. The model predicts the existence of a terminal jet diameter, beyond which further thinning of the jet due to growth of the whipping instability does not occur. Experimental data for various electrospun fibers attest to the accuracy of the model.

  12. Making Jointless Dual-Diameter Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Kathleen E.

    1989-01-01

    Welds between sections having different diameters eliminated. Single tube made with integral tapered transition section between straight sections of different diameters and wall thicknesses. Made from single piece; contains no joints, welded or otherwise. Not prone to such weld defects as voids and need not be inspected for them. Tube fabricated by either of two methods: drawing or reduction. Both methods used to fabricate tubes of 316L corrosion-resistant stainless steel for use as heat-exchanger coil.

  13. Large diameter carbon-boron fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veltri, R. D.; Jacob, B. A.; Galasso, F. S.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations concerned with a development of large-diameter carbon fibers are considered, taking into account the employment of vapor deposition techniques. In the experiments a carbon monofilament substrate is used together with reacting gases which consist of combinations of hydrogen, methane, and boron trichloride. It is found that the described approach can be used to obtain a large-diameter carbon filament containing boron. The filament has reasonable strength and modulus properties.

  14. Ultra-efficient Engine Diameter Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Brown, Stephen T.; Kawai, Ron T.

    2003-01-01

    Engine fan diameter and Bypass Ratio (BPR) optimization studies have been conducted since the beginning of the turbofan age with the recognition that reducing the engine core jet velocity and increasing fan mass flow rate generally increases propulsive efficiency. However, performance tradeoffs limit the amount of fan flow achievable without reducing airplane efficiency. This study identifies the optimum engine fan diameter and BPR, given the advanced Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) powerplant efficiencies, for use on an advanced subsonic airframe. Engine diameter studies have historically focused on specific engine size options, and were limited by existing technology and transportation infrastructure (e.g., ability to fit bare engines through aircraft doors and into cargo holds). This study is unique in defining the optimum fan diameter and drivers for future 2015 (UEET) powerplants while not limiting engine fan diameter by external constraints. This report follows on to a study identifying the system integration issues of UEET engines. This Engine Diameter study was managed by Boeing Phantom Works, Seattle, Washington through the NASA Glenn Revolutionary Aero Space Engine Research (RASER) contract under task order 10. Boeing Phantom Works, Huntington Beach, completed the engine/airplane sizing optimization, while the Boeing Commercial Airplane group (BCA) provided design oversight. A separate subcontract to support the overall project was issued to Tuskegee University.

  15. Stimulus-Driven Attention, Threat Bias, and Sad Bias in Youth with a History of an Anxiety Disorder or Depression.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Chad M; Hudziak, James J; Gaffrey, Michael S; Barch, Deanna M; Luby, Joan L

    2016-02-01

    Attention biases towards threatening and sad stimuli are associated with pediatric anxiety and depression, respectively. The basic cognitive mechanisms associated with attention biases in youth, however, remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that threat bias (selective attention for threatening versus neutral stimuli) but not sad bias relies on stimulus-driven attention. We collected measures of stimulus-driven attention, threat bias, sad bias, and current clinical symptoms in youth with a history of an anxiety disorder and/or depression (ANX/DEP; n = 40) as well as healthy controls (HC; n = 33). Stimulus-driven attention was measured with a non-emotional spatial orienting task, while threat bias and sad bias were measured at a short time interval (150 ms) with a spatial orienting task using emotional faces and at a longer time interval (500 ms) using a dot-probe task. In ANX/DEP but not HC, early attention bias towards threat was negatively correlated with later attention bias to threat, suggesting that early threat vigilance was associated with later threat avoidance. Across all subjects, stimulus-driven orienting was not correlated with early threat bias but was negatively correlated with later threat bias, indicating that rapid stimulus-driven orienting is linked to later threat avoidance. No parallel relationships were detected for sad bias. Current symptoms of depression but not anxiety were related to decreased stimulus-driven attention. Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that threat bias but not sad bias relies on stimulus-driven attention. These results inform the design of attention bias modification programs that aim to reverse threat biases and reduce symptoms associated with pediatric anxiety and depression.

  16. Parent-child discussions of anger and sadness: the importance of parent and child gender during middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Janice; Perry-Parrish, Carisa; Cassano, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This chapter provides conceptual background and empirical evidence that parental emotion socialization continues well into middle childhood and is influenced by the social context. Data are presented to illustrate the influence of parent and child gender on parental socialization of emotion in 113 Caucasian, middle-class children. Mothers and fathers discussed historical sadness- and anger-eliciting events with their sons and daughters. Fathers appear to play a unique role in sadness socialization whereas mothers' influence seems distinctive for the socialization of anger. Socialization of emotion is a transactional process in which parents and children are both socializing agents and emotion regulators.

  17. Percutaneous transhepatic drainage of inaccessible abdominal abscesses following abdominal surgery under real-time CT-fluoroscopic guidance.

    PubMed

    Yamakado, Koichiro; Takaki, Haruyuki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Kashima, Masataka; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Takeda, Kan

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of transhepatic drainage of inaccessible abdominal abscesses retrospectively under real-time computed tomographic (CT) guidance. For abdominal abscesses, 12 consecutive patients received percutaneous transhepatic drainage. Abscesses were considered inaccessible using the usual access route because they were surrounded by the liver and other organs. The maximum diameters of abscesses were 4.6-9.5 cm (mean, 6.7 +/- 1.4 cm). An 8-Fr catheter was advanced into the abscess cavity through the liver parenchyma using real-time CT fluoroscopic guidance. Safety, feasibility, procedure time, and clinical utility were evaluated. Drainage catheters were placed with no complications in abscess cavities through the liver parenchyma in all patients. The mean procedure time was 18.8 +/- 9.2 min (range, 12-41 min). All abscesses were drained. They shrank immediately after catheter placement. In conclusions, this transhepatic approach under real-time CT fluoroscopic guidance is a safe, feasible, and useful technique for use of drainage of inaccessible abdominal abscesses.

  18. Intraoperative Sac Pressure Measurement During Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Hiroyuki; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Ohta, Takashi; Sugimoto, Ikuo; Iwata, Hirohide; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tadakoshi, Masao; Hida, Noriyuki; Orimoto, Yuki; Kamei, Seiji

    2010-10-15

    PurposeIntraoperative sac pressure was measured during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) to evaluate the clinical significance of sac pressure measurement.MethodsA microcatheter was placed in an aneurysm sac from the contralateral femoral artery, and sac pressure was measured during EVAR procedures in 47 patients. Aortic blood pressure was measured as a control by a catheter from the left brachial artery.ResultsThe systolic sac pressure index (SPI) was 0.87 {+-} 0.10 after main-body deployment, 0.63 {+-} 0.12 after leg deployment (P < 0.01), and 0.56 {+-} 0.12 after completion of the procedure (P < 0.01). Pulse pressure was 55 {+-} 21 mmHg, 23 {+-} 15 mmHg (P < 0.01), and 16 {+-} 12 mmHg (P < 0.01), respectively. SPI showed no significant differences between the Zenith and Excluder stent grafts (0.56 {+-} 0.13 vs. 0.54 {+-} 0.10, NS). Type I endoleak was found in seven patients (15%), and the SPI decreased from 0.62 {+-} 0.10 to 0.55 {+-} 0.10 (P = 0.10) after fixing procedures. Type II endoleak was found in 12 patients (26%) by completion angiography. The SPI showed no difference between type II endoleak positive and negative (0.58 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.55 {+-} 0.12, NS). There were no significant differences between the final SPI of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter decreased in the follow-up and that of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter did not change (0.53 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.57 {+-} 0.12, NS).ConclusionsSac pressure measurement was useful for instant hemodynamic evaluation of the EVAR procedure, especially in type I endoleaks. However, on the basis of this small study, the SPI cannot be used to reliably predict sac growth or regression.

  19. Improving the efficiency of abdominal aortic aneurysm wall stress computations.

    PubMed

    Zelaya, Jaime E; Goenezen, Sevan; Dargon, Phong T; Azarbal, Amir-Farzin; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a pathological dilation of the abdominal aorta, which carries a high mortality rate if ruptured. The most commonly used surrogate marker of rupture risk is the maximal transverse diameter of the aneurysm. More recent studies suggest that wall stress from models of patient-specific aneurysm geometries extracted, for instance, from computed tomography images may be a more accurate predictor of rupture risk and an important factor in AAA size progression. However, quantification of wall stress is typically computationally intensive and time-consuming, mainly due to the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the abdominal aortic aneurysm walls. These difficulties have limited the potential of computational models in clinical practice. To facilitate computation of wall stresses, we propose to use a linear approach that ensures equilibrium of wall stresses in the aneurysms. This proposed linear model approach is easy to implement and eliminates the burden of nonlinear computations. To assess the accuracy of our proposed approach to compute wall stresses, results from idealized and patient-specific model simulations were compared to those obtained using conventional approaches and to those of a hypothetical, reference abdominal aortic aneurysm model. For the reference model, wall mechanical properties and the initial unloaded and unstressed configuration were assumed to be known, and the resulting wall stresses were used as reference for comparison. Our proposed linear approach accurately approximates wall stresses for varying model geometries and wall material properties. Our findings suggest that the proposed linear approach could be used as an effective, efficient, easy-to-use clinical tool to estimate patient-specific wall stresses.

  20. Mercury-induced crystallization and SAD phasing of the human Fe65-PTB1 domain.

    PubMed

    Radzimanowski, Jens; Ravaud, Stéphanie; Beyreuther, Konrad; Sinning, Irmgard; Wild, Klemens

    2008-05-01

    Fe65 is a three-domain neuronal adaptor protein involved in brain development and amyloid precursor protein (APP) signalling. The phosphotyrosine-binding domain 1 (PTB1) of human Fe65 has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Native crystals belong to the space group R3 and diffract to 2.6 A resolution. This crystal form suffered from high thermal B factors and pseudo-symmetry, resulting in a bisection of the c axis. Co-crystallization with a mercury compound under similar conditions induced an orthorhombic crystal form in the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) diffracting to 2.2 A resolution. SAD phases have been computed to the diffraction limit at the wavelength of maximum absorption (L(III) edge).

  1. Ending aging in the Shteyngart of Eden: biogerontological discourse in a Super Sad True Love Story.

    PubMed

    Kriebernegg, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    This article broaches the topic of biogerontology as presented in Gary Shteyngart's dystopic novel Super Sad True Love Story(2010) from the perspective of cultural and literary gerontology and examines how the novel manages to challenge predominant discourses in the field of scientific anti-aging studies, especially the notion that old age is a disease that can be cured. It compares the novel's presentation of biogerontological knowledge to current developments in the field, using Cambridge biogerontologist and immortality prophet Aubrey de Grey's book Ending Aging(2007) as an example. Based on the assumption that cultural criticism can and should impact scientific and medical research on aging, this paper asks whether (the analysis of) fictional texts can be seen as a cultural critical intervention into the ageism so often openly displayed in scientific discourses.

  2. DiameterJ: A validated open source nanofiber diameter measurement tool.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, Nathan A; Bharti, Kapil; Kriel, Haydn; Simon, Carl G

    2015-08-01

    Despite the growing use of nanofiber scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, there is not a validated, readily available, free solution for rapid, automated analysis of nanofiber diameter from scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. Thus, the goal of this study was to create a user friendly ImageJ/FIJI plugin that would analyze SEM micrographs of nanofibers to determine nanofiber diameter on a desktop computer within 60 s. Additional design goals included 1) compatibility with a variety of existing segmentation algorithms, and 2) an open source code to enable further improvement of the plugin. Using existing algorithms for centerline determination, Euclidean distance transforms and a novel pixel transformation technique, a plugin called "DiameterJ" was created for ImageJ/FIJI. The plugin was validated using 1) digital synthetic images of white lines on a black background and 2) SEM images of nominally monodispersed steel wires of known diameters. DiameterJ analyzed SEM micrographs in 20 s, produced diameters not statistically different from known values, was over 10-times closer to known diameter values than other open source software, provided hundreds of times the sampling of manual measurement, and was hundreds of times faster than manual assessment of nanofiber diameter. DiameterJ enables users to rapidly and thoroughly determine the structural features of nanofiber scaffolds and could potentially allow new insights to be formed into fiber diameter distribution and cell response.

  3. [Dirofilaria in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Révész, Erzsébet; Markovics, Gabriella; Darabos, Zoltán; Tóth, Ildikó; Fok, Eva

    2008-10-01

    Number of cases of filariasis have been recently reported in the Hungarian medical literature, most of them caused by Dirofilaria repens . Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted filarioid worm in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs and cats. Human infection manifests as either subcutaneous nodules or lung parenchymal disease, which may even be asymptomatic. The authors report a human Dirofilaria repens infection of the abdominal cavity in a 61-year-old man,who underwent laparotomy for acute abdomen. Intraoperatively, local peritonitis was detected caused by a white nemathhelminth, measured 8 cm in size. Histocytology confirmed that the infection was caused by Dirofilaria repens.

  4. Technical aspects of abdominal stomas.

    PubMed

    Link, Brian A; Kropp, Bradley; Frimberger, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    Continent urinary diversion has gained increasing popularity in the pediatric population during the last few decades. In adults, continent diversions are usually needed to replace a bladder after cystectomy for invasive carcinoma. Subsequently, the creation of functional and cosmetically hidden urinary and cecal abdominal stomas has become an integral part of many urinary reconstructive procedures. These techniques, originally developed for pediatric urinary reconstruction have gained increasing popularity for adult patients in need of a continence procedure. In the current manuscript, we review the technical aspects of site selection, mucocutaneous anastomosis, cosmetic appearance, and management of associated complications.

  5. Large diameter astromast development, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preiswerk, P. R.; Finley, L. A.; Knapp, K.

    1983-01-01

    Coilable-longeron lattice columns called Astromasts (trademark) were manufactured for a variety of spacecraft missions. These flight structures varied in diameter from 0.2 to 0.5 meter (9 to 19 in.), and the longest Astromast of this type deploys to a length of 30 meters (100 feet). A double-laced diagonal Astromast design referred to as the Supermast (trademark) which, because it has shorter baylengths than an Astromast, is approximately four times as strong. The longeron cross section and composite material selection for these structures are limited by the maximum strain associated with stowage and deployment. As a result, future requirements for deployable columns with high stiffness and strength require the development of both structures in larger diameters. The design, development, and manufacture of a 6.1-m-long (20-ft), 0.75-m-diameter (30-in.), double-laced diagonal version of the Astromast is described.

  6. Submicron diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    DOE PAGES

    Hill, Cary; Homa, Daniel; Liu, Bo; ...

    2014-10-02

    In this work, a submicron-diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber was demonstrated via wet acid etching at elevated temperatures. Etch rates on the order 2.3 µm/hr were achievable with a 3:1 molar ratio sulfuric-phosphoric acid solution maintained at a temperature of 343°C. A sapphire fiber with an approximate diameter of 800 nm was successfully fabricated from a commercially available fiber with an original diameter of 50 µm. The simple and controllable etching technique provides a feasible approach to the fabrication of unique waveguide structures via traditional silica masking techniques. The ability to tailor the geometry of sapphire optical fibers ismore » the first step in achieving optical and sensing performance on par with its fused silica counterpart.« less

  7. Submicron diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Cary; Homa, Daniel; Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhihao; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2014-10-02

    In this work, a submicron-diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber was demonstrated via wet acid etching at elevated temperatures. Etch rates on the order 2.3 µm/hr were achievable with a 3:1 molar ratio sulfuric-phosphoric acid solution maintained at a temperature of 343°C. A sapphire fiber with an approximate diameter of 800 nm was successfully fabricated from a commercially available fiber with an original diameter of 50 µm. The simple and controllable etching technique provides a feasible approach to the fabrication of unique waveguide structures via traditional silica masking techniques. The ability to tailor the geometry of sapphire optical fibers is the first step in achieving optical and sensing performance on par with its fused silica counterpart.

  8. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    K. Intra- abdominal compartment syndrome as a complication of ruptured abdomi- nal aortic aneurysm repair. Am Surg 1989;55:396-402. 6. Sugrue M...00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Author’s personal copy Case Report Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After

  9. Systematic biases in radiometric diameter determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, John R.; Lebofsky, Larry A.; Sykes, Mark V.

    1989-01-01

    Radiometric diameter determinations are presently shown to often be significantly affected by the effect of rotation. This thermal effect of rotation depends not only on the object's thermal inertia, rotation rate, and pole orientation, but also on its temperature, since colder objects having constant rotation rate and thermal inertia will radiate less of their heat on the diurnal than on the nocturnal hemisphere. A disk-integrated beaming parameter of 0.72 is determined for the moon, and used to correct empirically for the roughness effects in thermophysical models; the standard thermal model is found to systematically underestimate cold object diameters, while overstating their albedos.

  10. Shaft Diameter Measurement Using Structured Light Vision.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siyuan; Tan, Qingchang; Zhang, Yachao

    2015-08-12

    A method for measuring shaft diameters is presented using structured light vision measurement. After calibrating a model of the structured light measurement, a virtual plane is established perpendicular to the measured shaft axis and the image of the light stripe on the shaft is projected to the virtual plane. On the virtual plane, the center of the measured shaft is determined by fitting the projected image under the geometrical constraints of the light stripe, and the shaft diameter is measured by the determined center and the projected image. Experiments evaluated the measuring accuracy of the method and the effects of some factors on the measurement are analyzed.

  11. THERMAL EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT DRIFT DIAMETER SIZES

    SciTech Connect

    H.M. Wade

    1999-01-04

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate the thermal response of a repository-emplaced waste package and its corresponding drift wall surface temperature with different drift diameters. The case examined is that of a 21 pressurized water reactor (PWR) uncanistered fuel (UCF) waste package loaded with design basis spent nuclear fuel assemblies. This calculation evaluates a 3.5 meter to 6.5 meter drift diameter range in increments of 1.0 meters. The time-dependent temperatures of interest, as determined by this calculation, are the spent nuclear fuel cladding temperature, the waste package surface temperature, and the drift wall surface temperature.

  12. Fabrication of 10nm diameter carbon nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Radenovic, Aleksandra; Trepagnier, Eliane; Csencsits, Roseann; Downing, Kenneth H; Liphardt, Jan

    2008-09-25

    The addition of carbon to samples, during imaging, presents a barrier to accurate TEM analysis, the controlled deposition of hydrocarbons by a focused electron beam can be a useful technique for local nanometer-scale sculpting of material. Here we use hydrocarbon deposition to form nanopores from larger focused ion beam (FIB) holes in silicon nitride membranes. Using this method, we close 100-200nm diameter holes to diameters of 10nm and below, with deposition rates of 0.6nm per minute. I-V characteristics of electrolytic flow through these nanopores agree quantitatively with a one dimensional model at all examined salt concentrations.

  13. The truth about small-diameter implants.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Gordon J; Child, Paul L

    2010-05-01

    SDIs that are treatment planned correctly, placed and loaded properly, and are within a well-adjusted occlusion, are working in an excellent manner for the patients described in this article. It is time for those practitioners unfamiliar with SDIs and their uses to discontinue their discouragement of this technique. SDIs are easily placed, minimally invasive, and a true service to those patients described. They do not replace conventional diameter implants; however, they are a significant and important augmentation to the original root-form implant concept. There is obvious evidence of the growing acceptance of small-diameter implants by both general practitioners and specialists.

  14. Abdominal Mass Secondary to Human Toxocariasis

    PubMed Central

    Ghoroobi, Javad; Khoddami, Maliheh; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Sadeghian, Naser; Mahdavi, Alireza; Hatefi, Sayeh

    2017-01-01

    Toxocariasis is an extensive helminthic infection that leads to visceral larva migrans in humans. A 2.5-year-old girl referred for abdominal mass. She had history of pharyngitis for two weeks. There were no other symptoms. Abdominal examination revealed an irregular solid mass in right lower quadrant (RLQ). Abdominal ultrasonography revealed an echohetrogenic large mass in RLQ, liver, and retroperitoneal area. Abdominal CT scan showed a huge mass. At laparotomy a large retroperitoneal mass that involved right liver lobe, bladder, ileocecal valve, small and large intestines was found. At histopathology diagnosis of toxocariasis was made. PMID:28164001

  15. [Diagnostic imaging and acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-19

    Acute abdominal pain is a common clinical condition. Clinical signs and symptoms can be difficult to interpret, and diagnostic imaging may help to identify intra-abdominal disease. Conventional X-ray, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen vary in usability between common surgical causes of acute abdominal pain. Overall, conventional X-ray cannot confidently diagnose or rule out disease. US and CT are equally trustworthy for most diseases. US with subsequent CT may enhance diagnostic precision. Magnetic resonance seems promising for future use in acute abdominal imaging.

  16. Empyema following intra-abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, K C; Sethia, B; Reece, I J; Davidson, K G

    1984-09-01

    Over the past 9 years, ten patients have presented to the Thoracic Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, with 12 empyemas secondary to intra-abdominal sepsis. In eight patients, the presenting signs and symptoms were wrongly attributed to primary intra-thoracic pathology. All were subsequently found to have intra-abdominal sepsis. The presence of empyema after recent abdominal surgery or abdominal pain strongly suggests a diagnosis of ipsilateral subphrenic abscess. Adequate surgical drainage is essential. In our experience, limited thoracotomy with subdiaphragmatic extension offers the best access to both pleural and subphrenic spaces and provides the greatest chance of eradicating infection on both sides of the diaphragm.

  17. An Age-Related Mechanism of Emotion Regulation: Regulating Sadness Promotes Children's Learning by Broadening Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation predicts positive academic outcomes like learning, but little is known about "why". Effective emotion regulation likely promotes learning by broadening the scope of what may be attended to after an emotional event. One hundred twenty-six 6- to 13-year-olds' (54% boys) regulation of sadness was examined for changes in…

  18. The Influence of Stimulus Discriminability on Young Children's Interference Control in the Stroop-Like Happy-Sad Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluell, Alexandra M.; Montgomery, Derek E.

    2014-01-01

    The day-night paradigm, where children respond to a pair of pictures with opposite labels for a series of trials, is a widely used measure of interference control. Recent research has shown that a happy-sad variant of the day-night task was significantly more difficult than the standard day-night task. The present research examined whether the…

  19. [The foundation and development of the Department of Pharmacy of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad (2000-2007)].

    PubMed

    Popović, Jovan

    2007-01-01

    THE DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY: The first 50 pharmacy students were enrolled at the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad in the academic year 2000/2001. The Institute of Pharmacy was established on July 10, 2001. The Department of Pharmacy was established on December 18, 2001, with more than 150 faculty members. Since then, 82 students have graduated with honours. Visiting professors from Athens, Skopje, Reading (Great Britain) and Banja Luka, and professors of the Faculty of Science and Mathematics and the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, together with the professors and associates of the the Faculty of Medicine, are members of the Faculty of the Department of Pharmacy. ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY: The Department offers a 5-year undergraduate program in pharmacy, practical courses in pharmacy, takes part in higher education reform in accordance with the Bologna objectives, organizes visits to Europen centers of the pharmaceutical industry, and provides mentoring activities in relation to writing a graduation paper. The First Balkan Congress of Phramacy Students was held March 7-12, 2006 in Novi Sad. The Department of Pharmacy of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad has achieved the objectives set for it when it was established.

  20. Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

  1. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter” means the greatest dimension of the apple measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. When measuring for maximum size, “diameter” means the smallest dimension of the apple determined...

  2. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter” means the greatest dimension of the apple measured at right angles to... dimension of the apple determined by passing the apple through a round opening in any position....

  3. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter” means the greatest dimension of the apple measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. When measuring for maximum size, “diameter” means the smallest dimension of the apple determined...

  4. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter” means the greatest dimension of the apple measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. When measuring for maximum size, “diameter” means the smallest dimension of the apple determined...

  5. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter” means the greatest dimension of the apple measured at right angles to... dimension of the apple determined by passing the apple through a round opening in any position....

  6. Reducing the diameters of computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, S. H.; Raza, A. D.

    1986-01-01

    Three methods of reducing the diameters of computer networks by adding additional processor to processor links under the constraint that no more than one I/O port be added to each processor are discussed. This is equivalent to adding edges to a given graph under the constraint that the degree of any node be increased, at most, by one.

  7. Small diameter symmetric networks from linear groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Lowell; Carlsson, Gunnar E.; Dinneen, Michael J.; Faber, Vance; Fellows, Michael R.; Langston, Michael A.; Moore, James W.; Multihaupt, Andrew P.; Sexton, Harlan B.

    1992-01-01

    In this note is reported a collection of constructions of symmetric networks that provide the largest known values for the number of nodes that can be placed in a network of a given degree and diameter. Some of the constructions are in the range of current potential engineering significance. The constructions are Cayley graphs of linear groups obtained by experimental computation.

  8. Precision distances with spiral galaxy apparent diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Spiral galaxy diameters offer the oldest extragalactic distance indicator known. Although outdated and hitherto imprecise, two spiral diameter-based distance indicators applied in the 1980s can be tested, calibrated, and re-established for precision era use, based on abundant redshift-independent distances data available in NED-D. Indicator one employs the largest Giant Spiral Galaxies, which have an absolute isophotal major diameter of ~70 +/- 10 kpc, offering standard ruler-based distances with <10% precision. Indicator two employs the diameter-magnitude relation for spirals in general, as a secondary indicator, offering ~20% precision. The ruler-based indicator is the only indicator with <10% precision able to independently calibrate type Ia supernovae-based distances at cosmological distances. The secondary-based indicator is the only indicator with 20% precision applicable to more galaxies than in current Tully-Fisher surveys. The primary indicator gives researchers a new tool to confirm or refute if, as currently believed, universal expansion is accelerating. The secondary indicator gives researchers a new path toward acquiring a more complete 3D picture of the local universe and potentially, because the majority of galaxies in the universe are spirals, the distant universe.

  9. Solar diameter with 2012 Venus Transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, C.

    2012-06-01

    The role of Venus and Mercury transits is crucial to know the past history of the solar diameter. Through the W parameter, the logarithmic derivative of the radius with respect to the luminosity, the past values of the solar luminosity can be recovered. The black drop phenomenon affects the evaluation of the instants of internal and external contacts between the planetary disk and the solar limb. With these observed instants compared with the ephemerides the value of the solar diameter is recovered. The black drop and seeing effects are overcome with two fitting circles, to Venus and to the Sun, drawn in the undistorted part of the image. The corrections of ephemerides due to the atmospheric refraction will also be taken into account. The forthcoming transit of Venus will allow an accuracy on the diameter of the Sun better than 0.01 arcsec, with good images of the ingress and of the egress taken each second. Chinese solar observatories are in the optimal conditions to obtain valuable data for the measurement of the solar diameter with the Venus transit of 5/6 June 2012 with an unprecedented accuracy, and with absolute calibration given by the ephemerides.

  10. Measuring Solar Diameter with 2012 Venus Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    The role of Venus and Mercury transits is crucial to know the past history of the solar diameter. Through the W parameter, the logarithmic derivative of the radius with respect to the luminosity, the past values of the solar luminosity can be recovered. The black drop phenomenon affects the evaluation of the instants of internal and external contacts between the planetary disk and the solar limb. With these observed instants compared with the ephemerides the value of the solar diameter is recovered. The black drop and seeing effects are overcome with two fitting circles, to Venus and to the Sun, drawn in the undistorted part of the image. The corrections of ephemerides due to the atmospheric refraction will also be taken into account. The forthcoming transit of Venus will allow an accuracy on the diameter of the Sun better than 0.01 arcsec, with good images of the ingress and of the egress taken each second. Chinese solar observatories are in the optimal conditions to obtain valuable data for the measurement of the solar diameter with the Venus transit of 5/6 June 2012 with an unprecedented accuracy, and with absolute calibration given by the ephemerides.

  11. Facial and abdominal hair growth in hirsutism: a computerized evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hines, G; Moran, C; Huerta, R; Folgman, K; Azziz, R

    2001-12-01

    Methods of objectively assessing the growth rate of hairs in hirsute women have generally required some form of shaving and have focused on studying hairs affecting the face, which has reduced the number of patients willing or able to participate in such studies. A possible solution is to assess the terminal hairs on the lower abdomen (ie, the male escutcheon) because these two body areas are the most frequently affected with excess hair growth in hirsute patients. Nonetheless, it is unclear how the growth characteristics (density, diameter, and growth rate) of the hairs on the abdomen and face differ in these patients. We hypothesize that the growth characteristics of terminal hairs on the abdomen and face are similar and that evaluation of either area may be sufficient in assessing the hair growth rate of these patients. To objectively evaluate hair growth in the face and abdomen in hirsute patients, we developed a computer-aided image analysis system capable of measuring several growth parameters. Twenty hirsute women (12 white and 8 black), aged 31.2 +/- 6.1 years, were studied. Facial and abdominal skin areas were shaved, and 3 to 5 days later the areas were photographed through a calibrated glass plate and 5 terminal hairs were plucked from each area. The daily hair growth rate (assessed by photography and by direct measurement of the plucked hair), the density of hairs (number of hairs per surface area assessed by photography), and hair diameter (of the plucked hairs) were determined. The extent of hirsutism was also measured, albeit subjectively, by a modification of the Ferriman-Gallwey method, with each area given a score of 0 (no terminal hairs seen) to 4 (terminal hairs in a pattern similar to that of a very hirsute man). Facial, abdominal, and total Ferriman-Gallwey scores were 1.3 +/- 0.6, 1.8 +/- 0.9, and 12.5 +/- 5.4, respectively. Our results indicated that facial hairs were distributed in greater density and had a greater diameter than abdominal

  12. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782) in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Mirian Naomi; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Scalercio, Sarah Raphaella Rocha de Azevedo; Benigno, Raimundo Nonato Moraes; Pereira, Washington Luiz Assunção; Cunha Lacreta Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2010-10-29

    This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1762) encysted in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) coming from the Centro Nacional de Primatas, Brazil. The animal was sent to the Veterinary Clinic sector with an increase in abdominal volume and no occurrence of any other clinical signs. Upon palpation, a movable circular mass with a diameter of approximately 10 cm was found. Urinalysis, complete blood count and serum biochemistry were performed without revealing any alterations. The animal was then submitted to an abdominal ultrasound exam. The cyst was punctured and a surgical removal procedure was performed, revealing a brownish-colored cylindrical structure that was already deteriorated, making it impossible to perform morphological analysis and classification. In the sediment of the liquid found, eggs were encountered that had morphological characteristics compatible with D. renale. The objective of this paper is to report the first case of parasitism by D. renale in C. apella (Linnaeus, 1758).

  13. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography in the evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Amparo, E G; Hoddick, W K; Hricak, H; Sollitto, R; Justich, E; Filly, R A; Higgins, C B

    1985-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate abdominal aortic aneurysms in 27 patients. The findings were compared retrospectively with CT, ultrasound (US), and angiography in 17 cases and prospectively with US in 10 cases. MRI identified the renal arteries in all cases, demonstrated involvement at or above the origin of the renal arteries in eight patients, and showed extension of the aneurysm into the iliac arteries in 12 cases. The outer dimension of the aneurysm, the diameter of the residual lumen, and the length of the aneurysm were measured easily from the MR images. The measurements of transverse dimension of the abdominal aortic aneurysm were similar for MRI, CT, and US. MRI more accurately defined extension above the renal arteries and below the aortic bifurcation. It is concluded that MRI provides the necessary information for the surveillance and preoperative evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  14. Pulmonary complications of abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Panitch, Howard B

    2015-01-01

    The abdominal wall is an integral component of the chest wall. Defects in the ventral abdominal wall alter respiratory mechanics and can impair diaphragm function. Congenital abdominal wall defects also are associated with abnormalities in lung growth and development that lead to pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and alterations in thoracic cage formation. Although infants with ventral abdominal wall defects can experience life-threatening pulmonary complications, older children typically experience a more benign respiratory course. Studies of lung and chest wall function in older children and adolescents with congenital abdominal wall defects are few; such investigations could provide strategies for improved respiratory performance, avoidance of respiratory morbidity, and enhanced exercise ability for these children.

  15. Madness or sadness? Local concepts of mental illness in four conflict-affected African communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Concepts of ‘what constitutes mental illness’, the presumed aetiology and preferred treatment options, vary considerably from one cultural context to another. Knowledge and understanding of these local conceptualisations is essential to inform public mental health programming and policy. Methods Participants from four locations in Burundi, South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, were invited to describe ‘problems they knew of that related to thinking, feeling and behaviour?’ Data were collected over 31 focus groups discussions (251 participants) and key informant interviews with traditional healers and health workers. Results While remarkable similarities occurred across all settings, there were also striking differences. In all areas, participants were able to describe localized syndromes characterized by severe behavioural and cognitive disturbances with considerable resemblance to psychotic disorders. Additionally, respondents throughout all settings described local syndromes that included sadness and social withdrawal as core features. These syndromes had some similarities with nonpsychotic mental disorders, such as major depression or anxiety disorders, but also differed significantly. Aetiological concepts varied a great deal within each setting, and attributed causes varied from supernatural to psychosocial and natural. Local syndromes resembling psychotic disorders were seen as an abnormality in need of treatment, although people did not really know where to go. Local syndromes resembling nonpsychotic mental disorders were not regarded as a ‘medical’ disorder, and were therefore also not seen as a condition for which help should be sought within the biomedical health-care system. Rather, such conditions were expected to improve through social and emotional support from relatives, traditional healers and community members. Conclusions Local conceptualizations have significant implications for the planning of mental

  16. Diameters and albedos of satellites of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. H.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Morrison, D.

    1982-01-01

    Products of the masses of the five known satellites of Uranus, and estimates of their bulk densities and surface albedos, are used to infer their probable dimensions. Spectrophotometry has established the presence of water ice on the surfaces of all save Rhea, and the brightnesses of the satellites have been measured photoelectrically. The diameter measurements presented were made using a photometric/radiometric technique, whose recent recalibration, using independent solar system object measurements, has yielded absolute accuracies better than 5 per cent. The new albedo measurements show that Umbriel, Titania and Oberon are similar to the Jupiter moon Callisto, while Ariel resembles the Saturn moon Hyperion. The diameters of all four are similar to those of the large, icy Saturn satellites Rhea and Iapetus.

  17. Small diameter, deep bore optical inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Lord, David E.; Petrini, Richard R.; Carter, Gary W.

    1981-01-01

    An improved rod optic system for inspecting small diameter, deep bores. The system consists of a rod optic system utilizing a curved mirror at the end of the rod lens such that the optical path through the system is bent 90.degree. to minimize optical distortion in examining the sides of a curved bore. The system is particularly useful in the examination of small bores for corrosion, and is capable of examining 1/16 inch diameter and up to 4 inch deep drill holes, for example. The positioning of the curved mirror allows simultaneous viewing from shallow and right angle points of observation of the same artifact (such as corrosion) in the bore hole. The improved rod optic system may be used for direct eye sighting, or in combination with a still camera or a low-light television monitor; particularly low-light color television.

  18. Small diameter, deep bore optical inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Lord, D.E.; Petrini, R.R.; Carter, G.W.

    An improved rod optic system for inspecting small diameter, deep bores is described. The system consists of a rod optic system utilizing a curved mirror at the end of the rod lens such that the optical path through the system is bent 90/sup 0/ to minimize optical distortion in examing the sides of a curved bore. The system is particularly useful in the examination of small bores for corrosion, and is capable if examing 1/16 inch diameter and up to 4-inch deep drill holes, for example. The positioning of the curved mirror allows simultaneous viewing from shallow and righ angle points of observation of the same artifact (such as corrosion) in the bore hole. The improved rod optic system may be used for direct eye sighting, or in combination with a still camera or a low-light television monitor; particularly low-light color television.

  19. European Projects of Solar Diameter Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino; Bianda, Michele; Arnaud, Jean

    2008-10-01

    Three projects dealing with solar diameter evolution are presently in development. Historical and contemporary eclipses and planetary transits data collection and analysis, to cover potentially the last 5 centuries with an accuracy of few hundreds of arcsecond on diameter's measurements. The French space mission PICARD with a few milliarcseconds accuray. With PICARD-SOL instruments located at the plateau of Calern the role of the atmosphere in ground-based measurements will be clarified. CLAVIUS is a Swiss-Italian project based on drift-scan method, free from optical distortions, where hourly circles transits will be monitored with fast CMOS sensors in different wavebands. The will run at IRSOL Gregory-Coudé telescope.

  20. On finding minimum-diameter clique trees

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, J.R.S. . Dept. of Computer Science); Peyton, B.W. )

    1991-08-01

    It is well-known that any chordal graph can be represented as a clique tree (acyclic hypergraph, join tree). Since some chordal graphs have many distinct clique tree representations, it is interesting to consider which one is most desirable under various circumstances. A clique tree of minimum diameter (or height) is sometimes a natural candidate when choosing clique trees to be processed in a parallel computing environment. This paper introduces a linear time algorithm for computing a minimum-diameter clique tree. The new algorithm is an analogue of the natural greedy algorithm for rooting an ordinary tree in order to minimize its height. It has potential application in the development of parallel algorithms for both knowledge-based systems and the solution of sparse linear systems of equations. 31 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Hypoperfusion of the Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Develops an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Sano, Masaki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Saito, Takaaki; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Sugiura, Yuki; Sato, Kohji; Kugo, Hirona; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Konno, Hiroyuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Unno, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The aortic wall is perfused by the adventitial vasa vasorum (VV). Tissue hypoxia has previously been observed as a manifestation of enlarged abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). We sought to determine whether hypoperfusion of the adventitial VV could develop AAAs. We created a novel animal model of adventitial VV hypoperfusion with a combination of a polyurethane catheter insertion and a suture ligation of the infrarenal abdominal aorta in rats. VV hypoperfusion caused tissue hypoxia and developed infrarenal AAA, which had similar morphological and pathological characteristics to human AAA. In human AAA tissue, the adventitial VV were stenotic in both small AAAs (30-49 mm in diameter) and in large AAAs (> 50 mm in diameter), with the sac tissue in these AAAs being ischemic and hypoxic. These results indicate that hypoperfusion of adventitial VV has critical effects on the development of infrarenal AAA.

  2. New Large Diameter RF Complex Plasma Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, John; Nosenko, Volodymyr; Thomas, Hubertus

    2016-10-01

    The Complex Plasma Research Group at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Oberpfaffenhofen has built a new large diameter rf plasma setup for dusty plasma experiments. The vacuum chamber is a stainless steel cylinder 0.90 m in diameter and 0.34 m in height with ports for viewing and measurement. A 0.85 m diameter plate in about the center serves as a powered electrode (13.56 MHz) with the chamber walls as the ground. It is pumped on by one of two Oerlikon turbo pumps with a pumping rate of 1100 l/s or 270 l/s. Argon gas is admitted into the chamber by an MKS mass flow meter and pumping is regulated by a butterfly valve to set pressure for experiments. A manual dropper is used to insert dust into the plasma. The dust is illuminated horizontally by a 660 nm 100 mW laser sheet and viewed from above by a Photron FASTCAM 1024 PCI camera. A vertical laser sheet of 635 nm will be used for side imaging. So far, single-layer plasma crystals of up to 15000 particles have been suspended. The particle velocity fluctuation spectra were measured and from these, the particle charge and screening length were calculated. Future experiments will explore the system-size dependence of the plasma crystal properties.

  3. Diameter-dependent hydrophobicity in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyakuno, Haruka; Fukasawa, Mamoru; Ichimura, Ryota; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Nakai, Yusuke; Miyata, Yasumitsu; Saito, Takeshi; Maniwa, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are a good model system that provides atomically smooth nanocavities. It has been reported that water-SWCNTs exhibit hydrophobicity depending on the temperature T and the SWCNT diameter D. SWCNTs adsorb water molecules spontaneously in their cylindrical pores around room temperature, whereas they exhibit a hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition or wet-dry transition (WDT) at a critical temperature Twd ≈ 220-230 K and above a critical diameter Dc ≈ 1.4-1.6 nm. However, details of the WDT phenomenon and its mechanism remain unknown. Here, we report a systematic experimental study involving X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. It is found that water molecules inside thick SWCNTs (D > Dc) evaporate and condense into ice Ih outside the SWCNTs at Twd upon cooling, and the ice Ih evaporates and condenses inside the SWCNTs upon heating. On the other hand, residual water trapped inside the SWCNTs below Twd freezes. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that upon lowering T, the hydrophobicity of thick SWCNTs increases without any structural transition, while the water inside thin SWCNTs (D < Dc) exhibits a structural transition, forming an ordered ice. This ice has a well-developed hydrogen bonding network adapting to the cylindrical pores of the SWCNTs. Thus, the unusual diameter dependence of the WDT is attributed to the adaptability of the structure of water to the pore dimension and shape.

  4. 29 mm Diameter Test Target Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Olivas, Eric Richard; Naranjo, Angela Carol; Romero, Frank Patrick

    2016-08-15

    The Northstar target for Mo99 production is made up of Mo100 disks in a stack separated by coolant gaps for helium flow. A number of targets have been tested at ANL for both production of Mo99 and for thermal-hydraulic performance. These have all been with a 12 mm diameter target, even while the production goals have increased the diameter to now 29 mm. A 29 mm diameter target has been designed that is consistent with the ANL beam capabilities and the capabilities of the helium circulation system currently in use at ANL. This target is designed for 500 μA at 35 MeV electrons. While the plant design calls for 42 MeV, the chosen design point is more favorable and higher power given the limits of the ANL accelerator. The intended beam spot size is 12 mm FWHM, but the thermal analysis presented herein conservatively assumed a 10 mm FWHM beam, which results in a 44% higher beam current density at beam center.

  5. The role of automaticity and attention in neural processes underlying empathy for happiness, sadness, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Sylvia A; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies have examined the neural basis of empathy, relatively little is known about how empathic processes are affected by different attentional conditions. Thus, we examined whether instructions to empathize might amplify responses in empathy-related regions and whether cognitive load would diminish the involvement of these regions. Thirty-two participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging session assessing empathic responses to individuals experiencing happy, sad, and anxious events. Stimuli were presented under three conditions: watching naturally, actively empathizing, and under cognitive load. Across analyses, we found evidence for a core set of neural regions that support empathic processes (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, DMPFC; medial prefrontal cortex, MPFC; temporoparietal junction, TPJ; amygdala; ventral anterior insula, AI; and septal area, SA). Two key regions-the ventral AI and SA-were consistently active across all attentional conditions, suggesting that they are automatically engaged during empathy. In addition, watching vs. empathizing with targets was not markedly different and instead led to similar subjective and neural responses to others' emotional experiences. In contrast, cognitive load reduced the subjective experience of empathy and diminished neural responses in several regions related to empathy and social cognition (DMPFC, MPFC, TPJ, and amygdala). The results reveal how attention impacts empathic processes and provides insight into how empathy may unfold in everyday interactions.

  6. SAD-based stereo vision machine on a System-on-Programmable-Chip (SoPC).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Zhangwei

    2013-03-04

    This paper, proposes a novel solution for a stereo vision machine based on the System-on-Programmable-Chip (SoPC) architecture. The SOPC technology provides great convenience for accessing many hardware devices such as DDRII, SSRAM, Flash, etc., by IP reuse. The system hardware is implemented in a single FPGA chip involving a 32-bit Nios II microprocessor, which is a configurable soft IP core in charge of managing the image buffer and users' configuration data. The Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD) algorithm is used for dense disparity map computation. The circuits of the algorithmic module are modeled by the Matlab-based DSP Builder. With a set of configuration interfaces, the machine can process many different sizes of stereo pair images. The maximum image size is up to 512 K pixels. This machine is designed to focus on real time stereo vision applications. The stereo vision machine offers good performance and high efficiency in real time. Considering a hardware FPGA clock of 90 MHz, 23 frames of 640 × 480 disparity maps can be obtained in one second with 5 × 5 matching window and maximum 64 disparity pixels.

  7. Inducing Sadness and Anxiousness through Visual Media: Measurement Techniques and Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Kuijsters, Andre; Redi, Judith; de Ruyter, Boris; Heynderickx, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of negative moods (sadness and anxiousness) induced by three visual Mood Induction Procedures (MIP) was investigated. The evolution of the mood after the MIP was monitored for a period of 8 min with the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM; every 2 min) and with recordings of skin conductance level (SCL) and electrocardiography (ECG). The SAM pleasure ratings showed that short and longer film fragments were effective in inducing a longer lasting negative mood, whereas the negative mood induced by the IAPS slideshow was short lived. The induced arousal during the anxious MIPs diminished quickly after the mood induction; nevertheless, the SCL data suggest longer lasting arousal effects for both movies. The decay of the induced mood follows a logarithmic function; diminishing quickly in the first minutes, thereafter returning slowly back to baseline. These results reveal that caution is needed when investigating the effects of the induced mood on a task or the effect of interventions on induced moods, because the induced mood diminishes quickly after the mood induction. PMID:27536260

  8. SAD-Based Stereo Vision Machine on a System-on-Programmable-Chip (SoPC)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Zhangwei

    2013-01-01

    This paper, proposes a novel solution for a stereo vision machine based on the System-on-Programmable-Chip (SoPC) architecture. The SOPC technology provides great convenience for accessing many hardware devices such as DDRII, SSRAM, Flash, etc., by IP reuse. The system hardware is implemented in a single FPGA chip involving a 32-bit Nios II microprocessor, which is a configurable soft IP core in charge of managing the image buffer and users' configuration data. The Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD) algorithm is used for dense disparity map computation. The circuits of the algorithmic module are modeled by the Matlab-based DSP Builder. With a set of configuration interfaces, the machine can process many different sizes of stereo pair images. The maximum image size is up to 512 K pixels. This machine is designed to focus on real time stereo vision applications. The stereo vision machine offers good performance and high efficiency in real time. Considering a hardware FPGA clock of 90 MHz, 23 frames of 640 × 480 disparity maps can be obtained in one second with 5 × 5 matching window and maximum 64 disparity pixels. PMID:23459385

  9. Sadness, suicide, and sexual behavior in Arkansas: results from the youth risk behavior survey 2011.

    PubMed

    Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick

    2013-12-01

    We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.

  10. Test-retest reliability of regional electroencephalogram (EEG) and cardiovascular measures in social anxiety disorder (SAD).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Louis A; Santesso, Diane L; Miskovic, Vladimir; Mathewson, Karen J; McCabe, Randi E; Antony, Martin M; Moscovitch, David A

    2012-04-01

    Although the search for psychophysiological manifestations of social anxiety has a rich history, there appear to be no published reports examining the reliability of continuous electrocortical measures that putatively index stress vulnerability and stress reactivity in socially anxious individuals. We examined the 1-week test-retest reliability of regional electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha asymmetry and power, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), heart period, and heart period variability measures at rest and during anticipation of an impromptu speech in 26 adults diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Across the 1-week time period, we found medium-to-large correlations for regional EEG asymmetry and large correlations for regional EEG alpha power, RSA, heart period, and heart period variability measures at rest and during speech anticipation, before and after accounting for age and medication status. These results are similar to patterns observed in nonclinical samples and appear to provide the first documented evidence of test-retest reliability of psychophysiological measures that index central nervous system activity in socially anxious individuals. These findings also provide support for the notion that resting frontal EEG asymmetry and RSA constitute relatively stable individual differences in this clinical population.

  11. Sadness as a passion of the soul: a psychopathological consideration of the Cartesian concept of melancholy.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Rubio, Gabriel; Molina, Juan D; Alamo, Cecilio

    2011-04-25

    The relationship between the "passions" (emotions or feelings) and psychopathology has been a constant throughout the history of medicine. In this context, melancholy was considered a perversion of the soul (corruption of the passions). One of the most influential authors on this subject was René Descartes, who discussed it in his work The Treatise on the Passions of the Soul (1649). Descartes believed that "passions" were sensitive movements that the soul experienced due to its union with the body (res extensa). According to this theory, the soul was located in the pineal gland, where it was actively involved in overseeing the functions of the "human machine" and kept its dysfunctions under control, by circulating animal spirits. Descartes described sadness as one of "the six primitive passions of the soul", which leads to melancholy if not remedied. Cartesian theories had a great deal of influence on the way that mental pathologies were considered throughout the entire 17th century (Spinoza, Willis, Pitcairn) and during much of the 18th century (Le Cat, Tissot). From the 19th century onwards, emotional symptomatology finally began to be used in diagnostic criteria for mood disorders.

  12. Emotion in speech: the acoustic attributes of fear, anger, sadness, and joy.

    PubMed

    Sobin, C; Alpert, M

    1999-07-01

    Decoders can detect emotion in voice with much greater accuracy than can be achieved by objective acoustic analysis. Studies that have established this advantage, however, used methods that may have favored decoders and disadvantaged acoustic analysis. In this study, we applied several methodologic modifications for the analysis of the acoustic differentiation of fear, anger, sadness, and joy. Thirty-one female subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 (encoders) were audio-recorded during an emotion-induction procedure and produced a total of 620 emotion-laden sentences. Twelve female judges (decoders), three for each of the four emotions, were assigned to rate the intensity of one emotion each. Their combined ratings were used to select 38 prototype samples per emotion. Past acoustic findings were replicated, and increased acoustic differentiation among the emotions was achieved. Multiple regression analysis suggested that some, although not all, of the acoustic variables were associated with decoders' ratings. Signal detection analysis gave some insight into this disparity. However, the analysis of the classic constellation of acoustic variables may not completely capture the acoustic features that influence decoders' ratings. Future analyses would likely benefit from the parallel assessment of respiration, phonation, and articulation.

  13. Quantification and assessment of heat and cold waves in Novi Sad, Northern Serbia.

    PubMed

    Basarin, Biljana; Lukić, Tin; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) has been applied to the analysis of heat and cold waves and human thermal conditions in Novi Sad, Serbia. A series of daily minimum and maximum air temperature, relative humidity, wind, and cloud cover was used to calculate PET for the investigated period 1949-2012. The heat and cold wave analysis was carried out on days with PET values exceeding defined thresholds. Additionally, the acclimatization approach was introduced to evaluate human adaptation to interannual thermal perception. Trend analysis has revealed the presence of increasing trend in summer PET anomalies, number of days above defined threshold, number of heat waves, and average duration of heat waves per year since 1981. Moreover, winter PET anomaly as well as the number of days below certain threshold and number of cold waves per year until 1980 was decreasing, but the decrease was not statistically significant. The highest number of heat waves during summer was registered in the last two decades, but also in the first decade of the investigated period. On the other hand, the number of cold waves during six decades is quite similar and the differences are very small.

  14. What else do you feel when you feel sad? Emotional overproduction, neuroticism and rumination.

    PubMed

    Hervas, Gonzalo; Vazquez, Carmelo

    2011-08-01

    Numerous experimental and naturalistic studies have shown the relevant role of ruminative styles in the onset, duration and severity of depressive episodes. Recent research has increasingly focused on the precursors of these ruminative responses. Neuroticism has been found to be closely related to ruminative styles, but the nature of this relationship is unknown. Across three studies, we explored the role of emotional overproduction, conceptualized as the tendency to simultaneously experience an elevated number of negative emotions and feelings during sad episodes. Study 1 showed that emotional overproduction is independently and strongly associated with ruminative styles. Furthermore, emotional overproduction was found to mediate the relationship between neuroticism and ruminative styles. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large community sample even after controlling for mood, personality, and other emotion-related variables. In Study 3, we conducted a laboratory study to increase the internal and external validity of our findings. Implications for personality, for coping and stress literature, and for clinical research and treatment are suggested.

  15. Age-Related Response Bias in the Decoding of Sad Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Fölster, Mara; Hess, Ursula; Hühnel, Isabell; Werheid, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have found that age is negatively associated with the accuracy of decoding emotional facial expressions; this effect of age was found for actors as well as for raters. Given that motivational differences and stereotypes may bias the attribution of emotion, the aim of the present study was to explore whether these age effects are due to response bias, that is, the unbalanced use of response categories. Thirty younger raters (19–30 years) and thirty older raters (65–81 years) viewed video clips of younger and older actors representing the same age ranges, and decoded their facial expressions. We computed both raw hit rates and bias-corrected hit rates to assess the influence of potential age-related response bias on decoding accuracy. Whereas raw hit rates indicated significant effects of both the actors’ and the raters’ ages on decoding accuracy for sadness, these age effects were no longer significant when response bias was corrected. Our results suggest that age effects on the accuracy of decoding facial expressions may be due, at least in part, to age-related response bias. PMID:26516920

  16. A Computational Shape-based Model of Anger and Sadness Justifies a Configural Representation of Faces

    PubMed Central

    Neth, Donald; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that configural cues (second-order relations) play a major role in the representation and classification of face images; making faces a “special” class of objects, since object recognition seems to use different encoding mechanisms. It is less clear, however, how this representation emerges and whether this representation is also used in the recognition of facial expressions of emotion. In this paper, we show how configural cues emerge naturally from a classical analysis of shape in the recognition of anger and sadness. In particular our results suggest that at least two of the dimensions of the computational (cognitive) space of facial expressions of emotion correspond to pure configural changes. The first of these dimensions measures the distance between the eyebrows and the mouth, while the second is concerned with the height-width ratio of the face. Under this proposed model, becoming a face “expert” would mean to move from the generic shape representation to that based on configural cues. These results suggest that the recognition of facial expressions of emotion shares this expertise property with the other processes of face processing. PMID:20510267

  17. Use of spiral computed tomographic angiography in monitoring abdominal aortic aneurysms after transfemoral endovascular repair.

    PubMed Central

    Balm, R; Jacobs, M J

    1997-01-01

    Transfemoral endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms has proved to be technically feasible in a selected group of patients. However, long-term efficacy has not been proved. Graft performance after implantation can be monitored by a single imaging technique: spiral computed tomographic angiography. With this technique, the parameters for continuing clinical success of the procedure-graft patency, endoleaks, graft migration, attachment site diameter, attachment system failure, and aneurysm diameter-can be monitored. Only in selected cases will an additional imaging technique be necessary. PMID:9339508

  18. Ultrasonographic characteristics of abdominal and thoracic abscesses in cattle and buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, T; Oikawa, S

    2007-11-01

    Six cows and five buffaloes with abdominal and thoracic abscesses were examined clinically and ultrasonographically. There was a wide range of clinical signs and at least 50% of the animals exhibited dull demeanour, anorexia, abdominal pain, recurrent tympany and/or weight loss. Three cases of abdominal abscesses were imaged in the left ventral abdomen between the rumen and abdominal wall, two cases were imaged at the xiphoid cartilage near the reticular wall and one case was imaged on the right ventral abdomen between the jejunum and right abdominal wall. Four cases of thoracic abscesses were imaged in the third intercostal space on the left side; however, one case of abscess was imaged in the fourth intercostal space, also on the left side. The content of the abscess was echogenic in eight animals and anechoic in three. In three animals, the content of the abscess was partitioned by echogenic septae. In two cows, the echogenic content of the abscess was surrounded by a narrow rim of anechoic fluid. The diameters of the abscesses were 5-10 cm in three cows, 11-15 cm in seven cows and >15 cm in one cow. In every case, the diagnosis was confirmed by centesis and aspiration of the abscess, which yielded purulent material. There were biochemical data of hypoalbuminaemia and hyperglobulinaemia and 90% of tested animals had neutrophilia. Five cows were examined at slaughter, where the ultrasonographic diagnosis was confirmed.

  19. Intestinal injury mechanisms after blunt abdominal impact.

    PubMed

    Cripps, N P; Cooper, G J

    1997-03-01

    Intestinal injury is frequent after non-penetrating abdominal trauma, particularly after modern, high-energy transfer impacts. Under these circumstances, delay in the diagnosis of perforation is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. This study establishes patterns of intestinal injury after blunt trauma by non-penetrating projectiles and examines relationships between injury distribution and abdominal wall motion. Projectile impacts of variable momentum were produced in 31 anaesthetised pigs to cause abdominal wall motion of varying magnitude and velocity. No small bowel injury was observed at initial impact velocity of less than 40 m/s despite gross abdominal compression. At higher velocity, injury to the small bowel was frequent, irrespective of the degree of abdominal compression (P = 0.00044). Large bowel injury was observed at all impact velocities and at all degrees of abdominal compression. This study confirms the potential for intestinal injury in high velocity, low momentum impacts which do not greatly compress the abdominal cavity and demonstrates apparent differences in injury mechanisms for the small bowel and colon. Familiarity with injury mechanisms may reduce delays in the diagnosis of intestinal perforation in both military and civilian situations.

  20. Traumatic abdominal hernia complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Aleix; Garrigós-Ortega, Gonzalo; Gómez-Abril, Segundo Ángel; Martí-Martínez, Eva; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a critical illness involving skin and soft tissues, which may develop after blunt abdominal trauma causing abdominal wall hernia and representing a great challenge for physicians. A 52-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a road accident, presenting blunt abdominal trauma with a large non-reducible mass in the lower-right abdomen. A first, CT showed abdominal hernia without signs of complication. Three hours after ICU admission, he developed hemodynamic instability. Therefore, a new CT scan was requested, showing signs of hernia complication. He was moved to the operating room where a complete transversal section of an ileal loop was identified. Five hours after surgery, he presented a new episode of hemodynamic instability with signs of skin and soft tissue infection. Due to the high clinical suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis development, wide debridement was performed. Following traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH), patients can present unsuspected injuries in abdominal organs. Helical CT can be falsely negative in the early moments, leading to misdiagnosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection and, consequently, resuscitation measures, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and early surgical debridement are required. This type of fasciitis can develop after blunt abdominal trauma following wall hernia without skin disruption.

  1. The prognosis of childhood abdominal migraine

    PubMed Central

    Dignan, F; Abu-Arafeh, I; Russell, G

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the clinical course of childhood abdominal migraine, seven to 10 years after the diagnosis.
METHODS—A total of 54 children with abdominal migraine were studied; 35 were identified from a population survey carried out on Aberdeen schoolchildren between 1991 and 1993, and 19 from outpatient records of children in the same age group who had attended the Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital. Controls were 54 children who did not have abdominal pain in childhood, matched for age and sex, obtained from either the population survey or the patient administration system. Main outcome measures were presence or resolution of abdominal migraine and past or present history of headache fulfilling the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria for the diagnosis of migraine.
RESULTS—Abdominal migraine had resolved in 31 cases (61%). Seventy per cent of cases with abdominal migraine were either current (52%) or previous (18%) sufferers from headaches that fulfilled the IHS criteria for migraine, compared to 20% of the controls.
CONCLUSIONS—These results support the concept of abdominal migraine as a migraine prodrome, and suggest that our diagnostic criteria for the condition are robust.

 PMID:11316687

  2. Simulation of bifurcated stent grafts to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, J.; Großkopf, S.; Freisleben, B.

    2007-03-01

    In this paper a method is introduced, to visualize bifurcated stent grafts in CT-Data. The aim is to improve therapy planning for minimal invasive treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Due to precise measurement of the abdominal aortic aneurysm and exact simulation of the bifurcated stent graft, physicians are supported in choosing a suitable stent prior to an intervention. The presented method can be used to measure the dimensions of the abdominal aortic aneurysm as well as simulate a bifurcated stent graft. Both of these procedures are based on a preceding segmentation and skeletonization of the aortic, right and left iliac. Using these centerlines (aortic, right and left iliac) a bifurcated initial stent is constructed. Through the implementation of an ACM method the initial stent is fit iteratively to the vessel walls - due to the influence of external forces (distance- as well as balloonforce). Following the fitting process, the crucial values for choosing a bifurcated stent graft are measured, e.g. aortic diameter, right and left common iliac diameter, minimum diameter of distal neck. The selected stent is then simulated to the CT-Data - starting with the initial stent. It hereby becomes apparent if the dimensions of the bifurcated stent graft are exact, i.e. the fitting to the arteries was done properly and no ostium was covered.

  3. Effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm during echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Aboyans, Victor; Bataille, Vincent; Bliscaux, Pascale; Ederhy, Stéphane; Filliol, Didier; Honton, Benjamin; Kurtz, Baptiste; Messas, Emmanuel; Mohty, Dania; Brochet, Eric; Kownator, Serge

    2014-10-01

    Screening patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is associated with reduced AAA-related mortality, but population screening is poorly implemented. Opportunistic screening during imaging for other indications might be efficient. Single-center series reported AAA rates of 0.8% to 6.5% in patients undergoing transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), with disparities due to selection bias. In this first multicenter study, we aimed to assess the feasibility and criteria for screening AAA during TTE in real-life practice. During a week of May 2011, 79 centers participated in a nationwide survey. All patients aged ≥65 years requiring TTE for any indication were eligible, except for those with operated abdominal aorta. We defined AAA by an anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal aorta≥30 mm. Of 1,382 consecutive patients, abdominal aorta imaging was feasible in 96.7%, with a median delay of 1.7 minutes (>3 minutes in 3.6% of cases). We found AAA in 50 patients (3.7%). Unknown AAA (2.7%) was more frequent in men than women (3.7% vs 1.3%, respectively, p=0.007) and increased by age at 2.2%, 2.5%, and 5.8% in age bands of 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and 85+ years, respectively. None of the female participants aged <75 years had AAA. Smoking status and family history of AAA were significantly more frequent among patients with AAA. The ascending aorta was larger in those with AAA (36.2±4.7 vs 34.0±5.2 mm, p=0.006), and bicuspid aortic valve and/or major aortic regurgitation were also more frequent (8% vs 2.6%, p=0.017). In conclusion, rapid AAA screening during TTE is feasible and should be limited to men ≥65 years and women≥75 years.

  4. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

  5. Torsion of an intra-abdominal testis.

    PubMed

    Lewis; Roller; Parra; Cotlar

    2000-09-01

    To present a case of torsion of a nonneoplastic intra-abdominal testis with an unusual clinical presentation.A 26-year-old active duty Navy Petty Officer presented to the emergency department on 3 occasions over a 5-day period with lower abdominal pain. Physical examination demonstrated acute tenderness in the left lower quadrant with sugestion of a normal spermatic cord and atrophic testis in the left scrotum. Computed tomography scan demonstrated an intra-abdominal lesion near the internal inguinal ring. The patient underwent surgical exploration through an inguinal incision. Torsion of a nonviable intra-abdominal testis was present. The scrotum contained only the vas deferens and cremasteric muscle. An orchiectomy was performed with removal of the vas deferens and other cord structures.The unusual clinical finding of acute torsion of an intra-abdominal testis, associated with an apparent atrophic scrotal testis, presented a confusing clinical picture. Computed tomography scan did not clarify the issue sufficiently to establish a definite preoperative diagnosis. Clinical suspicion prompted early surgical intervention. Review of the current literature produced 60 reported cases of torsion of an intra-abdominal testis. Two thirds of these involved testicular neoplasm, usually seminoma. Although the clinical presentation varied, most patients had recent onset of lower abdominal pain associated with tenderness and, in half the cases, a mass. Patients almost always presented with an absent scrotal testis on the involved side, and not infrequently reported previous surgery thought to be an orchiectomy.Diagnosis of an intra-abdominal testicular torsion is rare, particularly when no neoplasm is present. A high index of suspicion must be maintained whenever there is abdominal pain and undescended testis. The surgical history and imaging studies may not clarify a confusing clinical picture.

  6. Advances in abdominal MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, J T

    1998-01-01

    Major technical advances in MR imaging have led to its wider use in the evaluation of abdominal disease. The principle new pulse sequence is the RARE sequence for T2-weighted imaging. Multishot and breath-hold single-shot RARE techniques are now widely used, and both have performed as well as conventional spin-echo imaging with far shorter acquisition times. The most notable improvements have been in the detection and characterization of hepatic lesions. Two liver-specific contrast agents received FDA approval during 1997: SPIO particles or ferumoxide and mangafodipir trisodium, a hepatocyte-specific agent. Both of these agents provide considerable benefit in the detection and characterization of hepatic lesions. Manganese enhancement has also proved useful in MR imaging of the pancreas, although fat-suppressed T1-weighted imaging with dynamic gadolinium enhancement has also yielded results comparable with those of contrast-enhanced CT. MR hydrography, a generic term for static fluid imaging, is another derivative of RARE fast T2-weighted imaging. MRCP, the best known example of MR hydrography, has been rapidly and widely employed as a primary method for imaging the biliary and pancreatic ducts and has become competitive with ERCP. MR vascular imaging, especially portal venography, has been used for noninvasive imaging of portal venous disease in Budd Chiari disease, before placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, and for pancreatic cancer staging. Finally, the development of conventional phased-array body coils and endorectal coils has enabled high-quality MR imaging of perirectal disease (including Crohn disease, fistula in ano, and postpartum sphincter dysfunction). Future abdominal applications of MR imaging will involve second-generation MR interventional techniques, including use of open systems, functional or diffusion-weighted imaging exploiting the molecular activity of tissues, and virtual MR endoscopy. Although CT continues to evolve

  7. Screaming, Yelling, Whining and Crying: Categorical and intensity differences in Vocal Expressions of Anger and Sadness in Children's Tantrums

    PubMed Central

    Green, James A.; Whitney, Pamela G.; Potegal, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Young children's temper tantrums offer a unique window into the expression and regulation of strong emotions. Previous work, largely based on parental report, suggests that two emotions, anger and sadness, have different behavioral manifestations and different time courses within tantrums. Individual motor and vocal behaviors, reported by parents, have been interpreted as representing different levels of intensity within each emotion category. The present study used high fidelity audio recordings to capture the acoustic features of children's vocalizations during tantrums. Results indicated that perceptually categorized screaming, yelling, crying, whining, and fussing each have distinct acoustic features. Screaming and yelling form a group with similar acoustic features while crying, whining, and fussing form a second acoustically related group. Within these groups, screaming may reflect a higher intensity of anger than yelling while fussing, whining and crying may reflect an increasing intensity of sadness. PMID:21707157

  8. [Laparoscopic abdominal drainage by sterile destructive pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, N A; Rodoman, G V; Shalaeva, T I; Trefilova, O I; Sosikova, N L

    2009-01-01

    90 patients with acute pancreatitis were observed, in 60 of them laparoscopic drainage was performed. The procedure by sterile pancreatonecrosis is indicated only in presence of extent amount of exudate in abdominal cavity. Duration of draining the abdominal cavity should be strictly limited because of the high risk of septic complications. Contraindications for the abdominal drainage by acute necrotic pancreatitis are not only adhesions in the abdomen and shock state of the patient at the moment of procedure necessity, but also unstable hemodynamics in anamnesis and even by the arterial pressure downtrend.

  9. Soft tissue coverage in abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Donald P; Butler, Charles E

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal wall defects requiring soft tissue coverage can be either partial-thickness defects or full-thickness composite defects. Soft tissue flap reconstruction offers significant advantages in defects that cannot be closed primarily. Flap reconstruction is performed in a single-stage procedure obviating chronic wound management. If the defect size exceeds the availability of local soft tissue for coverage, regional pedicled flaps can be delivered into the abdominal wall while maintaining blood supply from their donor site. Microsurgical free tissue transfer increases the capacity to provide soft tissue coverage for abdominal wall defects that are not amenable to either local or regional flap coverage.

  10. Intra-abdominal bleeding in appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Thongprayoon, C; Pasa-Arj, S

    1991-08-01

    A 34-year-old woman, gravida 6 with 10 weeks of gestation was admitted because of abdominal pain and fainting. On physical examination she had hypotension, was pale with abdominal tenderness and guarding. Culdocentesis yielded unclotted blood. Immediate laparotomy was performed, because a diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy was made. About 2,500 ml of fresh blood was found in the abdominal cavity. Appendicular artery tear caused active arterial bleeding. The torn appendicular artery was observed to be the consequence of perforated appendicitis, which, in turn, was caused by a faecalith. Appendectomy was performed and she made a good recovery.

  11. Laparoscopic repair of abdominal incisional hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal incisional hernia is a common complication after open abdominal operations. Laparoscopic procedures have obvious mini-invasive advantages for surgical treatment of abdominal incisional hernia, especially to cases with big hernia defect. Laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia has routine mode but the actual operations will be various according to the condition of every hernia. Key points of these operations include design of the position of trocars, closure of defects and fixation of meshes. The details of these issues and experiences of perioperative evaluation and treatment will be talked about in this article. PMID:27761446

  12. Variable diameter wind turbine rotor blades

    DOEpatents

    Jamieson, Peter McKeich; Hornzee-Jones, Chris; Moroz, Emilian M.; Blakemore, Ralph W.

    2005-12-06

    A system and method for changing wind turbine rotor diameters to meet changing wind speeds and control system loads is disclosed. The rotor blades on the wind turbine are able to adjust length by extensions nested within or containing the base blade. The blades can have more than one extension in a variety of configurations. A cable winching system, a hydraulic system, a pneumatic system, inflatable or elastic extensions, and a spring-loaded jack knife deployment are some of the methods of adjustment. The extension is also protected from lightning by a grounding system.

  13. The diameter and albedo of 1943 Anteros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, G. J.; Tedesco, E. F.; Tholen, D. J.; Tokunaga, A.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Kowal, C.

    1981-01-01

    The results of broadband visual and infrared photometry of the Apollo-Amor asteroid 1943 Anteros during its 1980 apparition are reported. By means of a radiometric model, a diameter of 2.3 + or - 0.2 km and a visual geometric albedo of 0.13 + or - 0.03 is calculated. The albedo and reflectance spectrum of Anteros imply that it is a type S asteroid. Thus, Anteros may have a silicate surface similar to other Apollo-Amor asteroids as well as some stony-iron meteorites.

  14. A Variable Diameter Short Haul Civil Tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, James M.; Jones, Christopher T.; Nixon, Mark W.

    1999-01-01

    The Short-Haul-Civil-tiltrotor (SHCT) component of the NASA Aviation System Capacity Program is an effort to develop the technologies needed for a potential 40-passenger civil tiltrotor. The variable diameter tiltrotor (VDTR) is a Sikorsky concept aimed at improving tiltrotor hover and cruise performance currently limited by disk loading that is much higher in hover than conventional helicopter, and much lower in cruise than turbo-prop systems. This paper describes the technical merits of using a VDTR on a SHCT aircraft. The focus will be the rotor design.

  15. A 30-cm diameter argon ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    A 30 cm diameter argon ion source was evaluated. Ion source beam currents up to 4a were extracted with ion energies ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 KeV. An ion optics scaling relation was developed for predicting ion beam extraction capability as a function of total extraction voltage, gas type, and screen grid open area. Ignition and emission characteristics of several hollow cathode geometries were assessed for purposes of defining discharge chamber and neutralizer cathodes. Also presented are ion beam profile characteristics which exhibit broad beam capability well suited for ion beam sputtering applications.

  16. Thread gauge for measuring thread pitch diameters

    DOEpatents

    Brewster, A.L.

    1985-11-19

    A thread gauge which attaches to a vernier caliper to measure the thread pitch diameter of both externally threaded and internally threaded parts is disclosed. A pair of anvils are externally threaded with threads having the same pitch as those of the threaded part. Each anvil is mounted on a stem having a ball on which the anvil can rotate to properly mate with the parts to which the anvils are applied. The stems are detachably secured to the caliper blades by attachment collars having keyhole openings for receiving the stems and caliper blades. A set screw is used to secure each collar on its caliper blade. 2 figs.

  17. Thread gauge for measuring thread pitch diameters

    DOEpatents

    Brewster, Albert L.

    1985-01-01

    A thread gauge which attaches to a vernier caliper to measure the thread pitch diameter of both externally threaded and internally threaded parts. A pair of anvils are externally threaded with threads having the same pitch as those of the threaded part. Each anvil is mounted on a stem having a ball on which the anvil can rotate to properly mate with the parts to which the anvils are applied. The stems are detachably secured to the caliper blades by attachment collars having keyhole openings for receiving the stems and caliper blades. A set screw is used to secure each collar on its caliper blade.

  18. The MRI of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma in the abdominal cavity.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Huang Sui; Feng, Xu Lin; Yong, Li; Yong, Zhang; Lian, Zhong Jing; Ling, Liang Bi

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the MR appearances of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma in the abdominal cavity and evaluate the capabilities of MRI in diagnosis of the tumor. Eleven consecutive patients with an extraadrenal pheochromocytoma in abdominal cavity who underwent preoperative 0.5 T (n=5) or 1.5 T (n=6) superconductor MRI and had a surgical resection were enrolled in the study. The MR scanning protocol included axial T(2)-weighted imaging with or without fat-suppressed sequences, axial and coronal uncontrast and contrast T(1)-weighted sequences with or without fat suppression. The extraadrenal pheochromocytomas were found in retroperitoneum (n=5), the urinary bladder (n=1), the pelvis (n=1), the right prerenal area (n=1), the renal hilus (n=1), the left paramusculus psoas major (n=1) and liver (n=1). The mean maximal diameter of tumors was 55.9 mm (range 17.8-162.2 mm). The high signal intensity was seen on T(2)-weighted imaging in all tumors compared to muscle or liver, especially with fat suppression. The intratumoral septa and capsules were shown in 63.6% and 72.7% of cases, respectively, which had low signal intensity on T(2)-weighted imaging. These relative characteristics may be helpful for qualitative diagnosis of extraadrenal pheochromocytomas with MRI. Other usefulness of MRI was to locate the position, to decide the range of tumors and to show well the relationship between the tumor and near structures.

  19. In vivo strain assessment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Satriano, Alessandro; Rivolo, Simone; Martufi, Giampaolo; Finol, Ender A; Di Martino, Elena S

    2015-01-21

    The only criteria currently used to inform surgical decision for abdominal aortic aneurysms are maximum diameter (>5.5 cm) and rate of growth, even though several studies have identified the need for more specific indicators of risk. Patient-specific biomechanical variables likely to affect rupture risk would be a valuable addition to the science of understanding rupture risk and prove to be a life saving benefit for patients. Local deformability of the aorta is related to the local mechanical properties of the wall and may provide indication on the state of weakening of the wall tissue. We propose a 3D image-based approach to compute aortic wall strain maps in vivo. The method is applicable to a variety of imaging modalities that provide sequential images at different phases in the cardiac cycle. We applied the method to a series of abdominal aneurysms imaged using cine-MRI obtaining strain maps at different phases in the cardiac cycle. These maps could be used to evaluate the distensibility of an aneurysm at baseline and at different follow-up times and provide an additional index to clinicians to facilitate decisions on the best course of action for a specific patient.

  20. [Churg-Strauss abdominal manifestation].

    PubMed

    Suarez-Moreno, Roberto; Ponce-Pérez, Luis Virgilio; Margain-Paredes, Miguel Angel; Garza-de la Llave, Heriberto; Madrazo-Navarro, Mario; Espinosa-Álvarez, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la enfermedad de Churg-Strauss es poco común, idiopática, caracterizada por hipereosinofilia en sangre y tejidos, aunada a vasculitis sistémica en pacientes con antecedentes de asma o rinitis alérgica. Las manifestaciones gastrointestinales del síndrome de Churg Strauss se caracterizan por dolor abdominal, seguido de diarrea y hemorragia en 31-45% de los casos. Caso clínico: paciente masculino con antecedente de asma que acudió a consulta por abdomen agudo con probable apendicitis aguda; durante el protocolo de estudio se diagnosticó síndrome de Churg Strauss, con manifestaciones intestinales. Conclusión: el síndrome de Churg Strauss es una vasculitis poco frecuente que puede manifestarse con síntomas intestinales, como en este caso; es importante tenerlo en mente a la hora de los diagnósticos diferenciales. Existen pocos reportes con este síndrome asociado con abdomen agudo, todos ellos con mal pronóstico.

  1. Temporal changes in attention to sad and happy faces distinguish currently and remitted depressed individuals from never depressed individuals.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Sabine; Newman, Kristin; Quigley, Leanne; Fernandez, Amanda; Dobson, Keith; Sears, Christopher

    2015-12-15

    Depression is associated with attentional biases for emotional information that are proposed to reflect stable vulnerability factors for the development and recurrence of depression. A key question for researchers is whether those who have recovered from depression also exhibit attentional biases, and if so, how similar these biases are to those who are currently depressed. To address this question, the present study examined attention to emotional faces in remitted depressed (N=26), currently depressed (N=16), and never depressed (N=33) individuals. Participants viewed sets of four face images (happy, sad, threatening, and neutral) while their eye movements were tracked throughout an 8-s presentation. Like currently depressed participants, remitted depressed participants attended to sad faces significantly more than never depressed participants and attended to happy faces significantly less. Analyzing temporal changes in attention revealed that currently and remitted depressed participants did not reduce their attention to sad faces over the 8-s presentation, unlike never depressed participants. In contrast, remitted depressed participants attended to happy faces similarly to never depressed participants, increasing their attention to happy faces over the 8-s presentation. The implications for cognitive theories of depression and depression vulnerability are discussed.

  2. Anger and sadness in response to an emotionally neutral film: evidence for age-specific associations with well-being.

    PubMed

    Haase, Claudia M; Seider, Benjamin H; Shiota, Michelle N; Levenson, Robert W

    2012-06-01

    When the association between emotion and well-being is being considered, positive emotions usually come to mind. However, negative emotions serve important adaptive functions and particular negative emotions may be especially adaptive at different stages of adult development. We examined the associations between self-reported negative emotions in response to an emotionally neutral, thematically ambiguous film and subjective well-being among 76 young (age 20-29), 73 middle-aged (age 40-49), and 73 older (age 60-69) adults. Results indicated that higher self-reported anger in response to the film was associated with higher well-being for middle-aged adults, but not for young and older adults. Higher self-reported sadness in response to the film was associated with higher well-being for older adults, but not for young and middle-aged adults. These findings were stronger for cognitive well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life) than for affective well-being (i.e., ratio of dispositional positive to negative affect) and were specific to these emotions (not found for self-reported disgust or fear) and to the emotionally neutral film (not found for sad or disgusting films). Results are discussed in terms of the functions that anger and sadness are thought to serve and the control opportunities afforded in midlife and late life that render these functions differentially adaptive.

  3. Fatty acid-induced gut-brain signaling attenuates neural and behavioral effects of sad emotion in humans.

    PubMed

    Van Oudenhove, Lukas; McKie, Shane; Lassman, Daniel; Uddin, Bilal; Paine, Peter; Coen, Steven; Gregory, Lloyd; Tack, Jan; Aziz, Qasim

    2011-08-01

    Although a relationship between emotional state and feeding behavior is known to exist, the interactions between signaling initiated by stimuli in the gut and exteroceptively generated emotions remain incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the interaction between nutrient-induced gut-brain signaling and sad emotion induced by musical and visual cues at the behavioral and neural level in healthy nonobese subjects undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects received an intragastric infusion of fatty acid solution or saline during neutral or sad emotion induction and rated sensations of hunger, fullness, and mood. We found an interaction between fatty acid infusion and emotion induction both in the behavioral readouts (hunger, mood) and at the level of neural activity in multiple pre-hypothesized regions of interest. Specifically, the behavioral and neural responses to sad emotion induction were attenuated by fatty acid infusion. These findings increase our understanding of the interplay among emotions, hunger, food intake, and meal-induced sensations in health, which may have important implications for a wide range of disorders, including obesity, eating disorders, and depression.

  4. Differences between musicians and non-musicians in neuro-affective processing of sadness and fear expressed in music.

    PubMed

    Park, Mona; Gutyrchik, Evgeny; Bao, Yan; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Carl, Petra; Welker, Lorenz; Pöppel, Ernst; Reiser, Maximilian; Blautzik, Janusch; Meindl, Thomas

    2014-04-30

    Music is known to convey and evoke emotional states. Musical training has been argued to lead to changes in neural architecture and enhanced processing of emotions. It is not clear, however, whether musical training is also associated with changes in behavioral and neural responses to musically conveyed discrete emotions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the responses to three musically conveyed emotions (happiness, sadness, fear) in a group of musicians and a group of non-musicians. We find that musicians rate sadness and fear as significantly more arousing than non-musicians, and that musical training is associated with specific neural activations: In response to sadness expressed in music, musicians show activation increases in the right prefrontal cortex, specifically in the superior and middle frontal gyri. In response to fear, musicians show activation increases in the right parietal cortex, specifically in the supramarginal and inferior parietal gyri. No specific activations were observed in response to happiness. Our results highlight the strong association between musical training and altered processing of "negative" emotions on both the behavioral and on the neural level.

  5. Measurement of Diameter Changes during Irradiation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K. L.; Knudson, D. L.; Crepeau, J. C.; Solstad, S.

    2015-03-01

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in advanced and existing nuclear reactors. Such materials can experience significant dimensional and physical changes during irradiation. Currently in the US, such changes are measured by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The time and labor to remove, examine, and return irradiated samples for each measurement makes this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and handling may disturb the phenomena of interest. In-pile detection of changes in geometry is sorely needed to understand real-time behavior during irradiation testing of fuels and materials in high flux US Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). This paper presents development results of an advanced Linear Variable Differential Transformer-based test rig capable of detecting real-time changes in diameter of fuel rods or material samples during irradiation in US MTRs. This test rig is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory and will provide experimenters with a unique capability to measure diameter changes associated with fuel and cladding swelling, pellet-clad interaction, and crud buildup.

  6. Large Diameter Limbs for Dilated Common Iliac Arteries in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair. Is It Safe?

    SciTech Connect

    Malagari, Katerina Brountzos, Elias; Gougoulakis, Alexandros; Papathanasiou, Matilda; Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Mastorakou, Renata; Kelekis, Dimitris

    2004-09-15

    In this prospective study we examined whether dilated common iliac arteries (CIAs) can provide a safe distal seal in endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with the use of bifurcated stent grafts with large diameter limbs. Sixteen patients with 26 dilated CIAs with a diameter of {>=}6 mm who were offered EVAR using stent grafts with large diameter limbs were included in the study (Group A). Forty-two patients who also underwent EVAR without iliac dilatation, matched for age, sex and surgical risk were used for comparison (controls-Group B). In group A mean CIA diameter was 18.2 mm (16-28) and mean abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameter was 6.87 {+-} 1.05 cm; mean age was 77.2 {+-} 4.8 yrs (67-81). Mean follow-up was 33.6 months (2.8 yrs). CIA diameter changes and development of endoleaks were assessed by CT angiography (CTA). Overall iliac dilatation was present in 16/58 of our patients (27.6%). In 10 patients dilatation was bilateral (17.3%). Partial or complete flow to the internal iliac artery (IIA) territories was preserved in all patients post-EVAR. On follow-up, stable caliber of the dilated CIAs was observed in 21 patients (84%), enlargement of 1mm in 3 (16%), and failure of the distal attachment in 1 (6.2%). Compared to the control group there was no statistical significance in the incidence of complications. Dilated common iliac arteries provide a safe distal seal in patients who have undergone EVAR, thus obviating the need for additional endovascular procedures and sparing flow in the IIA vascular bed.

  7. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  8. [Inflammatory aneurysms of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Tovar Martín, E; Acea Nebril, B

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 10 per cent of abdominal aneurysms have an excessively thick wall that sometimes involve duodenum, cava or colon by an inflammatory process. Between February 1986 and December 1992, 147 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) were treated surgically and in 13 (8.8%) the aneurysms were found to be inflammatory. Their mean age was 67.3 years (70.1 years in non inflammatory group) and all were symptomatics initially (abdominal pain in 53%, rupture in 23%, mass in 15%). The operative mortality for elective resection was 37% in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAA) decreasing to 9% in the AAA group without inflammatory involvement. We conclude that surgery is indicated in these patients to prevent rupture and to hasten the subsidense of inflammatory process ever with postoperative morbi-mortality increased.

  9. Intravenous dihydroergotamine therapy for pediatric abdominal migraines.

    PubMed

    Raina, Madiha; Chelimsky, Gisela; Chelimsky, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal migraines present with debilitating symptoms in adolescence. At our institution, the gastroenterology, neurology, and autonomic departments collaborated in treating patients with such presentations. This case series describes 6 patients who were given intravenous dihydroergotamine (DHE) for presumed abdominal migraines. DHE was only used when other agents like amitriptyline, verapamil, topiramate, or depakote had proved ineffective. DHE was started at 0.5 mg dose and on average 7 to 9 mg were given on each hospitalization. Patient ages ranged from 13 to 19 years with the majority being female. One patient did not respond to treatment. One patient was admitted 4 times for symptoms of abdominal migraines resolving with DHE. The average time between symptom relapse was about 5 to 12 months. Five of our 6 patients responded to the infusion without significant side effects. Based on these case series, DHE may be a treatment option in children with intractable abdominal migraine.

  10. [Late primary abdominal pregnancy. Case report].

    PubMed

    Farías, Emigdio Torres; Gómez, Luis Guillermo Torres; Allegre, René Márquez; Higareda, Salvador Hernández

    2008-09-01

    Abdominal advanced pregnancy is an obstetric complication that put at risk maternal and fetal life. We report a case of advanced abdominal pregnancy with intact ovaries and fallopian tubes, without ureteroperitoneal fistulae and, late prenatal diagnosis, in a multiparous patient without risk factors, with alive newborn, and whose pregnancy was attended at Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad, Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia, Centro Medico Nacional de Occidente del IMSS, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

  11. Selective Nonoperative Management of Abdominal Stab Wounds.

    PubMed

    Murry, Jason S; Hoang, David M; Ashragian, Sogol; Liou, Doug Z; Barmparas, Galinos; Chung, Rex; Alban, Rodrigo F; Margulies, Daniel R; Ley, Eric J

    2015-10-01

    Stab wounds (SW) to the abdomen traditionally require urgent exploration when associated with shock, evisceration, or peritonitis. Hemodynamically stable patients without evisceration may benefit from serial exams even with peritonitis. We compared patients taken directly to the operating room with abdominal SWs (ED-OR) to those admitted for serial exams (ADMIT). We retrospectively reviewed hemodynamically stable patients presenting with any abdominal SW between January 2000 and December 2012. Exclusions included evidence of evisceration, systolic blood pressure ≤110 mm Hg, or blood transfusion. NON-THER was defined as abdominal exploration without identification of intra-abdominal injury requiring repair. Of 142 patients included, 104 were ED-OR and 38 were ADMIT. When ED-OR was compared with ADMIT, abdominal Abbreviated Injury Score was higher (2.4 vs 2.1; P = 0.01) and hospital length of stay was longer (4.8 vs 3.3 days; P = 0.04). Incidence of NON-THER was higher in ED-OR cohort (71% vs 13%; P ≤ 0.001). In a regression model, ED-OR was a predictor of NON-THER (adjusted odds ratio 16.6; P < 0.001). One patient from ED-OR expired after complications from NON-THER. There were no deaths in the ADMIT group. For those patients with abdominal SWs who present with systolic blood pressure ≥110 mm Hg, no blood product transfusion in the emergency department and lacking evisceration, admission for serial abdominal exams may be preferred regardless of abdominal exam.

  12. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  13. Abdominal apoplexy resulting in small bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Le, Don; Guileyardo, Joseph; Casanova, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal apoplexy is a rare hemorrhagic condition involving the small arteries or veins within the abdominal cavity. A high degree of clinical suspicion, followed by appropriate diagnostic workup and therapeutic intervention, is critical, as nonoperative mortality approaches 100%. Contrary to most previously reported cases, which were associated with hemoperitoneum, we present a patient in which gastroduodenal artery dissection resulted in an organized retroperitoneal hematoma with local compression of the duodenum and subsequent bowel obstruction, resulting in vomiting, aspiration, and death. PMID:27695177

  14. Large-diameter glory-hole drilling: Evolution from 12- to 20-ft diameter

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, R.

    1994-06-01

    To drill for oil and gas in shallow, ice-infested waters, a hole needs to be excavated in the seafloor to protect subsea blowout preventers (BOP's) from ice-scour damage. Canadian Marine Drilling pioneered the use of large-diameter glory-hole drilling systems by designing, building, and patenting a 12-ft (3.7-m)-diameter prototype bit system, a 17-ft (5.2-m)-diameter upgrade, a 20-ft (6.1-m)-diameter standard system, and a 20-ft (6.1-m)-diameter enhanced system. The enhanced bit design incorporates high-pressure jetting, boulder storage, pilot-hole centering, and other features that allow a 36-in (0.91-m) hole to be drilled through the body of the bit. An optional feature is the ability to drill and case the glory hole simultaneously. To date, penetration rates up to 4.5 ft/hr (1.37 m/h) in soils with a shear strength 5,000 lbf/ft[sup 2] (239 kPa) have been obtained. Glory-hole drilling times have been reduced from more than 20 days in 1978 to approximately 1[1/2] days since 1986.

  15. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  16. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sourabh; Qamar, Arman; Sharma, Vishal; Sharma, Alka

    2011-01-01

    An arterial aneurysm is defined as a focal dilation of a blood vessel with respect to the original artery. The risk of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) increases dramatically in the presence of the following factors: age older than 60 years, smoking, hypertension and Caucasian ethnicity. The likelihood that an aneurysm will rupture is influenced by the aneurysm size, expansion rate, continued smoking and persistent hypertension. The majority of AAAs are asymptomatic and are detected as an incidental finding on ultrasonography, abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging performed for other purposes. It can also present with abdominal pain or complications such as thrombosis, embolization and rupture. Approximately 30% of asymptomatic AAAs are discovered as a pulsatile abdominal mass on routine physical examination. Abdominal ultrasonography is considered the screening modality of choice for detecting AAAs because of its high sensitivity and specificity, as well as its safety and relatively lower cost. The decision to screen for AAAs is challenging. The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommended that men between the age of 65 to 75 years who have ever smoked should be screened at least once for AAAs by abdominal ultrasonography. Management options for patients with an asymptomatic AAA include reduction of risk factors such as smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia; medical therapy with beta-blockers; watchful waiting; endovascular stenting; and surgical repair depending on the size and expansion rate of the aneurysm and underlying comorbidities. PMID:21523201

  17. Development of fine diameter mullite fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of a program to develop and evaluate mullite fiber with a mean diameter under two microns. The two micron fiber is produced by a blowing process at room temperature from a low viscosity (10-25 poise) solution. The blown fiber was evaluated for dimensional stability in thermal cycling to 1371 C, and was equivalent to the 5 micron spun B and W mullite fiber. An additive study was conducted to evaluate substitutes for the boron. Three levels of chromium, lithium fluoride, and magnesium were added to the standard composition in place of boron and the fiber produced was evaluated for chemical and dimensional stability in thermal cycling to 1371 C. The magnesium was the most chemically stable, but the chrome additive imparted the best dimensional stability.

  18. Five meter diameter conical furlable antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenberry, J. W.; Freeland, R. E.; Moore, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was made to demonstrate that a 5-meter-diameter, furlable, conical reflector antenna utilizing a line source feed can be fabricated utilizing composite materials and to prove that the antenna can function mechanically and electrically as prototype flight hardware. The design, analysis, and testing of the antenna are described. An RF efficiency of 55% at 8.5 GHz and a surface error of 0.64 mm rms were chosen as basic design requirements. Actual test measurements yielded an efficiency of 53% (49.77 dB gain) and a surface error of 0.61 mm rms. Atmospherically induced corrosion of the reflector mesh resulted in the RF performance degradation. An assessment of the antenna as compared to the current state of the art technology was made. This assessment included cost, surface accuracy and RF performance, structural and mechanical characteristics, and possible applications.

  19. Thirty-centimeter-diameter ion milling source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A 30-cm beam diameter ion source has been designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. An argon ion current density of 1 mA/cu cm at 500 eV ion energy was selected as a design operating condition. The completed ion source met the design criteria at this operating condition with a uniform and well-collimated beam having an average variation in current density of + or - 5% over the center of 20 cm of the beam. This ion source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. Langmuir probe surveys of the source plasma support the design concepts of a multipole field and a circumferential cathode to enhance plasma uniformity.

  20. Stemming selection for large-diameter blastholes

    SciTech Connect

    Eloranta, J.

    1994-12-31

    Proper selection of stemming has a profound effect on blast performance. This paper describes several methods of evaluating stemming performance in 16-inch blastholes. Tests are done on stemming ranging in size from nominal 1/4 inch crushed rock up to railroad ballast size rock (2 1/2 inch > diameter < 3/4 inch). Concrete plugs (both pre-cast and poured) are evaluated as well as air decking. A Red lake Lo-cam and a velocity of detonation recorder (VODR) are used to estimate stemming retention time and stemming ejection velocities. Downstream productivity rates including: shovel digging rates, crusher speed and crusher hangup counts are used to estimate fragmentation results. Digital image analysis is used to estimate size distributions.

  1. Fire protection covering for small diameter missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Sawko, P. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Flexible intumescent protection sheeting of unusually uniform thickness were prepared from epoxy-polysulfide compositions, containing microfibers and the ammonium salt of 1,4-nitroaniline-2-sulfonic acid, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,663,464, except that an ammonium salt particle size in the order of 5 to 8 microns and a fiber size of about 1/128th inch in length and 3 to 5 microns in diameter were found critical to obtain the required density of 1.46 to 1.50 g/cc. The insulation sheeting was prepared by a continuous process involving vacuum mixing, calendering, and curing under very strict conditions which depend to some extent upon the thickness of the sheet produced.

  2. Empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in 6- to 7-year olds diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, P K H; Schutter, D J L G; Kenemans, J L; Matthys, W

    2015-01-01

    Empathy has been associated with decreased antisocial and increased prosocial behavior. This study examined empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Six- and 7-year-old children with DBD (with and without ADHD) (n = 67) and with ADHD only (n = 27) were compared to typically developing children (TD) (n = 37). Parents and teachers rated affective empathy in response to sadness and distress on the Griffith Empathy Measure. Children reported affective empathic ability in response to sad story vignettes. Empathy-induced prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress was assessed with a computer task, the Interpersonal Response Task (IRT). Compared to TD, children with DBD (with and without ADHD) and those with ADHD only were rated as less empathic by their teachers, but not by their parents. No differences between groups were observed in children who reported affect correspondence. Children with DBD (with and without ADHD) showed less prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress compared to TD. Children with ADHD only did not differ from TD. An additional analysis comparing all children with a diagnosis to the TD group revealed that the difference in prosocial behavior remained after controlling for ADHD symptoms, but not after controlling for DBD symptoms. These findings of impaired empathy-induced prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in young children with DBD suggest that interventions to ameliorate peer relationships may benefit from targeting on increasing prosocial behavior in these children.

  3. Dietary overload lithium decreases the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shiping; Pan, Shuqin; Zhang, Keying; Ding, Xuemei; Wang, Jianping; Zeng, Qiufeng; Xuan, Yue; Su, Zuowei

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the toxic effects of dietary overload lithium on the adipogenesis in adipose tissue of chicken and the role of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in this process, one-day-old male chicks were fed with the basal diet added with 0 (control) or 100mg lithium/kg diet from lithium chloride (overload lithium) for 35days. Abdominal adipose tissue and hypothalamus were collected at day 6, 14, and 35. As a percentage of body weight, abdominal fat decreased (p<0.001) at day 6, 14, and 35, and feed intake and body weight gain decreased during day 7-14, and day 15-35 in overload lithium treated broilers as compared to control. Adipocyte diameter and DNA content in abdominal adipose tissue were significantly lower in overload-lithium treatment than control at day 35, although no significant differences were observed at day 6 and 14. Dietary overload lithium decreased (p<0.01) transcriptional expression of preadipocyte proliferation makers ki-67 (KI67), microtubule-associated protein homolog (TPX2), and topoisomerase 2-alpha (TOP2A), and preadipocyte differentiation transcriptional factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) α mRNA abundance in abdominal adipose tissue. In hypothalamus, dietary overload lithium influenced (p<0.001) NPY, and NPY receptor (NPYR) 6 mRNA abundance at day 6 and 14, but not at day 35. In conclusion, dietary overload lithium decreased the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of chicken, which was accompanied by depressing transcriptional expression of adipogenesis-associated factors. Hypothalamic NPY had a potential role in the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of broilers with a short-term overload lithium treatment.

  4. Reconstruction of complex abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Leppäniemi, A; Tukiainen, E

    2013-01-01

    Complex abdominal wall defects refer to situations where simple ventral hernia repair is not feasible because the defect is very large, there is a concomitant infection or failed previous re-pair attempt, or if there is not enough original skin to cover the repair. Usually a complex abdominal wall repair is preceded by a period of temporary abdominal closure where the short-term aims include closure of the catabolic drain, protection of the viscera and preventing fistula formation, preventing bowel adherence to the abdominal wall, and enabling future fascial and skin closure. Currently the best way to achieve these goals is the vacuum- and mesh-mediated fascial traction method achieving close to 90% fascial closure rates. The long-term aims of an abdominal closure following a planned hernia strategy include intact skin cover, fascial closure at midline (if possible), good functional outcome with innervated abdominal musculature, no pain and good cosmetic result. The main methods of abdominal wall reconstruction include the use of prosthetic (mesh) or autologous material (tissue flaps). In patients with original skin cover over the fascial defect (simple ventral hernia), the most commonly used method is hernia repair with an artificial mesh. For more complex defects, our first choice of reconstruction is the component separation technique, sometimes combined with a mesh. In contaminated fields where component separation alone is not feasible, a combination with a biological mesh can be used. In large defects with grafted skin, a free TFL flap is the best option, sometimes reinforced with a mesh and enhanced with components separation.

  5. Relative importance of aneurysm diameter and body size for predicting AAA rupture in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ruby C.; Lu, Bing; Fokkema, Margriet T.M.; Conrad, Mark; Patel, Virendra I.; Fillinger, Mark; Matyal, Robina; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Women have been shown to have up to a four-fold higher risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture at any given aneurysm diameter compared to men, leading to recommendations to offer repair to women at lower diameter thresholds. Although this higher risk of rupture may simply reflect greater relative aortic dilatation in women who have smaller aortas to begin with, this has never been quantified. Our objective was therefore to quantify the relationship between rupture and aneurysm diameter relative to body size and to determine whether a differential association between aneurysm diameter, body size, and rupture risk exists for men and women. Methods We performed a retrospective review of all patients in the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) database who underwent endovascular or open AAA repair. Using each patient’s height and weight, body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) were calculated. Next, indices of each measure of body size (height, weight, BMI, BSA) relative to aneurysm diameter were calculated for each patient. To generate these indices, we divided aneurysm diameter (in cm) by the measure of body size [e.g. aortic size index (ASI) = aneurysm diameter (cm) / BSA (m2)]. Along with other relevant clinical variables, we used these indices to construct different age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models to determine predictors of ruptured repair vs. elective repair. Models for men and women were developed separately and different models were compared using the area under the curve (AUC). Results We identified 4045 patients who underwent AAA repair (78% male, 53% EVAR). Women had significantly smaller diameter aneurysms, lower BSA, and higher BSA indices than men (Table 1). For men, the variable that increased the odds of rupture the most was aneurysm diameter (AUC = 0.82). Men exhibited an increased rupture risk with increasing aneurysm diameter (<5.5cm: OR 1.0; 5.5–6.4cm: OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.5–1

  6. Comparative Autonomic Responses to Diagnostic Interviewing between Individuals with GAD, MDD, SAD and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Allison E.; Fisher, Aaron J.

    2017-01-01

    Dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been well documented in individuals diagnosed with a range of psychological disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Moreover, these disorders both confer an increased risk of cardiovascular disease—which may relate to increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic tone. Extant research has indicated a reduction in autonomic flexibility in GAD, and while reduced flexibility has also been seen in MDD, the specific physiological alterations have been more difficult to categorize due to methodological limitations, including high co-morbidity rates with anxiety disorders. Prior studies have largely assessed autonomic functioning in stress paradigms or at the trait level, yet to date, no research has investigated the ANS during a diagnostic interview, a ubiquitous task employed in both research and clinical settings. In this study we sought to identify physiological differences in both branches of the ANS across diagnostic categories in the context of a diagnostic interview. Participants (n = 82) were administered a structured clinical interview, during which heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and pre-ejection period (PEP) were recorded in participants carrying a diagnosis of GAD (n = 34), MDD (n = 22), Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD; n = 15) and healthy controls (n = 27). Person-specific linear regression models were employed to assess the level and slope for HR, RSA and PEP throughout the course of the interview. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) model was conducted to baseline differences in HR, RSA and PEP between diagnostic groups. Multiple regression models were then conducted to differences in slope of HR, RSA and PEP throughout the course of the interview amongst diagnostic groups, including both suppression and worry as moderators. Results indicated significant increases in RSA throughout the interview in MDD (p = 0

  7. Development of large diameter carbon monofilament

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, B.; Neltri, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    A process for preparing large diameter carbon-boron monofilament was developed. The process involves chemical vapor depositing a carbon-boron alloy monofilament from a BCl3, CH4, and H2 gas mixture onto a carbon substrate. Amorphous alloys were formed when gaseous mixtures containing greater than 20 percent methane (80 percent BCl3) were used. The longest uninterrupted lengths of carbon-boron monofilament were produced using a CH4/BCl3 gas ratio of 2.34. It was found that the properties of the carbon-boron alloy monofilament improved when the carbon substrate was precleaned in chlorine. The highest strength monofilament was attained when a CH4/BCl3 gas volume ratio of 0.44 was 28 million N/sq cm (40 million psi). While the highest strengths were attained in this run, the 0.44 gas ratio and other CH4/BCl3 ratios less than 2.34 would not yield long runs. Runs using these ratios were usually terminated because of a break in the monofilament within the reactor. It is felt better process control could probably be achieved by varying the amount of hydrogen; the BCl3/H2 ratio was kept constant in these studies.

  8. The 15 cm diameter ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The startup reliability of a 15 cm diameter mercury bombardment ion thruster which employs a pulsed high voltage tickler electrode on the main and neutralizer cathodes is examined. Startup of the thruster is achieved 100% of the time on the main cathode and 98.7% of the time on the neutralizer cathode over a 3640 cycle test. The thruster was started from a 20 C initial condition and operated for an hour at a 600 mA beam current. An energy efficiency of 75% and a propellant utilization efficiency of 77% was achieved over the complete cycle. The effect of a single cusp magnetic field thruster length on its performance is discussed. Guidelines are formulated for the shaping of magnetic field lines in thrusters. A model describing double ion production in mercury discharges is presented. The production route is shown to occur through the single ionic ground state. Photographs of the interior of an operating-hollow cathode are presented. A cathode spot is shown to be present if the cathode is free of low work-function surfaces. The spot is observed if a low work-function oxide coating is applied to the cathode insert. Results show that low work-function oxide coatings tend to migrate during thruster operation.

  9. Ultrasonographic Measurement of Normal Common Bile Duct Diameter and its Correlation with Age, Sex and Anthropometry

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Simmi; Lal, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ultrasonography is the diagnostic method of choice for visualization and rational work-up of abdominal organs. The dilatation of the common bile duct helps distinguish obstructive from non-obstructive causes of jaundice. Availability of normal measurements of the common bile duct is therefore important. There exists significant variations in the anthropometric features of various populations, regions and races. Aim: Study was conducted to obtain data on sonographically measured diameters of common bile duct in a series of normal Rajasthani population and to measure its correlation with age, sex and anthropometry. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India. Materials and Methods: Study included 200 participants with equal proportion belonging to either sex. Common bile duct was measured at three locations- at the porta hepatis, in the most distal aspect of head of pancreas and mid-way between these points. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, chest circumference, circumference at transpyloric plane, circumference at umbilicus and circumference at hip were obtained using standard procedures. Statistical Analysis: Univariable analysis with measures of frequency and standard deviation and bivariable analysis using correlation. Results: Mean age of study subjects was 34.5 years (Range 18-85 years). Mean diameters of the common bile duct in the three locations were: proximal, 4.0 mm (SD 1.02 mm); middle, 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm); and distal, 4.2 mm (SD 1.01 mm) and overall mean for all measures 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm). Average diameter ranged from 2.0 mm to 7.9 mm, with 95 percent of the subjects having a diameter of less than 6 mm. We observed a statistically significant relation of common bile duct with age, along with a linear trend. There was no statistically significant difference in common bile duct diameter between male and female subjects. The diameter did

  10. Intra-abdominal pressure: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. RESUMO Em pacientes críticos com quadros abdominais agudos a esclarecer é crescente a solicitação da aferição da pressão intra-abdominal. Sintetizar resultados de pesquisas sobre a mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal pela via vesical e analisar o nível de evidência foram os objetivos desta revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada nas bases LILACS, MEDLINE e PubMed, no período de 2005 a julho de 2012. Identificaram-se 20 artigos, sendo 12 revisões de literatura, 4 estudos exploratório-descritivos, 2 opiniões de especialistas, 1 estudo de coorte prospectivo e 1 relato de experiência. O método vesical para mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal foi considerado padrão-ouro. Existem variações na técnica, entretanto pontos em comum foram identificados: posição supina completa, na ausência de contratura abdominal, ao final da expiração e expressa em mmHg. A maioria indica posicionar o ponto zero do

  11. Intra-abdominal pressure: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. PMID:26958978

  12. Imaging the Abdominal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, S.; Chan, V. O.; Ridge, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem disease with a range of abdominal manifestations including those involving the liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Recent advances in management of the respiratory complications of the disease has led to a greater life expectancy in patients with CF. Subsequently, there is increasing focus on the impact of abdominal disease on quality of life and survival. Liver cirrhosis is the most important extrapulmonary cause of death in CF, yet significant challenges remain in the diagnosis of CF related liver disease. The capacity to predict those patients at risk of developing cirrhosis remains a significant challenge. We review representative abdominal imaging findings in patients with CF selected from the records of two academic health centres, with a view to increasing familiarity with the abdominal manifestations of the disease. We review their presentation and expected imaging findings, with a focus on the challenges facing diagnosis of the hepatic manifestations of the disease. An increased familiarity with these abdominal manifestations will facilitate timely diagnosis and management, which is paramount to further improving outcomes for patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:28250993

  13. Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, W; Longstreth, G; Drossman, D; Heaton, K; Irvine, E; Muller-Lissner, S

    1999-01-01

    The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised. A functional bowel disorder (FBD) is diagnosed by characteristic symptoms for at least 12 weeks during the preceding 12 months in the absence of a structural or biochemical explanation. The irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal bloating, functional constipation, and functional diarrhea are distinguished by symptom-based diagnostic criteria. Unspecified FBD lacks criteria for the other FBDs. Diagnostic testing is individualized, depending on patient age, primary symptom characteristics, and other clinical and laboratory features. Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is defined as either the FAP syndrome, which requires at least six months of pain with poor relation to gut function and loss of daily activities, or unspecified FAP, which lacks criteria for the FAP syndrome. An organic cause for the pain must be excluded, but aspects of the patient's pain behavior are of primary importance. Treatment of the FBDs relies upon confident diagnosis, explanation, and reassurance. Diet alteration, drug treatment, and psychotherapy may be beneficial, depending on the symptoms and psychological features.


Keywords: functional bowel disorder; functional constipation; functional diarrhea; irritable bowel syndrome; functional abdominal pain; functional abdominal bloating; Rome II PMID:10457044

  14. Creation of Abdominal Adhesions in Mice.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Clement D; Hu, Michael S; Leavitt, Tripp; Barnes, Leandra A; Cheung, Alexander T M; Malhotra, Samir; Lorenz, H Peter; Longaker, Michael T

    2016-08-27

    Abdominal adhesions consist of fibrotic tissue that forms in the peritoneal space in response to an inflammatory insult, typically surgery or intraabdominal infection. The precise mechanisms underlying adhesion formation are poorly understood. Many compounds and physical barriers have been tested for their ability to prevent adhesions after surgery with varying levels of success. The mouse and rat are important models for the study of abdominal adhesions. Several different techniques for the creation of adhesions in the mouse and rat exist in the literature. Here we describe a protocol utilizing abrasion of the cecum with sandpaper and sutures placed in the right abdominal sidewall. The mouse is anesthetized and the abdomen is prepped. A midline laparotomy is created and the cecum is identified. Sandpaper is used to gently abrade the surface of the cecum. Next, several figure-of-eight sutures are placed into the peritoneum of the right abdominal sidewall. The abdominal cavity is irrigated, a small amount of starch is applied, and the incision is closed. We have found that this technique produces the most consistent adhesions with the lowest mortality rate.

  15. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  16. On the prediction of monocyte deposition in abdominal aortic aneurysms using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hardman, David; Doyle, Barry J; Semple, Scott I K; Richards, Jennifer M J; Newby, David E; Easson, William J; Hoskins, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    In abdominal aortic aneurysm disease, the aortic wall is exposed to intense biological activity involving inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase-mediated degradation of the extracellular matrix. These processes are orchestrated by monocytes and rather than affecting the aorta uniformly, damage and weaken focal areas of the wall leaving it vulnerable to rupture. This study attempts to model numerically the deposition of monocytes using large eddy simulation, discrete phase modelling and near-wall particle residence time. The model was first applied to idealised aneurysms and then to three patient-specific lumen geometries using three-component inlet velocities derived from phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. The use of a novel, variable wall shear stress-limiter based on previous experimental data significantly improved the results. Simulations identified a critical diameter (1.8 times the inlet diameter) beyond which significant monocyte deposition is expected to occur. Monocyte adhesion occurred proximally in smaller abdominal aortic aneurysms and distally as the sac expands. The near-wall particle residence time observed in each of the patient-specific models was markedly different. Discrete hotspots of monocyte residence time were detected, suggesting that the monocyte infiltration responsible for the breakdown of the abdominal aortic aneurysm wall occurs heterogeneously. Peak monocyte residence time was found to increase with aneurysm sac size. Further work addressing certain limitations is needed in a larger cohort to determine clinical significance.

  17. Low-dose dacarbazine-doxorubicin therapy against intra-abdominal desmoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Oshiro, Ryota; Nishimura, Junichi; Uemura, Mamoru; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Hata, Taishi; Takemasa, Ichiro; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2013-05-01

    Intra-abdominal desmoid tumor is a life-threatening disease. Studies have shown that dacarbazine (DTIC)-doxorubicin (DOX) (D-D) therapy is the most effective treatment. However, myelosuppression is a major problem, and cardiac muscle disorders due to DOX limit the number of administration cycles, whereas it usually requires a long time to achieve tumor shrinkage. To resolve these issues, we introduced low-dose D-D therapy to 3 patients employing 50 mg/m² DOX and 600-700 mg/m² DTIC per cycle, which permits repeated administration cycles up to 10-11 times. Case 1 was a 23-year-old female with a sporadic recurrent mesenterium desmoid tumor located in the pelvis (maximum diameter, 8 cm). Cases 2 and 3 were a 33-year-old female and a 36-year-old male. Both patients had intra-abdominal mesenterium desmoid tumors (maximum diameter 9.6 and 9.0 cm, respectively) that were generated after proctocolectomy due to familial adenomatous polyposis. No severe adverse events occurred during the therapy. With the aid of sulindac and tamoxifen after low-dose D-D therapy, the first two patients achieved a complete response, and the third patient achieved a partial response and awaits further tumor shrinkage. Our experience indicates that low-dose DT-D therapy is a safe and effective regimen for patients with intra-abdominal desmoid tumors.

  18. Human thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysmal tissues: Damage experiments, statistical analysis and constitutive modeling.

    PubMed

    Pierce, David M; Maier, Franz; Weisbecker, Hannah; Viertler, Christian; Verbrugghe, Peter; Famaey, Nele; Fourneau, Inge; Herijgers, Paul; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2015-01-01

    Development of aortic aneurysms includes significant morphological changes within the tissue: collagen content increases, elastin content reduces and smooth muscle cells degenerate. We seek to quantify the impact of these changes on the passive mechanical response of aneurysms in the supra-physiological loading range via mechanical testing and constitutive modeling. We perform uniaxial extension tests on circumferentially and axially oriented strips from five thoracic (65.6 years ± 13.4, mean ± SD) and eight abdominal (63.9 years ± 11.4) aortic fusiform aneurysms to investigate both continuous and discontinuous softening during supra-physiological loading. We determine the significance of the differences between the fitted model parameters: diseased thoracic versus abdominal tissues, and healthy (Weisbecker et al., J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 12, 93-106, 2012) versus diseased tissues. We also test correlations among these parameters and age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and preoperative aneurysm diameter, and investigate histological cuts. Tissue response is anisotropic for all tests and the anisotropic pseudo-elastic damage model fits the data well for both primary loading and discontinuous softening which we interpret as damage. We found statistically relevant differences between model parameters fitted to diseased thoracic versus abdominal tissues, as well as between those fitted to healthy versus diseased tissues. Only BMI correlated with fitted model parameters in abdominal aortic aneurysmal tissues.

  19. [Ultrasound diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm in a 52 year old woman].

    PubMed

    Romero-Hernández, Juan José; Lozano-Corona, Marco Antonio; Díaz-Méndez, Macrina; Aspeitia-León, Jorge Alejandro; Hernández-Díaz, Víctor; Magaña-Cabrera, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is defined as increasing the diameter of the aorta in more than 50 % of its original size and the infra-renal location is the most common (90 %). AAA disease mainly affects older men and white smokers, and has a male: female ratio of 4:1, as well the diagnosis is rare in women under age 55. Aneurysm rupture is the most common complication and cause of death in the general population, its etiology is unclear, but is commonly associated with atherosclerosis. The AAA do not exhibit rupture and it is usually asymptomatic diagnosed incidentally, however, as the aneurysm grows, appears symptoms such as back pain, abdominal or groin pain, well as palpation of a pulse mass on umbilical and supra-umbilical region. Imaging study such as ultrasound and CT scan are the mainstay of diagnosis. We present a case of 52 years old patient with no history related to the diagnosis, who presented sudden and severe abdominal pain. She was admitted to the emergency room with a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis vs. acute pancreatitis. After ultrasound and CT studies, the diagnosis was a complicated abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  20. Behavior of large diameter wire ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Raoof, M.; Kraincanic, I.

    1995-12-31

    The paper reviews the recent theoretical work of the present authors as regards the prediction of the 2 {times} 2 stiffness matrix describing axial/torsional coupling of large diameter wire ropes. The theoretical analysis is based on results from a previously reported orthotropic sheet model which enables one to obtain estimates of the coefficients in the 2 {times} 2 stiffness matrix describing the axial/torsional coupling of the constituent spiral strands. The proposed model can (unlike previously available theories for wire ropes) cater for the presence of interwire friction and the various wire rope stiffness coefficients corresponding to both no-slip and full-slip regimes can be calculated. The no-slip regime corresponds to cases when an axially preloaded wire rope experiences cyclic variations of external load which are small enough not to induce initiation of gross interwire slippage within the constituent spiral strands. For sufficiently large values of range/mean axial load ratios, on the other hand, gross interwire slippage takes place and the effects of interwire friction on wire rope stiffness coefficients will be negligibly small compared with the effects due to the force changes in the wires themselves. Theoretical models have been developed for two types of wire ropes, i.e., those with an independent wire rope core (IWRC) or the types with a fiber core: the salient features for both approaches are reviewed with an emphasis on the characteristics of various wire rope constructions. In addition, experimental results from other sources are found to provide encouraging support for the theoretical predictions in a number of areas.

  1. Mockup Small-Diameter Air Distribution System

    SciTech Connect

    A. Poerschke and A. Rudd

    2016-05-01

    This report investigates the feasibility of using a home-run manifold small-diameter duct system to provide space conditioning air to individual thermal zones in a low-load home. This compact layout allows duct systems to be brought easily within conditioned space via interior partition walls. Centrally locating the air hander unit in the house significantly reduces duct lengths. The plenum box is designed so that each connected duct receives an equal amount of airflow, regardless of the duct position on the box. Furthermore, within a reasonable set of length restrictions, each duct continues to receive similar airflow. The design method uses an additive approach to reach the total needed zonal airflow. Once the cubic feet per minute needed to satisfy the thermal load of a zone has been determined, the total number of duct runs to a zone can be calculated by dividing the required airflow by the standard airflow from each duct. The additive approach greatly simplifies the design effort and reduces the potential for duct design mistakes to be made. Measured results indicate that this plenum design can satisfy the heating load. However, the total airflow falls short of satisfying the cooling load in a hypothetical building. Static pressure inside the plenum box of 51.5 Pa limited the total airflow of the attached mini-split heat pump blower, thus limiting the total thermal capacity. Fan energy consumption is kept to 0.16 to 0.22 watt/CFM by using short duct runs and smooth duct material.

  2. [Duodenal perforation after blunt abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Schneider, R; Moebius, C; Thelen, A; Jonas, S

    2009-12-01

    Duodenal perforation after a blunt abdominal trauma is a rare emergency situation that can result in life-threatening complications. We report on a woman who had a perforation of the duodenum after a supposed mild blunt abdominal trauma. Unremarkable at the initial presentation, the patient presented with acute abdominal pain and a retroperitoneal abscess five days after the initial trauma. The duodenal repair was performed with a Roux-Y anastomosis. Difficulties in diagnosis are very common, but the early recognition of the rupture is essential. The contrast-enhanced CT scan is the gold standard for diagnosis. Surgical management depends on the severity of the trauma and must be chosen on an individual basis.

  3. Electromyographic analysis of four popular abdominal exercises.

    PubMed

    Piering, A W; Janowski, A P; Wehrenberg, W B; Moore, M T; Snyder, A C

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of four specific sit-up exercises on muscular activity of the rectus abdominis. Pairs of surface electrodes were placed unilaterally on four quadrants of the rectus abdominis, delimited by tendinous inscriptions, in four male subjects. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were taken while the subjects performed four different abdominal exercises. Each abdominal exercise was hypothesized to have a specific effect on one of the four quadrants of the rectus abdominis. The four exercises analyzed were: 1) long lying crunch, 2) bent knee crunch, 3) leg raise, and 4) vertical leg crunch. Analysis of the standardized EMG recordings demonstrated no significant differences in the mean muscle activity between the four different quadrants, in the mean muscle activity between the four different exercises, and in interactions between the exercises and the quadrants of the rectus abdominis. We conclude that none of the four abdominal exercises studied are specific for strengthening individual muscle quadrants of the rectus abdominis.

  4. Decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, E.; Malbrain, M.; Nesbitt, I.; Cohen, J.; Kaloiani, V.; Ivatury, R.; Mone, M.; Debergh, D.; Björck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of decompressive laparotomy on outcomes in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome has been poorly investigated. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to describe the effect of decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome on organ function and outcomes. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in adult patients who underwent decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. The primary endpoints were 28‐day and 1‐year all‐cause mortality. Changes in intra‐abdominal pressure (IAP) and organ function, and laparotomy‐related morbidity were secondary endpoints. Results Thirty‐three patients were included in the study (20 men). Twenty‐seven patients were surgical admissions treated for abdominal conditions. The median (i.q.r.) Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 26 (20–32). Median IAP was 23 (21–27) mmHg before decompressive laparotomy, decreasing to 12 (9–15), 13 (8–17), 12 (9–15) and 12 (9–14) mmHg after 2, 6, 24 and 72 h. Decompressive laparotomy significantly improved oxygenation and urinary output. Survivors showed improvement in organ function scores, but non‐survivors did not. Fourteen complications related to the procedure developed in eight of the 33 patients. The abdomen could be closed primarily in 18 patients. The overall 28‐day mortality rate was 36 per cent (12 of 33), which increased to 55 per cent (18 patients) at 1 year. Non‐survivors were no different from survivors, except that they tended to be older and on mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Decompressive laparotomy reduced IAP and had an immediate effect on organ function. It should be considered in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome. PMID:26891380

  5. Imaging for chronic abdominal pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Diagnostic imaging is often not indicated in chronic abdominal pain. In particular, undifferentiated abdominal pain is rarely an indication for a CT scan. CT scanning is overused even when imaging is required. Other modalities may be preferable. A normal CT scan does not rule out cancer. Alarm symptoms, including anaemia, blood in the stool, waking at night with gastrointestinal symptoms, and weight loss, should be investigated. The most appropriate modality depends on the symptoms. Clinical information on request forms for CT scans should be specific and include the suspected condition as this helps the radiologist to determine an appropriate imaging protocol.

  6. [Penetrating abdominal wounds. Apropos of 330 cases].

    PubMed

    Nejjar, M; Bennani, S; Zerouali, O N

    1991-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal wounds are frequent and serious. 330 cases have been treated in the Department of Emergencies and visceral Surgery at Averroes Hospital of Casablanca from 1980 to 1990. The predominance of male sex is noted, and these wounds are always the result of aggression by white arm. All patients have been operated, the white laparotomy rate is of 36%. The classic interventionist attitude is still recommended in spite of this high rate, because our present conditions can't permit us a rigorous watching. According to abdominal lesions, the different interventions are reviewed, and their indications are detailed.

  7. Hypovolemic shock in children: abdominal CT manifestations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G A; Fallat, M E; Eichelberger, M R

    1987-08-01

    The authors describe a "hypoperfusion complex," seen on abdominal computed tomography, which consists of marked, diffuse dilatation of the intestine with fluid; abnormally intense contrast enhancement of the bowel wall, mesentery, kidneys, and/or pancreas; decreased caliber of the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava; and moderate to large peritoneal fluid collections. This complex was present in three patients less than 2 years of age and was associated with severe injury and a poor outcome. Recognition of this constellation of findings may help direct attention to the patient's serious hemodynamic abnormality as much as to individual organ defects.

  8. [Intraabdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sonne, Morten; Hillingsø, Jens

    2008-02-11

    Intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare conditions with high mortality. IAH is an intraabdominal pressure (IAP) above 12 mmHg and ACS an IAP above 20 mmHg with evidence of organ dysfunction. IAP is measured indirectly via the bladder or stomach. Various medical and surgical conditions increase the intraabdominal volume. When the content exceeds the compliance of the abdominal wall, the IAP rises. Increased IAP affects the functioning of the brain, lungs, circulation, kidneys, and bowel. The treatment of ACS is a reduction of IAP.

  9. Instability of Reference Diameter in the Evaluation of Stenosis After Coronary Angioplasty: Percent Diameter Stenosis Overestimates Dilative Effects Due to Reference Diameter Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hirami, Ryouichi; Iwasaki, Kohichiro; Kusachi, Shozo; Murakami, Takashi; Hina, Kazuyoshi; Matano, Shigeru; Murakami, Masaaki; Kita, Toshimasa; Sakakibara, Noburu; Tsuji, Takao

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To examine changes in the reference segment luminal diameter after coronary angioplasty.Methods: Sixty-one patients with stable angina pectoris or old myocardial infarction were examined. Coronary angiograms were recorded before coronary angioplasty (pre-angioplasty) and immediately after (post-angioplasty), as well as 3 months after. Artery diameters were measured on cine-film using quantitative coronary angiographic analysis.Results: The diameters of the proximal segment not involved in the balloon inflation and segments in the other artery did not change significantly after angioplasty, but the reference segment diameter significantly decreased (4.7%). More than 10% luminal reduction was observed in seven patients (11%) and more than 5% reduction was observed in 25 patients (41%). More than 5% underestimation of the stenosis was observed in 22 patients (36%) when the post-angioplasty reference diameter was used as the reference diameter, compared with when the pre-angioplasty measurement was used and more than 10% underestimation was observed in five patients (8%).Conclusion: This study indicated that evaluation by percent diameter stenosis, with the reference diameter from immediately after angioplasty, overestimates the dilative effects of coronary angioplasty, and that it is thus better to evaluate the efficacy of angioplasty using the absolute diameter in addition to percent luminal stenosis.

  10. Abdominal Migraine in a Middle-aged Woman

    PubMed Central

    Kunishi, Yosuke; Iwata, Yuri; Ota, Mitsuyasu; Kurakami, Yuichi; Matsubayashi, Mao; Kanno, Masatomo; Kuboi, Yoriko; Yoshie, Koichiro; Kato, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with recurrent, severe abdominal pain. Laboratory tests and imaging were insignificant, and treatment for functional dyspepsia was ineffective. The poorly localized, dull, and severe abdominal pain, associated with anorexia, nausea, and vomiting, was consistent with abdominal migraine. The symptoms were relieved by loxoprofen and lomerizine, which are used in the treatment of migraine. We herein report a case of abdominal migraine in a middle-aged woman. Abdominal migraine should be considered as a cause of abdominal pain as it might easily be relieved by appropriate treatment. PMID:27725538

  11. Extrusion of small-diameter, thin-wall tungsten tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, C. P.; Gyorgak, C. A.

    1967-01-01

    Small-diameter, thin-wall seamless tubing of tungsten has been fabricated in lengths of up to 10 feet by hot extrusion over a floating mandrel. Extrusion of 0.50-inch-diameter tubing over 0.4-inch-diameter mandrels was accomplished at temperatures ranging from 3000 degrees to 4000 degrees F.

  12. Regulating sadness and fear from outside and within: mothers' emotion socialization and adolescents' parasympathetic regulation predict the development of internalizing difficulties.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Paul D; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Kendziora, Kimberly T; Brand, Ann; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2014-11-01

    Multilevel models of developmental psychopathology implicate both characteristics of the individual and their rearing environment in the etiology of internalizing problems and disorders. Maladaptive regulation of fear and sadness, the core of anxiety and depression, arises from the conjoint influences of ineffective parasympathetic regulation of emotion and ineffective emotion socialization experiences. In 171 youths (84 female, M = 13.69 years, SD = 1.84), we measured changes of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in response to sadness- and fear-inducing film clips and maternal supportive and punitive responses to youths' internalizing emotions. Youths and mothers reported on youths' internalizing problems and anxiety and depression symptoms concurrently and 2 years later at Time 2. Maternal supportive emotion socialization predicted fewer, and punitive socialization predicted more, mother-reported internalizing problems at Time 2 only for youths who showed RSA suppression to fear-inducing films. More RSA suppression to sadness-inducing films predicted more youth-reported internalizing problems at Time 2 in girls only. In addition, less supportive emotion socialization predicted more youth-reported depression symptoms at Time 2 only for girls who showed more RSA suppression to sadness. RSA suppression to sadness versus fear might reflect different patterns of atypical parasympathetic regulation of emotional arousal, both of which increase the risk for internalizing difficulties in youths, and especially girls, who lack maternal support for regulating emotions.

  13. "I felt sad and did not enjoy life": Cultural context and the associations between anhedonia, depressed mood, and momentary emotions.

    PubMed

    Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E; Choi, Eunsoo; Ryder, Andrew G; Reyes, Jenny

    2015-10-01

    The meanings of "anhedonia" and "depressed mood," the cardinal emotional symptoms of major depression, may be shaped by cultural norms regarding pleasure and sadness. Thirty-two European Americans, 26 Hispanic Americans, 33 Asian Americans, and 20 Russian Americans provided reports of (a) depressive symptoms, (b) momentary emotions and pleasure, and (c) global subjective well-being. Momentary reports were collected over 10 days using handheld personal digital assistants. Reports of anhedonia were associated with heightened levels of momentary low arousal negative emotions (e.g., sadness), whereas reports of depressed mood were associated with dampened levels of momentary positive emotions (e.g., happiness). Symptoms of anhedonia and depressed mood interacted in their associations with momentary pleasure. In addition, the associations of anhedonia and depressed mood with positive emotions and life satisfaction differed across cultural groups. Specifically, these symptoms were associated with dampened positive emotions in the Asian American group only. Additionally, anhedonia was associated with dampened global life satisfaction in the European American group only. These results suggest that reports of anhedonia and depressed mood cannot be interpreted at face value as specific and culture-free indicators of emotional deficits. Instead, they appear to signal changes in the balance of positive and negative emotions, with the exact nature of these signals shaped at least in part by cultural context. This conclusion has important consequences for the clinical interpretation of depressive symptoms in multicultural societies.

  14. Abdominal manifestations of actinomycosis in IUD users.

    PubMed

    Asuncion, C M; Cinti, D C; Hawkins, H B

    1984-08-01

    The use of an intrauterine device (IUD) is associated with the presence of actinomyces in the female genital tract. Since IUD use is currently so prevalent, IUD-related pelvic inflammatory disease occasionally spreads to the rest of the abdomen. Two patients with abdominal actinomycosis in association with an IUD illustrate the problem; we review the general problem.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aug;6(4):232-6. Citation on PubMed Islam S. Clinical care outcomes in abdominal wall defects. Curr ... Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links USA.gov Copyright Privacy Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. ...

  16. [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Cervantes Castro, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.

  17. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  18. Assessment of the patient with acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Cole, Elaine; Lynch, Antonia; Cugnoni, Helen

    Abdominal pain has many causes, from simple to complex presentations. Patients with abdominal pain may have a number of physiological and psychological needs. Nurses have a key role to play in patient assessment, history talking and management.

  19. Talk to Your Doctor about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... español Talk to Your Doctor about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Browse Sections The Basics Overview What is AAA? ... doctor about getting screened (tested) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). If AAA isn't found and treated ...

  20. [Lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in children].

    PubMed

    Kvirikashvili, T O

    2006-01-01

    We investigated 79 patients (76.0%) with lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes among all 104 with general abdominal lymphosarcoma. Ultrasound tomography was used in 98.1 % cases; also, in the urgent cases cancer transcutaneal puncture was performed with the purpose of cytological investigation. In complicated situations computer tomography was considered as a highly informative method of investigation. Surgical intervention and radial therapy is inexpedient in a treatment program of lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in children. Besides, it is shown the superiority of intensive program of polychemical therapy OMDV: vincristine (oncovin) -- 1.5 mg/m(2) i/v in the 1 day; metotrexate -- 250 mg/m(2) i/v drop by drop in the I day; dexamethazone 10 mg/m(2) per os 1-5 day; vepesid -- 100 mg/m(2) i/v drop by drop in the 4 and 5 days.) in comparison with the ACOP scheme: adriamicine or rubomicine - 30 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); cyclophosphane -- 600 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); vincristine (oncovin) -- 1.4 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); prednisolone -- 40 mg/m(2) every day 4-6 week quitting gradually) for treatment of lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in childhood age. General recovery without recurrence in children with lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes was occurred in 44.2% cases. In the case of polychemical therapy according to ACOP scheme, recovery was 20% and in the case of polychemical therapy following OMDV scheme, 78.1% of the children recovered.

  1. Combined Gastric and Duodenal Perforation Through Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Adarshpal; Singla, Archan Lal; Kumar, Ashwani; Yadav, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Blunt abdominal traumas are uncommonly encountered despite their high prevalence, and injuries to the organ like duodenum are relatively uncommon (occurring in only 3%-5% of abdominal injuries) because of its retroperitoneal location. Duodenal injury combined with gastric perforation from a single abdominal trauma impact is rarely heard. The aim of this case report is to present a rare case of blunt abdominal trauma with combined gastric and duodenal injuries. PMID:25738037

  2. Abdominal cavity myolipoma presenting as an enlarging incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Mark O; Richardson, Michael L; Rubin, Brian P; Baird, Geoffrey S

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of an abdominal cavity myolipoma which herniated through a low transverse abdominal (Pfannenstiel) incision, and presented as an enlarging abdominal wall mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to surgery demonstrated an encapsulated solid tumor mass demonstrating fat signal and and increased T2-weighted signal. Postsurgical histological tissue diagnosis was myolipoma. Recognition of the intra- and extraperitoneal location of this abdominal tumor was essential for accurate surgical planning.

  3. [Approaches to the abdominal cavity and closure of the abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Y; Rauchfuss, F; Ardelt, M; Settmacher, U

    2011-12-01

    Although minimally invasive approaches to the abdominal cavity are becoming increasingly more important, open surgical techniques are still of essential interest and must be mastered by general and visceral surgeons. The choice of the particular approach depends on the specificity and location of the scheduled procedure. The following article is intended to give an overview on the current literature as well as experiences in the field of open surgical approaches to the abdominal cavity.

  4. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Mirosław

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents.

  5. Estimation of genetic parameters for wool fiber diameter measures.

    PubMed

    Iman, N Y; Johnson, C L; Russell, W C; Stobart, R H

    1992-04-01

    Genetic and phenotypic correlations and heritability estimates of side, britch, and core diameters; side and britch CV; side and britch diameter difference; and clean fleece weight were investigated using 385 western white-faced ewes produced by 50 sires and maintained at two locations on a selection study. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance procedures, and effects in the final model included breed of sire-selection line combination, sire within breed-selection line, and location. Heritabilities were estimated by paternal half-sib analysis. Sires within breed-selection line represented a significant source of variation for all traits studied. Location had a significant effect on side diameter, side and britch diameter difference, and clean fleece weight. Age of ewe only affected clean fleece weight. Phenotypic and genetic correlations among side, britch, and core diameter measures were high and positive. Phenotypic correlations ranged from .68 to .75 and genetic correlations ranged from .74 to .89. The genetic correlations between side and britch diameter difference and side diameter or core diameter were small (-.16 and .28, respectively). However, there was a stronger genetic correlation between side and britch diameter difference and britch diameter (.55). Heritability of the difference between side and britch diameter was high (.46 +/- .16) and similar to heritability estimates reported for other wool traits. Results of this study indicate that relatively rapid genetic progress through selection for fiber diameter should be possible. In addition, increased uniformity in fiber diameter should be possible through selection for either side and britch diameter difference or side or britch CV.

  6. Crown diameters of the deciduous teeth of Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Liu, H H; Dung, S Z; Yang, Y H

    2000-06-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to characterize the crown diameters of the deciduous teeth of Taiwanese; (2) to compare the differences in the deciduous crown diameters between different populations. The results might provide odontometric information in making preformed stainless steel crowns of the Chinese population. Study casts of 90 children (51 boys and 39 girls) of aged 3 to 6 years were used in this study. The maximum mesiodistal crown diameter (the greatest distance between the contact points of the approximal surfaces) and the buccolingual crown diameter (the greatest distance at a right angle to the mesiodistal measurement) were obtained by using an electronic digital caliper. Significant differences between antimeres were found in the mesiodistal diameters of maxillary canine and maxillary molars (p < 0.001) as well as in the buccolingual diameters of mandibular molars (p < 0.05). Excellent correlations between the antimeres of the corresponding teeth were found (r = 0.70 to 0.96). Boys generally had larger crown diameters than girls with the exception of mesiodistal diameters of maxillary and mandibular canines, and mandibular lateral incisor, whereas the statistically significant gender difference was only found in the buccolingual diameter of mandibular second molar (p < 0.05). The higher the percentage of sexual dimorphism, the larger the gender differences. The percentage of sexual dimorphism ranged from 0.09 to 1.94 for mesiodistal diameters and 0.04 to 2.86 for buccolingual diameters. The mandibular second molar was the most dimorphic tooth. Variations in the crown diameters of the deciduous teeth existed among and within different populations. Deciduous mesiodistal crown diameters of Taiwanese were, in general, smaller than those of Australian aborigines, Taiwan Chinese aborigines, and Hong Kong Chinese, but larger than those of American whites. When considering the buccolingual crown diameters, our data were significantly smaller than those

  7. This mood is familiar and I don't deserve to feel better anyway: mechanisms underlying self-esteem differences in motivation to repair sad moods.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joanne V; Heimpel, Sara A; Manwell, Laurie A; Whittington, Elizabeth J

    2009-02-01

    Why are people with low self-esteem (LSE) less motivated than people with high self-esteem (HSE) to improve sad moods? The present research examined whether feelings of personal deservingness contribute to this difference. Four experiments with undergraduate participants involved a sad mood induction, a manipulation of personal deservingness, or both. Results suggested that (a) LSEs feel less deserving of positive outcomes and of positive moods than do HSEs, (b) feelings of personal deservingness can vary with the situation, and be lowered through reminders of social rejection and personal flaws, and (c) feeling relatively undeserving dampens LSEs', but not HSEs', motivation to repair sad moods. These results have implications for the emotion regulation, self-esteem, and social justice literatures.

  8. Diagnostic yield of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in children with abdominal pain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abdominal pain is the most common indication for OGD in children. However, existing studies examining the diagnostic outcomes of OGD in children with abdominal pain are limited. We conducted the current study to examine the diagnostic yield of OGD with biopsy in the evaluation of abdominal pain and ...

  9. 2013 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The 2013 update of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for the management of intra-abdominal infections contains evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with intra-abdominal infections. PMID:23294512

  10. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  11. Direct phase selection of initial phases from single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) for the improvement of electron density and ab initio structure determination

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chung-De; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Chiang, Hsin-Lin; Hsieh, Yin-Cheng; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2014-09-01

    A novel direct phase-selection method to select optimized phases from the ambiguous phases of a subset of reflections to replace the corresponding initial SAD phases has been developed. With the improved phases, the completeness of built residues of protein molecules is enhanced for efficient structure determination. Optimization of the initial phasing has been a decisive factor in the success of the subsequent electron-density modification, model building and structure determination of biological macromolecules using the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method. Two possible phase solutions (ϕ{sub 1} and ϕ{sub 2}) generated from two symmetric phase triangles in the Harker construction for the SAD method cause the well known phase ambiguity. A novel direct phase-selection method utilizing the θ{sub DS} list as a criterion to select optimized phases ϕ{sub am} from ϕ{sub 1} or ϕ{sub 2} of a subset of reflections with a high percentage of correct phases to replace the corresponding initial SAD phases ϕ{sub SAD} has been developed. Based on this work, reflections with an angle θ{sub DS} in the range 35–145° are selected for an optimized improvement, where θ{sub DS} is the angle between the initial phase ϕ{sub SAD} and a preliminary density-modification (DM) phase ϕ{sub DM}{sup NHL}. The results show that utilizing the additional direct phase-selection step prior to simple solvent flattening without phase combination using existing DM programs, such as RESOLVE or DM from CCP4, significantly improves the final phases in terms of increased correlation coefficients of electron-density maps and diminished mean phase errors. With the improved phases and density maps from the direct phase-selection method, the completeness of residues of protein molecules built with main chains and side chains is enhanced for efficient structure determination.

  12. Extracellular Matrix Disarray as A Mechanism for Greater Abdominal vs. Thoracic Aortic Stiffness with Aging in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Xin; Vatner, Dorothy E; McNulty, Tara; Bishop, Sanford; Sun, Zhe; Shen, You-Tang; Chen, Li; Meininger, Gerald A; Vatner, Stephen F

    2016-01-01

    Objective Increased vascular stiffness is central to the pathophysiology of aging, hypertension, diabetes and atherosclerosis. However, relatively few studies have examined vascular stiffness in both the thoracic and abdominal aorta with aging, despite major differences in anatomy, embryological origin and relation to aortic aneurysm. Approach and Results The two other unique features of this study were 1) to study young (9±1 years) and old (26±1 years) male monkeys, and 2) to study direct and continuous measurements of aortic pressure and thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters in conscious monkeys. As expected, aortic stiffness, β, was increased p<0.05, 2–3 fold, in old vs. young thoracic aorta, and augmented further with superimposition of acute hypertension with phenylephrine. Surprisingly, stiffness was not greater in old thoracic aorta than young abdominal aorta. These results can be explained in part by the collagen/elastin ratio, but more importantly, by disarray of collagen and elastin, which correlated best with vascular stiffness. However, vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness, was not different in thoracic vs. abdominal aorta in either young or old monkeys. Conclusions Thus, aortic stiffness increases with aging as expected, but the most severe increases in aortic stiffness observed in the abdominal aorta is novel, where values in young monkeys equaled, or even exceeded, values of thoracic aortic stiffness in old monkeys. These results can be explained by alterations in collagen/elastin ratio, but even more importantly by collagen and elastin disarray. PMID:26891739

  13. Fiber diameter distributions in the chinchilla's ampullary nerves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Larry F.; Honrubia, Vicente

    2002-01-01

    A morphometric study of the chinchilla's ampullary nerves was conducted to produce an unbiased accounting of the diameter distribution of their constituent fibers. Diameter analyses were determined from 1 microm plastic-embedded nerve sections taken at a plane immediately proximal to the sensory epithelium. We found these nerves to be composed of 2094+/-573 fibers, having diameters that ranged from 0.5 to 8 microm. The distributions of diameters were positively skewed, where approximately 75% of the fibers were found to have diameters less than 3.5 microm. An analysis of the spatial distribution of diameters within the nerve section revealed that the lateralmost areas of the nerve contained larger fractions of fibers within the smallest diameter quintiles, and the central area harbored greater proportions of the larger diameter quintiles. However, significant fractions of all quintiles were found in all areas. These data were integrated with available data of Fernandez et al. (1998) to produce diameter estimates of calyx, dimorphic, and bouton morphology subpopulations. In view of a general relationship between diameter, innervation locus, and an afferent's physiologic characteristics, these data provide the basis for developing a perspective for the in situ distribution of afferent response dynamics.

  14. Endovascular repair of inflammatory abdominal aneurysm: a retrospective analysis of CT follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hechelhammer, Lukas; Wildermuth, Simon; Lachat, Mario L; Pfammatter, Thomas

    2005-05-01

    Retrospective radiologic and clinical midterm follow-up is reported for 10 patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). At a mean follow-up of 33 months, regression of the thickness of the perianeurysmal fibrosis (PAF) and decrease of aneurysmal sac diameter was observed in nine patients. Four EVAR-associated complications were observed: periinterventional dissection of femoral artery (n = 1), blue toe syndrome (n = 1), and stent-graft disconnection (n = 2). EVAR is the less invasive method of aneurysm exclusion in patients with IAAA with a comparable evolution of the PAF as reported after open repair.

  15. Thresholds for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair in England and the United States.

    PubMed

    Karthikesalingam, Alan; Vidal-Diez, Alberto; Holt, Peter J; Loftus, Ian M; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Soden, Peter A; Landon, Bruce E; Thompson, Matthew M

    2016-11-24

    Background Thresholds for repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms vary considerably among countries. Methods We examined differences between England and the United States in the frequency of aneurysm repair, the mean aneurysm diameter at the time of the procedure, and rates of aneurysm rupture and aneurysm-related death. Data on the frequency of repair of intact (nonruptured) abdominal aortic aneurysms, in-hospital mortality among patients who had undergone aneurysm repair, and rates of aneurysm rupture during the period from 2005 through 2012 were extracted from the Hospital Episode Statistics database in England and the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Data on the aneurysm diameter at the time of repair were extracted from the U.K. National Vascular Registry (2014 data) and from the U.S. National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (2013 data). Aneurysm-related mortality during the period from 2005 through 2012 was determined from data obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.K. Office of National Statistics. Data were adjusted with the use of direct standardization or conditional logistic regression for differences between England and the United States with respect to population age and sex. Results During the period from 2005 through 2012, a total of 29,300 patients in England and 278,921 patients in the United States underwent repair of intact abdominal aortic aneurysms. Aneurysm repair was less common in England than in the United States (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 0.49; P<0.001), and aneurysm-related death was more common in England than in the United States (odds ratio, 3.60; 95% CI, 3.55 to 3.64; P<0.001). Hospitalization due to an aneurysm rupture occurred more frequently in England than in the United States (odds ratio, 2.23; 95% CI, 2.19 to 2.27; P<0.001), and the mean aneurysm diameter at the time of repair was larger in England (63.7 mm vs. 58.3 mm, P<0.001). Conclusions We found a lower rate

  16. Equations of prediction for abdominal fat in brown egg-laying hens fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Souza, C; Jaimes, J J B; Gewehr, C E

    2016-12-03

    The objective was to use noninvasive measurements to formulate equations for predicting the abdominal fat weight of laying hens in a noninvasive manner. Hens were fed with different diets; the external body measurements of birds were used as regressors. We used 288 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement, submitted for 16 wk to 2 metabolizable energy levels (2,550 and 2,800 kcal/kg) and 3 levels of crude protein in the diet (150, 160, and 170 g/kg), totaling 6 treatments, with 48 hens each. Sixteen hens per treatment of 92 wk age were utilized to evaluate body weight, bird length, tarsus and sternum, greater and lesser diameter of the tarsus, and abdominal fat weight, after slaughter. The equations were obtained by using measures evaluated with regressors through simple and multiple linear regression with the stepwise method of indirect elimination (backward), with P < 0.10 for all variables remaining in the model. The weight of abdominal fat as predicted by the equations and observed values for each bird were subjected to Pearson's correlation analysis. The equations generated by energy levels showed coefficients of determination of 0.50 and 0.74 for 2,800 and 2,550 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy, respectively, with correlation coefficients of 0.71 and 0.84, with a highly significant correlation between the calculated and observed values of abdominal fat. For protein levels of 150, 160, and 170 g/kg in the diet, it was possible to obtain coefficients of determination of 0.75, 0.57, and 0.61, with correlation coefficients of 0.86, 0.75, and 0.78, respectively. Regarding the general equation for predicting abdominal fat weight, the coefficient of determination was 0.62; the correlation coefficient was 0.79. The equations for predicting abdominal fat weight in laying hens, based on external measurements of the birds, showed positive coefficients of determination and correlation coefficients, thus

  17. Pain-related bias in the classification of emotionally ambiguous facial expressions in mothers of children with chronic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Liossi, Christina; White, Paul; Croome, Natasha; Hatira, Popi

    2012-03-01

    This study sought to determine whether mothers of young people with chronic abdominal pain (CAP) compared to mothers of pain-free children show a pain recognition bias when they classify facial emotional expressions. One hundred demographically matched mothers of children with CAP (n=50) and control mothers (n=50) were asked to identify different emotions expressed by adults in 2 experiments. In experiment 1, participants were required to identify the emotion in a series of facial images that depicted 100% intensity of the following emotions: Pain, Sadness, Anger, Fear, Happiness, and Neutral. In experiment 2, mothers were required to identify the predominant emotion in a series of computer-interpolated ("morphed") facial images. In this experiment, pain was combined with Sad, Angry, Fearful, Happy, and Neutral facial expressions in different proportions-that is, 90%:10%, 70%:30%, 50%:50%, 30%:70%, 10%:90%. All participants completed measures of state and trait anxiety, depression, and anxiety sensitivity. In experiment 1, there was no difference in the performance of the 2 groups of mothers. In experiment 2, it was found that overall mothers of children with CAP were classifying ambiguous emotional expressions predominantly as pain. Mean response times for CAP and control groups did not differ significantly. Mothers of children with CAP did not report more anxiety, depression, and anxiety sensitivity compared to control mothers. It is concluded that mothers of children with CAP show a pain bias when interpreting ambiguous emotional expressions, which possibly contributes to the maintenance of this condition in children via specific parenting behaviours.

  18. Investigation of the Frequency Shift of a SAD Circuit Loop and the Internal Micro-Cantilever in a Gas Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Liu; Zhao, Jiahao; Yu, Shijie; Li, Peng; You, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Micro-cantilever sensors for mass detection using resonance frequency have attracted considerable attention over the last decade in the field of gas sensing. For such a sensing system, an oscillator circuit loop is conventionally used to actuate the micro-cantilever, and trace the frequency shifts. In this paper, gas experiments are introduced to investigate the mechanical resonance frequency shifts of the micro-cantilever within the circuit loop(mechanical resonance frequency, MRF) and resonating frequency shifts of the electric signal in the oscillator circuit (system working frequency, SWF). A silicon beam with a piezoelectric zinc oxide layer is employed in the experiment, and a Self-Actuating-Detecting (SAD) circuit loop is built to drive the micro-cantilever and to follow the frequency shifts. The differences between the two resonating frequencies and their shifts are discussed and analyzed, and a coefficient α related to the two frequency shifts is confirmed. PMID:22163588

  19. He throws like a girl (but only when he's sad): emotion affects sex-decoding of biological motion displays.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kerri L; McKay, Lawrie S; Pollick, Frank E

    2011-05-01

    Gender stereotypes have been implicated in sex-typed perceptions of facial emotion. Such interpretations were recently called into question because facial cues of emotion are confounded with sexually dimorphic facial cues. Here we examine the role of visual cues and gender stereotypes in perceptions of biological motion displays, thus overcoming the morphological confounding inherent in facial displays. In four studies, participants' judgments revealed gender stereotyping. Observers accurately perceived emotion from biological motion displays (Study 1), and this affected sex categorizations. Angry displays were overwhelmingly judged to be men; sad displays were judged to be women (Studies 2-4). Moreover, this pattern remained strong when stimuli were equated for velocity (Study 3). We argue that these results were obtained because perceivers applied gender stereotypes of emotion to infer sex category (Study 4). Implications for both vision sciences and social psychology are discussed.

  20. Lower body weight is associated with less negative emotions in sad autobiographical memories of patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Grosse Holtforth, Martin; Bents, Hinrich; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2013-12-15

    Food restriction and weight-loss have been proposed to represent pathogenic mechanisms of emotion regulation in anorexia nervosa (AN). However, there is a lack of studies empirically examining this hypothesis. Therefore, the present study compared 25 women with AN and 25 healthy control women (HC) regarding spontaneous emotional processing of autobiographic memories. Participants' idiographic memories of sad autobiographic events were analyzed using computerized, quantitative text analysis as an unobtrusive approach of nonreactive assessment. Compared to HC, AN patients retrieved more negative but a comparable number of positive emotions. Moreover, the lesser the body weight in AN patients, the lesser negative emotions they retrieved, irrespective of current levels of depressive symptoms and duration of illness. No such association was found in HC. These preliminary findings are in line with models of AN proposing that food restriction and weight-loss may be negatively reinforced by the alleviation of aversive emotional responses.

  1. [Surgical correction of infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Khamitov, F F; Matochkin, E A; Vertkina, N V; Kizyma, A G; Lisitskiĭ, D A

    2008-01-01

    The authors compare various surgical strategies of infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysm (IAAA) repair based on the experience of the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Urban Clinical Hospital No.81. Total 198 patients underwent aneurysm resection and grafting through conventional (90) or minilaparotomy (108) approaches. Mini-approach was shown to improve significantly both perioperative course and outcomes of IAAA correction. The main advantage of this approach comprised limited invasiveness together with sufficient exposure of abdominal aorta and its branches. Abandoning small bowel evisceration helps to preserve ther-moregulation and achieve volemic homeostasis with less fluid volume. Postoperative period after surgical mini-approach was characterized by shorter period of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay, earlier restoration of bowel motility, conversion to usual nutrition, patient mobilization and discharge. Minimally invasive technology significantly broadens feasibility of radical aortic reconstructions for patients with serious cardio-vascular comorbidities.

  2. Missed Gastric Injuries in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Naiem, Ahmed A.; Taqi, Kadhim M.; Al-Kendi, Badriya H.; Al-Qadhi, Hani

    2016-01-01

    Hollow viscus injuries of the digestive tract are an uncommon occurrence in blunt abdominal trauma. We report a 39-year-old male who was hit by a vehicle as a pedestrian and admitted to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in 2015. He underwent an exploratory laparotomy which revealed injuries to the distal stomach, liver and descending colon. Postoperatively, the patient was febrile, tachycardic and hypotensive. Abdominal examination revealed distention and tenderness. The next day, a repeat laparotomy identified a gastric injury which had not been diagnosed during the initial laparotomy. Although the defect was repaired, the patient subsequently died as a result of multiorgan failure. Missed gastric injuries are rare and are associated with a grave prognosis, particularly for trauma patients. Delays in diagnosis, in addition to associated injuries, contribute to a high mortality rate. PMID:28003902

  3. Refractory Abdominal Pain in a Hemodialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Ying; Chen, Xiao-nong; Shi, Hao; Xie, Jingyuan; Chen, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) is a rare disorder. Failure of an early diagnosis may cause progressive intestinal ischemia, leading to abdominal pain, sepsis, and death. Patients with end-stage renal disease are among the highest risk populations for developing this lethal complication. The key to a correct diagnosis at an early stage is a high index of suspicion in predisposed patients. In our case, we present a 62-year-old female undergoing maintenance hemodialysis for 8 years; she complained of abdominal pain after hemodialysis in the last 3 months; NOMI was suspected after a CT angiography. She partially recovered after multiple clinical interventions such as decreased ultrafiltration, an increased dose of low molecular-weight heparin and the use of vasoactive drugs. In conclusion, NOMI can be reversible if it is diagnosed as early as possible and after the necessary diagnostic measurements are initiated. PMID:26266246

  4. [Abdominal bloating: an up-to-date].

    PubMed

    Ducrotté, P

    2009-10-01

    Bloating is a common symptom, especially in women. In the clinical practice, it remains a therapeutic challenge. Since recently, its pathophysiology is better understood: an impaired transit of gas (particularly in the small bowel) or a visceral hypersensitivity leading to the induction of an abdominal discomfort despite a normal volume of gas are two of the main causes, far more frequent than an excessive production of gas. Moreover, bloating can be related to abnormal viscera-somatic reflexes promoting both an abdomino-phrenic dyssynergia and the relaxation of the muscles of the abdominal wall. From a therapeutic point of view, the efficacy of the gas absorbants remains to be more documented. Besides the treatment of a constipation and the avoidance of nutrients either highly fermentable or rich in fructose, other therapeutic options include prokinetics and drugs acting on visceral sensitivity. Probiotics are another promising option. In some centers, a non pharmacological therapeutic approach, mainly based on hypnosis, is discussed.

  5. [Normal abdominal ultrasound anatomy. Examination procedure].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura Grau, A; Rodríguez Lorenzo, A; Segura Cabral, J M

    2014-01-01

    To carry out an abdominal ultrasound examination with the highest degree of accuracy and thoroughness, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the anatomy and the normal measurements of the different organs. In this way, we can determine their normal condition and identify the pathology and its location more easily. It is very important to adopt a correct examination procedure, systematically sweeping the scan in the same direction and not leaving any organ unexamined. We suggest a procedure consisting of longitudinal, cross-sectional and oblique scans to view all the abdominal organs, starting the examination in the epigastric region, scanning first the right upper quadrant, then the left upper quadrant, both iliac fossa, and lastly the hypogastric region.

  6. Abdominal abscesses in adolescents with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Biller, J A; Grand, R J; Harris, B H

    1987-09-01

    Little information is available about the development of abdominal abscesses in adolescents with Crohn's disease. We report the clinical presentation of five adolescents with Crohn's disease who developed this complication. The mean time from diagnosis until development of an abdominal abscess was 1.7 years. The admitting diagnosis was an acute abdomen in two patients and recurrent Crohn's disease in the other three. No features of the clinical presentation or laboratory data distinguished this group from other adolescents with Crohn's disease. The use of ultrasound and CT scanning was helpful in making this diagnosis preoperatively. Those patients with active Crohn's disease who do not respond promptly to medical therapy should be evaluated for the development of this complication.

  7. Color Doppler ultrasonography of the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, S; Danesino, G M; Danesino, V; Castellani, S

    2010-09-01

    Alterations of the abdominal aorta are relatively common, particularly in older people. Technological advances in the fields of ultrasonography, computed tomography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging have greatly increased the imaging options for the assessment of these lesions. Because it can be done rapidly and is also non-invasive, ultrasonography plays a major role in the exploration of the abdominal aorta, from its emergence from the diaphragm to its bifurcation. It is indicated for the diagnosis and follow-up of various aortic diseases, especially aneurysms. It can be used to define the shape, size, and location of these lesions, the absence or presence of thrombi and their characteristics. It is also useful for monitoring the evolution of the lesion and for postoperative follow-up. However, its value is limited in surgical planning and in emergency situations.

  8. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy following previous abdominal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Stellato, T A; Gauderer, M W; Ponsky, J L

    1984-01-01

    During a 36-month period, 89 patients have undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy without mortality. Of these patients, 25 (13 infants and children, 12 adults) had prior abdominal procedures that increased their risk for the endoscopic procedure. With two exceptions, all gastrostomies were performed utilizing local anesthesia. There was one major complication, a gastrocolic fistula, which was successfully managed by repeating the endoscopic gastrostomy procedure at a location more cephalad in the stomach. Twenty-two of the gastrostomies were placed for feeding purposes and all of these patients were able to leave the hospital with alimentation accomplished via the tube. Three of the endoscopically placed gastrostomies were for gastrointestinal tract decompression. A total of 255 patient months have been accumulated in these patients with the endoscopically placed gastrostomy in situ. The technique can be safely performed in patients with prior abdominal surgery and in the majority of cases is the technique of choice for establishing a tube gastrostomy. PMID:6428334

  9. [Postoperative foreign objects in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Kazarian, V M

    2008-01-01

    The study was designed to elucidate the circumstances under which iatrogenic foreign objects can be mistakenly left inside the patient's body after surgical interventions and to outline measures to prevent such errors. The data obtained in forensic medical examination of two cases of urgent surgery on abdominal organs are analysed. They indicate that the main causes of leaving behind foreign bodies in a patient include improper organization of emergency medical aid, personal qualities of the surgeon, and psycho-emotional atmosphere during the operation. Comprehensive evaluation of the associated clinical symptoms and their dynamics is necessary for early identification and removal of foreign objects left in the abdominal cavity. It would help to avoid undesirable outcomes of surgery and reduce the number of legal proceedings against medical and preventive treatment facilities.

  10. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm. Role of corticosteroid therapy].

    PubMed

    Testart, J; Plissonnier, D; Peillon, C; Watelet, J

    2000-06-01

    For more than 20 years it has been generally acknowledged that operation for inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) using the common in-lay-graft procedure will induce the regression of peri-aortic fibrosis. However in prospective studies, after a 2 years follow-up, no regression appeared in approximated 8% of the cases (table I). Moreover in some IAAA a corticosteroid treatment (CS) was prescribed and it produced a regression of fibrosis and therefore facilitated the operation. Nevertheless the usefulness of the CS remains debated. We report 4 new cases of IAAA with CS. Based on our cases and an analysis of the literature we conclude that when there is no urgency to operate (diameter inferior to 50 mm) CS is the best option in IAAA with either severe inflammation or ureter involvement. Due to the regression of the fibrosis it can facilitate the surgical procedure. However it needs to be conducted with an adequate dose and duration. Finally the CS is the only possibility when the inflammation persist following the treatment of the IAAA.

  11. Contemporary Applications of Ultrasound in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Management

    PubMed Central

    Scaife, Mark; Giannakopoulos, Triantafillos; Al-Khoury, Georges E.; Chaer, Rabih A.; Avgerinos, Efthymios D.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a well-established screening tool for detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and is currently recommended not only for those with a relevant family history but also for all men and high-risk women older than 65 years of age. The advent of minimally invasive endovascular techniques in the treatment of AAAs [endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)] has increased the need for repeat imaging, especially in the postoperative period. Nevertheless, preoperative planning, intraoperative execution, and postoperative surveillance all mandate accurate imaging. While computed tomographic angiography and angiography have dominated the field, repeatedly exposing patients to the deleterious effects of cumulative radiation and intravenous nephrotoxic contrast, US technology has significantly evolved over the past decade. In addition to standard color duplex US, 2D, 3D, or 4D contrast-enhanced US modalities are revolutionizing AAA management and postoperative surveillance. This technology can accurately measure AAA diameter and volume, and most importantly, it can detect endoleaks post-EVAR with high sensitivity and specificity. 4D contrast-enhanced US can even provide hemodynamic information about the branch vessels following fenestrated EVARs. The need for experienced US operators and accredited vascular labs is mandatory to guarantee the reliability of the results. This review article presents a comprehensive overview of the literature on the state-of-art US imaging in AAA management, including post-EVAR follow-up, techniques, and diagnostic accuracy. PMID:27303669

  12. Contemporary Applications of Ultrasound in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Management.

    PubMed

    Scaife, Mark; Giannakopoulos, Triantafillos; Al-Khoury, Georges E; Chaer, Rabih A; Avgerinos, Efthymios D

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a well-established screening tool for detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and is currently recommended not only for those with a relevant family history but also for all men and high-risk women older than 65 years of age. The advent of minimally invasive endovascular techniques in the treatment of AAAs [endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)] has increased the need for repeat imaging, especially in the postoperative period. Nevertheless, preoperative planning, intraoperative execution, and postoperative surveillance all mandate accurate imaging. While computed tomographic angiography and angiography have dominated the field, repeatedly exposing patients to the deleterious effects of cumulative radiation and intravenous nephrotoxic contrast, US technology has significantly evolved over the past decade. In addition to standard color duplex US, 2D, 3D, or 4D contrast-enhanced US modalities are revolutionizing AAA management and postoperative surveillance. This technology can accurately measure AAA diameter and volume, and most importantly, it can detect endoleaks post-EVAR with high sensitivity and specificity. 4D contrast-enhanced US can even provide hemodynamic information about the branch vessels following fenestrated EVARs. The need for experienced US operators and accredited vascular labs is mandatory to guarantee the reliability of the results. This review article presents a comprehensive overview of the literature on the state-of-art US imaging in AAA management, including post-EVAR follow-up, techniques, and diagnostic accuracy.

  13. Distribution of Wall Stress in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasheras, Juan

    2005-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is believed to occur when the mechanical stress acting on the wall exceeds the strength of the wall tissue. Therefore, knowledge of the AAA wall stress distribution could be useful in assessing its risk of rupture. In our research, a finite element analysis was used to determine the wall stresses both in idealized models and in a real clinical model in which the aorta was considered isotropic with nonlinear material properties and was loaded with a given pressure. In the idealized models, both maximum diameter and asymmetry were found to have substantial influence on the distribution of the wall stress. The thrombus inside the AAA was also found to help protecting the walls from high stresses. Using CT scans of the AAA, the actual geometry of the aneurysm was reconstructed and we found that wall tension increases on the flatter surface (typically corresponds to the posterior surface) and at the inflection points of the bulge. In addition to the static analysis, we also performed simulations of the effect of unsteady pressure wave propagation inside the aneurysm.

  14. The biaxial biomechanical behavior of abdominal aortic aneurysm tissue.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Siobhan A; Healey, Donagh A; Kavanagh, Eamon G; Walsh, Michael T; McGloughlin, Tim M; Doyle, Barry J

    2014-12-01

    Rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when the local wall stress exceeds the local wall strength. Knowledge of AAA wall mechanics plays a fundamental role in the development and advancement of AAA rupture risk assessment tools. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the biaxial mechanical properties of AAA tissue. Multiple biaxial test protocols were performed on AAA samples harvested from 28 patients undergoing open surgical repair. Both the Tangential Modulus (TM) and stretch ratio (λ) were recorded and compared in both the circumferential (ϴ) and longitudinal (L) directions at physiologically relevant stress levels, the influence of patient specific factors such as sex, age AAA diameter and status were examined. The biomechanical response was also fit to a hyperplastic material model. The AAA tissue was found to be anisotropic with a greater tendency to stiffen in the circumferential direction compared to the longitudinal direction. An anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model represented the data well and the properties were not influenced by the investigated patient specific factors however, a future study utilizing a larger cohort of patients is warranted to confirm these findings. This work provides further insights on the biomechanical behavior of AAA and may be useful in the development of more reliable rupture risk assessment tools.

  15. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: how can we improve their treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Scobie, T K

    1980-01-01

    Arteriosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysms are present in a least 2% of the elderly population of the Western world and their number is increasing. Without treatment 30% of patients with asymptomatic aneurysms live for 5 years, although the risk of rupture becomes greater as the size of the aneurysm increases. Of those with untreated symptomatic aneurysms 80% are dead within a year. Elective repair of aneurysms has a low mortality, and 50% of the patients live for at least 5 years. Symptomatic aneurysms all cause pain and may produce other symptoms from pressure on adjacent structures, distal embolism, acute thrombosis or rupture. In 88% of cases an aneurysm can be diagnosed by physical examination alone; confirmatory tests include soft-tissue roentgenography of the abdomen, ultrasonography, computer-assisted tomography and aortography. Repair is indicated for symptomatic or ruptured aortic aneurysms and for asymptomatic aneurysms over 5 cm in diameter. Early diagnosis and referral for repair is essential for optimum treatment of this common condition. PMID:7004617

  16. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and histological, clinical, radiological correlation.

    PubMed

    Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Rezzani, Rita; Bonomini, Francesca; Peroni, Michele; Cocchi, Marco Angelo; Hirtler, Lena; Bonardelli, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    To date, the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurism (AAA) still remains unclear. As such, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes of the aortic structure during AAA. We analysed the microscopic frame of vessels sections, starting from the primum movens leading to abnormal dilatation. AAA samples were collected and processed through various staining methods (Verhoeff-Van Gieson, Masson Goldner, Sirius Red). Subsequently, the vessel morphology and collagenic web of the tunica media and adventitia were determined and the amount of type I and type III collagen was measured. We also applied immune-histochemistry markers for CD34 and PGP 9.5 in order to identify vascular and nerve structures in the aorta. Immune-positivity quantification was used to calculate the percentage of the stained area. We found increasing deposition of type I collagen and reduced type III collagen in both tunica media and adventitia of AAA. The total amount of vasa vasorum, marked with CD34, and nerva vasorum, marked with PGP 9.5, was also higher in AAA samples. Cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, dyslipidemia, cigarette smoking) and radiological data (maximum aneurism diameter, intra-luminal thrombus, aortic wall calcification) increased these changes. These results suggest that the tunica adventitia may have a central role in the pathogenesis of AAA as clearly there are major changes characterized by rooted inflammatory infiltration. The presence of immune components could explain these modifications within the framework of the aorta.

  17. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans*

    PubMed Central

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods The study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (CW), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (CVOL), air kerma-length product (PKL,CT) and effective dose. Conclusion Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, PKL,CT and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. PMID:25741103

  18. Validation of the Chinese SAD PERSONS Scale to predict repeated self-harm in emergency attendees in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Past and repeated self-harm are long-term risks to completed suicide. A brief rating scale to assess repetition risk of self-harm is important for high-risk identification and early interventions in suicide prevention. The study aimed to examine the validity of the Chinese SAD PERSONS Scale (CSPS) and to evaluate its feasibility in clinical settings. Methods One hundred and forty-seven patients with self-harm were recruited from the Emergency Department and assessed at baseline and the sixth month. The controls, 284 people without self-harm from the Family Medicine Department in the same hospital were recruited and assessed concurrently. The psychometric properties of the CSPS were examined using baseline and follow-up measurements that assessed a variety of suicide risk factors. Clinical feasibility and applicability of the CSPS were further evaluated by a group of general nurses who used case vignette approach in CSPS risk assessment in clinical settings. An open-ended question inquiring their opinions of scale adaptation to hospital inpatient assessment for suicide risks were also analyzed using content analysis. Results The CSPS was significantly correlated with other scales measuring depression, hopelessness and suicide ideation. A cut-off point of the scale was at 4/5 in predicting 6-month self-harm repetition with the sensitivity and specificity being 65.4% and 58.1%, respectively. Based on the areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curves, the predictive validity of the scale showed a better performance than the other scales. Fifty-four nurses, evaluating the scale using case vignette found it a useful tool to raise the awareness of suicide risk and a considerable tool to be adopted into nursing care. Conclusions The Chinese SAD PERSONS Scale is a brief instrument with acceptable psychometric properties for self-harm prediction. However, cautions should be paid to level of therapeutic relationships during assessment, staff workload and

  19. Gender differences in affective sharing and self-other distinction during empathic neural responses to others' sadness.

    PubMed

    Luo, Pinchao; Wang, Junfang; Jin, Yan; Huang, Shanshan; Xie, Mengshu; Deng, Lin; Fang, Juncong; Zheng, Xiaochun; Chen, Xiaoying; Li, Yue; Jiang, Yijie; Zheng, Xifu

    2015-06-01

    Self-other distinction, the separation between self and other, is a prerequisite for empathy through which individuals share another individual's feelings. Prior research suggests that females are better at recognizing and sharing others' emotions, whereas males perform better at self-other distinction. It is unclear, however, whether this superiority in the self-other distinction occurs in males throughout the experience of empathy or only at some stages of the empathic process. The present study utilized event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate this issue. In two separate experimental tasks, subjects were instructed to either judge the emotions shown on a face (other-task) or evaluate their own affective responses to the emotions shown on a face (self-task). The results of the other-task revealed that unlike males, females displayed increased P2 (190-240 ms) amplitudes to sad expressions compared with neutral expressions. This finding might be associated with an improved ability to recognize and share the emotions of others in females. In contrast, only males exhibited larger P2 amplitudes to sad expressions compared with neutral expressions during the self-task. This awareness of one's own emotions in response to another individual might reflect a distinction between the self and the other at an early stage in males. At the late cognitive controlled stage, gender differences became weak. However, the emotion effects in each task for both genders were positively correlated with self-reported cognitive empathy, which was indexed by the perspective taking (PT) and fantasy (FS) subscale, but not with affective empathy.

  20. Sex differences in neural responses to subliminal sad and happy faces in healthy individuals: Implications for depression.

    PubMed

    Victor, Teresa A; Drevets, Wayne C; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy; Savitz, Jonathan

    2017-01-02

    Twice as many women as men suffer from mood and anxiety disorders, yet the biological underpinnings of this phenomenon have been understudied and remain unclear. We and others have shown that the hemodynamic response to subliminally presented sad or happy faces during functional MRI (fMRI) is a robust biomarker for the attentional bias toward negative information classically observed in major depression. Here we used fMRI to compare the performance of healthy females (n = 28) and healthy males (n = 28) on a backward masking task using a fast event-related design with gradient-recalled, echoplanar imaging with sensitivity encoding. The image data were compared across groups using a region-of-interest analysis with small-volume correction to control for multiple testing (Pcorrected  < 0.05, cluster size ≥ 20 voxels). Notably, compared with males, females showed greater BOLD activity in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and the right hippocampus when viewing masked sad vs. masked happy faces. Furthermore, females displayed reduced BOLD activity in the right pregenual ACC and left amygdala when viewing masked happy vs. masked neutral faces. Given that we have previously reported similar findings for depressed participants compared with healthy controls (regardless of gender), our results raise the possibility that on average healthy females show subtle emotional processing biases that conceivably reflect a subgroup of women predisposed to depression. Nevertheless, we note that the differences between males and females were small and derived from region-of-interest rather than voxelwise analyses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Arterial diameter measurement using high resolution ultrasonography: in vitro validation.

    PubMed

    Brum, Javier; Bia, Daniel; Benech, Nicolas; Balay, Guillermo; Armentano, Ricardo L; Negreira, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of pressure and diameter in blood vessels or vascular prosthesis is of great importance in cardiovascular research. Knowledge of diameter changes as response to intravascular pressure is the basis to estimate the biomechanical properties of blood vessel. In this work a new method to quantify arterial diameter based in high resolution ultrasonography is proposed. Measurements on an arterial phantom placed on a cardiovascular simulator were performed. The results were compared to sonomicrometry measurements considered as gold standard technique. The obtained results indicate that the new method ensure an optimal diameter quantification. This method presents two main advantages respect to sonomicrometry: is noninvasive and the vessel wall strain can be measured directly.

  2. Diameter Controlled of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized on Nanoporous Silicon Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asli, N. A.; Shamsudin, M. S.; Maryam, M.; Yusop, S. F. M.; Suriani, A. B.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2013-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been successfully synthesized on nanoporous silicon template (NPSiT) using botanical source, camphor oil. Diameter of CNTs synthesized was controlled by pore size of NPSiT prepared by photo-electrochemical anodization method. The diameter of CNTs grown on different NPSiT corresponded to the pore diameter of NPSiT. FESEM images showed self-organized bundles of fiber-like structures of CNTs with diameter of around 20nm which were successfully grown directly on nanoporous silicon while raman spectra obtained ratio of ID/IG at 0.67.

  3. Research on fiber diameter automatic measurement based on image detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaogang; Jiang, Yu; Shen, Wen; Han, Guangjie

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we present a method of Fiber Diameter Automatic Measurement(FDAM). This design is based on image detection technology in order to provide a rapid and accurate measurement of average fiber diameter. Firstly, a preprocessing mechanism is proposed to the sample fiber image by using improved median filtering algorithm, then we introduce edge detection with Sobel operator to detect target fiber, finally diameter of random point and average diameter of the fiber can be measured precisely with searching shortest path algorithm. Experiments are conducted to prove the accuracy of the measurement, and simulations show that measurement errors caused by human factors could be eliminated to a desirable level.

  4. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma after remote abdominal radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gilks, B.; Hegedus, C.; Freeman, H.; Fratkin, L.; Churg, A.

    1988-05-15

    Peritoneal mesothelioma in a 61-year-old man, occurred 26 years after abdominal radiotherapy for a testicular seminoma. The patient had no history of asbestos exposure. After asbestos, radiation is the second most frequent defined cause of mesothelioma in North America, but the number of well-documented cases is small; this case represents only the fifth example of peritoneal mesothelioma after therapeutic irradiation of the abdomen. 16 references.

  5. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae intra-abdominal abscess.

    PubMed

    Feasi, Marcello; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Cappato, Stefano; Pontali, Emanuele; Usiglio, David; Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Filauro, Marco; Mori, Marco; Cassola, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a Gram-positive bacillus that is infrequently responsible for infections in humans. Most human cases present as localized or generalized cutaneous infections. An invasive septic form, usually associated with endocarditis, has rarely been described. We report here an invasive infection caused by E. rhusiopathiae without endocardium involvement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an intra-abdominal abscess due to this pathogen.

  6. Abdominal surgical emergencies in the puerperium.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, A; Jones, P F

    1975-01-01

    Since surgical emergencies in the puerperium are rare, surgeons and obstetricians amass little experience of them. There may be considerable delay in making a diagnosis, firstly, because the abdominal symptoms are thought to be related to the pregnancy, and, secondly, because the signs are rarely convincing in contrast to the symptoms. Any of the common surgical emergencies may occur in pregnancy and the puerperium and there are some others that appear to be a particullar problem of the puerperium. PMID:1203726

  7. Abdominal manifestations of extranodal lymphoma: pictorial essay*

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo, Laís; Ramin, Guilherme de Araujo; Penachim, Thiago José; Martins, Daniel Lahan; Cardia, Patrícia Prando; Prando, Adilson

    2016-01-01

    In the appropriate clinical setting, certain aspects of extranodal abdominal lymphoma, as revealed by current cross-sectional imaging techniques, should be considered potentially diagnostic and can hasten the diagnosis. In addition, diagnostic imaging in the context of biopsy-proven lymphoma can accurately stage the disease for its appropriate treatment. The purpose of this article was to illustrate the various imaging aspects of extranodal lymphoma in the abdomen. PMID:28057966

  8. Robot-Assisted Abdominal Cerclage During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zeybek, Burak; Hill, Amanda; Menderes, Gulden; Borahay, Mostafa A.; Azodi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Cervical insufficiency is a difficult condition to diagnose and can lead to preterm birth, miscarriage, or perinatal infant morbidity and mortality. We conducted this retrospective case study and literature review to evaluate the safety and efficacy of robot-assisted abdominal cerclage during pregnancy. Methods: We conducted a case series and a systematic review that included patients who underwent robot-assisted abdominal cerclage during pregnancy from January 2010 through March 2016. Results: Six patients met the criteria for the case series. Median age was 34 years (range, 28–37) at the time of the procedure. In 5 cases, the indication for transabdominal cerclage was a failed vaginal cerclage in a previous pregnancy, whereas a scarred and shortened cervix caused by a previous dilatation and curettage–induced cervical laceration was the indication in the remaining case. Median operating time was 159.5 minutes (range, 124–204), and median estimated blood loss was 25 mL (range, 10–25). No surgeries were converted to laparotomies; all patients were discharged on postoperative day 1. The median gestational age at delivery was 37.5 weeks (range, 22–39). Five patients delivered between 36 and 39 weeks. No patients had chorioamnionitis or preterm premature rupture of membranes. One patient went into preterm labor at 22 weeks, and the cerclage was removed via minilaparotomy. Eight articles met the criteria for systematic review. Sixteen patients underwent robot-assisted abdominal cerclage during pregnancy. Median age was 31.5 years (range, 25–37). The major indication in most articles was previous failed transvaginal cerclage. The median gestational ages at time of procedure and delivery were 12 weeks (range, 10–15) and 37 weeks (range, 33–39), respectively. Conclusion: Robot-assisted abdominal cerclage is safe and effective during pregnancy. PMID:27904309

  9. Effect of laparoscopic abdominal surgery on splanchnic circulation: historical developments.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, Sinan; Akbulut, Sami; Hatipoglu, Filiz; Abdullayev, Ruslan

    2014-12-28

    With the developments in medical technology and increased surgical experience, advanced laparoscopic surgical procedures are performed successfully. Laparoscopic abdominal surgery is one of the best examples of advanced laparoscopic surgery (LS). Today, laparoscopic abdominal surgery in general surgery clinics is the basis of all abdominal surgical interventions. Laparoscopic abdominal surgery is associated with systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic alterations. Inadequate splanchnic perfusion in critically ill patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are still not well understood. With experience and with an increase in the number and diversity of the resulting data, the pathophysiology of laparoscopic abdominal surgery is now better understood. The normal physiology and pathophysiology of local and systemic effects of laparoscopic abdominal surgery is extremely important for safe and effective LS. Future research projects should focus on the interplay between the physiological regulatory mechanisms in the splanchnic circulation (SC), organs, and diseases. In this review, we discuss the effects of laparoscopic abdominal surgery on the SC.

  10. Mesh Sutured Repairs of Abdominal Wall Defects

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Steven T.; Jordan, Sumanas W.; Miller, Kyle R.; Ali, Nada A.; Stock, Stuart R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A new closure technique is introduced, which uses strips of macroporous polypropylene mesh as a suture for closure of abdominal wall defects due to failures of standard sutures and difficulties with planar meshes. Methods: Strips of macroporous polypropylene mesh of 2 cm width were passed through the abdominal wall and tied as simple interrupted sutures. The surgical technique and surgical outcomes are presented. Results: One hundred and seven patients underwent a mesh sutured abdominal wall closure. Seventy-six patients had preoperative hernias, and the mean hernia width by CT scan for those with scans was 9.1 cm. Forty-nine surgical fields were clean-contaminated, contaminated, or dirty. Five patients had infections within the first 30 days. Only one knot was removed as an office procedure. Mean follow-up at 234 days revealed 4 recurrent hernias. Conclusions: Mesh sutured repairs reliably appose tissue under tension using concepts of force distribution and resistance to suture pull-through. The technique reduces the amount of foreign material required in comparison to sheet meshes, and avoids the shortcomings of monofilament sutures. Mesh sutured closures seem to be tolerant of bacterial contamination with low hernia recurrence rates and have replaced our routine use of mesh sheets and bioprosthetic grafts. PMID:27757361

  11. Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  12. [Hereditary angioedema: strange cause of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Salas-Lozano, Nereo Guillermo; Meza-Cardona, Javier; González-Fernández, Coty; Pineda-Figueroa, Laura; de Ariño-Suárez, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el angioedema hereditario es un trastorno inflamatorio episódico, que se hereda de manera autosómica dominante y se caracteriza por episodios de edema periférico. Los pacientes pueden tener edema de la pared de cualquier víscera hueca, incluido el intestino. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de un paciente masculino de 33 años de edad, sin antecedentes de importancia, con dolor abdominal, localizado en el epigastrio, irradiado al cuadrante inferior derecho, acompañado de 5 vómitos. La tomografía abdominal mostró engrosamiento de la pared de la segunda y tercera porción del duodeno, con infiltración de grasa y líquido libre. Los exámenes de laboratorio mostraron: concentraciones bajas del complemento C4 (5.5 mg/dL) y actividad del inhibidor de C1 del complemento de 30%. Conclusiones: el angioedema hereditario es consecuencia de la deficiencia (tipo I) o disfunción (tipo II) del inhibidor C1 del complemento. El dolor abdominal asociado con angioedema es de inicio súbito, como dolor cólico, recurrente y de intensidad moderada. En la actualidad existen dos medicamentos aprobados por la Food and Drug Administration para el tratamiento de pacientes con esta afección.

  13. Serum Fatty Acids, Desaturase Activities and Abdominal Obesity – A Population-Based Study of 60-Year Old Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Alsharari, Zayed D.; Risérus, Ulf; Leander, Karin; Sjögren, Per; Carlsson, Axel C.; Vikström, Max; Laguzzi, Federica; Gigante, Bruna; Cederholm, Tommy; De Faire, Ulf; Hellénius, Mai-Lis

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is a key contributor of metabolic disease. Recent trials suggest that dietary fat quality affects abdominal fat content, where palmitic acid and linoleic acid influence abdominal obesity differently, while effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are less studied. Also, fatty acid desaturation may be altered in abdominal obesity. We aimed to investigate cross-sectional associations of serum fatty acids and desaturases with abdominal obesity prevalence in a population-based cohort study. Serum cholesteryl ester fatty acids composition was measured by gas chromatography in 60-year old men (n = 1883) and women (n = 2015). Cross-sectional associations of fatty acids with abdominal obesity prevalence and anthropometric measures (e.g., sagittal abdominal diameter) were evaluated in multivariable-adjusted logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Similar models were employed to investigate relations between desaturase activities (estimated by fatty acid ratios) and abdominal obesity. In logistic regression analyses, palmitic acid, stearoyl-CoA-desaturase and Δ6-desaturase indices were associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for highest versus lowest quartiles were 1.45 (1.19–1.76), 4.06 (3.27–5.05), and 3.07 (2.51–3.75), respectively. Linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, docohexaenoic acid, and Δ5-desaturase were inversely associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 0.39 (0.32–0.48), 0.74 (0.61–0.89), 0.76 (0.62–0.93), and 0.40 (0.33–0.49), respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid was not associated with abdominal obesity. Similar results were obtained from linear regression models evaluating associations with different anthropometric measures. Sex-specific and linear associations were mainly observed for n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, while associations of the other exposures were generally non-linear and similar across

  14. Spontaneous abscesses of the abdominal wall, omentum and abdominal cavity caused by group G streptococci: a case report.

    PubMed

    De Brabandere, K; Vanpaemel, G; Verheyen, L

    2008-01-01

    We report the first case, to our knowledge, of spontaneous abscess of the abdominal wall, omentum and abdominal cavity caused by group G streptococci. A 52-year-old diabetic woman presented with abdominal tenderness and weight loss that had persisted for a few weeks. CT scan showed several abscesses of the abdominal wall, omentum and abdominal cavity. The abscesses were drained laparoscopically and antibiotics were given postoperatively. Biopsies and cultures showed group G streptococci. The patient recovered without any complication and left our hospital on the 17th postoperative day.

  15. Is abdominal wall tenderness a useful sign in the diagnosis of non-specific abdominal pain?

    PubMed Central

    Gray, D. W.; Dixon, J. M.; Seabrook, G.; Collin, J.

    1988-01-01

    Pain arising from the abdominal wall has been implicated as a cause of non-specific abdominal pain (NSAP), and the presence of abdominal wall tenderness (AWT) has been proposed as an accurate diagnostic test for NSAP. One hundred and fifty eight patients admitted to hospital with abdominal pain were tested for the presence of positive AWT. In 53 patients the final diagnosis was appendicitis and positive AWT was found in five. Thirty eight patients were found to have a variety of other recognised pathological diagnoses, none of whom had a positive AWT. In 67 patients a diagnosis of NSAP was made in the absence of other pathological diagnosis, 19 of whom had positive AWT, which was significantly different from the other diagnostic groups. This study confirms the presence of AWT in up to 28% of patients with NSAP, and suggests that testing for AWT is of value in patients with abdominal pain, although a positive AWT is not as accurate a predictor of NSAP as previously reported. PMID:2970820

  16. Transversus abdominal plane block as a sole anesthetic technique for abdominal wall hematoma drainage.

    PubMed

    Varela, N; Golvano, M; Monedero, P

    2016-10-01

    Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block is a known and useful technique, widely used for postoperative pain management of abdominal wall incisions. During the past years, and following the expansion of ultrasound guided techniques, its use has even gained more adepts. It is usually used as an adjuvant technique, primarily in order to control postoperative pain and reduce opioids consumption. We report the case of an 82 years old patient admitted for drainage of a postoperative abdominal wall hematoma after correction of a McBurney incisional hernia. The corrective surgery had gone on without incident, under general anesthesia with laryngeal mask. Two weeks later, the patient came back to our emergency department with a clear hematoma of the abdominal wall. Surgery was decided. A sole local anesthetic technique was achieved, using a TAP block. The block was performed under ultrasound guidance, using a subcostal approach. The surgery went on without complications. Therefore, TAP block offers a hemodynamic stability, appropriate intra-operative anesthesia and post-surgical analgesia of the abdominal wall.

  17. Mean particle diameters. From statistical definition to physical understanding.

    PubMed

    Alderliesten, Maarten

    2005-01-01

    Mean particle diameters may be used to describe and to model physical, chemical, or physiological properties of products or materials containing dispersed phases. There are different notation systems for these mean diameters, which may cause much confusion. This equally applies to their nomenclature. This article introduces the Moment-Ratio definition system and evaluates briefly the ISO definition system. The ISO system appears to have serious drawbacks. Mean particle diameters can be estimated from histograms of size distributions by Summation (M-R system) and by Integration (ISO system) over the histogram intervals. Summation tends to be more accurate than Integration and is less sensitive to low values of the lower limit of size distributions. The Summation method equations are straightforward and generally applicable. The mathematical formulas of the Integration method are difficult to apply in daily practice, and their complexity may easily hide the physical background of a mean particle diameter. A coherent nomenclature system for denoting mean particle diameters is recommended. This nomenclature system does not contain any ambiguities and clearly conveys the physical meanings of mean particle diameters. This article deals also with an empirical method to select the proper type of mean diameter to describe a physical, chemical, or physiological property of a product or material containing dispersed phases. After calculation of the mean diameters from experimental data, the relationships between the product property and these mean diameters are investigated statistically. The selection method has been illustrated by two examples. The dataset of each example consists of a set of particle size distributions and the corresponding physical product properties that are influenced by the particle sizes. Hypotheses are formulated to explain the types of selected mean diameters. Sharing results from all over the world of applications of the developed selection method

  18. Developing the Social Avoidance and Distressed (SAD) Scale and Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) Scale for Application to Thai University Students in the Northern Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowsilpa, Siriperm

    The reliability and validity of the Social Avoidance and Distress (SAD) and Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) scales developed by D. Watson and R. Friend (1969) were tested for their use with university students in Thailand. Thai translations of both tests were administered to 176 university students on two occasions, with a month between…

  19. The Effect of "Sad" and "Happy" Background Music on the Interpretation of a Story in 5 to 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Naomi; Goshen, Maya

    2006-01-01

    Children hear music in the background of a large variety of situations and activities. Throughout development, they acquire knowledge both about the syntactical norms of tonal music, and about the relationship between musical form and emotion. Five to six-year-old children heard a story, with a background "happy", "sad" or no…

  20. Can the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale - Self-Report Version Be Used to Differentiate Clinical and Non-Clinical SAD Groups among Brazilians?

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Larissa F.; Loureiro, Sonia R.; Crippa, José A. S.; Osório, Flávia L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) was the first evaluation instrument developed for screening for the signs and symptoms of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and is currently still the most used worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of the LSAS - self-report version (LSAS-SR) to discriminate different Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) clinical groups. Method The sample was composed of Brazilians university students, allocated into three different groups, i.e., cases (C=118), non-cases (NC=95) and subclinical cases (SC=39). To achieve the aim, calculations of the ROC Curve and ANOVA were performed. Results The results found were excellent regardless of the technique used, highlighting the discriminatory capacity of the LSAS-SR. The score equal to or greater than 32 is suggested as a cutoff score for the Brazilian population, since this presented balance between the standards evaluated and the ability to differentiate both clinical and subclinical SAD cases from non-cases. Conclusion Despite the specific sample used in this study being composed only of university students, the use of the LSAS-SR can be indicated, in the Brazilian setting, for SAD screening in both clinical and research contexts. PMID:25811489