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Sample records for abdominal drawing-in maneuver

  1. Comparison of changes in the contraction of the lateral abdominal muscles between the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and breathe held at the maximum expiratory level.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Hirose, Ryohei; Watanabe, Susumu

    2012-10-01

    The abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) is commonly used as a fundamental component of lumbar stabilization training programs. One potential limitation of lumbar stabilization programs is that it can be difficult and time consuming to train people to perform the ADIM. The transverse abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscles are the most powerful muscles involved in expiration. However, little is known about the differences in the recruitment of the abdominal muscles between the ADIM and breathe held at maximum expiratory level (maximum expiration). The thickness of the TrA and IO muscles was measured by ultrasound imaging, and the activity of the EO muscle was measured by electromyography (EMG) in 33 healthy male performing the ADIM and maximum expiration. Maximum expiration produced a significant increase in the thickness of the TrA and IO muscles compared to the ADIM (p < 0.001). The EMG activity of the EO muscle was significantly higher during maximum expiration than during the ADIM (p < 0.001). The intensity of the EMG activity of the EO muscle was approximately 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction during maximum expiration. Thus, maximum expiration may be an effective method for training of co-activation of the lateral abdominal muscles.

  2. Abdominal aortic thrombosis in association with an attempted Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Roehm, E F; Twiest, M W; Williams, R C

    1983-03-04

    We report herein a case of an incorrectly applied Heimlich maneuver--to the best of our knowledge, the first reported fatal complication associated with a Heimlich maneuver, acute thrombosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, and the distal aorta. While the Heimlich maneuver is effective for the relief of foreign body-induced upper airway obstruction, increased efforts should be directed toward instructing the public in correctly recognizing and optimally treating airway obstruction.

  3. Acute abdominal aortic thrombosis following the Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Ayerdi, Juan; Gupta, Sushil K; Sampson, Lawrence N; Deshmukh, Narayan

    2002-04-01

    Complications from the Heimlich maneuver are relatively infrequent. Two fatal cases of abdominal aortic thrombosis have been reported following this technique. We report on the first patient that suffered an acute thrombosis of the abdominal aorta and survived. Prompt recognition of this complication provides the only hope of survival from this rare and catastrophic complication.

  4. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Mirosław

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents.

  5. Effects of lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises on lung capacity in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon; Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Shin, Young-Jun

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] To examine the effects of lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises on the lung capacities of healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine healthy subjects with no orthopedic history of the back were recruited. Subjects were randomly assigned to a experimental group and control group. Subjects were allocated to one of two groups; an experimental group that underwent lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises and a control group that underwent treadmill and abdominal drawing-in exercises. Lung capacities were evaluated 4 weeks after exercises. [Results] The experimental group showed significant increments in EV, ERV, IRV, VT vs. pre-intervention results, and the control group showed significant increments in the EVC and IRV. Significant intergroup differences were observed in terms of post-training gains in EVC, IRV, and VT. [Conclusion] Combined application of lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises were found to have a positive effect on lung capacity.

  6. Effects of lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises on lung capacity in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon; Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Shin, Young-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To examine the effects of lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises on the lung capacities of healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine healthy subjects with no orthopedic history of the back were recruited. Subjects were randomly assigned to a experimental group and control group. Subjects were allocated to one of two groups; an experimental group that underwent lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises and a control group that underwent treadmill and abdominal drawing-in exercises. Lung capacities were evaluated 4 weeks after exercises. [Results] The experimental group showed significant increments in EV, ERV, IRV, VT vs. pre-intervention results, and the control group showed significant increments in the EVC and IRV. Significant intergroup differences were observed in terms of post-training gains in EVC, IRV, and VT. [Conclusion] Combined application of lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises were found to have a positive effect on lung capacity. PMID:27630393

  7. Acute thrombosis of abdominal aortic aneurysm subsequent to Heimlich maneuver: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kirshner, R L; Green, R M

    1985-07-01

    We report a case of acute thrombosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm secondary to a correctly applied and successful Heimlich maneuver. Although the Heimlich maneuver is generally safe and effective, this possible catastrophic consequence needs to be recognized.

  8. Traumatic dissection and rupture of the abdominal aorta as a complication of the Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Desai, Shaun C; Chute, Dennis J; Desai, Bharati C; Koloski, Eugene R

    2008-11-01

    Although the Heimlich maneuver is considered the best intervention for relieving acute upper airway obstruction, several complications have been reported in the literature. These complications can occur as a result of an increase in abdominal pressure leading to a variety of well-documented visceral injuries, including the great vessels. Acute abdominal aortic thrombosis after the Heimlich maneuver is a rare but recognized event; however, to date no case of traumatic dissection and rupture of the abdominal aorta has been described. We report the first known case, to our knowledge, of a traumatic dissection and rupture of the abdominal aorta after a forcefully applied Heimlich maneuver.

  9. The effect of abdominal drawing-in exercise and myofascial release on pain, flexibility, and balance of elderly females

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seong Hun; Sim, Yong Hyeon; Kim, Myung Hoon; Bang, Ju Hee; Son, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Jae Woong; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study is designed to compare the effects of abdominal drawing-in exercise and myofascial release on pain, flexibility, and balance of elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly females aged 65 or older who had complained of low back pain for three months or longer were selected as the subjects. They were randomly and equally assigned to either an abdominal drawing-in group or a myofascial release group. The subjects conducted exercise three times per week, 40 minutes each time, for eight weeks. As evaluation tools, visual analogue scale for pain, remodified schober test for flexibility, and upright posture with eye opening on hard platform, upright posture with eye closing on hard platform, upright posture with eye opening on soft platform, upright posture with eye closing on soft platform using tetrax for balance were used. [Results] The abdominal drawing-in exercise group saw significant difference in pain and balance after the exercise compared to before the exercise. The myofascial release group saw significant difference in pain and flexibility after exercise compared to before the exercise. [Conclusion] The above study showed that abdominal drawing-in exercise affected elderly females regarding pain and balance and myofascial release influenced their pain and flexibility. PMID:27821941

  10. Recruitment Maneuver in Elderly Patients with Different Peripheral Chemoreflex Sensitivity during Major Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zabolotskikh, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate the effect of a recruitment maneuver on respiratory biomechanics, oxygenation, and hemodynamics in patients suffering from chronic heart failure with different peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity. The study was conducted in 115 elderly patients which underwent major abdominal surgery under general/epidural surgery. Peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity (PCS) was evaluated with breath-holding duration (BHD) during breath-holding test. All patients were divided into two groups: group H had a high PCS (BHD = 38 seconds or less, n = 49); Group M had a middle PCS (BHD more than 38 seconds, n = 66). Recruitment maneuver improved oxygenation and respiratory biomechanics in all cases. However, cardiac output decreased by an average of 18%–31% in group H compared to 18%–28% in group M. SVR either remained unchanged or decreased by up to 14% of the initial value in group H, while, in group M, it had a tendency to increase, which was 24% of the initial value. So, recruitment maneuver is an effective method to improve oxygenation and biomechanical properties of the respiratory system but in patients with increased peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity it associates with the risk of hemodynamic disturbances. PMID:28070507

  11. Recruitment Maneuver in Elderly Patients with Different Peripheral Chemoreflex Sensitivity during Major Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Trembach, Nikita; Zabolotskikh, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate the effect of a recruitment maneuver on respiratory biomechanics, oxygenation, and hemodynamics in patients suffering from chronic heart failure with different peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity. The study was conducted in 115 elderly patients which underwent major abdominal surgery under general/epidural surgery. Peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity (PCS) was evaluated with breath-holding duration (BHD) during breath-holding test. All patients were divided into two groups: group H had a high PCS (BHD = 38 seconds or less, n = 49); Group M had a middle PCS (BHD more than 38 seconds, n = 66). Recruitment maneuver improved oxygenation and respiratory biomechanics in all cases. However, cardiac output decreased by an average of 18%-31% in group H compared to 18%-28% in group M. SVR either remained unchanged or decreased by up to 14% of the initial value in group H, while, in group M, it had a tendency to increase, which was 24% of the initial value. So, recruitment maneuver is an effective method to improve oxygenation and biomechanical properties of the respiratory system but in patients with increased peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity it associates with the risk of hemodynamic disturbances.

  12. Effects of abdominal stabilization maneuvers on the control of spine motion and stability against sudden trunk perturbations.

    PubMed

    Vera-Garcia, Francisco J; Elvira, José L L; Brown, Stephen H M; McGill, Stuart M

    2007-10-01

    Much discussion exists about which is the most effective technique to improve spine stability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of abdominal bracing and abdominal hollowing maneuvers to control spine motion and stability against rapid perturbations. Eleven healthy males were posteriorly loaded in different experimental conditions: resting with no knowledge of the perturbation timing; performing each of the stabilization maneuvers at 10%, 15% and 20% of internal oblique maximum voluntary contraction with no knowledge of the perturbation timing; and naturally coactivating the trunk muscles when perturbation timing was known. An EMG biofeedback system was used to control the pattern and intensity of abdominal coactivation. The muscular preactivation of seven trunk muscles (bilaterally registered), the applied force, and the torso muscular and kinematic responses to loading were measured; and the spine stability and compression were modeled. The hollowing maneuver was not effective for reducing the kinematic response to sudden perturbation. On the contrary, the bracing maneuver fostered torso cocontraction, reduced lumbar displacement, and increased trunk stability, but at the cost of increasing spinal compression. When the timing of the perturbation was known, the participants were able to stabilize the trunk while imposing smaller spine compressive loads.

  13. Gastric rupture after the Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Bintz, M; Cogbill, T H

    1996-01-01

    Since 1975, the Heimlich maneuver has been widely applied to relieve upper airway obstruction caused by aspirated material. Life-threatening complications have been documented following this simple procedure. We report two cases of gastric rupture after use of the Heimlich maneuver. Both patients experienced pulmonary and abdominal symptoms. The diagnosis was confirmed in each case by the demonstration of free intraperitoneal air on an upright chest roentgenogram. Full-thickness gastric rupture along the lesser curvature of the stomach was repaired in both patients; one patient died. Abdominal pain or persistent abdominal distention despite nasogastric suction after the Heimlich maneuver should prompt evaluation for possible gastric rupture.

  14. Maneuvering PMHTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Yanhua; Willett, Peter K.

    2001-11-01

    The Probabilistic Multiple Hypothesis Tracker (PMHT) has previously been augmented and modified to deal with target maneuver. Unfortunately, although the resulting procedure tracks maneuvering targets reasonably well, estimation of the maneuver process (i.e. the hidden Markov Model (HMM)) is not particularly reactive. In this paper, the PMHT is further investigated and several PMHT variants for maneuvering targets are discussed these include the ideas from Logothetis et al. and from Pulford and La Scala; the incorporation of the Interacting Multiple Mode (IMM) formalism to the PMHT; the extension of the "turbo" PMHT. We finally compare these EM-based tracking schemes and provide the simulation results on the second benchmark problem from Blair et al.

  15. Dynamics of Voluntary Cough Maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naire, Shailesh

    2008-11-01

    Voluntary cough maneuvers are characterized by transient peak expiratory flows (PEF) exceeding the maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve. In some cases, these flows can be well in excess of the MEFV, generally referred to as supramaximal flows. Understanding the flow-structure interaction involved in these maneuvers is the main goal of this work. We present a simple theoretical model for investigating the dynamics of voluntary cough and forced expiratory maneuvers. The core modeling idea is based on a 1-D model of high Reynolds number flow through flexible-walled tubes. The model incorporates key ingredients involved in these maneuvers: the expiratory effort generated by the abdominal and expiratory muscles, the glottis and the flexibility and compliance of the lung airways. Variations in these allow investigation of the expiratory flows generated by a variety of single cough maneuvers. The model successfully reproduces PEF which is shown to depend on the cough generation protocol, the glottis reopening time and the compliance of the airways. The particular highlight is in simulating supramaximal PEF for very compliant tubes. The flow-structure interaction mechanisms behind these are discussed. The wave speed theory of flow limitation is used to characterize the PEF. Existing hypotheses of the origin of PEF, from cough and forced expiration experiments, are also tested using this model.

  16. Perforated stomach following the Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Cowan, M; Bardole, J; Dlesk, A

    1987-03-01

    The use of infradiaphragmatic abdominal pressure for relief of airway obstruction caused by food was first described by Henry Heimlich in 1974. Since that time, several complications have been reported. We report a case of gastric perforation occurring in a choking victim following the application of the Heimlich maneuver.

  17. Maneuver Automation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uffelman, Hal; Goodson, Troy; Pellegrin, Michael; Stavert, Lynn; Burk, Thomas; Beach, David; Signorelli, Joel; Jones, Jeremy; Hahn, Yungsun; Attiyah, Ahlam; Illsley, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    The Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) automates the process of generating commands for maneuvers to keep the spacecraft of the Cassini-Huygens mission on a predetermined prime mission trajectory. Before MAS became available, a team of approximately 10 members had to work about two weeks to design, test, and implement each maneuver in a process that involved running many maneuver-related application programs and then serially handing off data products to other parts of the team. MAS enables a three-member team to design, test, and implement a maneuver in about one-half hour after Navigation has process-tracking data. MAS accepts more than 60 parameters and 22 files as input directly from users. MAS consists of Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) scripts that link, sequence, and execute the maneuver- related application programs: "Pushing a single button" on a graphical user interface causes MAS to run navigation programs that design a maneuver; programs that create sequences of commands to execute the maneuver on the spacecraft; and a program that generates predictions about maneuver performance and generates reports and other files that enable users to quickly review and verify the maneuver design. MAS can also generate presentation materials, initiate electronic command request forms, and archive all data products for future reference.

  18. Proximal aortic stent-graft displacement with type I endoleak due to Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peter H; Bush, Ruth L; Lumsden, Alan B

    2003-08-01

    The Heimlich maneuver has saved countless lives by relieving foreign body obstruction from the respiratory tract. Complications related to this life-saving technique, particularly involving the abdominal aorta, are extremely rare. We report the case of a patient who underwent successful endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair, with AAA reduction at postoperative surveillance. Endograft displacement after performance of the Heimlich maneuver resulted in a proximal type I endoleak. This case underscores both the potential for aortic trauma from the Heimlich maneuver and the risk for clinical failure as a result of abdominal compression after successful endovascular AAA repair.

  19. Acute aortic thrombosis following incorrect application of the Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Mack, Lloyd; Forbes, Thomas L; Harris, Kenneth A

    2002-01-01

    The Heimlich maneuver has been widely accepted as a safe and effective method of relieving life-threatening foreign-body upper airway obstruction. When applied incorrectly, however, it may result in direct trauma to the intraabdominal viscera. Only two cases of major aortic complications have been reported. Both have involved thrombosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. We report two further instances of aortic thrombotic complications due to the incorrect application of the Heimlich maneuver. The first case resulted in thrombosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. In the second case the abdominal thrusts caused dislodgement of thrombus from an atherosclerotic nonaneurysmal aorta, which resulted in thromboembolic occlusion of both lower extremities. In both cases, as with the two previously reported instances, massive reperfusion injury resulted, which eventually proved fatal. When applied incorrectly, the Heimlich maneuver may result in direct trauma to the abdominalaorta and is an unusual cause of acute aortic thrombosis.

  20. Traumatic rupture of the stomach after Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    van der Ham, A C; Lange, J F

    1990-01-01

    Fatal complications following the performance of the Heimlich maneuver have been reported. A 76-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with signs of respiratory distress, abdominal pain and distension one day after airway obstruction and subsequent resuscitation. Despite successful immediate laparotomy and repair of a ruptured stomach, she later succumbed to the sequelae of aspiration of gastric contents and dehiscence of the gastric tear. This is the 4th case of stomach rupture and the 7th reported fatal complication following the Heimlich maneuver. It is recommended that persons who undergo the Heimlich maneuver be examined and observed by a physician, as soon as possible, to rule out complications.

  1. Maneuvering in a Seaway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    forces are found from body-exact computations. The body-exact computations are all done in the time domain. Either a fourth-order Runge - Kutta scheme... method code that is computationally fast and can be used to predict ship maneuvering in a seaway. Technical Approach We are developing a blended... method to predict nonlinear ship motions while maneuvering in a seaway. The blended method uses the nonlinear Euler equations of motion and integrates

  2. The effect of resistance exercise direction for hip joint stabilization on lateral abdominal muscle thickness

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Lee, Sang-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistance direction in hip joint stabilization exercise on change in lateral abdominal muscle thickness in healthy adults. Twenty-six healthy adults were randomly allocated to either a hip stabilization exercise by hip straight resistance group (n=12) or a hip diagonal resistance group (n=14). The outcome measures included contraction thickness ratio in transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique, and TrA lateral slide were assessed during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver by b-mode ultrasound. The researcher measured the abdominal muscle thickness of each participant before the therapist began the intervention and at the moment intervention was applied. There was a significant difference in lateral abdominal muscle thickness between the straight resistance exercise of hip joint group and the diagonal resistance exercise of hip joint group. Significant differences were found between the two groups in the percentage of change of muscle thickness of the TrA (P=0.018) and in the thickness ratio of the TrA (P=0.018). Stability exercise accompanied by diagonal resistance on the hip joint that was applied in this study can induce automatic contraction of the IO and TrA, which provides stability to the lumbar spine. PMID:27807520

  3. Maneuvering strategies using CMGs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, H. S.; Vadali, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper considers control strategies for maneuvering spacecraft using Single-Gimbal Control Momentum Gyros (CMGs). A pyramid configuration using four gyros is utilized. Preferred initial gimbal angles for maximum utilization of CMG momentum are obtained for some known torque commands. Feedback control laws are derived from the stability point of view by using the Liapunov's Second Theorem. The gyro rates are obtained by the pseudo-inverse technique. The effect of gimbal rate bounds on controllability are studied for an example maneuver. Singularity avoidance is based on limiting the gyro rates depending on a singularity index.

  4. Nonlinear Maneuver Autopilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Badgett, M. E.; Walker, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    Trajectory-control laws based on singular-perturbation theory and nonlinear dynamical modeling. Nonlinear maneuver autopilot commands flight-test trajectories of F-15 airplane. Underlying theory of controller enables separation of variables processed in fast and slow control loops, reducing amount of computation required.

  5. Militarized Maneuver Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    threat to MMTs perception of prestige, honor, respect and glory. 79 Recommendations Deterring MMT requires an approach of breadth and depth . Breadth......tactic posing a direct threat to the perception of security in the United States. Militarized Maneuver Terrorists MMTs are multiple (more than two

  6. Traumatic rupture of the stomach secondary to Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Dupre, M W; Silva, E; Brotman, S

    1993-11-01

    The case of a 93-year-old man who received a Heimlich maneuver while choking is reported. After the procedure, the patient presented with abdominal pain and ultimately was found to have developed a gastric rupture. He was hospitalized for 66 days. Review of the literature showed that only four gastric perforations related to the Heimlich maneuver have been documented. Other complications have occurred. It is reasonable to perform the procedure as an alternative to asphyxiation, but emergency physicians must be aware of the fact that life-threatening complications may ensue.

  7. Abdominal ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney - blood and urine flow Abdominal ultrasound References Chen L. Abdominal ultrasound imaging. In: Sahani DV, Samir ... the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should not be used ...

  8. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    ... tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap Images Digestive system Peritoneal sample References Garcia-Tiso G. ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  9. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... call your doctor. In Spanish— Dolor abdominal en niños menores de 12 años What is recurrent abdominal ... Functional abdominal pain (FAP) typically affects kids ages 4-12, and is quite common, affecting up to ...

  10. Air Combat Maneuvering Performance Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    several major purposes. First, it would provide improved feedback to Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) students concerning their progress through the flight...materials and syllabi. Consistent patterns of weakness in the students would serve as an indicator of a need for adjustment and improvement in the program...adversary maneuvers. BFM students learn to perceive the aspect angle, angle-off, and closure rate of the opposing aircraft. They learn the proper maneuver

  11. Valsalva maneuver in phlebologic practice.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Stefano; Moro, Leo; Minotti, Girolamo C; Incalzi, Raffaele A; De Maeseneer, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Forced expiration against an airway obstruction was originally described as a method for inflating the Eustachian tubes and is accredited to Antonio Maria Valsalva (1666-1723). The Valsalva maneuver is commonly applied for different diagnostic purposes. Its use for phlebologic diagnosis is the object this review. Venous reflux is the most frequent pathophysiologic mechanism in chronic venous disease. Reflux is easily visualized by duplex ultrasound when properly elicited, in standing position. A simple way to elicit reflux is the so-called "compression-release maneuver": by emptying the muscle reservoir, it determines a centrifugal gradient, dependent on hydrostatic pressure, creating an aspiration system from the superficial to the deep system. The same results are obtained with dynamics tests activating calf muscles. The Valsalva maneuver elicits reflux by a different mechanism, increasing the downstream pressure and, thus, highlighting any connection between the source of reflux and the refluxing vessel. The Valsalva maneuver is typically used to investigate the saphenofemoral junction. When the maneuver is performed correctly, it is very useful to analyse several conditions and different hemodynamic behaviours of the valvular system at the saphenofemoral junction. Negative Valsalva maneuver always indicates valvular competence at the saphenofemoral junction. Reverse flow lasting during the whole strain (positive Valsalva maneuver) indicates incompetence or absence of proximal valves. Coupling Valsalva maneuver to compression-release maneuver, with the sample volume in different saphenofemoral junction sections, may reveal different hemodynamic situations at the saphenofemoral junction, which can be analysed in detail.

  12. Ruptured jejunum following Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Razaboni, R M; Brathwaite, C E; Dwyer, W A

    1986-01-01

    The Heimlich maneuver, over time, has proved to be a useful resuscitative procedure in the management of cases with airway occlusion secondary to foreign body. Medical treatments, however, can have side effects, and this maneuver is no exception. A previously unreported complication is presented, that of jejunal rupture. The proper application of the maneuver minimizes the number of side effects; however, since they do occur, it is suggested that all persons subject to this maneuver be subsequently evaluated by a physician as soon after the incident as is practicable.

  13. Automobile maneuvering device

    SciTech Connect

    Ricciardi, R.

    1987-08-18

    An automobile maneuvering device is described which consists of: a chassis comprising transport wheels for permitting movement of the device along the ground, a drive wheel operably rotatably connected to the chassis, and means for rotating the drive wheel, clamp means operably connected to the chassis and spaced from and opposed to the drive wheel, the chassis including means to move the clamp means to engage one portion of an automobile tire with the drive wheel engaged at another portion of the automobile tire, and means to actuate the rotating means, so that with rotation of the drive wheel the automobile tire is rotated and the automobile and device moved along the ground.

  14. [Abdominal paracentesis].

    PubMed

    Glauser, Frédéric; Barras, Anne-Catherine; Pache, Isabelle; Monti, Matteo

    2008-10-29

    Abdominal paracentesis is frequently performed in the clinical setting. Every newly developed ascites need to be investigated by abdominal paracentesis. Any clinical or biological deterioration in patients with chronic ascites also requires a new paracentesis. Therapeutically abdominal paracentesis is performed for refractory or symptomatic ascites. As other invasive procedures, it is critical to master its indications, contra-indications and complications. The aim of this article is to review the basics of abdominal paracentesis in order to help physicians to carry out this technical skill.

  15. Heimlich trauma: a violent maneuver.

    PubMed

    Wolf, D A

    2001-03-01

    The Heimlich maneuver is a life-saving technique for dislodging foreign material from the respiratory tract. This report illustrates intraabdominal injuries, including a large mesenteric laceration, mesenteric contusions, and intraperitoneal hemorrhage, that occurred in a recipient of a vigorously applied Heimlich maneuver. The potential for confusing such injuries with homicidally inflicted injuries is emphasized.

  16. Pneumomediastinum following the Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Agia, G A; Hurst, D J

    1979-11-01

    The Heimlich maneuver appears to be a widely accepted technique advocated as a means of clearing an obstructed airway. Reports of complications have been few. We report a case of pneumomediastinum that occurred following the generation of increased pulmonary pressures during performance of the Heimlich maneuver.

  17. The Essence of Operational Maneuver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    instead of tactical maneuver, to win campaigns. The 1962 version of FM 100-5 defines maneuver as the dynamic element of battle by which forces...lug JACKSON tdh all TMIL x UBHEIT MHEapD 4.NSOW J"cao inteVle VAIUY- 18 (3:229)k Union forces were unable to concentrato because of the Massanutten

  18. Aircraft agility maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Eugene M.; Thompson, Brian G.

    1992-01-01

    A new dynamic model for aircraft motions is presented. This model can be viewed as intermediate between a point-mass model, in which the body attitude angles are control-like, and a rigid-body model, in which the body-attitude angles evolve according to Newton's Laws. Specifically, consideration is given to the case of symmetric flight, and a model is constructed in which the body roll-rate and the body pitch-rate are the controls. In terms of this body-rate model a minimum-time heading change maneuver is formulated. When the bounds on the body-rates are large the results are similar to the point-mass model in that the model can very quickly change the applied forces and produce an acceleration to turn the vehicle. With finite bounds on these rates, the forces change in a smooth way. This leads to a measurable effect of agility.

  19. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is ...

  20. [Abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Gschossmann, J M; Holtmann, G; Netzer, P; Essig, M; Balsiger, B M; Scheurer, U

    2005-10-01

    Abdominal pain can result from a variety of different intra- and extra-abdominal disorders. Given the wide variety of etiological triggers for this pain, the primary task during the first stage of the diagnostic work-up is to determine as soon as possible the underlying cause and the degree of emergency. The aim of this evaluation is to adapt the therapeutic measures which are necessary for a causal treatment to the individual situation. Contrary to somatic causes of abdominal pain, the availability of such a causal therapy for functional bowel disorders is still very limited. Given this dilemma, the therapeutic focus of abdominal pain associated with these functional syndromes has to be placed on symptom-oriented treatment.

  1. Heimlich maneuver on infant (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... most commonly in children less than 3 years old and in senior citizens, but can occur at any age. The Heimlich maneuver has been valuable in saving lives and can be administered by anyone who has learned the technique.

  2. Heimlich maneuver on adult (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... most commonly in children less than 3 years old and in senior citizens, but can occur at any age. The Heimlich maneuver has been valuable in saving lives and can be administered by anyone who has learned the technique.

  3. Turns and maneuvers during swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Amneet; Mosberg, Noah; Bale, Rahul; Patankar, Neelesh

    2011-11-01

    In this work we use fully resolved fluid dynamics computations based on an immersed body approach to study fish turns and maneuvers. We present a numerical method to control the trajectory of fish during turns and maneuvers. Fish tracking a prey is presented as an example case. Numerical simulations are carried out on spatially adaptive grid for speed and accuracy. The effect of deformation kinematics and Reynolds number (Re), on the turn radius of an undulatory swimmer, is studied. Power spent during turning at different turn radii and Re is also reported. These results can be used to quantify the cost of various maneuvers and to identify efficient maneuvers to attain the same objective, e.g., reaching a target location during prey tracking. NSF support is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. ARTEMIS Maneuvers into Lunar Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation visualizes the maneuvers required to move the ARTEMIS spacecraft from their kidney-shaped paths on each side of the moon to orbiting the moon. It took one and a half years, over 90 o...

  5. STS-135: Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver

    NASA Video Gallery

    On July 10, 2011, space shuttle Atlantis performed the nine-minute Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver, or “backflip.” With Commander Chris Ferguson at the helm, Atlantis rotated 360 degrees backward to ...

  6. STS-133: Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver

    NASA Video Gallery

    At 1:15 p.m. EST Saturday, space shuttle Discovery began the nine-minute Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver, or "backflip." With Commander Steve Lindsey at the helm, Discovery rotated 360 degrees backward t...

  7. Orbital-Maneuver-Sequence Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    optimization computer program and applied it to the generation of optimal cog-brbital attack4ianeuver sequences * and to the generation of optimal evasions...maneuver-sequence- optimization computer programs can be improved by a general restructuring and streamlining and the addition of various features. It is...believed that with further development and systematic testing the programs have potential for real-time generation of optimal maneuver sequences in an

  8. Young Children's Drawings in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Way, Jennifer; Bobis, Janette

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores young children's drawings (6 years old) in early number and addition activities in Malaysia. Observation, informal interviews and analysis of drawings revealed two types of drawing, and gave insight into the transitional process required for children to utilise drawings in problem solving. We argue the importance of valuing and…

  9. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  10. Software for Autonomous Spacecraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, John; Folta, Dave; Hawkins, Al; Dell, Greg

    2004-01-01

    The AutoCon computer programs facilitate and accelerate the planning and execution of orbital control maneuvers of spacecraft while analyzing and resolving mission constraints. AutoCon-F is executed aboard spacecraft, enabling the spacecraft to plan and execute maneuvers autonomously; AutoCon-G is designed for use on the ground. The AutoCon programs utilize advanced techniques of artificial intelligence, including those of fuzzy logic and natural-language scripting, to resolve multiple conflicting constraints and automatically plan maneuvers. These programs can be used to satisfy requirements for missions that involve orbits around the Earth, the Moon, or any planet, and are especially useful for missions in which there are requirements for frequent maneuvers and for resolution of complex conflicting constraints. During operations, the software targets new trajectories, places and sizes maneuvers, and controls spacecraft burns. AutoCon-G provides a userfriendly graphical interface, and can be used effectively by an analyst with minimal training. AutoCon-F reduces latency and supports multiple-spacecraft and formation-flying missions. The AutoCon architecture supports distributive processing, which can be critical for formation- control missions. AutoCon is completely object-oriented and can easily be enhanced by adding new objects and events. AutoCon-F was flight demonstrated onboard GSFC's EO-1 spacecraft flying in formation with Landsat-7.

  11. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91–111. Seek Help for ... and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website ... Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders 700 West Virginia ...

  12. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A

    2015-01-01

    Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness. PMID:26171383

  13. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A

    2015-06-01

    Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness.

  14. Survivability Options for Maneuver and Transport Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    it is simply the next logical step in mechanized warfare and an ex- tension of ground operational maneuver as it has been conducted in the past. By...Survivability Options for Maneuver and Transport Aircraft bility and operational challenges.6 The research presented in this document, conducted as analytic...operational maneuver conducted mostly on the ground. We will then present the results of the analysis of operational maneuver by air, using the ASB

  15. Large Angle Satellite Attitude Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, J. E.; Junkins, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Two methods are proposed for performing large angle reorientation maneuvers. The first method is based upon Euler's rotation theorem; an arbitrary reorientation is ideally accomplished by rotating the spacecraft about a line which is fixed in both the body and in space. This scheme has been found to be best suited for the case in which the initial and desired attitude states have small angular velocities. The second scheme is more general in that a general class of transition trajectories is introduced which, in principle, allows transfer between arbitrary orientation and angular velocity states. The method generates transition maneuvers in which the uncontrolled (free) initial and final states are matched in orientation and angular velocity. The forced transition trajectory is obtained by using a weighted average of the unforced forward integration of the initial state and the unforced backward integration of the desired state. The current effort is centered around practical validation of this second class of maneuvers. Of particular concern is enforcement of given control system constraints and methods for suboptimization by proper selection of maneuver initiation and termination times. Analogous reorientation strategies which force smooth transition in angular momentum and/or rotational energy are under consideration.

  16. Operational Maneuver: Function or Fiction?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the premise that this would never happen, so why plan for it. That is just the point. Operational art planning should not leave any stone unturned . The... unturned during operational art planning and execution. The maneuver apex theory can be applied to the Air Force operating environment, however, operational

  17. 33 CFR 84.23 - Maneuvering light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maneuvering light. 84.23 Section... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.23 Maneuvering light. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 84.03(f), the maneuvering light described in Rule 34(b) shall be...

  18. 33 CFR 84.23 - Maneuvering light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maneuvering light. 84.23 Section... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.23 Maneuvering light. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 84.03(f), the maneuvering light described in Rule 34(b) shall be...

  19. 33 CFR 84.23 - Maneuvering light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maneuvering light. 84.23 Section... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.23 Maneuvering light. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 84.03(f), the maneuvering light described in Rule 34(b) shall be...

  20. 33 CFR 84.23 - Maneuvering light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maneuvering light. 84.23 Section... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.23 Maneuvering light. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 84.03(f), the maneuvering light described in Rule 34(b) shall be...

  1. Maneuver Detection and Estimation with Optical Tracklets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K.

    2014-09-01

    A method is proposed for detecting and estimating maneuvers using optical (angles-only) tracklets. After the correlator recognizes that a Resident Space Object (RSO) has maneuvered and no longer matches its pre-maneuver trajectory, observations for that RSO will be classified as Uncorrelated Tracks (UCTs). Using an algorithm to indicate when known RSOs have gone missing, an initial estimate for a maneuver can be obtained by processing the pool of UCTs with an algorithm called Two Angle Pairs Initial Orbit with Conjunction Analysis (TAPIOCA). TAPIOCA computes hypothesized orbits on the admissible region for two angles-only observations and back-propagates the orbits to look for conjunctions with the last known trajectories for the missing RSOs. If a conjunction is found with a small miss distance and velocity difference, it is used as an estimate for a maneuver. Once an initial estimate for the maneuver is obtained from TAPIOCA, a batch least-squares process is outlined which can refine that maneuver estimate and provide predictions for the trajectory and covariance after the maneuver such that the correlator will correctly identify that object for subsequent tracklets. As more tracklets become available after the maneuver, it is continually refined in the least-squares estimator. The maneuver estimates include start time and thrust. Maneuver detection results are shown for both simulated and real geostationary objects. Using Raven observations of Galaxy 15, the method was able to find five maneuvers over four weeks which were verified against precise WAAS ephemeris.

  2. 33 CFR 84.23 - Maneuvering light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maneuvering light. 84.23 Section... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.23 Maneuvering light. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 84.03(f), the maneuvering light described in Rule 34(b) shall be...

  3. Cassini Solstice Mission Maneuver Experience: Year Three

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Sean V.; Arrieta, Juan; Hahn, Yungsun; Stumpf, Paul W.; Valerino, Powtawche N.; Wong, Mau C.

    2013-01-01

    The Solstice Mission is the final extension of the Cassini spacecraft s tour of Saturn and its moons. To accommodate an end-of-mission in 2017, the maneuver decision process has been refined. For example, the Cassini Project now prioritizes saving propellant over minimizing maneuver cycles. This paper highlights 30 maneuvers planned from June 2012 through July 2013, targeted to nine Titan flybys and the final Rhea encounter in the mission. Of these maneuvers, 90% were performed to maintain the prescribed trajectory and preserve downstream delta V. Recent operational changes to maneuver executions based on execution-error modeling and analysis are also discussed.

  4. Cassini Solstice Mission Maneuver Experience: Year Three

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Sean V.; Arrieta, Juan; Hahn, Yungsun; Stumpf, Paul W.; Valerino, Powtawche N.; Wong, Mau C.

    2013-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft is now in its second Saturn tour extension, the Solstice Mission. By emphasizing propellant preservation over minimizing maneuver cycles, the Cassini Project is meeting the challenge of mission completion in 2017. Since June 2012, 18 of 21 maneuvers were performed to closely maintain the prescribed trajectory, saving downstream propellant. These and other maneuvers during the third year of the Solstice Mission (June 2012 to August 2013) are highlighted in this paper: 31 planned maneuvers targeted to 11 Titan flybys and the last planned Rhea encounter. An assessment of the updated maneuver execution-error models will also be presented.

  5. Effects of bridge exercises with a sling and vibrations on abdominal muscle thickness in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Gong, Won-tae

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to examine the changes in the thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA) and internal oblique (Io) muscles using ultrasonography in adults who performed bridge exercises with the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and a sling and received micro vibrations. In total, 32 subjects were divided into a therapy (n= 16) and control (n= 16) groups. The therapy group completed nine sets, with four repetitions, of bridge exercises with the sling and received vibrations. The control group completed nine sets, with four repetitions, of bridge exercises with the sling and did not receive vibrations. The thicknesses of the TrA and Io muscles were measured in both groups using ultrasonography before and after therapy. According to the pressure applied to the biofeedback unit, both groups showed significant changes in the thicknesses of the TrA and Io muscles after therapy (P< 0.05). The change in the thickness of the TrA muscle after therapy was significantly different between the 2 groups when the pressures applied at 38, 42, and 46 mmHg (P< 0.05). Moreover, the change in the thickness of the Io muscle did not significantly different between the 2 groups at any of the pressures applied (P> 0.05). These findings indicate that approximately 15 minutes of vibrations during bridge exercises on unstable surfaces with a sling facilitates the activation of the deep trunk muscles and further enhances the activation of the TrA.

  6. EPOXI Trajectory and Maneuver Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Min-Kun J.; Bhaskaran, Shyamkumar; Chesley, Steven R.; Halsell, C. Allen; Helfrich, Clifford E.; Jefferson, David C.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Rush, Brian P.; Wang, Tseng-Chan M.; Yen, Chen-wan L.

    2011-01-01

    The EPOXI mission is a NASA Discovery Mission of Opportunity combining two separate investigations: Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization (EPOCh) and Deep Impact eXtended Investigation (DIXI). Both investigations reused the DI instruments and spacecraft that successfully flew by the comet Tempel-1 (4 July 2005). For EPOCh, the goal was to find exoplanets with the high resolution imager, while for DIXI it was to fly by the comet Hartley 2 (4 Nov 2010). This paper documents the navigation experience of the earlier ma-neuver analyses critical for the EPOXI mission including statistical ?V analyses and other useful analyses in designing maneuvers. It also recounts the trajectory design leading up to the final reference trajectory to Hartley 2.

  7. Manned maneuvering unit latching mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    The astronaut/Manned Maneuvering Unit interface, which presented a challenging set of requirements for a latching mechanism, is described. A spring loaded cam segment with variable ratio pulley release actuator was developed to meet the requirements. To preclude jamming of the mechanism, special precautions were taken such as spring loaded bearing points and careful selection of materials to resist cold welding. The mechanism successfully passed a number of tests which partially simulated orbital conditions.

  8. Abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, V. K.

    1998-01-01

    Tuberculosis has staged a global comeback and forms a dangerous combination with AIDS. The abdomen is one of the common sites of extrapulmonary involvement. Patients with abdominal tuberculosis have a wide range and spectrum of symptoms and signs; the disease is therefore a great mimic. Diagnosis, mainly radiological and supported by endoscopy, is difficult to make and laparotomy is required in a large number of patient. Management involves judicious combination of antitubercular therapy and surgery which may be required to treat complications such as intestinal obstruction and perforation. The disease, though potentially curable, carries a significant morbidity and mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:9926119

  9. Reliability of ultrasound in combination with surface electromyogram for evaluating the activity of abdominal muscles in individuals with and without low back pain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kyung-Hye; Park, Du-Jin

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the reliability of ultrasound in combination with surface electromyogram (EMG) for evaluating the activity of the abdominal muscles in individuals with and without low back pain during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM). The study recruited ten individuals with or without low back pain, respectively. While the participants were performing the ADIM, the activities of the transversus abdominis (TrA) and the internal oblique (IO) were measured using ultra-sound, while the activities of the external oblique (EO) and the rectus abdominis (RA) were measured using surface EMG. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to verify the inter-rater reliability of ultrasound in combination with surface EMG at rest and during the ADIM, and Bland-Altman plots were used to verify intra-rater reliability. The inter-rater reliability for the two groups at rest and during the ADIM was excellent (ICC2,1 = 0.77-0.95). In the Bland-Altman plots, the mean differences and 95% limits of agreement in the abdominal muscles of the two groups at rest were -0.03∼0.03 mm (-0.66 to 0.60 mm) and -0.12∼ -0.05 (-0.58 to 0.48% MVIC), respectively. The mean differences and 95% limits of agreement in the abdominal muscles of the two groups during the ADIM were -0.04∼0.02 mm (-0.73 to 0.65 mm) and -0.19∼0.05% MVIC (-1.24 to 1.34% MVIC), respectively. The ultrasound in combination with surface EMG showed excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliability at rest and during the ADIM.

  10. LANDSAT-5 orbit adjust maneuver report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassett, P. J.; Johnson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The orbit adjust maneuvers performed to raise the LANDSAT 5 spacecraft to mission altitude, synchronize it with the required groundtrack, and properly phase the spacecraft with LANDSAT-4 to provide an 8 day full Earth coverage cycle are described. Maneuver planning and evaluation procedures, data and analysis results for all maneuvers performed to date, the frozen orbit concept, and the phasing requirement between LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 are also examined.

  11. 14 CFR 23.423 - Maneuvering loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing and Balancing Surfaces § 23.423 Maneuvering loads. Each horizontal surface and its supporting structure, and...

  12. 14 CFR 23.423 - Maneuvering loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing and Balancing Surfaces § 23.423 Maneuvering loads. Each horizontal surface and its supporting structure, and...

  13. 14 CFR 23.423 - Maneuvering loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing and Balancing Surfaces § 23.423 Maneuvering loads. Each horizontal surface and its supporting structure, and...

  14. 14 CFR 23.423 - Maneuvering loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing and Balancing Surfaces § 23.423 Maneuvering loads. Each horizontal surface and its supporting structure, and...

  15. 14 CFR 23.423 - Maneuvering loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Horizontal Stabilizing and Balancing Surfaces § 23.423 Maneuvering loads. Each horizontal surface and its supporting structure, and...

  16. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths

    PubMed Central

    Greeter, Jeremy S. M.; Hedrick, Tyson L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. ‘sideslips’, of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep), allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta. PMID:26740573

  17. Aircraft maneuver envelope warning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivens, Courtland C. (Inventor); Rosado, Joel M. (Inventor); Lee, Burnett (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A maneuver envelope warning system for an aircraft having operating limits, operating condition sensors and an indicator driver. The indicator driver has a plurality of visual indicators. The indicator driver determines a relationship between sensed operating conditions and the operating limits; such as, a ratio therebetween. The indicator driver illuminates a number of the indicators in proportion to the determined relationship. The position of the indicators illuminated represents to a pilot in an easily ascertainable manner whether the operational conditions are approaching operational limits of the aircraft, and the degree to which operational conditions lie within or exceed operational limits.

  18. Orbital maneuvers and space rendezvous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butikov, Eugene I.

    2015-12-01

    Several possibilities of launching a space vehicle from the orbital station are considered and compared. Orbital maneuvers discussed in the paper can be useful in designing a trajectory for a specific space mission. The relative motion of orbiting bodies is investigated on examples of spacecraft rendezvous with the space station that stays in a circular orbit around the Earth. An elementary approach is illustrated by an accompanying simulation computer program and supported by a mathematical treatment based on fundamental laws of physics and conservation laws. Material is appropriate for engineers and other personnel involved in space exploration, undergraduate and graduate students studying classical physics and orbital mechanics.

  19. A Novel Method for Satellite Maneuver Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabarekh, C.; Kent-Bryant, J.; Keselman, G.; Mitidis, A.

    2016-09-01

    A space operations tradecraft consisting of detect-track-characterize-catalog is insufficient for maintaining Space Situational Awareness (SSA) as space becomes increasingly congested and contested. In this paper, we apply analytical methodology from the Geospatial-Intelligence (GEOINT) community to a key challenge in SSA: predicting where and when a satellite may maneuver in the future. We developed a machine learning approach to probabilistically characterize Patterns of Life (PoL) for geosynchronous (GEO) satellites. PoL are repeatable, predictable behaviors that an object exhibits within a context and is driven by spatio-temporal, relational, environmental and physical constraints. An example of PoL are station-keeping maneuvers in GEO which become generally predictable as the satellite re-positions itself to account for orbital perturbations. In an earlier publication, we demonstrated the ability to probabilistically predict maneuvers of the Galaxy 15 (NORAD ID: 28884) satellite with high confidence eight days in advance of the actual maneuver. Additionally, we were able to detect deviations from expected PoL within hours of the predicted maneuver [6]. This was done with a custom unsupervised machine learning algorithm, the Interval Similarity Model (ISM), which learns repeating intervals of maneuver patterns from unlabeled historical observations and then predicts future maneuvers. In this paper, we introduce a supervised machine learning algorithm that works in conjunction with the ISM to produce a probabilistic distribution of when future maneuvers will occur. The supervised approach uses a Support Vector Machine (SVM) to process the orbit state whereas the ISM processes the temporal intervals between maneuvers and the physics-based characteristics of the maneuvers. This multiple model approach capitalizes on the mathematical strengths of each respective algorithm while incorporating multiple features and inputs. Initial findings indicate that the combined

  20. Cassini-Huygens maneuver automation for navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodson, Troy; Attiyah, Amy; Buffington, Brent; Hahn, Yungsun; Pojman, Joan; Stavert, Bob; Strange, Nathan; Stumpf, Paul; Wagner, Sean; Wolff, Peter; Wong, Mau

    2006-01-01

    Many times during the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn, propulsive maneuvers must be spaced so closely together that there isn't enough time or workforce to execute the maneuver-related software manually, one subsystem at a time. Automation is required. Automating the maneuver design process has involved close cooperation between teams. We present the contribution from the Navigation system. In scope, this includes trajectory propagation and search, generation of ephemerides, general tasks such as email notification and file transfer, and presentation materials. The software has been used to help understand maneuver optimization results, Huygens probe delivery statistics, and Saturn ring-plane crossing geometry. The Maneuver Automation Software (MAS), developed for the Cassini-Huygens program enables frequent maneuvers by handling mundane tasks such as creation of deliverable files, file delivery, generation and transmission of email announcements, generation of presentation material and other supporting documentation. By hand, these tasks took up hours, if not days, of work for each maneuver. Automated, these tasks may be completed in under an hour. During the cruise trajectory the spacing of maneuvers was such that development of a maneuver design could span about a month, involving several other processes in addition to that described, above. Often, about the last five days of this process covered the generation of a final design using an updated orbit-determination estimate. To support the tour trajectory, the orbit determination data cut-off of five days before the maneuver needed to be reduced to approximately one day and the whole maneuver development process needed to be reduced to less than a week..

  1. Optimal Electrodynamic Tether Phasing Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bitzer, Matthew S.; Hall, Christopher D.

    2007-01-01

    We study the minimum-time orbit phasing maneuver problem for a constant-current electrodynamic tether (EDT). The EDT is assumed to be a point mass and the electromagnetic forces acting on the tether are always perpendicular to the local magnetic field. After deriving and non-dimensionalizing the equations of motion, the only input parameters become current and the phase angle. Solution examples, including initial Lagrange costates, time of flight, thrust plots, and thrust angle profiles, are given for a wide range of current magnitudes and phase angles. The two-dimensional cases presented use a non-tilted magnetic dipole model, and the solutions are compared to existing literature. We are able to compare similar trajectories for a constant thrust phasing maneuver and we find that the time of flight is longer for the constant thrust case with similar initial thrust values and phase angles. Full three-dimensional solutions, which use a titled magnetic dipole model, are also analyzed for orbits with small inclinations.

  2. Rolling maneuver load alleviation using active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Pototzky, Anthony S.

    1992-01-01

    Rolling Maneuver Load Alleviation (RMLA) was demonstrated on the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) wind tunnel model in the LaRC Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The design objective was to develop a systematic approach for developing active control laws to alleviate wing incremental loads during roll maneuvers. Using linear load models for the AFW wind-tunnel model which were based on experimental measurements, two RMLA control laws were developed based on a single-degree-of-freedom roll model. The RMLA control laws utilized actuation of outboard control surface pairs to counteract incremental loads generated during rolling maneuvers and roll performance. To evaluate the RMLA control laws, roll maneuvers were performed in the wind tunnel at dynamic pressures of 150, 200, and 250 psf and Mach numbers of .33, .38, and .44, respectively. Loads obtained during these maneuvers were compared to baseline maneuver loads. For both RMLA controllers, the incremental torsion moments were reduced by up to 60 percent at all dynamic pressures and performance times. Results for bending moment load reductions during roll maneuvers varied. In addition, in a multiple function test, RMLA and flutter suppression system control laws were operated simultaneously during roll maneuvers at dynamic pressures 11 percent above the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure.

  3. 46 CFR 109.564 - Maneuvering characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics. 109.564 Section 109.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.564 Maneuvering characteristics. (a) The master or person in charge of...

  4. 46 CFR 109.564 - Maneuvering characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics. 109.564 Section 109.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.564 Maneuvering characteristics. (a) The master or person in charge of...

  5. 46 CFR 109.564 - Maneuvering characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics. 109.564 Section 109.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.564 Maneuvering characteristics. (a) The master or person in charge of...

  6. 46 CFR 109.564 - Maneuvering characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics. 109.564 Section 109.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.564 Maneuvering characteristics. (a) The master or person in charge of...

  7. 46 CFR 109.564 - Maneuvering characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics. 109.564 Section 109.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.564 Maneuvering characteristics. (a) The master or person in charge of...

  8. 14 CFR 23.441 - Maneuvering loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maneuvering loads. 23.441 Section 23.441... Maneuvering loads. (a) At speeds up to V A, the vertical surfaces must be designed to withstand the following conditions. In computing the loads, the yawing velocity may be assumed to be zero: (1) With the airplane...

  9. [Internal carotid artery dissection after Heimlich maneuver].

    PubMed

    Rakotoharinandrasana, H; Petit, E; Dumas, P; Vandermarcq, P; Gil, R; Neau, J-Ph

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of cervical artery dissection following a Heimlich maneuver. Cervical artery dissections are at the present time well known and are sometimes associated with trivial traumas. However, to our knowledge, this complication of such maneuver was never reported in the literature. Pathophysiological mechanisms are discussed.

  10. Method for Studying Helicopter Longitudinal Maneuver Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Kenneth B

    1954-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of helicopter maneuver stability is made and the results are compared with experimental results for both a single and a tandem rotor helicopter. Techniques are described for measuring in flight the significant stability derivatives for use with the theory to aid in design studies of means for achieving marginal maneuver stability for a prototype helicopter.

  11. Flight Test Maneuvers for Efficient Aerodynamic Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2011-01-01

    Novel flight test maneuvers for efficient aerodynamic modeling were developed and demonstrated in flight. Orthogonal optimized multi-sine inputs were applied to aircraft control surfaces to excite aircraft dynamic response in all six degrees of freedom simultaneously while keeping the aircraft close to chosen reference flight conditions. Each maneuver was designed for a specific modeling task that cannot be adequately or efficiently accomplished using conventional flight test maneuvers. All of the new maneuvers were first described and explained, then demonstrated on a subscale jet transport aircraft in flight. Real-time and post-flight modeling results obtained using equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain were used to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the new maneuvers, as well as the quality of the aerodynamic models that can be identified from the resultant flight data.

  12. Tactical Maneuvering Using Immunized Sequence Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneshige, John; KrishnaKumar, K.; Shung, Felix

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a tactical maneuvering system that uses an artificial immune system based approach for selecting maneuver sequences. This approach combines the problem solving abilities of genetic algorithms with the memory retention characteristics of an immune system. Of significant importance here is the fact that the tactical maneuvering system can make time-critical decisions to accomplish near-term objectives within a dynamic environment. These objectives can be received from a human operator, autonomous executive, or various flight planning specialists. Simulation tests were performed using a high performance military aircraft model. Results demonstrate the potential of using immunized sequence selection in order to accomplish tactical maneuvering objectives ranging from flying to a location while avoiding unforeseen obstacles, to performing relative positioning in support of air combat maneuvering.

  13. Energy Index For Aircraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Drew, Douglas A. (Inventor); Ainsworth, Robert J. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Romanowski, Tomothy P. (Inventor); Bloch, Laurent (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and system for analyzing, separately or in combination, kinetic energy and potential energy and/or their time derivatives, measured or estimated or computed, for an aircraft in approach phase or in takeoff phase, to determine if the aircraft is or will be put in an anomalous configuration in order to join a stable approach path or takeoff path. A 3 reference value of kinetic energy andor potential energy (or time derivatives thereof) is provided, and a comparison index .for the estimated energy and reference energy is computed and compared with a normal range of index values for a corresponding aircraft maneuver. If the computed energy index lies outside the normal index range, this phase of the aircraft is identified as anomalous, non-normal or potentially unstable.

  14. Atmospheric maneuvering during Martian entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauber, Michael E.; Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Yang, Lily

    A comparative-advantages study is made of two different Martian atmospheric entry maneuvers, on the basis of calculation results for the case of a vehicle with a maximum L/D ratio of 2.3. Entries from a highly elliptical Martian orbit at 5 km/sec are more difficult than those from a lower altitude and speed orbit at 3.5 km/sec, due to their more stringent guidance requirements. Efforts to reduce the deceleration for the higher speed entry by lift-modulation achieved a 40-percent reduction, but at the cost of a 50-percent decrease in lateral range. The lower-speed entry's gliding trajectory is noted to encounter a far more benign atmospheric environment.

  15. Multi-Maneuver Clohessy-Wiltshire Targeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannemiller, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Orbital rendezvous involves execution of a sequence of maneuvers by a chaser vehicle to bring the chaser to a desired state relative to a target vehicle while meeting intermediate and final relative constraints. Intermediate and final relative constraints are necessary to meet a multitude of requirements such as to control approach direction, ensure relative position is adequate for operation of space-to-space communication systems and relative sensors, provide fail-safe trajectory features, and provide contingency hold points. The effect of maneuvers on constraints is often coupled, so the maneuvers must be solved for as a set. For example, maneuvers that affect orbital energy change both the chaser's height and downrange position relative to the target vehicle. Rendezvous designers use experience and rules-of-thumb to design a sequence of maneuvers and constraints. A non-iterative method is presented for targeting a rendezvous scenario that includes a sequence of maneuvers and relative constraints. This method is referred to as Multi-Maneuver Clohessy-Wiltshire Targeting (MM_CW_TGT). When a single maneuver is targeted to a single relative position, the classic CW targeting solution is obtained. The MM_CW_TGT method involves manipulation of the CW state transition matrix to form a linear system. As a starting point for forming the algorithm, the effects of a series of impulsive maneuvers on the state are derived. Simple and moderately complex examples are used to demonstrate the pattern of the resulting linear system. The general form of the pattern results in an algorithm for formation of the linear system. The resulting linear system relates the effect of maneuver components and initial conditions on relative constraints specified by the rendezvous designer. Solution of the linear system includes the straight-forward inverse of a square matrix. Inversion of the square matrix is assured if the designer poses a controllable scenario - a scenario where the the

  16. Optimal Propellant Maneuver Flight Demonstrations on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Sagar; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Longacre, Kenneth; Nguyen, Louis

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, first ever flight demonstrations of Optimal Propellant Maneuver (OPM), a method of propulsive rotational state transition for spacecraft controlled using thrusters, is presented for the International Space Station (ISS). On August 1, 2012, two ISS reorientations of about 180deg each were performed using OPMs. These maneuvers were in preparation for the same-day launch and rendezvous of a Progress vehicle, also a first for ISS visiting vehicles. The first maneuver used 9.7 kg of propellant, whereas the second used 10.2 kg. Identical maneuvers performed without using OPMs would have used approximately 151.1kg and 150.9kg respectively. The OPM method is to use a pre-planned attitude command trajectory to accomplish a rotational state transition. The trajectory is designed to take advantage of the complete nonlinear system dynamics. The trajectory choice directly influences the cost of the maneuver, in this case, propellant. For example, while an eigenaxis maneuver is kinematically the shortest path between two orientations, following that path requires overcoming the nonlinear system dynamics, thereby increasing the cost of the maneuver. The eigenaxis path is used for ISS maneuvers using thrusters. By considering a longer angular path, the path dependence of the system dynamics can be exploited to reduce the cost. The benefits of OPM for the ISS include not only reduced lifetime propellant use, but also reduced loads, erosion, and contamination from thrusters due to fewer firings. Another advantage of the OPM is that it does not require ISS flight software modifications since it is a set of commands tailored to the specific attitude control architecture. The OPM takes advantage of the existing ISS control system architecture for propulsive rotation called USTO control mode1. USTO was originally developed to provide ISS Orbiter stack attitude control capability for a contingency tile-repair scenario, where the Orbiter is maneuvered using its robotic

  17. Dawn Maneuver Design Performance at Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parcher, D. W.; Abrahamson, M.; Ardito, A.; Han, D.; Haw, R. J.; Kennedy, B. M.; Mastrodemos, N.; Nandi, S.; Park, R. S.; Rush, B. P.; Smith, B. A.; Smith, J. C.; Vaughan, A. T.; Whiffen, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    The Dawn spacecraft orbited the asteroid Vesta from July 16, 2011 to September 5, 2012, successfully accomplishing the four planned science orbits and two planned rotational characterization orbits. The lowest-altitude science orbit lasted four months, with 20 planned orbit maintenance maneuvers. Navigation results from Vesta demonstrate that the navigation plan was sufficient to achieve orbit delivery accuracy requirements. This paper compares the flown Dawn trajectory against the planned trajectory and expected maneuver dispersions. Understanding the effectiveness of the Vesta maneuver design plan is a key component of planning for operations at Ceres, the next destination for the Dawn mission.

  18. Cassini Solstice Mission Maneuver Experience: Year One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Sean V.; Arrieta, Juan; Ballard, Christopher G.; Hahn, Yungsun; Stumpf, Paul W.; Valerino, Powtawche N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft began its four-year Prime Mission to study Saturn's system in July 2004. Two tour extensions followed: a two-year Equinox Mission beginning in July 2008 and a seven-year Solstice Mission starting in September 2010. This paper highlights Cassini maneuver activities from June 2010 through June 2011, covering the transition from the Equinox to Solstice Mission. This interval included 38 scheduled maneuvers, nine targeted Titan flybys, three targeted Enceladus flybys, and one close Rhea flyby. In addition, beyond the demanding nominal navigation schedule, numerous unforeseen challenges further complicated maneuver operations. These challenges will be discussed in detail.

  19. Development Of Maneuvering Autopilot For Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes recent efforts to develop automatic control system operating under supervision of pilot and making airplane follow prescribed trajectories during flight tests. Report represents additional progress on this project. Gives background information on technology of control of test-flight trajectories; presents mathematical models of airframe, engine and command-augmentation system; focuses on mathematical modeling of maneuvers; addresses design of autopilots for maneuvers; discusses numerical simulation and evaluation of results of simulation of eight maneuvers under control of simulated autopilot; and presents summary and discussion of future work.

  20. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis or plaque buildup causes the ... weak and bulge outward like a balloon. An AAA develops slowly over time and has few noticeable ...

  1. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000162.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ...

  2. 14 CFR 23.337 - Limit maneuvering load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factors. 23.337... Flight Loads § 23.337 Limit maneuvering load factors. (a) The positive limit maneuvering load factor n... airplanes; or (3) 6.0 for acrobatic category airplanes. (b) The negative limit maneuvering load factor...

  3. 14 CFR 29.337 - Limit maneuvering load factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factor. 29.337... Limit maneuvering load factor. The rotorcraft must be designed for— (a) A limit maneuvering load factor... load factor not less than 2.0 and any negative limit maneuvering load factor of not less than −0.5...

  4. 14 CFR 27.337 - Limit maneuvering load factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factor. 27.337... Limit maneuvering load factor. The rotorcraft must be designed for— (a) A limit maneuvering load factor... load factor not less than 2.0 and any negative limit maneuvering load factor of not less than −0.5...

  5. 14 CFR 29.337 - Limit maneuvering load factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factor. 29.337... Limit maneuvering load factor. The rotorcraft must be designed for— (a) A limit maneuvering load factor... load factor not less than 2.0 and any negative limit maneuvering load factor of not less than −0.5...

  6. 14 CFR 23.337 - Limit maneuvering load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factors. 23.337... Flight Loads § 23.337 Limit maneuvering load factors. (a) The positive limit maneuvering load factor n... airplanes; or (3) 6.0 for acrobatic category airplanes. (b) The negative limit maneuvering load factor...

  7. 14 CFR 23.337 - Limit maneuvering load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factors. 23.337... Flight Loads § 23.337 Limit maneuvering load factors. (a) The positive limit maneuvering load factor n... airplanes; or (3) 6.0 for acrobatic category airplanes. (b) The negative limit maneuvering load factor...

  8. 14 CFR 23.337 - Limit maneuvering load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factors. 23.337... Flight Loads § 23.337 Limit maneuvering load factors. (a) The positive limit maneuvering load factor n... airplanes; or (3) 6.0 for acrobatic category airplanes. (b) The negative limit maneuvering load factor...

  9. 14 CFR 23.337 - Limit maneuvering load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factors. 23.337... Flight Loads § 23.337 Limit maneuvering load factors. (a) The positive limit maneuvering load factor n... airplanes; or (3) 6.0 for acrobatic category airplanes. (b) The negative limit maneuvering load factor...

  10. Heimlich maneuver on an adult (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... most commonly in children less than 3 years old and in senior citizens, but can occur at any age. The Heimlich maneuver has been valuable in saving lives and can be administered by anyone who has learned the technique.

  11. Heimlich maneuver on conscious child (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... most commonly in children less than 3 years old and in senior citizens, but can occur at any age. The Heimlich maneuver has been valuable in saving lives and can be administered by anyone who has learned the technique.

  12. Tracking a maneuvering target in spherical coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Andrew P.; Blanchard, Jeffrey A.; Grabbe, Michael T.

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents an Extended Kalman Filter for tracking a maneuvering target, where the kinematics of a typical target aircraft maneuver have been incorporated into the filter state equations. Such a formulation allows the target's motion to be accurately determined through estimation of heading and lateral acceleration. This is an improvement over the the typical approach of modeling target motion with acceleration terms represented by random processes, such as that used in the Singer model. In the following pages, a three-dimensional target maneuver model is formulated in conjunction with the kinematic equations of a sensor tracking a target in spherical coordinates. Three degree-of-freedom simulation results of the proposed filter, simplified for planar target maneuvers, are compared to a filter modeling target motion with the Singer model.

  13. Cassini-Huygens Maneuver Experience: Second Year of Saturn Tour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Sean V.; Gist, Emily M.; Goodson, Troy D.; Hahn, Yungsun; Stumpf, Paul W.; Williams, Powtawche N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper documents the maneuver experience during the second year of the Cassini-Huygens mission at Saturn. Since Saturn arrival in July 2004, the Cassini orbiter has made many flybys of Titan and Saturn's icy satellites. From August 2005 to June 2006, there were 39 planned maneuvers designed to target Cassini to aimpoints near Titan, Hyperion, Dione, and Rhea. Highlights of this paper include maneuver designs and strategies, maneuver performance, maneuver cancellation rationales, and a new maneuver execution-error model based on maneuvers executed to date.

  14. The Heimlich maneuver. Best technique for saving any choking victim's life.

    PubMed

    Heimlich, H J; Patrick, E A

    1990-05-01

    The American Red Cross (ARC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) advocated backslaps, chest thrusts, and abdominal thrusts for 10 years after the Heimlich maneuver was introduced in 1974. Even after the Surgeon General in 1985 declared these methods to be "hazardous, even lethal," the ARC and the AHA continue to recommend backslaps and chest thrusts for infants under 1 year of age. ARC and AHA instructional materials that advocate use of these methods have not been recalled, and the public has not been warned of the dangers. One cause of the confusion about backslaps is the flawed belief that gas pressure alone removes a foreign body. In addition, there is lack of understanding that, compared with the Heimlich maneuver, the backslap produces an insignificant amount of the energy required to expel an object from the airway. In fact, the energy produced by the backslap drives the foreign object in the wrong direction, toward the lungs, while the energy produced by the Heimlich maneuver drives the object away from the lungs, toward the mouth. Backslaps and chest thrusts should be publicly recalled as a treatment for choking infants before further deaths and injuries occur. The Heimlich maneuver is the best rescue technique for treating choking victims of all ages.

  15. A Method for Governing Spacecraft Evasive Maneuvering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    countermeasures fail to prevent detection of the spacecraft, or fail to deceive, confuse, or destroy the attacker. To maneuver effectively , the...cept is concluded to be imminent, the spacecraft must be able to plan and carry-out effective evasive maneuvers based on information which is timely...hostile force deployments, and support the command and control of mil- itary operations. In fact, an effective and survivable satellite network is

  16. DE-1 Comet Halley imaging maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, D. R.; Marr, G. C.; Stone, J. L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Supplemental attitude control and support techniques were developed to maneuver the NASA Dynamics Explorer-1 (DE-1) spacecraft spin axis to allow extended imaging of Comet Halley with the DE-1 spin-scan auroral imager. The application of these techniques to the extension of the DE-1 mission is discussed as well as the performance attained and potential applications. The maneuver increased the duration of Comet Halley observation by about two months.

  17. Helicopter stability during aggressive maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Ranjith

    The dissertation investigates helicopter trim and stability during level bank-angle and diving bank-angle turns. The level turn is moderate in that sufficient power is available to maintain level maneuver, and the diving turn is severe where the power deficit is overcome by the kinetic energy of descent. The investigation basically represents design conditions where the peak loading goes well beyond the steady thrust limit and the rotor experiences appreciable stall. The major objectives are: (1) to assess the sensitivity of the trim and stability predictions to the approximations in modeling stall, (2) to correlate the trim predictions with the UH-60A flight test data, and (3) to demonstrate the feasibility of routinely using the exact fast-Floquet periodic eigenvector method for mode identification in the stability analysis. The UH-60A modeling and analysis are performed using the comprehensive code RCAS (Army's Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis System). The trim and damping predictions are based on quasisteady stall, ONERA-Edlin (Equations Differentielles Lineaires) and Leishman-Beddoes dynamic stall models. From the correlation with the test data, the strengths and weaknesses of the trim predictions are presented.

  18. [Utility of recruitment maneuvers (pro)].

    PubMed

    Suárez Sipmann, F

    2009-04-01

    In recent years lung recruitment maneuvers (RM) have awakened an increasing interest due to their potential beneficial effects in lung protection so that they have been progressively introduced into clinical practice. Many clinical and experimental studies have described the physiological benefits obtained after lung re-expansion although these benefits are not uniform, partly because of the wide heterogeneity of the RMs applied and lack of criteria defining their goal. Therefore, to date it has been difficult to establish the role of recruitment in the ventilatory management of ARDS patients. However, the information obtained from recent studies has improved our understanding regarding the mechanisms governing lung recruitment, interpretation of its response and its side effects and this has strongly contributed to its improved practical application. Lung recruitment must be applied in a protocolized and individualized way, establishing the pressure necessary to obtain the reasonably possible maximum lung re-expansion in each patient. Post RM PEEP adjustment is an essential aspect which, if ignored, renders RM useless and possibly without indication. Taking these essential aspects into account we are getting closer to, as the author believes, finally demonstrating the benefit of RM in lung protection and ARDS patients' outcome.

  19. [Utility of recruitment maneuvers (con)].

    PubMed

    Ochagavia, A; Blanch, L; Lopez-Aguilar, J

    2009-04-01

    A reduction in both total lung volume and in lung parenchyma useful for gas exchange has been observed in ARDS patients. Applying an appropriate ventilatory pattern that includes PEEP can open up collapsed areas of the lung to aeration, thus ensuring a more homogeneous distribution of air in the lung. However, the heterogeneous patterns observed in patients with ARDS vary widely in their response to ventilation with PEEP. Recruitment maneuvers (RM) have been proposed as an adjuvant treatment to mechanical ventilation to re-expand collapsed lung tissue in ARDS. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether RM are useful when patients are ventilated with high PEEP or when they have fibrosis, stiff chest wall, or hypovolemia, among other conditions. Likewise, decisions about RM must take into account not only their short- and long-term efficacy and reversibility, but also possible adverse effects derived from the high pressures reached during RM, including barotrauma, hemodynamic alterations, reduced systolic volume and aortic flow, and difficulties in venous return, as well as the possibility of bacterial translocation to the bloodstream or other organs. This article review the effects of RM as adjuvant treatment to mechanical ventilation in ARDS patients and discuss its efficacy and potential benefits as well as the different interactions that RM can have with the diverse conditions that can be associated to ARDS.

  20. Optimization of satellite constellation reconfiguration maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Leonid; Guelman, Moshe; Mishne, David

    2014-06-01

    Constellation satellites are required to perform orbital transfer maneuvers. Orbital transfer maneuvers, as opposed to orbital correction maneuvers, are seldom performed but require a substantial amount of propellant for each maneuver. The maneuvers are performed in order to obtain the desired constellation configuration that satisfies the coverage requirements. In most cases, the single-satellite position is immaterial; rather the relative position between constellation multiple-satellites is to be controlled. This work deals with the solution to the coupled optimization problem of multiple-satellite orbital transfer. The studied problem involves a coupled formulation of the terminal conditions of the satellites. The solution was achieved using functional optimization techniques by a combined algorithm. The combined algorithm is based on the First Order Gradient and Neighboring-Extremals Algorithms. An orbital transfer optimization tool was developed. This software has the ability to consider multiple satellites with coupled terminal conditions. A solution to the multiple-satellite orbital transfer optimization problem is presented. A comparison of this solution to the uncoupled case is presented in order to review the benefits of using this approach. It is concluded that the coupled transfer maneuver solution approach is more computationally efficient and more accurate. Numerical solutions for a number of representative cases are presented.

  1. Gastric rupture after Heimlich maneuver and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Tung, P H; Law, S; Chu, K M; Law, W L; Wong, J

    2001-01-01

    Choking is a common emergency problem. The Heimlich maneuver is unquestionably effective in relieving airway obstruction. Serious and life-threatening complications may arise, however, if the maneuver is applied incorrectly. Two cases of gastric rupture after Heimlich maneuver are reported. Lay public, paramedics and the medical professionals should be educated with the correct technique of Heimlich maneuver and its potential complications. All patients receiving Heimlich maneuver should be examined by an experienced physician.

  2. 16. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. ATTIC PLAN, 1920. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  3. 6. photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. ELEVATIONS AND PLANS FOR POWDER BARREL RACK, 1889. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 280, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  4. 11. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. ELEVATION AND DETAILS, UNDATED. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. 13. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. BASEMENT PLAN, 1920. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  6. 14. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. FIRST FLOOR PLAN, 1920. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  7. 6. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. ELEVATIONS, 1871. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 105, South Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & Second Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. 15. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. SECOND FLOOR PLAN, 1920. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. 5. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. PLAN, ELEVATION, AND SECTION, 1874; TRACING, 1935. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 53, North Avenue North of Midpoint, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. 5. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. PLAN, UNDATED. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 105, South Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & Second Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  11. 10. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. FRONT ELEVATION, 1873. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 225, Rodman Avenue between Flagler Street & Gillespie Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  12. 2. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession of Beinecke Rare Books Library, Yale University) Henry Austin, architect, 1850 NORTHEAST ELEVATION - Moses Yale Beach House, 86 North Main Street, Wallingford, New Haven County, CT

  13. 1. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession of Beinecke Rare Books Library, Yale University) Henry Austin, architect, 1850 SOUTHEAST (FRONT) ELEVATION - Moses Yale Beach House, 86 North Main Street, Wallingford, New Haven County, CT

  14. 1. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Watervliet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Watervliet Arsenal Museum, New York. 'VILLAGE OF WEST TROY EMBRACING WATER VLIET' BY S. A. BEERS, 1845. - Watervliet Arsenal, South Broadway, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  15. 5. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession of the Rigsarkivet (Royal Archives), Copenhagen, Denmark) Lieutenant Giellerup, delineator, May 1829 PLAN PROPOSED ALTERATIONS OF SECOND FLOOR OF GOVERNMENT HOUSE - Government House, King Street, Christiansted, St. Croix, VI

  16. 4. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession of the Rigsarkivet (Royal Archives), Copenhagen, Denmark) Lieutenant Giellerup, delineator, May 1829 PROPOSED ALTERATIONS OF GOVERNMENT HOUSE - Government House, King Street, Christiansted, St. Croix, VI

  17. 6. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession of the Rigsarkivet (Royal Archives), Copenhagen, Denmark) Ludvig Schellerup, architect, August 1864 PLAN OF GOVERNMENT HOUSE - Government House, King Street, Christiansted, St. Croix, VI

  18. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. MAP OF ROCK ISLAND ARSENAL, 1919, REVISED 1938 - Rock Island Arsenal, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. 6. Photograph of an architectural drawing in possession of Engineering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photograph of an architectural drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. ELEVATION, 1874. DELINEATOR: W. OTTO GRONEN. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 321, Rodman Avenue & Rock Island Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. 23. Photocopy of 1979 engineering drawing. 'IN DEPTH BRIDGE INSPECTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of 1979 engineering drawing. 'IN DEPTH BRIDGE INSPECTION, LEWISBURG, UNION COUNTY,' SHOWING FRAMING PLAN AND STRESS DIAGRAM. (Courtesy of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.) - St. Anthony Street Bridge, Spanning Buffalo Creek, Legislative Route 59024, Lewisburg, Union County, PA

  1. 10. Photocopy of a measured drawing in possession of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of a measured drawing in possession of the Kunstakademiets (Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts), Copenhagen, Denmark, 1961 Photographer unknown RAADETSGADE (STREET) (EAST) ELEVATION - Dronningensgade 32 (House), 32 Queen Street, Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, VI

  2. 6. Photocopy of a measured drawing in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of a measured drawing in the possession of the Kunstakademiets (Royal Academy of Fine Arts), Copenhagen, Denmark, 1961 EAST (RAADETSGADE) ELEVATION - Dronningensgade 8B (House), 8B Queen Street, Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, VI

  3. Purging using the Heimlich maneuver among children and adolescents with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Boachie, Ahmed; Kusi Appiah, Edigna; Jubin, Michelle; Jasper, Karin

    2015-09-01

    This case report describes five independent cases of children and adolescents assessed for eating disorders who disclosed using the Heimlich maneuver as a purging technique. The maneuver is meant to be used only in life or death situations, likely once or less in any person's lifetime. A child or adolescent with an eating disorder may be using it to self-induce vomiting on a daily basis, increasing the risk of complications, including potential damage to major organs of the body. Asking patients who purge to elaborate on the methods with which they purge can provide clinicians with fuller information, improving their ability to select appropriate medical tests and interventions. Thorough investigations of physical complaints during the patient assessment may be warranted, including examining patients for possible rib fractures, hemorrhages, perforations of the hollow viscous, and other forms of blunt abdominal traumas.

  4. Improved Maneuver Reconstructions for the GRAIL Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keck, Mason; You, Tung-Han; Antreasian, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Maneuver reconstructions for the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) A and B lunar orbiters were improved through updates to the orbit determination filter and dynamic models. Consistent reconstructions of the 27 GRAIL A and B maneuvers from the Trans-Lunar Cruise phase in the fall of 2011 through the Transition to Science Formation phase in February 2012 were performed. Standard methods of orbit determination were applied incorporating the latest dynamic models and filter strategies developed by the GRAIL Navigation and Science Teams, including a high resolution, 420 x 420 degree and order lunar spherical harmonic gravity field model. For Trans-Lunar Cruise for GRAIL-A (TLC-A), all maneuvers executed with delta V errors below 5.50 +/- 0.50 mm/s and pointing errors below 0.25 degrees. GRAIL-A lunar orbit maneuvers had delta V errors below 30.0 mm/s and pointing errors below 0.51 degrees. For TLC-B, all maneuvers executed with delta V errors below 8.60 +/- 1.41 mm/s and pointing errors below 0.300 degrees. GRAIL-B maneuvers in lunar orbit executed with maximum delta V errors of 25.0 mm/s and pointing error of 0.43 degrees. These maneuver reconstructions will enable the GRAIL Navigation Team to better characterize the main engine performance of each spacecraft. This will help the Navigation Team to navigate low (greater than 8 km) altitude orbits during the extended mission phase in the fall of 2012.

  5. Cassini's Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) Process: How to Successfully Command 200 Navigation Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Genevie Velarde; Mohr, David; Kirby, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    To keep Cassini on its complex trajectory, more than 200 orbit trim maneuvers (OTMs) have been planned from July 2004 to July 2010. With only a few days between many of these OTMs, the operations process of planning and executing the necessary commands had to be automated. The resulting Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) process minimizes the workforce required for, and maximizes the efficiency of, the maneuver design and uplink activities. The MAS process is a well-organized and logically constructed interface between Cassini's Navigation (NAV), Spacecraft Operations (SCO), and Ground Software teams. Upon delivery of an orbit determination (OD) from NAV, the MAS process can generate a maneuver design and all related uplink and verification products within 30 minutes. To date, all 112 OTMs executed by the Cassini spacecraft have been successful. MAS was even used to successfully design and execute a maneuver while the spacecraft was in safe mode.

  6. Remote operation of an orbital maneuvering vehicle in simulated docking maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1990-01-01

    Simulated docking maneuvers were performed to assess the effect of initial velocity on docking failure rate, mission duration, and delta v (fuel consumption). Subjects performed simulated docking maneuvers of an orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) to a space station. The effect of the removal of the range and rate displays (simulating a ranging instrumentation failure) was also examined. Naive subjects were capable of achieving a high success rate in performing simulated docking maneuvers without extensive training. Failure rate was a function of individual differences; there was no treatment effect on failure rate. The amount of time subjects reserved for final approach increased with starting velocity. Piloting of docking maneuvers was not significantly affected in any way by the removal of range and rate displays. Radial impulse was significant both by subject and by treatment. NASA's 0.1 percent rule, dictating an approach rate no greater than 0.1 percent of the range, is seen to be overly conservative for nominal docking missions.

  7. Partitioning kinetic energy during freewheeling wheelchair maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Medola, Fausto O; Dao, Phuc V; Caspall, Jayme J; Sprigle, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a systematic method to partition the kinetic energy (KE) of a free-wheeling wheelchair. An ultralightweight rigid frame wheelchair was instrumented with two axle-mounted encoders and data acquisition equipment to accurately measure the velocity of the drive wheels. A mathematical model was created combining physical specifications and geometry of the wheelchair and its components. Two able-bodied subjects propelled the wheelchair over four courses that involved straight and turning maneuvers at differing speeds. The KE of the wheelchair was divided into three components: translational, rotational, and turning energy. This technique was sensitive to the changing contributions of the three energy components across maneuvers. Translational energy represented the major component of total KE in all maneuvers except a zero radius turn in which turning energy was dominant. Both translational and rotational energies are directly related to wheelchair speed. Partitioning KE offers a useful means of investigating the dynamics of a moving wheelchair. The described technique permits analysis of KE imparted to the wheelchair during maneuvers involving changes in speed and direction, which are most representative of mobility in everyday life. This technique can be used to study the effort required to maneuver different types and configurations of wheelchairs.

  8. Maneuvering and control of flexible space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meirovitch, Leonard; Lim, Seungchul

    1994-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a flexible space robot capable of maneuvering payloads. The robot is assumed to consist of two hinge-connected flexible arms and a rigid end-effector holding a payload; the robot is mounted on a rigid platform floating in space. The equations of motion are nonlinear and of high order. Based on the assumption that the maneuvering motions are one order of magnitude larger than the elastic vibrations, a perturbation approach permits design of controls for the two types of motion separately. The rigid-body maneuvering is carried out open loop, but the elastic motions are controlled closed loop, by means of discrete-time linear quadratic regulator theory with prescribed degree of stability. A numerical example demonstrates the approach. In the example, the controls derived by the perturbation approach are applied to the original nonlinear system and errors are found to be relatively small.

  9. Dawn Statistical Maneuver Design for Vesta Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parcher, Daniel W.; Whiffen, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    In July of 2011 the Dawn spacecraft is scheduled to begin orbital operations at Vesta, a large main-belt asteroid. Dawn is a NASA Discovery mission that uses solar-electric low-thrust ion propulsion for both interplanetary cruise and orbital operations. Navigating between the Dawn project's four targeted science orbits at Vesta requires a plan that accounts for uncertainties not only in thrust execution, orbit determination, and other spacecraft forces, but also large uncertainties in characteristics of Vesta - such as the asteroid's gravity field and pole orientation. Accommodating these uncertainties requires strategic use of low-thrust maneuvers reserved for statistical trajectory corrections. This paper describes the placement and evaluation of low-thrust statistical maneuvers during two key phases of the Vesta mission along with a discussion of the tools, constraints, and methods used to plan those maneuvers.

  10. Close approach maneuvers around an oblate planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, G. M. C.; Prado, A. F. B. A.; Sanchez, D. M.

    2015-10-01

    There are many applications of the close approach maneuvers in astronautics, and several missions used this technique in the last decades. In the present work, those close approach maneuvers are revisited, but now considering that the spacecraft passes around an oblate planet. This fact changes the distribution of mass of the planet, increasing the mass in the region of the equator, so increasing the gravitational forces in the equatorial plane. Since the present study is limited to planar trajectories, there is an increase in the variation of energy given by the maneuver. The planet Jupiter is used as the body for the close approach, but the value of J2 is varied in a large range to simulate situations of other celestial bodies that have larger oblateness, but the same mass ratio. This is particularly true in recent discovered exoplanets, and this first study can help the study of the dynamics around those bodies.

  11. Cassini Solstice Mission Maneuver Experience: Year Two

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrieta, Juan; Ballard, Christopher G.; Hahn, Yungsun

    2012-01-01

    The Cassini Spacecraft was launched in October 1997 on a mission to observe Saturn and its moons; it entered orbit around Saturn in July 2004 for a nominal four-year Prime Mission, later augmented by two extensions: the Equinox Mission, from July 2008 through September 2010, and the Solstice Mission, from October 2010 through September 2017. This paper provides an overview of the maneuver activities from August 2011 through June 2012 which include the design of 38 Orbit Trim Maneuvers--OTM-288 through OTM-326-- for attaining 14 natural satellite encounters: seven with Titan, six with Enceladus, and one with Dione.

  12. Mars Science Laboratory Cruise Propulsion Maneuvering Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Raymond S.; Mizukami, Masahi; Barber, Todd J.

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory "Curiosity" is NASA's most recent mission to Mars, launched in November 2011, and landed in August 2012. It is a subcompact car-sized nuclear powered rover designed for a long duration mission, with an extensive suite of science instruments. Entry, descent and landing used a unique "skycrane" concept. This report describes the propulsive maneuvering operations during cruise from Earth to Mars, to control attitudes and to target the vehicle for entry. The propulsion subsystem, mission operations, and flight performance are discussed. All trajectory control maneuvers were well within accuracy requirements, and all turns and spin corrections were nominal.

  13. The Heimlich maneuver: breaking down the complications.

    PubMed

    Chillag, Shawn; Krieg, Jake; Bhargava, Ranjana

    2010-02-01

    The very young and the very old are vulnerable to choking, and there are over 4000 choking-related deaths annually in the United States. Complications from the Heimlich maneuver (HM), as reported in infrequent case reports, predominantly relate to the elderly. It is doubtful that the denominator, numerator, appropriateness, expertise, and problems of maneuvers applied to choking victims will ever be known. This case report and literature review suggests that the treatment for acute elderly choking victims should be applied carefully and that esophageal food impaction, which should be rapidly distinguishable from choking, can have serious complications with application of the HM.

  14. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy.

  15. VIEW OF MANEUVER BOAT No. 2 AND CHANOINE WICKETS FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MANEUVER BOAT No. 2 AND CHANOINE WICKETS FROM DAM GATE STRUCTURE. MANEUVER BOAT No. 2 IN BACKGROUND. LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST. - Illinois Waterway, Peoria Lock and Dam, 1071 Wesley Road, Creve Coeur, Tazewell County, IL

  16. 14 CFR 25.337 - Limit maneuvering load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Conditions § 25.337 Limit maneuvering load factors. (a) Except where limited by maximum (static) lift coefficients, the airplane is assumed to be subjected to symmetrical maneuvers resulting in the...

  17. 14 CFR 25.337 - Limit maneuvering load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Conditions § 25.337 Limit maneuvering load factors. (a) Except where limited by maximum (static) lift coefficients, the airplane is assumed to be subjected to symmetrical maneuvers resulting in the...

  18. 14 CFR 25.337 - Limit maneuvering load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Conditions § 25.337 Limit maneuvering load factors. (a) Except where limited by maximum (static) lift coefficients, the airplane is assumed to be subjected to symmetrical maneuvers resulting in the...

  19. Informing Spacecraft Maneuver Decisions to Reduce Probability of Collision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    Patterson Air Force Base , Ohio DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. The views expressed...Scenario Set Up ..........................................................................................................35 Changes based on Maneuver...Magnitude ....................................................................37 Changes based on Maneuver Time

  20. 12. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. FRONT (WEST) ELEVATION, 1877. DELINEATOR: W. OTTO GRONEN. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  1. 8. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. PLAN AND SECTION, AUGUST 24, 1874. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 105, South Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & Second Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  2. 7. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. ROOF PLAN, 1871. DELINEATOR: W. OTTO GRONEN. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 105, South Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & Second Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  3. 26. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Engineering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Engineering Division of the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, Watervliet Arsenal, New York. WINDOWS AND DOORS: WINDOWS FOR SECOND TIER, WEST EXTENSION, AND EAST AND WEST AISLES, INSIDE DOORS FOR WEST EXTENSION, UNDATED. (RIGHT HALF OF DRAWING) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 110, Hagner Road between Schull & Whittemore Roads, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  4. 25. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Engineering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Engineering Division of the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, Watervliet Arsenal, New York. WINDOWS AND DOORS: WINDOWS FOR SECOND TIER, WEST EXTENSION, AND EAST AND WEST AISLES, INSIDE DOORS FOR WEST EXTENSION, UNDATED. (LEFT HALF OF DRAWING) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 110, Hagner Road between Schull & Whittemore Roads, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  5. 107. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, Office of the Building, Administration Building, Sears, Roebuck and Company Mail Order Plant, Chicago, Illinois). Nimmons and Fellows. 1/2 inch to one foot. Large scale drawings of elevation details. DETAIL ELEVATIONS - ANNEX A AND ANNEX B - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  6. 37. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Engineering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Engineering Division of the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, Watervliet Arsenal, New York. ROOF TRUSS FOR MAIN AISLE, UNDATED. (RIGHT HALF OF DRAWING) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 110, Hagner Road between Schull & Whittemore Roads, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  7. 36. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Engineering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Engineering Division of the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, Watervliet Arsenal, New York. ROOF TRUSS FOR MAIN AISLE, UNDATED. (LEFT HALF OF DRAWING) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 110, Hagner Road between Schull & Whittemore Roads, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  8. 1. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession of the Rigsarkivet (Royal Archives), Copenhagen, Denmark, filed in Kortsamling 337C, Plan VI. Peter L. Oxholm, architect, 1779 PLAN OF GOVERNMENT HOUSE AND ELEVATION OF KING STREET (SOUTHWEST) FACADE - Government House, King Street, Christiansted, St. Croix, VI

  9. 32. Photocopy of original drawing in possession of the County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photocopy of original drawing in possession of the County Auditor, Johnson County, Iowa. PROFILE OF HIGHWAY BRIDGE OVER CEDAR RIVER AT SUTLIFF'S FERRY IN JOHNSON COUNTY, IOWA, 1897. (RIGHT 1/4 OF DRAWING) PLAN OF APPROACH FOR SUTLIFF'S FERRY BRIDGE OVER CEDAR RIVER, JOHNSON COUNTY, IOWA, 1897 - Sutliff's Ferry Bridge, Spanning Cedar River (Cedar Township), Solon, Johnson County, IA

  10. 9. Photograph copy of construction drawing, 1964 (original drawing in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph copy of construction drawing, 1964 (original drawing in Building No. 301, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Nebraska). Site plan of project looking glass historic district and Offutt Air Force Base. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. 95. Photographic copy of drawing (February 1905, original drawing in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. Photographic copy of drawing (February 1905, original drawing in Archives, Public Affairs Department, Sears Merchandise Group, Hoffman Estates, Illinois). Nimmons and Fellows. 1/8 inch to one foot. Main elevation along Homan Avenue, including the tower. This drawing is excerpted from a blueprint set. EAST ELEVATION - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. 41. INDEX OF ALL TAN 629 HANGAR DRAWINGS IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. INDEX OF ALL TAN 629 HANGAR DRAWINGS IN THE RALPH M. PARSONS SERIES OF DRAWINGS OF THE FLIGHT ENGINE TEST FACILITY. RALPH M. PARSONS DRAWING NUMBER: 1229-2 ANP/GE 5-100. DATED MARCH 15, 1957. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. 131. Photographic copy of drawing (undated, original drawing in Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. Photographic copy of drawing (undated, original drawing in Archives, Public Affairs Department, Sears Merchandise Group, Hoffman Estates, Illinois). Engineer unknown. Full size. Pneumatic tube cartridges used at the time of the Plant closing. 4' PNEUMATIC TUBE SYSTEM - 11' LEATHER CARRIER - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  14. 130. Photographic copy of drawing (undated, original drawing in Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. Photographic copy of drawing (undated, original drawing in Archives, Public Affairs Department, Sears Merchandise Group, Hoffman Estates, Illinois). Engineer unknown. Full size. Pneumatic tube cartridges used at the time of the Plant closing. 4' PNEUMATIC TUBE SYSTEM - 11' LEATHER CARRIER - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  15. 32 CFR 644.137 - Maneuver agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with the exercise objectives and the force elements which participate. The Corps participates in the...), and United States Army Forces, Readiness Command (USCINCARRED) on acquisition of maneuver rights for... camp sites, field hospital sites and supply dumps), and buildings needed for warehouses, ordnance...

  16. Dynamical instability of the aerogravity assist maneuver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInner, Colin R.

    1994-09-01

    Fundamental dynamical equations are used to form a single expression for vertical acceleration. It is shown that the AGA (aerogravity assist) maneuver is dynamically unstable with respect to altitude errors. However, this instability can be controlled using feedback linearization. The existence of instability further emphasizes the need for robust guidance during the atmospheric pass.

  17. Towboat Maneuvering Simulator. Volume III. Theoretical Description.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    overshoot or :igzag maneuver;I - 1,2,3 .. . 6FL F- _’ Flan"ing rudder deflection rate a _ __ Steering rudder deflection rate Ship propulsion ratlol " elh...used with the equations are for the ship propulsion point (n - 1.0). The equations are written in terms of the complete barge flotillia towboat

  18. A New Maneuver for Escape Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation put forth a new maneuver for escape trajectories and specifically sought to find an analytical approximation for medium thrust trajectories. In most low thrust derivations the idea is that escape velocity is best achieved by accelerating along the velocity vector. The reason for this is that change in specific orbital energy is a function of velocity and acceleration. However, Levin (1952) suggested that while this is a locally optimal solution it might not be a globally optimal one. Turning acceleration inward would drop periapse giving a higher velocity later in the trajectory. Acceleration at that point would be dotted against a higher magnitude V giving a greater rate of change of mechanical energy. The author then hypothesized that decelerating from the initial orbit and then accelerating at periapse would not lead to a gain in greater specific orbital energy--however, the hypothesis was incorrect. After considerable derivation it was determined that this new maneuver outperforms a direct burn when the overall DeltaV budget exceeds the initial orbital velocity (the author has termed this the Heinlein maneuver). The author provides a physical explanation for this maneuver and presents optimization analyses.

  19. 14 CFR 23.441 - Maneuvering loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from VA to VD/MD. When computing the tail loads— (1) The airplane must be yawed to the largest... Maneuvering loads. (a) At speeds up to V A, the vertical surfaces must be designed to withstand the following conditions. In computing the loads, the yawing velocity may be assumed to be zero: (1) With the airplane...

  20. Optimizing interplanetary trajectories with deep space maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navagh, John

    1993-09-01

    Analysis of interplanetary trajectories is a crucial area for both manned and unmanned missions of the Space Exploration Initiative. A deep space maneuver (DSM) can improve a trajectory in much the same way as a planetary swingby. However, instead of using a gravitational field to alter the trajectory, the on-board propulsion system of the spacecraft is used when the vehicle is not near a planet. The purpose is to develop an algorithm to determine where and when to use deep space maneuvers to reduce the cost of a trajectory. The approach taken to solve this problem uses primer vector theory in combination with a non-linear optimizing program to minimize Delta(V). A set of necessary conditions on the primer vector is shown to indicate whether a deep space maneuver will be beneficial. Deep space maneuvers are applied to a round trip mission to Mars to determine their effect on the launch opportunities. Other studies which were performed include cycler trajectories and Mars mission abort scenarios. It was found that the software developed was able to locate quickly DSM's which lower the total Delta(V) on these trajectories.

  1. Maneuver Estimation Model for Geostationary Orbit Determination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    MODEL FOR GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT DETERMINATION THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics Graduate...FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT/GA/ENY/06-J01 MANEUVER ESTIMATION MODEL FOR GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT DETERMINATION...used to model the relative motion of a geostationary satellite about its intended location and a nonlinear least squares algorithm was developed to

  2. 14 CFR 25.1531 - Maneuvering flight load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maneuvering flight load factors. 25.1531... Operating Limitations § 25.1531 Maneuvering flight load factors. Load factor limitations, not exceeding the positive limit load factors determined from the maneuvering diagram in § 25.333(b), must be established....

  3. 14 CFR 25.337 - Limit maneuvering load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factors. 25.337... Conditions § 25.337 Limit maneuvering load factors. (a) Except where limited by maximum (static) lift... maneuvering load factors prescribed in this section. Pitching velocities appropriate to the corresponding...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1531 - Maneuvering flight load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maneuvering flight load factors. 25.1531... Operating Limitations § 25.1531 Maneuvering flight load factors. Load factor limitations, not exceeding the positive limit load factors determined from the maneuvering diagram in § 25.333(b), must be established....

  5. 14 CFR 25.337 - Limit maneuvering load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factors. 25.337... Conditions § 25.337 Limit maneuvering load factors. (a) Except where limited by maximum (static) lift... maneuvering load factors prescribed in this section. Pitching velocities appropriate to the corresponding...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1531 - Maneuvering flight load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maneuvering flight load factors. 25.1531... Operating Limitations § 25.1531 Maneuvering flight load factors. Load factor limitations, not exceeding the positive limit load factors determined from the maneuvering diagram in § 25.333(b), must be established....

  7. 14 CFR 25.1531 - Maneuvering flight load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maneuvering flight load factors. 25.1531... Operating Limitations § 25.1531 Maneuvering flight load factors. Load factor limitations, not exceeding the positive limit load factors determined from the maneuvering diagram in § 25.333(b), must be established....

  8. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T

    2000-01-01

    The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  9. Complications as a result of the Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steven L; Kim, Stephen S; Shekherdimian, Shant; Ledbetter, Daniel J

    2009-03-01

    The Heimlich maneuver is a well-described emergency procedure for management of foreign body airway obstructions. Although rare, complications of the Heimlich maneuver do exist. The purpose of this report is to review the known complications of this procedure. All reported complications published in English on Medline and PubMed were reviewed. Additionally, we present a rare case of acute pancreatitis with associated pseudocyst formation after the administration of the Heimlich maneuver on a healthy 3-year-old boy. Although life saving, the Heimlich maneuver may be associated with significant complications; thus, symptomatic patients after this maneuver should be thoroughly evaluated with appropriate laboratory and radiographic studies.

  10. Estimating maneuvers for precise relative orbit determination using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende-Alba, Gerardo; Montenbruck, Oliver; Ardaens, Jean-Sébastien; Wermuth, Martin; Hugentobler, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Precise relative orbit determination is an essential element for the generation of science products from distributed instrumentation of formation flying satellites in low Earth orbit. According to the mission profile, the required formation is typically maintained and/or controlled by executing maneuvers. In order to generate consistent and precise orbit products, a strategy for maneuver handling is mandatory in order to avoid discontinuities or precision degradation before, after and during maneuver execution. Precise orbit determination offers the possibility of maneuver estimation in an adjustment of single-satellite trajectories using GPS measurements. However, a consistent formulation of a precise relative orbit determination scheme requires the implementation of a maneuver estimation strategy which can be used, in addition, to improve the precision of maneuver estimates by drawing upon the use of differential GPS measurements. The present study introduces a method for precise relative orbit determination based on a reduced-dynamic batch processing of differential GPS pseudorange and carrier phase measurements, which includes maneuver estimation as part of the relative orbit adjustment. The proposed method has been validated using flight data from space missions with different rates of maneuvering activity, including the GRACE, TanDEM-X and PRISMA missions. The results show the feasibility of obtaining precise relative orbits without degradation in the vicinity of maneuvers as well as improved maneuver estimates that can be used for better maneuver planning in flight dynamics operations.

  11. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cancer Infection of the tubes (salpingitis) Ectopic pregnancy Fibroid tumors of the uterus (womb) Malignant tumors of the uterus or cervix Endometriosis Adhesions (scars) Screening and Diagnosis How is the cause of abdominal pain determined? ...

  12. [The abdominal catastrophe].

    PubMed

    Seiler, Christian A

    2011-08-01

    Patients with an abdominal catastrophe are in urgent need of early, interdisciplinary medical help. The treatment plan should be based on medical priorities and clear leadership. First priority should be given to achieve optimal oxygenation of blood and stabilization of circulation during all treatment-phases. The sicker the patient, the less invasive the (surgical) treatment should to be, which means "damage control only". This short article describes 7 important, pragmatic rules that will help to increase the survival of a patient with an abdominal catastrophe. Preexisting morbidity and risk factors must be included in the overall risk-evaluation for every therapeutic intervention. The challenge in patients with an abdominal catastrophe is to carefully balance the therapeutic stress and the existing resistance of the individual patient. The best way to avoid abdominal disaster, however, is its prevention.

  13. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  14. Acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Stone, R

    1998-01-01

    Abdominal pain is among the most frequent ailments reported in the office setting and can account for up to 40% of ailments in the ambulatory practice. Also, it is in the top three symptoms of patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) and accounts for 5-10% of all ED primary presenting ailments. There are several common sources for acute abdominal pain and many for subacute and chronic abdominal pain. This article explores the history-taking, initial evaluation, and examination of the patient presenting with acute abdominal pain. The goal of this article is to help differentiate one source of pain from another. Discussion of acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis, appendicitis, ectopic pregnancy, diverticulitis, gastritis, and gastroenteritis are undertaken. Additionally, there is discussion of common laboratory studies, diagnostic studies, and treatment of the patient with the above entities.

  15. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease , pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis. cancers of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as ... injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, kidneys or other internal organs in cases of ...

  16. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... the results of abdominoplasty. Many feel a new sense of self-confidence. Alternative Names Cosmetic surgery of the abdomen; Tummy tuck; Abdominoplasty Images Abdominoplasty - series Abdominal muscles References McGrath MH, Pomerantz J. Plastic surgery. In: Townsend ...

  17. Abdominal involvement in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Neyman, Edward G; Georgiades, Christos S; Fishman, Elliot K

    2002-10-01

    Rising incidence of disseminated and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB), especially in immunocompromised hosts and patients with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, has resulted in an increase of unusual clinical and radiographic presentations of TB. With CT being a common part of emergency room (ER) evaluation of abdominal pain, it is imperative that radiologists be able to recognize abdominal presentations of TB. We discuss and illustrate typical and less common CT manifestations of tuberculosis in the abdomen to help ER radiologists in this task.

  18. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Savarese, R P; Rosenfeld, J C; DeLaurentis, D A

    1986-05-01

    Between January 1976 and December 1982, 181 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were treated surgically, and in 13 patients the aneurysms were found to be inflammatory. Inflammatory aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (IAAA) share important characteristics with typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysms. Diagnosis and surgical management of IAAA are distinctive which suggests that IAAA should be considered separately, as a varient of typical abdominal aortic aneurysms. IAAA occur predominantly in males. The presenting symptoms are often idiosyncratic and include severe abdominal or back pain, or both, and ureteral obstruction; the diagnosis of IAAA should be considered when these symptoms are present. Although grossly and microscopically, the perianeurysmal fibrosis resembles idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, the two conditions can be differentiated. At the present time, ultrasonography and computed tomography appear to offer reliable means for diagnosing IAAA. The presence of IAAA, whether established preoperatively or discovered unexpectedly at operation, necessitate certain modifications in the surgical approach, in order to avoid injuring the duodenum and the venous structures. Most patients can be successfully treated by resection and graft replacement. Rupture of the aneurysm in IAAA appears to be less frequent than in typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  19. 118. Photographic copy of drawing (undated, original drawing in Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. Photographic copy of drawing (undated, original drawing in Archives, Office of the Building, Administration Building, Sears, Roebuck and Company Mail Order Plant, Chicago, Illinois). Larsen-Wulff Architects. 1/16 inch to one foot. Drawing of the entire floor plan from Homan Avenue to Central Park Avenue, probably traced in the 1970's or early 1980's. FOURTH FLOOR PLAN - WEST HALF - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  20. 102. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, Office of the Building, Administration Building, Sears, Roebuck and Company Mail Order Plant, Chicago, Illinois). Nimmons and Fellows. 1/8 inch to one foot. Section through train shed, including the elevation of the curved wall of the end bay. Opposite hand section provided in field record. NORTH ELEVATION - ANNEX A - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  1. 94. Photographic copy of drawing (February 1905, original drawing in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. Photographic copy of drawing (February 1905, original drawing in Archives, Public Affairs Department, Office of the Building, Administration Building, Sears, Roebuck and Company Mail Order Plant, Chicago, Illinois). Nimmons and Fellows. 1/8 inch to one foot. Partial elevation drawing of the First four bays west of Homan Avenue. SOUTH ELEVATION - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. 117. Photographic copy of drawing (undated, original drawing in Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. Photographic copy of drawing (undated, original drawing in Archives, Office of the Building, Administration Building, Sears, Roebuck and Company Mail Order Plant, Chicago, Illinois). Larsen-Wulff Architects. 1/16 inch to one foot. Drawing of the entire floor plan from Homan Avenue to Central Park Avenue, probably traced in the 1970's or early 1980's. FOURTH FLOOR PLAN - EAST HALF - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  3. 96. Photographic copy of drawing (February 1905, original drawing in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. Photographic copy of drawing (February 1905, original drawing in Archives, Office of the Building, Administration Building, Sears, Roebuck and Company Mail Order Plant, Chicago, Illinois). Nimmons and Fellows. 1/8 inch to one foot. Elevation of the west face showing the original 1905 construction, where Annex A and B were built to a height of three floors. WEST ELEVATION - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. 109. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, Office of the Building, Administration Building, Sears, Roebuck and Company Mail Order Plant, Chicago, Illinois). Nimmons and Fellows. 1/8 inch to one foot. Floor plan for the first addition to Annex B. This drawing excerpted from blueprint set. FOURTH FLOOR PLAN (ANNEX B, BAYS P AND Q, FOR FLOORTS FOUR THROUGH NINE) - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. 106. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, Office of the Building, Administration Building, Sears, Roebuck and Company Mail Order Plant, Chicago, Illinois). Nimmons and Fellows. 1/8 inch to one foot. Section through annexes and train shed, with elevation of the nine story portion of warehouse. TRANSVERSE SECTION - ANNEX A AND ANNEX B - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  6. 105. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    105. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, Office of the Building, Administration Building, Sears, Roebuck and Company Mail Order Plant, Chicago, Illinois). Nimmons and Fellows. 1/8 inch to one foot. Shows elevation of the train shed, the curved fascade of Annex A, and Annex B before the Grocery Building was constructed. WEST ELEVATION - ANNEX A AND ANNEX B - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  7. 110. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, Office of the Building, Administration Building, Sears, Roebuck and Company Mail Order Plant, Chicago, Illinois). Nimmons and Fellows. 1/8 inch to one foot. Drawings for the first addition to Annex B. This drawing excerpted from blueprint set. SOUTH ELEVATION (ANNEX B, BAYS P AND Q, FOR FLOORS FOUR THROUGH NINE) - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  8. 18. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Engineering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Engineering Division of the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, Watervliet Arsenal, New York. SECTION OF CARPENTER SHOP AND STOREHOUSE, SHOWING NORTH WALL OF CARPENTER SHOP (UNIT 2) ON THE LEFT AND JUNCTION OF THE CARPENTER SHOP AND STOREHOUSE (UNIT I) ON THE RIGHT, SEPTEMBER 22, 1898. - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 40, Broadway between Dalliba & Watervliet Avenues, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  9. 103. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, Office of the Building, Administration Building, Sears, Roebuck and Company Mail Order Plant, Chicago, Illinois). Nimmons and Fellows. 1/8 inch to one foot. South elevation adjacent to the railroad tracks; only the first three floors were built at that time. SOUTH ELEVATION - ANNEX A - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  10. 104. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, Office of the Building, Administration Building, Sears, Roebuck and Company Mail Order Plant, Chicago, Illinois). Nimmons and Fellows. 1/8 inch to one foot. North elevation along Arthington Street (then Harvard Street); only the first three floors were built at that time. NORTH ELEVATION - ANNEX B - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  11. 100. Photographic copy of drawing (February, 1905, original drawing in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. Photographic copy of drawing (February, 1905, original drawing in Archives, Public Affairs Department, Sears Merchandise Group, Hoffman Estates, Illinois). Nimmons and Fellows. 1/2 inch to one foot. Large scale details for the north elevation. This drawing is excerpted from a blueprint set. DETAIL ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. 93. Photographic copy of drawing (February 1905, original drawing in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. Photographic copy of drawing (February 1905, original drawing in Archives, Public Affairs Department, Sears Merchandise Group, Hoffman Estates, Illinois). Nimmons and Fellows. 1/8 inch to one foot. Partial elevation drawing of the first four bays west of Homan Avenue. This drawing is excerpted from a blueprint set. NORTH ELEVATION - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  13. 20. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of the Engineer's Office of the Marion, IL Veterans Administration Medical Center. 3/4' SCALE DETAIL - MAIN ENT. UNIT (PLAN SECTIONS, HALF ELEVATION, SECTIONS THROUGH WINDOW & DOOR. HALF PLAN & HALF REFLECTED PLAN OF MARQUISE); DRAWING 1-13R, DATED SEPTEMBER 4, 1940. - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 1, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  14. Review of Tracktable for Satellite Maneuver Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Acquesta, Erin C.S.; Valicka, Christopher G.; Hinga, Mark B.; Ehn, Carollan Beret

    2016-10-01

    As a tool developed to translate geospatial data into geometrical descriptors, Tracktable offers a highly efficient means to detect anomalous flight and maritime behavior. Following the success of using geometrical descriptors for detecting anomalous trajectory behavior, the question of whether Tracktable could be used to detect satellite maneuvers arose. In answering this question, this re- port will introduce a brief description of how Tracktable has been used in the past, along with an introduction to the fundamental properties of astrodynamics for satellite trajectories. This will then allow us to compare the two problem spaces, addressing how easily the methods used by Tracktable will translate to orbital mechanics. Based on these results, we will then be able to out- line the current limitations as well as possible path forward for using Tracktable to detect satellite maneuvers.

  15. Dynamic Tow Maneuver Orbital Launch Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutan, Elbert L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An orbital launch system and its method of operation use a maneuver to improve the launch condition of a booster rocket and payload. A towed launch aircraft, to which the booster rocket is mounted, is towed to a predetermined elevation and airspeed. The towed launch aircraft begins the maneuver by increasing its lift, thereby increasing the flight path angle, which increases the tension on the towline connecting the towed launch aircraft to a towing aircraft. The increased tension accelerates the towed launch aircraft and booster rocket, while decreasing the speed (and thus the kinetic energy) of the towing aircraft, while increasing kinetic energy of the towed launch aircraft and booster rocket by transferring energy from the towing aircraft. The potential energy of the towed launch aircraft and booster rocket is also increased, due to the increased lift. The booster rocket is released and ignited, completing the launch.

  16. Rendezvous radar for the orbital maneuvering vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, John W.; Olds, Keith A.; Quaid, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The Rendezvous Radar Set (RRS) was designed at Motorola's Strategic Electronics Division in Chandler, Arizona, to be a key subsystem aboard NASA's Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). The unmanned OMV, which was under development at TRW's Federal Systems Division in Redondo Beach, California, was designed to supplement the Shuttle's satellite delivery, retrieval, and maneuvering activities. The RRS was to be used to locate and then provide the OMV with vectoring information to the target satellite (or Shuttle or Space Station) to aid the OMV in making a minimum fuel consumption approach and rendezvous. The OMV development program was halted by NASA in 1990 just as parts were being ordered for the RRS engineering model. The paper presented describes the RRS design and then discusses new technologies, either under development or planned for development at Motorola, that can be applied to radar or alternative sensor solutions for the Automated Rendezvous and Capture problem.

  17. Identifying tacit strategies in aircraft maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Charles M.; Heidorn, P. B.

    1991-01-01

    Two machine-learning methods are presently used to characterize the avoidance strategies used by skilled pilots in simulated aircraft encounters, and a general framework for the characterization of the strategic components of skilled behavior via qualitative representation of situations and responses is presented. Descriptions of pilot maneuvers that were 'conceptually equivalent' were ascertained by a concept-learning algorithm in conjunction with a classifier system that employed a generic algorithm; satisficing and 'buggy' strategies were thereby revealed.

  18. The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle - A new capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcilesi, Charles J.; Holliman, Charles T.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) is a reusable remotely-controlled spacecraft for support of orbiting platforms through such functions as satellite delivery, satellite retrieval, satellite reboost, controlled satellite deorbit, satellite inspection, and subsatellite missions. The OMV will be a critical component of the Space Station program's operational scenario; it will be able to operate either from the Space Shuttle Orbiter or the Space Station, and can also be space-based. The maiden flight of the first OMV is projected for 1993.

  19. Variable structure control of spacecraft reorientation maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sira-Ramirez, H.; Dwyer, T. A. W., III

    1986-01-01

    A Variable Structure Control (VSC) approach is presented for multi-axial spacecraft reorientation maneuvers. A nonlinear sliding surface is proposed which results in an asymptotically stable, ideal linear sliding motion of Cayley-Rodriques attitude parameters. By imposing a desired equivalent dynamics on the attitude parameters, the approach is devoid of optimal control considerations. The single axis case provides a design scheme for the multiple axes design problem. Illustrative examples are presented.

  20. Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Suei; Lan, C. Edward

    1990-01-01

    Due to the requirement of increased performance and maneuverability, the flight envelope of a modern fighter is frequently extended to the high angle-of-attack regime. Vehicles maneuvering in this regime are subjected to nonlinear aerodynamic loads. The nonlinearities are due mainly to three-dimensional separated flow and concentrated vortex flow that occur at large angles of attack. Accurate prediction of these nonlinear airloads is of great importance in the analysis of a vehicle's flight motion and in the design of its flight control system. A satisfactory evaluation of the performance envelope of the aircraft may require a large number of coupled computations, one for each change in initial conditions. To avoid the disadvantage of solving the coupled flow-field equations and aircraft's motion equations, an alternate approach is to use a mathematical modeling to describe the steady and unsteady aerodynamics for the aircraft equations of motion. Aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a rapidly maneuvering aircraft are, in general, nonlinear functions of motion variables, their time rate of change, and the history of maneuvering. A numerical method was developed to analyze the nonlinear and time-dependent aerodynamic response to establish the generalized indicial function in terms of motion variables and their time rates of change.

  1. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition.

  2. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Mikami, Y; Kyogoku, M

    1994-08-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is a distinct clinicopathological entity, characterized by: (1) clinical presentation, such as back pain, weight loss, and increased ESR, (2) patchy and/or diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and (3) marked periaortic fibrosis resulting in thickening of the aneurysmal wall and occasional retroperitoneal fibrosis. Its pathogenesis is unknown, but some authors support the theory that IAAA is a subtype of atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm because of close relationship between IAAA and atherosclerotic change. In this article, we describe clinical and histological features of IAAA on the basis of the literature and our review of 6 cases of IAAA, emphasizing the similarity and difference between IAAA and atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. Our review supports that marked lamellar fibrosis completely replacing the media and adventitia, patchy lymphocytic infiltration (mostly B cells) and endarteritis obliterans are characteristic features of IAAA.

  3. 112. Photographic copy of drawing (1912, original drawing in Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. Photographic copy of drawing (1912, original drawing in Archives, Office of the Building, Administration Building, Sears, Roebuck and Company Mail Order Plant, Chicago, Illinois). George C. Nimmons. 1/8 inch to one foot. This floor plan is the only original drawing for bays 11 and 12 (Grocery Building), constructed at the corner of Arthington (then called Harvard Street) and Central Park Avenue. The building was constructed in 1912 and designed by the firm of George C. Nimmons. This structure is on reinforced concrete construction. GROCERY BUILDING, BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. 101. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, Office of the Building, Administration Building, Sears, Roebuck and Company Mail Order Plant, Chicago, Illinois). Nimmons and Fellows. 1/8 inch to one foot. First floor plan for the portions of Annex A and Annex B built in 1905 (three floor only) along with the nine floors along Homan Avenue. FIRST FLOOR PLAN - ANNEX A AND ANNEX B - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. 111. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. Photographic copy of drawing (1905, original drawing in Archives, Office of the Building, Administration Building, Sears, Roebuck and Company Mail Order Plant, Chicago, Illinois). Nimmons and Fellows. 1/8 inch to one foot. Drawings for the first addition to Annex A. This drawing excerpted from blueprint set in Sears drawing archive. WEST ELEVATION AND TRANSVERSE SECTION (ANNEX A, BAYS P AND Q, FOR FLOORS FOUR THROUGH NINE) - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  6. Venous return curves obtained from graded series of valsalva maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastenbrook, S. M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The effects were studied of a graded series of valsalva-like maneuvers on the venous return, which was measured transcutaneously in the jugular vein of an anesthetized dog, with the animal serving as its own control. At each of five different levels of central venous pressure, the airway pressure which just stopped venous return during each series of maneuvers was determined. It was found that this end-point airway pressure is not a good estimator of the animal's resting central venous pressure prior to the simulated valsalva maneuver. It was further found that the measured change in right atrial pressure during a valsalva maneuver is less than the change in airway pressure during the same maneuver, instead of being equal, as had been expected. Relative venous return curves were constructed from the data obtained during the graded series of valsalva maneuvers.

  7. Slew maneuvers of Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakad, Yogendra P.

    1992-01-01

    This is the final report on the dynamics and control of slew maneuvers of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) test facility. The report documents the basic dynamical equation derivations for an arbitrary large angle slew maneuver as well as the basic decentralized slew maneuver control algorithm. The set of dynamical equations incorporate rigid body slew maneuver and three dimensional vibrations of the complete assembly comprising the rigid shuttle, the flexible beam, and the reflector with an offset mass. The analysis also includes kinematic nonlinearities of the entire assembly during the maneuver and the dynamics of the interactions between the rigid shuttle and the flexible appendage. The equations are simplified and evaluated numerically to include the first ten flexible modes to yield a model for designing control systems to perform slew maneuvers. The control problem incorporates the nonlinear dynamical equations and is expressed in terms of a two point boundary value problem.

  8. [Abdominal actinomycosis with IUD].

    PubMed

    Kamprath, S; Merker, A; Kühne-Heid, R; Schneider, A

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of abdominal actinomycosis in a 54 year old woman using an intrauterine device for a period of 8 years. The most important finding was a tuboovarialabscess at the left pelvic side with involvement of the serosa of the jejunum, ileum, sigma, and omentum majus. Intraoperative exploration showed a solid retroperitoneal infiltration between the pelvic side wall and sigma. Another infiltration was found on the left side of the abdominal wall. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and the patient was treated by a combination of Aminopenicillin and Metronidazol. After a period of three months we observed a complete regression of the clinical and the MRI findings.

  9. Artificial immune system approach for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneshige, John; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2007-04-01

    Since future air combat missions will involve both manned and unmanned aircraft, the primary motivation for this research is to enable unmanned aircraft with intelligent maneuvering capabilities. During air combat maneuvering, pilots use their knowledge and experience of maneuvering strategies and tactics to determine the best course of action. As a result, we try to capture these aspects using an artificial immune system approach. The biological immune system protects the body against intruders by recognizing and destroying harmful cells or molecules. It can be thought of as a robust adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. However, another critical aspect of the immune system is that it can remember how previous encounters were successfully defeated. As a result, it can respond faster to similar encounters in the future. This paper describes how an artificial immune system is used to select and construct air combat maneuvers. These maneuvers are composed of autopilot mode and target commands, which represent the low-level building blocks of the parameterized system. The resulting command sequences are sent to a tactical autopilot system, which has been enhanced with additional modes and an aggressiveness factor for enabling high performance maneuvers. Just as vaccinations train the biological immune system how to combat intruders, training sets are used to teach the maneuvering system how to respond to different enemy aircraft situations. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the potential of using immunized maneuver selection for the purposes of air combat maneuvering.

  10. Large planar maneuvers for articulated flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1988-01-01

    An articulated flexible manipulator carried on a translational cart is maneuvered by an active controller to perform certain position control tasks. The nonlinear dynamics of the articulated flexible manipulator are derived and a transformation matrix is formulated to localize the nonlinearities in the inertia matrix. Then a feeback linearization scheme is introduced to linearize the dynamic equations for controller design. Through a pole placement technique, a robust controller design is obtained by properly assigning a set of closed-loop desired eigenvalues to meet performance requirements. Numerical simulations for the articulated flexible manipulators are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed position control algorithms.

  11. Large planar maneuvers for articulated flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn

    1988-01-01

    An articulated flexible manipulator carried on a translational cart is maneuvered by an active controller to perform certain position control tasks. The nonlinear dynamics of the articulated flexible manipulator are derived and a transformation matrix is formulated to localize the nonlinearities within the inertia matrix. Then a feedback linearization scheme is introduced to linearize the dynamic equations for controller design. Through a pole placement technique, a robust controller design is obtained by properly assigning a set of closed-loop desired eigenvalues to meet performance requirements. Numerical simulations for the articulated flexible manipulators are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed position control algorithms.

  12. Coordination Logic for Repulsive Resolution Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Dutle, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for determining the direction an aircraft should maneuver in the event of a potential conflict with another aircraft. The algorithm is implicitly coordinated, meaning that with perfectly reliable computations and information, it will in- dependently provide directional information that is guaranteed to be coordinated without any additional information exchange or direct communication. The logic is inspired by the logic of TCAS II, the airborne system designed to reduce the risk of mid-air collisions between aircraft. TCAS II provides pilots with only vertical resolution advice, while the proposed algorithm, using a similar logic, provides implicitly coordinated vertical and horizontal directional advice.

  13. Optimal Autonomous Spacecraft Resiliency Maneuvers Using Metaheuristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-15

    be defined. Results indicate that the inspection requires an increase of only five percent of the propellant needed to transfer from low Earth orbit to...initial position vector, km R⊕ radius of the earth , km S Solution space encompassing all n design variables tk expected kth time of entry into exclusion...the k th maneuver, rad ω⊕ rotation rate of the earth , rad xviii Symbol Definition Ωm,c right ascension of the ascending node of the target, chaser orbit

  14. Orbital plane change maneuver with aerocruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    The synergistic plane change problem connected with orbital transfer employing aeroassist technology, is addressed. The mission involves transfer from high earth orbit to low earth orbit with plane change being performed within the atmosphere. The complete mission consists of a deorbit phase, atmospheric phase, and finally reorbit phase. The atmospheric maneuver is composed of an entry mode, a cruise mode, and finally an exit mode. During the cruise mode, constant altitude and velocity are maintained by means of bank angle control with constant thrust or thrust control with constant bank angle. Comparisons between these two control strategies bring out some interesting features.

  15. Maneuvering technology for advanced fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Michael G.; Harris, Scott H.; Byers, Richard H.

    1992-01-01

    The need for increased maneuverability has its genesis from the first aerial combat engagement when two adversaries entangled themselves in a deadly aerial dance trying to gain the advantage over the other. It has only been in the past two decades that technologies have been investigated to increase aircraft control at maneuver attitudes that are typically dominated by highly separated flows. These separated flow regions are aggravated by advanced fighter aircraft shapes required to defeat an electronic enemy. This paper discusses passive and active devices that can be used to enhance the maneuverability of advanced fighter aircraft through vortex flow control, boundary layer control, and innovative flow manipulation.

  16. Abdominal exploration - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100049.htm Abdominal exploration - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 4 Go to slide 2 ...

  17. Incision for abdominal laparoscopy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal laparoscopy is a useful aid in diagnosing disease or trauma in the abdominal cavity with less scarring than ... as liver and pancreatic resections may begin with laparoscopy to exclude the presence of additional tumors (metastatic ...

  18. General and Specific Strategies Used to Facilitate Locomotor Maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mengnan; Matsubara, Jesse H.; Gordon, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    People make anticipatory changes in gait patterns prior to initiating a rapid change of direction. How they prepare will change based on their knowledge of the maneuver. To investigate specific and general strategies used to facilitate locomotor maneuvers, we manipulated subjects’ ability to anticipate the direction of an upcoming lateral “lane-change” maneuver. To examine specific anticipatory adjustments, we observed the four steps immediately preceding a maneuver that subjects were instructed to perform at a known time in a known direction. We hypothesized that to facilitate a specific change of direction, subjects would proactively decrease margin of stability in the future direction of travel. Our results support this hypothesis: subjects significantly decreased lateral margin of stability by 69% on the side ipsilateral to the maneuver during only the step immediately preceding the maneuver. This gait adaptation may have improved energetic efficiency and simplified the control of the maneuver. To examine general anticipatory adjustments, we observed the two steps immediately preceding the instant when subjects received information about the direction of the maneuver. When the maneuver direction was unknown, we hypothesized that subjects would make general anticipatory adjustments that would improve their ability to actively initiate a maneuver in multiple directions. This second hypothesis was partially supported as subjects increased step width and stance phase hip flexion during these anticipatory steps. These modifications may have improved subjects’ ability to generate forces in multiple directions and maintain equilibrium during the onset and execution of the rapid maneuver. However, adapting these general anticipatory strategies likely incurred an additional energetic cost. PMID:26167931

  19. [Myxofibrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Janů, F

    2016-01-01

    A number of benign and malignant tumors may develop in the abdominal cavity. Sarcomas are rather rare tumors of the abdominal cavity. They are often diagnosed at advanced growth stages as their local growth can cause clinical problems to the patients. The author presents a case report of myxofibrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity.Key words: myxofibrosarcoma.

  20. The Valsalva maneuver: mechanisms and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Porth, C J; Bamrah, V S; Tristani, F E; Smith, J J

    1984-09-01

    The previous discussion has focused on the mechanisms, both respiratory and circulatory, that occur during the Valsalva maneuver. The increase in intrathoracic pressure that occurs during the Valsalva maneuver incites a sequence of rapid changes in preload and afterload stress. During the strain, venous return to the heart is decreased and peripheral venous pressures become increased. Within the next few beats, systolic and pulse pressures begin to fall while mean arterial pressure remains near (or is elevated above) control levels owing to the transmission of airway pressure. Thus it would appear that the benefits to cardiac contractility derived from a decrease in systolic and pulse pressure are counterbalanced by an increase in mean arterial pressure. Increases in total peripheral resistance that begin after about 7 seconds of strain produce further increases in afterload. Recruitment of autonomically mediated increases in heart rate and cardiac contractility assists the heart to maintain its cardiac output in the presence of diminished venous return. With the increased venous return that accompanies termination of Valsalva strain, there is an increase in diastolic filling and stroke volume output by means of the Frank-Starling mechanism. Heart rate and total peripheral resistance continue to be increased during the immediate poststrain period, and the ejection of an increased stroke volume into a constricted arterial system produces a rapid and marked increase in arterial pressure--the phase IV overshoot with its subsequent slowing of heart rate.

  1. Enhanced performance for the manned maneuvering unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Paul E.

    We have all seen the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) on television, in the newspaper, magazines and any number of other places. It is probably one of the most widely recognized articles ever put into orbit. This paper briefly describes the MMU. The description includes an overview of the controls and physical features and a discussion of the propulsion and electrical systems. Operational experience to date is briefly covered. The MMU was first used on STS 41-B for the first untethered space walk on February 7, 1984. Next usage was for the Solar Max mission on STS 41-C, followed by the retrieval of the Westar and Palapa communication satellites on mission STS 51-A in November, 1984. One of the "lessons learned" during these space operations was the need for enhanced performance by the MMU, and leads into a discussion of how that increased performance capability will be provided. Current work on a Propellant Tank Kit (PTK), which will provide enhanced performance, is shown. The PTK will provide sufficient propellant storage capability such that the MMU with PTK will have twice the previous delta velocity capability; i.e., double the MMU's maneuvering ability. Results of development testing in the NASA/JSC Weightless Environment Test Facility are included. Current status of PTK development is presented. This paper ends with a brief discussion of proposed space operations using the enhanced MMU performance in erecting space structures from the Space Shuttle, assembling and maintaining Space Station, rescue-transfer of astronauts and other space operations.

  2. Mechanical ventilation and intra-abdominal hypertension: 'Beyond Good and Evil'

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension is frequent in surgical and medical critically ill patients. Intra-abdominal hypertension has a serious impact on the function of respiratory as well as peripheral organs. In the presence of alveolar capillary damage, which occurs in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), intra-abdominal hypertension promotes lung injury as well as edema, impedes the pulmonary lymphatic drainage, and increases intra-thoracic pressures, leading to atelectasis, airway closure, and deterioration of respiratory mechanics and gas exchange. The optimal setting of mechanical ventilation and its impact on respiratory function and hemodynamics in ARDS associated with intra-abdominal hypertension are far from being assessed. We suggest that the optimal ventilator management of patients with ARDS and intra-abdominal hypertension would include the following: (a) intra-abdominal, esophageal pressure, and hemodynamic monitoring; (b) ventilation setting with protective tidal volume, recruitment maneuver, and level of positive end-expiratory pressure set according to the 'best' compliance of the respiratory system or the lung; (c) deep sedation with or without neuromuscular paralysis in severe ARDS; and (d) open abdomen in selected patients with severe abdominal compartment syndrome. PMID:23256904

  3. Large angle slew maneuvers with autonomous sun vector avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInnes, Colin R.

    1994-07-01

    The paper presents a methodology developed which allows large angle slew maneuvers to be achieved with autonomous avoidance of the sun vector or other undesired orientations. It has been demonstrated that the local potential shape may be manipulated to guide the satellite attitude during the slew. This guidance allows a globally stable, point to point constrained maneuver using analytic guidance commands.

  4. Instantaneous Observability of Tightly Coupled SINS/GPS during Maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junxiang; Yu, Fei; Lan, Haiyu; Dong, Qianhui

    2016-05-27

    The tightly coupled strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS)/global position system (GPS) has been widely used. The system observability determines whether the system state can be estimated by a filter efficiently or not. In this paper, the observability analysis of a two-channel and a three-channel tightly coupled SINS/GPS are performed, respectively, during arbitrary translational maneuvers and angle maneuvers, where the translational maneuver and angle maneuver are modeled. A novel instantaneous observability matrix (IOM) based on a reconstructed psi-angle model is proposed to make the theoretical analysis simpler, which starts from the observability definition directly. Based on the IOM, a series of theoretical analysis are performed. Analysis results show that almost all kinds of translational maneuver and angle maneuver can make a three-channel system instantaneously observable, but there is no one translational maneuver or angle maneuver can make a two-channel system instantaneously observable. The system's performance is investigated when the system is not instantaneously observable. A series of simulation studies based on EKF are performed to confirm the analytic conclusions.

  5. Instantaneous Observability of Tightly Coupled SINS/GPS during Maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Junxiang; Yu, Fei; Lan, Haiyu; Dong, Qianhui

    2016-01-01

    The tightly coupled strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS)/global position system (GPS) has been widely used. The system observability determines whether the system state can be estimated by a filter efficiently or not. In this paper, the observability analysis of a two-channel and a three-channel tightly coupled SINS/GPS are performed, respectively, during arbitrary translational maneuvers and angle maneuvers, where the translational maneuver and angle maneuver are modeled. A novel instantaneous observability matrix (IOM) based on a reconstructed psi-angle model is proposed to make the theoretical analysis simpler, which starts from the observability definition directly. Based on the IOM, a series of theoretical analysis are performed. Analysis results show that almost all kinds of translational maneuver and angle maneuver can make a three-channel system instantaneously observable, but there is no one translational maneuver or angle maneuver can make a two-channel system instantaneously observable. The system’s performance is investigated when the system is not instantaneously observable. A series of simulation studies based on EKF are performed to confirm the analytic conclusions. PMID:27240369

  6. Planar reorientation maneuvers of space multibody systems using internal controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Mcclamroch, N. H.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a reorientation maneuvering strategy for an interconnection of planar rigid bodies in space is developed. It is assumed that there are no exogeneous torques, and torques generated by joint motors are used as means of control so that the total angular momentum of the multibody system is a constant, assumed to be zero in this paper. The maneuver strategy uses the nonintegrability of the expression for the angular momentum. We demonstrate that large-angle maneuvers can be designed to achieve an arbitrary reorientation of the multibody system with respect to an inertial frame. The theoretical background for carrying out the required maneuvers is briefly summarized. Specifications and computer simulations of a specific reorientation maneuver, and the corresponding control strategies, are described.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Evasion Maneuvers for Parallel Approach Collision Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winder, Lee F.; Kuchar, James K.; Waller, Marvin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Current plans for independent instrument approaches to closely spaced parallel runways call for an automated pilot alerting system to ensure separation of aircraft in the case of a "blunder," or unexpected deviation from the a normal approach path. Resolution advisories by this system would require the pilot of an endangered aircraft to perform a trained evasion maneuver. The potential performance of two evasion maneuvers, referred to as the "turn-climb" and "climb-only," was estimated using an experimental NASA alerting logic (AILS) and a computer simulation of relative trajectory scenarios between two aircraft. One aircraft was equipped with the NASA alerting system, and maneuvered accordingly. Observation of the rates of different types of alerting failure allowed judgement of evasion maneuver performance. System Operating Characteristic (SOC) curves were used to assess the benefit of alerting with each maneuver.

  8. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sachs, T; Schermerhorn, M

    2010-06-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) continues to be one of the most lethal vascular pathologies we encounter. Its management demands prompt and efficient evaluation and repair. Open repair has traditionally been the mainstay of treatment. However, the introduction of endovascular techniques has altered the treatment algorithm for ruptured AAA in most major medical centers. We present recent literature and techniques for ruptured AAA and its surgical management.

  9. The Abdominal Circulatory Pump

    PubMed Central

    Aliverti, Andrea; Bovio, Dario; Fullin, Irene; Dellacà, Raffaele L.; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Pedotti, Antonio; Macklem, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs) is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 50–75 ml with an ejection fraction of 4–6% and an output of 750–1500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.61±0.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.57±0.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart. PMID:19440240

  10. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  11. [Abdominal catastrophe--surgeon's view].

    PubMed

    Vyhnánek, F

    2010-07-01

    Abdominal catastrophe is a serious clinical condition, usually being a complication arising during treatment of intraabdominal nontraumatic disorders or abdominal injuries. Most commonly, inflamation- secondary peritonitis, is concerned. Abdominal catastrophe also includes secondary signs of sepsis, abdominal compartment syndrome and enterocutaneous fistules. Most septic abdominal disorders which show signs of abdominal catastrophy, require surgical intervention and reinterventions--planned or "on demand" laparotomies. During the postoperative period, the patient requires intensive care management, including steps taken to stabilize his/hers condition, management of sepsis and metabolic and nutritional support measures, as well as adequate indication for reoperations. New technologies aimed at prevention of complications in laparostomies and to improve conditions for final laparotomy closure are used in phase procedures for surgical management of intraabdominal infections. Despite the new technologies, abdominal catastrophe has higher morbidity and lethality risk rates.

  12. Abdominal SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Van Heertum, R.L.; Brunetti, J.C.; Yudd, A.P.

    1987-07-01

    Over the past several years, abdominal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has evolved from a research tool to an important clinical imaging modality that is helpful in the diagnostic assessment of a wide variety of disorders involving the abdominal viscera. Although liver-spleen imaging is the most popular of the abdominal SPECT procedures, blood pool imaging is becoming much more widely utilized for the evaluation of cavernous hemangiomas of the liver as well as other vascular abnormalities in the abdomen. Adjunctive indium leukocyte and gallium SPECT studies are also proving to be of value in the assessment of a variety of infectious and neoplastic diseases. As more experience is acquired in this area, SPECT should become the primary imaging modality for both gallium and indium white blood cells in many institutions. Renal SPECT, on the other hand, has only recently been used as a clinical imaging modality for the assessment of such parameters as renal depth and volume. The exact role of renal SPECT as a clinical tool is, therefore, yet to be determined. 79 references.

  13. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management.

  14. Functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, P; Aziz, Q

    2005-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is an uncommon functional gut disorder characterised by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain attributed to the gut but poorly related to gut function. It is associated with abnormal illness behaviour and patients show psychological morbidity that is often minimised or denied in an attempt to discover an organic cause for symptoms. Thus the conventional biomedical approach to the management of such patients is unhelpful and a person's symptom experience is more usefully investigated using a biopsychosocial evaluation, which necessarily entails a multidisciplinary system of healthcare provision. Currently the pathophysiology of the disorder is poorly understood but is most likely to involve a dysfunction of central pain mechanisms either in terms of attentional bias, for example, hypervigilance or a failure of central pain modulation/inhibition. Although modern neurophysiological investigation of patients is promising and may provide important insights into the pathophysiology of FAPS, current clinical management relies on an effective physician-patient relationship in which limits on clinical investigation are set and achievable treatment goals tailored to the patient's needs are pursued. PMID:15998821

  15. Abdominal tumors in children

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chaeyoun; Youn, Joong Kee; Han, Ji-Won; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in pediatric patients has been steadily increasing in recent years. However, its use for diagnosing and treating abdominal tumors in children is still limited compared with adults, especially when malignancy is a matter of debate. Here, we describe the experience at our center with pediatric abdominal tumors to show the safety and feasibility of MIS. Based on a retrospective review of patient records, we selected for study those pediatric patients who had undergone diagnostic exploration or curative resection for abdominal tumors at a single center from January 2010 through August 2015. Diagnostic exploration for abdominal tumors was performed in 32 cases and curative resection in 173 cases (205 operations). MIS was performed in 11 cases of diagnostic exploration (34.4%) and 38 cases of curative resection (21.9%). The mean age of the children who underwent MIS was 6.09 ± 5.2 years. With regard to diagnostic exploration, patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were found to be similar for MIS and open surgery. With regard to curative resection, however, the mean age was significantly lower among the patients who underwent open surgery (4.21 ± 4.20 vs 6.02 ± 4.99 for MIS, P = 0.047), and the proportion of malignancies was significantly higher (80% vs 39.4% for MIS, P < 0.001). MIS compared favorably with open surgery with respect to the rate of recurrence (6.7% vs 35.1%, P = 0.035), the rate of intraoperative transfusions (34.2% vs 58.5%, P = 0.01), the median amount of blood transfused (14 vs 22 mL/kg, P = 0.001), and the mean number of hospital days (4.66 ± 2.36 vs 7.21 ± 5.09, P < 0.001). Complication rates did not differ significantly between the MIS and open surgery groups. The operation was converted to open surgery in 3 cases (27.2%) of diagnostic MIS and in 5 cases (13.1%) of curative MIS. MIS was found to be both feasible and effective for the

  16. Classification of Aircraft Maneuvers for Fault Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj; Tumer, Irem Y.; Tumer, Kagan; Huff, Edward M.; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Automated fault detection is an increasingly important problem in aircraft maintenance and operation. Standard methods of fault detection assume the availability of either data produced during all possible faulty operation modes or a clearly-defined means to determine whether the data provide a reasonable match to known examples of proper operation. In the domain of fault detection in aircraft, the first assumption is unreasonable and the second is difficult to determine. We envision a system for online fault detection in aircraft, one part of which is a classifier that predicts the maneuver being performed by the aircraft as a function of vibration data and other available data. To develop such a system, we use flight data collected under a controlled test environment, subject to many sources of variability. We explain where our classifier fits into the envisioned fault detection system as well as experiments showing the promise of this classification subsystem.

  17. Maneuver Classification for Aircraft Fault Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.; Tumer, Irem Y.; Tumer, Kagan; Huff, Edward M.

    2003-01-01

    Automated fault detection is an increasingly important problem in aircraft maintenance and operation. Standard methods of fault detection assume the availability of either data produced during all possible faulty operation modes or a clearly-defined means to determine whether the data provide a reasonable match to known examples of proper operation. In the domain of fault detection in aircraft, identifying all possible faulty and proper operating modes is clearly impossible. We envision a system for online fault detection in aircraft, one part of which is a classifier that predicts the maneuver being performed by the aircraft as a function of vibration data and other available data. To develop such a system, we use flight data collected under a controlled test environment, subject to many sources of variability. We explain where our classifier fits into the envisioned fault detection system as well as experiments showing the promise of this classification subsystem.

  18. Classification of Aircraft Maneuvers for Fault Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.; Tumer, Irem Y.; Tumer, Kagan; Huff, Edward M.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Automated fault detection is an increasingly important problem in aircraft maintenance and operation. Standard methods of fault detection assume the availability of either data produced during all possible faulty operation modes or a clearly-defined means to determine whether the data is a reasonable match to known examples of proper operation. In our domain of fault detection in aircraft, the first assumption is unreasonable and the second is difficult to determine. We envision a system for online fault detection in aircraft, one part of which is a classifier that predicts the maneuver being performed by the aircraft as a function of vibration data and other available data. We explain where this subsystem fits into our envisioned fault detection system as well its experiments showing the promise of this classification subsystem.

  19. The wire anchor loop traction (WALT) maneuver.

    PubMed

    Effendi, Khaled; Sacho, Raphael Hillel; Belzile, François; Marotta, Thomas R

    2015-01-23

    Crossing the neck of large complex intracranial aneurysms for the purposes of stent deployment can be challenging using standard over the wire techniques. We describe a novel yet simple technique for straightening out the loop formed within a large intracranial aneurysm, which is often required in order to cross the aneurysm neck into the distal branch. Both the microcatheter and microwire are initially introduced into the distal vasculature, followed by withdrawal of the microwire to a point parallel to the distal exiting branch. The microcatheter and microwire are then gently withdrawn and a series of maneuvers to gradually reduce the loop is performed, obviating the need for distal purchase in the form of a stent, balloon, or coil, which have previously been described to maintain distal purchase.

  20. The wire anchor loop traction (WALT) maneuver.

    PubMed

    Effendi, Khaled; Sacho, Raphael Hillel; Belzile, François; Marotta, Thomas R

    2016-02-01

    Crossing the neck of large complex intracranial aneurysms for the purposes of stent deployment can be challenging using standard over the wire techniques. We describe a novel yet simple technique for straightening out the loop formed within a large intracranial aneurysm, which is often required in order to cross the aneurysm neck into the distal branch. Both the microcatheter and microwire are initially introduced into the distal vasculature, followed by withdrawal of the microwire to a point parallel to the distal exiting branch. The microcatheter and microwire are then gently withdrawn and a series of maneuvers to gradually reduce the loop is performed, obviating the need for distal purchase in the form of a stent, balloon, or coil, which have previously been described to maintain distal purchase.

  1. Marine Corps Maneuver Squad Leader Mastery Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-17

    Thinking; Character, Initiative, and Command Presence; Train , Mentor, and Develop Marines; Job Knowledge; Administration; Self‐Development; Communication...making skills by increasing the specificity of the desired  measurement.    Requirement    The U.S. Marine Corps  (USMC)  Training  and Education Command...of Task 3‐7 of the Commandant’s Planning Guidance  2010  to  improve  training   and  experience  levels  for  maneuver  unit  squad  leaders  in

  2. X-31 in flight, Herbst maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrators were flown at the Rockwell International Palmdale, California, facility and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to obtain data that may apply to the design of highly-maneuverable next-generation fighters. The program had its first flight on October 11, 1990, in Palmdale; it ended in June 1995. The X-31 program demonstrated the value of thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight during close-in air combat at very high angles of attack. The result of this increased maneuverability is an aircraft with a significant advantage over conventional fighters. 'Angle-of-attack' (alpha) is an engineering term to describe the angle of an aircraft body and wings relative to its actual flight path. During maneuvers, pilots often fly at extreme angles of attack--with the nose pitched up while the aircraft continues in its original direction. This can lead to loss of control and result in the loss of the aircraft, or both. Three thrust-vectoring paddles made of graphite epoxy mounted on the X-31 aircraft exhaust nozzle directed the exhaust flow to provide control in pitch (up and down) and yaw (right and left) to improve control. The paddles can sustain heat of up to 1,500 degrees centigrade for extended periods of time. In addition the X-31 aircraft were configured with movable forward canards and fixed aft strakes. The canards were small wing-like structures set on the wing line between the nose and the leading edge of the wing. The strakes were set on the same line between the trailing edge of the wing and the engine exhaust. Both supplied additional control in tight maneuvering situations. The X-31 research program produced technical data at high angles of attack. This information is giving engineers and aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust

  3. Analysis of ship maneuvering data from simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frette, V.; Kleppe, G.; Christensen, K.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze complex manuevering histories of ships obtained from training sessions on bridge simulators. Advanced ships are used in fields like offshore oil exploration: dive support vessels, supply vessels, anchor handling vessels, tugs, cable layers, and multi-purpose vessels. Due to high demands from the operations carried out, these ships need to have very high maneuverability. This is achieved through a propulsion system with several thrusters, water jets, and rudders in addition to standard propellers. For some operations, like subsea maintenance, it is crucial that the ship accurately keeps a fixed position. Therefore, bridge systems usually incorporate equipment for Dynamic Positioning (DP). DP is a method to keep ships and semi submersible rigs in a fixed position using the propulsion systems instead of anchors. It may also be used for sailing a vessel from one position to another along a predefined route. Like an autopilot on an airplane, DP may operate without human involvement. The method relies on accurate determination of position from external reference systems like GPS, as well as a continuously adjusted mathematical model of the ship and external forces from wind, waves and currents. In a specific simulator exercise for offshore crews, a ship is to be taken up to an installation consisting of three nearby oil platforms connected by bridges (Frigg field, North Sea), where a subsea inspection is to be carried out. Due to the many degrees of freedom during maneuvering, including partly or full use of DP, the chosen routes vary significantly. In this poster we report preliminary results on representations of the complex maneuvering histories; representations that allow comparison between crew groups, and, possibly, sorting of the different strategic choices behind.

  4. Cerebrovascular effects of the thigh cuff maneuver

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, N. P.; Robinson, T. G.

    2015-01-01

    Arterial hypotension can be induced by sudden release of inflated thigh cuffs (THC), but its effects on the cerebral circulation have not been fully described. In nine healthy subjects [aged 59 (9) yr], bilateral cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) was recorded in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), noninvasive arterial blood pressure (BP) in the finger, and end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) with nasal capnography. Three THC maneuvers were performed in each subject with cuff inflation 20 mmHg above systolic BP for 3 min before release. Beat-to-beat values were extracted for mean CBFV, BP, ETCO2, critical closing pressure (CrCP), resistance-area product (RAP), and heart rate (HR). Time-varying estimates of the autoregulation index [ARI(t)] were also obtained using an autoregressive-moving average model. Coherent averages synchronized by the instant of cuff release showed significant drops in mean BP, CBFV, and RAP with rapid return of CBFV to baseline. HR, ETCO2, and ARI(t) were transiently increased, but CrCP remained relatively constant. Mean values of ARI(t) for the 30 s following cuff release were not significantly different from the classical ARI [right MCA 5.9 (1.1) vs. 5.1 (1.6); left MCA 5.5 (1.4) vs. 4.9 (1.7)]. HR was strongly correlated with the ARI(t) peak after THC release (in 17/22 and 21/24 recordings), and ETCO2 was correlated with the subsequent drop in ARI(t) (19/22 and 20/24 recordings). These results suggest a complex cerebral autoregulatory response to the THC maneuver, dominated by myogenic mechanisms and influenced by concurrent changes in ETCO2 and possible involvement of the autonomic nervous system and baroreflex. PMID:25659488

  5. X-31 in flight - Mongoose Maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrators were flown at the Rockwell International facility, Palmdale, California, and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to obtain data that may apply to the design of highly-maneuverable next-generation fighters. The program had its first flight on October 11, 1990, in Palmdale; it ended in June 1995. The X-31 program demonstrated the value of thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight during close-in air combat at very high angles of attack. The result of this increased maneuverability is an aircraft with a significant advantage over conventional fighters. 'Angle-of-attack' (alpha) is an engineering term to describe the angle of an aircraft body and wings relative to its actual flight path. During maneuvers, pilots often fly at extreme angles of attack -- with the nose pitched up while the aircraft continues in its original direction. This can lead to loss of control and result in the loss of the aircraft, pilot or both. Three thrust-vectoring paddles made of graphite epoxy mounted on the exhaust nozzle of the X-31 aircraft directed the exhaust flow to provide control in pitch (up and down) and yaw (right and left) to improve control. The paddles can sustain heat of up to 1,500 degrees centigrade for extended periods of time. In addition the X-31 aircraft were configured with movable forward canards and fixed aft strakes. The canards were small wing-like structures set on the wing line between the nose and the leading edge of the wing. The strakes were set on the same line between the trailing edge of the wing and the engine exhaust. Both supplied additional control in tight maneuvering situations. The X-31 research program produced technical data at high angles of attack. This information is giving engineers and aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls

  6. Dynamics of spacecraft control laboratory experiment (SCOLE) slew maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakad, Y. P.

    1987-01-01

    This is the first of two reports on the dynamics and control of slewing maneuvers of the NASA Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE). In this report, the dynamics of slewing maneuvers of SCOLE are developed in terms of an arbitrary maneuver about any given axis. The set of dynamical equations incorporate rigid-body slew maneuver and three-dimensional vibrations of the complete assembly comprising the rigid shuttle, the flexible beam, and the reflector with an offset mass. The analysis also includes kinematic nonlinearities of the entire assembly during the maneuver and the dynamics of the interaction between the rigid shuttle and the flexible appendage. The final set of dynamical equations obtained for slewing maneuvers is highly nonlinear and coupled in terms of the flexible modes and the rigid-body modes. The equations are further simplified and evaluated numerically to include the first ten flexible modes and the SCOLE data to yield a model for designing control systems to perform slew maneuvers.

  7. Abdominal perfusion computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis.

  8. Abdominal Perfusion Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M. Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis. PMID:25610249

  9. Maneuver Design for the Juno Mission: Inner Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlak, Thomas A.; Frauenholz, Raymond B.; Bordi, John J.; Kangas, Julie A.; Helfrich, Clifford E.

    2014-01-01

    The Juno spacecraft launched in August 2011 and, following a successful Earth flyby in October 2013, is on course for a nominal orbit insertion at Jupiter in July 2016. This paper examines the design and execution of deterministic and statistical trajectory correction maneuvers during the first approximately 27 months of post-launch operations that defined the "Inner Cruise" phase of the Juno mission. Topics of emphasis include the two deep space maneuvers, Earth flyby altitude biasing strategy, and the sequence of trajectory correction maneuvers executed in the weeks prior to the successful Earth gravity assist.

  10. Modeling of ship maneuvering motion using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Weilin; Zhang, Zhicheng

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, Neural Networks (NNs) are used in the modeling of ship maneuvering motion. A nonlinear response model and a linear hydrodynamic model of ship maneuvering motion are also investigated. The maneuverability indices and linear non-dimensional hydrodynamic derivatives in the models are identified by using two-layer feed forward NNs. The stability of parametric estimation is confirmed. Then, the ship maneuvering motion is predicted based on the obtained models. A comparison between the predicted results and the model test results demonstrates the validity of the proposed modeling method.

  11. Cassini-Huygens Maneuver Experience: Ending the Prime Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodson, Troy D.; Ballard, Christopher G.; Gist, Emily M.; Hahn, Yungsun; Stumpf, Paul W.; Wagner, Sean V.; Williams, Powtawche N.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft was launched in 1997 on a mission to observe Saturn and its many moons. After a seven-year cruise, it entered a Saturnian orbit for a four-year, prime mission. This paper highlights significant maneuver activities performed during the last year of the prime mission. Specifically, results of 42 recent maneuvers are presented. Many maneuvers have been skipped, saving fuel and flight team effort. The system has performed more accurately than the pre-launch expectations and requirements. This is in large part why the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft has been navigated with tremendous success during the prime mission.

  12. Optimal large-angle maneuvers with vibration suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, J. D.; Chun, H. M.; Junkins, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Some methods and applications which determine optimal maneuver controls are overviewed. The main aspects of optimal control theory are summarized and the essential ideas involved in a class of methods ('continuation' or 'homotopy' methods) which are useful in solving the resulting two-point boundary value problems are discussed. Several low dimensioned, nonlinear maneuvers of multiple rigid-body configurations using optimal momentum transfer are discussed. Several linear and nonlinear flexible-body maneuvers are then presented and include distributed controls, vibration suppression/arrest, and computational issues. Finally, the key problem areas in which future research appears most urgent are identified.

  13. Cassini - Huygens maneuver experience : cruise and arrival at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodson, Troy; Buffington, Brent; Hahn, Yungsun; Strange, Nathan; Wagner, Sean; Wong, Mau

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan was launched in 1997. It is an international effort to study the Saturnian system. Cassini-Huygens' interplanetary cruise delivered the spacecraft to Saturn in 2004. It also made use of many propulsive maneuvers, both statistical and deterministic. Maneuver-related analysis and performance for latter half of cruise is reported. The system has performed more accurately than the pre-launch expectations and requirements. Additionally, some maneuvers have already been skipped, saving propellant and flight team effort. Analysis of historical execution error data is presented.

  14. Early Mission Maneuver Operations for the Deep Space Climate Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Craig; Case, Sara; Reagoso, John

    2015-01-01

    DSCOVR Lissajous Orbit sized such that orbit track never extends beyond 15 degrees from Earth-Sun line (as seen from Earth). Requiring delta-V maneuvers, control orbit to obey a Solar Exclusion Zone (SEZ) cone of half-angle 4 degrees about the Earth-Sun line. Spacecraft should never be less than 4 degrees from solar center as seen from Earth. Following Lissajous Orbit Insertion (LOI), DSCOVR should be in an opening phase that just skirts the 4-degree SEZ. Maximizes time to the point where a closing Lissajous will require avoidance maneuvers to keep it out of the SEZ. Station keeping maneuvers should take no more than 15 minutes

  15. Constellation Mission Operation Working Group: ESMO Maneuver Planning Process Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Earth Science Mission Operation (ESMO) Project created an Independent Review Board to review our Conjunction Risk evaluation process and Maneuver Planning Process to identify improvements that safely manages mission conjunction risks, maintains ground track science requirements, and minimizes overall hours expended on High Interest Events (HIE). The Review Board is evaluating the current maneuver process which requires support by multiple groups. In the past year, there have been several changes to the processes although many prior and new concerns exist. This presentation will discuss maneuver process reviews and Board comments, ESMO assessment and path foward, ESMO future plans, recent changes and concerns.

  16. Recurrent pneumothorax following abdominal paracentesis.

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    A 62 year old man presented with abdominal ascites, without pleural effusion, due to peritoneal mesothelioma. He had chronic obstructive airways disease and a past history of right upper lobectomy for tuberculosis. On two occasions abdominal paracentesis was followed within 72 hours by pneumothorax. This previously unreported complication of abdominal paracentesis may be due to increased diaphragmatic excursion following the procedure and should be considered in patients with preexisting lung disease. PMID:2385561

  17. Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo, Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    COW 03 PUBLICATION REPORT 94-30227 * ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS IN CAIRO, BY RWIavni 0. IHibbs6 M. Kuanmm ad Z. Fun .Y .~ ... W I Form ApprovedREPORT...Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 8 April 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo...abdominal tuberculosis patients seen at Abbassia Fever Hospital in Cairo, Egypt from January 1990 to August 1992 are described; their mean age was 21.5

  18. Abdominal pregnancy- a case report.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Ii; Ude, Ac; Aderibigbe, Aso; Amu, Oc; Udeh, Pe; Obianyo, Nen; Ani, Coc

    2011-01-01

    A case of abdominal pregnancy in a 39 year old female gravida 4, para 0(+3) is presented. Ultrasonography revealed a viable abdominal pregnancy at 15 weeks gestational age. She was initially managed conservatively. Surgical intervention became necessary at 20 weeks gestational age following Ultrasound detection of foetal demise. The maternal outcome was favourable. This case is presented to highlight the dilemma associated with diagnosis and management of abdominal pregnancy with a review of literature.

  19. X-31 in flight - Post Stall Maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrators were flown at the Rockwell International facility, Palmdale, California, and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to obtain data that may apply to the design of highly-maneuverable next-generation fighters. The program had its first flight on October 11, 1990, in Palmdale; it ended in June 1995. The X-31 program demonstrated the value of thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight during close-in air combat at very high angles of attack. The result of this increased maneuverability is an aircraft with a significant advantage over conventional fighters. 'Angle-of-attack' (alpha) is an engineering term to describe the angle of an aircraft body and wings relative to its actual flight path. During maneuvers, pilots often fly at extreme angles of attack -- with the nose pitched up while the aircraft continues in its original direction. This can lead to loss of control and result in the loss of the aircraft, pilot or both. Three thrust vectoring paddles made of graphite epoxy mounted on the exhaust nozzle of the X-31 aircraft directed the exhaust flow to provide control in pitch (up and down) and yaw (right and left) to improve control. The paddles can sustain heat of up to 1,500 degrees centigrade for extended periods of time. In addition the X-31 aircraft were configured with movable forward canards and fixed aft strakes. The canards were small wing-like structures set on the wing line between the nose and the leading edge of the wing. The strakes were set on the same line between the trailing edge of the wing and the engine exhaust. Both supplied additional control in tight maneuvering situations. The X-31 research program produced technical data at high angles of attack. This information is giving engineers and aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls

  20. CLOCK DRAWING IN CHILDREN WITH PERI-NATAL STROKE

    PubMed Central

    Yousefian, Omid; Ballantyne, Angela O.; Doo, Alex; Trauner, Doris A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children with peri-natal stroke may show evidence of contralateral spatial neglect. The goal of this study was to determine whether a clock drawing task commonly used in adults to identify neglect would be effective in detecting neglect in children with peri-natal stroke. METHODS Thirty-eight individuals (age range 6–21 years) with left hemisphere (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) peri-natal onset unilateral lesions and one hundred seventy-nine age-matched controls were given the free-drawn Clock Drawing Task (CDT) in a cross-sectional design. An adapted scoring system that evaluated right- and left-sided errors separately was developed as part of the investigation. RESULTS Children with LH lesions made a greater number of errors on both the right and left sides of the clock drawings in all age subgroups (6–8 years, 9–14 years, and 15–21 years) compared to controls. Children with RH lesions showed greater left and right errors in the younger groups compared to controls, with significantly poorer performance on the left at 6–8 years, suggestive of contralateral neglect. However, by ages 15–21 years, the RH lesion subjects no longer differed from controls. CONCLUSIONS Clock drawing can identify spatial neglect in children with early hemispheric damage. However, brain development is a dynamic process, and as children age, spatial neglect may no longer be evident. These findings demonstrate the limitations of predicting long-term outcome after peri-natal stroke from early neuro-cognitive data. Children with peri-natal stroke may require different neural pathways to accomplish specific skills or to overcome deficits, but ultimately they may have “typical” outcomes. PMID:26002051

  1. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Siebenmann, R; Schneider, K; von Segesser, L; Turina, M

    1988-06-11

    348 cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm were reviewed for typical features of inflammatory aneurysm (IAAA) (marked thickening of aneurysm wall, retroperitoneal fibrosis and rigid adherence of adjacent structures). IAAA was present in 15 cases (14 male, 1 female). When compared with patients who had ordinary aneurysms, significantly more patients complained of back or abdominal pain (p less than 0.01). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was highly elevated. Diagnosis was established in 7 of 10 computed tomographies. 2 patients underwent emergency repair for ruptured aneurysm. Unilateral ureteral obstruction was present in 4 cases and bilateral in 1. Repair of IAAA was performed by a modified technique. Histological examination revealed thickening of the aortic wall, mainly of the adventitial layer, infiltrated by plasma cells and lymphocytes. One 71-year-old patient operated on for rupture of IAAA died early, and another 78-year-old patient after 5 1/2 months. Control computed tomographies revealed spontaneous regression of inflammatory infiltration after repair. Equally, hydronephrosis due to ureteral obstruction could be shown to disappear or at least to decrease. IAAA can be diagnosed by computed tomography with high sensitivity. Repair involves low risk, but modification of technique is necessary. The etiology of IAAA remains unclear.

  2. Fertility after abdominal myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Connolly, G; Doyle, M; Barrett, T; Byrne, P; De Mello, M; Harrison, R F

    2000-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the morbidity and pregnancy outcome of myomectomy in infertile women with uterine fibroids. This was a cross-sectional study. Records were reviewed for 100 consecutive women in the Rotunda Hospital who underwent myomectomy in the years 1995-1996. A questionnaire regarding subsequent fertility was sent. The study was carried out in the infertility unit at the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Seventy-five women responded. Multiple myomectomy was performed in 52 (70%). Mean fibroid size was 6.8 cm (range 2-14.5 cm). Nine women (12%) developed complications; five had menstrual problems, two had wound discomfort and two had abdominal discomfort. Twenty-five women (33%) became pregnant. Seven (28%) were IVF pregnancies. Overall six (24%) miscarried. In 19 of 25, pregnancy occurred where fibroids were the only identifiable cause of infertility. We conclude that abdominal myomectomy is associated with a favourable outcome in infertile women particularly if no other confounding variable is present.

  3. [Intra-abdominal mycoses].

    PubMed

    Boos, C; Kujath, P; Bruch, H-P

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of invasive mycoses in patients undergoing abdominal surgery amounts to approximately 8% and shows an upward trend in epidemiological studies. The lethality of these systemic mycoses, which are mostly based on Candida infections constitutes up to 60%. The development of a sytemic mycosis is marked by exogenic, endogenic and iatrogenic risk factors and typically displays tissue invasion after an initial fungal contamination or systemic dissemination via fungal sepsis. Fungal peritonitis is generally a monoinfection with Candida spp., where Candida albicans outweighs in 70% of cases. Aspergillus spp. are only detected abdominally in rare cases. The histological verification of a fungal invasion is regarded as proof of the existence of an invasive mycosis, but typical macroscopic findings with corresponding cultural findings can also confirm the diagnosis. Systemic mycosis requires an early initiation of a consistent antimycotic therapy as well as definitive surgical eradication of the focus in order to reduce high lethal rate. Resistances or incorrect dosages can be validated objectively by means of histological monitoring of the antimycotic therapy, thus affording early recognition of the need to change the substance class.

  4. Halo Orbit Mission Correction Maneuvers Using Optimal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, M.; Serban, R.; Petzold, L.; Koon, W.; Ross, S.; Marsden, J.; Wilson, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the computation of the required trajectory correction maneuvers (TCM) for a halo orbit space mission to compensate for the launch velocity errors introduced by inaccuracies of the launch vehicle.

  5. Impulse generated during unsteady maneuvering of swimming fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epps, Brenden P.; Techet, Alexandra H.

    The relationship between the maneuvering kinematics of a Giant Danio (Danio aequipinnatus) and the resulting vortical wake is investigated for a rapid, 'C'-start maneuver using fully time-resolved (500 Hz) particle image velocimetry (PIV). PIV illuminates the two distinct vortices formed during the turn. The fish body rotation is facilitated by the initial, or "maneuvering" vortex formation, and the final fish velocity is augmented by the strength of the second, "propulsive" vortex. Results confirm that the axisymmetric vortex ring model is reasonable to use in calculating the hydrodynamic impulse acting on the fish. The total linear momentum change of the fish from its initial swimming trajectory to its final swimming trajectory is balanced by the vector sum of the impulses of both vortex rings. The timing of vortex formation is uniquely synchronized with the fish motion, and the choreography of the maneuver is addressed in the context of the resulting hydrodynamic forces.

  6. 33 CFR 157.445 - Maneuvering performance capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... this section. (c) If a tankship is one of a class of vessels with identical propulsion, steering, hydrodynamic, and other relevant design characteristics, maneuvering performance test results for any...

  7. 33 CFR 157.445 - Maneuvering performance capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... this section. (c) If a tankship is one of a class of vessels with identical propulsion, steering, hydrodynamic, and other relevant design characteristics, maneuvering performance test results for any...

  8. 33 CFR 157.445 - Maneuvering performance capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... this section. (c) If a tankship is one of a class of vessels with identical propulsion, steering, hydrodynamic, and other relevant design characteristics, maneuvering performance test results for any...

  9. Convected transient analysis for large space structures maneuver and deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housner, J.

    1984-01-01

    Convected-transient analysis techniques in the finite-element method are used to investigate the deployment and maneuver of large spacecraft structures with multiple-member flexible trusses and frames. Numerical results are presented for several sample problems.

  10. Vorticity Control in Fish-like Propulsion and Maneuvering.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, M S; Techet, A H; Zhu, Q; Beal, D N; Hover, F S; Yue, D K P

    2002-11-01

    Vorticity control is employed by marine animals to enhance performance in maneuvering and propulsion. Studies on fish-like robots and experimental apparatus modelling rigid and flexible fins provide some of the basic mechanisms employed for controlling vorticity.

  11. Investigation of Dynamic Flight Maneuvers With an Iced Tailplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Judith Foss; Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    1999-01-01

    A detailed analysis of two of the dynamic maneuvers, the pushover and elevator doublet, from the NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing Program are discussed. For this series of flight tests, artificial ice shapes were attached to the leading edge of the horizontal stabilizer of the NASA Lewis Research Center icing aircraft, a DHC-6 Twin Otter. The purpose of these tests was to learn more about ice-contaminated tailplane stall (ICTS), the known cause of 16 accidents resulting in 139 fatalities. The pushover has been employed by the FAA, JAA and Transport Canada for tailplane icing certification. This research analyzes the pushover and reports on the maneuver performance degradation due to ice shape severity and flap deflection. A repeatability analysis suggests tolerances for meeting the required targets of the maneuver. A second maneuver, the elevator doublet, is also studied.

  12. Deterministic optimal maneuver strategy for multi-target missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwivedi, N. P.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal strategy for making impulsive correction to a multi-target trajectory by a single maneuver. The concept of an optimal maneuver time is introduced. The choice of suitable weighting functions is explored to enable one to properly translate the subjective desire of mission success into an objective cost function whose minimization yields the optimal strategy. It is shown that a number of strategies previously formulated are derivable from one general expression. A number of other interesting properties of the optimal strategy are described. Numerical results are presented for a typical two-target mission. It is shown that the strategy formulated is optimal. For some perturbations, there exists an optimal maneuver time different from the time of initiation of the perturbation. That is, the physical properties of the trajectory can be exploited to select the optimal time of making a corrective maneuver.

  13. [Abdominal approaches and drainages of the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Hagel, C; Schilling, M

    2006-04-01

    Appropriate access to the abdominal cavity is the first and crucial step for successful abdominal surgical intervention. In planning the incision, several variables have to be considered, such as anatomy of the abdominal wall, localization of the target organ, and individual conditions (previous incisions, minimal access surgery, etc). Medial laparotomy is the preferred incision for emergency cases and ill-defined pathologies, allowing access and hence exploration to all quadrants. Transverse laparotomies give superior access to the dorsal and right aspects of the liver and cause less pain in patients unfit for regional anesthetic procedures. Draining of the abdominal cavity is used after various resective and reconstructive procedures, but there is little evidence for its use in a number of operations such as gastric, hepatic, and colorectal resections. Advantages and disadvantages of different abdominal wall incisions and drainages are discussed.

  14. Astronaut Alan Bean flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, flies the M509 Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment in the foreward dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. Bean is strapped in to the back-mounted, hand-controlled Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU). This ASMU exerperiment is being done in shirt sleeves. The dome area where the experiment is conducted is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  15. Astronaut Alan Bean flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, flies the M509 Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment in the forward dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. Bean is strapped in to the back-mounted, hand-controlled Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU). This ASMU exerperiment is being done in shirt sleeves. The dome area where the experiment is conducted is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  16. Flight Simulator: Field of View Utilized in Performing Tactical Maneuvers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    were taken in the Simulator for Air-to-Air Combat (SAAC) and the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ). During the air-to-ground data collection...ground maneuvers were performed In the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ). The data collected provided an estimate of the FOV dimensions that a...tactical maneuvers were conducted in the AFHIRL ASPT located at Williams AFB. The ASPT had a fully instrumnted F-16 cockpit. The g-cueing was available

  17. Orbit Estimation of Non-Cooperative Maneuvering Spacecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    uses numerical integration of orbit dynamics with 21 × 21 spherical harmonic expansion of the Geopotential, atmospheric drag, lunar gravity, and solar ... ORBIT ESTIMATION OF NON-COOPERATIVE MANEUVERING SPACECRAFT DISSERTATION Gary M. Goff, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENY-DS-15-J-051 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE...copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENY-DS-15-J-051 ORBIT ESTIMATION OF NON-COOPERATIVE MANEUVERING SPACECRAFT DISSERTATION Presented to

  18. USE OF THE SDO POINTING CONTROLLERS FOR INSTRUMENT CALIBRATION MANEUVERS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vess, Melissa F.; Starin, Scott R.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.

    2005-01-01

    During the science phase of the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, the three science instruments require periodic instrument calibration maneuvers with a frequency of up to once per month. The command sequences for these maneuvers vary in length from a handful of steps to over 200 steps, and individual steps vary in size from 5 arcsec per step to 22.5 degrees per step. Early in the calibration maneuver development, it was determined that the original attitude sensor complement could not meet the knowledge requirements for the instrument calibration maneuvers in the event of a sensor failure. Because the mission must be single fault tolerant, an attitude determination trade study was undertaken to determine the impact of adding an additional attitude sensor versus developing alternative, potentially complex, methods of performing the maneuvers in the event of a sensor failure. To limit the impact to the science data capture budget, these instrument calibration maneuvers must be performed as quickly as possible while maintaining the tight pointing and knowledge required to obtain valid data during the calibration. To this end, the decision was made to adapt a linear pointing controller by adjusting gains and adding an attitude limiter so that it would be able to slew quickly and still achieve steady pointing once on target. During the analysis of this controller, questions arose about the stability of the controller during slewing maneuvers due to the combination of the integral gain, attitude limit, and actuator saturation. Analysis was performed and a method for disabling the integral action while slewing was incorporated to ensure stability. A high fidelity simulation is used to simulate the various instrument calibration maneuvers.

  19. Nonlinear maneuver autopilot for the F-15 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Badgett, M. E.; Walker, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology is described for the development of flight test trajectory control laws based on singular perturbation methodology and nonlinear dynamic modeling. The control design methodology is applied to a detailed nonlinear six degree-of-freedom simulation of the F-15 and results for a level accelerations, pushover/pullup maneuver, zoom and pushover maneuver, excess thrust windup turn, constant thrust windup turn, and a constant dynamic pressure/constant load factor trajectory are presented.

  20. Space Object Maneuver Detection Algorithms Using TLE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittelkau, M.

    2016-09-01

    An important aspect of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is detection of deliberate and accidental orbit changes of space objects. Although space surveillance systems detect orbit maneuvers within their tracking algorithms, maneuver data are not readily disseminated for general use. However, two-line element (TLE) data is available and can be used to detect maneuvers of space objects. This work is an attempt to improve upon existing TLE-based maneuver detection algorithms. Three adaptive maneuver detection algorithms are developed and evaluated: The first is a fading-memory Kalman filter, which is equivalent to the sliding-window least-squares polynomial fit, but computationally more efficient and adaptive to the noise in the TLE data. The second algorithm is based on a sample cumulative distribution function (CDF) computed from a histogram of the magnitude-squared |V|2 of change-in-velocity vectors (V), which is computed from the TLE data. A maneuver detection threshold is computed from the median estimated from the CDF, or from the CDF and a specified probability of false alarm. The third algorithm is a median filter. The median filter is the simplest of a class of nonlinear filters called order statistics filters, which is within the theory of robust statistics. The output of the median filter is practically insensitive to outliers, or large maneuvers. The median of the |V|2 data is proportional to the variance of the V, so the variance is estimated from the output of the median filter. A maneuver is detected when the input data exceeds a constant times the estimated variance.

  1. Improvements to the adaptive maneuvering logic program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgin, George H.

    1986-01-01

    The Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) computer program simulates close-in, one-on-one air-to-air combat between two fighter aircraft. Three important improvements are described. First, the previously available versions of AML were examined for their suitability as a baseline program. The selected program was then revised to eliminate some programming bugs which were uncovered over the years. A listing of this baseline program is included. Second, the equations governing the motion of the aircraft were completely revised. This resulted in a model with substantially higher fidelity than the original equations of motion provided. It also completely eliminated the over-the-top problem, which occurred in the older versions when the AML-driven aircraft attempted a vertical or near vertical loop. Third, the requirements for a versatile generic, yet realistic, aircraft model were studied and implemented in the program. The report contains detailed tables which make the generic aircraft to be either a modern, high performance aircraft, an older high performance aircraft, or a previous generation jet fighter.

  2. An Immunized Aircraft Maneuver Selection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Charles L.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project, as stated in the original proposal, was to develop an immunized aircraft maneuver selection (IAMS) system. The IAMS system was to be composed of computational and informational building blocks that resemble structures in natural immune systems. The ultimate goal of the project was to develop a software package that could be flight tested on aircraft models. This report describes the work performed in the first year of what was to have been a two year project. This report also describes efforts that would have been made in the final year to have completed the project, had it been continued for the final year. After introductory material is provided in Section 2, the end-of-year-one status of the effort is discussed in Section 3. The remainder of the report provides an accounting of first year efforts. Section 4 provides background information on natural immune systems while Section 5 describes a generic ar&itecture developed for use in the IAMS. Section 6 describes the application of the architecture to a system identification problem. Finally, Section 7 describes steps necessary for completing the project.

  3. Augmentation of maneuver performance by spanwise blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, G. E.; Campbell, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    A generalized wind tunnel model was tested to investigate new component concepts utilizing spanwise blowing to provide improved maneuver characteristics for advanced fighter aircraft. Primary emphasis was placed on high angle of attack performance, stability, and control at subsonic speeds. Spanwise blowing on a 44 deg swept trapezoidal wing resulted in leading edge vortex enhancement with subsequent large vortex-induced lift increments and drag polar improvements at the higher angles of attack. Small deflections of a leading edge flap delayed these lift and drag benefits to higher angles of attack. In addition, blowing was more effective at higher Mach numbers. Spanwise blowing in conjunction with a deflected trailing edge flap resulted in lift and drag benefits that exceeded the summation of the effects of each high lift device acting alone. Asymmetric blowing was an effective lateral control device at the higher angles of attack. Spanwise blowing on the wing reduced horizontal tail loading and improved the lateral-directional stability characteristics of a wing-horizontal tail-vertical tail configuration.

  4. Computation of flow around maneuvering submerged bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindan, T. R.; Briley, W. R.; Levy, R.

    1988-10-01

    Generalized primary/secondary flow equations and a spatial-marching solution algorithm have been used to develop a procedure to compute the three-dimensional viscous flow around a submerged body in maneuver. The primary/secondary flow equations are an approximation to the Navier-Stokes equations for flows in which a primary flow direction can be identified. Important elements of the approximation are a locally specified primary flow direction and a decomposition of the secondary velocity field to identify a small velocity vector for approximations. No approximations are introduced for pressure in this approach. The primary/secondary flow equations are a well-posed initial-value problem in a spatial coordinate nominally aligned with the primary flow direction and are solved by a sequentially decoupled implicit algorithm. The procedure provides an order to two orders-of-magnitude run time advantage over solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Results are presented for the flow past an unappended submarine hull in drift at a Reynolds number of 16 million and incidence of 20 degrees. These results are consistent with experimental observations and provide a means to compute the complex three-dimensional viscous flow field economically.

  5. Rendezvous radar for the orbital maneuvering vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, John W.; Olds, Keith; Parks, Howard

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Rendezvous Radar Set (RRS) for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The RRS was to be used to locate, and then provide vectoring information to, target satellites (or Shuttle or Space Station) to aid the OMV in making a minimum-fuel-consumption approach and rendezvous. The RRS design is that of an X-Band, all solid-state, monopulse tracking, frequency hopping, pulse-Doppler radar system. The development of the radar was terminated when the OMV prime contract to TRW was terminated by NASA. At the time of the termination, the development was in the circuit design stage. The system design was virtually completed, the PDR had been held. The RRS design was based on Motorola's experiences, both in the design and production of radar systems for the US Army and in the design and production of hi-rel communications systems for NASA space programs. Experience in these fields was combined with the latest digital signal processor and micro-processor technology to design a light-weight, low-power, spaceborne radar. The antenna and antenna positioner (gimbals) technology developed for the RRS is now being used in the satellite-to-satellite communication link design for Motorola's Iridium telecommunications system.

  6. Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) remote servicing kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1988-01-01

    With the design and development of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) progressing toward an early 1990 initial operating capability (IOC), a new era in remote space operations will evolve. The logical progression to OMV front end kits would make available in situ satellite servicing, repair, and consummables resupply to the satellite community. Several conceptual design study efforts are defining representative kits (propellant tanks, debris recovery, module servicers); additional focus must also be placed on an efficient combination module servicer and consummables resupply kit. A remote servicer kit of this type would be designed to perform many of the early maintenance/resupply tasks in both nominal and high inclination orbits. The kit would have the capability to exchange Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs), exchange propellant tanks, and/or connect fluid transfer umbilicals. Necessary transportation system functions/support could be provided by interfaces with the OMV, Shuttle (STS), or Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV). Specific remote servicer kit designs, as well as ground and flight demonstrations of servicer technology are necessary to prepare for the potential overwhelming need. Ground test plans should adhere to the component/system/breadboard test philosophy to assure maximum capability of one-g testing. The flight demonstration(s) would most likely be a short duration, Shuttle-bay experiment to validate servicer components requiring a micro-g environment.

  7. Miss distance geometry estimation for maneuvering bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlin, Baruch E.

    1994-02-01

    The end game of air-to-air missiles is characterized by high velocities (Mach 2 and higher), high accelerations (30 g and higher) and small miss distances (less than 20 m.) Event analysis of this phase requires knowledge of the intercept geometry: minimum-distance time, miss-distance vector, velocities, angles, range and range rate. Separate trajectory estimation for each object is usually unsuitable for this purpose owing to systematic errors. A technique is described for miss-distance geometry estimation which is based on reference trajectory data and on missile-target image offsets photodigitized from high-speed cameras (over 300 fps.) The method includes calculation of the line-of-sight to the reference trajectory and the transformation angles to the required point, estimation of the required trajectory by three-dimensional triangulation, identification of the minimum-distance point, and calculation of the miss-distance parameters. The method is robust and not sensitive to bias errors in the reference trajectory or camera positions. It requires accurate data synchronization. Suitable setups within 15-km ranges give end-game geometry of violently maneuvering bodies with 0.1-0.3 m accuracy.

  8. Maneuver Design and Calibration for the Genesis Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Kenneth E.; Hong, Philip E.; Zietz, Richard P.; Han, Don

    2000-01-01

    Genesis is the fifth mission selected as part of NASA's Discovery Program. The objective of Genesis is to collect solar wind samples for a period of approximately two years while in a halo orbit about the Earth-Sun L I point. At the end of this period, the samples are to be returned to a specific recovery point on the Earth for subsequent analysis. This goal has never been attempted before and presents a formidable challenge in terms of mission design and operations, particularly planning and execution of propulsive maneuvers. To achieve a level of cost-effectiveness consistent with a Discovery-class mission, the Genesis spacecraft design was adapted to the maximum extent possible from designs used on earlier missions, such as Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Stardust, another sample collection mission. The spacecraft design for Genesis is shown. Spin stabilization was chosen for attitude control, in lieu of three-axis stabilization, with neither reaction wheels nor accelerometers included. This precludes closed-loop control of propulsive maneuvers and implies that any attitude changes, including spin changes and precessions, will behave like translational propulsive maneuvers and affect the spacecraft trajectory. Moreover, to minimize contamination risk to the samples collected, all thrusters were placed on the side opposite the sample collection canister. The orientation and characteristics of thrusters are indicated. For large maneuvers (>2.5 m/s), two 5 lbf thrusters will be used for delta v, with precession to the burn attitude, followed by spin-up from 1.6 to 10 rpm before the burn and spin down to 1.6 rpm afterwards, then precession back to the original spin attitude. For small maneuvers (<2.5 m/s), no spin change is needed and four 0.2 lbf thrusters are used for Av. Single or double 360 deg. precession changes are required whenever the desired delta v falls inside the two-way turn circle (about 0.4 m/s) based on the mass properties, spin rate and lever arm

  9. Operational Experiences in Planning and Reconstructing Aqua Inclination Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, David; Reilly, Jacqueline; Schiff, Conrad

    2004-01-01

    As the lead satellite in NASA's growing Earth Observing System (EOS) PM constellation, it is increasingly critical that Aqua maintain its various orbit requirements. The two of interest for this paper are maintaining an orbit inclination that provides for a consistent mean local time and a semi-major Axis (SMA) that allows for ground track repeatability. Maneuvers to adjust the orbit inclination involve several flight dynamics constraints and complexities which make planning such maneuvers challenging. In particular, coupling between the orbital and attitude degrees of freedom lead to changes in SMA when changes in inclination are effected. A long term mission mean local time trend analysis was performed in order to determine the size and placement of the required inclination maneuvers. Following this analysis, detailed modeling of each burn and its Various segments was performed to determine its effects on the immediate orbit state. Data gathered from an inclination slew test of the spacecraft and first inclination maneuver uncovered discrepancies in the modeling method that were investigated and resolved. The new modeling techniques were applied and validated during the second spacecraft inclination maneuver. These improvements should position Aqua to successfully complete a series of inclination maneuvers in the fall of 2004. The following paper presents the events and results related

  10. Maintaining Aura's Orbit Requirements Under New Maneuver Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Megan; Petersen, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon Constellation consists of five member missions (GCOM-W1, Aqua, CALIPSO, CloudSat, and Aura), each of which maintain a frozen, sun-synchronous orbit with a 16-day repeating ground track that follows the Worldwide Reference System-2 (WRS-2). Under nominal science operations for Aura, the propulsion system is oriented such that the resultant thrust vector is aligned 13.493 degrees away from the velocity vector along the yaw axis. When performing orbit maintenance maneuvers, the spacecraft performs a yaw slew to align the thrust vector in the appropriate direction. A new Drag Make Up (DMU) maneuver operations scheme has been implemented for Aura alleviating the need for the 13.493 degree yaw slew. The focus of this investigation is to assess the impact that no-slew DMU maneuver operations will have on Auras Mean Local Time (MLT) which drives the required along track separation between Aura and the constellation members, as well as Auras frozen orbit properties, eccentricity and argument of perigee. Seven maneuver strategies were analyzed to determine the best operational approach. A mirror pole strategy, with maneuvers alternating at the North and South poles, was implemented operationally to minimize impact to the MLT. Additional analysis determined that the mirror pole strategy could be further modified to include frozen orbit maneuvers and thus maintain both MLT and the frozen orbit properties under no-slew operations

  11. Automated maneuver planning using a fuzzy logic algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, D.; Sperling, R.; Folta, D.; Richon, K.; Defazio, R.

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft orbital control requires intensive interaction between the analyst and the system used to model the spacecraft trajectory. For orbits with right mission constraints and a large number of maneuvers, this interaction is difficult or expensive to accomplish in a timely manner. Some automation of maneuver planning can reduce these difficulties for maneuver-intensive missions. One approach to this automation is to use fuzzy logic in the control mechanism. Such a prototype system currently under development is discussed. The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) is one of several missions that could benefit from automated maneuver planning. TRMM is scheduled for launch in August 1997. The spacecraft is to be maintained in a 350-km circular orbit throughout the 3-year lifetime of the mission, with very small variations in this orbit allowed. Since solar maximum will occur as early as 1999, the solar activity during the TRMM mission will be increasing. The increasing solar activity will result in orbital maneuvers being performed as often as every other day. The results of automated maneuver planning for the TRMM mission will be presented to demonstrate the prototype of the fuzzy logic tool.

  12. Optimal diving maneuver strategy considering guidance accuracy for hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianwen; Liu, Luhua; Tang, Guojian; Bao, Weimin

    2014-11-01

    An optimal maneuver strategy considering terminal guidance accuracy for hypersonic vehicle in dive phase is investigated in this paper. First, it derives the complete three-dimensional nonlinear coupled motion equation without any approximations based on diving relative motion relationship directly, and converts it into linear decoupled state space equation with the same relative degree by feedback linearization. Second, the diving guidance law is designed based on the decoupled equation to meet the terminal impact point and falling angle constraints. In order to further improve the interception capability, it constructs maneuver control model through adding maneuver control item to the guidance law. Then, an integrated performance index consisting of maximum line-of-sight angle rate and minimum energy consumption is designed, and optimal control is employed to obtain optimal maneuver strategy when the encounter time is determined and undetermined, respectively. Furthermore, the performance index and suboptimal strategy are reconstructed to deal with the control capability constraint and the serous influence on terminal guidance accuracy caused by maneuvering flight. Finally, the approach is tested using the Common Aero Vehicle-H model. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed strategy can achieve high precision guidance and effective maneuver at the same time, and the indices are also optimized.

  13. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  14. CT of abdominal tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, B.M.; Mann, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.

  15. Space Maneuver Vehicle Orbital Mission Planner: Development of Application and Analysis of On-Demand Maneuvering Ability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    unknown situations that arise. In an Airman magazine article, Air Force Chief of Staff General Michael E. Ryan said that "almost all of the Air Force...Sir Isaac Newton first developed the 2BP in 1686 in his oft-cited work. PhilosophiE Naturalis Principia Mathematica , or Principia as it is usually...noncoplanar, and fixed Av maneuvers. These maneuvers offer the ability to change various orbital ele- ments. In general , forces applied within the orbital

  16. X-31 in flight - Post Stall Maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrators were flown at Rockwell International's Palmdale, Calif., facility and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., to obtain data that may apply to the design of highly-maneuverable next-generation fighters. The program had its first flight on Oct. 11, 1990, in Palmdale; it ended in June 1995. The X-31 program demonstrated the value of thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight during close-in air combat at very high angles of attack. The result of this increased maneuverability is a significant advantage over conventional fighters. 'Angle-of-attack' (alpha) is an engineering term to describe the angle of an aircraft's body and wings relative to its actual flight path. During maneuvers, pilots often fly at extreme angles of attack -- with the nose pitched up while the aircraft continues in its original direction. This can lead to loss of control and result in the loss of the aircraft, pilot or both. Three thrust vectoring paddles made of graphite epoxy mounted on the X-31's exhaust nozzle directed the exhaust flow to provide control in pitch (up and down) and yaw (right and left) to improve control. The paddles can sustain heat of up to 1,500 degrees centigrade for extended periods of time. In addition the X-31s were configured with movable forward canards and fixed aft strakes. The canards were small wing-like structures set on the wing line between the nose and the leading edge of the wing. The strakes were set on the same line between the trailing edge of the wing and the engine exhaust. Both supplyied additional control in tight maneuvering situations. The X-31 research program produced technical data at high angles of attack. This information is giving engineers and aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high

  17. Cerebral hemodynamics during graded Valsalva maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Blake G.; Cotter, James D.; Mejuto, Gaizka; Mündel, Toby; Lucas, Samuel J. E.

    2014-01-01

    The Valsalva maneuver (VM) produces large and abrupt changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) that challenge cerebral blood flow and oxygenation. We examined the effect of VM intensity on middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) and cortical oxygenation responses during (phases I–III) and following (phase IV) a VM. Healthy participants (n = 20 mean ± SD: 27 ± 7 years) completed 30 and 90% of their maximal VM mouth pressure for 10 s (order randomized) whilst standing. Beat-to-beat MCAv, cerebral oxygenation (NIRS) and MAP across the different phases of the VM are reported as the difference from standing baseline. There were significant interaction (phase * intensity) effects for MCAv, total oxygenation index (TOI) and MAP (all P < 0.01). MCAv decreased during phases II and III (P < 0.01), with the greatest decrease during phase III (−5 ± 8 and −19 ± 15 cm·s−1 for 30 and 90% VM, respectively). This pattern was also evident in TOI (phase III: −1 ± 1 and −5 ± 4%, both P < 0.05). Phase IV increased MCAv (22 ± 15 and 34 ± 23 cm·s−1), MAP (15 ± 14 and 24 ± 17 mm Hg) and TOI (5 ± 6 and 7 ± 5%) relative to baseline (all P < 0.05). Cerebral autoregulation, indexed, as the %MCAv/%MAP ratio, showed a phase effect only (P < 0.001), with the least regulation during phase IV (2.4 ± 3.0 and 3.2 ± 2.9). These data illustrate that an intense VM profoundly affects cerebral hemodynamics, with a reactive hyperemia occurring during phase IV following modest ischemia during phases II and III. PMID:25309449

  18. An Overview of Suomi NPP VIIRS Calibration Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, James J.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Barnes, Robert A.; Patt, Frederick S.; Sun, Junqiang; Chiang, Kwofu

    2012-01-01

    The first Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was successfully launched on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) spacecraft on October 28, 2011. Suomi NPP VIIRS observations are made in 22 spectral bands, from the visible (VIS) to the long-wave infrared (LWIR), and are used to produce 22 Environmental Data Records (EDRs) with a broad range of scientific applications. The quality of these VIIRS EDRs strongly depends on the quality of its calibrated and geo-located Sensor Date Records (SDRs). Built with a strong heritage to the NASA's EOS MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, the VIIRS is calibrated on-orbit using a similar set of on-board calibrators (OBC), including a solar diffuser (SD) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) system for the reflective solar bands (RSB) and a blackbody (BB) for the thermal emissive bands (TEB). On-orbit maneuvers of the SNPP spacecraft provide additional calibration and characterization data from the VIIRS instrument which cannot be obtained pre-launch and are required to produce the highest quality SDRs. These include multi-orbit yaw maneuvers for the characterization of SD and SDSM screen transmission, quasi-monthly roll maneuvers to acquire lunar observations to track sensor degradation in the visible through shortwave infrared, and a driven pitch-over maneuver to acquire multiple scans of deep space to determine TEB response versus scan angle (RVS). This paper pro-vides an overview of these three SNPP calibration maneuvers. Discussions are focused on their potential calibration and science benefits, pre-launch planning activities, and on-orbit scheduling and implementation strategies. Results from calibration maneuvers performed during the Intensive Calibration and Validation (ICV) period for the VIIRS sensor are illustrated. Also presented in this paper are lessons learned regarding the implementation of calibration spacecraft maneuvers on follow

  19. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias.

  20. A bizarre abdominal cystic lesion.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Giorgia; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Ricci, Claudio; Casadei, Riccardo; Santini, Donatella; Calculli, Lucia; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2010-09-06

    In spite of careful intraoperative precautions and gauze counts, mistakes can still occur during surgery. In the case reported, a retained gauze leaved during a surgical approach for removing a solid-cystic papillary tumor localized in the pancreatic tail, caused both persistent abdominal discomfort and the presence of an abdominal cystic lesion at imaging techniques. When a previous operative history is present, a foreign body should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an intra-abdominal cystic mass. Finally, radio-opaque marker should be routinely used by surgeons in order to reach a correct diagnosis in operated patients having retained gauze.

  1. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  2. [Penetrating abdominal injuries].

    PubMed

    Nesbakken, A; Pillgram-Larsen, J; Naess, F; Gerner, T; Solheim, K; Stadaas, J O; Gjøra, O

    1990-02-28

    We have reviewed the medical records of 111 patients treated for abdominal stab wounds during the period 1980-87. Our two hospitals serve a catchment area of about 450,000 people. Exploratory laparotomy was performed in 89 patients with suspected peritoneal penetration. In 16 patients the laparotomy was negative, and in 15 patients only minor injuries were noted. There were no serious complications in these 31 patients. Twenty-seven patients had thoracic wounds below the fourth intercostal space, 15 with intraabdominal injuries. The most common injuries were lacerations of the liver, the small bowel and the diaphragm. The mortality in the series was 2%. Stab wounds are infrequent in Norway, and most surgeons have limited experience of such injuries. We discuss whether to employ immediate exploratory laparotomy or selective management when the peritoneum has been penetrated. When there is no evidence of evisceration or omental protrusion, local exploration of the wound should be performed in order to confirm or exclude peritoneal penetration. Injury to the diaphragm and intraabdominal viscera should always be suspected in thoracic stab wounds below the fourth intercostal space.

  3. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-11-14

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer.

  4. Exploring precrash maneuvers using classification trees and random forests.

    PubMed

    Harb, Rami; Yan, Xuedong; Radwan, Essam; Su, Xiaogang

    2009-01-01

    Taking evasive actions vis-à-vis critical traffic situations impending to motor vehicle crashes endows drivers an opportunity to avoid the crash occurrence or at least diminish its severity. This study explores the drivers, vehicles, and environments' characteristics associated with crash avoidance maneuvers (i.e., evasive actions or no evasive actions). Rear-end collisions, head-on collisions, and angle collisions are analyzed separately using decision trees and the significance of the variables on the binary response variable (evasive actions or no evasive actions) is determined. Moreover, the random forests method is employed to rank the importance of the drivers/vehicles/environments characteristics on crash avoidance maneuvers. According to the exploratory analyses' results, drivers' visibility obstruction, drivers' physical impairment, drivers' distraction are associated with crash avoidance maneuvers in all three types of accidents. Moreover, speed limit is associated with rear-end collisions' avoidance maneuvers and vehicle type is correlated with head-on collisions and angle collisions' avoidance maneuvers. It is recommended that future research investigates further the explored trends (e.g., physically impaired drivers, visibility obstruction) using driving simulators which may help in legislative initiatives and in-vehicle technology recommendations.

  5. Investigation of piloting aids for manual control of hypersonic maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Phillips, Michael R.; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of piloting aids designed to provide precise maneuver control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle is described. Stringent constraints and nonintuitive high-speed flight effects associated with maneuvering in the hypersonic regime raise the question of whether manual control of such a vehicle should even be considered. The objectives of this research were to determine the extent of manual control that is desirable for a vehicle maneuvering in this regime and to identify the form of aids that must be supplied to the pilot to make such control feasible. A piloted real-time motion-based simulation of a hypersonic vehicle concept was used for this study, and the investigation focused on a single representative cruise turn maneuver. Piloting aids, which consisted of an auto throttle, throttle director, autopilot, flight director, and two head-up display configurations, were developed and evaluated. Two longitudinal control response types consisting of a rate-command/attitude-hold system and a load factor-rate/load-factor-hold system were also compared. The complete set of piloting aids, which consisted of the autothrottle, throttle director, and flight director, improved the average Cooper-Harper flying qualities ratings from 8 to 2.6, even though identical inner-loop stability and control augmentation was provided in all cases. The flight director was determined to be the most critical of these aids, and the cruise turn maneuver was unachievable to adequate performance specifications in the absence of this flight director.

  6. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... signs or symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The final recommendation statement summarizes what the Task ... the potential benefits and harms of screening for AAA: (1) Men ages 65 to 75 who smoke ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ...

  8. Incentive spirometry after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, Suja P

    Patients face various possible complications after abdominal surgery. This article examines best practice in guiding and teaching them how to use an incentive spirometer to facilitate recovery and prevent respiratory complications.

  9. Abdominal Complications after Severe Burns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    abdominal compartment syndrome, schemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic ulcer disease and astritis requiring laparotomy, small bowel obstruction, rimary fungal...complications in- luded trauma exploratory laparotomy, abdominal com- artment syndrome, ischemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic lcer disease and gastritis, large...70%); 13 for other compli- ations, such as biliary or perineal conditions (26%); and 4 or feeding access (8%). For the civilians, 2 had trauma

  10. Common abdominal emergencies in children.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, James

    2002-02-01

    Because young children often present to EDs with abdominal complaints, emergency physicians must have a high index of suspicion for the common abdominal emergencies that have serious sequelae. At the same time, they must realize that less serious causes of abdominal symptoms (e.g., constipation or gastroenteritis) are also seen. A gentle yet thorough and complete history and physical examination are the most important diagnostic tools for the emergency physician. Repeated examinations and observation are useful tools. Physicians should listen carefully to parents and their children, respect their concerns, and honor their complaints. Ancillary tests are inconsistent in their value in assessing these complaints. Abdominal radiographs can be normal in children with intussusception and even malrotation and early volvulus. Unlike the classic symptoms seen in adults, young children can display only lethargy or poor feeding in cases of appendicitis or can appear happy and playful between paroxysmal bouts of intussusception. The emergency physician therefore, must maintain a high index of suspicion for serious pathology in pediatric patients with abdominal complaints. Eventually, all significant abdominal emergencies reveal their true nature, and if one can be patient with the child and repeat the examinations when the child is quiet, one will be rewarded with the correct diagnosis.

  11. Attitude-Control Algorithm for Minimizing Maneuver Execution Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acikmese, Behcet

    2008-01-01

    A G-RAC attitude-control algorithm is used to minimize maneuver execution error in a spacecraft with a flexible appendage when said spacecraft must induce translational momentum by firing (in open loop) large thrusters along a desired direction for a given period of time. The controller is dynamic with two integrators and requires measurement of only the angular position and velocity of the spacecraft. The global stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed without having access to the states describing the dynamics of the appendage and with severe saturation in the available torque. Spacecraft apply open-loop thruster firings to induce a desired translational momentum with an extended appendage. This control algorithm will assist this maneuver by stabilizing the attitude dynamics around a desired orientation, and consequently minimize the maneuver execution errors.

  12. A Maneuvering Flight Noise Model for Helicopter Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Eric; Rau, Robert; May, Benjamin; Hobbs, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A new model for estimating the noise radiation during maneuvering flight is developed in this paper. The model applies the Quasi-Static Acoustic Mapping (Q-SAM) method to a database of acoustic spheres generated using the Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustics Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) technique. A method is developed to generate a realistic flight trajectory from a limited set of waypoints and is used to calculate the quasi-static operating condition and corresponding acoustic sphere for the vehicle throughout the maneuver. By using a previously computed database of acoustic spheres, the acoustic impact of proposed helicopter operations can be rapidly predicted for use in mission-planning. The resulting FRAME-QS model is applied to near-horizon noise measurements collected for the Bell 430 helicopter undergoing transient pitch up and roll maneuvers, with good agreement between the measured data and the FRAME-QS model.

  13. Impulse generated during unsteady maneuvering of swimming fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epps, Brenden P.; Techet, Alexandra H.

    2007-11-01

    The relationship between the maneuvering kinematics of a Giant Danio ( Danio aequipinnatus) and the resulting vortical wake is investigated for a rapid, ‘C’-start maneuver using fully time-resolved (500 Hz) particle image velocimetry (PIV). PIV illuminates the two distinct vortices formed during the turn. The fish body rotation is facilitated by the initial, or “maneuvering” vortex formation, and the final fish velocity is augmented by the strength of the second, “propulsive” vortex. Results confirm that the axisymmetric vortex ring model is reasonable to use in calculating the hydrodynamic impulse acting on the fish. The total linear momentum change of the fish from its initial swimming trajectory to its final swimming trajectory is balanced by the vector sum of the impulses of both vortex rings. The timing of vortex formation is uniquely synchronized with the fish motion, and the choreography of the maneuver is addressed in the context of the resulting hydrodynamic forces.

  14. On spacecraft maneuvers control subject to propellant engine modes.

    PubMed

    Mazinan, A H

    2015-09-01

    The paper attempts to address a new control approach to spacecraft maneuvers based upon the modes of propellant engine. A realization of control strategy is now presented in engine on mode (high thrusts as well as further low thrusts), which is related to small angle maneuvers and engine off mode (specified low thrusts), which is also related to large angle maneuvers. There is currently a coarse-fine tuning in engine on mode. It is shown that the process of handling the angular velocities are finalized via rate feedback system in engine modes, where the angular rotations are controlled through quaternion based control (QBCL)strategy in engine off mode and these ones are also controlled through an optimum PID (OPIDH) strategy in engine on mode.

  15. Operational Challenges In TDRS Post-Maneuver Orbit Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laing, Jason; Myers, Jessica; Ward, Douglas; Lamb, Rivers

    2015-01-01

    The GSFC Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) is responsible for daily and post maneuver orbit determination for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The most stringent requirement for this orbit determination is 75 meters total position accuracy (3-sigma) predicted over one day for Terra's onboard navigation system. To maintain an accurate solution onboard Terra, a solution is generated and provided by the FDF Four hours after a TDRS maneuver. A number of factors present challenges to this support, such as maneuver prediction uncertainty and potentially unreliable tracking from User satellities. Reliable support is provided by comparing an extended Kalman Filter (estimated using ODTK) against a Batch Least Squares system (estimated using GTDS).

  16. New therapeutic maneuver for anterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Yacovino, Dario A; Hain, Timothy C; Gualtieri, Francisco

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the clinical features of anterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (AC-BPPV) and a new therapeutic maneuver for its management. Our study was a retrospective review of cases from an ambulatory tertiary referral center. Thirteen patients afflicted with positional paroxysmal vertigo exhibiting brief positional down-beating nystagmus in positional tests (Dix-Hallpike and head-hanging position) were treated with a maneuver comprised of the following movements: Sequential head positioning beginning supine with head hanging 30 degrees dependent with respect to the body, then supine with head inclined 30 degrees forward, and ending sitting with head 30 degrees forward. All cases showed excellent therapeutic response to our repositioning procedure, i.e. relief of vertigo and elimination of nystagmus. The maneuver described is an option for AC-BPPV treatment.

  17. How to Maneuver Around in Eccentricity Vector Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweetser, Theodore H.

    2010-01-01

    The GRAIL mission to the Moon will be the first time that two separate robotic orbiters will be placed into formation in orbit around a body other than Earth. The need to design an efficient series of maneuvers to shape the orbits and phasing of the two orbiters after arrival presents a significant challenge to mission designers. This paper presents a simple geometric method for relating in-plane impulsive maneuvers to changes in the eccentricity vector, which determines the shape and orientation of an orbit in the orbit plane. Examples then show how such maneuvers can accommodate desired changes to other orbital elements such as period, incination, and longitude of the ascending node.

  18. Visceral scalloping on abdominal computed tomography due to abdominal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal; Bhatia, Anmol; Malik, Sarthak; Singh, Navjeet; Rana, Surinder S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Scalloping of visceral organs is described in pseudomyxoma peritonei, malignant ascites, among other conditions, but not tuberculosis. Methods: We report findings from a retrospective study of patients with abdominal tuberculosis who had visceral scalloping on abdominal computed tomography (CT). Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis was made on the basis of combination of clinical, biochemical, radiological and microbiological criteria. The clinical data, hematological and biochemical parameters, and findings of chest X-ray, CT, Mantoux test, and HIV serology were recorded. Results: Of 72 patients with abdominal tuberculosis whose CT scans were included, seven patients had visceral scalloping. The mean age of these patients was 32.14 ± 8.43 years and four were men. While six patients had scalloping of liver, one had splenic scalloping. The patients presented with abdominal pain (all), abdominal distension (five patients), loss of weight or appetite (all), and fever (four patients). Mantoux test was positive in five, while none had HIV infection. The diagnosis was based on fluid (ascitic or collections) evaluation in four patients, ileo-cecal biopsy in one patient, fine needle aspiration from omental thickening in one patient, and sputum positivity for acid fast bacilli (AFB) in one patient. On CT examination, four patients had ascites, five had collections, one had lymphadenopathy, four had peritoneal involvement, three had pleural effusion, and two had ileo-cecal thickening. All except one patient received standard ATT for 6 months or 9 months (one patient). Pigtail drainage for collections was needed for two patients. Discussion: This report is the first description of visceral scalloping of liver and spleen in patients with abdominal tuberculosis. Previously, this finding has been reported primarily with pseudomyxoma peritonei and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Conclusion: Visceral scalloping may not conclusively distinguish peritoneal

  19. A prescription for the Epley maneuver: www.youtube.com?

    PubMed Central

    Burke, James F.; Skolarus, Lesli E.; Callaghan, Brian C.; Fife, Terry D.; Baloh, Robert W.; Fendrick, A. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Video-sharing Web sites are being used for information about common conditions including dizziness. The Epley maneuver (EM) is a simple and effective treatment for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) of the posterior canal. However, the maneuver is underused in routine care. In this study, we aimed to describe and analyze the available information about the EM on youtube.com. Methods: A YouTube search was performed on August 31, 2011, for videos that demonstrated the entire EM. Detailed data were abstracted from each video and corresponding Web site. Videos were rated on the accuracy of the maneuver by 2 authors, with differences resolved by adjudication. Comments posted by viewers were assessed for themes regarding video use. Results: Of the 3,319 videos identified, 33 demonstrated the EM. The total number of hits for all videos was 2,755,607. The video with the most hits (802,471) was produced by the American Academy of Neurology. Five of the videos accounted for 85% of all the hits. The maneuver demonstration was rated as accurate in 64% (21) of the videos. Themes derived from the 424 posted comments included patients self-treating with the maneuver after reviewing the videos, and providers using the videos as a prescribed treatment or for educational purposes. Conclusion: Accurate video demonstration of the Epley maneuver is available and widely viewed on YouTube. Video-sharing media may be an important way to disseminate effective interventions such as the EM. The impact of video Web sites on outcomes and costs of care is not known and warrants future study. PMID:22826542

  20. Astronaut Alan Bean flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, flies the M509 Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment in the foreward dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. Bean is strapped in to the back-mounted, hand-controlled Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU). He is wearing a pressure suit for this run of the M509 experiment, but other ASMU tests are done in shirt sleeves. The dome area where the experiment is conducted is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  1. Electric propulsion for constellation deployment and spacecraft maneuvering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deininger, W. D.; Vondra, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines the near-term (1990s) advantages of electric propulsion for two SDI missions: (1) the launch of a constellation of spacecraft, and (2) continual spacecraft defensive maneuvering. Ammonia arcjet and Xe-ion electric propulsion systems are compared to advanced chemical propulsion for each of these missions. The number of launch vehicles required for constellation deployment can be reduced by up to a factor of 2 when electric propulsion upper stages are used in place of advanced upper stages. Electric propulsion can provide significant benefits when used for continuous defensive maneuvering by enabling a large reduction in the initial spacecraft mass.

  2. An Independent and Coordinated Criterion for Kinematic Aircraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Hagen, George

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a mathematical definition of an aircraft-separation criterion for kinematic-based horizontal maneuvers. It has been formally proved that kinematic maneu- vers that satisfy the new criterion are independent and coordinated for repulsiveness, i.e., the distance at closest point of approach increases whether one or both aircraft maneuver according to the criterion. The proposed criterion is currently used in NASA's Airborne Coordinated Resolution and Detection (ACCoRD) set of tools for the design and analysis of separation assurance systems.

  3. Maneuver Acoustic Flight Test of the Bell 430 Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Michael E.; Snider, Royce; Greenwood, Eric; Baden, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A cooperative flight test by NASA, Bell Helicopter and the U.S. Army to characterize the steady state acoustics and measure the maneuver noise of a Bell Helicopter 430 aircraft was accomplished. The test occurred during June/July, 2011 at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. This test gathered a total of 410 data points over 10 test days and compiled an extensive data base of dynamic maneuver measurements. Three microphone configurations with up to 31 microphones in each configuration were used to acquire acoustic data. Aircraft data included DGPS, aircraft state and rotor state information. This paper provides an overview of the test.

  4. Active Control of Solar Array Dynamics During Spacecraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brant A.; Woo, Nelson; Kraft, Thomas G.; Blandino, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent NASA mission plans require spacecraft to undergo potentially significant maneuvers (or dynamic loading events) with large solar arrays deployed. Therefore there is an increased need to understand and possibly control the nonlinear dynamics in the spacecraft system during such maneuvers. The development of a nonlinear controller is described. The utility of using a nonlinear controller to reduce forces and motion in a solar array wing during a loading event is demonstrated. The result is dramatic reductions in system forces and motion during a 10 second loading event. A motion curve derived from the simulation with the closed loop controller is used to obtain similar benefits with a simpler motion control approach.

  5. Unexplained lower abdominal pain associated with sacroiliac joint dysfunction: report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Daijiro; Isu, Toyohiko; Kim, Kyongsong; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Isobe, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman and a 31-year-old man presented with chronic lower back pain and unexplained lower abdominal pain. Both patients had groin tenderness at the medial border of the anterior superior iliac spine. The results of radiographical and physical examinations suggested sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Sacroiliac joint injection relieved their symptoms, including groin tenderness. In our experience, groin tenderness is highly specific for sacroiliac joint dysfunction. We speculate that spasm of the iliac muscle can cause groin pain and tenderness. Groin pain and a history of unexplained abdominal pain, with lower back pain, are symptoms that suggest sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Additionally, compression of the iliac muscle is a simple and useful maneuver; therefore, it can be used as a screening test for sacroiliac joint dysfunction, alongside other provocation tests.

  6. Reducing Formation-Keeping Maneuver Costs for Formation Flying Satellites in Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Nicholas

    2001-01-01

    Several techniques are used to synthesize the formation-keeping control law for a three-satellite formation in low-earth orbit. The objective is to minimize maneuver cost and position tracking error. Initial reductions are found for a one-satellite case by tuning the state-weighting matrix within the linear-quadratic-Gaussian framework. Further savings come from adjusting the maneuver interval. Scenarios examined include cases with and without process noise. These results are then applied to a three-satellite formation. For both the one-satellite and three-satellite cases, increasing the maneuver interval yields a decrease in maneuver cost and an increase in position tracking error. A maneuver interval of 8-10 minutes provides a good trade-off between maneuver cost and position tracking error. An analysis of the closed-loop poles with respect to varying maneuver intervals explains the effectiveness of the chosen maneuver interval.

  7. [Abdominal pregnancy care. Case report].

    PubMed

    Morales Hernández, Sara; Díaz Velázquez, Mary Flor; Puello Tamara, Edgardo; Morales Hernández, Jorge; Basavilvazo Rodríguez, Maria Antonia; Cruz Cruz, Polita del Rocío; Hernández Valencia, Marcelino

    2008-10-01

    Abdominal pregnancies are the implantation of gestation in some of the abdominal structures. This kind of pregnancies represents sevenfold maternal death risk than tubarian ectopic pregnancies, and 90-fold death risk than normal ones. Previous cases have erroneously reported as abscess in Douglas punch, and frequently result in obitus or postnatal deaths. We report a case of a patient with 27 years old, and diagnosis of 25.2 weeks of pregnancy, prior placenta and anhidramnios, referred due to difficult in uterine contour delimitation, easy palpation of fetal parts, cephalic pole in left hypochondrious and presence of mass in hypogastria, no delimitations, pain with mobilization, no transvaginal bleed and fetal movements. Interruption of pregnancy is decided by virtue of severe oligohidramnios, retardation in fetal intrabdominal growth, and recurrent maternal abdominal pain. Surgical intervention was carried out for resolution of the obstetrical event, in which was found ectopic abdominal pregnancy with bed placental in right uterine horn that corresponded to a pregnancy of 30 weeks of gestation. Abdominal pregnancy is still a challenge for obstetrics due to its diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis is oriented to prevent an intrabdominal hemorrhage that is the main maternal cause of mortality.

  8. 14 CFR 23.1567 - Flight maneuver placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) required by this section need not be lighted. Airplane Flight Manual and Approved Manual Material ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 23.1567 Flight maneuver placard. (a) For normal category airplanes,...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1567 - Flight maneuver placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 23.1567 Flight maneuver placard. (a) For normal category airplanes, there..., including spins, approved.” (b) For utility category airplanes, there must be— (1) A placard in clear...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1567 - Flight maneuver placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) required by this section need not be lighted. Airplane Flight Manual and Approved Manual Material ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 23.1567 Flight maneuver placard. (a) For normal category airplanes,...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1567 - Flight maneuver placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 23.1567 Flight maneuver placard. (a) For normal category airplanes, there..., including spins, approved.” (b) For utility category airplanes, there must be— (1) A placard in clear...

  12. Detail view of a starboard Orbiter Maneuvering and Reaction Control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of a starboard Orbiter Maneuvering and Reaction Control Systems pod, removed from the orbiter and in it's carrier/transport vehicle at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. Normative data on phases of the Valsalva maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denq, J. C.; O'Brien, P. C.; Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    The phases of the Valsalva maneuver have well-known pathophysiology, and are used in the evaluation of adrenergic function. Because scant normative data is available, we have evaluated normative data for the Valsalva maneuver in control subjects. The patient, supine, performed the Valsalva maneuver maintaining an expiratory pressure of 40 mm Hg for 15 seconds. We reviewed 188 Valsalva maneuver recordings of normal control subjects, and recordings were excluded if two reproducible recordings were not obtained, or if expiratory pressure was <30 mm Hg or < 10 seconds. One hundred and three recordings were acceptable for analysis; 47 female and 56 male subjects, age in years (mean +/- SD) was 52.2+/-17.3 and 44.8+/-17.3, respectively. The association of expiratory pressure with age (P < 0.001) and gender ( P < 0.001) was complex, expressed as a parabola in both men and women, but resulted in phases I and III that were not significantly different. An increase in age resulted in a progressively more negative phase II_E (P < 0.05) and attenuation of phase II_L (P < 0.01). An increase in supine blood pressure resulted in a significantly more negative phase II_E (P < 0.001) and a lower phase IV. Phase IV is unaffected by age and gender.

  14. 47 CFR 25.282 - Orbit raising maneuvers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Technical Operations § 25.282 Orbit raising maneuvers. A space station authorized to operate in the... the space station is authorized to operate once it reaches its assigned geostationary orbital location; (b) In the event that any unacceptable interference does occur, the space station licensee...

  15. 47 CFR 25.282 - Orbit raising maneuvers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Technical Operations § 25.282 Orbit raising maneuvers. A space station authorized to operate in the... the space station is authorized to operate once it reaches its assigned geostationary orbital location; (b) In the event that any unacceptable interference does occur, the space station licensee...

  16. 47 CFR 25.282 - Orbit raising maneuvers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Technical Operations § 25.282 Orbit raising maneuvers. A space station authorized to operate in the... the space station is authorized to operate once it reaches its assigned geostationary orbital location; (b) In the event that any unacceptable interference does occur, the space station licensee...

  17. 47 CFR 25.282 - Orbit raising maneuvers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Technical Operations § 25.282 Orbit raising maneuvers. A space station authorized to operate in the... the space station is authorized to operate once it reaches its assigned geostationary orbital location; (b) In the event that any unacceptable interference does occur, the space station licensee...

  18. Orbit Maneuver for Responsive Coverage Using Electric Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    NASA to support the Geospace Electrodynamics Connections (GEC) Mission. The GEC mission was designed to maneuver a constellation of probes to a...thrust Propulsion," Proc Inst Mech Engrs, vol. 214, pp. 313-321, September 2000. [17] Michael A. Mesarch, "Orbit Optimization for the Geospace

  19. 33 CFR 157.445 - Maneuvering performance capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tankship undergoes a major conversion or alteration affecting the control systems, control surfaces, propulsion system, or other areas which may be expected to alter maneuvering performance, the tankship owner... this section. (c) If a tankship is one of a class of vessels with identical propulsion,...

  20. Performance of Driver-Vehicle in Aborted Lane Change Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Allan Y.

    1995-01-01

    A 'lane change crash' is defined as a family of collisions that occurred when a driver attempts to change lane and strikes or is struck by a vehicle in the adjacent lane. One type of maneuver that is commonly used to avert a lane change crash involved aborting the intended lane change, and returning the vehicle to the original lane of the subject vehicle.

  1. Vibration suppression of fixed-time jib crane maneuvers

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.G.; Petterson, B.; Dohrmann, C.R.; Robinett, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    A jib crane consists of a pendulum-like end line attached to a rotatable jib. Within this general category of cranes there exist devices with multiple degrees of freedom including variable load-line length and variable jib length. These cranes are commonly used for construction and transportation applications. Point-to-point payload maneuvers using jib cranes are performed so as not to excite the spherical pendulum modes of their cable and payload assemblies. Typically, these pendulum modes, although time-varying, exhibit low frequencies. The resulting maneuvers are therefore performed slowly, contributing to high construction and transportation costs. The crane considered here consists of a spherical pendulum attached to a rigid jib. The other end of the jib is attached to a direct drive motor for generating rotational motion. A general approach is presented for determining the open-loop trajectories for the jib rotation for accomplishing fixed-time, point-to-point, residual oscillation free, symmetric maneuvers. These residual oscillation free trajectories purposely excite the pendulum modes in such a way that at the end of the maneuver the oscillatory degrees of freedom are quiescent. Simulation results are presented with experimental verification.

  2. Time frequency analysis of sound from a maneuvering rotorcraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, James H.; Tinney, Charles E.; Greenwood, Eric; Watts, Michael E.

    2014-10-01

    The acoustic signatures produced by a full-scale, Bell 430 helicopter during steady-level-flight and transient roll-right maneuvers are analyzed by way of time-frequency analysis. The roll-right maneuvers comprise both a medium and a fast roll rate. Data are acquired using a single ground based microphone that are analyzed by way of the Morlet wavelet transform to extract the spectral properties and sound pressure levels as functions of time. The findings show that during maneuvering operations of the helicopter, both the overall sound pressure level and the blade-vortex interaction sound pressure level are greatest when the roll rate of the vehicle is at its maximum. The reduced inflow in the region of the rotor disk where blade-vortex interaction noise originates is determined to be the cause of the increase in noise. A local decrease in inflow reduces the miss distance of the tip vortex and thereby increases the BVI noise signature. Blade loading and advance ratios are also investigated as possible mechanisms for increased sound production, but are shown to be fairly constant throughout the maneuvers.

  3. LOCK, DOG HOUSE, CONTROL STATION, DAM GATE, MANEUVER BOAT No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOCK, DOG HOUSE, CONTROL STATION, DAM GATE, MANEUVER BOAT No. 1, AND DAM. NOTE LOWER LOCK GATE IN FOREGROUND. LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST. - Illinois Waterway, La Grange Lock and Dam, 3/4 mile south of Country 795N at Illinois River, Versailles, Brown County, IL

  4. An exploratory investigation of the STOL landing maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whyte, P. H.

    1979-01-01

    The parameters influencing the STOL landing are identified and their effect on the ease and quality of the flare maneuver is discussed. Data from actual landings, supported by pilot commentary and pilot opinion rating, are analyzed. Hypotheses concerning the prediction of STOL handling qualities in the flare are proposed, and suggestions for future research are presented.

  5. 47 CFR 25.282 - Orbit raising maneuvers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... interference from any lawfully operating satellite network or radio communication system. ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Orbit raising maneuvers. 25.282 Section 25.282 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE...

  6. Variable-structure control of spacecraft attitude maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer, Thomas A. W., III; Sira-Ramirez, Hebertt

    1988-01-01

    A variable-structure control approach is presented for multiaxial spacecraft attitude maneuvers. Nonlinear sliding surfaces are proposed that result in asymptotically stable, ideal linear decoupled sliding motions of Cayley-Rodrigues attitude parameters, as well as of angular velocities. The resulting control laws are interpreted as more easily implemented and more robust versions of those previously obtained by feedback linearization.

  7. EOS Terra Terra Constellation Exit/Future Maneuver Plans Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantziaras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    This EOS Terra Constellation Exit/Future Maneuver Plans Update presentation will discuss brief history of Terra EOM work; lifetime fuel estimates; baseline vs. proposed plan origin; resultant exit orbit; baseline vs. proposed exit plan; long term orbit altitude; revised lifetime proposal and fallback options.

  8. Heimlich's maneuver-assisted bronchoscopic removal of airway foreign body.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Sohan Lal; Bansal, Shivendu; Khare, Arvind; Jain, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Aspiration of foreign bodies (FBs) by children can lead to serious illness and sometimes even death. Bronchoscopic removal of the FB is necessary to prevent from any catastrophic event. Sometimes bronchoscopic removal is not possible due to the larger size of the FB, sharp FB, or long duration FB. Tracheostomy is normally used for the removal of such FBs. The aim of this case report is to highlight the use of Heimlich maneuver for the removal of such FBs before opting invasive procedures. In the present case, a 5-year-old child was presented with history of FB aspiration 5 h back. After multiple failed bronchoscopic attempts to remove the FB it was decided to use Heimlich maneuver in the supine position. A single attempt of Heimlich maneuver expelled the FB into the oral cavity, which was removed by Magill's forceps. On repeated bronchoscope check, there was no remnant of FB. Child's further course of stay in hospital was uneventful. In conclusion, Heimlich maneuver may be useful in patient with failed bronchoscope removal of airway FBs before proceeding for tracheotomy or other invasive procedures.

  9. Heimlich's maneuver-assisted bronchoscopic removal of airway foreign body

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Sohan Lal; Bansal, Shivendu; Khare, Arvind; Jain, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Aspiration of foreign bodies (FBs) by children can lead to serious illness and sometimes even death. Bronchoscopic removal of the FB is necessary to prevent from any catastrophic event. Sometimes bronchoscopic removal is not possible due to the larger size of the FB, sharp FB, or long duration FB. Tracheostomy is normally used for the removal of such FBs. The aim of this case report is to highlight the use of Heimlich maneuver for the removal of such FBs before opting invasive procedures. In the present case, a 5-year-old child was presented with history of FB aspiration 5 h back. After multiple failed bronchoscopic attempts to remove the FB it was decided to use Heimlich maneuver in the supine position. A single attempt of Heimlich maneuver expelled the FB into the oral cavity, which was removed by Magill's forceps. On repeated bronchoscope check, there was no remnant of FB. Child's further course of stay in hospital was uneventful. In conclusion, Heimlich maneuver may be useful in patient with failed bronchoscope removal of airway FBs before proceeding for tracheotomy or other invasive procedures. PMID:25885389

  10. Ruptured aortic valve cusp: a complication of the Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J H; Menapace, F J; Howell, R R

    1983-07-01

    A case of traumatic rupture of the aortic valve as a complication of the Heimlich maneuver is presented. Conformation was made by comparative echocardiographic studies available from three months before and immediately following the incident. The patient refused surgical intervention and died one month later with severe congestive heart failure despite vigorous medical therapy.

  11. 14 CFR 27.339 - Resultant limit maneuvering loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resultant limit maneuvering loads. 27.339 Section 27.339 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads §...

  12. 14 CFR 27.337 - Limit maneuvering load factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factor. 27.337 Section 27.337 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads §...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1183 - Remote control for maneuvering or navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Remote control for maneuvering or navigation... Communications § 80.1183 Remote control for maneuvering or navigation. (a) An on-board station may be used for remote control of maneuvering or navigation control systems aboard the same ship or, where that ship...

  14. 47 CFR 80.1183 - Remote control for maneuvering or navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remote control for maneuvering or navigation... Communications § 80.1183 Remote control for maneuvering or navigation. (a) An on-board station may be used for remote control of maneuvering or navigation control systems aboard the same ship or, where that ship...

  15. 47 CFR 80.1183 - Remote control for maneuvering or navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Remote control for maneuvering or navigation... Communications § 80.1183 Remote control for maneuvering or navigation. (a) An on-board station may be used for remote control of maneuvering or navigation control systems aboard the same ship or, where that ship...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1183 - Remote control for maneuvering or navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote control for maneuvering or navigation... Communications § 80.1183 Remote control for maneuvering or navigation. (a) An on-board station may be used for remote control of maneuvering or navigation control systems aboard the same ship or, where that ship...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1183 - Remote control for maneuvering or navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Remote control for maneuvering or navigation... Communications § 80.1183 Remote control for maneuvering or navigation. (a) An on-board station may be used for remote control of maneuvering or navigation control systems aboard the same ship or, where that ship...

  18. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-03-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study I was a systematic review of the existing standardized methods for assessing quality of life after incisional hernia repair. After a systematic search in the electronic databases Embase and PubMed, a total of 26 studies using standardized measures for assessment of quality of life after incisional hernia repair were found. The most commonly used questionnaire was the generic Short-Form 36, which assesses overall health-related quality of life, addressing both physical and mental health. The second-most common questionnaire was the Carolinas Comfort Scale, which is a disease specific questionnaire addressing pain, movement limitation and mesh sensation in relation to a current or previous hernia. In total, eight different questionnaires were used at varying time points in the 26 studies. In conclusion, standardization of timing and method of quality of life assessment after incisional hernia repair was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the

  19. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  20. Abdominal Bloating: Pathophysiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seo, A Young; Oh, Dong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004

  1. [Gallstone ileus. Abdominal CT usefulness].

    PubMed

    Sukkarieh, F; Brasseur, P; Bissen, L

    2004-06-01

    The authors report the case of a 93-year old woman referred to the emergency department and presenting with an intestinal obstruction. Abdominal CT reveals a biliary ileus caused by the migration and the impaction of a 3 cm gallstone in the small bowel. Surgical treatment by enterolithotomy was successful. In over 90% of cases, gallstone ileus is a complication of cholelithiasis and accounts for 25% of intestinal obstruction in patients over 65 years. To reduce morbidity and mortality, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential. Abdominal CT-scan is the gold standard technique.

  2. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Lemieux, Isabelle

    2006-12-14

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Proposed criteria for identifying patients with metabolic syndrome have contributed greatly to preventive medicine, but the value of metabolic syndrome as a scientific concept remains controversial. The presence of metabolic syndrome alone cannot predict global cardiovascular disease risk. But abdominal obesity - the most prevalent manifestation of metabolic syndrome - is a marker of 'dysfunctional adipose tissue', and is of central importance in clinical diagnosis. Better risk assessment algorithms are needed to quantify diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk on a global scale.

  3. Abdominal surgery in neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Bryant, James E; Gaughan, Earl M

    2005-08-01

    Abdominal surgery in foals under 30 days old has become more common with improved neonatal care. Early recognition of a foal at risk and better nursing care have increased the survival rates of foals that require neonatal care. The success of improved neonatal care also has increased the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal, umbilical, and bladder disorders in these foals. This chapter focuses on the early and accurate diagnosis of specific disorders that require abdominal exploratory surgery and the specific treatment considerations and prognosis for these disorders.

  4. Maneuver Performance Assessment of the Cassini Spacecraft Through Execution-Error Modeling and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Sean

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has executed nearly 300 maneuvers since 1997, providing ample data for execution-error model updates. With maneuvers through 2017, opportunities remain to improve on the models and remove biases identified in maneuver executions. This manuscript focuses on how execution-error models can be used to judge maneuver performance, while providing a means for detecting performance degradation. Additionally, this paper describes Cassini's execution-error model updates in August 2012. An assessment of Cassini's maneuver performance through OTM-368 on January 5, 2014 is also presented.

  5. Cassini Maneuver Experience for the Fourth Year of the Solstice Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaquero, Mar; Hahn, Yungsun; Stumpf, Paul; Valerino, Powtawche; Wagner, Sean; Wong, Mau

    2014-01-01

    After sixteen years of successful mission operations and invaluable scientific discoveries, the Cassini orbiter continues to tour Saturn on the most complex gravity-assist trajectory ever flown. To ensure that the end-of-mission target of September 2017 is achieved, propellant preservation is highly prioritized over maneuver cycle minimization. Thus, the maneuver decision process, which includes determining whether a maneuver is performed or canceled, designing a targeting strategy and selecting the engine for execution, is being continuously re-evaluated. This paper summarizes the maneuver experience throughout the fourth year of the Solstice Mission highlighting 27 maneuvers targeted to nine Titan flybys.

  6. Development of a flight test maneuver autopilot for an F-15 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alag, G. S.; Duke, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    An autopilot can be used to provide precise control to meet the demanding requirements of flight research maneuvers with high-performance aircraft. This paper presents the development of control laws for a flight test maneuver autopilot for an F-15 aircraft. A linear quadratic regulator approach is used to develop the control laws within the context of flight test maneuver requirements by treating the maneuver as a finite time tracking problem with regulation of state rates. Results are presented to show the effectiveness of the controller in insuring acceptable aircraft performance during a maneuver.

  7. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... the child’s mood and emotions, and in turn cause depression and anxiety. Screening/Diagnosis Detailed information regarding the location of abdominal pain, the frequency (number of times per week) and ... about the cause, and will guide further testing. Other important pieces ...

  8. Spacecraft attitude maneuver using two single-gimbal control moment gyros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Shinya; Kojima, Hirohisa; Satoh, Mitsunori

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, arbitrary rest-to-rest attitude maneuver problems for a satellite using two single-gimbal control moment gyros (2SGCMGs) are considered. Although single-gimbal control moment gyros are configured in the same manner as the traditional pyramid-array CMG, only two CMGs are assumed to be available. Attitude maneuver problems are similar to problems involving two reaction wheels (RWs) from the viewpoint of the number of actuators. In other words, the problem treated herein is a kind of underactuated problem. Although 2SGCMGs can generate torques around all axes, they cannot generate torques around each axis independently. Therefore, control methods designed for a satellite using two reaction wheels cannot be applied to three-axis attitude maneuver problems for a satellite using 2SGCMGs. In this paper, for simplicity, maneuvers around the x- and z-axes are first considered, and then a maneuver around the y-axis due to the corning effect resulting from the maneuver around the x- and z-axes is considered. Since maneuvers around each axis are established by the proposed method, arbitrary attitude maneuvers can be achieved using 2SGCMGs. In addition, the maneuvering angles around the z- and x-axes, which are required in order to maneuver around the y-axis, are analytically determined, and the total time required for maneuvering around the y-axis is then analyzed numerically.

  9. Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... myhealthfinder Immunization Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-termJust about everyone has had a " ... time or another. But sudden severe abdominal pain (stomach pain), also called acute pain, shouldn't be ...

  10. Imaging of gastrointestinal and abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Vanhoenacker, F M; De Backer, A I; Op de, Beeck B; Maes, M; Van Altena, R; Van Beckevoort, D; Kersemans, P; De Schepper, A M

    2004-03-01

    This article discusses the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the abdomen, including involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, the peritoneum, mesentery, omentum, abdominal lymph nodes, solid abdominal organs, the genital system and the abdominal aorta. Abdominal TB is a diagnostic challenge, particularly when pulmonary TB is absent. It may mimic many other abdominal diseases, both clinically and radiologically. An early correct diagnosis, however, is important in order to ensure proper treatment and a favorable outcome. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of abdominal TB and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Generally, CT appears to be the imaging modality of choice in the detection and assessment of abdominal tuberculosis, other than gastrointestinal TB. Barium studies remain superior for demonstrating mucosal intestinal lesions. Ultrasound may be used for follow-up to monitor therapy response. The diagnosis of abdominal TB should be considered if suggestive imaging findings are found in patients with a high index of suspicion.

  11. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  12. Blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruption with evisceration

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Ellen; Stawicki, Stanislaw PA; Bahner, David P

    2011-01-01

    Blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruptions associated with evisceration are very rare. The authors describe a case of traumatic abdominal wall disruption with bowel evisceration that occurred after a middle-aged woman sustained direct focal blunt force impact to the lower abdomen. Abdominal exploration and surgical repair of the abdominal wall defect were performed, with good clinical outcome. A brief overview of literature pertinent to this rare trauma scenario is presented. PMID:22229144

  13. A synthetic environment for visualization and planning of orbital maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Grunwald, Arthur J.

    An interactive proximity operations planning system, which allows on-site planning of fuel-efficient, multi-burn maneuvers in a potential multi-space-craft environment has been developed and tested. This display system most directly assists planning by providing visual feedback in a synthetic virtual space that aids visualization of trajectories and their constraints. Its most significant features include (1) an 'inverse dynamics' algorithm that removes control nonlinearities facing the operator and (2) a stack-oriented action-editor that reduces the order of control and creates, through a 'geometric spreadsheet,' the illusion of an inertially stable environment. This synthetic environment provides the user with control of relevant static and dynamic properties of way-points during small orbital changes allowing independent solutions to otherwise coupled problems of orbital maneuvering.

  14. A synthetic environment for visualization and planning of orbital maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Grunwald, Arthur J.

    1991-01-01

    An interactive proximity operations planning system, which allows on-site planning of fuel-efficient, multi-burn maneuvers in a potential multi-space-craft environment has been developed and tested. This display system most directly assists planning by providing visual feedback in a synthetic virtual space that aids visualization of trajectories and their constraints. Its most significant features include (1) an 'inverse dynamics' algorithm that removes control nonlinearities facing the operator and (2) a stack-oriented action-editor that reduces the order of control and creates, through a 'geometric spreadsheet,' the illusion of an inertially stable environment. This synthetic environment provides the user with control of relevant static and dynamic properties of way-points during small orbital changes allowing independent solutions to otherwise coupled problems of orbital maneuvering.

  15. Does dragonfly's abdomen flexion help with fast turning maneuvers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Geng; Li, Chengyu; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Group Team

    2013-11-01

    Dragonflies are able to achieve fast turning maneuvers during take-off flights. Both asymmetric wing flapping and abdomen flexion have been observed during the fast turning. It's widely thought that the asymmetric wing beats are responsible of producing the aerodynamic moment needed for the body rotation. However, the dynamic effect of the abdomen flexion is not clear yet. In this study, an integrated experimental and computational approach is used to study the underlying dynamic effect of dragonfly abdomen flexion. It's found that dragonfly abdomen tended to bend towards the same side as the body reorienting to. Quantitative analysis have shown that during take-off turning maneuver the abdomen flexion can modulate the arm of force by changing the position of the center of mass relative to the thorax. As a result, roll and yaw moments produced by the wing flapping can be enhanced. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1313217. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1313217.

  16. Time efficient spacecraft maneuver using constrained torque distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xibin; Yue, Chengfei; Liu, Ming; Wu, Baolin

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates the time efficient maneuver of rigid satellites with inertia uncertainty and bounded external disturbance. A redundant cluster of four reaction wheels is used to control the spacecraft. To make full use of the controllability and avoid frequent unload for reaction wheels, a maximum output torque and maximum angular momentum constrained torque distribution method is developed. Based on this distribution approach, the maximum allowable acceleration and velocity of the satellite are optimized during the maneuvering. A novel braking curve is designed on the basis of the optimization strategy of the control torque distribution. A quaternion-based sliding mode control law is proposed to render the state to track the braking curve strictly. The designed controller provides smooth control torque, time efficiency and high control precision. Finally, practical numerical examples are illustrated to show the effectiveness of the developed torque distribution strategy and control methodology.

  17. Heterogeneous Multiple Sensors Joint Tracking of Maneuvering Target in Clutter

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Panlong; Li, Xingxiu; Kong, Jianshou; Liu, Jiale

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problem of tracking maneuvering airborne targets in the presence of clutter, an improved interacting multiple model probability data association algorithm (IMMPDA-MDCM) using radar/IR sensors fusion is proposed. Under the architecture of the proposed algorithm, the radar/IR centralized fusion tracking scheme of IMMPDA-MDCM is designed to guarantee the observability of the target state. The interacting multiple model (IMM) deals with the model switching. The modified debiased converted measurement (MDCM) filter accounts for non-linearity in the dynamic system models, and reduces the effect of measurement noise on the covariance effectively. The probability data association (PDA) handles data association and measurement uncertainties in clutter. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the tracking precision for maneuvering target in clutters, and has higher tracking precision than the traditional IMMPDA based on EKF and IMMPDA based on DCM algorithm. PMID:26193279

  18. Mars Science Laboratory Propulsive Maneuver Design and Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Mau C.; Kangas, Julie A.; Ballard, Christopher G.; Gustafson, Eric D.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, was launched on November 26, 2011 and successfully landed at the Gale Crater on Mars. For the 8-month interplanetary trajectory from Earth to Mars, five nominal and two contingency trajectory correction maneuvers (TCM) were planned. The goal of these TCMs was to accurately deliver the spacecraft to the desired atmospheric entry aimpoint in Martian atmosphere so as to ensure a high probability of successful landing on the Mars surface. The primary mission requirements on maneuver performance were the total mission propellant usage and the entry flight path angle (EFPA) delivery accuracy. They were comfortably met in this mission. In this paper we will describe the spacecraft propulsion system, TCM constraints and requirements, TCM design processes, and their implementation and verification.

  19. Thermally-Constrained Fuel-Optimal ISS Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Sagar; Svecz, Andrew; Alaniz, Abran; Jang, Jiann-Woei; Nguyen, Louis; Spanos, Pol

    2015-01-01

    Optimal Propellant Maneuvers (OPMs) are now being used to rotate the International Space Station (ISS) and have saved hundreds of kilograms of propellant over the last two years. The savings are achieved by commanding the ISS to follow a pre-planned attitude trajectory optimized to take advantage of environmental torques. The trajectory is obtained by solving an optimal control problem. Prior to use on orbit, OPM trajectories are screened to ensure a static sun vector (SSV) does not occur during the maneuver. The SSV is an indicator that the ISS hardware temperatures may exceed thermal limits, causing damage to the components. In this paper, thermally-constrained fuel-optimal trajectories are presented that avoid an SSV and can be used throughout the year while still reducing propellant consumption significantly.

  20. Conjunction challenges of low-thrust geosynchronous debris removal maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Paul V.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2016-06-01

    The conjunction challenges of low-thrust engines for continuous thrust re-orbiting of geosynchronous (GEO) objects to super-synchronous disposal orbits are investigated, with applications to end-of-life mitigation and active debris removal (ADR) technologies. In particular, the low maneuverability of low-thrust systems renders collision avoidance a challenging task. This study investigates the number of conjunction events a low-thrust system could encounter with the current GEO debris population during a typical re-orbit to 300 km above the GEO ring. Sensitivities to thrust level and initial longitude and inclination are evaluated, and the impact of delaying the start time for a re-orbiting maneuver is assessed. Results demonstrate that the mean number of conjunctions increases hyperbolically as thrust level decreases, but timing the start of the maneuver appropriately can reduce the average conjunction rate when lower thrust levels are applied.

  1. Satellite attitude maneuver through tether : a novel concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurnar, Krishna; Kumar, K. D.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a novel scheme to achieve passive satellite attitude maneuver. The proposed control mechanism consists of a small 'pendulum-like' subsatellite mass deployed from the satellite through two identical tethers. A simple steady state and subsequent linearized stability analyses enable predictions of analytical conditions for feasible equilibrium satellite orientations and their stability. These important results facilitate judicious choice of system design parameters. Numerical simulation establishes the feasibility of executing arbitrary satellite slewing maneuver by slowly varying the length of one of the two tethers according to a preprogrammed strategy. The passive nature of the proposed control scheme and the modest auxiliary mass and the tether lengths required make the new concept particularly attractive.

  2. Broken-Plane Maneuver Applications for Earth to Mars Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abilleira, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    Optimization techniques are critical when investigating Earth to Mars trajectories since they have the potential of reducing the total (delta)V of a mission. A deep space maneuver (DSM) executed during the cruise may improve a trajectory by reducing the total mission V. Nonetheless, DSMs not only may improve trajectory performance (from an energetic point of view) but also open up new families of trajectories that would satisfy very specific mission requirements not achievable with ballistic trajectories. In the following pages, various specific examples showing the potential advantages of the usage of broken plane maneuvers will be introduced. These examples correspond to possible scenarios for Earth to Mars trajectories during the next decade (2010-2020).

  3. Single step optimization of manipulator maneuvers with variable structure control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, N.; Dwyer, T. A. W., III

    1987-01-01

    One step ahead optimization has been recently proposed for spacecraft attitude maneuvers as well as for robot manipulator maneuvers. Such a technique yields a discrete time control algorithm implementable as a sequence of state-dependent, quadratic programming problems for acceleration optimization. Its sensitivity to model accuracy, for the required inversion of the system dynamics, is shown in this paper to be alleviated by a fast variable structure control correction, acting between the sampling intervals of the slow one step ahead discrete time acceleration command generation algorithm. The slow and fast looping concept chosen follows that recently proposed for optimal aiming strategies with variable structure control. Accelerations required by the VSC correction are reserved during the slow one step ahead command generation so that the ability to overshoot the sliding surface is guaranteed.

  4. Design and analysis of a supersonic penetration/maneuvering fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The design of three candidate air combat fighters which would cruise effectively at freestream Mach numbers of 1.6, 2.0, and 2.5 while maintaining good transonic maneuvering capability, is considered. These fighters were designed to deliver aerodynamically controlled dogfight missiles at the design Mach numbers. Studies performed by Rockwell International in May 1974 and guidance from NASA determined the shape and size of these missiles. The principle objective of this study is the aerodynamic design of the vehicles; however, configurations are sized to have realistic structures, mass properties, and propulsion systems. The results of this study show that air combat fighters in the 15,000 to 23,000 pound class would cruise supersonically on dry power and still maintain good transonic maneuvering performance.

  5. Visual display aid for orbital maneuvering - Design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an interactive proximity operations planning system that allows on-site planning of fuel-efficient multiburn maneuvers in a potential multispacecraft environment. Although this display system most directly assists planning by providing visual feedback to aid visualization of the trajectories and constraints, its most significant features include: (1) the use of an 'inverse dynamics' algorithm that removes control nonlinearities facing the operator, and (2) a trajectory planning technique that separates, through a 'geometric spreadsheet', the normally coupled complex problems of planning orbital maneuvers and allows solution by an iterative sequence of simple independent actions. The visual feedback of trajectory shapes and operational constraints, provided by user-transparent and continuously active background computations, allows the operator to make fast, iterative design changes that rapidly converge to fuel-efficient solutions. The planning tool provides an example of operator-assisted optimization of nonlinear cost functions.

  6. Flow Modulation and Force Control in Insect Fast Maneuver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengyu; Dong, Haibo; Zhang, Wen; Gai, Kuo

    2012-11-01

    In this work, an integrated study combining high-speed photogrammetry and direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study free flying insects in fast maneuver. Quantitative measurement has shown the significant differences between quad-winged flyers such as dragonfly and damselfly and two-winged flyers such as cicada. Comparisons of unsteady 3D vortex formation and associated aerodynamic force production reveal the different mechanisms used by insects in fast turn. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1055949.

  7. Computing and Visualizing Reachable Volumes for Maneuvering Satellites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Computing and Visualizing Reachable Volumes for Maneuvering Satellites Ming Jiang, Willem H. de Vries, Alexander J. Pertica , Scot S. Olivier...Handbook. Elsevier, 2004. 6. M. Jiang, M. Andereck, A. J. Pertica , and S. S. Olivier. A Scalable Visualization System for Improving Space Situational...Jiang, J. Leek, J. L. Levatin, S. Nikolaev, A. J. Pertica , D. W. Phillion, H. K. Springer, and W. H. de Vries. High-Performance Computer Modeling of

  8. Firepower, Maneuver, and the Operational Level of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-15

    wasn’t." Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery and General George S. Patton, two of the premier Allied field commanders in the European Theater of...higher headquarters and grafted onto another. Moreover, such changes are detrimental in a moral sense to the espirit and comradeship that most soldiers...Operation Barbarossa s-emed to exemplify "distrtbuted free maneuver" with three non-supporting thrusts into the Soviet Union , and with freGuent

  9. Stability and control of maneuvering high-performance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.; Berry, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    The stability and control of a high-performance aircraft was analyzed, and a design methodology for a departure prevention stability augmentation system (DPSAS) was developed. A general linear aircraft model was derived which includes maneuvering flight effects and trim calculation procedures for investigating highly dynamic trajectories. The stability and control analysis systematically explored the effects of flight condition and angular motion, as well as the stability of typical air combat trajectories. The effects of configuration variation also were examined.

  10. Measuring Pilot Proficiency on an Instrument Training Maneuver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    featmr• of the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) could be suc- cess tuj ly used to facilitate the development and validation of a recording...for the instrument training maneuver Vertical S-A in which the unique record/playback features of the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) were...the ASPT revealed several format and observe--workload problems that needed correction. SFollowing revision, the booklet (Appendix A) was given a

  11. Multidimensional scaling analysis of simulated air combat maneuvering performance data.

    PubMed

    Polzella, D J; Reid, G B

    1989-02-01

    This paper describes the decomposition of air combat maneuvering by means of multidimensional scaling (MDS). MDS analyses were applied to performance data obtained from expert and novice pilots during simulated air-to-air combat. The results of these analyses revealed that the performance of expert pilots is characterized by advantageous maneuverability and intelligent energy management. It is argued that MDS, unlike simpler metrics, permits the investigator to achieve greater insights into the underlying structure associated with performance of a complex task.

  12. Differential Evolution Optimization for Targeting Spacecraft Maneuver Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattern, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Previous analysis identified specific orbital parameters as being safer for conjunction avoidance for the TDRS fleet. With TDRS-9 being considered an at-risk spacecraft, a potential conjunction concern was raised should TDRS-9 fail while at a longitude of 12W. This document summarizes the analysis performed to identify if these specific orbital parameters could be targeted using the remaining drift-termination maneuvers for the relocation of TDRS-9 from 41W longitude to 12W longitude.

  13. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauckert, R. P.; Yost, M. C.; Tobin, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted on the regenerative cooled thrust chamber of the space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine. The conditions for the tests and the durations obtained are presented. The tests demonstrated thrust chamber operation over the nominal ranges of chamber pressure mixture ratio. Variations in auxiliary film coolant flowrate were also demonstrated. High pressure tests were conducted to demonstrate the thrust chamber operation at conditions approaching the design chamber pressure for the derivative space tug application.

  14. Optimal Continuous Thrust Orbital Evasive Maneuvers from Geosynchronous Orbit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    control thrusters, if its warning time and orbital parameters were appropriate. A model is developed using optimal control theory and is solved numericaly...Maneuvers of a Spacecraft Relative to a Point in Circular Orbit ,’ Journal of Guidance, Control . and Dynamics. 9(l): 27-31 (January -February 1966). 10... Elliptical Orbit ," Joursal of Guidance. Control . and Drjsmakjs1 (4: 271-275 (July- August 1979). 22. Meirovitch, Leonard. Methods of Anakytical Dynamics

  15. Dynamic wake distortion model for helicopter maneuvering flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jinggen

    A new rotor dynamic wake distortion model, which can be used to account for the rotor transient wake distortion effect on inflow across the rotor disk during helicopter maneuvering and transitional flight in both hover and forward flight conditions, is developed. The dynamic growths of the induced inflow perturbation across rotor disk during different transient maneuvers, such as a step pitch or roll rate, a step climb rate and a step change of advance ratio are investigated by using a dynamic vortex tube analysis. Based on the vortex tube results, a rotor dynamic wake distortion model, which is expressed in terms of a set of ordinary differential equations, with rotor longitudinal and lateral wake curvatures, wake skew and wake spacing as states, is developed. Also, both the Pitt-Peters dynamic inflow model and the Peters-He finite state inflow model for axial or forward flight are augmented to account for rotor dynamic wake distortion effect during helicopter maneuvering flight. To model the aerodynamic interaction among main rotor, tail rotor and empennage caused by rotor wake curvature effect during helicopter maneuvering flight, a reduced order model based on a vortex tube analysis is developed. Both the augmented Pitt-Peters dynamic inflow model and the augmented Peters-He finite state inflow model, combined with the developed dynamic wake distortion model, together with the interaction model are implemented in a generic helicopter simulation program of UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter and the simulated vehicle control responses in both time domain and frequency domain are compared with flight test data of a UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter in both hover and low speed forward flight conditions.

  16. Soviet Operational Maneuver in a Period of Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    of Sovietworks dealingwith mobile tinuities has been Soviet dedication to, and group (operational. maneuver group) opera- faith in, the utility of...while the Red Army suffered griev-ous losses, the Soviet High Command painstak- ingly reconstructed its mobile forces and experimented with their...combat use. By July conditions, which were created by improve- 1943, a modem Red Army had emerged, ments in mobility , firepower and communica- formed

  17. Object Correlation and Maneuver Detection Using Optimal Control Performance Metrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Boulder Abstract Object correlation and maneuver detection are persistent problems in space surveillance and space object catalog maintenance. This paper ...Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response...reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including

  18. Efficient Reorientation Maneuvers for Spacecraft with Multiple Articulated Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclamroch, N. Harris

    1993-01-01

    A final report is provided which describes the research program during the period 3 Mar. 1992 to 3 Jun. 1993. A summary of the technical research questions that were studied and of the main results that were obtained is given. The specific outcomes of the research program, including both educational impacts as well as research publications, are listed. The research is concerned with efficient reorientation maneuvers for spacecraft with multiple articulated payloads.

  19. Intra-Abdominal Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Abdominal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oguejiofor, Njideka; Al-Abayechi, Sarah; Njoku, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease, caused by gram positive anaerobic bacteria, that may appear as an abdominal mass and/or abscess (Wagenlehner et al. 2003). This paper presents an unusual case of a hemodynamically stable 80-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with 4 weeks of worsening abdominal pain and swelling. He also complains of a 20-bound weight loss in 2 months. A large tender palpable mass in the right upper quadrant was noted on physical exam. Laboratory studies showed a normal white blood cell count, slightly decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, and mildly elevated total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase. A CT with contrast was done and showed a liver mass. Radiology and general surgery suspected malignancy and recommended CT guided biopsy. The sample revealed abundant neutrophils and gram positive rods. Cytology was negative for malignancy and cultures eventually grew actinomyces. High dose IV penicillin therapy was given for 4 weeks and with appropriate response transitioned to oral antibiotic for 9 months with complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:28299215

  20. A flight test maneuver autopilot for a highly manueverable aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roncoli, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    A flight test maneuver autopilot (FTMAP) is currently being flown to increase the quality and quantity of the data obtained in the flight testing of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV). The FTMAP resides in a ground-based digital computer and was designed to perform certain prescribed maneuvers precisely, while maintaining critical flight parameters within close tolerances. The FTMAP operates as a non-flight-critical outer loop controller and augments the vehicle primary flight control system. The inputs to the FTMAP consist of telemetry-downlinked aircraft sensor data. During FTMAP operation, the FTMAP computer replaces normal pilot inputs to the aircraft stick and throttle positions. The FTMAP maneuvers include straight-and-level flight, level accelerations and decelerations, pushover pullups, and windup turns. The pushover pullups can be executed holding throttle or Mach number fixed. The windup turns can be commanded by either normal acceleration or angle of attack. The operational procedures, control mode configuration, and initial simulation results are discussed.

  1. Trajectory Control of Rendezvous with Maneuver Target Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Zhinqiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear trajectory control algorithm of rendezvous with maneuvering target spacecraft is presented. The disturbance forces on the chaser and target spacecraft and the thrust forces on the chaser spacecraft are considered in the analysis. The control algorithm developed in this paper uses the relative distance and relative velocity between the target and chaser spacecraft as the inputs. A general formula of reference relative trajectory of the chaser spacecraft to the target spacecraft is developed and applied to four different proximity maneuvers, which are in-track circling, cross-track circling, in-track spiral rendezvous and cross-track spiral rendezvous. The closed-loop differential equations of the proximity relative motion with the control algorithm are derived. It is proven in the paper that the tracking errors between the commanded relative trajectory and the actual relative trajectory are bounded within a constant region determined by the control gains. The prediction of the tracking errors is obtained. Design examples are provided to show the implementation of the control algorithm. The simulation results show that the actual relative trajectory tracks the commanded relative trajectory tightly. The predicted tracking errors match those calculated in the simulation results. The control algorithm developed in this paper can also be applied to interception of maneuver target spacecraft and relative trajectory control of spacecraft formation flying.

  2. A Fuel-Efficient Conflict Resolution Maneuver for Separation Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowe, Aisha Ruth; Santiago, Confesor

    2012-01-01

    Automated separation assurance algorithms are envisioned to play an integral role in accommodating the forecasted increase in demand of the National Airspace System. Developing a robust, reliable, air traffic management system involves safely increasing efficiency and throughput while considering the potential impact on users. This experiment seeks to evaluate the benefit of augmenting a conflict detection and resolution algorithm to consider a fuel efficient, Zero-Delay Direct-To maneuver, when resolving a given conflict based on either minimum fuel burn or minimum delay. A total of twelve conditions were tested in a fast-time simulation conducted in three airspace regions with mixed aircraft types and light weather. Results show that inclusion of this maneuver has no appreciable effect on the ability of the algorithm to safely detect and resolve conflicts. The results further suggest that enabling the Zero-Delay Direct-To maneuver significantly increases the cumulative fuel burn savings when choosing resolution based on minimum fuel burn while marginally increasing the average delay per resolution.

  3. PM Science Working Group Meeting on Spacecraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    1997-01-01

    The EOS PM Science Working Group met on May 6, 1997, to examine the issue of spacecraft maneuvers. The meeting was held at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and was attended by the Team Leaders of all four instrument science teams with instruments on the PM-1 spacecraft, additional representatives from each of the four teams, the PM Project management, and random others. The meeting was chaired by the PM Project Scientist and open to all. The meeting was called in order to untangle some of the concerns raised over the past several months regarding whether or not the PM-1 spacecraft should undergo spacecraft maneuvers to allow the instruments to obtain deep-space views. Two of the Science Teams, those for the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), had strongly expressed the need for deep-space views in order to calibrate their instruments properly and conveniently. The other two teams, those for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), and the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB), had expressed concerns that the maneuvers involve risks to the instruments and undesired gaps in the data sets.

  4. An Autonomous Onboard Targeting Algorithm Using Finite Thrust Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarritt, Sara K.; Marchand, Belinda G.; Weeks, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    In earlier investigations, the adaptation and implementation of a modified two-level corrections process as the onboard targeting algorithm for the Trans-Earth Injection phase of Orion is presented. The objective of that targeting algorithm is to generate the times of ignition and magnitudes of the required maneuvers such that the desired state at entry interface is achieved. In an actual onboard flight software implementation, these times of ignition and maneuvers are relayed onto Flight Control for command and execution. Although this process works well when the burn durations or burn arcs are small, this might not be the case during a contingency situation when lower thrust engines are employed to perform the maneuvers. Therefore, a new version of the modified two-level corrections process is formulated to handle the case of finite burn arcs. This paper presents the development and formulation of that finite burn modified two-level corrections process which can again be used as an onboard targeting algorithm for the Trans-Earth Injection phase of Orion. Additionally, performance results and a comparison between the two methods are presented. The finite burn two-level corrector formulation presented here ensures the entry constraints at entry interface are still met without violating the available fuel budget, while still accounting for much longer burn times in its design.

  5. An Autonomous Onboard Targeting Algorithm Using Finite Thrust Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarritt, Sara K.; Marchand, Belinda G.; Brown, Aaron J.; Tracy, William H.; Weeks, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    In earlier investigations, the adaptation and implementation of a modified two-level corrections (or targeting) process as the onboard targeting algorithm for the Trans-Earth Injection phase of Orion is presented. The objective of that targeting algorithm is to generate the times of ignition and magnitudes of the required maneuvers such that the desired state at entry interface is achieved. In an actual onboard flight software implementation, these times of ignition and maneuvers are relayed onto Flight Control for command and execution. Although this process works well when the burn durations or burn arcs are small, this might not be the case during a contingency situation when lower thrust engines are employed to perform the maneuvers. Therefore, a new model for the two-level corrections process is formulated here to accommodate finite burn arcs. This paper presents the development and formulation of the finite burn two-level corrector, used as an onboard targeting algorithm for the Trans-Earth Injection phase of Orion. A performance comparison between the impulsive and finite burn models is also presented. The present formulation ensures all entry constraints are met, without violating the available fuel budget, while allowing for low-thrust scenarios with long burn durations.

  6. Development of NVG test maneuvers for civilian aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Sion; Craig, Greg; Carignan, Stephan; Fischer, Heiko; Brulotte, Michel

    2008-04-01

    This document provides an overview of helicopter flight-test methods used to evaluate night vision goggles at the National Research Council of Canada's Institute for Aerospace Research. These techniques have been used to examine the performance of display systems in actual field conditions. The flight evaluations were based, in large part, on standard flight test maneuvers and rating systems outlined in Aeronautical Design Standard ADS-33. The document describes NVG test maneuvers developed from ADS-33 principles, including a high hover, a mirror C, a vertical descent, a parallel lateral translation, a turn about the tail, a confined area staged landing, a brown-out/white-out simulation and a lit pirouette. The overview also comprises a description of methods for controlling the cueing environment. These methods include an appropriate selection of maneuvers as well as devices for limiting pilot vision such as goggles with filters and apertures, and other devices. The paper concludes with a short discussion on the merits of developing accurate in-flight tests capable of resolving performance differences among displays.

  7. Aerodynamic role of dynamic wing morphing in hummingbird maneuvering flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yan; Shallcross, Gregory; Dong, Haibo; Deng, Xinyan; Tobalske, Bret; Flow Simulation Research Group Team; Bio-robotics lab Collaboration; University of Montana Flight Laboratory Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    The flexibility and deformation of hummingbird wing gives hummingbird a great degree of control over fluid forces in flapping flight. Unlike insect wing's passive deformation, hummingbird wing employs a more complicated wing morphing mechanism through both active muscle control and passive feather-air interaction, which results in highly complex 3D wing topology variations during the unsteady flight. Three camera high speed (1000 fps) high resolution digital video was taken and digitized to measure 3D wing conformation in all its complexity during steady flying and maneuvering. Results have shown that the dynamic wing morphing is more prominent in maneuvering flight. Complicated cambering and twisting patterns are observed along the wing pitching axis. A newly developed immersed boundary method which realistically models wing-joint-body of the hummingbird is then employed to simulate the flow associated with dynamic morphing. The simulations provide a first of its kind glimpse of the fluid and vortex dynamics associated with dynamic wing morphing and aerodynamic force computations allow us to gain a better understanding of force producing mechanisms in hummingbird maneuvering flight. This work is supported by AFOSR FA9550-12-1-007 and NSF CEBT-1313217.

  8. Using the Heimlich maneuver to save near-drowning victims.

    PubMed

    Heimlich, H J; Patrick, E A

    1988-08-01

    Flooding of the lungs occurs routinely in drowning victims. The cause of death in 90% of them is hypoxemia caused by water in the lungs. Mouth-to-mouth ventilation is ineffective until the water is removed. The Heimlich maneuver expels aspirated water, vomitus, debris, and other foreign matter. In treating near-drowning victims, place the victim in the supine position with head turned to the side and perform the Heimlich maneuver to evacuate water from the lungs, unless you know water is not in the respiratory tract. The Heimlich maneuver is a form of artificial respiration. It elevates the diaphragm, increasing intrathoracic pressure and compressing the lungs, and should be performed intermittently until all water is expelled. It is an especially useful technique because fear of contagion sometimes deters rescuers from using mouth-to-mouth ventilation . Further treatment has not been necessary in most instances. If the victim does not recover after water ceases to flow from the mouth, ventilation techniques, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and other measures as indicated should be used.

  9. Severe Turbulence and Maneuvering from Airline Flight Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Rodney C.; Bach, R. E., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Digital flight records from reported clear-air turbulence incidents are used to determine winds and turbulence, to determine maneuver g loads, and to analyze control problems. Many cases of severe turbulence are found downwind of mountains and thunderstorms where sharp, sudden jolts are associated with vortices in atmospheric waves. Other cases of severe turbulence are round in strong updrafts above thunderstorm buildups that may be undetected by onboard weather radar. An important finding is that there are large maneuvering loads in over half of the reported clear-air turbulence incidents. Maneuvering loads are determined through an analysis of the short-term variations in elevator deflection and aircraft pitch angle. For altitude control in mountain waves the results indicate that small pitch angle changes with proper timing are sufficient to counter variations in vertical wind. For airspeed control in strong mountain waves, however, there is neither the available thrust nor the quickness in engine response necessary to counter the large variations in winds.

  10. Numerical Analysis of Maneuvering Rotorcraft Using Moving Overlapped Grid Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Choongmo; Aoyama, Takashi

    In transient flight, rotor wakes and tip vortex generated by unsteady blade air-loads and blade motions are fully unsteady and 3-dimensionally-aperiodic, giving rise to significant complicity in accurate analysis compared to steady flight. We propose a hybrid approach by splitting the motions of a maneuvering helicopter into translation and rotation. Translation is simulated using a non-inertial moving (translating) coordinate for which new governing equations are derived, and rotations are simulated by moving each grid in the frame. A flow simulation (CFD) code is constructed by using the hybrid approach, then two simple cases (accelerating/decelerating flight and right-turn flight) for maneuvering helicopter are calculated using the moving overlapped grid method, which is now one of the most advanced techniques for tip-vortex capture. The vortex bundling phenomena, which is a main characteristic of right-turn flight, is well captured by the simulation code. The results of the present study provide better understanding of the characteristics for maneuvering rotorcraft, which can be valuable in full helicopter design.

  11. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Orbit Design and Autonomous Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Mendelsohn, Chad

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission will meet a challenge of measuring worldwide precipitation every three hours. The GPM spacecraft, part of a constellation, will be required to maintain a circular orbit in a high drag environment to accomplish this challenge. Analysis by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch has shown that the prime orbit altitude of 40% is necessary to prevent ground track repeating. Combined with goals to minimize maneuver impacts to science data collection and enabling reasonable long-term orbit predictions, the GPM project has decided to fly an autonomous maneuver system. This system is a derivative of the successful New Millennium Program technology flown onboard the Earth Observing-1 mission. This paper presents the driving science requirements and goals of the mission and shows how they will be met. Analysis of the orbit optimization and the AV requirements for several ballistic properties are presented. The architecture of the autonomous maneuvering system to meet the goals and requirements is presented along with simulations using a GPM prototype. Additionally, the use of the GPM autonomous system to mitigate possible collision avoidance and to aid other spacecraft systems during navigation outages is explored.

  12. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Orbit Design and Autonomous Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Mendelsohn, Chad; Mailhe, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission must meet the challenge of measuring worldwide precipitation every three hours. The GPM core spacecraft, part of a constellation, will be required to maintain a circular orbit in a high drag environment at a near-critical inclination. Analysis shows that a mean orbit altitude of 407 km is necessary to prevent ground track repeating. Combined with goals to minimize maneuver operation impacts to science data collection and to enable reasonable long-term orbit predictions, the GPM project has decided to fly the GSFC autonomous maneuver system, AutoCon(TM). This system is a follow-up version of the highly successful New Millennium Program technology flown onboard the Earth Observing-1 formation flying mission. This paper presents the driving science requirements and goals of the GPM mission and shows how they will be met. Selection of the mean semi-major axis, eccentricity, and the AV budget for several ballistic properties are presented. The architecture of the autonomous maneuvering system to meet the goals and requirements is presented along with simulations using GPM parameters. Additionally, the use of the GPM autonomous system to mitigate possible collision avoidance and to aid other spacecraft systems during navigation outages is explored.

  13. Capturing and analyzing wheelchair maneuvering patterns with mobile cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jicheng; Hao, Wei; White, Travis; Yan, Yuqing; Jones, Maria; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Power wheelchairs have been widely used to provide independent mobility to people with disabilities. Despite great advancements in power wheelchair technology, research shows that wheelchair related accidents occur frequently. To ensure safe maneuverability, capturing wheelchair maneuvering patterns is fundamental to enable other research, such as safe robotic assistance for wheelchair users. In this study, we propose to record, store, and analyze wheelchair maneuvering data by means of mobile cloud computing. Specifically, the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors in smart phones are used to record wheelchair maneuvering data in real-time. Then, the recorded data are periodically transmitted to the cloud for storage and analysis. The analyzed results are then made available to various types of users, such as mobile phone users, traditional desktop users, etc. The combination of mobile computing and cloud computing leverages the advantages of both techniques and extends the smart phone's capabilities of computing and data storage via the Internet. We performed a case study to implement the mobile cloud computing framework using Android smart phones and Google App Engine, a popular cloud computing platform. Experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed mobile cloud computing framework.

  14. Perioperative lung-protective ventilation strategy reduces postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing thoracic and major abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of postoperative pulmonary complications is strongly associated with increased hospital mortality and prolonged postoperative hospital stays. Although protective lung ventilation is commonly used in the intensive care unit, low tidal volume ventilation in the operating room is not a routine strategy. Low tidal volume ventilation, moderate positive end-expiratory pressure, and repeated recruitment maneuvers, particularly for high-risk patients undergoing major abdominal surgery, can reduce postoperative pulmonary complications. Facilitating perioperative bundle care by combining prophylactic and postoperative positive-pressure ventilation with intraoperative lung-protective ventilation may be helpful to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications. PMID:26885294

  15. "Drawing in the Sand" as a Tool for Teaching Coastal Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Joseph B.; Sturm, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Field trips are recognized as an essential component of the study of geography. They are popular with learners and teachers, but their value as learning experiences is largely assumed. What is needed are interactive and relevant learning activities like "drawing in the sand," a participatory learning activity that has been introduced…

  16. Mixed Messages: The Role and Value of Drawing in Early Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Emese

    2009-01-01

    Current English curriculum documents, namely the "Practice Guidance for the Early Years Foundation Stage" and "Key Stage 1 of the National Curriculum," contain mixed messages about the role and value of drawing in early education. The documents state that children should be encouraged to explore their ideas, feelings and…

  17. Exploring Perceptions and Attitudes towards Teaching and Learning Manual Technical Drawing in a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Susan Valerie

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the place of manual technical drawing in the 21st century by discussing the perceived value and relevance of teaching school students how to draw using traditional instruments, in a world of computer aided drafting (CAD). Views were obtained through an e-survey, questionnaires and structured interviews. The sample groups…

  18. [Spectral analysis of green pigments of painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Qin; Yan, Jing; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Ma, Tao

    2010-02-01

    It is important to identify pigments of painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures in order to restore and conserve them. The components of green pigments were detected with X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). Twenty-seven samples were collected from painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures in Beijing, Shanxi province and Gansu province. The experiment results showed that emerald green [CuCH3COO]2 x Cu(AsO2)2], a complex of copper aceto-arsenite pigment, had been used as the colored component in fifteen samples, whereas organic materials synthesized in the rest. However, in all samples there were no malachite and atacamite, green pigments commonly used in ancient time a long time ago. These two pigments have been found in Qin Shihuang's Terracotta Army and the wall paintings at Mogao Grettoes, Dunhuang, and some other famous wall paintings and color pottery figurines. However, emerald green was used many years later. It was reported that emerald green was synthesized by Germany in 1814 and had been widely used in China as watercolor on pith paper works and on scroll paintings since the 1850s. Because painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures stands outside, under sunlight and rain, it must be repaired and repainted in less than fifty years. Therefore, it is not surprising that emerald green was used in them. In recent years, artificial organic materials are increasingly used in painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures. From experiments it was also showed that in the same recolored painting and colored drawing, organic materials are usually in the later layers, but emerald green is in the earlier layers. This work supplies a lot of data for the purpose of selecting restoration materials and identifying painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures with a new method.

  19. A Semi-Empirical Noise Modeling Method for Helicopter Maneuvering Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Eric; Schmitz, Fredric; Sickenberger, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    A new model for Blade-Vortex Interaction noise generation during maneuvering flight is developed in this paper. Acoustic and performance data from both flight and wind tunnels are used to derive a non-dimensional and analytical performance/acoustic model that describes BVI noise in steady flight. The model is extended to transient maneuvering flight (pure pitch and roll transients) by using quasisteady assumptions throughout the prescribed maneuvers. Ground noise measurements, taken during maneuvering flight of a Bell 206B helicopter, show that many of the noise radiation details are captured. The result is a computationally efficient Blade-Vortex Interaction noise model with sufficient accuracy to account for transient maneuvering flight. The code can be run in real time to predict transient maneuver noise and is suitable for use in an acoustic mission-planning tool.

  20. Cassini Orbit Trim Maneuvers at Saturn - Overview of Attitude Control Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since July 1, 2004. To remain on the planned trajectory which maximizes science data return, Cassini must perform orbit trim maneuvers using either its main engine or its reaction control system thrusters. Over 200 maneuvers have been executed on the spacecraft since arrival at Saturn. To improve performance and maintain spacecraft health, changes have been made in maneuver design command placement, in accelerometer scale factor, and in the pre-aim vector used to align the engine gimbal actuator prior to main engine burn ignition. These and other changes have improved maneuver performance execution errors significantly since 2004. A strategy has been developed to decide whether a main engine maneuver should be performed, or whether the maneuver can be executed using the reaction control system.

  1. Maneuvering Rotorcraft Noise Prediction: A New Code for a New Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Bres, Guillaume A.; Perez, Guillaume; Jones, Henry E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the unique aspects of the development of an entirely new maneuver noise prediction code called PSU-WOPWOP. The main focus of the code is the aeroacoustic aspects of the maneuver noise problem, when the aeromechanical input data are provided (namely aircraft and blade motion, blade airloads). The PSU-WOPWOP noise prediction capability was developed for rotors in steady and transient maneuvering flight. Featuring an object-oriented design, the code allows great flexibility for complex rotor configuration and motion (including multiple rotors and full aircraft motion). The relative locations and number of hinges, flexures, and body motions can be arbitrarily specified to match the any specific rotorcraft. An analysis of algorithm efficiency is performed for maneuver noise prediction along with a description of the tradeoffs made specifically for the maneuvering noise problem. Noise predictions for the main rotor of a rotorcraft in steady descent, transient (arrested) descent, hover and a mild "pop-up" maneuver are demonstrated.

  2. Formal Verification of Curved Flight Collision Avoidance Maneuvers: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzer, André; Clarke, Edmund M.

    Aircraft collision avoidance maneuvers are important and complex applications. Curved flight exhibits nontrivial continuous behavior. In combination with the control choices during air traffic maneuvers, this yields hybrid systems with challenging interactions of discrete and continuous dynamics. As a case study illustrating the use of a new proof assistant for a logic for nonlinear hybrid systems, we analyze collision freedom of roundabout maneuvers in air traffic control, where appropriate curved flight, good timing, and compatible maneuvering are crucial for guaranteeing safe spatial separation of aircraft throughout their flight. We show that formal verification of hybrid systems can scale to curved flight maneuvers required in aircraft control applications. We introduce a fully flyable variant of the roundabout collision avoidance maneuver and verify safety properties by compositional verification.

  3. Using the Two-Burn Escape Maneuver for Fast Transfers in the Solar System and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.; Richardson, Georgia A.

    2010-01-01

    The two-burn maneuver to escape the gravitational pull of a central body is described. The maneuver, originally suggested by Hermann Oberth, improves efficiency considerably for a wide range of missions of interest in space exploration and scientific investigation. A clear delineation of when the maneuver is more effective is given, as are methods to extract the most advantage when using the maneuver. Some examples are given of how this maneuver can enable exploration of the outer solar system, near interstellar space, and crewed missions to Mars and beyond. The maneuver has the potential to halve the required infrastructure associated with a crewed mission to Mars and achieve increased solar escape velocities with existing spacecraft technologies.

  4. Development of a Smooth Trajectory Maneuver Method to Accommodate the Ares I Flight Control Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinson, Robin M.; Schmitt, Terri L.; Hanson, John M.

    2008-01-01

    Six degree-of-freedom (DOF) launch vehicle trajectories are designed to follow an optimized 3-DOF reference trajectory. A vehicle has a finite amount of control power that it can allocate to performing maneuvers. Therefore, the 3-DOF trajectory must be designed to refrain from using 100% of the allowable control capability to perform maneuvers, saving control power for handling off-nominal conditions, wind gusts and other perturbations. During the Ares I trajectory analysis, two maneuvers were found to be hard for the control system to implement; a roll maneuver prior to the gravity turn and an angle of attack maneuver immediately after the J-2X engine start-up. It was decided to develop an approach for creating smooth maneuvers in the optimized reference trajectories that accounts for the thrust available from the engines. A feature of this method is that no additional angular velocity in the direction of the maneuver has been added to the vehicle after the maneuver completion. This paper discusses the equations behind these new maneuvers and their implementation into the Ares I trajectory design cycle. Also discussed is a possible extension to adjusting closed-loop guidance.

  5. Development of control laws for a flight test maneuver autopilot for an F-15 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alag, G. S.; Duke, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    An autopilot can be used to provide precise control to meet the demanding requirements of flight research maneuvers with high-performance aircraft. This paper presents the development of control laws within the context of flight test maneuver requirements. The control laws are developed using eigensystem assignment and command generator tracking. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors are chosen to provide the necessary handling qualities, while the command generator tracking enables the tracking of a specified state during the maneuver. The effectiveness of the control laws is illustrated by their application to an F-15 aircraft to ensure acceptable aircraft performance during a maneuver.

  6. Development of control laws for a flight test maneuver autopilot for an F-15 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alag, G. S.; Duke, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    An autopilot can be used to provide precise control to meet the demanding requirements of flight research maneuvers with high-performance aircraft. The development of control laws within the context of flight test maneuver requirements is discussed. The control laws are developed using eigensystem assignment and command generator tracking. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors are chosen to provide the necessary handling qualities, while the command generator tracking enables the tracking of a specified state during the maneuver. The effectiveness of the control laws is illustrated by their application to an F-15 aircraft to ensure acceptable aircraft performance during a maneuver.

  7. Treatment of apogeotropic benign positional vertigo: comparison of therapeutic head-shaking and modified Semont maneuver.

    PubMed

    Oh, S-Y; Kim, Ji-Soo; Jeong, S-H; Oh, Y-M; Choi, K-D; Kim, B-K; Lee, S-H; Lee, H-S; Moon, I-S; Lee, J-J

    2009-08-01

    Several methods of physiotherapy have been advanced for apogeotropic type benign positional vertigo involving the horizontal semicircular canal (HC-BPV). The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic efficacies of the proposed maneuvers in apogeotropic HC-BPV. Using a prospective randomized trial involving seven nationwide dizziness clinics in Korea, we compared the immediate efficacies of head-shaking and modified Semont maneuvers in 103 consecutive patients with apogeotropic HC-BPV. We also determined an additional therapeutic benefit of mastoid oscillation while the patients without response to both maneuvers were performing the Brandt-Daroff exercise. Successful treatment was defined as resolution of positional vertigo and nystagmus, or as transition into geotropic HC-BPV. Results showed that head shaking was more effective than the modified Semont maneuver (37.3 vs. 17.3%, P = 0.02). However, therapeutic efficacy did not differ between the maneuvers after the initial non-responders switched over to the other maneuver (23.3 vs. 25.0%, P = 0.861). Mastoid oscillation provided no additional benefit while the patients without response to both maneuvers were performing the Brandt-Daroff exercise. Most positional vertigos resolved within a week (89.4%) irrespective of the treatment modalities applied and all showed resolution within 28 days. The head-shaking maneuver described here proved more effective than the modified Semont maneuver in treating apogeotropic HC-BPV. Mastoid vibration conferred no additional benefit during the Brandt-Daroff exercise.

  8. Analysis of Transfer Maneuvers from Initial Circular Orbit to a Final Circular or Elliptic Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharaf, M. A.; Saad, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    In the present paper an analysis of the transfer maneuvers from initial circular orbit to a final circular or elliptic orbit was developed to study the problem of impulsive transfers for space missions. It considers planar maneuvers using newly derived equations. With these equations, comparisons of circular and elliptic maneuvers are made. This comparison is important for the mission designers to obtain useful mappings showing where one maneuver is better than the other. In this aspect, we developed this comparison throughout ten results, together with some graphs to show their meaning.

  9. Dynamics and Control of Flexible Spacecraft During and After Slewing Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakad, Y. P.

    1986-01-01

    The dynamics and control of slewing maneuvers of a large flexible spacecraft, namely, NASA Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) test article are studied. The dynamical equations obtained for slewing maneuvers are highly nonlinear and coupled. The maneuver is expressed in terms of four Euler parameters and is specified as the angular displacement about an arbitrary axis. The slew maneuver control problem is developed in terms of rigid-body slewing and suppression of two elastic modes is analyzed using the method of nonlinear decoupling.

  10. Computing and Visualizing Reachable Volumes for Maneuvering Satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, M; de Vries, W H; Pertica, A J; Olivier, S S

    2011-09-11

    Detecting and predicting maneuvering satellites is an important problem for Space Situational Awareness. The spatial envelope of all possible locations within reach of such a maneuvering satellite is known as the Reachable Volume (RV). As soon as custody of a satellite is lost, calculating the RV and its subsequent time evolution is a critical component in the rapid recovery of the satellite. In this paper, we present a Monte Carlo approach to computing the RV for a given object. Essentially, our approach samples all possible trajectories by randomizing thrust-vectors, thrust magnitudes and time of burn. At any given instance, the distribution of the 'point-cloud' of the virtual particles defines the RV. For short orbital time-scales, the temporal evolution of the point-cloud can result in complex, multi-reentrant manifolds. Visualization plays an important role in gaining insight and understanding into this complex and evolving manifold. In the second part of this paper, we focus on how to effectively visualize the large number of virtual trajectories and the computed RV. We present a real-time out-of-core rendering technique for visualizing the large number of virtual trajectories. We also examine different techniques for visualizing the computed volume of probability density distribution, including volume slicing, convex hull and isosurfacing. We compare and contrast these techniques in terms of computational cost and visualization effectiveness, and describe the main implementation issues encountered during our development process. Finally, we will present some of the results from our end-to-end system for computing and visualizing RVs using examples of maneuvering satellites.

  11. Force oscillations simulating breathing maneuvers do not prevent force adaptation.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Chris; Jiao, Yuekan; Seow, Chun Y; Paré, Peter D; Bossé, Ynuk

    2012-07-01

    Airway inflammation in patients with asthma exposes the airway smooth muscle (ASM) to a variety of spasmogens. These spasmogens increase ASM tone, which can lead to force adaptation. Length oscillations of ASM, which occur in vivo due to breathing maneuvers, can attenuate force adaptation. However, in the presence of tone, the force oscillations required to achieve these length oscillations may be unphysiologic (i.e., magnitude greater than the ones achieved due to the swings in transpulmonary pressure required for breathing). In the present study, we applied force oscillations simulating the tension oscillations experienced by the wall of a fourth-generation airway during tidal breathing with or without deep inspirations (DI) to ASM. The goal was to investigate whether force adaptation occurs in conditions mimicking breathing maneuvers. Tone was induced by carbachol (average, 20 nM), and the force-generating capacity of the ASM was assessed at 5-minute intervals before and after carbachol administration using electrical field stimulations (EFS). The results show that force oscillations applied before the introduction of tone had a small effect on the force produced by EFS (declined to 96.8% [P > 0.05] and 92.3% [P < 0.05] with and without DI, respectively). The tone induced by carbachol transiently decreased after a DI and declined significantly (P < 0.05) due to tidal breathing oscillations (25%). These force oscillations did not prevent force adaptation (gain of force of 11.2 ± 2.2 versus 13.5 ± 2.7 and 11.2 ± 3.0% in static versus dynamic conditions with or without DI, respectively). The lack of effect of simulated breathing maneuvers on force adaptation suggests that this gain in ASM force may occur in vivo and could contribute to the development of airway hyperresponsiveness.

  12. Command shaping for residual vibration free crane maneuvers

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.G.; Petterson, B.; Dohrmann, C.; Robinett, R.D.

    1995-07-01

    Cranes used in the construction and transportation industries are generally devices with multiple degrees of freedom including variable load-line length, variable jib length (usually via a trolley), and variable boom angles. Point-to-point payload maneuvers using cranes are performed so as not to excite the spherical pendulum modes of their cable and payload assemblies. Typically, these pendulum modes, although time-varying, exhibit low frequencies. Current crane maneuvers are therefore performed slowly contributing to high construction and transportation costs. This investigation details a general method for applying command shaping to various multiple degree of freedom cranes such that the payload moves to a specified point without residual oscillation. A dynamic programming method is used for general command shaping for optimal maneuvers. Computationally, the dynamic programming approach requires order M calculations to arrive at a solution, where M is the number of discretizations of the input commands. This feature is exploited for the crane command shaping problem allowing for rapid calculation of command histories. Fast generation of commands is a necessity for practical use of command shaping for the applications described in this work. These results are compared to near-optimal solutions where the commands are linear combinations of acceleration pulse basis functions. The pulse shape is required due to hardware requirements. The weights on the basis functions are chosen as the solution to a parameter optimization problem solved using a Recursive Quadratic Programming technique. Simulation results and experimental verification for a variable load-line length rotary crane are presented using both design procedures.

  13. The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle Training Facility visual system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Keith

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) Training Facility (OTF) is to provide effective training for OMV pilots. A critical part of the training environment is the Visual System, which will simulate the video scenes produced by the OMV Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) system. The simulation will include camera models, dynamic target models, moving appendages, and scene degradation due to the compression/decompression of video signal. Video system malfunctions will also be provided to ensure that the pilot is ready to meet all challenges the real-world might provide. One possible visual system configuration for the training facility that will meet existing requirements is described.

  14. Optimal Thrust Vector Control of Coplanar Orbital Evasive Maneuvers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    self- detonation , the target spacecraft must achieve & maximum in-plane change in orbit radius such 0 that it will be outside an explosion’s lethal...term of the differential dx l 6x dx - xdt (7) to combi ? tem iux given dJ ~,f !M+VTOt. r + K~x ]dt, ±* + 1,T&W XT ),dxl dJ~~ ~ =-- -Itf + (XT6x) [ * f...intercept by the threat craft and any possible effects of its self- detonation , the target craft must maneuver in an optimal manner to achieve a maximum

  15. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A data dump is presented containing space shuttle orbiter maneuvering engine performance, weight, envelope, and interface pressure requirements for candidate propellant combinations (NTO/MMH, NTO50-50, LOX/MMH, LOX/50-50, LOX/N2H4, LOX/C3H8, and LOX/RP-1) and cooling concepts (regenerative and dump/film). These data are presented parametrically for the thrust, chamber pressure, nozzle expansion ratio, and engine mixture ratio ranges of interest. Also included is information describing sensitivity to system changes; reliability, maintainability and safety; development programs and associated critical technology areas; engine cost comparisons during development and operation; and ecological effects.

  16. Optimal Aircraft Maneuver against Two Proportional Navigation Guided Missiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Imado, Fumiaki

    Optimal aircraft maneuver against two missiles are studied. In this paper, the problem is formulated as a nonlinear optimal control problem and solved by the steepest ascent method. In order to maximize the miss distance against two missiles simultaneously, a special type of criterion function is employed by introducing a window function. Some examples obtained by our method show reasonable aircraft optimal controls, and verify the validity of our method. Our method will be applied to pursuit-evasion and collision avoidance problems with multi-vehicles.

  17. Baroreflex sensitivity: reliability of baroreflex components of the Valsalva maneuver.

    PubMed

    Palamarchuk, Iryna; Ives, Colleen T; Hachinski, Vladimir; Kimpinski, Kurt

    2014-10-01

    The reliability of the baroreflex sensitivity measurement has not yet been established. Thus, the objective of this study was to define intra-rater reliability of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) measurements of the Valsalva maneuver (VM) in healthy individuals. Twenty-two healthy volunteers underwent VM testing at two time points. Intra-rater reliability was determined by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement and minimal detectable difference. Vagal BRS showed good reliability (ICC=0.84), while alternative adrenergic BRS was moderately reproducible (ICC=0.61). Vagal and alternative adrenergic components of BRS in VM are reliable measurements.

  18. Deep Maneuver: Past Lessons Identified for Future Bold Commanders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    German Deep Maneuver in World War II You hit somebody with your fist and not with your fingers spread.10 Generaloberest Heinz Wilhem Guderian Napoleon...Napoleon’s Russian Campaign (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1991), 219. 20Ibid., 219. 21Ibid., 220. 22Chandler, 196. 33 23Smirnoff, 334. 24Ibid., 335. 25Ibid...cut off but we were able to remain hidden for two days until we were forced to withdraw by a Russian counterattack.”24 John Erikson noted that

  19. Near Earth Asteroid redirect missions based on gravity assist maneuver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledkov, Anton; Shustov, Boris M.; Eismont, Natan; Boyarsky, Michael; Nazirov, Ravil; Fedyaev, Konstantin

    During last years several events attracted world community attention to the hazards of hitting the Earth by sky objects. One of these objects is Apophis asteroid what was expected with nonzero probability to hit the Earth in 2036. Luckily after more precise measurements this event is considered as practically improbable. But the other object has really reached the Earth, entered the atmosphere in the Chelyabinsk area and caused vast damages. After this the hazardous near Earth objects problem received practical confirmation of the necessity to find the methods of its resolution. The methods to prevent collision of the dangerous sky object with the Earth proposed up to now look not practical enough if one mentions such as gravitational tractor or changing the reflectivity of the asteroid surface. Even the method supposing the targeting of the spacecraft to the hazardous object in order to deflect it from initial trajectory by impact does not work because its low mass as compared with the mass of asteroid to be deflected. For example the mass of the Apophis is estimated to be about 40 million tons but the spacecraft which can be launched to intercept the asteroid using contemporary launchers has the mass not more than 5 tons. So the question arises where to find the heavier projectile which is possible to direct to the dangerous object? The answer proposed in our paper is very simple: to search it among small near Earth asteroids. As small ones we suppose those which have the cross section size not more than 12-15 meters and mass not exceeding 1500 -1700 tons. According to contemporary estimates the number of such asteroids is not less than 100000. The other question is how to redirect such asteroid to the dangerous one. In the paper the possibilities are studied to use for that purpose gravity assist maneuvers near Earth. It is shown that even among asteroids included in contemporary catalogue there are the ones which could be directed to the trajectory of the

  20. Robust control for snake maneuver design of missile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Ya; Chen, Xin; Li, Chuntao

    2017-01-01

    For the performance of missile with high Mach number and strongly nonlinear dynamics, this paper uses robust control to design maneuver controller. Robust servomechanism linear quadratic regulator (RSLQR) control is used to form the inner loop and proportional-plus-integral (PI) control is used to provide yawing tracking with no error. Contrast simulations under three types of deviation have been done to confirm robustness of the RSLQR-plus-PI control. Simulation results shows that RSLQR-plus-PI control would resist the disturbance and maintain the properties of the controller, guarantee the robustness and stability of missile more effectively than pure PI control.

  1. OMV: A simplified mathematical model of the orbital maneuvering vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teoh, W.

    1984-01-01

    A model of the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) is presented which contains several simplications. A set of hand controller signals may be used to control the motion of the OMV. Model verification is carried out using a sequence of tests. The dynamic variables generated by the model are compared, whenever possible, with the corresponding analytical variables. The results of the tests show conclusively that the present model is behaving correctly. Further, this model interfaces properly with the state vector transformation module (SVX) developed previously. Correct command sentence sequences are generated by the OMV and and SVX system, and these command sequences can be used to drive the flat floor simulation system at MSFC.

  2. Flight simulator fidelity assessment in a rotorcraft lateral translation maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Malsbury, T.; Atencio, A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A model-based methodology for assessing flight simulator fidelity in closed-loop fashion is exercised in analyzing a rotorcraft low-altitude maneuver for which flight test and simulation results were available. The addition of a handling qualities sensitivity function to a previously developed model-based assessment criteria allows an analytical comparison of both performance and handling qualities between simulation and flight test. Model predictions regarding the existence of simulator fidelity problems are corroborated by experiment. The modeling approach is used to assess analytically the effects of modifying simulator characteristics on simulator fidelity.

  3. Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2010-01-01

    When facing a conjunction between space objects, decision makers must chose whether to maneuver for collision avoidance or not. We apply a well-known decision procedure, the sequential probability ratio test, to this problem. We propose two approaches to the problem solution, one based on a frequentist method, and the other on a Bayesian method. The frequentist method does not require any prior knowledge concerning the conjunction, while the Bayesian method assumes knowledge of prior probability densities. Our results show that both methods achieve desired missed detection rates, but the frequentist method's false alarm performance is inferior to the Bayesian method's

  4. Safe Maneuvering Envelope Estimation Based on a Physical Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombaerts, Thomas J. J.; Schuet, Stefan R.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Acosta, Diana; Kaneshige, John T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a computationally efficient algorithm for estimating the safe maneuvering envelope of damaged aircraft. The algorithm performs a robust reachability analysis through an optimal control formulation while making use of time scale separation and taking into account uncertainties in the aerodynamic derivatives. This approach differs from others since it is physically inspired. This more transparent approach allows interpreting data in each step, and it is assumed that these physical models based upon flight dynamics theory will therefore facilitate certification for future real life applications.

  5. Pseudosteady-state analysis of nonlinear aircraft maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. W.; Schy, A. A.; Johnson, K. G.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical method was developed for studying the combined effects of rotational coupling and nonlinear aerodynamics on aircraft response for specified control inputs. The method involves the simultaneous solution of two nonlinear equations which are functions of angle attack, roll rate, and control inputs. The method was applied to a number of maneuvers for a fighter-type aircraft. Time history responses verified the usefulness of the analysis for predicting a variety of response characteristics caused by interacting nonlinear aerodynamic and inertial effects, including spin conditions.

  6. [Dirofilaria in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Révész, Erzsébet; Markovics, Gabriella; Darabos, Zoltán; Tóth, Ildikó; Fok, Eva

    2008-10-01

    Number of cases of filariasis have been recently reported in the Hungarian medical literature, most of them caused by Dirofilaria repens . Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted filarioid worm in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs and cats. Human infection manifests as either subcutaneous nodules or lung parenchymal disease, which may even be asymptomatic. The authors report a human Dirofilaria repens infection of the abdominal cavity in a 61-year-old man,who underwent laparotomy for acute abdomen. Intraoperatively, local peritonitis was detected caused by a white nemathhelminth, measured 8 cm in size. Histocytology confirmed that the infection was caused by Dirofilaria repens.

  7. Technical aspects of abdominal stomas.

    PubMed

    Link, Brian A; Kropp, Bradley; Frimberger, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    Continent urinary diversion has gained increasing popularity in the pediatric population during the last few decades. In adults, continent diversions are usually needed to replace a bladder after cystectomy for invasive carcinoma. Subsequently, the creation of functional and cosmetically hidden urinary and cecal abdominal stomas has become an integral part of many urinary reconstructive procedures. These techniques, originally developed for pediatric urinary reconstruction have gained increasing popularity for adult patients in need of a continence procedure. In the current manuscript, we review the technical aspects of site selection, mucocutaneous anastomosis, cosmetic appearance, and management of associated complications.

  8. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    K. Intra- abdominal compartment syndrome as a complication of ruptured abdomi- nal aortic aneurysm repair. Am Surg 1989;55:396-402. 6. Sugrue M...00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Author’s personal copy Case Report Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After

  9. Abdominal Mass Secondary to Human Toxocariasis

    PubMed Central

    Ghoroobi, Javad; Khoddami, Maliheh; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Sadeghian, Naser; Mahdavi, Alireza; Hatefi, Sayeh

    2017-01-01

    Toxocariasis is an extensive helminthic infection that leads to visceral larva migrans in humans. A 2.5-year-old girl referred for abdominal mass. She had history of pharyngitis for two weeks. There were no other symptoms. Abdominal examination revealed an irregular solid mass in right lower quadrant (RLQ). Abdominal ultrasonography revealed an echohetrogenic large mass in RLQ, liver, and retroperitoneal area. Abdominal CT scan showed a huge mass. At laparotomy a large retroperitoneal mass that involved right liver lobe, bladder, ileocecal valve, small and large intestines was found. At histopathology diagnosis of toxocariasis was made. PMID:28164001

  10. [Diagnostic imaging and acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-19

    Acute abdominal pain is a common clinical condition. Clinical signs and symptoms can be difficult to interpret, and diagnostic imaging may help to identify intra-abdominal disease. Conventional X-ray, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen vary in usability between common surgical causes of acute abdominal pain. Overall, conventional X-ray cannot confidently diagnose or rule out disease. US and CT are equally trustworthy for most diseases. US with subsequent CT may enhance diagnostic precision. Magnetic resonance seems promising for future use in acute abdominal imaging.

  11. Empyema following intra-abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, K C; Sethia, B; Reece, I J; Davidson, K G

    1984-09-01

    Over the past 9 years, ten patients have presented to the Thoracic Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, with 12 empyemas secondary to intra-abdominal sepsis. In eight patients, the presenting signs and symptoms were wrongly attributed to primary intra-thoracic pathology. All were subsequently found to have intra-abdominal sepsis. The presence of empyema after recent abdominal surgery or abdominal pain strongly suggests a diagnosis of ipsilateral subphrenic abscess. Adequate surgical drainage is essential. In our experience, limited thoracotomy with subdiaphragmatic extension offers the best access to both pleural and subphrenic spaces and provides the greatest chance of eradicating infection on both sides of the diaphragm.

  12. Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

  13. Baroreceptor output during normal and obstructed breathing and Mueller maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, R S; Robotham, J L; Anand, A

    1981-05-01

    Cardiovascular control during asthma and other forms of obstructed breathing has not been extensively investigated. Previous studies in dogs have shown that obstructed breathing or an inspiratory effort against a blocked airway (Mueller maneuver) provoke large oscillations in blood pressure. During the inspiratory phase transmural systolic pressure relative to atmosphere drops initially, but transmural systolic pressure relative to intrathoracic pressure can remain unchanged or even increase. Because the carotid baroreceptors are located in the extrathoracic circulation, whereas the aortic baroreceptors are located in the intrathoracic circulation, and each responds to local transmural arterial pressure, simultaneous baroreceptor output from these two areas was measured in the anesthetized cat during normal and obstructed breathing and during Mueller maneuvers. Both whole-nerve and single-fiber preparations showed a significantly decreased output from the carotid baroreceptors during obstructed inspiratory efforts, whereas aortic baroreceptor output decreased significantly less or not at all. Transmural systolic pressure decreased significantly less in the aorta than in the carotid regions. Further, the aortic baroreceptors were more sensitive to changes in pulse pressure than were the carotid baroreceptors. These results suggest a mechanism for stabilizing the cardiac responses to precipitous falls in blood pressure that occur in obstructed breathing.

  14. Synthetic C-start maneuver in fish-like swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenit, R.; Godoy-Diana, R.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the mechanics of the unsteady fish-like swimming maneuver using a simplified experimental model in a water tank. A flexible foil (which emulates the fish body) is impulsively actuated by rotating a cylindrical rod that holds the foil. This rod constitutes the head of the swimmer and is mounted through the shaft of the driving motor on an rail with an air bearing. The foil is initially positioned at a start angle and then rapidly rotated to a final angle, which coincides with the free-moving direction of the rail. As the foil rotates, it pushes the surrounding fluid, it deforms and stores elastic energy which drive the recovery of the straight body shape after the motor actuation has stopped; during the rotation, a trust force is induced which accelerates the array. We measure the resulting escape velocity and acceleration as a function of the beam stiffness, size, initial angle, etc. Some measurements of the velocity field during the escape were obtained using a PIV technique. The measurements agree well with a simple mechanical model that quantifies the impulse of the maneuver. The objective of this work is to understand the fundamental mechanisms of thrust generation in unsteady fast-start swimming. We acknowledge support of EADS Foundation through the project ``Fluids and elasticity in biomimetic propulsion'' and of the Chaire Total for RZ as a visiting professor at ESPCI ParisTech.

  15. Robust Aerial Object Tracking in High Dynamic Flight Maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussberger, A.; Grabner, H.; van Gool, L.

    2015-08-01

    Integrating drones into the civil airspace is one of the biggest challenges for civil aviation, responsible authorities and involved com- panies around the world in the upcoming years. For a full integration into non-segregated airspace such a system has to provide the capability to automatically detect and avoid other airspace users. Electro-optical cameras have proven to be an adequate sensor to detect all types of aerial objects, especially for smaller ones such as gliders or paragliders. Robust detection and tracking of approaching traffic on a potential collision course is the key component for a successful avoidance maneuver. In this paper we focus on the aerial object tracking during dynamic flight maneuvers of the own-ship where accurate attitude information corresponding to the camera images is essential. Because the 'detect and avoid' functionality typically extends existing autopilot systems the received attitude measurements have unknown delays and dynamics. We present an efficient method to calculate the angular rates from a multi camera rig which we fuse with the delayed attitude measurements. This allows for estimating accurate absolute attitude angles for every camera frame. The proposed method is further integrated into an aerial object tracking framework. A detailed evaluation of the pipeline on real collision encounter scenarios shows that the multi camera rig based attitude estimation enables the correct tracking of approaching traffic during dynamic flight, at which the tracking framework previously failed.

  16. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the orbital maneuvering system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prust, C. D.; Paul, D. J.; Burkemper, V. J.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results for the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) hardware are documented. The OMS provides the thrust to perform orbit insertion, orbit circularization, orbit transfer, rendezvous, and deorbit. The OMS is housed in two independent pods located one on each side of the tail and consists of the following subsystems: Helium Pressurization; Propellant Storage and Distribution; Orbital Maneuvering Engine; and Electrical Power Distribution and Control. The IOA analysis process utilized available OMS hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluted and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was asigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

  17. Large-angle slewing maneuvers for flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, Hon M.; Turner, James D.

    1988-01-01

    A new class of closed-form solutions for finite-time linear-quadratic optimal control problems is presented. The solutions involve Potter's solution for the differential matrix Riccati equation, which assumes the form of a steady-state plus transient term. Illustrative examples are presented which show that the new solutions are more computationally efficient than alternative solutions based on the state transition matrix. As an application of the closed-form solutions, the neighboring extremal path problem is presented for a spacecraft retargeting maneuver where a perturbed plant with off-nominal boundary conditions now follows a neighboring optimal trajectory. The perturbation feedback approach is further applied to three-dimensional slewing maneuvers of large flexible spacecraft. For this problem, the nominal solution is the optimal three-dimensional rigid body slew. The perturbation feedback then limits the deviations from this nominal solution due to the flexible body effects. The use of frequency shaping in both the nominal and perturbation feedback formulations reduces the excitation of high-frequency unmodeled modes. A modified Kalman filter is presented for estimating the plant states.

  18. Drivers’ Visual Search Patterns during Overtaking Maneuvers on Freeway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenhui; Dai, Jing; Pei, Yulong; Li, Penghui; Yan, Ying; Chen, Xinqiang

    2016-01-01

    Drivers gather traffic information primarily by means of their vision. Especially during complicated maneuvers, such as overtaking, they need to perceive a variety of characteristics including the lateral and longitudinal distances with other vehicles, the speed of others vehicles, lane occupancy, and so on, to avoid crashes. The primary object of this study is to examine the appropriate visual search patterns during overtaking maneuvers on freeways. We designed a series of driving simulating experiments in which the type and speed of the leading vehicle were considered as two influential factors. One hundred and forty participants took part in the study. The participants overtook the leading vehicles just like they would usually do so, and their eye movements were collected by use of the Eye Tracker. The results show that participants’ gaze durations and saccade durations followed normal distribution patterns and that saccade angles followed a log-normal distribution pattern. It was observed that the type of leading vehicle significantly impacted the drivers’ gaze duration and gaze frequency. As the speed of a leading vehicle increased, subjects’ saccade durations became longer and saccade angles became larger. In addition, the initial and destination lanes were found to be key areas with the highest visual allocating proportion, accounting for more than 65% of total visual allocation. Subjects tended to more frequently shift their viewpoints between the initial lane and destination lane in order to search for crucial traffic information. However, they seldom directly shifted their viewpoints between the two wing mirrors. PMID:27869764

  19. Valsalva maneuver: Insights into baroreflex modulation of human sympathetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael L.; Eckberg, Dwain L.; Fritsch, Janice M.; Beightol, Larry A.; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A.

    1991-01-01

    Valsalva's maneuver, voluntary forced expiration against a closed glottis, is a well-characterized research tool, used to assess the integrity of human autonomic cardiovascular control. Valsalva straining provokes a stereotyped succession of alternating positive and negative arterial pressure and heart rate changes mediated in part by arterial baroreceptors. Arterial pressure changes result primarily from fluctuating levels of venous return to the heart and changes of sympathetic nerve activity. Muscle sympathetic activity was measured directly in nine volunteers to explore quantitatively the relation between arterial pressure and human sympathetic outflow during pressure transients provoked by controlled graded Valsalva maneuvers. Our results underscore several properties of sympathetic regulation during Valsalva straining. First, muscle sympathetic nerve activity changes as a mirror image of changes in arterial pressure. Second, the magnitude of sympathetic augmentation during Valsalva straining predicts phase 4 arterial pressure elevations. Third, post-Valsalva sympathetic inhibition persists beyond the return of arterial and right atrial pressures to baseline levels which reflects an alteration of the normal relation between arterial pressure and muscle sympathetic activity. Therefore, Valsalva straining may have some utility for investigating changes of reflex control of sympathetic activity after space flight; however, measurement of beat-to-beat arterial pressure is essential for this use. The utility of this technique in microgravity can not be determined from these data. Further investigations are necessary to determine whether these relations are affected by the expansion of intrathoracic blood volume associated with microgravity.

  20. Control System and Flexible Satellite Interaction During Orbit Transfer Maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    daSilva, Adenilson Roberto; GadelhadeSouza, Luiz Carlos

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the interaction between the attitude control system and the flexible structure of an artificial satellite during orbit transfer maneuver has been investigated. The satellite was modeled by a rigid central body with one or more flexible appendages. The dynamics equations were obtained by Lagrangean approach. The flexible appendages were treated as clamped-free beam and its displacement was discretized by assumed- mode method. In order to transfer the satellite, a typical Hohmann transfer and a burn-coast-burn strategy were used and the attitude was controlled by an on-off controller. During transfer procedure a global analysis of satellite has been done, such as: performance of control system, influence of elastic response in control system, thruster firing frequency, fuel consumption and variation of orbital elements. In order to avoid the interaction with structure motion, a control system with bandwidth of one decade bellow the fundamental frequency was used. In the simulations the firing frequency was evaluated in an approximately way but kept below the fundamental frequency of the structure. The control system has kept the attitude below the specifications. As a result, the orbit transfer maneuvering has been done correctly without excessive excitation of flexible appendage.

  1. Muscular Control of Turning and Maneuvering in Jellyfish Bells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Alexander; Miller, Laura; Griffith, Boyce

    2014-11-01

    Jellyfish represent one of the earliest and simplest examples of swimming by a macroscopic organism. Contractions of an elastic bell that expels water are driven by coronal swimming muscles. The re-expansion of the bell is passively driven by stored elastic energy. A current question in jellyfish propulsion is how the underlying neuromuscular organization of their bell allows for maneuvering. Using an immersed boundary framework, we will examine the mechanics of swimming by incorporating material models that are informed by the musculature present in jellyfish into a model of the elastic jellyfish bell in three dimensions. The fully-coupled fluid structure interaction problem is solved using an adaptive and parallelized version of the immersed boundary method (IBAMR). We then use this model to understand how variability in the muscular activation patterns allows for complicated swimming behavior, such as steering. We will compare the results of the simulations with the actual turning maneuvers of several species of jellyfish. Numerical flow fields will also be compared to those produced by actual jellyfish using particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  2. Control and dynamics of a flexible spacecraft during stationkeeping maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, D.; Yocum, J.; Kang, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    A case study of a spacecraft having flexible solar arrays is presented. A stationkeeping attitude control mode using both earth and rate gyro reference signals and a flexible vehicle dynamics modeling and implementation is discussed. The control system is designed to achieve both pointing accuracy and structural mode stability during stationkeeping maneuvers. Reduction of structural mode interactions over the entire mode duration is presented. The control mode using a discrete time observer structure is described to show the convergence of the spacecraft attitude transients during Delta-V thrusting maneuvers without preloading thrusting bias to the onboard control processor. The simulation performance using the three axis, body stabilized nonlinear dynamics is provided. The details of a five body dynamics model are discussed. The spacecraft is modeled as a central rigid body having cantilevered flexible antennas, a pair of flexible articulated solar arrays, and to gimballed momentum wheels. The vehicle is free to undergo unrestricted rotations and translations relative to inertial space. A direct implementation of the equations of motion is compared to an indirect implementation that uses a symbolic manipulation software to generate rigid body equations.

  3. Live Site Demonstrations: Former Pole Mountain Target and Maneuver Area, Laramie, WY. MetalMapper Data Analysis for Pole Mountain Target and Maneuver Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-08

    FINAL REPORT Live Site Demonstrations: Former Pole Mountain Target and Maneuver Area, Laramie, WY MetalMapper Data Analysis for Pole...Mountain Target and Maneuver Area ESTCP Project MR-201157 March 2012 John Baptiste Parsons Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) REPORT ...DOCUMENTATION PAGE Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is

  4. Technical Feasibility of Loitering Lighter-Than-Air Near-Space Maneuvering Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    to loiter an operational payload within this high altitude region using a lighter-than-air maneuvering platform. A parametric analysis was conducted...4. Analysis and Results...requirements to loiter an operational payload in near-space using a lighter-than-air maneuvering platform. A parametric analysis was conducted to

  5. Detail view of the "underside" of the Orbiter Maneuvering/Reaction Control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the "underside" of the Orbiter Maneuvering/Reaction Control Systems pod looking at the two spherical propellant tanks for the Reaction Control System, and the elongated propellant tanks for the Orbiter Maneuvering System. This view was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  6. Orbital Maneuvering System Design and Performance for the Magnetosperic Multiscale Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queen, Steven; Chai, Dean; Placanica, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Once in science mission orbits, the four 0.12-km diameter observatories plan to form a tetrahedron with as little as 4-km of separation between spacecraft. The stated operational goal of maneuvering the fleet is no more often than once every two weeks (on average). Derived maneuvering accuracy requirement levied on the ACS

  7. Simulation of Maneuvering Characteristics of a Destroyer Study Ship Using a Modified Nonlinear Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    propulsion machinery dynamics and the ship equations of motion. The model couples the ship propulsion dynamics equations with nonlinear maneuvering...This report describes an analog computer maneuvering simulation of a destroyer study ship. The mathematical model which is used includes the ship

  8. Close-up view of Hand Held Maneuvering Unit for Gemini 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Close-up view of the Hand Held Maneuvering Unit which will be used by Astronaut David R. Scott during the extravehicular activity on the Gemini 8 space flight. High pressure cold gas released through the unit's nozzles produces the required controlled thrust to maneuver in a zero-gravity environment.

  9. Pose-Angular Tracking of Maneuvering Targets With High Range Resolution (HRR) Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    useful for tracking maneuvering targets . For target identification (ID), range profiles obtained by a high range resolution (HRR) radar are...of moving targets . Keywords: Tracking, Maneuver, Target ID, Pose, HRR. 1 Introduction Compared to conventional tracking with post- detection ...range profile is generated. HRR range profiles have long been used for target identification (ID) or fingerprinting [8, 9, 13, 15]. It has also

  10. Teaching Cardiac Autonomic Function Dynamics Employing the Valsalva (Valsalva-Weber) Maneuver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junqueira, Luiz Fernando, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    In this report, a brief history of the Valsalva (Valsalva-Weber) maneuver is outlined, followed by an explanation on the use of this approach for the evaluation of cardiac autonomic function based on underlying heart rate changes. The most important methodological and interpretative aspects of the Valsalva-Weber maneuver are critically updated,…

  11. Applying Dynamical Systems Theory to Optimize Libration Point Orbit Stationkeeping Maneuvers for WIND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jonathan M.; Petersen, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's WIND mission has been operating in a large amplitude Lissajous orbit in the vicinity of the interior libration point of the Sun-Earth/Moon system since 2004. Regular stationkeeping maneuvers are required to maintain the orbit due to the instability around the collinear libration points. Historically these stationkeeping maneuvers have been performed by applying an incremental change in velocity, or (delta)v along the spacecraft-Sun vector as projected into the ecliptic plane. Previous studies have shown that the magnitude of libration point stationkeeping maneuvers can be minimized by applying the (delta)v in the direction of the local stable manifold found using dynamical systems theory. This paper presents the analysis of this new maneuver strategy which shows that the magnitude of stationkeeping maneuvers can be decreased by 5 to 25 percent, depending on the location in the orbit where the maneuver is performed. The implementation of the optimized maneuver method into operations is discussed and results are presented for the first two optimized stationkeeping maneuvers executed by WIND.

  12. The application of integral performance criteria to the analysis of discrete maneuvers in a driving simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repa, B. S.; Zucker, R. S.; Wierwille, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of vehicle transient response characteristics on driver-vehicle performance in discrete maneuvers as measured by integral performance criteria was investigated. A group of eight ordinary drivers was presented with a series of eight vehicle transfer function configurations in a driving simulator. Performance in two discrete maneuvers was analyzed by means of integral performance criteria. Results are presented.

  13. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access C Appendix C to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF.... 552, App. C Appendix C to Part 552—Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access C Appendix C to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF.... 552, App. C Appendix C to Part 552—Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access...

  15. 46 CFR 35.20-40 - Maneuvering characteristics-T/OC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics-T/OC. 35.20-40 Section 35.20-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-40 Maneuvering characteristics—T/OC. For each ocean and coastwise tankship of 1,600 gross tons...

  16. Characterization of wheelchair maneuvers based on noisy inertial sensor data: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jicheng; Liu, Tao; Jones, Maria; Qian, Gang; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2014-01-01

    A wheelchair user's activity and mobility level is an important indicator of his/her quality of life and health status. To assess the activity and mobility level, wheelchair maneuvering data must be captured and analyzed. Recently, the inertial sensors, such as accelerometers, have been used to collect wheelchair maneuvering data. However, these sensors are sensitive to noises, which can lead to inaccurate analysis results. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of wheelchair maneuvering data and developed a novel machine-learning algorithm, which could classify wheelchair maneuvering data into a series of wheelchair maneuvers. The use of machine-learning techniques empowers our approach to tolerate noises by capturing the patterns of wheelchair maneuvers. Experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm could accurately classify wheelchair maneuvers into eight classes, i.e., stationary, linear acceleration/deceleration, linear constant speed, left/right turns, and left/right spot turns. The fine-grained analysis on wheelchair maneuvering data can depict a more comprehensive picture of wheelchair users' activity and mobility levels, and enable the quantitative analysis of their quality of life and health status.

  17. Effects of a multidisciplinary body weight reduction program on static and dynamic thoraco-abdominal volumes in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    LoMauro, Antonella; Cesareo, Ambra; Agosti, Fiorenza; Tringali, Gabriella; Salvadego, Desy; Grassi, Bruno; Sartorio, Alessandro; Aliverti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize static and dynamic thoraco-abdominal volumes in obese adolescents and to test the effects of a 3-week multidisciplinary body weight reduction program (MBWRP), entailing an energy-restricted diet, psychological and nutritional counseling, aerobic physical activity, and respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET), on these parameters. Total chest wall (VCW), pulmonary rib cage (VRC,p), abdominal rib cage (VRC,a), and abdominal (VAB) volumes were measured on 11 male adolescents (Tanner stage: 3-5; BMI standard deviation score: >2; age: 15.9 ± 1.3 years; percent body fat: 38.4%) during rest, inspiratory capacity (IC) maneuver, and incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer at baseline and after 3 weeks of MBWRP. At baseline, the progressive increase in tidal volume was achieved by an increase in end-inspiratory VCW (p < 0.05) due to increases in VRC,p and VRC,a with constant VAB. End-expiratory VCW decreased with late increasing VRC,p, dynamically hyperinflating VRC,a (p < 0.05), and progressively decreasing VAB (p < 0.05). After MBWRP, weight loss was concentrated in the abdomen and total IC decreased. During exercise, abdominal rib cage hyperinflation was delayed and associated with 15% increased performance and reduced dyspnea at high workloads (p < 0.05) without ventilatory and metabolic changes. We conclude that otherwise healthy obese adolescents adopt a thoraco-abdominal operational pattern characterized by abdominal rib cage hyperinflation as a form of lung recruitment during incremental cycle exercise. Additionally, a short period of MBWRP including RMET is associated with improved exercise performance, lung and chest wall volume recruitment, unloading of respiratory muscles, and reduced dyspnea.

  18. Wild2 approach maneuver strategy used for Stardust spacecraft (extended abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhar, Ramachandra S.; Williams, Kenneth E.; Helfrich, Clifford E.; Kennedy, Brian M.; Carranza, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Stardust, NASA's first dedicated sample return mission to a comet, successfully flew through the comet dust around Wold2 on January 2, 2004. The spacecraft flew within 236 km of the comet, meeting the mission requirement of 250+/- 50 km on flyby distance. Stardust collected dust particles and took several images of the comet while flying close to Wild2. The spacecraft will return to earth with the comet samples on January 15, 2006. To accomplish the above objective, a large Deep Space Maneuver (DSM#) was implemented during June 17 and 18, 2003 and a series of Trajectory Correction Maneuvers (TCMs) were also implemented during the 30 days prior to encounter. Both maneuver design and executions were influenced by number of factors including the small body ephemeris uncertainty, predictability of small forces arising from 3-axis attitude limit cycling and spacecraft slews. Maneuver design processes, including contingency plans, and maneuver performance characteristics, are discussed in this paper.

  19. Teaching cardiac autonomic function dynamics employing the Valsalva (Valsalva-Weber) maneuver.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Luiz Fernando

    2008-03-01

    In this report, a brief history of the Valsalva (Valsalva-Weber) maneuver is outlined, followed by an explanation on the use of this approach for the evaluation of cardiac autonomic function based on underlying heart rate changes. The most important methodological and interpretative aspects of the Valsalva-Weber maneuver are critically updated, and some guidelines are established for simple application of the maneuver in a teaching or research laboratory setting. These include the hemodynamic and cardiac autonomic mechanisms involved, technical aspects such as the intensity and duration of the expiratory straining, frequency of maneuver sessions, training and posture of the individuals tested, different time- and grade change-dependent indexes of heart interval variation, and clinical application of the maneuver.

  20. Abdominal aortic aneurysms in women

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ruby C.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has long been recognized as a condition predominantly afflicting males, with sex-associated differences described for almost every aspect of the disease from pathophysiology and epidemiology to morbidity and mortality. Women are generally spared from AAA formation by the immunomodulating effects of estrogen but once they develop, the natural history of AAAs in women appears to be more aggressive, with more rapid expansion, a higher tendency to rupture at smaller diameters, and higher mortality following rupture. However, simply repairing AAA at smaller diameters in women is a debatable solution, as even elective endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) is fraught with higher morbidity and mortality in women compared to men. The goal of this review is to summarize what is currently known about the effect of gender on AAA presentation, treatment, and outcomes. Additionally, we aim to review current controversies over screening recommendations and threshold for repair in women. PMID:26747679