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Sample records for abdominal emergencies imaging

  1. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. US Emergency Department Trends in Imaging for Pediatric Nontraumatic Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Niles, Lauren M; Goyal, Monika K; Badolato, Gia M; Chamberlain, James M; Cohen, Joanna S

    2017-10-01

    To describe national emergency department (ED) trends in computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound imaging for the evaluation of pediatric nontraumatic abdominal pain from 2007 through 2014. We used data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey to measure trends in CT and ultrasound use among children with nontraumatic abdominal pain. We performed multivariable logistic regression to measure the strength of the association of ED type (pediatric versus general ED) with CT and ultrasound use adjusting for potential confounding variables. Of an estimated 21.1 million ED visits for nontraumatic abdominal pain, 14.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.2%-16.0%) had CT imaging only, 10.9% (95% CI, 9.7%-12.1%) had ultrasound imaging only, and 1.9% (95% CI, 1.4%-2.4%) received both CT and ultrasound. The overall use of CT and ultrasound did not significantly change over the study period ( P trend .63 and .90, respectively). CT use was lower among children treated in pediatric EDs compared with general EDs (adjusted odds ratio 0.34; 95% CI, 0.17-0.69). Conversely, ultrasound use was higher among children treated in pediatric EDs compared with general EDs (adjusted odds ratio 2.14; 95% CI, 1.29-3.55). CT imaging for pediatric patients with nontraumatic abdominal pain has plateaued since 2007 after the steady increase seen in the preceding 9 years. Among this population, an increased likelihood of CT imaging was demonstrated in general EDs compared with pediatric EDs, in which there was a higher likelihood of ultrasound imaging. Dissemination of pediatric-focused radiology protocols to general EDs may help optimize radiation exposure in children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Abdominal Aortic Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Lech, Christie; Swaminathan, Anand

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses abdominal aortic emergencies. There is a common thread of risk factors and causes of these diseases, including age, male gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and connective tissue disorders. The most common presenting symptom of these disorders is pain, usually in the chest, flank, abdomen, or back. Computed tomography scan is the gold standard for diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the aorta in the hemodynamically stable patient. Treatment consists of a combination of blood pressure and heart rate control and, in many cases, emergent surgical intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  6. Pediatric Abdominal Pain: An Emergency Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeremiah; Fox, Sean M

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain is a common complaint that leads to pediatric patients seeking emergency care. The emergency care provider has the arduous task of determining which child likely has a benign cause and not missing the devastating condition that needs emergent attention. This article reviews common benign causes of abdominal pain as well as some of the cannot-miss emergent causes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The value of plain abdominal radiographs in management of abdominal emergencies in Luth.

    PubMed

    Ashindoitiang, J A; Atoyebi, A O; Arogundade, R A

    2008-01-01

    The plain abdominal x-ray is still the first imaging modality in diagnosis of acute abdomen. The aim of this study was to find the value of plain abdominal x-ray in the management of abdominal emergencies seen in Lagos university teaching hospital. The accurate diagnosis of the cause of acute abdominal pain is one of the most challenging undertakings in emergency medicine. This is due to overlapping of clinical presentation and non-specific findings of physical and even laboratory data of the multifarious causes. Plain abdominal radiography is one investigation that can be obtained readily and within a short period of time to help the physician arrive at a correct diagnosis The relevance of plain abdominal radiography was therefore evaluated in the management of abdominal emergencies seen in Lagos over a 12 month period (April 2002 to March 2003). A prospective study of 100 consecutively presenting patients with acute abdominal conditions treated by the general surgical unit of Lagos University Teaching Hospital was undertaken. All patients had supine and erect abdominal x-ray before any therapeutic intervention was undertaken. The diagnostic features of the plain films were compared with final diagnosis to determine the usefulness of the plain x-ray There were 54 males and 46 females (M:F 1.2:1). Twenty-four percent of the patients had intestinal obstruction, 20% perforated typhoid enteritis; gunshot injuries and generalized peritonitis each occurred in 13%, blunt abdominal trauma in 12%, while 8% and 10% had acute appendicitis and perforated peptic ulcer disease respectively. Of 100 patients studied, 54% had plain abdominal radiographs that showed positive diagnostic features. Plain abdominal radiograph showed high sensitivity in patients with intestinal obstruction 100% and perforated peptic ulcer 90% but was less sensitive in patients with perforated typhoid, acute appendicitis, and blunt abdominal trauma and generalized peritonitis. In conclusion, this study

  8. Don't Forget the Abdominal Wall: Imaging Spectrum of Abdominal Wall Injuries after Nonpenetrating Trauma.

    PubMed

    Matalon, Shanna A; Askari, Reza; Gates, Jonathan D; Patel, Ketan; Sodickson, Aaron D; Khurana, Bharti

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal wall injuries occur in nearly one of 10 patients coming to the emergency department after nonpenetrating trauma. Injuries range from minor, such as abdominal wall contusion, to severe, such as abdominal wall rupture with evisceration of abdominal contents. Examples of specific injuries that can be detected at cross-sectional imaging include abdominal muscle strain, tear, or hematoma, including rectus sheath hematoma (RSH); traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH); and Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) (closed degloving injury). These injuries are often overlooked clinically because of (a) a lack of findings at physical examination or (b) distraction by more-severe associated injuries. However, these injuries are important to detect because they are highly associated with potentially grave visceral and vascular injuries, such as aortic injury, and because their detection can lead to the diagnosis of these more clinically important grave traumatic injuries. Failure to make a timely diagnosis can result in delayed complications, such as bowel hernia with potential for obstruction or strangulation, or misdiagnosis of an abdominal wall neoplasm. Groin injuries, such as athletic pubalgia, and inferior costochondral injuries should also be considered in patients with abdominal pain after nonpenetrating trauma, because these conditions may manifest with referred abdominal pain and are often included within the field of view at cross-sectional abdominal imaging. Radiologists must recognize and report acute abdominal wall injuries and their associated intra-abdominal pathologic conditions to allow appropriate and timely treatment. © RSNA, 2017.

  9. Image mottle in abdominal CT.

    PubMed

    Ende, J F; Huda, W; Ros, P R; Litwiller, A L

    1999-04-01

    To investigate image mottle in conventional CT images of the abdomen as a function of radiographic technique factors and patient size. Water-filled phantoms simulating the abdomens of adult (32 cm in diameter) and pediatric (16 cm in diameter) patients were used to investigate image mottle in CT as a function of x-ray tube potential and mAs. CT images from 39 consecutive patients with noncontrast liver scans and 49 patients with iodine contrast scans were analyzed retrospectively. Measurements were made of the mean liver parenchyma Hounsfield unit value and the corresponding image mottle. For a given water phantom and x-ray tube potential, image mottle was proportional to the mAs-0.5. Increasing the phantom diameter from 16 cm (pediatric) to 32 cm increased the mottle by a factor of 2.4, and increasing the x-ray tube potential from 80 kVp to 140 kVp reduced the mottle by a factor of 2.5. All patients were scanned at 120 kVp, with no correlation between patient size and the x-ray tube mAs. The mean mottle level was 7.8 +/- 2.2 and 10.0 +/- 2.5 for the noncontrast and contrast studies, respectively. An increase in patient diameter of 3 cm would require approximately 65% more mAs to maintain the same level of image mottle. The mottle in abdominal CT images may be controlled by adjusting radiographic technique factors, which should be adjusted to take into account the size of the patient undergoing the examination.

  10. Pocket-sized versus standard ultrasound machines in abdominal imaging.

    PubMed

    Tse, K H; Luk, W H; Lam, M C

    2014-06-01

    The pocket-sized ultrasound machine has emerged as an invaluable tool for quick assessment in emergency and general practice settings. It is suitable for instant and quick assessment in cardiac imaging. However, its applicability in the imaging of other body parts has yet to be established. In this pictorial review, we compared the performance of the pocketsized ultrasound machine against the standard ultrasound machine for its image quality in common abdominal pathology.

  11. [Diagnostic imaging and acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-19

    Acute abdominal pain is a common clinical condition. Clinical signs and symptoms can be difficult to interpret, and diagnostic imaging may help to identify intra-abdominal disease. Conventional X-ray, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen vary in usability between common surgical causes of acute abdominal pain. Overall, conventional X-ray cannot confidently diagnose or rule out disease. US and CT are equally trustworthy for most diseases. US with subsequent CT may enhance diagnostic precision. Magnetic resonance seems promising for future use in acute abdominal imaging.

  12. Bacteriological aspects implicated in abdominal surgical emergencies.

    PubMed

    Israil, A M; Delcaru, C; Palade, R S; Chifiriuc, C; Iordache, C; Vasile, D; Grigoriu, M; Voiculescu, D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish the microbial etiology of abdominal surgical emergencies as well as the relationship between the bacterial etiology and the virulence factors produced by the respective isolated strains. 110 bacterial strains were isolated from 100 randomized clinical cases, operated during 2009-2010 in the First Surgical Clinic of the University Hospital of Bucharest. The clinical cases (sex ratio 52 M/48F aged between 22-85 years old) were classified into three risk groups, as related to their severity. The isolated strains were characterized by cultural, microscopic and biochemical methods. After identification, the bacterial strains were investigated for their virulence potential (adherence to abiotic surface and production of soluble virulence factors). The specimens were collected from different clinical pathologies: diffuse acute peritonitis, biliary duct infections, severe acute pancreatitis followed by septic processes etc. The 110 bacterial (72 aerobic and 38 anaerobic) strains were isolated only in 70 out of 100 cases. Out of these 70 cases, in 45 already submitted to pre-operatory empiric broad spectrum antibiotic therapy, there were isolated 74 strains, whereas in 25 cases without any treatment, there were isolated 36 strains. The etiology was either mono-specific or multi-specific (aerobic-anaerobic associations, especially in old persons). Out of the 30 negative culture cases, 16 were already submitted to pre-operatory parenteral empiric antibiotic therapy at the moment of specimen collection. The aerobic etiology was dominated by Enterobacteriaceae. The most frequent anaerobic species belonged to Clostridium, Peptococcus and Bacteroides genera. It is to be mentioned that the isolation of Bifidobacterium and Veillonella spp. in 11 (10%) severe cases of the studied abdominal surgical emergencies is pleading for the fact that in certain conditions, bacteria belonging usually to commensal gut flora can turn to pathogenic

  13. Molecular Imaging of Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Aneesh K.; Hamilton, Mark; Joshi, Rucha V.; Kline, Benjamin P.; Li, Rui; Wang, Pu; Goergen, Craig J.

    2013-01-01

    Current laboratory research in the field of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease often utilizes small animal experimental models induced by genetic manipulation or chemical application. This has led to the use and development of multiple high-resolution molecular imaging modalities capable of tracking disease progression, quantifying the role of inflammation, and evaluating the effects of potential therapeutics. In vivo imaging reduces the number of research animals used, provides molecular and cellular information, and allows for longitudinal studies, a necessity when tracking vessel expansion in a single animal. This review outlines developments of both established and emerging molecular imaging techniques used to study AAA disease. Beyond the typical modalities used for anatomical imaging, which include ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT), previous molecular imaging efforts have used magnetic resonance (MR), near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF), bioluminescence, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). Mouse and rat AAA models will hopefully provide insight into potential disease mechanisms, and the development of advanced molecular imaging techniques, if clinically useful, may have translational potential. These efforts could help improve the management of aneurysms and better evaluate the therapeutic potential of new treatments for human AAA disease. PMID:23737735

  14. The challenging image-guided abdominal mass biopsy: established and emerging techniques 'if you can see it, you can biopsy it'.

    PubMed

    Sainani, Nisha I; Arellano, Ronald S; Shyn, Paul B; Gervais, Debra A; Mueller, Peter R; Silverman, Stuart G

    2013-08-01

    Image-guided percutaneous biopsy of abdominal masses is among the most commonly performed procedures in interventional radiology. While most abdominal masses are readily amenable to percutaneous biopsy, some may be technically challenging for a number of reasons. Low lesion conspicuity, small size, overlying or intervening structures, motion, such as that due to respiration, are some of the factors that can influence the ability and ultimately the success of an abdominal biopsy. Various techniques or technologies, such as choice of imaging modality, use of intravenous contrast and anatomic landmarks, patient positioning, organ displacement or trans-organ approach, angling CT gantry, triangulation method, real-time guidance with CT fluoroscopy or ultrasound, sedation or breath-hold, pre-procedural image fusion, electromagnetic tracking, and others, when used singularly or in combination, can overcome these challenges to facilitate needle placement in abdominal masses that otherwise would be considered not amenable to percutaneous biopsy. Familiarity and awareness of these techniques allows the interventional radiologist to expand the use of percutaneous biopsy in clinical practice, and help choose the most appropriate technique for a particular patient.

  15. WSES guidelines for emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Emergency repair of complicated abdominal hernias is associated with poor prognosis and a high rate of post-operative complications. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bergamo in July 2013, during the 2nd Congress of the World Society of Emergency Surgery with the goal of defining recommendations for emergency repair of abdominal wall hernias in adults. This document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference approved by a WSES expert panel. PMID:24289453

  16. Segmentation of images of abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Kamath, Markad V; Noseworthy, Michael D; Boylan, Colm; Poehlman, Skip

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal organ segmentation, which is, the delineation of organ areas in the abdomen, plays an important role in the process of radiological evaluation. Attempts to automate segmentation of abdominal organs will aid radiologists who are required to view thousands of images daily. This review outlines the current state-of-the-art semi-automated and automated methods used to segment abdominal organ regions from computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MEI), and ultrasound images. Segmentation methods generally fall into three categories: pixel based, region based and boundary tracing. While pixel-based methods classify each individual pixel, region-based methods identify regions with similar properties. Boundary tracing is accomplished by a model of the image boundary. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the above algorithms with an emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages for abdominal organ segmentation. Several evaluation metrics that compare machine-based segmentation with that of an expert (radiologist) are identified and examined. Finally, features based on intensity as well as the texture of a small region around a pixel are explored. This review concludes with a discussion of possible future trends for abdominal organ segmentation.

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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  18. Plain abdominal radiographs in acute medical emergencies: an abused investigation?

    PubMed

    Feyler, S; Williamson, V; King, D

    2002-02-01

    Plain abdominal radiographs are commonly requested for acute medical emergencies on patients with non-specific abdominal symptoms and signs. In this study 131 plain abdominal radiographs performed on the day of admission were prospectively analysed. In only 16 cases (12%) the reasons for requests conformed to the recommended guidelines by the Royal College of Radiologists. The reason for the request was stated in the case notes in only three cases. In 62 cases (47%), there was no comment made on the film by the requesting clinician. There was a discrepancy in the interpretation of the radiograph between the clinician and the radiologist in 31 cases (24%). The clinical management was influenced by plain abdominal radiographs in only nine cases (7%). The majority of plain abdominal radiographs requested on acute medical emergencies is inappropriate. There is a need to ensure guidelines are followed to prevent unnecessary exposure of patients to radiation as well as preventing expenditure on irrelevant investigations.

  19. Plain abdominal radiographs in acute medical emergencies: an abused investigation?

    PubMed Central

    Feyler, S; Williamson, V; King, D

    2002-01-01

    Plain abdominal radiographs are commonly requested for acute medical emergencies on patients with non-specific abdominal symptoms and signs. In this study 131 plain abdominal radiographs performed on the day of admission were prospectively analysed. In only 16 cases (12%) the reasons for requests conformed to the recommended guidelines by the Royal College of Radiologists. The reason for the request was stated in the case notes in only three cases. In 62 cases (47%), there was no comment made on the film by the requesting clinician. There was a discrepancy in the interpretation of the radiograph between the clinician and the radiologist in 31 cases (24%). The clinical management was influenced by plain abdominal radiographs in only nine cases (7%). The majority of plain abdominal radiographs requested on acute medical emergencies is inappropriate. There is a need to ensure guidelines are followed to prevent unnecessary exposure of patients to radiation as well as preventing expenditure on irrelevant investigations. PMID:11807192

  20. MR imaging evaluation of abdominal pain during pregnancy: appendicitis and other nonobstetric causes.

    PubMed

    Spalluto, Lucy B; Woodfield, Courtney A; DeBenedectis, Carolynn M; Lazarus, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of the cause of abdominal pain in a pregnant patient is particularly difficult because of multiple confounding factors related to normal pregnancy. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is useful in evaluation of abdominal pain during pregnancy, as it offers the benefit of cross-sectional imaging without ionizing radiation or evidence of harmful effects to the fetus. MR imaging is often performed specifically for diagnosis of possible appendicitis, which is the most common illness necessitating emergency surgery in pregnant patients. However, it is important to look for pathologic processes outside the appendix that may be an alternative source of abdominal pain. Numerous entities other than appendicitis can cause abdominal pain during pregnancy, including processes of gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, genitourinary, vascular, and gynecologic origin. MR imaging is useful in diagnosing the cause of abdominal pain in a pregnant patient because of its ability to safely demonstrate a wide range of pathologic conditions in the abdomen and pelvis beyond appendicitis. © RSNA, 2012.

  1. Oedema is associated with clinical outcome following emergency abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Vaughan-Shaw, P G; Saunders, J; Smith, T; King, A T; Stroud, M A

    2013-09-01

    Oedema is observed frequently following surgery and may be associated with worse outcomes. To date, no study has investigated the role of oedema in the emergency surgical patient. This study assesses the incidence of oedema following emergency abdominal surgery and the value of early postoperative oedema measurement in predicting clinical outcome. A prospective cohort study of patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery at a university unit over a two-month period was undertaken. Nutritional and clinical outcome data were collected and oedema was measured in the early postoperative period. Predictors of oedema and outcomes associated with postoperative oedema were identified through univariate and multivariate analysis. Overall, 55 patients (median age: 66 years) were included in the study. Postoperative morbidity included ileus (n=22) and sepsis (n=6) with 12 deaths at follow-up. Postoperative oedema was present in 19 patients and was associated with prolonged perioperative fasting (107 vs 30 hours, p=0.009) but not with body mass index (24 kg/m(2) vs 27 kg/m(2), p=0.169) or preadmission weight loss (5% vs 3%, p=0.923). On multivariate analysis, oedema was independently associated with gastrointestinal recovery (B=6.91, p=0.038), artificial nutritional support requirement (odds ratio: 6.91, p=0.037) and overall survival (χ(2) =13.1, df=1, p=0.001). Generalised oedema is common after emergency abdominal surgery and appears to independently predict gastrointestinal recovery, the need for artificial nutritional support and survival. Oedema is not associated with commonly applied markers of nutritional status such as body mass index or recent weight loss. Measurement of oedema offers utility in identifying those at risk of poor clinical outcome or those requiring artificial nutritional support following emergency abdominal surgery.

  2. Oedema is associated with clinical outcome following emergency abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan-Shaw, PG; Saunders, J; Smith, T; King, AT

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Oedema is observed frequently following surgery and may be associated with worse outcomes. To date, no study has investigated the role of oedema in the emergency surgical patient. This study assesses the incidence of oedema following emergency abdominal surgery and the value of early postoperative oedema measurement in predicting clinical outcome. Methods A prospective cohort study of patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery at a university unit over a two-month period was undertaken. Nutritional and clinical outcome data were collected and oedema was measured in the early postoperative period. Predictors of oedema and outcomes associated with postoperative oedema were identified through univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Overall, 55 patients (median age: 66 years) were included in the study. Postoperative morbidity included ileus (n=22) and sepsis (n=6) with 12 deaths at follow-up. Postoperative oedema was present in 19 patients and was associated with prolonged perioperative fasting (107 vs 30 hours, p=0.009) but not with body mass index (24kg/m2 vs 27kg/m2, p=0.169) or preadmission weight loss (5% vs 3%, p=0.923). On multivariate analysis, oedema was independently associated with gastrointestinal recovery (B=6.91, p=0.038), artificial nutritional support requirement (odds ratio: 6.91, p=0.037) and overall survival (χ2=13.1, df=1, p=0.001). Conclusions Generalised oedema is common after emergency abdominal surgery and appears to independently predict gastrointestinal recovery, the need for artificial nutritional support and survival. Oedema is not associated with commonly applied markers of nutritional status such as body mass index or recent weight loss. Measurement of oedema offers utility in identifying those at risk of poor clinical outcome or those requiring artificial nutritional support following emergency abdominal surgery. PMID:24025285

  3. MR Fingerprinting for Rapid Quantitative Abdominal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Jiang, Yun; Pahwa, Shivani; Ma, Dan; Lu, Lan; Twieg, Michael D.; Wright, Katherine L.; Seiberlich, Nicole; Griswold, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) “fingerprinting” technique for quantitative abdominal imaging. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. To achieve accurate quantification in the presence of marked B0 and B1 field inhomogeneities, the MR fingerprinting framework was extended by using a two-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state free precession, or FISP, acquisition and a Bloch-Siegert B1 mapping method. The accuracy of the proposed technique was validated by using agarose phantoms. Quantitative measurements were performed in eight asymptomatic subjects and in six patients with 20 focal liver lesions. A two-tailed Student t test was used to compare the T1 and T2 results in metastatic adenocarcinoma with those in surrounding liver parenchyma and healthy subjects. Results Phantom experiments showed good agreement with standard methods in T1 and T2 after B1 correction. In vivo studies demonstrated that quantitative T1, T2, and B1 maps can be acquired within a breath hold of approximately 19 seconds. T1 and T2 measurements were compatible with those in the literature. Representative values included the following: liver, 745 msec ± 65 (standard deviation) and 31 msec ± 6; renal medulla, 1702 msec ± 205 and 60 msec ± 21; renal cortex, 1314 msec ± 77 and 47 msec ± 10; spleen, 1232 msec ± 92 and 60 msec ± 19; skeletal muscle, 1100 msec ± 59 and 44 msec ± 9; and fat, 253 msec ± 42 and 77 msec ± 16, respectively. T1 and T2 in metastatic adenocarcinoma were 1673 msec ± 331 and 43 msec ± 13, respectively, significantly different from surrounding liver parenchyma relaxation times of 840 msec ± 113 and 28 msec ± 3 (P < .0001 and P < .01) and those in hepatic parenchyma in healthy volunteers (745 msec ± 65 and 31 msec ± 6, P < .0001 and P = .021, respectively). Conclusion A rapid technique for quantitative abdominal imaging was developed that

  4. MR Fingerprinting for Rapid Quantitative Abdominal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Jiang, Yun; Pahwa, Shivani; Ma, Dan; Lu, Lan; Twieg, Michael D; Wright, Katherine L; Seiberlich, Nicole; Griswold, Mark A; Gulani, Vikas

    2016-04-01

    To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) "fingerprinting" technique for quantitative abdominal imaging. This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. To achieve accurate quantification in the presence of marked B0 and B1 field inhomogeneities, the MR fingerprinting framework was extended by using a two-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state free precession, or FISP, acquisition and a Bloch-Siegert B1 mapping method. The accuracy of the proposed technique was validated by using agarose phantoms. Quantitative measurements were performed in eight asymptomatic subjects and in six patients with 20 focal liver lesions. A two-tailed Student t test was used to compare the T1 and T2 results in metastatic adenocarcinoma with those in surrounding liver parenchyma and healthy subjects. Phantom experiments showed good agreement with standard methods in T1 and T2 after B1 correction. In vivo studies demonstrated that quantitative T1, T2, and B1 maps can be acquired within a breath hold of approximately 19 seconds. T1 and T2 measurements were compatible with those in the literature. Representative values included the following: liver, 745 msec ± 65 (standard deviation) and 31 msec ± 6; renal medulla, 1702 msec ± 205 and 60 msec ± 21; renal cortex, 1314 msec ± 77 and 47 msec ± 10; spleen, 1232 msec ± 92 and 60 msec ± 19; skeletal muscle, 1100 msec ± 59 and 44 msec ± 9; and fat, 253 msec ± 42 and 77 msec ± 16, respectively. T1 and T2 in metastatic adenocarcinoma were 1673 msec ± 331 and 43 msec ± 13, respectively, significantly different from surrounding liver parenchyma relaxation times of 840 msec ± 113 and 28 msec ± 3 (P < .0001 and P < .01) and those in hepatic parenchyma in healthy volunteers (745 msec ± 65 and 31 msec ± 6, P < .0001 and P = .021, respectively). A rapid technique for quantitative abdominal imaging was developed that allows simultaneous quantification of multiple tissue

  5. Race and acute abdominal pain in a pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Caperell, Kerry; Pitetti, Raymond; Cross, Keith P

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the demographic and clinical factors of children who present to the pediatric emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain and their outcomes. A review of the electronic medical record of patients 1 to 18 years old, who presented to the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh ED with a complaint of abdominal pain over the course of 2 years, was conducted. Demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as visit outcomes, were reviewed. Subjects were grouped by age, race, and gender. Results of evaluation, treatment, and clinical outcomes were compared between groups by using multivariate analysis and recursive partitioning. There were 9424 patient visits during the study period that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Female gender comprised 61% of African American children compared with 52% of white children. Insurance was characterized as private for 75% of white and 37% of African American children. A diagnosis of appendicitis was present in 1.9% of African American children and 5.1% of white children. Older children were more likely to be admitted and have an operation associated with their ED visit. Appendicitis was uncommon in younger children. Constipation was commonly diagnosed. Multivariate analysis by diagnosis as well as recursive partitioning analysis did not reflect any racial differences in evaluation, treatment, or outcome. Constipation is the most common diagnosis in children presenting with abdominal pain. Our data demonstrate that no racial differences exist in the evaluation, treatment, and disposition of children with abdominal pain.

  6. Automated anatomical labeling method for abdominal arteries extracted from 3D abdominal CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Masahiro; Hoang, Bui Huy; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Mori, Kensaku

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents an automated anatomical labeling method of abdominal arteries. In abdominal surgery, understanding of blood vessel structure concerning with a target organ is very important. Branching pattern of blood vessels differs among individuals. It is required to develop a system that can assist understanding of a blood vessel structure and anatomical names of blood vessels of a patient. Previous anatomical labbeling methods for abdominal arteries deal with either of the upper or lower abdominal arteries. In this paper, we present an automated anatomical labeling method of both of the upper and lower abdominal arteries extracted from CT images. We obtain a tree structure of artery regions and calculate feature values for each branch. These feature values include the diameter, curvature, direction, and running vectors of a branch. Target arteries of this method are grouped based on branching conditions. The following processes are separately applied for each group. We compute candidate artery names by using classifiers that are trained to output artery names. A correction process of the candidate anatomical names based on the rule of majority is applied to determine final names. We applied the proposed method to 23 cases of 3D abdominal CT images. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is able to perform nomenclature of entire major abdominal arteries. The recall and the precision rates of labeling are 79.01% and 80.41%, respectively.

  7. Emergency ultrasound-based algorithms for diagnosing blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Dirk; Bauwens, Kai; Rademacher, Grit; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Güthoff, Claas

    2013-07-31

    Ultrasonography is regarded as the tool of choice for early diagnostic investigations in patients with suspected blunt abdominal trauma. Although its sensitivity is too low for definite exclusion of abdominal organ injury, proponents of ultrasound argue that ultrasound-based clinical pathways enhance the speed of primary trauma assessment, reduce the number of computed tomography scans and cut costs. To assess the effects of trauma algorithms that include ultrasound examinations in patients with suspected blunt abdominal trauma. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO), publishers' databases, controlled trials registers and the Internet. Bibliographies of identified articles and conference abstracts were searched for further elligible studies. Trial authors were contacted for further information and individual patient data. The searches were updated in February 2013. randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials (qRCTs). patients with blunt torso, abdominal or multiple trauma undergoing diagnostic investigations for abdominal organ injury. diagnostic algorithms comprising emergency ultrasonography (US). diagnostic algorithms without ultrasound examinations (for example, primary computed tomography [CT] or diagnostic peritoneal lavage [DPL]). mortality, use of CT and DPL, cost-effectiveness, laparotomy and negative laparotomy rates, delayed diagnoses, and quality of life. Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Where possible, data were pooled and relative risks (RRs), risk differences (RDs) and weighted mean differences, each with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were calculated by fixed- or random-effects modelling, as appropriate. We identified four studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Overall, trials were of moderate methodological quality. Few trial authors responded to

  8. Interhospital transfer delays emergency abdominal surgery and prolongs stay.

    PubMed

    Limmer, Alexandra M; Edye, Michael B

    2017-11-01

    Interhospital transfer of patients requiring emergency surgery is common practice. It has the potential to delay surgical intervention, increase rate of complications and thus length of hospital stay. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of adult patients who underwent emergency surgery for abdominal pain at a large metropolitan hospital in New South Wales (Hospital A) in 2013. The impact of interhospital transfer on time to surgical intervention, post-operative length of stay and overall length of stay was assessed. Of the 910 adult patients who underwent emergency surgery for abdominal pain at Hospital A in 2013, 31.9% (n = 290) were transferred by road ambulance from a local district hospital (Hospital B). The leading surgical procedures performed were appendicectomy (n = 299, 32.9%), cholecystectomy (n = 174, 19.1%), gastrointestinal endoscopy (n = 95, 10.4%), cystoscopy (n = 86, 9.5%), hernia repair (n = 45, 4.9%), salpingectomy (n = 19, 2.1%) and oversewing of perforated peptic ulcer (n = 13, 1.4%). Overall, interhospital transfer (n = 290, 31.9%) was associated with increases in mean time to surgical intervention (14.2 h, P < 0.001), post-operative length of stay (1.1 days, P = 0.001) and overall length of stay (1.6 days, P < 0.001). Delayed surgical intervention was observed across all procedure types except surgery for perforated peptic ulcer, where transferred patients underwent surgery within a comparable timeframe to direct admissions. Interhospital transfer delays surgical intervention and increases length of hospital stay. This mandates attention due to the implications for patient outcomes and added burden to the healthcare system. The system did, however, show capability to appropriately expedite surgery for acutely life-threatening cases. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  9. Can abdominal surgical emergencies be treated in an ambulatory setting?

    PubMed

    Genser, L; Vons, C

    2015-12-01

    The performance of emergency abdominal surgery in an outpatient setting is increasingly the order of the day in France. This review evaluates the feasibility and reliability of ambulatory surgical treatment of the most common abdominal emergencies: appendectomy for acute appendicitis and cholecystectomy for acute complications of gallstone disease (acute cholecystitis and gallstone pancreatitis). This study evaluates surgical procedures performed on an ambulatory basis according to the international definition (admission in the morning, discharge in the evening with a hospital stay of less than 12 hours). Just as for elective surgery, eligibility of patients for an ambulatory approach depends on the capacities of the surgical and anesthesia team: to manage the risks, particularly the risk of deferring surgery until the morning); to prevent or treat post-operative symptoms like pain, nausea, vomiting, re-ambulation in order to permit rapid post-operative discharge. Recent studies have shown that appendectomy for non-complicated acute appendicitis can be deferred for up to 12 hours without any increase in danger. Many other studies have shown that early discharge after appendectomy for acute non-complicated appendicitis is feasible and safe. Nonetheless, there is only one published series of truly ambulatory appendectomies. The results were excellent. Patients who presented in the afternoon were brought back for operation the following morning. The appropriate timing for performance of cholecystectomy in patients with acute calculous cholecystitis or gallstone pancreatitis has not been well defined, but is always somewhat delayed relative to the onset of symptoms. To minimize operative complications, cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis should probably be performed between 24 and 72 hours after diagnosis. Cholecystectomy for gallstone pancreatitis should probably not be delayed longer than a week; the need to keep the patient hospitalized during the

  10. Emergency ultrasound-based algorithms for diagnosing blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Dirk; Rademacher, Grit; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Güthoff, Claas; Mutze, Sven

    2015-09-14

    Ultrasonography (performed by means of a four-quadrant, focused assessment of sonography for trauma (FAST)) is regarded as a key instrument for the initial assessment of patients with suspected blunt abdominal and thoraco-abdominal trauma in the emergency department setting. FAST has a high specificity but low sensitivity in detecting and excluding visceral injuries. Proponents of FAST argue that ultrasound-based clinical pathways enhance the speed of primary trauma assessment, reduce the number of unnecessary multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scans, and enable quicker triage to surgical and non-surgical care. Given the proven accuracy, increasing availability of, and indication for, MDCT among patients with blunt abdominal and multiple injuries, we aimed to compile the best available evidence of the use of FAST-based assessment compared with other primary trauma assessment protocols. To assess the effects of diagnostic algorithms using ultrasonography including in FAST examinations in the emergency department in relation to the early, late, and overall mortality of patients with suspected blunt abdominal trauma. The most recent search was run on 30th June 2015. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), ISI Web of Science (SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, CPCI-S, and CPSI-SSH), clinical trials registers, and screened reference lists. Trial authors were contacted for further information and individual patient data. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Participants were patients with blunt torso, abdominal, or multiple trauma undergoing diagnostic investigations for abdominal organ injury. The intervention was diagnostic algorithms comprising emergency ultrasonography (US). The control was diagnostic algorithms without US examinations (for example, primary computed tomography (CT) or diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL)). Outcomes were mortality, use of CT or invasive procedures (DPL

  11. Primary malignant small bowel tumors: an atypical abdominal emergency.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, K. J.; Williams, E. S.; Leffall, L. D.

    1995-01-01

    Primary malignant tumors of the small bowel are uncommon in the United States. They comprise less than 1% of all gastrointestinal malignancies, with an incidence of 2200 cases per year. The clinical presentation of small bowel tumors is frequently insidious and often overlooked by physicians. The low incidence and lack of pathognomonic symptoms are the reasons that the early diagnosis of malignant small bowel tumor is uncommon. To better understand the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, management, and outcome, a review of Howard University patients with primary malignant small bowel tumors between 1970 and 1990 was conducted. Our experience concurs with the reported literature and supports the conclusion that a high index of suspicion is necessary. The diagnosis of a malignant small bowel tumor should be considered in patients with vague chronic abdominal complaints. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7752280

  12. Practical human abdominal fat imaging utilizing electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, T; Maki, K; Katashima, M

    2010-07-01

    The fundamental cause of metabolic syndrome is thought to be abdominal obesity. Accurate diagnosis of abdominal obesity can be done by an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. But CT is expensive, bulky and entails the risks involved with radiation. To overcome such disadvantages, we attempted to develop a measuring device that could apply electrical impedance tomography to abdominal fat imaging. The device has 32 electrodes that can be attached to a subject's abdomen by a pneumatic mechanism. That way, electrode position data can be acquired simultaneously. An applied alternating current of 1.0 mArms was used at a frequency of 500 kHz. Sensed voltage data were carefully filtered to remove noise and processed to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. The image reconstruction software was developed concurrently, applying standard finite element methods and the Marquardt method to solve the mathematical inverse problem. The results of preliminary experiments showed that abdominal subcutaneous fat and the muscle surrounding the viscera could be imaged in humans. While our imaging of visceral fat was not of sufficient quality, it was suggested that we will be able to develop a safe and practical abdominal fat scanner through future improvements.

  13. Abdominal calcifications and diagnostic imaging decision making: a topic review

    PubMed Central

    Bassano, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review commonly encountered calcifications found within the abdomen as seen on the lumbar spine radiograph and to determine which advanced imaging modality is best to thoroughly assess the patient. Methods Searches of electronic databases and textbooks were conducted to construct this narrative overview. Discussion By categorizing the type of calcification and localizing it anatomically, most often a definitive diagnosis can be reached. Two commonly encountered conditions, abdominal aortic aneurysms and urinary calculi, are used to compare the main advanced imaging modalities (diagnostic ultrasound and computed tomography) used to further assess abdominal calcifications. Conclusion In most circumstances, either diagnostic ultrasound or computed tomography will establish a definitive diagnosis and offer thorough imaging assessment for abdominal calcifications. PMID:19674671

  14. Image-Guided Abdominal Surgery and Therapy Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Robert L.; Herrell, S. Duke; Miga, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    Image-Guided Surgery has become the standard of care in intracranial neurosurgery providing more exact resections while minimizing damage to healthy tissue. Moving that process to abdominal organs presents additional challenges in the form of image segmentation, image to physical space registration, organ motion and deformation. In this paper, we present methodologies and results for addressing these challenges in two specific organs: the liver and the kidney. PMID:25077012

  15. Sarcopenia increases risk of long-term mortality in elderly patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Erika L; Rios-Diaz, Arturo J; Uyeda, Jennifer W; Castillo-Angeles, Manuel; Cooper, Zara; Olufajo, Olubode A; Salim, Ali; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2017-12-01

    Frailty is associated with poor surgical outcomes in elderly patients but is difficult to measure in the emergency setting. Sarcopenia, or the loss of lean muscle mass, is a surrogate for frailty and can be measured using cross-sectional imaging. We sought to determine the impact of sarcopenia on 1-year mortality after emergency abdominal surgery in elderly patients. Sarcopenia was assessed in patients 70 years or older who underwent emergency abdominal surgery at a single hospital from 2006 to 2011. Average bilateral psoas muscle cross-sectional area at L3, normalized for height (Total Psoas Index [TPI]), was calculated using computed tomography. Sarcopenia was defined as TPI in the lowest sex-specific quartile. Primary outcome was mortality at 1 year. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and mortality at 30, 90, and 180 days. The association of sarcopenia with mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression and model performance judged using Harrell's C-statistic. Two hundred ninety-seven of 390 emergency abdominal surgery patients had preoperative imaging and height. The median age was 79 years, and 1-year mortality was 32%. Sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic patients were comparable in age, sex, race, comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, procedure urgency and type, operative severity, and need for discharge to a nursing facility. Sarcopenic patients had lower body mass index, greater need for intensive care, and longer hospital length of stay (p < 0.05). Sarcopenia was independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality (risk ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-3.7) and mortality at 30 days (hazard ratio [HR], 3.7; 95% CI, 1.9-7.4), 90 days (HR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.8-6.0), 180 days (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4-4.4), and 1 year (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-3.9). Sarcopenia is associated with increased risk of mortality over 1 year in elderly patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery. Sarcopenia defined

  16. [When should a patient with abdominal pain be referred to the emergency ward?].

    PubMed

    de Saussure, Wassila Oulhaci; Andereggen, Elisabeth; Sarasin, François

    2010-08-25

    When should a patient with abdominal pain be referred to the emergency ward? The following goals must be achieved upon managing patients with acute abdominal pain: 1) identify vital emergency situations; 2) detect surgical conditions that require emergency referral without further diagnostic procedures; 3) in "non surgical acute abdomen patients" perform appropriate diagnostic procedures, or in selected cases delay tests and reevaluate the patient after an observation period, after which a referral decision is made. Clues from the history and physical examination are critical to perform this evaluation. A good knowledge of the most frequent acute abdominal conditions, and identifying potential severity criteria allow an appropriate management and decision about emergency referral.

  17. Computed tomography use among children presenting to emergency departments with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Fahimi, Jahan; Herring, Andrew; Harries, Aaron; Gonzales, Ralph; Alter, Harrison

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate trends in and factors associated with computed tomography (CT) use among children presenting to the emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain. This study was a cross-sectional, secondary analysis of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data from 1998 to 2008. We identified ED patients aged <19 years with abdominal pain and collected patient demographic and hospital characteristics, and outcomes related to imaging, hospital admission, and diagnosis of appendicitis. Trend analysis was performed over the study period for the outcomes of interest, and a multivariate regression model was used to identify factors associated with CT use. Of all pediatric ED visits, 6.0% were for abdominal pain. We noted a rise in the proportion of these patients with CT use, from 0.9% in 1998 to 15.4% in 2008 (P < .001), with no change in ultrasound/radiograph use, diagnosis of appendicitis, or hospital admission. Older and male patients were more likely to have a CT scan, whereas black children were one-half as likely to undergo a CT scan compared with white children (odds ratio: 0.50 [95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.81]). Admitted children had much higher odds of undergoing a CT scan (odds ratio: 4.11 [95% confidence interval: 2.66-6.35]). There was a plateau in CT use in 2006 to 2008. There was a dramatic increase in the utilization of CT imaging in the ED evaluation of pediatric patients with abdominal pain. Some groups of children may have a differential likelihood of receiving CT scans.

  18. Ring down artefacts on abdominal sonography to predict pulmonary abnormalities in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Tsai, C-L; Wang, H-P; Lien, W-C; Chen, C-C; Lai, T-I; Chen, W-J

    2005-10-01

    Ring down artefacts are sometimes found when emergency physicians perform abdominal ultrasound to differentiate between various abdominal problems. We describe a patient who presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain and whose ultrasound examination showed ring down artefacts posterior to the right hemidiaphragm, which led to the eventual diagnosis of pneumonia. Ring down artefacts on ultrasound may be used to predict pulmonary abnormalities. Awareness of this sonographic finding may assist in accurate diagnosis and administration of appropriate treatment without delay.

  19. Health outcomes in US children with abdominal pain at major emergency departments associated with race and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Wang, Louise; Haberland, Corinna; Thurm, Cary; Bhattacharya, Jay; Park, K T

    2015-01-01

    Over 9.6 million ED visits occur annually for abdominal pain in the US, but little is known about the medical outcomes of these patients based on demographics. We aimed to identify disparities in outcomes among children presenting to the ED with abdominal pain linked to race and SES. Data from 4.2 million pediatric encounters of abdominal pain were analyzed from 43 tertiary US children's hospitals, including 2.0 million encounters in the emergency department during 2004-2011. Abdominal pain was categorized as functional or organic abdominal pain. Appendicitis (with and without perforation) was used as a surrogate for abdominal pain requiring emergent care. Multivariate analysis estimated likelihood of hospitalizations, radiologic imaging, ICU admissions, appendicitis, appendicitis with perforation, and time to surgery and hospital discharge. Black and low income children had increased odds of perforated appendicitis (aOR, 1.42, 95% CI, 1.32- 1.53; aOR, 1.20, 95% CI 1.14 - 1.25). Blacks had increased odds of an ICU admission (aOR, 1.92, 95% CI 1.53 - 2.42) and longer lengths of stay (aHR, 0.91, 95% CI 0.86 - 0.96) than Whites. Minorities and low income also had lower rates of imaging for their appendicitis, including CT scans. The combined effect of race and income on perforated appendicitis, hospitalization, and time to surgery was greater than either separately. Based on race and SES, disparity of health outcomes exists in the acute ED setting among children presenting with abdominal pain, with differences in appendicitis with perforation, length of stay, and time until surgery.

  20. Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Pseudoaneurysm: Is It a Real Emergency?

    PubMed Central

    Massara, Mafalda; Prunella, Roberto; Gerardi, Pasquale; Lillo, Antonio; De Caridi, Giovanni; Serra, Raffaele; Notarstefano, Stefano; Impedovo, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm is a rare but life-threatening condition that occurs due to penetrating or blunt trauma. Clinical manifestations are variable, and the time interval from the initial trauma to diagnosis is variable. A prompt diagnosis and an aggressive management approach are required to avoid catastrophic complications. Possible treatment options are open surgical repair, endovascular repair, pseudoanerysmal sac thrombosis induction through direct thrombin injection, and coil embolization. Here, we present the case of a 75-year-old man affected by an infrarenal abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm presenting with abdominal and lumbar pain for 3 days, who was successfully treated with an endograft. PMID:29515707

  1. Sac Angiography and Glue Embolization in Emergency Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Yuya, E-mail: r06118@hotmail.co.jp; Nishimura, Jun-ichi, E-mail: jun-ichi-n@nifty.com; Hase, Soichiro, E-mail: haseman@hotmail.co.jp

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to demonstrate a sac angiography technique and evaluate the feasibility of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac in emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in hemodynamically unstable patients.MethodsA retrospective case series of three patients in whom sac angiography was performed during emergency EVAR for ruptured AAA was reviewed. After stent graft deployment, angiography within the sac of aneurysm (sac angiography) was performed by manually injecting 10 ml of contrast material through a catheter to identify the presence and site of active bleeding. In two patients, sac angiography revealed active extravasationmore » of the contrast material, and NBCA embolization with a coaxial catheter system was performed to achieve prompt sealing.ResultsSac angiography was successful in all three patients. In the two patients who underwent NBCA embolization for aneurysm sac bleeding, follow-up computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated the accumulation of NBCA consistent with the bleeding site in preprocedural CT images.ConclusionsEVAR is associated with a potential risk of ongoing bleeding from type II or IV endoleaks into the disrupted aneurysm sac in patients with severe coagulopathy. Therefore, sac angiography and NBCA embolization during emergency EVAR may represent a possible technical improvement in the treatment of ruptured AAA in hemodynamically unstable patients.« less

  2. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (160). Levocardia with abdominal situs inversus

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Nor Lenny; Quek, Swee Chye; Seto, Kar Yin; Teo, Lynette Li San

    2015-01-01

    Levocardia (left-sided cardiac apex) with abdominal situs inversus is extremely rare. This is also known as isolated levocardia and is almost always associated with severe forms of congenital heart defects with poor prognosis. We report isolated levocardia in a 13-year-old symptomatic male patient. The purpose of this paper is to outline the imaging features of isolated levocardia and to highlight the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in the diagnosis and management of such cases. Other forms of cardiac malposition, including dextrocardia, mesocardia and criss-cross heart, with chest radiograph and CMR correlation, are also discussed. PMID:25917470

  3. [Unclear Abdominal Pain - Not Always a Gastroenterological Emergency].

    PubMed

    Aschoff, Anna Teresa; Pech, Maciej; Fischbach, Frank; Ricke, Jens; Luani, Blerim; Braun-Dullaeus, Rüdiger Christian; Herold, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    History and admission findings  An 84-year old patient with persistent atrial fibrillation and chronic renal failure received a subcutaneous injection with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) during a hospital stay. Over the course of her hospitalization, the patient developed abdominal pain. There was a marked hematoma at the injection site. A large tumor was palpable in the right abdominal quadrant. Examinations  Due to the significant reduction in hemoglobin, we performed a CT-angiogram of the abdomen. Diagnosis  We were able to visualize an intramuscular hematoma within the rectus abdominis muscle. Therapy and clinical course  After visualization with digital subtraction angiography and application of microcoils and histoacryl-glue, we were able to stop bleeding. After implantation of left atrial appendage occluder, oral anticoagulation therapy could be stopped. Conclusion  LMWH-treated patients with nonspecific abdominal pain should be meticulously examined to exclude iatrogenic abdominal muscle hematoma. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Diagnostic imaging of blunt abdominal trauma in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Miele, Vittorio; Piccolo, Claudia Lucia; Trinci, Margherita; Galluzzo, Michele; Ianniello, Stefania; Brunese, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood, and blunt trauma accounts for 80-90 % of abdominal injuries. The mechanism of trauma is quite similar to that of the adults, but there are important physiologic differences between children and adults in this field, such as the smaller blood vessels and the high vasoconstrictive response, leading to the spreading of a non-operative management. The early imaging of children undergoing a low-energy trauma can be performed by CEUS, a valuable diagnostic tool to demonstrate solid organ injuries with almost the same sensitivity of CT scans; nevertheless, as for as urinary tract injuries, MDCT remains still the technique of choice, because of its high sensitivity and accuracy, helping to discriminate between an intra-peritoneal form a retroperitoneal urinary leakage, requiring two different managements. The liver is the most common organ injured in blunt abdominal trauma followed by the spleen. Renal, pancreatic, and bowel injuries are quite rare. In this review we present various imaging findings of blunt abdominal trauma in children.

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) Imaging of Injuries from Blunt Abdominal Trauma: A Pictorial Essay.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Radhiana; Abd Aziz, Azian

    2010-04-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma can cause multiple internal injuries. However, these injuries are often difficult to accurately evaluate, particularly in the presence of more obvious external injuries. Computed tomography (CT) imaging is currently used to assess clinically stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma. CT can provide a rapid and accurate appraisal of the abdominal viscera, retroperitoneum and abdominal wall, as well as a limited assessment of the lower thoracic region and bony pelvis. This paper presents examples of various injuries in trauma patients depicted in abdominal CT images. We hope these images provide a resource for radiologists, surgeons and medical officers, as well as a learning tool for medical students.

  6. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: pre- and post-procedural imaging.

    PubMed

    Hallett, Richard L; Ullery, Brant W; Fleischmann, Dominik

    2018-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a relatively common, potentially life-threatening disorder. Rupture of AAA is potentially catastrophic with high mortality. Intervention for AAA is indicated when the aneurysm reaches 5.0-5.5 cm or more, when symptomatic, or when increasing in size > 10 mm/year. AAA can be accurately assessed by cross-sectional imaging including computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography. Current options for intervention in AAA patients include open surgery and endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), with EVAR becoming more prevalent over time. Cross-sectional imaging plays a crucial role in AAA surveillance, pre-procedural assessment, and post-EVAR management. This paper will discuss the current role of imaging in the assessment of AAA patients prior to intervention, in evaluation of procedural complications, and in long-term follow-up of EVAR patients.

  7. Novel Molecular Imaging Approaches to Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Risk Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Toczek, Jakub; Meadows, Judith L.; Sadeghi, Mehran M.

    2015-01-01

    Selection of patients for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair is currently based on aneurysm size, growth rate and symptoms. Molecular imaging of biological processes associated with aneurysm growth and rupture, e.g., inflammation and matrix remodeling, could improve patient risk stratification and lead to a reduction in AAA morbidity and mortality. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) magnetic resonance imaging are two novel approaches to AAA imaging evaluated in clinical trials. A variety of other tracers, including those that target inflammatory cells and proteolytic enzymes (e.g., integrin αvβ3 and matrix metalloproteinases), have proven effective in preclinical models of AAA and show great potential for clinical translation. PMID:26763279

  8. Establishment of ultrasound as a diagnostic aid in the referral of patients with abdominal pain in an emergency department – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Liv la Cour; Bækgaard, Emilie Stokholm; Istre, Per Grosen; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Larsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ultrasonography is a noninvasive, cheap, and fast way of assessing abdominal pain in an emergency department. Many physicians working in emergency departments do not have pre-existing ultrasound experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of first-year internship doctors to perform a reliable ultrasound examination on patients with abdominal pain in an emergency setting. Materials and methods This study took place in an emergency department in Denmark. Following a 1-day ultrasound introduction course, three doctors without prior ultrasound experience scanned 45 patients during a 2-month period. The applicability of the examinations was evaluated by subsequent control examination: computed tomography, operation, or ultrasound by a trained radiologist or gynecologist or, in cases where the patient was immediately discharged, by ultrasound image evaluation. Results In 14 out of 21 patients with a control examination, there was diagnostic agreement between the project ultrasound examination and the control. Image evaluation of all patients showed useful images of the gallbladder, kidneys, liver, abdominal aorta, and urinary bladder, but no useful images for either the pancreas or colon. Conclusion With only little formal training, it is possible for first-year internship doctors to correctly visualize some abdominal organs with ultrasonography. However, a longer study time frame, including more patients, and an ultrasound course specifically designed for the purpose of use in an emergency department, is needed to enhance the results. PMID:27147884

  9. 2017 update of the WSES guidelines for emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Birindelli, Arianna; Sartelli, Massimo; Di Saverio, Salomone; Coccolini, Federico; Ansaloni, Luca; van Ramshorst, Gabrielle H; Campanelli, Giampiero; Khokha, Vladimir; Moore, Ernest E; Peitzman, Andrew; Velmahos, George; Moore, Frederick Alan; Leppaniemi, Ari; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Biffl, Walter L; Koike, Kaoru; Kluger, Yoram; Fraga, Gustavo P; Ordonez, Carlos A; Novello, Matteo; Agresta, Ferdinando; Sakakushev, Boris; Gerych, Igor; Wani, Imtiaz; Kelly, Michael D; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Faro, Mario Paulo; Tarasconi, Antonio; Demetrashvili, Zaza; Lee, Jae Gil; Vettoretto, Nereo; Guercioni, Gianluca; Persiani, Roberto; Tranà, Cristian; Cui, Yunfeng; Kok, Kenneth Y Y; Ghnnam, Wagih M; Abbas, Ashraf El-Sayed; Sato, Norio; Marwah, Sanjay; Rangarajan, Muthukumaran; Ben-Ishay, Offir; Adesunkanmi, Abdul Rashid K; Lohse, Helmut Alfredo Segovia; Kenig, Jakub; Mandalà, Stefano; Coimbra, Raul; Bhangu, Aneel; Suggett, Nigel; Biondi, Antonio; Portolani, Nazario; Baiocchi, Gianluca; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Scibé, Rodolfo; Sugrue, Michael; Chiara, Osvaldo; Catena, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    Emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias may be associated with worsen outcome and a significant rate of postoperative complications. There is no consensus on management of complicated abdominal hernias. The main matter of debate is about the use of mesh in case of intestinal resection and the type of mesh to be used. Wound infection is the most common complication encountered and represents an immense burden especially in the presence of a mesh. The recurrence rate is an important topic that influences the final outcome. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bergamo in July 2013 with the aim to define recommendations for emergency repair of abdominal wall hernias in adults. This document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference approved by a WSES expert panel. In 2016, the guidelines have been revised and updated according to the most recent available literature.

  10. Emerging Techniques for Dose Optimization in Abdominal CT

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Joel F.; Goodsitt, Mitchell M.; Al-Hawary, Mahmoud M.; Maturen, Katherine E.; Wasnik, Ashish P.; Pandya, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in computed tomographic (CT) scanning technique such as automated tube current modulation (ATCM), optimized x-ray tube voltage, and better use of iterative image reconstruction have allowed maintenance of good CT image quality with reduced radiation dose. ATCM varies the tube current during scanning to account for differences in patient attenuation, ensuring a more homogeneous image quality, although selection of the appropriate image quality parameter is essential for achieving optimal dose reduction. Reducing the x-ray tube voltage is best suited for evaluating iodinated structures, since the effective energy of the x-ray beam will be closer to the k-edge of iodine, resulting in a higher attenuation for the iodine. The optimal kilovoltage for a CT study should be chosen on the basis of imaging task and patient habitus. The aim of iterative image reconstruction is to identify factors that contribute to noise on CT images with use of statistical models of noise (statistical iterative reconstruction) and selective removal of noise to improve image quality. The degree of noise suppression achieved with statistical iterative reconstruction can be customized to minimize the effect of altered image quality on CT images. Unlike with statistical iterative reconstruction, model-based iterative reconstruction algorithms model both the statistical noise and the physical acquisition process, allowing CT to be performed with further reduction in radiation dose without an increase in image noise or loss of spatial resolution. Understanding these recently developed scanning techniques is essential for optimization of imaging protocols designed to achieve the desired image quality with a reduced dose. © RSNA, 2014 PMID:24428277

  11. Sensitivity and Specificity of Emergency Physicians and Trainees for Identifying Internally Concealed Drug Packages on Abdominal Computed Tomography Scan: Do Lung Windows Improve Accuracy?

    PubMed

    Asha, Stephen Edward; Cooke, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Suspected body packers may be brought to emergency departments (EDs) close to international airports for abdominal computed tomography (CT) scanning. Senior emergency clinicians may be asked to interpret these CT scans. Missing concealed drug packages have important clinical and forensic implications. The accuracy of emergency clinician interpretation of abdominal CT scans for concealed drugs is not known. Limited evidence suggests that accuracy for identification of concealed packages can be increased by viewing CT images on "lung window" settings. To determine the accuracy of senior emergency clinicians in interpreting abdominal CT scans for concealed drugs, and to determine if this accuracy was improved by viewing scans on both abdominal and lung window settings. Emergency clinicians blinded to all patient identifiers and the radiology report interpreted CT scans of suspected body packers using standard abdominal window settings and then with the addition of lung window settings. The reference standard was the radiologist's report. Fifty-five emergency clinicians reported 235 CT scans. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of interpretation using abdominal windows was 89.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 83.0-94.7), 81.9% (95% CI 73.7-88.4), and 86.0% (95% CI 81.5-90.4), respectively, and with both window settings was 94.1% (95% CI 88.3-97.6), 76.7% (95% CI 68.0-84.1), 85.5% (95% CI 81.0-90.0), respectively. Diagnostic accuracy was similar regardless of the clinician's experience. Interrater reliability was moderate (kappa 0.46). The accuracy of interpretation of abdominal CT scans performed for the purpose of detecting concealed drug packages by emergency clinicians is not high enough to safely discharge these patients from the ED. The use of lung windows improved sensitivity, but at the expense of specificity. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical outcomes of pediatric patients with acute abdominal pain and incidental findings of free intraperitoneal fluid on diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Matz, Samantha; Connell, Mary; Sinha, Madhumita; Goettl, Christopher S; Patel, Palak C; Drachman, David

    2013-09-01

    The presence of free intraperitoneal fluid on diagnostic imaging (sonography or computed tomography [CT]) may indicate an acute inflammatory process in children with abdominal pain in a nontraumatic setting. Although clinical outcomes of pediatric trauma patients with free fluid on diagnostic examinations without evidence of solid-organ injury have been studied, similar studies in the absence of trauma are rare. Our objective was to study clinical outcomes of children with acute abdominal pain of nontraumatic etiology and free intraperitoneal fluid on diagnostic imaging (abdominal/pelvic sonography, CT, or both). We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of children aged 0 to 18 years presenting to a pediatric emergency department with acute abdominal pain (nontraumatic) between April 2008 and March 2009. Patients with intraperitoneal free fluid on imaging were divided into 2 groups: group I, imaging suggestive of an intra-abdominal surgical condition such as appendicitis; and group II, no evidence of an acute surgical condition on imaging, including patients with equivocal studies. Computed tomograms and sonograms were reviewed by a board-certified radiologist, and the free fluid volume was quantitated. Of 1613 patients who underwent diagnostic imaging, 407 were eligible for the study; 134 (33%) had free fluid detected on diagnostic imaging. In patients with both sonography and CT, there was a significant correlation in the free fluid volume (r = 0.79; P < .0005). A significantly greater number of male patients with free fluid had a surgical condition identified on imaging (57.4% versus 25%; P < .001). Children with free fluid and an associated condition on imaging were more likely to have surgery (94.4% versus 6.3%; P < .001). We found clinical outcomes (surgical versus nonsurgical) to be most correlated with a surgical diagnosis on diagnostic imaging and not with the amount of fluid present.

  13. Suspected leaking abdominal aortic aneurysm: use of sonography in the emergency room.

    PubMed

    Shuman, W P; Hastrup, W; Kohler, T R; Nyberg, D A; Wang, K Y; Vincent, L M; Mack, L A

    1988-07-01

    To determine the value of sonography in the emergent evaluation of suspected leaking abdominal aortic aneurysms, the authors examined 60 patients in the emergency department using sonography and a protocol involving advance radio notification from the ambulance; arrival of sonographic personnel and equipment in the triage room before patient arrival; and, during other triage activities, rapid sonographic evaluation of the aorta for aneurysm and of the paraaortic region for extraluminal blood. Sonographic findings were correlated with surgical results and clinical outcome. When performed under these circumstances, sonography was accurate in demonstrating presence or absence of aneurysm (98%), but its sensitivity for extraluminal blood was poor (4%). A combination of sonographic confirmation of aneurysm, abdominal pain, and unstable hemodynamic condition resulted in the correct decision to perform emergent surgery in 21 of 22 patients (95%). An abbreviated sonographic examination done in the emergency room can provide accurate, useful information about the presence of aneurysm; this procedure does not significantly delay triage of these patients.

  14. PACS and teleradiology for on-call support of abdominal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horii, Steven C.; Garra, Brian S.; Mun, Seong K.; Zeman, Robert K.; Levine, Betty A.; Fielding, Robert

    1991-07-01

    One aspect of the Georgetown image management and communications system (IMACS or PACS) is a built-in capability to support teleradiology. Unlike many dedicated teleradiology systems, the support of this capability as a part of PACS means that any acquired images are remotely accessible, not just those specifically input for transmission. Over the past one and one-half years, two radiologists (SCH, BSG) in the abdominal imaging division of the department of radiology have been accumulating experience with teleradiology for on-call support of emergency abdominal imaging, chiefly in ultrasound. As of the time of this writing, use of the system during on-call (one of these attending radiologists primarily responsible) or back-up call (the attending responsible for the Fellow on primary call) has resulted in a marked reduction in the number of times one of them has to drive to the hospital at night or over the weekend. Approximately 80% of the time, use of the teleradiology system obviates having to go in to review a case. The remainder of the time, the radiologist has to perform a procedure (e.g., abscess drainage) or a scan (e.g., complex Doppler study) himself. This paper reviews the system used for teleradiology, how it is electronically and operationally integrated with the PACS, the clinical benefits and disadvantages of this use, and radiologist and referring physician acceptance.

  15. An Abdominal Aorta Wall Extraction for Liver Cirrhosis Classification Using Ultrasonic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takaya; Fujita, Yusuke; Mitani, Yoshihiro; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Segawa, Makoto; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method to extract an abdominal aorta wall from an M-mode image. Furthermore, we propose the use of a Gaussian filter in order to improve image quality. The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter is effective in the abdominal aorta wall extraction.

  16. Fetal anterior abdominal wall defects: prenatal imaging by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Victoria, Teresa; Andronikou, Savvas; Bowen, Diana; Laje, Pablo; Weiss, Dana A; Johnson, Ann M; Peranteau, William H; Canning, Douglas A; Adzick, N Scott

    2018-04-01

    Abdominal wall defects range from the mild umbilical cord hernia to the highly complex limb-body wall syndrome. The most common defects are gastroschisis and omphalocele, and the rarer ones include the exstrophy complex, pentalogy of Cantrell and limb-body wall syndrome. Although all have a common feature of viscera herniation through a defect in the anterior body wall, their imaging features and, more important, postnatal management, differ widely. Correct diagnosis of each entity is imperative in order to achieve appropriate and accurate prenatal counseling and postnatal management. In this paper, we discuss fetal abdominal wall defects and present diagnostic pearls to aid with diagnosis.

  17. Global quality imaging: emerging issues.

    PubMed

    Lau, Lawrence S; Pérez, Maria R; Applegate, Kimberly E; Rehani, Madan M; Ringertz, Hans G; George, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Quality imaging may be described as "a timely access to and delivery of integrated and appropriate procedures, in a safe and responsive practice, and a prompt delivery of an accurately interpreted report by capable personnel in an efficient, effective, and sustainable manner." For this article, radiation safety is considered as one of the key quality elements. The stakeholders are the drivers of quality imaging. These include those that directly provide or use imaging procedures and others indirectly supporting the system. Imaging is indispensable in health care, and its use has greatly expanded worldwide. Globalization, consumer sophistication, communication and technological advances, corporatization, rationalization, service outsourcing, teleradiology, workflow modularization, and commoditization are reshaping practice. This article defines the emerging issues; an earlier article in the May 2011 issue described possible improvement actions. The issues that could threaten the quality use of imaging for all countries include workforce shortage; increased utilization, population radiation exposure, and cost; practice changes; and efficiency drive and budget constraints. In response to these issues, a range of quality improvement measures, strategies, and actions are used to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks. The 3 measures are procedure justification, optimization of image quality and radiation protection, and error prevention. The development and successful implementation of such improvement actions require leadership, collaboration, and the active participation of all stakeholders to achieve the best outcomes that we all advocate. Copyright © 2011 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lead toxicity as an etiology for abdominal pain in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Moriarity, Risa S; Harris, James T; Cox, Robert D

    2014-02-01

    Abdominal pain is an uncommon presentation of lead toxicity in the emergency department (ED). However, making the diagnosis is important in avoiding unnecessary testing and the long-term sequelae of lead toxicity. To illustrate possible presentations of abdominal pain secondary to lead toxicity and highlight the importance of taking a thorough patient history. We report 2 patients who presented to the ED with abdominal pain and underwent extensive evaluations that did not reveal an etiology. At follow-up visits, their occupational histories revealed possible lead exposures from working for a bullet-recycling company. Tests revealed that each patient had extremely high lead levels and they were both treated for lead toxicity. Their abdominal pain resolved as their lead levels decreased. These cases demonstrate a rare but significant cause of abdominal pain in the ED. Although history-taking in the ED is necessarily brief, these cases underscore the importance of obtaining an occupational history. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (133). Retained placenta from an intra-abdominal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Win, T; Tang, P H; Lim, T Y

    2011-01-01

    A 29-year-old Indonesian woman presented with abdominal pain seven months after an intra-abdominal pregnancy. Ultrasonography revealed a cystic mass in the pelvis and magnetic resonance imaging showed an umbilical stump within it, indicating a retained placenta. This was removed surgically, and on histology, an infarcted placenta was confirmed.

  20. Longitudinal trends in the treatment of abdominal pain in an academic emergency department.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Orhan; Jay, Loni; Fosnocht, David; Carey, Jessica; Rogers, LeGrand; Carey, Adrienne; Horne, Benjamin; Madsen, Troy

    2013-09-01

    Abdominal pain is a top chief complaint of patients presenting to Emergency Departments (ED). Historically, uncertainty surrounded correct management. Evidence has shown adequate analgesia does not obscure the diagnosis, making it the standard of care. We sought to evaluate trends in treatment of abdominal pain in an academic ED during a 10-year period. We prospectively evaluated a convenience sample of patients in an urban academic tertiary care hospital ED from September 2000 through April 2010. Adult patients presenting with a chief complaint of abdominal pain were included in this study. Analgesic administration rates and times, pain scores, and patient satisfaction at discharge were analyzed to evaluate trends by year. There were 2,646 patients presenting with abdominal pain who were enrolled during the study period. Rates of analgesic administration generally increased each year from 39.9% in 2000 to 65.5% in 2010 (p value for trend <0.001). Similarly, time to analgesic administration generally decreased by year, from 116 min in 2000 to 81 min in 2009 (p < 0.001). There was no improvement in mean pain scores at discharge by year (p = 0.27) and 48% of patients during the 10-year period still reported moderate to severe pain at discharge. Patient satisfaction with pain treatment increased from a score of 7.1 to 9.0 during the study period (p < 0.005), following the trend of increase in analgesic administration. In patients presenting to the ED with abdominal pain, analgesia administration increased and time to medication decreased during the 10-year period. Despite overall improvements in satisfaction, significant numbers of patients presenting with abdominal pain still reported moderate to severe pain at discharge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance.

    PubMed

    Stensby, J Derek; Baker, Jonathan C; Fox, Michael G

    2016-02-01

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries.

  2. The 100 most cited manuscripts in emergency abdominal surgery: A bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Ellul, Thomas; Bullock, Nicholas; Abdelrahman, Tarig; Powell, Arfon G M T; Witherspoon, Jolene; Lewis, Wyn G

    2017-01-01

    The number of citations a scientific article receives provides a good indication of its impact within any given field. This bibliometric analysis aimed to identify the 100 most cited articles in Emergency Abdominal Surgery (EAS), to highlight key areas of interest and identify those that have most significantly shaped contemporary clinical practice in this newly evolving surgical specialty. This is of increasing relevance as concerns grow regarding the variable and suboptimal outcomes in Emergency General Surgery. The Thomson Reuters Web of Science database was used to search using the terms [Emergency AND Abdom* AND Surg*] to identify all English language, full manuscripts. Results were ranked according to citation number. The top 100 articles were further analysed by subject, author, journal, year of publication, institution, and country of origin. The median (range) citation number of the top 100 out of 7433 eligible papers was 131 (1569-97). The most cited paper (by Goldman et al., Massachusetts General Hospital, New England Journal of Medicine; 1569 citations) focused on cardiac risk stratification in non-cardiac surgery. The Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care published the most papers and received most citations (n = 19; 2954 citations. The majority of papers were published by centres in the USA (n = 52; 9422 citations), followed by the UK (n = 13; 1816 citations). The most common topics of publication concerned abdominal aneurysm management (n = 26) and emergency gastrointestinal surgery (n = 26). Vascular surgery, risk assessment and gastrointestinal surgery were the areas of focus for 59% of the contemporary most cited emergency abdominal surgery manuscripts. By providing the most influential references this work serves as a guide to what makes a citable emergency surgery paper. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reported provision of analgesia to patients with acute abdominal pain in Canadian paediatric emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Poonai, Naveen; Cowie, Allyson; Davidson, Chloe; Benidir, Andréanne; Thompson, Graham C; Boisclair, Philippe; Harman, Stuart; Miller, Michael; Butter, Andreana; Lim, Rod; Ali, Samina

    2016-09-01

    Evidence exists that analgesics are underutilized, delayed, and insufficiently dosed for emergency department (ED) patients with acute abdominal pain. For physicians practicing in a Canadian paediatric ED setting, we (1) explored theoretical practice variation in the provision of analgesia to children with acute abdominal pain; (2) identified reasons for withholding analgesia; and (3) evaluated the relationship between providing analgesia and surgical consultation. Physician members of Paediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC) were prospectively surveyed and presented with three scenarios of undifferentiated acute abdominal pain to assess management. A modified Dillman's Tailored Design method was used to distribute the survey from June to July 2014. Overall response rate was 74.5% (149/200); 51.7% of respondents were female and mean age was 44 (SD 8.4) years. The reported rates of providing analgesia for case scenarios representative of renal colic, appendicitis, and intussusception, were 100%, 92.1%, and 83.4%, respectively, while rates of providing intravenous opioids were 85.2%, 58.6%, and 12.4%, respectively. In all 60 responses where the respondent indicated they would obtain a surgical consultation, analgesia would be provided. In the 35 responses where analgesia would be withheld, 21 (60%) believed pain was not severe enough, while 5 (14.3%) indicated it would obscure a surgical condition. Pediatric emergency physicians self-reported rates of providing analgesia for acute abdominal pain scenarios were higher than previously reported, and appeared unrelated to request for surgical consultation. However, an unwillingness to provide opioid analgesia, belief that analgesia can obscure a surgical condition, and failure to take self-reported pain at face value remain, suggesting that the need exists for further knowledge translation efforts.

  4. Comparison of abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging for detection of abdominal lymphadenopathy in dogs with metastatic apocrine gland adenocarcinoma of the anal sac.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C L; MacKay, C S; Roberts, G D; Fidel, J

    2015-06-01

    Imaging studies in humans with anal and rectal cancer indicate that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a more sensitive technique than abdominal ultrasound (AUS) for the detection of abdominal lymphadenopathy. The purpose of this retrospective study was to directly compare the efficacy of these two techniques in detecting abdominal lymphadenopathy in dogs with apocrine gland adenocarcinoma of the anal sac (AGAAS). Six dogs with histologically confirmed AGAAS and histopathologic confirmation of metastasis to abdominal lymph nodes (LNs) had AUS and abdominal MRI. AUS identified lymphadenopathy in two of six dogs, whereas MRI identified lymphadenopathy in all the six dogs. Lymphadenopathy was predominantly sacral in location, with involvement of the medial iliac and hypogastric LNs in only two cases. These data suggest that MRI is more sensitive than AUS for detecting sacral abdominal lymphadenopathy in dogs with AGAAS. As such, MRI could be considered in any patient with AGAAS for initial staging of this disease. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. [Minilaparoscopy in penetrating abdominal trauma emergency room procedure with local anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Ariel, Peralta; Sebastián, Vélez; Sergio, Locicero; Nicolini, Francisco Florez

    2007-01-01

    There are a number of unnecessary laparotomies in penetrating trauma, with a non worthless percentage of complications. When the peritoneal injury is identified, surgical exploration of the abdomen should be evaluated. Evaluate the penetration of the peritoneum, using a diagnose method with direct vision. Hospital de Urgencias de Córdoba. Trauma Hospital. To evidence peritoneum trespassing, laparoscopy was performed with local anaesthesia in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma without signs of abdominal injury in the imaging methods and doubts in the physical examination, in a prospective setting. Patient with penetrating abdominal trauma, treated between May 2004 to January 2005, with doubtful diagnose of peritoneal violation. Under sedation and local anaesthesia, a 5 millimetres laparoscope with 90 degrees vision was placed at umbilicus. The anterior abdominal wall, flanks and diaphragm were exanimate, looking for the peritoneal wound or free fluid. Laparotomy could be avoided in four patients. In the four remaining, laparoscopy or conventional surgery was performed. Two presented hollow viscera injury, one hemoperitoneo and the other, minimum liver damage. There were not complications in both groups. The average hospital stay of the first group was 13 hours. In selected patients, the minilaparoscopy is useful in decreased the percentage of unnecessary laparotomies and general anaesthesia, and its complications.

  6. Emergency department assessment of abdominal pain: clinical indicator tests for detecting peritonism.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Scott; Watt, Martin

    2005-12-01

    Peritonism is a finding that leads to a more cautious approach in the emergency department management of abdominal pain. This study examined whether peritonism assessment using inspiration, expiration and cough tests was associated with the patient's clinical management. This prospective observational study evaluated consecutive patients presenting directly to the emergency department for 3 months from June 2000 with abdominal pain. Triage initial observations of blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation and temperature were recorded. The examining emergency physician recorded each patient's response and pain score to the individual peritonism tests and scored it as positive if there was an indication of it being a painful manoeuvre. The results were blinded from the receiving specialty if subsequent referral was required. Sixty-seven patients had peritonism tests performed. No individual test was more painful than the others with similar values in pain scores. In all, 70% (7/10) were admitted when all three tests were positive, compared with 21% (12/57) when two or less of the tests scored positive (P=0.004, Fisher's exact test). Admission was not associated with any individual test or combination of tests, or any other variable. The peritonism tests were not associated with any other physiological observation or measurement. These peritonism tests represent a simple investigation, and are significantly associated with admission when all three tests are positive. They seem to be a clinical predictor of cases in which continuing assessment was required, and may be useful as a departmental 'safety net' in the management of abdominal pain.

  7. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery for intra-abdominal emergency conditions.

    PubMed

    Bingener, J; Ibrahim-zada, I

    2014-01-01

    Patient benefits from natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) are of interest in acute-care surgery. This review provides an overview of the historical development of NOTES procedures, and addresses their current uses and limitations for intra-abdominal emergency conditions. A PubMed search was carried out for articles describing NOTES approaches for appendicectomy, percutaneous gastrostomy, hollow viscus perforation and pancreatic necrosectomy. Pertinent articles were reviewed and data on available outcomes synthesized. Emergency conditions in surgery tax the patient's cardiovascular and respiratory systems, and fluid and electrolyte balance. The operative intervention itself leads to an inflammatory response and blood loss, thus adding to the physiological stress. NOTES provides a minimally invasive alternative access to the peritoneal cavity, avoiding abdominal wall incisions. A clear advantage to the patient is evident with the implementation of an endoscopic approach to deal with inadvertently displaced percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes and perforated gastroduodenal ulcer. The NOTES approach appears less invasive for patients with infected pancreatic necrosis, in whom it allows surgical debridement and avoidance of open necrosectomy. Transvaginal appendicectomy is the second most frequently performed NOTES procedure after cholecystectomy. The NOTES concept has provided a change in perspective for intramural and transmural endoscopic approaches to iatrogenic perforations during endoscopy. NOTES approaches have been implemented in clinical practice over the past decade. Selected techniques offer reduced invasiveness for patients with intra-abdominal emergencies, and may improve outcomes. Steady future development and adoption of NOTES are likely to follow as technology improves and surgeons become comfortable with the approaches. © 2013 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Real-time correction of beamforming time delay errors in abdominal ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, K. W.

    2000-04-01

    The speed of sound varies with tissue type, yet commercial ultrasound imagers assume a constant sound speed. Sound speed variation in abdominal fat and muscle layers is widely believed to be largely responsible for poor contrast and resolution in some patients. The simplest model of the abdominal wall assumes that it adds a spatially varying time delay to the ultrasound wavefront. The adequacy of this model is controversial. We describe an adaptive imaging system consisting of a GE LOGIQ 700 imager connected to a multi- processor computer. Arrival time errors for each beamforming channel, estimated by correlating each channel signal with the beamsummed signal, are used to correct the imager's beamforming time delays at the acoustic frame rate. A multi- row transducer provides two-dimensional sampling of arrival time errors. We observe significant improvement in abdominal images of healthy male volunteers: increased contrast of blood vessels, increased visibility of the renal capsule, and increased brightness of the liver.

  9. Abdominal Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Deborah; Weilitz, Pamela Becker

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints by patients, and assessment of abdominal pain and associated symptoms can be challenging for home healthcare providers. Reasons for abdominal pain are related to inflammation, organ distention, and ischemia. The history and physical examination are important to narrow the source of acute or chronic problems, identify immediate interventions, and when necessary, facilitate emergency department care.

  10. [Analysis of images in Japanese book Fukusho-Kiran (Medical Book Focusing on Abdominal Palpation) and Fukusho-Kiran yoku (Supplement to Medical Book Focusing on Abdominal Palpation)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijun; DI, Kan; Song, Yuanliang

    2014-09-01

    Hukusyo-kiran (Medical Book Focusing on Abdominal Palpation) and Hukusyo-kiran yoku (Supplement to Medical Book Focusing on Abdominal Palpation) are two typical monographs of Fukushin (abdominal palpation), with a total of 148 images about abdominal palpation. These images can be divided into 5 kinds: locations, theories, techniques, diseases and medicines, with its own system covering the theories, principles, prescriptions and medicines of abdominal palpation. It can be used as a guide for clinicians to differentiate the locations and qualities of diseases, confirm the principles of treatment, guide the usage of medicines, and predict the prognosis, with the rather high theoretic and academic value, deserving further research and analysis for the modern scholars.

  11. Efficacy of scheduled return visits for emergency department patients with non-specific abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Boendermaker, Annemieke E; Coolsma, Constant W; Emous, Marloes; Ter Avest, Ewoud

    2018-06-02

    Many patients presenting with abdominal pain to emergency departments (EDs) are discharged without a definitive diagnosis. For these patients, often designated as having non-specific abdominal pain, re-evaluation is often advocated. We aimed to investigate how often re-evaluation changes the diagnosis and clinical management and discern factors that could help identify patients likely to benefit from re-evaluation. This was a retrospective study conducted in the Netherlands between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2015 of patients asked to return to the ED after an initial presentation with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain. The primary outcome was a clinically relevant change in treatment (surgery, endoscopy during admission and/or hospitalisation) and diagnosis at ED re-evaluation within 30 hours. During the 2-year study period, 358 ED patients with non-specific abdominal pain were scheduled for re-evaluation. Of these, 14% (11%-18%)) did not present for re-evaluation. Re-evaluation resulted in a clinically relevant change in diagnosis and treatment in, respectively, 21.3% (17%-29%)) and 22.3% (18%-27%)) of the subjects. Of the clinical, biochemical and radiological factors available at the index visit, C reactive protein (CRP) at the index visit predicted a change in treatment (CRP >27 mg/L likelihood ratio (LR)+ 1.69 (1.21-2.36)), while an increase in CRP of >25 mg/L between index and re-evaluation visit (LR+ 2.85 (1.88-4.32)) and the conduct of radiological studies at the re-evaluation visit were associated with changes in treatment (LR+ 3.05 (2.41-3.86)). Re-evaluation within 30 hours for ED patients discharged with non-specific abdominal pain resulted in a clinically relevant change in diagnosis and therapy in almost one-quarter of patients. Elevated CRP at the index visit might assist in correctly identifying patients with a greater likelihood of needing treatment in follow-up, and a low threshold for radiological studies should be considered during

  12. Transfer Learning with Convolutional Neural Networks for Classification of Abdominal Ultrasound Images.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Phillip M; Malhi, Harshawn S

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate transfer learning with deep convolutional neural networks for the classification of abdominal ultrasound images. Grayscale images from 185 consecutive clinical abdominal ultrasound studies were categorized into 11 categories based on the text annotation specified by the technologist for the image. Cropped images were rescaled to 256 × 256 resolution and randomized, with 4094 images from 136 studies constituting the training set, and 1423 images from 49 studies constituting the test set. The fully connected layers of two convolutional neural networks based on CaffeNet and VGGNet, previously trained on the 2012 Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge data set, were retrained on the training set. Weights in the convolutional layers of each network were frozen to serve as fixed feature extractors. Accuracy on the test set was evaluated for each network. A radiologist experienced in abdominal ultrasound also independently classified the images in the test set into the same 11 categories. The CaffeNet network classified 77.3% of the test set images accurately (1100/1423 images), with a top-2 accuracy of 90.4% (1287/1423 images). The larger VGGNet network classified 77.9% of the test set accurately (1109/1423 images), with a top-2 accuracy of VGGNet was 89.7% (1276/1423 images). The radiologist classified 71.7% of the test set images correctly (1020/1423 images). The differences in classification accuracies between both neural networks and the radiologist were statistically significant (p < 0.001). The results demonstrate that transfer learning with convolutional neural networks may be used to construct effective classifiers for abdominal ultrasound images.

  13. Unsupervised quantification of abdominal fat from CT images using Greedy Snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Chirag; Dallal, Ahmed H.; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Patel, Aalpen; Moore, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    Adipose tissue has been associated with adverse consequences of obesity. Total adipose tissue (TAT) is divided into subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Intra-abdominal fat (VAT), located inside the abdominal cavity, is a major factor for the classic obesity related pathologies. Since direct measurement of visceral and subcutaneous fat is not trivial, substitute metrics like waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) are used in clinical settings to quantify obesity. Abdominal fat can be assessed effectively using CT or MRI, but manual fat segmentation is rather subjective and time-consuming. Hence, an automatic and accurate quantification tool for abdominal fat is needed. The goal of this study is to extract TAT, VAT and SAT fat from abdominal CT in a fully automated unsupervised fashion using energy minimization techniques. We applied a four step framework consisting of 1) initial body contour estimation, 2) approximation of the body contour, 3) estimation of inner abdominal contour using Greedy Snakes algorithm, and 4) voting, to segment the subcutaneous and visceral fat. We validated our algorithm on 952 clinical abdominal CT images (from 476 patients with a very wide BMI range) collected from various radiology departments of Geisinger Health System. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind on such a large and diverse clinical dataset. Our algorithm obtained a 3.4% error for VAT segmentation compared to manual segmentation. These personalized and accurate measurements of fat can complement traditional population health driven obesity metrics such as BMI and WC.

  14. Improving pain management of abdominal pain in children presenting to the paediatric emergency department: a pre-post interventional study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Suzanne; Holzhauser, Kerri; Bonney, Donna; Burmeister, Elizabeth; Gilhotra, Yuri; Oliver, Randall; Gordon, Kerry

    2012-08-01

    In 2007, the Mater Children's Hospital Emergency Department participated in the Emergency Care Pain Management Initiative funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council National Institute of Clinical Studies (NHMRC-NICS). The findings of this NHMRC-NICS research across eleven paediatric emergency departments highlighted deficits in pain management of abdominal pain. Specifically pain assessment, timeliness of analgesia, and pain management guidelines were found to be lacking. In response to the NICS report local practice was reviewed and a pilot research project undertaken to develop a clinical guideline for the pain management of abdominal pain in children presenting to the emergency department. The guideline was developed by an expert panel and trialled using a pre and post intervention design. The results demonstrated improved compliance to assessment and documentation of pain scores and assimilation of the best practice principles recommended in the guideline. This project raised local awareness in the pain management of abdominal pain and provides baseline information for future improvement. The guideline has been trialled in the clinical setting of paediatric emergency and has the potential to improve pain management practices in children presenting to the emergency department with abdominal pain. Copyright © 2012 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Open versus laparoscopic approach in the treatment of abdominal emergencies in elderly population

    PubMed Central

    COCORULLO, G.; FALCO, N.; TUTINO, R.; FONTANA, T.; SCERRINO, G.; SALAMONE, G.; LICARI, L.; GULOTTA, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the role of laparoscopy in the treatment of surgical emergency in old population. Patients and Methods Over-70 years-old patients submitted to emergency abdominal surgery from January 2013 to December 2014 were collected and grouped according to admission diagnoses. These accounted small bowel obstruction, colonic acute disease, appendicitis, ventral hernia, gastro-duodenal perforation, biliary disease. In each group it was analyzed the operation time (OT), the morbidity rate and the mortality rate comparing open and laparoscopic management using T-test and Chi-square test. Results 159 over 70-years-old patients underwent emergency surgery in the General and Emergency surgery Operative Unit (O.U.) of the Policlinic of Palermo. 75 patients were managed by a laparoscopic approach and 84 underwent traditional open emergency surgery. T-Test for OT and Chi-square test for morbidity rate and mortality rate showed no differences in small bowel emergencies (p=0,4; 0,250,9; p>0,95) and in gastro-duodenal perforation (p=0,9; p>0.9; p>0.95). In cholecystitis, laparoscopy group showed lower OT (T-Test: p= 0,0002) while Chi-square test for morbidity rate (0,1emergencies in elderly population. PMID:27734793

  16. Intraoperative baseline oxygen consumption as a prognostic factor in emergency open abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Toshiro; Kuramoto, Masafumi; Tanimoto, Hironari; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Ikeshima, Satoshi; Kitano, Yuuki; Kuroda, Daisuke; Shimada, Shinya; Baba, Hideo

    2016-04-01

    A new anesthesia system, the E-CAIOVX (GE Healthcare) enables the continuous monitoring of oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide elimination (VCO2) during the surgical operation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic role of intraoperative baseline VO2 and VCO2 in an emergency open abdominal operation. A total of 103 patients who had an emergency open abdominal operation were enrolled in the study. VO2 and VCO2 were continuously measured from the induction of anesthesia to the end of the operation. There were significant correlations between intraoperative baseline VO2 and body surface area (BSA; P < .001, r = 0.68), VO2 and tidal volume (P < .001, r = 0.59), and VO2 and baseline body temperature (P < .0001, r = 0.49). Also, there were significant correlations between intraoperative baseline VCO2 and BSA (P < .001, r = 0.70), VCO2 and tidal volume (P < .001, r = 0.70), and VCO2 and body temperature (P < .001, r = 0.41). Fifteen (14.6%) of the 103 patients died within 4 months after the operation without having been discharged from hospital. Baseline VO2/BSA was higher in surviving patients (123.7 ± 23.6 mL/min ∙ m(2)) than the deceased (103.8 ± 15.6 mL/min ∙ m(2); P = .002). There was no significant difference in baseline VCO2/BSA levels between surviving (106.2 ± 20.1 mL/min ∙ m(2)) and deceased patients (99.4 ± 21.4 mL/min ∙ m(2)). In multivariate analysis, baseline body temperature lower than 36.2°C (P = .02), serum albumin less than 3.0 g/dL (P = .002), and baseline VO2/BSA less than 111.9 mL/min ∙ m(2) (P = .03) were independent factors. Baseline low VO2/BSA less than 111.9 mL/min ∙ m(2) was one of the poor predictors for the prognosis of an emergency open abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Are we at a crossroads or a plateau? Radiomics and machine learning in abdominal oncology imaging.

    PubMed

    Summers, Ronald M

    2018-05-05

    Advances in radiomics and machine learning have driven a technology boom in the automated analysis of radiology images. For the past several years, expectations have been nearly boundless for these new technologies to revolutionize radiology image analysis and interpretation. In this editorial, I compare the expectations with the realities with particular attention to applications in abdominal oncology imaging. I explore whether these technologies will leave us at a crossroads to an exciting future or to a sustained plateau and disillusionment.

  18. Hepatic toxocariasis: a rare cause of right upper abdominal pain in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Coşkun, Figen; Akıncı, Emine

    2013-01-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are common helminths that reside in the intestinal tract of cats and dogs. Toxocariasis and, commonly, T. canis, is a disease commonly seen in children, which is characterised by hypereosinophilia, hepatomegaly, fever, transient pulmonary infiltration, and hypergammaglobulinaemia. Humans, who are not the actual host for these parasitic worms, are infected following oral intake of the infective eggs. Radiological differentiation of hepatic toxocariasis can be difficult, as liver lesions, which present as multiple hypoechoic lesions with regular borders, can look like a tumour, an infarction or an infection. We report on a case that presented to our emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain. During the initial review, the pathology in the liver was thought to be an infarction or an infection; however, the patient was diagnosed with hepatic toxocariasis following further evaluation.

  19. Body image, nutritional status, abdominal strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness in children and adolescents practicing sports.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Alexandre; Januário, Renata Selvatici B; Casonatto, Juliano; Sonoo, Christi Noriko

    2013-01-01

    To verify the association between nutritional status, physical fitness, and body image in children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 401 students (236 boys and 165 girls) aged between 8 and 16 years that were regularly enrolled in sports in the local clubs. The nutritional status was evaluated by the body mass index. Students were assessed for satisfaction with body image, abdominal strength resistance, and cardiorespiratory fitness. The variables were assessed on the same day following a standardized order. In order to verify relationships between variables, the chi-square test was used. Afterwards, the binary logistic regression was applied to identify the magnitude of the associations, considering p<0.05 as significant. Association was found between body image and body mass index (p=0.001), abdominal strength resistance (p=0.005) and cardiorespiratory fitness (p=0.001). The Odds Ratio for presenting the body image insatisfaction for those who have not achieved the expected values for the health criteria in abdominal strength resistance and cardiorespiratory fitness were 2.14 and 2.42 times respectively, and for those with overweight and obesity, 2.87 times. Insatisfaction with body image is associated with body mass index and also with physical fitness, abdominal strength resistance, and cardiorespiratory fitness variables.

  20. Optimizing diagnostic imaging in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Mills, Angela M; Raja, Ali S; Marin, Jennifer R

    2015-05-01

    While emergency diagnostic imaging use has increased significantly, there is a lack of evidence for corresponding improvements in patient outcomes. Optimizing emergency department (ED) diagnostic imaging has the potential to improve the quality, safety, and outcomes of ED patients, but to date, there have not been any coordinated efforts to further our evidence-based knowledge in this area. The objective of this article is to discuss six aspects of diagnostic imaging to provide background information on the underlying framework for the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization." The consensus conference aims to generate a high priority research agenda for emergency diagnostic imaging that will inform the design of future investigations. The six components herein will serve as the group topics for the conference: 1) patient-centered outcomes research; 2) clinical decision rules; 3) training, education, and competency; 4) knowledge translation and barriers to image optimization; 5) use of administrative data; and 6) comparative effectiveness research: alternatives to traditional CT use. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  1. Improved image quality during abdominal ultrasonography by clebopride + simethicone.

    PubMed

    Varas, M J; López, A

    1991-01-01

    The use of clebopride + simethicone (Flatoril) was assessed as a possible solution to the problem of ultrasound imaging of the pancreas area. A statistically significant improvement was found in head and body imaging of the pancreas (76%). This is due to simethicone's antiflatulence effect and the movement of gas towards the intestine and colon as a result of clebopride's gastrointestinal emptying effect.

  2. Comparison of diagnostic performance between single- and multiphasic contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography in patients admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain: potential radiation dose reduction.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shin Hye; You, Je Sung; Song, Mi Kyong; Choi, Jin-Young; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate feasibility of radiation dose reduction by optimal phase selection of computed tomography (CT) in patients who visited the emergency department (ED) for abdominal pain. We included 253 patients who visited the ED for abdominal pain. They underwent multiphasic CT including precontrast, late arterial phase (LAP), and hepatic venous phase (HVP). Three image sets (HVP, precontrast + HVP, and precontrast + LAP + HVP) were reviewed. Two reviewers determined the most appropriate diagnosis with five-point confidence scale. Diagnostic performances were compared among image sets by weighted-least-squares method or DeLong's method. Linear mixed model was used to assess changes of diagnostic confidence and radiation dose. There was no difference in diagnostic performance among three image sets, although diagnostic confidence level was significantly improved after review of triphasic images compared with both HVP images only or HVP with precontrast images (confidence scale, 4.64 ± 0.05, 4.66 ± 0.05, and 4.76 ± 0.04 in the order of the sets; overall P = 0.0008). Similar trends were observed in the subgroup analysis for diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease and cholecystitis. There is no difference between HVP-CT alone and multiphasic CT for the diagnosis of causes of abdominal pain in patients admitted to the ED without prior chronic disease or neoplasia. • There was no difference in diagnostic performance of HVP CT and multiphasic CT. • The diagnostic confidence level was improved after review of the LAP images. • HVP CT can achieve diagnostic performance similar to that of multiphasic CT, while minimizing radiation.

  3. Frame Rate Considerations for Real-Time Abdominal Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Brian J.; Palmeri, Mark L.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2008-01-01

    With the advent of real-time Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging, elevated frame rates are both desirable and relevant from a clinical perspective. However, fundamental limitations on frame rates are imposed by thermal safety concerns related to incident radiation force pulses. Abdominal ARFI imaging utilizes a curvilinear scanning geometry that results in markedly different tissue heating patterns than those previously studied for linear arrays or mechanically-translated concave transducers. Finite Element Method (FEM) models were used to simulate these tissue heating patterns and to analyze the impact of tissue heating on frame rates available for abdominal ARFI imaging. A perfusion model was implemented to account for cooling effects due to blood flow and frame rate limitations were evaluated in the presence of normal, reduced and negligible tissue perfusions. Conventional ARFI acquisition techniques were also compared to ARFI imaging with parallel receive tracking in terms of thermal efficiency. Additionally, thermocouple measurements of transducer face temperature increases were acquired to assess the frame rate limitations imposed by cumulative heating of the imaging array. Frame rates sufficient for many abdominal imaging applications were found to be safely achievable utilizing available ARFI imaging techniques. PMID:17521042

  4. Illustrated review of new imaging techniques in the diagnosis of abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Toms, A P; Dixon, A K; Murphy, J M; Jamieson, N V

    1999-10-01

    The assessment of abdominal wall hernias has long been a clinical skill that only occasionally required the supplementary radiological assistance of herniography. However, with the advent of cross-sectional imaging, a new range of diagnostic tools is now available to help the clinician in difficult cases. This review explores the ability of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to demonstrate many of the hernias encountered in the anterior abdominal wall. Also discussed is the role of imaging techniques in the management of a variety of hernias. Cross-sectional imaging techniques are being employed with increasing frequency for the assessment of hernias. Although the anatomical detail can usually be delineated clearly, the accuracy of the various methods and their place in the clinical management of hernias has yet to be fully determined.

  5. Optimizing Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Angela M.; Raja, Ali S.; Marin, Jennifer R.

    2015-01-01

    While emergency diagnostic imaging use has increased significantly, there is a lack of evidence for corresponding improvements in patient outcomes. Optimizing emergency department (ED) diagnostic imaging has the potential to improve the quality, safety, and outcomes of ED patients, but to date, there have not been any coordinated efforts to further our evidence-based knowledge in this area. The objective of this article is to discuss six aspects of diagnostic imaging in order to provide background information on the underlying framework for the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, “Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization.” The consensus conference aims to generate a high priority research agenda for emergency diagnostic imaging that will inform the design of future investigations. The six components herein will serve as the group topics for the conference: 1) patient-centered outcomes research; 2) clinical decision rules; 3) training, education, and competency; 4) knowledge translation and barriers to image optimization; 5) use of administrative data; and 6) comparative effectiveness research: alternatives to traditional CT use. PMID:25731864

  6. Association of race and ethnicity with management of abdominal pain in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tiffani J; Weaver, Matthew D; Borrero, Sonya; Davis, Esa M; Myaskovsky, Larissa; Zuckerbraun, Noel S; Kraemer, Kevin L

    2013-10-01

    To determine if race/ethnicity-based differences exist in the management of pediatric abdominal pain in emergency departments (EDs). Secondary analysis of data from the 2006-2009 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey regarding 2298 visits by patients ≤ 21 years old who presented to EDs with abdominal pain. Main outcomes were documentation of pain score and receipt of any analgesics, analgesics for severe pain (defined as ≥ 7 on a 10-point scale), and narcotic analgesics. Secondary outcomes included diagnostic tests obtained, length of stay (LOS), 72-hour return visits, and admission. Of patient visits, 70.1% were female, 52.6% were from non-Hispanic white, 23.5% were from non-Hispanic black, 20.6% were from Hispanic, and 3.3% were from "other" racial/ethnic groups; patients' mean age was 14.5 years. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for confounders revealed that non-Hispanic black patients were less likely to receive any analgesic (odds ratio [OR]: 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43-0.87) or a narcotic analgesic (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.18-0.81) than non-Hispanic white patients (referent group). This finding was also true for non-Hispanic black and "other" race/ethnicity patients with severe pain (ORs [95% CI]: 0.43 [0.22-0.87] and 0.02 [0.00-0.19], respectively). Non-Hispanic black and Hispanic patients were more likely to have a prolonged LOS than non-Hispanic white patients (ORs [95% CI]: 1.68 [1.13-2.51] and 1.64 [1.09-2.47], respectively). No significant race/ethnicity-based disparities were identified in documentation of pain score, use of diagnostic procedures, 72-hour return visits, or hospital admissions. Race/ethnicity-based disparities exist in ED analgesic use and LOS for pediatric abdominal pain. Recognizing these disparities may help investigators eliminate inequalities in care.

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis of splenic enlargement using wave pattern of spleen in abdominal CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Won; Cho, June-Sik; Noh, Seung-Moo; Park, Jong Won

    2006-03-01

    It is known that the spleen accompanied by liver cirrhosis is hypertrophied or enlarged. We have examined a wave pattern at the left boundary of spleen on the abdominal CT images having liver cirrhosis, and found that they are different from those on the images having a normal liver. It is noticed that the abdominal CT images of patient with liver cirrhosis shows strong bending in the wave pattern. In the case of normal liver, the images may also have a wave pattern, but its bends are not strong. Therefore, the total waving area of the spleen with liver cirrhosis is found to be greater than that of the spleen with a normal liver. Moreover, we found that the waves of the spleen from the image with liver cirrhosis have the higher degree of circularity compared to the normal liver case. Based on the two observations above, we propose an automatic method to diagnose splenic enlargement by using the wave pattern of the spleen in abdominal CT images. The proposed automatic method improves the diagnostic performance compared with the conventional process based on the size of spleen.

  8. Evaluation Experiment of Ultrasound Computed Tomography for the Abdominal Sound Speed Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, Keisuke; Yamada, Akira

    2007-07-01

    Abdominal sound speed tomographic imaging using through-transmission travel time data on the body surface was investigated. To this end, a hundred kHz range low-frequency wave was used to reduce the wave attenuation within an inner body medium. A method was investigated for the reconstruction of the image with the smallest possible number of path data around the abdominal surface. Specifically, the data from a strong scattering spinal cord should be avoided. To fulfill the requirement, the smoothed path algebraic reconstruction technique was introduced. The validity of this method was examined both on the numerically synthesized data and the experimentally measured data for the phantom specimen and actual human subject. It was shown that an abdominal tomographic sound speed image could be successfully obtained by preparing only 32 transducer locations at the circumference around the abdominal surface and their combination of less than 100 number of observation path data as well as by avoiding the data intersecting the spinal cord. In addition, fat regions were extracted having a sound speed lower than the threshold value to demonstrate the possibility of this method for metabolic syndrome diagnosis.

  9. Emerging Computer Media: On Image Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippman, Andrew B.

    1982-01-01

    Emerging technologies such as inexpensive, powerful local computing, optical digital videodiscs, and the technologies of human-machine interaction are initiating a revolution in both image storage systems and image interaction systems. This paper will present a review of new approaches to computer media predicated upon three dimensional position sensing, speech recognition, and high density image storage. Examples will be shown such as the Spatial Data Management Systems wherein the free use of place results in intuitively clear retrieval systems and potentials for image association; the Movie-Map, wherein inherently static media generate dynamic views of data, and conferencing work-in-progress wherein joint processing is stressed. Application to medical imaging will be suggested, but the primary emphasis is on the general direction of imaging and reference systems. We are passing the age of simple possibility of computer graphics and image porcessing and entering the age of ready usability.

  10. MR imaging of the pelvis: a guide to incidental musculoskeletal findings for abdominal radiologists.

    PubMed

    Gaetke-Udager, Kara; Girish, Gandikota; Kaza, Ravi K; Jacobson, Jon; Fessell, David; Morag, Yoav; Jamadar, David

    2014-08-01

    Occasionally patients who undergo magnetic resonance imaging for presumed pelvic disease demonstrate unexpected musculoskeletal imaging findings in the imaged field. Such incidental findings can be challenging to the abdominal radiologist, who may not be familiar with their appearance or know the appropriate diagnostic considerations. Findings can include both normal and abnormal bone marrow, osseous abnormalities such as Paget's disease, avascular necrosis, osteomyelitis, stress and insufficiency fractures, and athletic pubalgia, benign neoplasms such as enchondroma and bone island, malignant processes such as metastasis and chondrosarcoma, soft tissue processes such as abscess, nerve-related tumors, and chordoma, joint- and bursal-related processes such as sacroiliitis, iliopsoas bursitis, greater trochanteric pain syndrome, and labral tears, and iatrogenic processes such as bone graft or bone biopsy. Though not all-encompassing, this essay will help abdominal radiologists to identify and describe this variety of pelvic musculoskeletal conditions, understand key radiologic findings, and synthesize a differential diagnosis when appropriate.

  11. Effect of abdominal resistance exercise on abdominal subcutaneous fat of obese women: a randomized controlled trial using ultrasound imaging assessments.

    PubMed

    Kordi, Ramin; Dehghani, Saeed; Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Rostami, Mohsen; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of diet and an abdominal resistance training program to diet alone on abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and waist circumference of overweight and obese women. This randomized clinical trial included 40 overweight and obese women randomly divided into 2 groups: diet only and diet combined with 12 weeks of abdominal resistance training. Waist and hip circumferences and abdominal skin folds of the subjects were measured at the beginning and 12 weeks after the interventions. In addition, abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness of the subjects was measured using ultrasonography. Percentage body fat and lean body mass of all the subjects were also measured using a bioelectric impedance device. After 12 weeks of intervention, the weight of participants in both groups decreased; but the difference between the 2 groups was not significant (P = .45). Similarly, other variables including abdominal subcutaneous fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, body fat percentage, and skin fold thickness were reduced in both groups; but there were no significant differences between the groups. This study found that abdominal resistance training besides diet did not reduce abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness compared to diet alone in overweight or obese women. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Emergency abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with a preferential endovascular strategy: mortality and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Kapma, Marten R; Groen, Henk; Oranen, Bjorn I; van der Hilst, Christian S; Tielliu, Ignace F; Zeebregts, Clark J; Prins, Ted R; van den Dungen, Jan J; Verhoeven, Eric L

    2007-12-01

    To assess mortality and treatment costs of a new management protocol with preferential use of emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (eEVAR) for acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). From September 2003 until February 2005, 49 consecutive patients (45 men; mean age 71 years) with acute AAA were entered into a prospective study of a new management protocol that featured preferential use of eEVAR (n=18); patients with unsuitable anatomy or who were hemodynamically unstable underwent open repair (n=31). Mortality data and costs of treatment were compared in this mixed prospective group to a historical control group consisting of 147 patients (128 men; mean age 71 years) who underwent open repair from January 1998 to December 2001. All direct medical costs were included from the moment of admission until discharge from the hospital. Mortality in the mixed prospective group (18%) was lower than in the historical control group (31%), but the difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.099). The mean total cost in the mixed prospective group was 17,164 euro compared to 21,084 euro in the historical open repair group (p=0.255). A preferential eEVAR protocol for acute AAA can decrease mortality and does not increase overall costs during initial treatment, but larger studies are needed to determine if these trends are statistically significant.

  13. Applications of process improvement techniques to improve workflow in abdominal imaging.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Eric Peter

    2016-03-01

    Major changes in the management and funding of healthcare are underway that will markedly change the way radiology studies will be reimbursed. The result will be the need to deliver radiology services in a highly efficient manner while maintaining quality. The science of process improvement provides a practical approach to improve the processes utilized in radiology. This article will address in a step-by-step manner how to implement process improvement techniques to improve workflow in abdominal imaging.

  14. [Effect of aromatherapy massage on abdominal fat and body image in post-menopausal women].

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Ja

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of aromatherapy massage on abdominal fat and body image in post-menopausal women. A Non-equivalent control group pre-post test Quasi-experimental design of random assignment was applied. All subjects received one hour of whole body massage as treatment by the same researcher every week for 6 weeks. Participants also massaged their own abdomen two times everyday for 5 days each week for 6 weeks. The two groups used different kinds of oil. The experimental group used 3% grapefruit oil, cypress and three other kinds of oil. The control group used grapeseed oil. Data was collected before and after the treatment using Siemens Somatom Sensation 4, a tape measure and MBSRQ. Data was analyzed by ANCOVA using the SPSS/PC+Win 12 Version. Abdominal subcutaneous fat and waist circumference in the experimental group significantly decreased after aromatherapy massage compared to the control group. Body image in the experimental group was significantly better after aromatherapy massage than in the control group. These results suggest that Aromatherapy massage could be utilized as an effective intervention to reduce abdominal subcutaneous fat, waist circumference, and to improve body image in post-menopausal women.

  15. A Novel Diagnostic Aid for Detection of Intra-Abdominal Adhesions to the Anterior Abdominal Wall Using Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Randall, David; Fenner, John; Gillott, Richard; Ten Broek, Richard; Strik, Chema; Spencer, Paul; Bardhan, Karna Dev

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal adhesions can cause serious morbidity and complicate subsequent operations. Their diagnosis is often one of exclusion due to a lack of a reliable, non-invasive diagnostic technique. Development and testing of a candidate technique are described below. Method. During respiration, smooth visceral sliding motion occurs between the abdominal contents and the walls of the abdominal cavity. We describe a technique involving image segmentation and registration to calculate shear as an analogue for visceral slide based on the tracking of structures throughout the respiratory cycle. The presence of an adhesion is attributed to a resistance to visceral slide resulting in a discernible reduction in shear. The abdominal movement due to respiration is captured in sagittal dynamic MR images. Results. Clinical images were selected for analysis, including a patient with a surgically confirmed adhesion. Discernible reduction in shear was observed at the location of the adhesion while a consistent, gradually changing shear was observed in the healthy volunteers. Conclusion. The technique and its validation show encouraging results for adhesion detection but a larger study is now required to confirm its potential.

  16. A Novel Diagnostic Aid for Detection of Intra-Abdominal Adhesions to the Anterior Abdominal Wall Using Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Randall, David; Fenner, John; Gillott, Richard; ten Broek, Richard; Strik, Chema; Spencer, Paul; Bardhan, Karna Dev

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal adhesions can cause serious morbidity and complicate subsequent operations. Their diagnosis is often one of exclusion due to a lack of a reliable, non-invasive diagnostic technique. Development and testing of a candidate technique are described below. Method. During respiration, smooth visceral sliding motion occurs between the abdominal contents and the walls of the abdominal cavity. We describe a technique involving image segmentation and registration to calculate shear as an analogue for visceral slide based on the tracking of structures throughout the respiratory cycle. The presence of an adhesion is attributed to a resistance to visceral slide resulting in a discernible reduction in shear. The abdominal movement due to respiration is captured in sagittal dynamic MR images. Results. Clinical images were selected for analysis, including a patient with a surgically confirmed adhesion. Discernible reduction in shear was observed at the location of the adhesion while a consistent, gradually changing shear was observed in the healthy volunteers. Conclusion. The technique and its validation show encouraging results for adhesion detection but a larger study is now required to confirm its potential. PMID:26880884

  17. Molecular Imaging: Current Status and Emerging Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Pysz, Marybeth A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2011-01-01

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific therapeutic treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use PET- or SPECT-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multimodality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and ultrasound imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies since they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and ultrasound modalities involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with ultrasound. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation such as endoscopes and microcatheters suggest that these molecular imaging modalities have numerous clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future. PMID:20541650

  18. Intrahepatic fat, abdominal adipose tissues, and metabolic state: magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Tene, Lilac; Cohen, Noa; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Zelicha, Hila; Rein, Michal; Bril, Nitzan; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusy, Benjamin; Dicker, Dror; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-07-01

    Intrahepatic fat (IHF) is best known to associate with waist circumference (WC) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), but its relation to abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue is controversial. While IHF ≥ 5% dichotomously defines fatty liver, %IHF is rarely considered as a continuous variable that includes the normal range. In this study, we aimed to evaluate %IHF association with abdominal fat subdepots, pancreatic, and renal-sinus fats. We evaluated %IHF, abdominal fat subdepots, %pancreatic, and renal-sinus fats, among individuals with moderate abdominal obesity, using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Among 275 participants, %IHF widely ranged (0.01%-50.4%) and was lower in women (1.6%) than men (7.3%; P < .001). In an age, sex, and WC-adjusted models, VAT area (P < .006) was directly associated with %IHF, while superficial-subcutaneous adipose tissue proportion was inversely associated with %IHF (P < .006). In these models, renal-sinus fat was positively associated with %IHF (P = .005). In an age, sex, WC, and VAT-adjusted models, elevated liver enzymes, glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory biomarkers were associated with increased %IHF (P < .003 for all). In these models, the associations remained robust even within the normal range strata of IHF < 5% for triglycerides and chemerin (P ≤ .004 for all). For the diagnosis of fatty liver, the joint area under the curve of WC, alanine-aminotransferase, triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was 0.84(95% CI, 0.79-0.89). Intrahepatic fat is differentially associated with abdominal fat subdepots. Intrahepatic-fat as a continuous variable could be predicted by specific traditional parameters, even within the current normal range, and partially independent of VAT. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Assessment of Abdominal Fat Using High-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters.

    PubMed

    Al-Radaideh, Ali; Tayyem, Reema; Al-Fayomi, Kholoud; Nimer, Nisreen; Malkawi, Amer; Al-Zu Bi, Rana; Agraib, Lana; Athamneh, Imad; Hijjawi, Nawal

    2016-12-01

    To measure the abdominal subcutaneous fat (SF) and visceral fat (VF) volumes using high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to investigate their association with selected anthropometric and biochemical parameters among obese and nonobese apparently healthy participants. A cross-sectional study was conducted by recruiting 167 healthy participants. Abdominal scans were acquired at 3T MRI, and the SF and VF were segmented and their volumes were calculated. Selected anthropometric and biochemical measurements were also determined. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between normal body weight and overweight and obese participants for SF and VF, total abdominal fat volumes, leptin, resistin, adiponectin and waist circumference. Waist circumferences were measured by tape and MRI. Findings revealed that MRI-measured fat volumes were different between males and females and had a significant (P < 0.01) strong positive correlation with body mass index, leptin, resistin and WC and had a negative correlation with adiponectin level. MRI-measured fat volumes were found to correlate moderately with interleukin-6 and weakly with cholesterol, serum triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein. Except for cholesterol, all measured biochemical variables and abdominal fat volumes in the current study were significantly associated with body mass index. All anthropometric and biochemical parameters showed weak-to-strong associations with the MRI-measured fat volumes. Abdominal fat distribution was different between males and females and their correlations with some lipid profiles were found to be sex dependent. These findings revealed that MRI can be used as an alternative tool for obesity assessment. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of inward pressure of the transducer on lateral abdominal muscle thickness during ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Sususmu

    2012-09-01

    Controlled laboratory study, technical note. The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in the thickness of the transversus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles induced by different inward pressures of the transducer during ultrasound imaging (USI). USI of the lateral abdominal muscles is increasingly used in managing musculoskeletal dysfunction. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated the influence of different inward pressures of the transducer on the lateral abdominal muscle thickness during USI. Thirty healthy male volunteers participated in this study. The thickness of the transversus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles was measured with USI by the same rater in 4 conditions of inward pressures of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 N. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC1,1), with 95% confidence intervals, were calculated, and a repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess the influence of inward pressure on the thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles. The thickness of the transversus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles was significantly different among the 4 conditions (P<.038). The mean difference between the 0.5-N and 4.0-N conditions was greater than the minimal detectable change of the 0.5-N condition in the lateral abdominal muscles. The difference in magnitude produced by the forces under different conditions was meaningful. When using a technique that involves a handheld transducer, the examiner should attempt to maintain consistent inward pressure of the transducer during USI to quantify the thickness of lateral abdominal muscles. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2012;42(9):815-818, Epub 19 April 2012. doi:10.2519/jospt.2012.4064.

  1. Mortality of emergency abdominal surgery in high-, middle- and low-income countries.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Surgical mortality data are collected routinely in high-income countries, yet virtually no low- or middle-income countries have outcome surveillance in place. The aim was prospectively to collect worldwide mortality data following emergency abdominal surgery, comparing findings across countries with a low, middle or high Human Development Index (HDI). This was a prospective, multicentre, cohort study. Self-selected hospitals performing emergency surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive patients from at least one 2-week interval during July to December 2014. Postoperative mortality was analysed by hierarchical multivariable logistic regression. Data were obtained for 10 745 patients from 357 centres in 58 countries; 6538 were from high-, 2889 from middle- and 1318 from low-HDI settings. The overall mortality rate was 1·6 per cent at 24 h (high 1·1 per cent, middle 1·9 per cent, low 3·4 per cent; P < 0·001), increasing to 5·4 per cent by 30 days (high 4·5 per cent, middle 6·0 per cent, low 8·6 per cent; P < 0·001). Of the 578 patients who died, 404 (69·9 per cent) did so between 24 h and 30 days following surgery (high 74·2 per cent, middle 68·8 per cent, low 60·5 per cent). After adjustment, 30-day mortality remained higher in middle-income (odds ratio (OR) 2·78, 95 per cent c.i. 1·84 to 4·20) and low-income (OR 2·97, 1·84 to 4·81) countries. Surgical safety checklist use was less frequent in low- and middle-income countries, but when used was associated with reduced mortality at 30 days. Mortality is three times higher in low- compared with high-HDI countries even when adjusted for prognostic factors. Patient safety factors may have an important role. NCT02179112 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Tissue Doppler Imaging in the evaluation of abdominal aortic pulsatility: a useful tool for the neonatologist.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Enrico; Grison, Alessandra; Capretta, Anna; Golin, Rosanna; Ferrarese, Paola; Bellettato, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    Sonographic cardiac evaluation of newborns with suspected aortic coarctation (AoC) should tend to demonstrate a good phasic and pulsatile flow and the absence of pressure gradient along a normally conformed aortic arch from the modified left parasternal and suprasternal echocardiographic views; these findings, however, may not necessarily rule out a more distal coarctation in the descending aorta. For this reason, the sonographic exam of newborns with suspected AoC should always include a Doppler evaluation of abdominal aortic blood flow from the subcostal view. Occasionally, however, a clearly pulsatile Doppler flow trace in abdominal aorta may be difficult to obtain due to the bad insonation angle existing between the probe and the vessel. In such suboptimal ultrasonic alignment situation, the use of Tissue Doppler Imaging instead of classic Doppler flow imaging may reveal a preserved aortic pulsatility by sampling the aortic wall motion induced by normal flow. We propose to take advantage of the TDI pattern as a surrogate of a normal pulsatile Doppler flow trace in abdominal aorta when the latter is difficult to obtain due to malalignment with the insonated vessel.

  3. Assessment of Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Organ Fat Content by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Houchun H.; Nayak, Krishna S.; Goran, Michael I.

    2010-01-01

    As the prevalence of obesity continues to rise, rapid and accurate tools for assessing abdominal body and organ fat quantity and distribution are critically needed to assist researchers investigating therapeutic and preventive measures against obesity and its comorbidities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most promising modality to address such need. It is non-invasive, utilizes no ionizing radiation, provides unmatched 3D visualization, is repeatable, and is applicable to subject cohorts of all ages. This article is aimed to provide the reader with an overview of current and state-of-the-art techniques in MRI and associated image analysis methods for fat quantification. The principles underlying traditional approaches such as T1-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as more modern chemical-shift imaging techniques are discussed and compared. The benefits of contiguous 3D acquisitions over 2D multi-slice approaches are highlighted. Typical post-processing procedures for extracting adipose tissue depot volumes and percent organ fat content from abdominal MRI data sets are explained. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of each MRI approach with respect to imaging parameters, spatial resolution, subject motion, scan time, and appropriate fat quantitative endpoints are also provided. Practical considerations in implementing these methods are also presented. PMID:21348916

  4. Determinants of morbidity and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery in children in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Child health is a key priority on the global health agenda, yet the provision of essential and emergency surgery in children is patchy in resource-poor regions. This study was aimed to determine the mortality risk for emergency abdominal paediatric surgery in low-income countries globally. Multicentre, international, prospective, cohort study. Self-selected surgical units performing emergency abdominal surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive children aged <16 years during a 2-week period between July and December 2014. The United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) was used to stratify countries. The main outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality, analysed by multilevel logistic regression. This study included 1409 patients from 253 centres in 43 countries; 282 children were under 2 years of age. Among them, 265 (18.8%) were from low-HDI, 450 (31.9%) from middle-HDI and 694 (49.3%) from high-HDI countries. The most common operations performed were appendectomy, small bowel resection, pyloromyotomy and correction of intussusception. After adjustment for patient and hospital risk factors, child mortality at 30 days was significantly higher in low-HDI (adjusted OR 7.14 (95% CI 2.52 to 20.23), p<0.001) and middle-HDI (4.42 (1.44 to 13.56), p=0.009) countries compared with high-HDI countries, translating to 40 excess deaths per 1000 procedures performed. Adjusted mortality in children following emergency abdominal surgery may be as high as 7 times greater in low-HDI and middle-HDI countries compared with high-HDI countries. Effective provision of emergency essential surgery should be a key priority for global child health agendas. NCT02179112; Pre-results.

  5. Determinants of morbidity and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery in children in low-income and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Ademuyiwa, Adesoji O

    2016-01-01

    Background Child health is a key priority on the global health agenda, yet the provision of essential and emergency surgery in children is patchy in resource-poor regions. This study was aimed to determine the mortality risk for emergency abdominal paediatric surgery in low-income countries globally. Methods Multicentre, international, prospective, cohort study. Self-selected surgical units performing emergency abdominal surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive children aged <16 years during a 2-week period between July and December 2014. The United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) was used to stratify countries. The main outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality, analysed by multilevel logistic regression. Results This study included 1409 patients from 253 centres in 43 countries; 282 children were under 2 years of age. Among them, 265 (18.8%) were from low-HDI, 450 (31.9%) from middle-HDI and 694 (49.3%) from high-HDI countries. The most common operations performed were appendectomy, small bowel resection, pyloromyotomy and correction of intussusception. After adjustment for patient and hospital risk factors, child mortality at 30 days was significantly higher in low-HDI (adjusted OR 7.14 (95% CI 2.52 to 20.23), p<0.001) and middle-HDI (4.42 (1.44 to 13.56), p=0.009) countries compared with high-HDI countries, translating to 40 excess deaths per 1000 procedures performed. Conclusions Adjusted mortality in children following emergency abdominal surgery may be as high as 7 times greater in low-HDI and middle-HDI countries compared with high-HDI countries. Effective provision of emergency essential surgery should be a key priority for global child health agendas. Trial registration number NCT02179112; Pre-results. PMID:28588977

  6. Development of a robust MRI fiducial system for automated fusion of MR-US abdominal images.

    PubMed

    Favazza, Christopher P; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Callstrom, Matthew R; Kurup, Anil N; Washburn, Michael; Trester, Pamela S; Fowler, Charles L; Hangiandreou, Nicholas J

    2018-05-21

    We present the development of a two-component magnetic resonance (MR) fiducial system, that is, a fiducial marker device combined with an auto-segmentation algorithm, designed to be paired with existing ultrasound probe tracking and image fusion technology to automatically fuse MR and ultrasound (US) images. The fiducial device consisted of four ~6.4 mL cylindrical wells filled with 1 g/L copper sulfate solution. The algorithm was designed to automatically segment the device in clinical abdominal MR images. The algorithm's detection rate and repeatability were investigated through a phantom study and in human volunteers. The detection rate was 100% in all phantom and human images. The center-of-mass of the fiducial device was robustly identified with maximum variations of 2.9 mm in position and 0.9° in angular orientation. In volunteer images, average differences between algorithm-measured inter-marker spacings and actual separation distances were 0.53 ± 0.36 mm. "Proof-of-concept" automatic MR-US fusions were conducted with sets of images from both a phantom and volunteer using a commercial prototype system, which was built based on the above findings. Image fusion accuracy was measured to be within 5 mm for breath-hold scanning. These results demonstrate the capability of this approach to automatically fuse US and MR images acquired across a wide range of clinical abdominal pulse sequences. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. Elasticity mapping of murine abdominal organs in vivo using harmonic motion imaging (HMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payen, Thomas; Palermo, Carmine F.; Sastra, Stephen A.; Chen, Hong; Han, Yang; Olive, Kenneth P.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2016-08-01

    Recently, ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue mechanics has been increasingly studied to image otherwise undetectable pathologies. However, many underlying mechanisms of tissue stiffening remain unknown, requiring small animal studies and adapted elasticity mapping techniques. Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) assesses tissue viscoelasticity by inducing localized oscillation from a periodic acoustic radiation force. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of HMI for in vivo elasticity mapping of abdominal organs in small animals. Pathological cases, i.e. chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, were also studied in vivo to assess the capability of HMI for detection of the change in mechanical properties. A 4.5 MHz focused ultrasound transducer (FUS) generated an amplitude-modulated beam resulting in 50 Hz harmonic tissue oscillations at its focus. Axial tissue displacement was estimated using 1D-cross-correlation of RF signals acquired with a 7.8 MHz diagnostic transducer confocally aligned with the FUS. In vitro results in canine liver and kidney showed the correlation between HMI displacement and Young’s moduli measured by rheometry compression testing. HMI was capable of providing reproducible elasticity maps of the mouse abdominal region in vivo allowing the identification of, from stiffest to softest, the murine kidney, pancreas, liver, and spleen. Finally, pancreata affected by pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer showed HMI displacements 1.7 and 2.2 times lower than in the control case, respectively, indicating higher stiffness. The HMI displacement amplitude was correlated with the extent of fibrosis as well as detecting the very onset of stiffening even before fibrosis could be detected on H&E. This work shows that HMI can produce reliable elasticity maps of mouse abdominal region in vivo, thus providing a potentially critical tool to assess pathologies affecting organ elasticity.

  8. Elasticity mapping of murine abdominal organs in vivo using Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI)

    PubMed Central

    Payen, Thomas; Palermo, Carmine F.; Sastra, Steve; Chen, Hong; Han, Yang; Olive, Kenneth P.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue mechanics has been increasingly studied to image otherwise undetectable pathologies. However, many underlying mechanisms of tissue stiffening remain unknown, requiring small animal studies and adapted elasticity mapping techniques. Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) assesses tissue viscoelasticity by inducing localized oscillation from a periodic acoustic radiation force. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of HMI for in vivo elasticity mapping of abdominal organs in small animals. Pathological cases, i.e. chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, were also studied in vivo to assess the capability of HMI for detection of the change in mechanical properties. A 4.5-MHz focused ultrasound transducer (FUS) generated an amplitude-modulated beam resulting in 50-Hz harmonic tissue oscillations at its focus. Axial tissue displacement was estimated using 1D-cross-correlation of RF signals acquired with a 7.8-MHz diagnostic transducer confocally aligned with the FUS. In vitro results in canine liver and kidney showed the correlation between HMI displacement and Young’s moduli measured by rheometry compression tests. HMI was able to provide reproducible elasticity maps of the mouse abdominal region in vivo allowing the identification of, from stiffest to softest, the murine kidney, pancreas, liver, and spleen. Finally, pancreata affected by pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer showed HMI displacements 1.7 and 2.2 times lower than in the control case, respectively, indicating higher stiffness. HMI displacement was correlated with the extent of fibrosis as well as detecting the very onset of stiffening even before fibrosis could be detected on H&E. This work shows that HMI can produce reliable elasticity maps of mouse abdominal region in vivo providing a crucial tool to understand pathologies affecting organ elasticity. PMID:27401609

  9. Elasticity mapping of murine abdominal organs in vivo using harmonic motion imaging (HMI).

    PubMed

    Payen, Thomas; Palermo, Carmine F; Sastra, Stephen A; Chen, Hong; Han, Yang; Olive, Kenneth P; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2016-08-07

    Recently, ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue mechanics has been increasingly studied to image otherwise undetectable pathologies. However, many underlying mechanisms of tissue stiffening remain unknown, requiring small animal studies and adapted elasticity mapping techniques. Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) assesses tissue viscoelasticity by inducing localized oscillation from a periodic acoustic radiation force. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of HMI for in vivo elasticity mapping of abdominal organs in small animals. Pathological cases, i.e. chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, were also studied in vivo to assess the capability of HMI for detection of the change in mechanical properties. A 4.5 MHz focused ultrasound transducer (FUS) generated an amplitude-modulated beam resulting in 50 Hz harmonic tissue oscillations at its focus. Axial tissue displacement was estimated using 1D-cross-correlation of RF signals acquired with a 7.8 MHz diagnostic transducer confocally aligned with the FUS. In vitro results in canine liver and kidney showed the correlation between HMI displacement and Young's moduli measured by rheometry compression testing. HMI was capable of providing reproducible elasticity maps of the mouse abdominal region in vivo allowing the identification of, from stiffest to softest, the murine kidney, pancreas, liver, and spleen. Finally, pancreata affected by pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer showed HMI displacements 1.7 and 2.2 times lower than in the control case, respectively, indicating higher stiffness. The HMI displacement amplitude was correlated with the extent of fibrosis as well as detecting the very onset of stiffening even before fibrosis could be detected on H&E. This work shows that HMI can produce reliable elasticity maps of mouse abdominal region in vivo, thus providing a potentially critical tool to assess pathologies affecting organ elasticity.

  10. Contactless Abdominal Fat Reduction With Selective RF™ Evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Case Study.

    PubMed

    Downie, Jeanine; Kaspar, Miroslav

    2016-04-01

    Noninvasive body shaping methods seem to be an ascending part of the aesthetics market. As a result, the pressure to develop reliable methods for the collection and presentation of their results has also increased. The most used techniques currently include ultrasound measurements of fat thickness in the treated area, caliper measurements, bioimpedance-based scale measurements or circumferential tape measurements. Although these are the most used techniques, almost all of them have some limitations in reproducibility and/or accuracy. This study shows Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as the new method for the presentation of results in the body shaping industry. Six subjects were treated by a contactless selective radiofrequency device (BTL Vanquish ME, BTL Industries Inc., Boston, MA). The MRI fat thickness was measured at the baseline and at 4-weeks following the treatment. In addition to MRI images and measurements, digital photographs and anthropometric evaluations such as weight, abdominal circumference, and caliper fat thickness measurements were recorded. Abdominal fat thickness measurements from the MRI were performed from the same slices determined by the same tissue artefacts. The MRI fat thickness difference between the baseline measurement and follow up visit showed an average reduction of 5.36 mm as calculated from the data of 5 subjects. One subject dropped out of study due to non-study related issues. The results were statistically significant based on the Student's T-test evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging abdominal fat thickness measurements seems to be the best method for the evaluation of fat thickness reduction after non-invasive body shaping treatments. In this study, this method shows average fat thickness reduction of 5.36 mm while the weight of the subjects didn't change significantly. A large spot size measuring 1317 cm(2) (204 square inches) covers the abdomen flank to flank. The average thickness of 5.36 mm of the fat layer reduced

  11. Dynamic Environmental Photosynthetic Imaging Reveals Emergent Phenotypes

    DOE PAGES

    Cruz, Jeffrey A.; Savage, Linda J.; Zegarac, Robert; ...

    2016-06-22

    Understanding and improving the productivity and robustness of plant photosynthesis requires high-throughput phenotyping under environmental conditions that are relevant to the field. Here we demonstrate the dynamic environmental photosynthesis imager (DEPI), an experimental platform for integrated, continuous, and high-throughput measurements of photosynthetic parameters during plant growth under reproducible yet dynamic environmental conditions. Using parallel imagers obviates the need to move plants or sensors, reducing artifacts and allowing simultaneous measurement on large numbers of plants. As a result, DEPI can reveal phenotypes that are not evident under standard laboratory conditions but emerge under progressively more dynamic illumination. We show examples inmore » mutants of Arabidopsis of such “emergent phenotypes” that are highly transient and heterogeneous, appearing in different leaves under different conditions and depending in complex ways on both environmental conditions and plant developmental age. Finally, these emergent phenotypes appear to be caused by a range of phenomena, suggesting that such previously unseen processes are critical for plant responses to dynamic environments.« less

  12. New patient-controlled abdominal compression method in radiography: radiation dose and image quality.

    PubMed

    Piippo-Huotari, Oili; Norrman, Eva; Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta; Geijer, Håkan

    2018-05-01

    The radiation dose for patients can be reduced with many methods and one way is to use abdominal compression. In this study, the radiation dose and image quality for a new patient-controlled compression device were compared with conventional compression and compression in the prone position . To compare radiation dose and image quality of patient-controlled compression compared with conventional and prone compression in general radiography. An experimental design with quantitative approach. After obtaining the approval of the ethics committee, a consecutive sample of 48 patients was examined with the standard clinical urography protocol. The radiation doses were measured as dose-area product and analyzed with a paired t-test. The image quality was evaluated by visual grading analysis. Four radiologists evaluated each image individually by scoring nine criteria modified from the European quality criteria for diagnostic radiographic images. There was no significant difference in radiation dose or image quality between conventional and patient-controlled compression. Prone position resulted in both higher dose and inferior image quality. Patient-controlled compression gave similar dose levels as conventional compression and lower than prone compression. Image quality was similar with both patient-controlled and conventional compression and was judged to be better than in the prone position.

  13. Emergency Department Patients’ Perceptions of Radiation from Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Repplinger, Michael D.; Li, Annabel J.; Svenson, James E.; Ehlehbach, William J.; Westergaard, Ryan P.; Reeder, Scott B.; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate emergency department patients’ knowledge of radiation exposure and subsequent risks from CT and MRI scans. Methods This is a cross-sectional survey study of adult, English-speaking patients from 6/2011-8/2011 at two emergency departments, one academic and one community-based, in the upper Midwest. The survey consisted of two sets of three questions evaluating patients’ knowledge of radiation exposure from medical imaging and subsequent radiation-induced malignancies, and was based on a previously published survey. The question sets paralleled each other, but one pertained to CT and the other to MRI. Questions in the survey ascertained patients’ understanding of: 1) the relative amount of radiation exposed from CT/MRI compared with a single chest x-ray, 2) the relative amount of radiation exposed from CT/MRI compared with a nuclear power plant accident, and 3) the possibility of radiation-induced malignancies from CT/MRI. Sociodemographic data were also gathered. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of correct answers to each question of the survey. Multiple logistic regression was then used to examine the relationship between the percentage correct for each question and sociodemographic variables, using odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results There were 500 participants in this study, 315 from the academic center and 185 from the community hospital. Overall, 14.1% (95% CI 11.0%-17.2%) of participants understood the relative radiation exposure of a CT scan compared with a chest x-ray while 22.8% (95% CI 18.9%-26.7%) of respondents understood the lack of ionizing radiation use with MRI. 25.6% (95% CI 21.8%-29.4%) believed that there was an increased risk of developing cancer from repeated abdominal CTs while 55.6% (95% CI 51.1%-60.1%) believed this to be true of abdominal MRI. Higher educational level and identification as a healthcare professional were

  14. Effect of Contrast Media on Single Shot EPI: Implications for Abdominal Diffusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gulani, Vikas; Willatt, Jonathan M.; Blaimer, Martin; Hussain, Hero K.; Duerk, Jeffrey L.; Griswold, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to determine the effect of contrast media on the signal behavior of single shot echo planar imaging (ssEPI) used for abdominal diffusion imaging. Materials and Methods The signal of a ssEPI spin echo sequence in a water phantom with varying concentrations of gadolinium was modeled with Bloch equations and the predicted behavior validated on a phantom at 1.5 T. Six volunteers were given gadolinium contrast, and signal intensity (SI) time courses for regions of interest (ROIs) in the liver, pancreas, spleen, renal cortex and medulla were analyzed. The Student's t-test was used to compare pre-contrast SI to 0, 1, 4, 5, 10, and 13 minutes following contrast. Results The results show that following contrast, ssEPI SI goes through a nadir, recovering differently for each organ. Maximal contrast related signal losses relative to pre-contrast signal are 20%, 20%, 53%, and 67%, for the liver, pancreas, renal cortex and medulla respectively. The SIs remain statistically below the pre-contrast values for 5, 4, and 1 minutes for the pancreas, liver, and spleen, and for all times measured for the renal cortex and medulla. Conclusion Abdominal diffusion imaging should be performed prior to contrast due to adverse effects on the signal in ssEPI. PMID:19856456

  15. Performance Evaluation of Adaptive Imaging Based on Multiphase Apodization with Cross-correlation: A Pilot Study in Abdominal Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Shin, Junseob; Chen, Yu; Malhi, Harshawn; Chen, Frank; Yen, Jesse

    2018-05-01

    Degradation of image contrast caused by phase aberration, off-axis clutter, and reverberation clutter remains one of the most important problems in abdominal ultrasound imaging. Multiphase apodization with cross-correlation (MPAX) is a novel beamforming technique that enhances ultrasound image contrast by adaptively suppressing unwanted acoustic clutter. MPAX employs multiple pairs of complementary sinusoidal phase apodizations to intentionally introduce grating lobes that can be used to derive a weighting matrix, which mostly preserves the on-axis signals from tissue but reduces acoustic clutter contributions when multiplied with the beamformed radio-frequency (RF) signals. In this paper, in vivo performance of the MPAX technique was evaluated in abdominal ultrasound using data sets obtained from 10 human subjects referred for abdominal ultrasound at the USC Keck School of Medicine. Improvement in image contrast was quantified, first, by the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and, second, by the rating of two experienced radiologists. The MPAX technique was evaluated for longitudinal and transverse views of the abdominal aorta, the inferior vena cava, the gallbladder, and the portal vein. Our in vivo results and analyses demonstrate the feasibility of the MPAX technique in enhancing image contrast in abdominal ultrasound and show potential for creating high contrast ultrasound images with improved target detectability and diagnostic confidence.

  16. Abdominal Emergencies in Patients with Stage IV Melanoma: The Role of Surgery: A Single-centre Experience.

    PubMed

    Mantas, Dimitrios; Damaskos, Christos; Garmpis, Nikolaos; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Garmpi, Anna; Gogas, Helen

    2018-06-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis. Melanoma can potentially involve any organ. In this article, we report on a single-centre experience in emergency surgery for M1c melanoma. Twenty-eight consecutive patients with M1c melanoma underwent surgical exploration due to abdominal emergencies. Pre-operative computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis and the location of the affected site. Pre-operative lactate dehydrogenase serum levels and post-operative histopathology findings were recorded. Intestinal obstruction was the most frequent intraoperative finding (75%). The ileum was most frequently affected (28.6%). Multifocal disease and extra-gastrointestinal tract metastases were present in 25% of cases each. Lactate dehydrogenase serum level was increased in 75% of the patients. Most patients underwent an enterectomy. Curative surgery for stage IV melanoma remains debatable, but surgery for patients presenting with abdominal emergencies appears to improve both survival rate and prognosis. Combined novel therapies and surgical resection is currently being studied with promising results. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. Abdominal fat sub-depots and energy expenditure: Magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Serfaty, Dana; Rein, Michal; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Bril, Nitzan; Cohen, Noa; Shemesh, Elad; Sarusi, Benjamin; Kovsan, Julia; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Golan, Rachel; Witkow, Shula; Henkin, Yaakov; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to assess the association between the distinct abdominal sub-depots and resting energy expenditure (REE). We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify abdominal visceral-adipose-tissue (VAT), deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (deep-SAT), and superficial-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (superficial-SAT). We measured REE by indirect-calorimetry. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) [1-3 metabolic equivalents (METs)] and exercise thermogenesis (activities of 4+MET S ) were estimated based on 6-days of accelerometry to assess total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). We studied 282 participants: 249 men [mean age = 47.4 years, body-mass-index (BMI) = 31 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 34.5%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 24.3%] and 33 women (mean age = 51.2 years, BMI = 30.1 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 22.8%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 37.8%). As expected, women had lower REE [by 32.4% (1488 ± 234 kcal/day vs. 1971 ± 257 kcal/day; p < 0.01)] and lower REE/kg [by 8% (19.6 ± 3 kcal/kg vs. 21.2 ± 2 kcal/kg; p < 0.01)] than men. Exercise and total PAEE were positively associated with REE/kg (p < 0.01 for both) and a positive correlation between NEAT and REE/kg was borderline (p = 0.056). Participants, in whom abdominal VAT was the dominant proportional depot, had higher REE (1964 ± 297 kcal/day vs. 1654 ± 352 kcal/day; p < 0.01) and higher REE∖kg (22.2 ± 2.3 kcal/kg/day vs. 19.6 ± 2.5 kcal/kg/day; p < 0.01) than participants in whom superficial-SAT was the largest proportional depot. In multivariate models, adjusted for age, gender and residual BMI, increased VAT proportion was independently associated with higher REE (β = 0.181; p = 0.05). Likewise, increased VAT proportion (β = 0.482; p < 0.01) remained independently associated with higher REE/kg. In this

  18. Prior image constrained image reconstruction in emerging computed tomography applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Stephen T.

    Advances have been made in computed tomography (CT), especially in the past five years, by incorporating prior images into the image reconstruction process. In this dissertation, we investigate prior image constrained image reconstruction in three emerging CT applications: dual-energy CT, multi-energy photon-counting CT, and cone-beam CT in image-guided radiation therapy. First, we investigate the application of Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) in dual-energy CT, which has been called "one of the hottest research areas in CT." Phantom and animal studies are conducted using a state-of-the-art 64-slice GE Discovery 750 HD CT scanner to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose reduction in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging. Second, we extend the application of PICCS from dual-energy CT to multi-energy photon-counting CT, which has been called "one of the 12 topics in CT to be critical in the next decade." Numerical simulations are conducted to generate multiple energy bin images for a photon-counting CT acquisition and to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose efficiency improvement. Third, we investigate the performance of a newly proposed prior image constrained scatter correction technique to correct scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT, which, when used in image-guided radiation therapy procedures, can assist in patient localization, and potentially, dose verification and adaptive radiation therapy. Phantom studies are conducted using a Varian 2100 EX system with an on-board imager to investigate the extent to which the prior image constrained scatter correction technique can mitigate scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT. Results show that these prior image constrained image reconstruction techniques can reduce radiation dose in dual-energy CT by 50% in phantom and animal studies in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging, can lead to radiation

  19. Classification of visual signs in abdominal CT image figures in biomedical literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhiyun; You, Daekeun; Antani, Sameer; Long, L. Rodney; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2014-03-01

    "Imaging signs" are a critical part of radiology's language. They not only are important for conveying diagnosis, but may also aid in indexing radiology literature and retrieving relevant cases and images. Here we report our work towards representing and categorizing imaging signs of abdominal abnormalities in figures in the radiology literature. Given a region-of-interest (ROI) from a figure, our goal was to assign a correct imaging sign label to that ROI from the following seven: accordion, comb, ring, sandwich, small bowel feces, target, or whirl. As training and test data, we created our own "gold standard" dataset of regions containing imaging signs. We computed 2997 feature attributes to represent imaging sign characteristics for each ROI in training and test sets. Following feature selection they were reduced to 70 attributes and were input to a Support Vector Machine classifier. We applied image-enhancement methods to compensate for variable quality of the images in radiology articles. In particular we developed a method for automatic detection and removal of pointers/markers (arrows, arrowheads, and asterisk symbols) on the images. These pointers/markers are valuable for approximately locating ROIs; however, they degrade the classification because they are often (partially) included in the training ROIs. On a test set of 283 ROIs, our method achieved an overall accuracy of 70% in labeling the seven signs, which we believe is a promising result for using imaging signs to search/retrieve radiology literature. This work is also potentially valuable for the creation of a visual ontology of biomedical imaging entities.

  20. Can activity within the external abdominal oblique be measured using real-time ultrasound imaging?

    PubMed

    John, E K; Beith, I D

    2007-11-01

    Differences in the function of the anterolateral abdominal muscles have been the subject of much investigation, but primarily using electromyography. Recently changes in thickness of transversus abdominis and internal oblique measured from real-time ultrasound images have been shown to represent activity within these muscles. However it is still unclear if such a change in thickness in external oblique similarly represents activity within that muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between change in thickness and muscle activity in the external oblique using real-time ultrasound and surface electromyography. Simultaneous measurements of electromyography and real-time ultrasound images of external oblique were studied in up to 24 subjects during two tasks compared to the muscle at rest (1) isometric trunk rotation and (2) drawing in the lower abdomen. Changes in muscle thickness correlated significantly with electromyography during isometric trunk rotation in the majority of subjects but with a significant difference between subjects. In contrast, the relationship between change in thickness and electrical activity in the muscle when drawing in the lower abdomen was significant in less than 50% of subjects and the muscle often got thinner. Thickness changes of external oblique can be used as a valid indicator of electromyography activity during isometric trunk rotation, though the relationship is not as good as previously published data for transversus abdominis. Thickness changes of external oblique measured during lower abdominal drawing in cannot be used to detect activity within this muscle.

  1. High-resolution T2-weighted abdominal magnetic resonance imaging using respiratory triggering: impact of butylscopolamine on image quality.

    PubMed

    Wagner, M; Klessen, C; Rief, M; Elgeti, T; Taupitz, M; Hamm, B; Asbach, P

    2008-05-01

    Respiratory triggering allows the acquisition of high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images of the upper abdomen. However, the depiction of organs close to the gastrointestinal tract can be considerably impaired by ghosting artifacts and blurring caused by bowel peristalsis. To evaluate the effect of gastrointestinal motion suppression by intramuscular butylscopolamine administration on the image quality of a respiratory-triggered T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (T2w TSE) sequence of the upper abdomen. Images of 46 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-four patients had received intramuscular injection of 40 mg butylscopolamine immediately before MR imaging. Fourteen of the 24 patients in the butylscopolamine group underwent repeat imaging after a mean of 29 min. Quantitative analysis of the ghosting artifacts was done by measuring signal intensities in regions of interest placed in air anterior to the patient. In addition, image quality was assessed qualitatively by two radiologists by consensus. Spasmolytic medication with butylscopolamine reduced ghosting artifacts and significantly improved image quality of the respiratory-triggered T2w TSE sequence. The most pronounced effect of butylscopolamine administration on image quality was found for the pancreas and the left hepatic lobe. The rate of examinations with excellent or good depiction of the pancreas and the left hepatic lobe in the group without premedication and in the butylscopolamine group was 55% vs. 96% (pancreatic head), 35% vs. 88% (pancreatic body), 43% vs. 96% (pancreatic tail), and 45% vs. 83% (left hepatic lobe), respectively. Regarding the duration of the effect of intramuscular butylscopolamine, repeat imaging after a mean of 29 min did not result in a significant deterioration of image quality. Intramuscular butylscopolamine administration significantly improves image quality of respiratory-triggered T2-weighted abdominal MR imaging by persistent reduction of peristaltic artifacts. MR

  2. Abdominal MR imaging in children: motion compensation, sequence optimization, and protocol organization.

    PubMed

    Chavhan, Govind B; Babyn, Paul S; Vasanawala, Shreyas S

    2013-05-01

    Familiarity with basic sequence properties and their trade-offs is necessary for radiologists performing abdominal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Acquiring diagnostic-quality MR images in the pediatric abdomen is challenging due to motion, inability to breath hold, varying patient size, and artifacts. Motion-compensation techniques (eg, respiratory gating, signal averaging, suppression of signal from moving tissue, swapping phase- and frequency-encoding directions, use of faster sequences with breath holding, parallel imaging, and radial k-space filling) can improve image quality. Each of these techniques is more suitable for use with certain sequences and acquisition planes and in specific situations and age groups. Different T1- and T2-weighted sequences work better in different age groups and with differing acquisition planes and have specific advantages and disadvantages. Dynamic imaging should be performed differently in younger children than in older children. In younger children, the sequence and the timing of dynamic phases need to be adjusted. Different sequences work better in smaller children and in older children because of differing breath-holding ability, breathing patterns, field of view, and use of sedation. Hence, specific protocols should be maintained for younger children and older children. Combining longer-higher-resolution sequences and faster-lower-resolution sequences helps acquire diagnostic-quality images in a reasonable time. © RSNA, 2013.

  3. Automatic multi-label annotation of abdominal CT images using CBIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

    2017-03-01

    We present a technique to annotate multiple organs shown in 2-D abdominal/pelvic CT images using CBIR. This annotation task is motivated by our research interests in visual question-answering (VQA). We aim to apply results from this effort in Open-iSM, a multimodal biomedical search engine developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM). Understanding visual content of biomedical images is a necessary step for VQA. Though sufficient annotational information about an image may be available in related textual metadata, not all may be useful as descriptive tags, particularly for anatomy on the image. In this paper, we develop and evaluate a multi-label image annotation method using CBIR. We evaluate our method on two 2-D CT image datasets we generated from 3-D volumetric data obtained from a multi-organ segmentation challenge hosted in MICCAI 2015. Shape and spatial layout information is used to encode visual characteristics of the anatomy. We adapt a weighted voting scheme to assign multiple labels to the query image by combining the labels of the images identified as similar by the method. Key parameters that may affect the annotation performance, such as the number of images used in the label voting and the threshold for excluding labels that have low weights, are studied. The method proposes a coarse-to-fine retrieval strategy which integrates the classification with the nearest-neighbor search. Results from our evaluation (using the MICCAI CT image datasets as well as figures from Open-i) are presented.

  4. Calcification detection of abdominal aorta in CT images and 3D visualization in VR devices.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Berna, Jose A; Sanchez-Gomez, Juan M; Hermanns, Judith; Garcia-Mateos, Gines; Fernandez-Aleman, Jose L

    2016-08-01

    Automatic calcification detection in abdominal aorta consists of a set of computer vision techniques to quantify the amount of calcium that is found around this artery. Knowing that information, it is possible to perform statistical studies that relate vascular diseases with the presence of calcium in these structures. To facilitate the detection in CT images, a contrast is usually injected into the circulatory system of the patients to distinguish the aorta from other body tissues and organs. This contrast increases the absorption of X-rays by human blood, making it easier the measurement of calcifications. Based on this idea, a new system capable of detecting and tracking the aorta artery has been developed with an estimation of the calcium found surrounding the aorta. Besides, the system is complemented with a 3D visualization mode of the image set which is designed for the new generation of immersive VR devices.

  5. [Common abdominal emergency cases a the end of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Rozsos, I

    1998-06-21

    Despite the marked decline in mortality of acute appendicitis over the past 50 years, the rate of perforation and negative appendectomy remains unchanged. The most effective means of controlling human suffering and economic cost associated with appendicitis is the identification and correction of factors responsible for perforation. Negative appendectomy rates have been relatively stable over the decades. Progress in diagnosis and diagnostic imaging still has not provided a foolproof non-invasive test to rule out the presence of appendicitis accurately. Clinical assessment determines the treatment and the clinical observation should be done by the surgeon. The use of H2-receptor antagonists has not reduced emergency admission of patients with duodenal ulcer. Mortality associated with perforated peptic ulcer remains high in spite of advances in surgical management. The patients with acute obstructed cholecystitis usually reach the surgeon with more advanced stage of the disease which results in increased morbidity and subsequently increased cost for undergoing cholecystectomy. If the patient develops severe diffuse peritonitis, the mortality could reach 30%. This is in spite of aggressive surgical treatment, potent antibiotics, modern intensive care and diagnostic procedures. To improve the results, more advanced treatment to avoid the development of peritonitis and more effective antibiotics to control the inflammation will be needed.

  6. Mortality rates and risk factors for emergent open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms in the endovascular era.

    PubMed

    Pecoraro, Felice; Gloekler, Steffen; Mader, Caecilia E; Roos, Malgorzata; Chaykovska, Lyubov; Veith, Frank J; Cayne, Neal S; Mangialardi, Nicola; Neff, Thomas; Lachat, Mario

    2018-03-01

    The background of this paper is to report the mortality at 30 and 90 days and at mean follow-up after open abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) emergent repair and to identify predictive risk factors for 30- and 90-day mortality. Between 1997 and 2002, 104 patients underwent emergent AAA open surgery. Symptomatic and ruptured AAAs were observed, respectively, in 21 and 79% of cases. Mean patient age was 70 (SD 9.2) years. Mean aneurysm maximal diameter was 7.4 (SD 1.6) cm. Primary endpoints were 30- and 90-day mortality. Significant mortality-related risk factor identification was the secondary endpoint. Open repair trend and its related perioperative mortality with a per-year analysis and a correlation subanalysis to identify predictive mortality factor were performed. Mean follow-up time was 23 (SD 23) months. Overall, 30-day mortality was 30%. Significant mortality-related risk factors were the use of computed tomography (CT) as a preoperative diagnostic tool, AAA rupture, preoperative shock, intraoperative cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), use of aortic balloon occlusion, intraoperative massive blood transfusion (MBT), and development of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Previous abdominal surgery was identified as a protective risk factor. The mortality rate at 90 days was 44%. Significant mortality-related risk factors were AAA rupture, aortocaval fistula, peripheral artery disease (PAD), preoperative shock, CPR, MBT, and ACS. The mortality rate at follow-up was 45%. Correlation analysis showed that MBT, shock, and ACS are the most relevant predictive mortality factor at 30 and 90 days. During the transition period from open to endovascular repair, open repair mortality outcomes remained comparable with other contemporary data despite a selection bias for higher risk patients. MBT, shock, and ACS are the most pronounced predictive mortality risk factors.

  7. Abdominal aortic atherosclerosis at MR imaging is associated with cardiovascular events: the Dallas heart study.

    PubMed

    Maroules, Christopher D; Rosero, Eric; Ayers, Colby; Peshock, Ronald M; Khera, Amit

    2013-10-01

    To determine the value of two abdominal aortic atherosclerosis measurements at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for predicting future cardiovascular events. This study was approved by the institutional review board and complied with HIPAA regulations. The study consisted of 2122 participants from the multiethnic, population-based Dallas Heart Study who underwent abdominal aortic MR imaging at 1.5 T. Aortic atherosclerosis was measured by quantifying mean aortic wall thickness (MAWT) and aortic plaque burden. Participants were monitored for cardiovascular death, nonfatal cardiac events, and nonfatal extracardiac vascular events over a mean period of 7.8 years ± 1.5 (standard deviation [SD]). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess independent associations of aortic atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Increasing MAWT was positively associated with male sex (odds ratio, 3.66; P < .0001), current smoking (odds ratio, 2.53; P < .0001), 10-year increase in age (odds ratio, 2.24; P < .0001), and hypertension (odds ratio, 1.66; P = .0001). A total of 143 participants (6.7%) experienced a cardiovascular event. MAWT conferred an increased risk for composite events (hazard ratio, 1.28 per 1 SD; P = .001). Aortic plaque was not associated with increased risk for composite events. Increasing MAWT and aortic plaque burden both conferred an increased risk for nonfatal extracardiac events (hazard ratio of 1.52 per 1 SD [P < .001] and hazard ratio of 1.46 per 1 SD [P = .03], respectively). MR imaging measures of aortic atherosclerosis are predictive of future adverse cardiovascular events. © RSNA, 2013.

  8. Onset in abdominal muscles recorded simultaneously by ultrasound imaging and intramuscular electromyography.

    PubMed

    Vasseljen, Ottar; Fladmark, Anne M; Westad, Christian; Torp, Hans G

    2009-04-01

    Delayed onset of muscle activity in abdominal muscles has been related to low back pain. To investigate this in larger clinical trials it would be beneficial if non-invasive and less cumbersome alternatives to intramuscular electromyography (EMG) were available. This study was designed to compare onset of muscle activity recorded by intramuscular EMG to onset of muscle deformations by ultrasound imaging. Muscle deformations were recorded by two ultrasound imaging modes at high time resolution (m-mode and tissue velocity) in separate sessions and compared to simultaneously recorded intramuscular EMG in three abdominal muscles. Tissue velocity imaging was converted to strain rate which measures deformation velocity gradients within small regions, giving information about the rate of local tissue shortening or lengthening along the beam axis. Onsets in transversus abdominis (TrA), obliquus internus abdominis (OI) and obliquus externus abdominis (OE) were recorded during rapid arm flexions in ten healthy subjects. During ultrasound m-mode recordings, the results showed that mean onsets by EMG were detected 7 ms (95% CI of mean difference; +/-4 ms) and 2 ms (95% CI of mean difference; +/-6 ms) before concurrent ultrasound m-mode detected onsets in TrA and OI, respectively. In contrast, OE onset was recorded 54 ms (95% CI of bias; +/-16 ms) later by EMG compared to ultrasound m-mode. The discrepancy of ultrasound m-mode to accurately record onset in OE was practically corrected in the ultrasound-based strain rate recordings. However, this could only be applied on half of the subjects due to the angle dependency between the ultrasound beam and the direction of the contraction in strain rate recordings. The angle dependency needs to be further explored.

  9. Research priorities for the influence of gender on diagnostic imaging choices in the emergency department setting.

    PubMed

    Ashurst, John V; Cherney, Alan R; Evans, Elizabeth M; Kennedy Hall, Michael; Hess, Erik P; Kline, Jeffrey A; Mitchell, Alice M; Mills, Angela M; Weigner, Michael B; Moore, Christopher L

    2014-12-01

    Diagnostic imaging is a cornerstone of patient evaluation in the acute care setting, but little effort has been devoted to understanding the appropriate influence of sex and gender on imaging choices. This article provides background on this issue and a description of the working group and consensus findings reached during the diagnostic imaging breakout session at the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Gender-specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes." Our goal was to determine research priorities for how sex and gender may (or should) affect imaging choices in the acute care setting. Prior to the conference, the working group identified five areas for discussion regarding the research agenda in sex- and gender-based imaging using literature review and expert consensus. The nominal group technique was used to identify areas for discussion for common presenting complaints to the emergency department where ionizing radiation is often used for diagnosis: suspected pulmonary embolism, suspected kidney stone, lower abdominal pain with a concern for appendicitis, and chest pain concerning for coronary artery disease. The role of sex- and gender-based shared decision-making in diagnostic imaging decisions is also raised. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  10. An anthropomorphic abdominal phantom for deformable image registration accuracy validation in adaptive radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yuliang; Wang, Linjing; Xu, Xiangdong; Chen, Haibin; Chen, Jiawei; Zhang, Guoqian; Lei, Huaiyu; Wang, Ruihao; Zhang, Shuxu; Gu, Xuejun; Zhen, Xin; Zhou, Linghong

    2017-06-01

    To design and construct a three-dimensional (3D) anthropomorphic abdominal phantom for geometric accuracy and dose summation accuracy evaluations of deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms for adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Organ molds, including liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, vertebra, and two metastasis tumors, were 3D printed using contours from an ovarian cancer patient. The organ molds were molded with deformable gels made of different mixtures of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and the softener dioctyl terephthalate. Gels with different densities were obtained by a polynomial fitting curve that described the relation between the Hounsfield unit (HU) and PVC-softener blending ratio. The rigid vertebras were constructed by molding of white cement and cellulose pulp. The final abdominal phantom was assembled by arranging all the fabricated organs inside a hollow dummy according to their anatomies, and sealed by deformable gel with averaged HU of muscle and fat. Fiducial landmarks were embedded inside the phantom for spatial accuracy and dose accumulation accuracy studies. Two channels were excavated to facilitate ionization chamber insertion for dosimetric measurements. Phantom properties such as deformable gel elasticity and HU stability were studied. The dosimetric measurement accuracy in the phantom was performed, and the DIR accuracies of three DIR algorithms available in the open source DIR toolkit-DIRART were also validated. The constructed deformable gel showed elastic behavior and was stable in HU values over times, proving to be a practical material for the deformable phantom. The constructed abdominal phantom consisted of realistic anatomies in terms of both anatomical shapes and densities when compared with its reference patient. The dosimetric measurements showed a good agreement with the calculated doses from the treatment planning system. Fiducial-based accuracy analysis conducted on the constructed phantom demonstrated the feasibility of

  11. Abdominal Imaging with Contrast-enhanced Photon-counting CT: First Human Experience

    PubMed Central

    Pourmorteza, Amir; Symons, Rolf; Sandfort, Veit; Mallek, Marissa; Fuld, Matthew K.; Henderson, Gregory; Jones, Elizabeth C.; Malayeri, Ashkan A.; Folio, Les R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the performance of a prototype photon-counting detector (PCD) computed tomography (CT) system for abdominal CT in humans and to compare the results with a conventional energy-integrating detector (EID). Materials and Methods The study was HIPAA-compliant and institutional review board–approved with informed consent. Fifteen asymptomatic volunteers (seven men; mean age, 58.2 years ± 9.8 [standard deviation]) were prospectively enrolled between September 2 and November 13, 2015. Radiation dose–matched delayed contrast agent–enhanced spiral and axial abdominal EID and PCD scans were acquired. Spiral images were scored for image quality (Wilcoxon signed-rank test) in five regions of interest by three radiologists blinded to the detector system, and the axial scans were used to assess Hounsfield unit accuracy in seven regions of interest (paired t test). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess reproducibility. PCD images were also used to calculate iodine concentration maps. Spatial resolution, noise-power spectrum, and Hounsfield unit accuracy of the systems were estimated by using a CT phantom. Results In both systems, scores were similar for image quality (median score, 4; P = .19), noise (median score, 3; P = .30), and artifact (median score, 1; P = .17), with good interrater agreement (image quality, noise, and artifact ICC: 0.84, 0.88, and 0.74, respectively). Hounsfield unit values, spatial resolution, and noise-power spectrum were also similar with the exception of mean Hounsfield unit value in the spinal canal, which was lower in the PCD than the EID images because of beam hardening (20 HU vs 36.5 HU; P < .001). Contrast-to-noise ratio of enhanced kidney tissue was improved with PCD iodine mapping compared with EID (5.2 ± 1.3 vs 4.0 ± 1.3; P < .001). Conclusion The performance of PCD showed no statistically significant difference compared with EID when the abdomen was evaluated in a conventional scan mode. PCD

  12. Blunt abdominal trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, Deborah; Lee, Lois K

    2012-06-01

    This review will examine the current evidence regarding pediatric blunt abdominal trauma and the physical exam findings, laboratory values, and radiographic imaging associated with the diagnosis of intra-abdominal injuries (IAI), as well as review the current literature on pediatric hollow viscus injuries and emergency department disposition after diagnosis. The importance of the seat belt sign on physical examination and screening laboratory data remains controversial, although screening hepatic enzymes are recommended in the evaluation of nonaccidental trauma to identify occult abdominal organ injuries. Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) has modest sensitivity for hemoperitoneum and IAI in the pediatric trauma patient. Patients with concern for undiagnosed IAI, including bowel injury, may be considered for hospital admission and serial abdominal exams without an increased risk of complications, if an exploratory laparotomy is not performed emergently. Although the FAST exam is not recommended as the sole screening tool to rule out IAI in hemodynamically stable trauma patients, it may be used in conjunction with the physical exam and laboratory findings to identify children at risk for IAI. Children with a normal physical exam and normal abdominal CT may not require routine hospitalization after blunt abdominal trauma.

  13. Abdominal Tumor Characterization and Recognition Using Superior-Order Cooccurrence Matrices, Based on Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    Mitrea, Delia; Mitrea, Paulina; Nedevschi, Sergiu; Badea, Radu; Lupsor, Monica; Socaciu, Mihai; Golea, Adela; Hagiu, Claudia; Ciobanu, Lidia

    2012-01-01

    The noninvasive diagnosis of the malignant tumors is an important issue in research nowadays. Our purpose is to elaborate computerized, texture-based methods for performing computer-aided characterization and automatic diagnosis of these tumors, using only the information from ultrasound images. In this paper, we considered some of the most frequent abdominal malignant tumors: the hepatocellular carcinoma and the colonic tumors. We compared these structures with the benign tumors and with other visually similar diseases. Besides the textural features that proved in our previous research to be useful in the characterization and recognition of the malignant tumors, we improved our method by using the grey level cooccurrence matrix and the edge orientation cooccurrence matrix of superior order. As resulted from our experiments, the new textural features increased the malignant tumor classification performance, also revealing visual and physical properties of these structures that emphasized the complex, chaotic structure of the corresponding tissue. PMID:22312411

  14. Ostomy-related complications after emergent abdominal surgery: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, Elisabet; Persson, Eva; Carlsson, Eva; Hallén, Anne-Marie; Fingren, Jeanette; Berndtsson, Ina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate ostomy-related complications and describe ostomy configuration in patients undergoing acute abdominal surgery. The study sample comprised 144 patients with a median age of 67 years (IOR: 53.5-78 years) who underwent an intestinal ostomy as part of an acute abdominal surgical procedure. The research setting was the surgical and gynecological clinics at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg, Sweden. Ostomy configuration, diameter, height, and the presence of stomal and peristomal complications were assessed by a WOC nurse 1 to 2 times while in hospital, once at the ostomy outpatient clinic 2 weeks after discharge, and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months following ostomy creation. The types of ostomies evaluated were end colostomy (58%), end ileostomy (18%), loop ileostomy (17%), and loop colostomy (7%). Most stomal or peristomal complications occurred within 1 year after surgery (31 of 57; 54.4%). Necrosis, separation, and stenosis were most common in patients with an end colostomy. Peristomal skin complications occurred in 45% of subjects during the first 6 months after surgery. The ostomy's diameter decreased significantly during the hospital course and over the first 2 weeks following hospital discharge in patients with end colostomy (P< .0001), end ileostomy (P< .0081), loop ileostomy (P= .008), and loop colostomy (ns). Patients with a low ostomy had peristomal skin problems ranging between 21% and 57% over this time period. The frequency of using a pouching system that incorporated convexity was highest in the case of loop ileostomy, used in 67% at 6 months. During the first 2 weeks after discharge, the physical configuration of the ostomy evolves and the pouching system must be frequently adjusted by a WOC nurse. Stomal and peristomal complications are prevalent during the first 2 postoperative years and especially during the first 6 months.

  15. Automatic spectral imaging protocol selection and iterative reconstruction in abdominal CT with reduced contrast agent dose: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Lv, Peijie; Liu, Jie; Chai, Yaru; Yan, Xiaopeng; Gao, Jianbo; Dong, Junqiang

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, image quality, and radiation dose of automatic spectral imaging protocol selection (ASIS) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) with reduced contrast agent dose in abdominal multiphase CT. One hundred and sixty patients were randomly divided into two scan protocols (n = 80 each; protocol A, 120 kVp/450 mgI/kg, filtered back projection algorithm (FBP); protocol B, spectral CT imaging with ASIS and 40 to 70 keV monochromatic images generated per 300 mgI/kg, ASIR algorithm. Quantitative parameters (image noise and contrast-to-noise ratios [CNRs]) and qualitative visual parameters (image noise, small structures, organ enhancement, and overall image quality) were compared. Monochromatic images at 50 keV and 60 keV provided similar or lower image noise, but higher contrast and overall image quality as compared with 120-kVp images. Despite the higher image noise, 40-keV images showed similar overall image quality compared to 120-kVp images. Radiation dose did not differ between the two protocols, while contrast agent dose in protocol B was reduced by 33 %. Application of ASIR and ASIS to monochromatic imaging from 40 to 60 keV allowed contrast agent dose reduction with adequate image quality and without increasing radiation dose compared to 120 kVp with FBP. • Automatic spectral imaging protocol selection provides appropriate scan protocols. • Abdominal CT is feasible using spectral imaging and 300 mgI/kg contrast agent. • 50-keV monochromatic images with 50 % ASIR provide optimal image quality.

  16. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clearinghouse What are abdominal adhesions? Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ... Esophagus Stomach Large intestine Adhesion Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ...

  17. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Recurrent or Functional Abdominal Pain (RAP or FAP) What is abdominal pain? Abdominal pain , or stomachache, ... recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) or functional abdominal pain (FAP)? If your health care provider has ruled out ...

  18. CT abdominal imaging findings in patients with sickle cell disease: acute vaso-occlusive crisis, complications, and chronic sequelae.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Carly S; Boll, Daniel T; Bhosale, Priya; Jaffe, Tracy A

    2016-12-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most prevalent hemoglobinopathy. Survival in patients with SCD has improved over the past few decades. These patients experience a lifetime of repeated acute pain crises, which are thought to result from sickling and microvascular occlusions; acute abdominal pain is common. Moreover, repeated crises often lead to organ dysfunction, such as asplenia, hepatic failure, and renal failure. The spleen, liver, biliary system, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract can all be affected. Patients may undergo CT to further direct clinical management. We review the spectrum of CT imaging findings of abdominal manifestations in patients with SCD, from the acute microvascular occlusive pain crisis to the potential complications and chronic sequelae.

  19. Detection and characterization of lesions on low-radiation-dose abdominal CT images postprocessed with noise reduction filters.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Mannudeep K; Maher, Michael M; Blake, Michael A; Lucey, Brian C; Karau, Kelly; Toth, Thomas L; Avinash, Gopal; Halpern, Elkan F; Saini, Sanjay

    2004-09-01

    To assess the effect of noise reduction filters on detection and characterization of lesions on low-radiation-dose abdominal computed tomographic (CT) images. Low-dose CT images of abdominal lesions in 19 consecutive patients (11 women, eight men; age range, 32-78 years) were obtained at reduced tube currents (120-144 mAs). These baseline low-dose CT images were postprocessed with six noise reduction filters; the resulting postprocessed images were then randomly assorted with baseline images. Three radiologists performed independent evaluation of randomized images for presence, number, margins, attenuation, conspicuity, calcification, and enhancement of lesions, as well as image noise. Side-by-side comparison of baseline images with postprocessed images was performed by using a five-point scale for assessing lesion conspicuity and margins, image noise, beam hardening, and diagnostic acceptability. Quantitative noise and contrast-to-noise ratio were obtained for all liver lesions. Statistical analysis was performed by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, Student t test, and kappa test of agreement. Significant reduction of noise was observed in images postprocessed with filter F compared with the noise in baseline nonfiltered images (P =.004). Although the number of lesions seen on baseline images and that seen on postprocessed images were identical, lesions were less conspicuous on postprocessed images than on baseline images. A decrease in quantitative image noise and contrast-to-noise ratio for liver lesions was noted with all noise reduction filters. There was good interobserver agreement (kappa = 0.7). Although the use of currently available noise reduction filters improves image noise and ameliorates beam-hardening artifacts at low-dose CT, such filters are limited by a compromise in lesion conspicuity and appearance in comparison with lesion conspicuity and appearance on baseline low-dose CT images. Copyright RSNA, 2004

  20. Comparison of Liver Tumor Motion With and Without Abdominal Compression Using Cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Eccles, Cynthia L.; Patel, Ritesh; Simeonov, Anna K.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Abdominal compression (AC) can be used to reduce respiratory liver motion in patients undergoing liver stereotactic body radiotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to measure the changes in three-dimensional liver tumor motion with and without compression using cine-magnetic resonance imaging. Patients and Methods: A total of 60 patients treated as a part of an institutional research ethics board-approved liver stereotactic body radiotherapy protocol underwent cine T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging through the tumor centroid in the coronal and sagittal planes. A total of 240 cine-magnetic resonance imaging sequences acquired at one to three images each second for 30-60more » s were evaluated using an in-house-developed template matching tool (based on the coefficient correlation) to measure the magnitude of the tumor motion. The average tumor edge displacements were used to determine the magnitude of changes in the caudal-cranial (CC) and anteroposterior (AP) directions, with and without AC. Results: The mean tumor motion without AC of 11.7 mm (range, 4.8-23.3) in the CC direction was reduced to 9.4 mm (range, 1.6-23.4) with AC. The tumor motion was reduced in both directions (CC and AP) in 52% of the patients and in a single direction (CC or AP) in 90% of the patients. The mean decrease in tumor motion with AC was 2.3 and 0.6 mm in the CC and AP direction, respectively. Increased motion occurred in one or more directions in 28% of patients. Clinically significant (>3 mm) decreases were observed in 40% and increases in <2% of patients in the CC direction. Conclusion: AC can significantly reduce three-dimensional liver tumor motion in most patients, although the magnitude of the reduction was smaller than previously reported.« less

  1. Cost identification of abdominal aortic aneurysm imaging by using time and motion analyses.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G D; Armerding, M D; Dake, M D; Napel, S

    2000-04-01

    To compare the costs of performing helical computed tomographic (CT) angiography with three-dimensional rendering versus intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for preoperative imaging of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). A single observer determined the variable direct costs of performing nine intraarterial DSA and 10 CT angiographic examinations in age- and general health-matched patients with AAA by using time and motion analyses. All personnel directly involved in the cases were tracked, and the involvement times were recorded to the nearest minute. All material items used during the procedures were recorded. The cost of labor was determined from personnel reimbursement data, and the cost of materials, from vendor pricing. The variable direct costs of laboratory tests and using the ambulatory treatment unit for postprocedural monitoring, as well as all fixed direct costs, were assessed from hospital accounting records. The total costs were determined for each procedure and compared by using the Student t test and calculating the CIs. The mean total direct cost of intraarterial DSA (+/- SD) was $1,052 +/- 71, and that of CT angiography was $300 +/- 30, which are significantly different (P < 4.1 x 10(-11)). With 95% confidence, intraarterial DSA cost 3.2-3.7 times more than CT angiography for the assessment of AAA. Assuming equal diagnostic utility and procedure-related morbidity, institutions may have substantial cost savings whenever CT angiography can replace intraarterial DSA for imaging AAAs.

  2. Novel application of simultaneous multi-image display during complex robotic abdominal procedures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The surgical robot offers the potential to integrate multiple views into the surgical console screen, and for the assistant’s monitors to provide real-time views of both fields of operation. This function has the potential to increase patient safety and surgical efficiency during an operation. Herein, we present a novel application of the multi-image display system for simultaneous visualization of endoscopic views during various complex robotic gastrointestinal operations. All operations were performed using the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) with the assistance of Tilepro, multi-input display software, during employment of the intraoperative scopes. Three robotic operations, left hepatectomy with intraoperative common bile duct exploration, low anterior resection, and radical distal subtotal gastrectomy with intracorporeal gastrojejunostomy, were performed by three different surgeons at a tertiary academic medical center. Results The three complex robotic abdominal operations were successfully completed without difficulty or intraoperative complications. The use of the Tilepro to simultaneously visualize the images from the colonoscope, gastroscope, and choledochoscope made it possible to perform additional intraoperative endoscopic procedures without extra monitors or interference with the operations. Conclusion We present a novel use of the multi-input display program on the da Vinci Surgical System to facilitate the performance of intraoperative endoscopies during complex robotic operations. Our study offers another potentially beneficial application of the robotic surgery platform toward integration and simplification of combining additional procedures with complex minimally invasive operations. PMID:24628761

  3. Optimizing abdominal CT dose and image quality with respect to x-ray tube voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, Walter; Ogden, Kent M.

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the x-ray tube voltage that results in optimum performance for abdominal CT imaging for a range of imaging tasks and patient sizes. Theoretical calculations were performed of the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) for disk shaped lesions of muscle, fat, bone and iodine embedded in a uniform water background. Lesion contrast was the mean Hounsfield Unit value at the effective photon energy, and image noise was determined from the total radiation intensity incident on the CT x-ray detector. Patient size ranging from young infants (10 kg) to oversized adults (120 kg), with CNR values obtained for x-ray tube voltages ranging from 80 to 140 kV. Patients of varying sizes were modeled as an equivalent cylinder of water, and the mean section dose (D) was determined for each selected x-ray tube kV value at a constant mAs. For each patient size and lesion type, we identified an optimal kV as the x-ray tube voltage that yields a maximum value of the figure of merit (CNR2/D). Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV reduced lesion contrast by 11% for muscle, 21% for fat, 35% for bone and 52% for iodine, and these reductions were approximately independent of patient size. Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV increased a muscle lesion CNR relative to a uniform water background by a factor of 2.6, with similar trends observed for fat (2.3), bone (1.9) and iodine (1.4). The improvement in lesion CNR with increasing x-ray tube voltage was highest for the largest sized patients. Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV increased the patient dose by a factor of between 5.0 and 6.2 depending on the patient size. For small sized patients (10 and 30 kg) and muscle lesions, best performance is obtained at 80 kV; however, for adults (70 kg) and oversized adults (120 kg), the best performance would be obtained at 140 kV. Imaging fat lesions was best performed at 80 kV for all patients except for oversized adults

  4. Evaluation of an iterative model-based reconstruction of pediatric abdominal CT with regard to image quality and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Aurumskjöld, Marie-Louise; Söderberg, Marcus; Stålhammar, Fredrik; von Steyern, Kristina Vult; Tingberg, Anders; Ydström, Kristina

    2018-06-01

    Background In pediatric patients, computed tomography (CT) is important in the medical chain of diagnosing and monitoring various diseases. Because children are more radiosensitive than adults, they require minimal radiation exposure. One way to achieve this goal is to implement new technical solutions, like iterative reconstruction. Purpose To evaluate the potential of a new, iterative, model-based method for reconstructing (IMR) pediatric abdominal CT at a low radiation dose and determine whether it maintains or improves image quality, compared to the current reconstruction method. Material and Methods Forty pediatric patients underwent abdominal CT. Twenty patients were examined with the standard dose settings and 20 patients were examined with a 32% lower radiation dose. Images from the standard examination were reconstructed with a hybrid iterative reconstruction method (iDose 4 ), and images from the low-dose examinations were reconstructed with both iDose 4 and IMR. Image quality was evaluated subjectively by three observers, according to modified EU image quality criteria, and evaluated objectively based on the noise observed in liver images. Results Visual grading characteristics analyses showed no difference in image quality between the standard dose examination reconstructed with iDose 4 and the low dose examination reconstructed with IMR. IMR showed lower image noise in the liver compared to iDose 4 images. Inter- and intra-observer variance was low: the intraclass coefficient was 0.66 (95% confidence interval = 0.60-0.71) for the three observers. Conclusion IMR provided image quality equivalent or superior to the standard iDose 4 method for evaluating pediatric abdominal CT, even with a 32% dose reduction.

  5. Image-driven, model-based 3D abdominal motion estimation for MR-guided radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Stemkens, Bjorn; Tijssen, Rob H N; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Lagendijk, Jan J W; van den Berg, Cornelis A T

    2016-07-21

    Respiratory motion introduces substantial uncertainties in abdominal radiotherapy for which traditionally large margins are used. The MR-Linac will open up the opportunity to acquire high resolution MR images just prior to radiation and during treatment. However, volumetric MRI time series are not able to characterize 3D tumor and organ-at-risk motion with sufficient temporal resolution. In this study we propose a method to estimate 3D deformation vector fields (DVFs) with high spatial and temporal resolution based on fast 2D imaging and a subject-specific motion model based on respiratory correlated MRI. In a pre-beam phase, a retrospectively sorted 4D-MRI is acquired, from which the motion is parameterized using a principal component analysis. This motion model is used in combination with fast 2D cine-MR images, which are acquired during radiation, to generate full field-of-view 3D DVFs with a temporal resolution of 476 ms. The geometrical accuracies of the input data (4D-MRI and 2D multi-slice acquisitions) and the fitting procedure were determined using an MR-compatible motion phantom and found to be 1.0-1.5 mm on average. The framework was tested on seven healthy volunteers for both the pancreas and the kidney. The calculated motion was independently validated using one of the 2D slices, with an average error of 1.45 mm. The calculated 3D DVFs can be used retrospectively for treatment simulations, plan evaluations, or to determine the accumulated dose for both the tumor and organs-at-risk on a subject-specific basis in MR-guided radiotherapy.

  6. Can Abdominal CT Imaging Help Accurately Identify a Dedifferentiated Component in a Well-Differentiated Liposarcoma?

    PubMed Central

    Bhosale, Priya; Wang, Jieqi; Varma, Datla G.K; Jensen, Corey; Patnana, Madhavi; Wei, Wei; Chauhan, Anil; Feig, Barry; Patel, Shreyaskumar; Somaiah, Neeta; Sagebiel, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the ability of CT to differentiate an atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT)/well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDLPS) from a WDLPS with a dedifferentiated component (DDLPS) within it. Materials and Methods Forty-nine untreated patients with abdominal atypical lipomatous tumors/well-differentiated liposarcomas who had undergone contrast-enhanced CT were identified using an institutional database. Three radiologists who were blinded to the pathology findings evaluated all the images independently to determine whether a dedifferentiated component was present within the WDLPS. The CT images were evaluated for fat content (≤25% or >25%); presence of ground-glass density, enhancing and/or necrotic nodules; presence of a capsule surrounding the mass; septations; and presence and pattern of calcifications. A multivariate logistic regression model with generalized estimating equations was used to correlate imaging features with pathology findings. Kappa statistics were calculated to assess agreement between the three radiologists. Results On the basis of pathological findings, 12 patients had been diagnosed with DDLPS within a WDLPS and 37 had been diagnosed with WDLPS. The presence of an enhancing or a centrally necrotic nodule within the atypical lipomatous tumor was associated with dedifferentiated liposarcoma (p = 0.02 and p = 0.0003, respectively). The three readers showed almost perfect agreement in overall diagnosis (kappa r = 0.83; 95% confidence-interval 0.67 to 0.99). Conclusion An enhancing or centrally necrotic nodule may be indicative of a dedifferentiated component in well-differentiated liposarcoma. Ground-glass density nodules may not be indicative of dedifferentiation. PMID:27454788

  7. Image-driven, model-based 3D abdominal motion estimation for MR-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemkens, Bjorn; Tijssen, Rob H. N.; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; van den Berg, Cornelis A. T.

    2016-07-01

    Respiratory motion introduces substantial uncertainties in abdominal radiotherapy for which traditionally large margins are used. The MR-Linac will open up the opportunity to acquire high resolution MR images just prior to radiation and during treatment. However, volumetric MRI time series are not able to characterize 3D tumor and organ-at-risk motion with sufficient temporal resolution. In this study we propose a method to estimate 3D deformation vector fields (DVFs) with high spatial and temporal resolution based on fast 2D imaging and a subject-specific motion model based on respiratory correlated MRI. In a pre-beam phase, a retrospectively sorted 4D-MRI is acquired, from which the motion is parameterized using a principal component analysis. This motion model is used in combination with fast 2D cine-MR images, which are acquired during radiation, to generate full field-of-view 3D DVFs with a temporal resolution of 476 ms. The geometrical accuracies of the input data (4D-MRI and 2D multi-slice acquisitions) and the fitting procedure were determined using an MR-compatible motion phantom and found to be 1.0-1.5 mm on average. The framework was tested on seven healthy volunteers for both the pancreas and the kidney. The calculated motion was independently validated using one of the 2D slices, with an average error of 1.45 mm. The calculated 3D DVFs can be used retrospectively for treatment simulations, plan evaluations, or to determine the accumulated dose for both the tumor and organs-at-risk on a subject-specific basis in MR-guided radiotherapy.

  8. Induced transducer orientation during ultrasound imaging: effects on abdominal muscle thickness and bladder position.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Jackie L; Warner, Martin B; Stokes, Maria J

    2009-11-01

    The use of ultrasound imaging (USI) by physiotherapists to assess muscle behavior in clinical settings is increasing. However, there is relatively little evidence of whether the clinical environment is conducive to valid and reliable measurements. Accurate USI measurements depend on maintaining a relatively stationary transducer position, because motion may distort the image and lead to erroneous conclusions. This would seem particularly important during dynamic studies typical of a physiotherapy assessment. What is not known is how much transducer motion can occur before error is introduced. The aim of this study is to shed some light on this question. Eight healthy volunteers (19 to 52 y) participated. USI images were taken of the lateral abdominal wall (LAW) and bladder base (midline suprapubic) at various manually induced transducer orientations (approximately -10 to 10 degrees about 3 axes of rotation), which were quantified by a digital optical motion capture system. Measurements of transversus abdominis (TrA) thickness and bladder base position (cranial /caudal and anterior/posterior) were calculated. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to determine if the measurements obtained at the induced transducer orientations were statistically different (p<0.05) from an image corresponding to a reference or starting transducer orientation. Motion analysis data corresponding to measurements that did not differ from reference image measurements were summarized to provide a range of acceptable transducer motion (relative to the pelvis) for clockwise (CW)/counter-clockwise (CCW) rotation, cranial/caudal tilting, medial/lateral tilting and inward/outward displacement. There were no significant changes in TrA thickness measurements if CW/CCW transducer motion was <9 degrees and cranial/caudal or medial/lateral transducer tilting was <5 degrees . Further, there were no significant changes in measurements of bladder base position if CW/CCW transducer motion

  9. Multimodality imaging of adult gastric emergencies: A pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Sunnapwar, Abhijit; Ojili, Vijayanadh; Katre, Rashmi; Shah, Hardik; Nagar, Arpit

    2017-01-01

    Acute gastric emergencies require urgent surgical or nonsurgical intervention because they are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis since the clinical symptoms are often nonspecific and radiologist may be the first one to suggest a diagnosis as the imaging findings are often characteristic. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of multimodality imaging (plain radiograph, fluoroscopy, and computed tomography) of various life threatening gastric emergencies. PMID:28515579

  10. A study on automated anatomical labeling to arteries concerning with colon from 3D abdominal CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Bui Huy; Oda, Masahiro; Jiang, Zhengang; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Mori, Kensaku

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an automated anatomical labeling method of arteries extracted from contrasted 3D CT images based on multi-class AdaBoost. In abdominal surgery, understanding of vasculature related to a target organ such as the colon is very important. Therefore, the anatomical structure of blood vessels needs to be understood by computers in a system supporting abdominal surgery. There are several researches on automated anatomical labeling, but there is no research on automated anatomical labeling to arteries concerning with the colon. The proposed method obtains a tree structure of arteries from the artery region and calculates features values of each branch. These feature values are thickness, curvature, direction, and running vectors of branch. Then, candidate arterial names are computed by classifiers that are trained to output artery names. Finally, a global optimization process is applied to the candidate arterial names to determine final names. Target arteries of this paper are nine lower abdominal arteries (AO, LCIA, RCIA, LEIA, REIA, SMA, IMA, LIIA, RIIA). We applied the proposed method to 14 cases of 3D abdominal contrasted CT images, and evaluated the results by leave-one-out scheme. The average precision and recall rates of the proposed method were 87.9% and 93.3%, respectively. The results of this method are applicable for anatomical name display of surgical simulation and computer aided surgery.

  11. Comparison of image quality and radiation dose between split-filter dual-energy images and single-energy images in single-source abdominal CT.

    PubMed

    Euler, André; Obmann, Markus M; Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Mileto, Achille; Zaehringer, Caroline; Falkowski, Anna L; Winkel, David J; Marin, Daniele; Stieltjes, Bram; Krauss, Bernhard; Schindera, Sebastian T

    2018-02-19

    To compare image quality and radiation dose of abdominal split-filter dual-energy CT (SF-DECT) combined with monoenergetic imaging to single-energy CT (SECT) with automatic tube voltage selection (ATVS). Two-hundred single-source abdominal CT scans were performed as SECT with ATVS (n = 100) and SF-DECT (n = 100). SF-DECT scans were reconstructed and subdivided into composed images (SF-CI) and monoenergetic images at 55 keV (SF-MI). Objective and subjective image quality were compared among single-energy images (SEI), SF-CI and SF-MI. CNR and FOM were separately calculated for the liver (e.g. CNR liv ) and the portal vein (CNR pv ). Radiation dose was compared using size-specific dose estimate (SSDE). Results of the three groups were compared using non-parametric tests. Image noise of SF-CI was 18% lower compared to SEI and 48% lower compared to SF-MI (p < 0.001). Composed images yielded higher CNR liv over single-energy images (23.4 vs. 20.9; p < 0.001), whereas CNR pv was significantly lower (3.5 vs. 5.2; p < 0.001). Monoenergetic images overcame this inferiority in CNR pv and achieved similar results compared to single-energy images (5.1 vs. 5.2; p > 0.628). Subjective sharpness was equal between single-energy and monoenergetic images and diagnostic confidence was equal between single-energy and composed images. FOM liv was highest for SF-CI. FOM pv was equal for SEI and SF-MI (p = 0.78). SSDE was significant lower for SF-DECT compared to SECT (p < 0.022). The combined use of split-filter dual-energy CT images provides comparable objective and subjective image quality at lower radiation dose compared to single-energy CT with ATVS. • Split-filter dual-energy results in 18% lower noise compared to single-energy with ATVS. • Split-filter dual-energy results in 11% lower SSDE compared to single-energy with ATVS. • Spectral shaping of split-filter dual-energy leads to an increased dose-efficiency.

  12. Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Blood Flow in the Microvasculature of Abdominal Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truica, Loredana Sorina

    In this thesis, water diffusion in human liver and placenta is studied using diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging. For short, randomly oriented vascular segments, intravascular water motion is diffusion-like. For tissues with large vascular compartments the diffusion decay is bi-exponential with one component corresponding to diffusing water and the other to water in the microvasculature. This model, known as the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model, is seldom used with abdominal organs because of motion artifacts. This limitation was overcome for the experiments reported here by introducing: 1) parallel imaging, 2) navigator echo respiratory triggering (NRT), 3) a double echo diffusion sequence that inherently compensates for eddy current effects, 4) SPAIR fat suppression and 5) a superior approach to image analysis. In particular, the use of NRT allowed us to use a free breathing protocol instead of the previously required breath hold protocol. The resulting DWI images were of high quality and motion artifact free. Diffusion decays were measured over a larger portion of the decay than had previously been reported and the results are considerably better than those previously reported. For both studies, reliable measurements of the diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D) and perfusion fraction (f), were obtained using a region of interest analysis as well as a pixel-by-pixel approach. To within experimental error, all patients had the same values of D (1.10 mum 2/ms +/- 0.16 mum2/ms), D* (46 mum2/ms +/- 17 mum2/ms) and f (44.0% +/- 6.9%) in liver and D (1.8 mum 2/ms +/- 0.2 mum2/ms), D* (30 mum 2/ms +/- 12 mmu2/ms), and f (40% +/- 6%) in the placenta. No dependence on gestational age was found for the placental study. Parametric maps of f and D* were consistent with blood flow patterns in both systems. The model worked well for both investigated organs even though their anatomical structures are quite different. A method for

  13. Model-based segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysms in CTA images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; van Ginneken, Bram; Niessen, Wiro J.; Loog, Marco; Viergever, Max A.

    2003-05-01

    Segmentation of thrombus in abdominal aortic aneurysms is complicated by regions of low boundary contrast and by the presence of many neighboring structures in close proximity to the aneurysm wall. We present an automated method that is similar to the well known Active Shape Models (ASM), combining a three-dimensional shape model with a one-dimensional boundary appearance model. Our contribution is twofold: we developed a non-parametric appearance modeling scheme that effectively deals with a highly varying background, and we propose a way of generalizing models of curvilinear structures from small training sets. In contrast with the conventional ASM approach, the new appearance model trains on both true and false examples of boundary profiles. The probability that a given image profile belongs to the boundary is obtained using k nearest neighbor (kNN) probability density estimation. The performance of this scheme is compared to that of original ASMs, which minimize the Mahalanobis distance to the average true profile in the training set. The generalizability of the shape model is improved by modeling the objects axis deformation independent of its cross-sectional deformation. A leave-one-out experiment was performed on 23 datasets. Segmentation using the kNN appearance model significantly outperformed the original ASM scheme; average volume errors were 5.9% and 46% respectively.

  14. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... abdominal cavity ( most often cancer of the ovaries ) Cirrhosis of the liver Damaged bowel Heart disease Infection ...

  15. Towards radiological diagnosis of abdominal adhesions based on motion signatures derived from sequences of cine-MRI images.

    PubMed

    Fenner, John; Wright, Benjamin; Emberey, Jonathan; Spencer, Paul; Gillott, Richard; Summers, Angela; Hutchinson, Charles; Lawford, Pat; Brenchley, Paul; Bardhan, Karna Dev

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports novel development and preliminary application of an image registration technique for diagnosis of abdominal adhesions imaged with cine-MRI (cMRI). Adhesions can severely compromise the movement and physiological function of the abdominal contents, and their presence is difficult to detect. The image registration approach presented here is designed to expose anomalies in movement of the abdominal organs, providing a movement signature that is indicative of underlying structural abnormalities. Validation of the technique was performed using structurally based in vitro and in silico models, supported with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) methods. For the more challenging cases presented to the small cohort of 4 observers, the AUC (area under curve) improved from a mean value of 0.67 ± 0.02 (without image registration assistance) to a value of 0.87 ± 0.02 when image registration support was included. Also, in these cases, a reduction in time to diagnosis was observed, decreasing by between 20% and 50%. These results provided sufficient confidence to apply the image registration diagnostic protocol to sample magnetic resonance imaging data from healthy volunteers as well as a patient suffering from encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (an extreme form of adhesions) where immobilization of the gut by cocooning of the small bowel is observed. The results as a whole support the hypothesis that movement analysis using image registration offers a possible method for detecting underlying structural anomalies and encourages further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SU-F-207-02: Use of Postmortem Subjects for Subjective Image Quality Assessment in Abdominal CT Protocols with Iterative Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Mench, A; Lipnharski, I; Carranza, C

    Purpose: New radiation dose reduction technologies are emerging constantly in the medical imaging field. The latest of these technologies, iterative reconstruction (IR) in CT, presents the ability to reduce dose significantly and hence provides great opportunity for CT protocol optimization. However, without effective analysis of image quality, the reduction in radiation exposure becomes irrelevant. This work explores the use of postmortem subjects as an image quality assessment medium for protocol optimizations in abdominal CT. Methods: Three female postmortem subjects were scanned using the Abdomen-Pelvis (AP) protocol at reduced minimum tube current and target noise index (SD) settings of 12.5, 17.5,more » 20.0, and 25.0. Images were reconstructed using two strengths of iterative reconstruction. Radiologists and radiology residents from several subspecialties were asked to evaluate 8 AP image sets including the current facility default scan protocol and 7 scans with the parameters varied as listed above. Images were viewed in the soft tissue window and scored on a 3-point scale as acceptable, borderline acceptable, and unacceptable for diagnosis. The facility default AP scan was identified to the reviewer while the 7 remaining AP scans were randomized and de-identified of acquisition and reconstruction details. The observers were also asked to comment on the subjective image quality criteria they used for scoring images. This included visibility of specific anatomical structures and tissue textures. Results: Radiologists scored images as acceptable or borderline acceptable for target noise index settings of up to 20. Due to the postmortem subjects’ close representation of living human anatomy, readers were able to evaluate images as they would those of actual patients. Conclusion: Postmortem subjects have already been proven useful for direct CT organ dose measurements. This work illustrates the validity of their use for the crucial evaluation of image

  17. In Vivo Molecular Characterization of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Using Fibrin-Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Botnar, René M; Brangsch, Julia; Reimann, Carolin; Janssen, Christian H P; Razavi, Reza; Hamm, Bernd; Makowski, Marcus R

    2018-05-30

    The incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) will significantly increase during the next decade. Novel biomarkers, besides diameter, are needed for a better characterization of aneurysms and the estimation of the risk of rupture. Fibrin is a key protein in the formation of focal hematoma associated with the dissection of the aortic wall and the development of larger thrombi during the progression of AAAs. This study evaluated the potential of a fibrin-specific magnetic resonance (MR) probe for the in vivo characterization of the different stages of AAAs. AAAs spontaneously developed in ApoE -/- mice following the infusion of angiotensin-II (Ang-II, 1 μg/kg -1 ·per minute). An established fibrin-specific molecular MR probe (EP2104R, 10 μmol/kg -1 ) was administered after 1 to 4 weeks following Ang-II infusion (n=8 per group). All imaging experiments were performed on a clinical 3T Achieva MR system with a microscopy coil (Philips Healthcare, Netherlands). The development of AAA-associated fibrin-rich hematoma and thrombi was assessed. The high signal generated by the fibrin probe enabled high-resolution MR imaging for an accurate assessment and quantification of the relative fibrin composition of focal hematoma and thrombi. Contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNRs) and R1-relaxation rates following the administration of the fibrin probe were in good agreement with ex vivo immunohistomorphometry ( R 2 =0.83 and 0.85) and gadolinium concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy ( R 2 =0.78 and 0.72). The fibrin-specific molecular MR probe allowed the delineation and quantification of changes in fibrin content in early and advanced AAAs. Fibrin MRI could provide a novel in vivo biomarker to improve the risk stratification of patients with aortic aneurysms. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  18. On-line MR imaging for dose validation of abdominal radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glitzner, M.; Crijns, S. P. M.; de Senneville, B. Denis; Kontaxis, C.; Prins, F. M.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2015-11-01

    For quality assurance and adaptive radiotherapy, validation of the actual delivered dose is crucial. Intrafractional anatomy changes cannot be captured satisfactorily during treatment with hitherto available imaging modalitites. Consequently, dose calculations are based on the assumption of static anatomy throughout the treatment. However, intra- and interfraction anatomy is dynamic and changes can be significant. In this paper, we investigate the use of an MR-linac as a dose tracking modality for the validation of treatments in abdominal targets where both respiratory and long-term peristaltic and drift motion occur. The on-line MR imaging capability of the modality provides the means to perform respiratory gating of both delivery and acquisition yielding a model-free respiratory motion management under free breathing conditions. In parallel to the treatment, the volumetric patient anatomy was captured and used to calculate the applied dose. Subsequently, the individual doses were warped back to the planning grid to obtain the actual dose accumulated over the entire treatment duration. Ultimately, the planned dose was validated by comparison with the accumulated dose. Representative for a site subject to breathing modulation, two kidney cases (25 Gy target dose) demonstrated the working principle on volunteer data and simulated delivery. The proposed workflow successfully showed its ability to track local dosimetric changes. Integration of the on-line anatomy information could reveal local dose variations  -2.3-1.5 Gy in the target volume of a volunteer dataset. In the adjacent organs at risk, high local dose errors ranging from  -2.5 to 1.9 Gy could be traced back.

  19. A New Era of Image Guidance with Magnetic Resonance-guided Radiation Therapy for Abdominal and Thoracic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Paliwal, Bhudatt; Hill, Patrick; Bayouth, John E; Geurts, Mark W; Baschnagel, Andrew M; Bradley, Kristin A; Harari, Paul M; Rosenberg, Stephen; Brower, Jeffrey V; Wojcieszynski, Andrzej P; Hullett, Craig; Bayliss, R A; Labby, Zacariah E; Bassetti, Michael F

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided radiation therapy (MRgRT) offers advantages for image guidance for radiotherapy treatments as compared to conventional computed tomography (CT)-based modalities. The superior soft tissue contrast of magnetic resonance (MR) enables an improved visualization of the gross tumor and adjacent normal tissues in the treatment of abdominal and thoracic malignancies. Online adaptive capabilities, coupled with advanced motion management of real-time tracking of the tumor, directly allow for high-precision inter-/intrafraction localization. The primary aim of this case series is to describe MR-based interventions for localizing targets not well-visualized with conventional image-guided technologies. The abdominal and thoracic sites of the lung, kidney, liver, and gastric targets are described to illustrate the technological advancement of MR-guidance in radiotherapy. PMID:29872602

  20. [Examination of upper abdominal region in high spatial resolution diffusion-weighted imaging using 3-Tesla MRI].

    PubMed

    Terada, Masaki; Matsushita, Hiroki; Oosugi, Masanori; Inoue, Kazuyasu; Yaegashi, Taku; Anma, Takeshi

    2009-03-20

    The advantage of the higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3-Tesla) has the possibility of contributing to the improvement of high spatial resolution without causing image deterioration. In this study, we compared SNR and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value with 3-Tesla as the condition in the diffusion-weighted image (DWI) parameter of the 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (1.5-Tesla) and we examined the high spatial resolution images in the imaging method [respiratory-triggering (RT) method and breath free (BF) method] and artifact (motion and zebra) in the upper abdominal region of DWI at 3-Tesla. We have optimized scan parameters based on phantom and in vivo study. As a result, 3-Tesla was able to obtain about 1.5 times SNR in comparison with the 1.5-Tesla, ADC value had few differences. Moreover, the RT method was effective in correcting the influence of respiratory movement in comparison with the BF method, and image improvement by the effective acquisition of SNR and reduction of the artifact were provided. Thus, DWI of upper abdominal region was a useful sequence for the high spatial resolution in 3-Tesla.

  1. Kilovoltage Imaging of Implanted Fiducials to Monitor Intrafraction Motion With Abdominal Compression During Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Gastrointestinal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Yorke, Ellen; Xiong, Ying; Han, Qian; Zhang, Pengpeng; Mageras, Gikas; Lovelock, Michael; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Goodman, Karyn A

    2016-07-01

    To assess intrafraction respiratory motion using a commercial kilovoltage imaging system for abdominal tumor patients with implanted fiducials and breathing constrained by pneumatic compression during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). A pneumatic compression belt limited respiratory motion in 19 patients with radiopaque fiducials in or near their tumor during SBRT for abdominal tumors. Kilovoltage images were acquired at 5- to 6-second intervals during treatment using a commercial system. Intrafractional fiducial displacements were measured using in-house software. The dosimetric effect of the observed displacements was calculated for 3 sessions for each patient. Intrafraction displacement patterns varied between patients and between individual treatment sessions. Averaged over 19 patients, 73 sessions, 7.6% of craniocaudal displacements exceeded 0.5 cm, and 1.2% exceeded 0.75 cm. The calculated single-session dose to 95% of gross tumor volume differed from planned by an average of -1.2% (range, -11.1% to 4.8%) but only for 4 patients was the total 3-session calculated dose to 95% of gross tumor volume more than 3% different from planned. Our pneumatic compression limited intrafractional abdominal target motion, maintained target position established at setup, and was moderately effective in preserving coverage. Commercially available intrafractional imaging is useful for surveillance but can be made more effective and reliable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Kilovoltage imaging of implanted fiducials to monitor intrafraction motion with abdominal compression during stereotactic body radiotherapy for GI tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yorke, Ellen; Xiong, Ying; Han, Qian; Zhang, Pengpeng; Mageras, Gikas; Lovelock, Michael; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objective To assess intrafraction respiratory motion using a commercial kilovoltage imaging system for abdominal tumor patients with implanted fiducials and breathing constrained by pneumatic compression during stereotactic body radiotherapy (sbrt). Methods and Materials A pneumatic compression belt limited respiratory motion in 19 patients with radiopaque fiducials in or near their tumor during sbrt for abdominal tumors. Kilovoltage images were acquired at 5–6 sec intervals during treatment using a commercial system. Intrafractional fiducial displacements were measured using in-house software. The dosimetric effect of the observed displacements was calculated for three sessions for each patient. Results Intrafraction displacement patterns varied between patients and between individual treatment sessions. Averaged over 19 patients, 73 sessions, 7.6% of craniocaudal displacements exceeded 0.5 cm and 1.2% exceeded 0.75 cm. The calculated single session dose to 95% of gross tumor volume (GTVD95) differed from planned by an average of −1.2% (−11.1%−4.8%) but only for 4 patients was total 3-session calculated GTVD95 over 3% different from planned Conclusions Our pneumatic compression limited intrafractional abdominal target motion, maintained target position established at setup, and was moderately effective in preserving coverage. Commercially available intrafractional imaging is useful for surveillance but can be made more effective and reliable. PMID:26797539

  3. Kilovoltage Imaging of Implanted Fiducials to Monitor Intrafraction Motion With Abdominal Compression During Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Gastrointestinal Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Yorke, Ellen, E-mail: yorke@mskcc.org; Xiong, Ying; Han, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To assess intrafraction respiratory motion using a commercial kilovoltage imaging system for abdominal tumor patients with implanted fiducials and breathing constrained by pneumatic compression during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A pneumatic compression belt limited respiratory motion in 19 patients with radiopaque fiducials in or near their tumor during SBRT for abdominal tumors. Kilovoltage images were acquired at 5- to 6-second intervals during treatment using a commercial system. Intrafractional fiducial displacements were measured using in-house software. The dosimetric effect of the observed displacements was calculated for 3 sessions for each patient. Results: Intrafraction displacement patterns variedmore » between patients and between individual treatment sessions. Averaged over 19 patients, 73 sessions, 7.6% of craniocaudal displacements exceeded 0.5 cm, and 1.2% exceeded 0.75 cm. The calculated single-session dose to 95% of gross tumor volume differed from planned by an average of −1.2% (range, −11.1% to 4.8%) but only for 4 patients was the total 3-session calculated dose to 95% of gross tumor volume more than 3% different from planned. Conclusions: Our pneumatic compression limited intrafractional abdominal target motion, maintained target position established at setup, and was moderately effective in preserving coverage. Commercially available intrafractional imaging is useful for surveillance but can be made more effective and reliable.« less

  4. Whole-body CT in polytrauma patients: The effect of arm position on abdominal image quality when using a human phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Pil-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Joung; Lee, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Hong; Lee, Won-Hyung; Jeon, Sung-Su

    2012-06-01

    For a considerable number of emergency computed tomography (CT) scans, patients are unable to position their arms above their head due to traumatic injuries. The arms-down position has been shown to reduce image quality with beam-hardening artifacts in the dorsal regions of the liver, spleen, and kidneys, rendering these images non-diagnostic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of arm position on the image quality in patients undergoing whole-body CT. We acquired CT scans with various acquisition parameters at voltages of 80, 120, and 140 kVp and an increasing tube current from 200 to 400 mAs in 50 mAs increments. The image noise and the contrast assessment were considered for quantitative analyses of the CT images. The image noise (IN), the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the coefficient of variation (COV) were evaluated. Quantitative analyses of the experiments were performed with CT scans representative of five different arm positions. Results of the CT scans acquired at 120 kVp and 250 mAs showed high image quality in patients with both arms raised above the head (SNR: 12.4, CNR: 10.9, and COV: 8.1) and both arms flexed at the elbows on the chest (SNR: 11.5, CNR: 10.2, and COV: 8.8) while the image quality significantly decreased with both arms in the down position (SNR: 9.1, CNR: 7.6, and COV: 11). Both arms raised, one arm raised, and both arms flexed improved the image quality compared to arms in the down position by reducing beam-hardening and streak artifacts caused by the arms being at the side of body. This study provides optimal methods for achieving higher image quality and lower noise in abdominal CT for trauma patients.

  5. Abdominal adipose tissue thickness measured using magnetic resonance imaging is associated with lumbar disc degeneration in a Chinese patient population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Mu, Liangshan; Huang, Kaiyu; Zhang, Tianyi; Mei, Zihan; Zeng, Wenrong; He, Jiawei; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiaozheng; Ye, Xinjian; Yan, Zhihan

    2016-12-13

    The relationship between abdominal adiposity and disc degeneration remains largely uninvestigated. Here, we investigated the association between abdominal adipose tissue thickness and lumbar disc degeneration in a cross-sectional study of 2415 participants from The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. All subjects were scanned with a 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging system to evaluate the degree of lumbar disc degeneration. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that men in the highest quartiles for abdominal diameter (AD), sagittal diameter (SAD), and ventral subcutaneous thickness (VST) were at higher odds ratio for severe lumbar disc degeneration than men in the lowest quartiles. The adjusted model revealed that women in the highest quartiles for AD and SAD were also at higher odds ratio for severe lumbar disc degeneration than women in the lowest quartiles. Our results suggest that abdominal obesity might be one of underlying mechanisms of lumbar disc degeneration, and preventive strategies including weight control could be useful to reduce the incidence of lumbar disc degeneration. Prospective studies are needed to this confirm these results and to identify more deeper underlying mechanisms.

  6. The effects of body mass index on complications and mortality after emergency abdominal operations: The obesity paradox.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Elizabeth R; Dilektasli, Evren; Haltmeier, Tobias; Beale, Elizabeth; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2017-11-01

    Recent literature suggests that obesity is protective in critically illness. This study addresses the effect of BMI on outcomes after emergency abdominal surgery (EAS). Retrospective, ACS-NSQIP analysis. All patients that underwent EAS were included. The study population was divided into five groups based on BMI; regression models were used to evaluate the role of obesity in morbidity and mortality. 101,078 patients underwent EAS; morbidity and mortality were 19.5% and 4.5%, respectively. Adjusted mortality was higher in underweight patients (AOR 1.92), but significantly lower in all obesity groups (AOR's 0.73, 0.66, 0.70, 0.70 respectively). Underweight and class III obesity was associated with increased complications (AOR 1.47 and 1.30), while mild obesity was protective (AOR 0.92). Underweight patients undergoing EAS have increased morbidity and mortality. Although class III obesity is associated with increased morbidity, overweight and class I obesity were protective. All grades of obesity may be protective against mortality after EAS relative to normal weight patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gynecologic imaging: current and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Iyer, V R; Lee, S I

    2010-01-01

    Common diagnostic challenges in gynecology and the role of imaging in their evaluation are reviewed. Etiologies of abnormal uterine bleeding identified on pelvic sonography and sonohysterography are presented. An algorithmic approach for characterizing an incidentally detected adnexal mass and use of magnetic resonance imaging for definitive diagnosis are discussed. Finally, the role of F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the management of gynecological malignancies, and pitfalls associated with their use are examined.

  8. Distinguishing infected from noninfected abdominal fluid collections after surgery: an imaging, clinical, and laboratory-based scoring system.

    PubMed

    Gnannt, Ralph; Fischer, Michael A; Baechler, Thomas; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Karlo, Christoph; Seifert, Burkhardt; Lesurtel, Mickael; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2015-01-01

    Mortality from abdominal abscesses ranges from 30% in treated cases up to 80% to 100% in patients with undrained or nonoperated abscesses. Various computed tomographic (CT) imaging features have been suggested to indicate infection of postoperative abdominal fluid collections; however, features are nonspecific and substantial overlap between infected and noninfected collections exists. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a scoring system on the basis of CT imaging findings as well as laboratory and clinical parameters for distinguishing infected from noninfected abdominal fluid collections after surgery. The score developmental cohort included 100 consecutive patients (69 men, 31 women; mean age, 58 ± 17 years) who underwent portal-venous phase CT within 24 hours before CT-guided intervention of postoperative abdominal fluid collections. Imaging features included attenuation (Hounsfield unit [HU]), volume, wall enhancement and thickness, fat stranding, as well as entrapped gas of fluid collections. Laboratory and clinical parameters included diabetes, intake of immunosuppressive drugs, body temperature, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte blood cell count. The score was validated in a separate cohort of 30 consecutive patients (17 men, 13 women; mean age, 51 ± 15 years) with postoperative abdominal fluid collections. Microbiologic analysis from fluid samples served as the standard of reference. Diabetes, body temperature, C-reactive protein, attenuation of the fluid collection (in HUs), wall enhancement and thickness of the wall, adjacent fat stranding, as well as entrapped gas within the fluid collection were significantly different between infected and noninfected collections (P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed diabetes, C-reactive protein, attenuation of the fluid collection (in HUs), as well as entrapped gas as significant independent predictors of infection (P < 0.001) and thus was selected for constructing a scoring

  9. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    MedlinePlus

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  10. The use of ultrasound imaging of the abdominal drawing-in maneuver in subjects with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Teyhen, Deydre S; Miltenberger, Chad E; Deiters, Henry M; Del Toro, Yadira M; Pulliam, Jennifer N; Childs, John D; Boyles, Robert E; Flynn, Timothy W

    2005-06-01

    Randomized controlled trial among patients with low back pain (LBP). (1) Determine the reliability of real-time ultrasound imaging for assessing activation of the lateral abdominal muscles; (2) characterize the extent to which the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) results in preferential activation of the transverse abdominis (TrA); and (3) determine if ultrasound biofeedback improves short-term performance of the ADIM in patients with LBP. Ultrasound imaging is reportedly useful for measuring and training patients to preferentially activate the TrA muscle. However, research to support these claims is limited. Thirty patients with LBP referred for lumbar stabilization training were randomized to receive either traditional training (n = 15) or traditional training with biofeedback (n = 15). Ultrasound imaging was used to measure changes in thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles. Differences in preferential changes in muscle thickness of the TrA between groups and across time were assessed using analysis of variance. Intrarater reliability measuring lateral abdominal muscle thickness exceeded 0.93. On average, patients in both groups demonstrated a 2-fold increase in the thickness of the TrA during the ADIM. Performance of the ADIM did not differ between the groups. These data provide construct validity for the notion that the ADIM results in preferential activation of the TrA in patients with LBP. Although, the addition of biofeedback did not enhance the ability to perform the ADIM at a short-term follow-up, our data suggest a possible ceiling effect or an insufficient training stimulus. Further research is necessary to determine if there is a subgroup of patients with LBP who may benefit from biofeedback.

  11. Impact of Targeted Preoperative Optimization on Clinical Outcome in Emergency Abdominal Surgeries: A Prospective Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Ashish; Debbarma, Miltan; Narang, Neeraj; Saxena, Anudeep; Mahobia, Mamta; Tomar, Gaurav Singh

    2018-01-01

    Perforation peritonitis continues to be one of the most common surgical emergencies that need a surgical intervention most of the times. Anesthesiologists are invariably involved in managing such cases efficiently in perioperative period. The assessment and evaluation of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score at presentation and 24 h after goal-directed optimization, administration of empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics, and definitive source control postoperatively. Outcome assessment in terms of duration of hospital stay and mortality in with or without optimization was also measured. It is a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled study in hospital setting. One hundred and one patients aged ≥18 years, of the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical Status I and II (E) with clinical diagnosis of perforation peritonitis posted for surgery were enrolled. Enrolled patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group A is optimized by goal-directed optimization protocol in the preoperative holding room by anesthesiology residents whereas in Group S, managed by surgery residents in the surgical wards without any fixed algorithm. The assessment of APACHE II score was done as a first step on admission and 24 h postoperatively. Duration of hospital stay and mortality in both the groups were also measured and compared. Categorical data are presented as frequency counts (percent) and compared using the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test. The statistical significance for categorical variables was determined by Chi-square analysis. For continuous variables, a two-sample t -test was applied. The mean APACHE II score on admission in case and control groups was comparable. Significant lowering of serial scores in case group was observed as compared to control group ( P = 0.02). There was a significant lowering of mean duration of hospital stay seen in case group (9.8 ± 1.7 days) as compared to control group ( P = 0

  12. Abdominal aortic aneurysm with periaortic malignant lymphoma differentiated from aneurysmal rupture by clinical presentation and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Sokichi; Itou, Yoshito; Idoguchi, Koji; Imakita, Masami; Funatsu, Toshihiro; Yagihara, Toshikatsu

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) associated with periaortic malignant lymphoma is difficult to differentiate from aneurysmal rupture because of similarities in their clinical presentation and appearance on computed tomography images. We here report a case of AAA associated with periaortic malignant lymphoma diagnosed preoperatively with an absence of typical symptoms, showing that AAA in periaortic malignant lymphoma can present without any clinical correlates. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was treated by endovascular repair, which may be safer and more effective than open surgery for AAA associated with malignant lymphoma because of the tight adhesion between the aneurysm and the lymphoid tissue.

  13. Adaptive optics retinal imaging: emerging clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Godara, Pooja; Dubis, Adam M; Roorda, Austin; Duncan, Jacque L; Carroll, Joseph

    2010-12-01

    The human retina is a uniquely accessible tissue. Tools like scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain-optical coherence tomography provide clinicians with remarkably clear pictures of the living retina. Although the anterior optics of the eye permit such non-invasive visualization of the retina and associated pathology, the same optics induce significant aberrations that obviate cellular-resolution imaging in most cases. Adaptive optics (AO) imaging systems use active optical elements to compensate for aberrations in the optical path between the object and the camera. When applied to the human eye, AO allows direct visualization of individual rod and cone photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelium cells, and white blood cells. AO imaging has changed the way vision scientists and ophthalmologists see the retina, helping to clarify our understanding of retinal structure, function, and the etiology of various retinal pathologies. Here, we review some of the advances that were made possible with AO imaging of the human retina and discuss applications and future prospects for clinical imaging.

  14. [Evaluate the Efficacy of Electroacupuncture Therapy on Abdominal Fat in Obese Women by Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging].

    PubMed

    Lei, Hong; Chen, Xiao; Hu, Dong-Gang; Chen, Yu-Ting; Feng, Li-Cheng; Chen, Zhen-Yan; Li, Fang

    2016-10-25

    To evaluate the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) therapy on abdominal fat in obese women by using magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). Thirty abdominal obesity women patients were randomly divided into control group ( n =15) and EA group ( n =15). The obesity patients of the control group did not receive any treatment for weight reduction, and those of the EA group were treated by EA stimulation of bilateral Neiting (ST 44), Fenglong (ST 40), Zusanli (ST 36), Huaroumen (ST 24), Tianshu (ST 25), Wailing (ST 26), Shuidao (ST 28), Fujie (SP 14), Daheng (SP 13), etc. for 25 min, once every other day, 3 times per week for 3 months. The patient's body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) were mea-sured with different devices, and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated, and the subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the inferior edges of L 4 , L 5 and S 3 and the superior edge of the pubic symphysis and the total abdominal fat volume between the L 4 and S 3 levels were detected using MRI systems before and after the treatment. The effects of the EA group were significantly superior to those of the control group in lowering difference values (between pre- and post-treatment) of BMI, WC and subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the levels of the inferior edges of L 4 , L 5 , S 3 and the superior edge of the pubic symphysis(all P <0.01)and in reducing total abdominal fat volume between L 4 and S 3 (all P <0.01). After the treatment, the subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the superior edge of the pubic symphysis ( P <0.01) and the total abdominal fat volume between L 4 and S 3 ( P <0.05) were significantly decreased in the EA group compared to pre-treatment. There were no significant differences between post- and pre-treatment in BMI, WC, subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the levels of the L 4 , L 5 and S 3 in both EA and control groups and in the subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the level of the superior edge of the pubic symphysis and the

  15. Errors in imaging patients in the emergency setting

    PubMed Central

    Reginelli, Alfonso; Lo Re, Giuseppe; Midiri, Federico; Muzj, Carlo; Romano, Luigia; Brunese, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Emergency and trauma care produces a “perfect storm” for radiological errors: uncooperative patients, inadequate histories, time-critical decisions, concurrent tasks and often junior personnel working after hours in busy emergency departments. The main cause of diagnostic errors in the emergency department is the failure to correctly interpret radiographs, and the majority of diagnoses missed on radiographs are fractures. Missed diagnoses potentially have important consequences for patients, clinicians and radiologists. Radiologists play a pivotal role in the diagnostic assessment of polytrauma patients and of patients with non-traumatic craniothoracoabdominal emergencies, and key elements to reduce errors in the emergency setting are knowledge, experience and the correct application of imaging protocols. This article aims to highlight the definition and classification of errors in radiology, the causes of errors in emergency radiology and the spectrum of diagnostic errors in radiography, ultrasonography and CT in the emergency setting. PMID:26838955

  16. Errors in imaging patients in the emergency setting.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Antonio; Reginelli, Alfonso; Pinto, Fabio; Lo Re, Giuseppe; Midiri, Federico; Muzj, Carlo; Romano, Luigia; Brunese, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Emergency and trauma care produces a "perfect storm" for radiological errors: uncooperative patients, inadequate histories, time-critical decisions, concurrent tasks and often junior personnel working after hours in busy emergency departments. The main cause of diagnostic errors in the emergency department is the failure to correctly interpret radiographs, and the majority of diagnoses missed on radiographs are fractures. Missed diagnoses potentially have important consequences for patients, clinicians and radiologists. Radiologists play a pivotal role in the diagnostic assessment of polytrauma patients and of patients with non-traumatic craniothoracoabdominal emergencies, and key elements to reduce errors in the emergency setting are knowledge, experience and the correct application of imaging protocols. This article aims to highlight the definition and classification of errors in radiology, the causes of errors in emergency radiology and the spectrum of diagnostic errors in radiography, ultrasonography and CT in the emergency setting.

  17. Emergency medicine physicians' and pediatricians' use of computed tomography in the evaluation of pediatric patients with abdominal pain without trauma in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Grim, Paul Francis

    2014-05-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding emergency department (ED) provider type and computed tomography (CT) scan use in the evaluation of pediatric patients with abdominal pain without trauma. The purpose of this retrospective single community hospital study was to determine if there was a difference in CT use between emergency medicine physicians (EMPs) and pediatricians (PEDs) in all patients younger than 18 years with abdominal pain without trauma who presented to the ED during the study period. The study included 165 patients. EMPs saw 83 patients and used CT in 31 compared with PEDs who saw 82 patients and used CT in 12 (P = .002). EMPs used CT significantly more frequently than PEDs in the designated sample. Economic pressures may cause changes in ED provider type in community and rural hospitals and this study shows that ED provider type may affect medical decision making, including CT use.

  18. Use of the temporal median and trimmed mean mitigates effects of respiratory motion in multiple-acquisition abdominal diffusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Jerome, N P; Orton, M R; d'Arcy, J A; Feiweier, T; Tunariu, N; Koh, D-M; Leach, M O; Collins, D J

    2015-01-21

    Respiratory motion commonly confounds abdominal diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, where averaging of successive samples at different parts of the respiratory cycle, performed in the scanner, manifests the motion as blurring of tissue boundaries and structural features and can introduce bias into calculated diffusion metrics. Storing multiple averages separately allows processing using metrics other than the mean; in this prospective volunteer study, median and trimmed mean values of signal intensity for each voxel over repeated averages and diffusion-weighting directions are shown to give images with sharper tissue boundaries and structural features for moving tissues, while not compromising non-moving structures. Expert visual scoring of derived diffusion maps is significantly higher for the median than for the mean, with modest improvement from the trimmed mean. Diffusion metrics derived from mono- and bi-exponential diffusion models are comparable for non-moving structures, demonstrating a lack of introduced bias from using the median. The use of the median is a simple and computationally inexpensive alternative to complex and expensive registration algorithms, requiring only additional data storage (and no additional scanning time) while returning visually superior images that will facilitate the appropriate placement of regions-of-interest when analysing abdominal diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images, for assessment of disease characteristics and treatment response.

  19. Use of the temporal median and trimmed mean mitigates effects of respiratory motion in multiple-acquisition abdominal diffusion imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerome, N. P.; Orton, M. R.; d'Arcy, J. A.; Feiweier, T.; Tunariu, N.; Koh, D.-M.; Leach, M. O.; Collins, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory motion commonly confounds abdominal diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, where averaging of successive samples at different parts of the respiratory cycle, performed in the scanner, manifests the motion as blurring of tissue boundaries and structural features and can introduce bias into calculated diffusion metrics. Storing multiple averages separately allows processing using metrics other than the mean; in this prospective volunteer study, median and trimmed mean values of signal intensity for each voxel over repeated averages and diffusion-weighting directions are shown to give images with sharper tissue boundaries and structural features for moving tissues, while not compromising non-moving structures. Expert visual scoring of derived diffusion maps is significantly higher for the median than for the mean, with modest improvement from the trimmed mean. Diffusion metrics derived from mono- and bi-exponential diffusion models are comparable for non-moving structures, demonstrating a lack of introduced bias from using the median. The use of the median is a simple and computationally inexpensive alternative to complex and expensive registration algorithms, requiring only additional data storage (and no additional scanning time) while returning visually superior images that will facilitate the appropriate placement of regions-of-interest when analysing abdominal diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images, for assessment of disease characteristics and treatment response.

  20. Abdominal MRI at 3.0 T: LAVA-Flex compared with conventional fat suppression T1-weighted images.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing Hui; Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Xiao Ming; Ji, Yi Fan; Chen, Tian Wu; Huang, Xiao Hua; Yang, Lin; Zeng, Nan Lin

    2014-07-01

    To study liver imaging with volume acceleration-flexible (LAVA-Flex) for abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3.0 T and compare the image quality of abdominal organs between LAVA-Flex and fast spoiled gradient-recalled (FSPGR) T1-weighted imaging. Our Institutional Review Board approval was obtained in this retrospective study. Sixty-nine subjects had both FSPGR and LAVA-Flex sequences. Two radiologists independently scored the acquisitions for image quality, fat suppression quality, and artifacts and the values obtained were compared with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. According to the signal intensity (SI) measurements, the uniformity of fat suppression, the contrast between muscle and fat and normal liver and liver lesions were compared by the paired t-test. The liver and spleen SI on the fat-only phase were analyzed in the fatty liver patients. Compared with FSPGR imaging, LAVA-Flex images had better and more homogenous fat suppression and lower susceptibility artifact (qualitative scores: 4.70 vs. 4.00, 4.86% vs. 7.14%, 4.60 and 4.10, respectively). The contrast between muscle and fat and between the liver and pathologic lesions was significantly improved on the LAVA-Flex sequence. The contrast value of the fatty liver and spleen was higher than that of the liver and spleen. The LAVA-Flex sequence offers superior and more homogenous fat suppression of the abdomen than does the FSPGR sequence. The fat-only phase can be a simple and effective method of assessing fatty liver. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Emerging applications of conjugated polymers in molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Junwei; Liu, Jie; Wei, Chen-Wei; Liu, Bin; O'Donnell, Matthew; Gao, Xiaohu

    2013-10-28

    In recent years, conjugated polymers have attracted considerable attention from the imaging community as a new class of contrast agent due to their intriguing structural, chemical, and optical properties. Their size and emission wavelength tunability, brightness, photostability, and low toxicity have been demonstrated in a wide range of in vitro sensing and cellular imaging applications, and have just begun to show impact in in vivo settings. In this Perspective, we summarize recent advances in engineering conjugated polymers as imaging contrast agents, their emerging applications in molecular imaging (referred to as in vivo uses in this paper), as well as our perspectives on future research.

  2. Abdominal applications of 3.0-T MR imaging: comparative review versus a 1.5-T system.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Young; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun; Kim, Ji Youn; Jones, Alun C; de Becker, Jan; van Cauteren, Marc

    2008-01-01

    With the development of dedicated receiver coils and increased gradient performance, 3.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) systems are gaining wider acceptance in clinical practice. The expected twofold increase in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared with that of 1.5-T MR systems may help improve spatial resolution or increase temporal resolution when used with parallel acquisition techniques. Several issues must be considered when applying 3.0-T MR in the abdomen, including the alteration of the radiofrequency field and relaxation time, increase in energy deposition and susceptibility effects, and problems associated with motion artifacts. For the evaluation of liver lesions, higher SNR and greater resolution achieved with the 3.0-T system could translate into better detection of malignant lesions on T2-weighted images obtained with adjusted imaging parameters. For the evaluation of pancreatic and biliary diseases, high-resolution T2-weighted imaging using single-shot turbo spin-echo sequences is useful; improvement in SNR was noticeable on two-dimensional MR cholangiopancreatographic images. For the preoperative imaging of rectal cancer, a single-shot sequence is useful for dramatically decreasing imaging time while maintaining image quality. Substantial modification of examination protocols, with optimized imaging parameters and sequence designs along with ongoing development of hardware, could contribute to an increased role of the 3.0-T system for abdominal MR examinations.

  3. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Splenic Enlargement Using Wave Pattern of Spleen in Abdominal CT Images: Initial Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Won; Cho, June-Sik; Noh, Seung-Moo; Park, Jong-Won

    In general, the spleen accompanied by abnormal abdomen is hypertrophied. However, if the spleen size is originally small, it is hard to detect the splenic enlargement due to abnormal abdomen by simply measure the size. On the contrary, the spleen size of a person having a normal abdomen may be large by nature. Therefore, measuring the size of spleen is not a reliable diagnostic measure of its enlargement or the abdomen abnormality. This paper proposes an automatic method to diagnose the splenic enlargement due to abnormality, by examining the boundary pattern of spleen in abdominal CT images.

  4. Plain abdominal radiography in acute abdominal pain; past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Gans, Sarah L; Stoker, Jaap; Boermeester, Marja A

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that a diagnosis based solely on a patient’s medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests is not reliable enough, despite the fact that these aspects are essential parts of the workup of a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain. Traditionally, imaging workup starts with abdominal radiography. However, numerous studies have demonstrated low sensitivity and accuracy for plain abdominal radiography in the evaluation of acute abdominal pain as well as various specific diseases such as perforated viscus, bowel obstruction, ingested foreign body, and ureteral stones. Computed tomography, and in particular computed tomography after negative ultrasonography, provides a better workup than plain abdominal radiography alone. The benefits of computed tomography lie in decision-making for management, planning of a surgical strategy, and possibly even avoidance of negative laparotomies. Based on abundant available evidence, major advances in diagnostic imaging, and changes in the management of certain diseases, we can conclude that there is no place for plain abdominal radiography in the workup of adult patients with acute abdominal pain presenting in the emergency department in current practice. PMID:22807640

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of contrast enhanced ultrasound in patients with blunt abdominal trauma presenting to the emergency department: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Hong, Yucai; Liu, Ning; Chen, Yuhao

    2017-06-30

    We aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in evaluating blunt abdominal trauma for patients presenting to the emergency department. Electronic search of Scopus and Pubmed was performed from inception to September 2016. Human studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of CEUS in identifying abdominal solid organ injuries were included. Risk of bias was assessed using the QUADAS tool. A total of 10 studies were included in the study and 9 of them were included for meta-analysis. The log(DOR) values ranged from 3.80 (95% CI: 2.81-4.79) to 8.52 (95% CI: 4.58-12.47) in component studies. The combined log(DOR) was 6.56 (95% CI: 5.66-7.45). The Cochran's Q was 11.265 (p = 0.793 with 16 degrees of freedom), and the Higgins' I 2 was 0%. The CEUS had a sensitivity of 0.981 (95% CI: 0.868-0.950) and a false positive rate of 0.018 (95% CI: 0.010-0.032) for identifying parenchymal injuries, with an AUC of 0.984. CEUS performed at emergency department had good diagnostic accuracy in identifying abdominal solid organ injuries. CEUS can be recommended in monitoring solid organ injuries, especially for patients managed with non-operative strategy.

  6. Child with Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Rajalakshmi; Nallasamy, Karthi

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the common symptoms reported by children in urgent care clinics. While most children tend to have self-limiting conditions, the treating pediatrician should watch out for underlying serious causes like intestinal obstruction and perforation peritonitis, which require immediate referral to an emergency department (ED). Abdominal pain may be secondary to surgical or non-surgical causes, and will differ as per the age of the child. The common etiologies for abdominal pain presenting to an urgent care clinic are acute gastro-enteritis, constipation and functional abdominal pain; however, a variety of extra-abdominal conditions may also present as abdominal pain. Meticulous history taking and physical examination are the best tools for diagnosis, while investigations have a limited role in treating benign etiologies.

  7. Abdominal hernias: Radiological features

    PubMed Central

    Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

  8. Upgrade to iterative image reconstruction (IR) in abdominal MDCT imaging: a clinical study for detailed parameter optimization beyond vendor recommendations using the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction environment (ASIR).

    PubMed

    Mueck, F G; Körner, M; Scherr, M K; Geyer, L L; Deak, Z; Linsenmaier, U; Reiser, M; Wirth, S

    2012-03-01

    To compare the image quality of dose-reduced 64-row abdominal CT reconstructed at different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) to full-dose baseline examinations reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP) in a clinical setting and upgrade situation. Abdominal baseline examinations (noise index NI = 29; LightSpeed VCT XT, GE) were intra-individually compared to follow-up studies on a CT with an ASIR option (NI = 43; Discovery HD750, GE), n = 42. Standard-kernel images were calculated with ASIR blendings of 0 - 100 % in slice and volume mode, respectively. Three experienced radiologists compared the image quality of these 567 sets to their corresponding full-dose baseline examination (- 2: diagnostically inferior, - 1: inferior, 0: equal, + 1: superior, + 2: diagnostically superior). Furthermore, a phantom was scanned. Statistical analysis used the Wilcoxon - the Mann-Whitney U-test and the intra-class correlation (ICC). The mean CTDIvol decreased from 19.7 ± 5.5 to 12.2 ± 4.7 mGy (p < 0.001). The ICC was 0.861. The total image quality of the dose-reduced ASIR studies was comparable to the baseline at ASIR 50 % in slice (p = 0.18) and ASIR 50 - 100 % in volume mode (p > 0.10). Volume mode performed 73 % slower than slice mode (p < 0.01). After the system upgrade, the vendor recommendation of ASIR 50 % in slice mode allowed for a dose reduction of 38 % in abdominal CT with comparable image quality and time expenditure. However, there is still further dose reduction potential for more complex reconstruction settings. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Assessing the prevalence and clinical relevance of positive abdominal and pelvic CT findings in senior patients presenting to the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Alabousi, Abdullah; Patlas, Michael N; Meshki, Malek; Monteiro, Sandra; Katz, Douglas S

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to retrospectively evaluate the prevalence and clinical relevance of positive abdominal and pelvic CT findings for patients 65 years of age and older, when compared with all other scanned adult Emergency Department (ED) patients, at a single tertiary care hospital. Our hypothesis was that there is an increased prevalence and clinical relevance of positive abdominal/pelvic CT findings in senior patients. A research ethics board-approved retrospective review of all adult patients who underwent an emergency CT of the abdomen and pelvis for acute nontraumatic abdominal and/or pelvic signs and symptoms was performed. Two thousand one hundred two patients between October 1, 2011, and September 30, 2013, were reviewed. Six hundred thirty-one patients were included in the <65 group (298 men and 333 women; mean age 46, age range 18-64), and 462 were included in the >65 group (209 men and 253 women; mean age 77.6, age range 65-99). Overall, there were more positive CT findings for patients <65 (389 positive cases, 61.6 %) compared with the >65 group (257 positive cases, 55.6 %), which was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.03). Moreover, with the exception of complicated appendicitis cases, which were more common in the >65 group, there were no statistically significant differences in the clinical/surgical relevance of the positive CT findings between the two groups. The findings of our retrospective study therefore refute our hypothesis that there is an increased prevalence of positive abdominal CT findings in patients >65. This may be related to ED physicians at our institution being more hesitant to order CT examinations for the younger population, presumably due to radiation concerns. However, older patients in our series were more likely to present with complicated appendicitis, and a lower threshold for ordering CT examinations of the abdomen and pelvis in this patient population should therefore be considered.

  10. Abdominal multi-organ segmentation from CT images using conditional shape–location and unsupervised intensity priors

    PubMed Central

    Linguraru, Marius George; Hori, Masatoshi; Summers, Ronald M; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the automated segmentation of multiple organs in upper abdominal computed tomography (CT) data. The aim of our study is to develop methods to effectively construct the conditional priors and use their prediction power for more accurate segmentation as well as easy adaptation to various imaging conditions in CT images, as observed in clinical practice. We propose a general framework of multi-organ segmentation which effectively incorporates interrelations among multiple organs and easily adapts to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. The features of the framework are as follows: (1) A method for modeling conditional shape and location (shape–location) priors, which we call prediction-based priors, is developed to derive accurate priors specific to each subject, which enables the estimation of intensity priors without the need for supervised intensity information. (2) Organ correlation graph is introduced, which defines how the conditional priors are constructed and segmentation processes of multiple organs are executed. In our framework, predictor organs, whose segmentation is sufficiently accurate by using conventional single-organ segmentation methods, are pre-segmented, and the remaining organs are hierarchically segmented using conditional shape–location priors. The proposed framework was evaluated through the segmentation of eight abdominal organs (liver, spleen, left and right kidneys, pancreas, gallbladder, aorta, and inferior vena cava) from 134 CT data from 86 patients obtained under six imaging conditions at two hospitals. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed prediction-based priors and the applicability to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. Average Dice coefficients for the liver, spleen, and kidneys were more than 92%, and were around 73% and 67% for the pancreas and gallbladder, respectively. PMID:26277022

  11. Abdominal multi-organ segmentation from CT images using conditional shape-location and unsupervised intensity priors.

    PubMed

    Okada, Toshiyuki; Linguraru, Marius George; Hori, Masatoshi; Summers, Ronald M; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the automated segmentation of multiple organs in upper abdominal computed tomography (CT) data. The aim of our study is to develop methods to effectively construct the conditional priors and use their prediction power for more accurate segmentation as well as easy adaptation to various imaging conditions in CT images, as observed in clinical practice. We propose a general framework of multi-organ segmentation which effectively incorporates interrelations among multiple organs and easily adapts to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. The features of the framework are as follows: (1) A method for modeling conditional shape and location (shape-location) priors, which we call prediction-based priors, is developed to derive accurate priors specific to each subject, which enables the estimation of intensity priors without the need for supervised intensity information. (2) Organ correlation graph is introduced, which defines how the conditional priors are constructed and segmentation processes of multiple organs are executed. In our framework, predictor organs, whose segmentation is sufficiently accurate by using conventional single-organ segmentation methods, are pre-segmented, and the remaining organs are hierarchically segmented using conditional shape-location priors. The proposed framework was evaluated through the segmentation of eight abdominal organs (liver, spleen, left and right kidneys, pancreas, gallbladder, aorta, and inferior vena cava) from 134 CT data from 86 patients obtained under six imaging conditions at two hospitals. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed prediction-based priors and the applicability to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. Average Dice coefficients for the liver, spleen, and kidneys were more than 92%, and were around 73% and 67% for the pancreas and gallbladder, respectively. Copyright © 2015

  12. Emerging Imaging Tools for Use with Traumatic Brain Injury Research

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Tong, Karen A.; Holshouser, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This article identifies emerging neuroimaging measures considered by the inter-agency Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Neuroimaging Workgroup. This article attempts to address some of the potential uses of more advanced forms of imaging in TBI as well as highlight some of the current considerations and unresolved challenges of using them. We summarize emerging elements likely to gain more widespread use in the coming years, because of 1) their utility in diagnosis, prognosis, and understanding the natural course of degeneration or recovery following TBI, and potential for evaluating treatment strategies; 2) the ability of many centers to acquire these data with scanners and equipment that are readily available in existing clinical and research settings; and 3) advances in software that provide more automated, readily available, and cost-effective analysis methods for large scale data image analysis. These include multi-slice CT, volumetric MRI analysis, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), arterial spin tag labeling (ASL), functional MRI (fMRI), including resting state and connectivity MRI, MR spectroscopy (MRS), and hyperpolarization scanning. However, we also include brief introductions to other specialized forms of advanced imaging that currently do require specialized equipment, for example, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), encephalography (EEG), and magnetoencephalography (MEG)/magnetic source imaging (MSI). Finally, we identify some of the challenges that users of the emerging imaging CDEs may wish to consider, including quality control, performing multi-site and longitudinal imaging studies, and MR scanning in infants and children. PMID:21787167

  13. Emerging imaging tools for use with traumatic brain injury research.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jill V; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Tong, Karen A; Holshouser, Barbara A

    2012-03-01

    This article identifies emerging neuroimaging measures considered by the inter-agency Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Neuroimaging Workgroup. This article attempts to address some of the potential uses of more advanced forms of imaging in TBI as well as highlight some of the current considerations and unresolved challenges of using them. We summarize emerging elements likely to gain more widespread use in the coming years, because of 1) their utility in diagnosis, prognosis, and understanding the natural course of degeneration or recovery following TBI, and potential for evaluating treatment strategies; 2) the ability of many centers to acquire these data with scanners and equipment that are readily available in existing clinical and research settings; and 3) advances in software that provide more automated, readily available, and cost-effective analysis methods for large scale data image analysis. These include multi-slice CT, volumetric MRI analysis, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), arterial spin tag labeling (ASL), functional MRI (fMRI), including resting state and connectivity MRI, MR spectroscopy (MRS), and hyperpolarization scanning. However, we also include brief introductions to other specialized forms of advanced imaging that currently do require specialized equipment, for example, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), encephalography (EEG), and magnetoencephalography (MEG)/magnetic source imaging (MSI). Finally, we identify some of the challenges that users of the emerging imaging CDEs may wish to consider, including quality control, performing multi-site and longitudinal imaging studies, and MR scanning in infants and children.

  14. Imaging appropriateness in an academic emergency medicine program.

    PubMed

    Dolatabadi, Ali Arhami; Shojaee, Majid; Kariman, Hamid; Shahrami, Ali; Abolmaali, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    As radiologic assessment is a key part in evaluating patients visited in emergency department, this survey was conducted to measure emergency medicine residents' competency in choosing appropriate diagnostic imaging in different clinical scenarios. All emergency medicine residents enrolled in an academic emergency medicine discipline in the three medical universities of Tehran, Iran were recruited. A questionnaire was designed consisting of 10 clinically common scenarios selected from the American College of Radiology appropriateness criteria. Each resident completed the survey separately with answers only given after all residents participated. 196 residents completed the survey (95% of all residents). The results were stratified by post-graduate year and university. The average number of correct answers was 6.2. First, second and third year residents scored the average of 6.1, 5.8 and 6.5, respectively (P=0.04). The average score of residents from different universities did not differ significantly. According to the low average score, it is recommended that attentive educational perfections are needed to help residents order more appropriate diagnostic images, which may also be helpful for other healthcare providers. However, it seems that our emergency medicine academic curriculum is relatively efficient to enhance residents' skills in choosing proper imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A systematic, multimodality approach to emergency elbow imaging.

    PubMed

    Singer, Adam D; Hanna, Tarek; Jose, Jean; Datir, Abhijit

    2016-01-01

    The elbow is a complex synovial hinge joint that is frequently involved in both athletic and nonathletic injuries. A thorough understanding of the normal anatomy and various injury patterns is essential when utilizing diagnostic imaging to identify damaged structures and to assist in surgical planning. In this review, the elbow anatomy will be scrutinized in a systematic approach. This will be followed by a comprehensive presentation of elbow injuries that are commonly seen in the emergency department accompanied by multimodality imaging findings. A short discussion regarding pitfalls in elbow imaging is also included. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Emerging diagnostic and therapeutic molecular imaging applications in vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Eraso, Luis H; Reilly, Muredach P; Sehgal, Chandra; Mohler, Emile R

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of vascular disease has evolved from mere indirect and direct measurements of luminal stenosis to sophisticated imaging methods to depict millimeter structural changes of the vasculature. In the near future, the emergence of multimodal molecular imaging strategies may enable robust therapeutic and diagnostic (‘theragnostic’) approaches to vascular diseases that comprehensively consider structural, functional, biological and genomic characteristics of the disease in individualized risk assessment, early diagnosis and delivery of targeted interventions. This review presents a summary of recent preclinical and clinical developments in molecular imaging and theragnostic applications covering diverse atherosclerosis events such as endothelial activation, macrophage infammatory activity, plaque neovascularization and arterial thrombosis. The main focus is on molecular targets designed for imaging platforms commonly used in clinical medicine including magnetic resonance, computed tomography and positron emission tomography. A special emphasis is given to vascular ultrasound applications, considering the important role this imaging platform plays in the clinical and research practice of the vascular medicine specialty. PMID:21310769

  17. Emergency physician perceptions of medically unnecessary advanced diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Kanzaria, Hemal K; Hoffman, Jerome R; Probst, Marc A; Caloyeras, John P; Berry, Sandra H; Brook, Robert H

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to determine emergency physician (EP) perceptions regarding 1) the extent to which they order medically unnecessary advanced diagnostic imaging, 2) factors that contribute to this behavior, and 3) proposed solutions for curbing this practice. As part of a larger study to engage physicians in the delivery of high-value health care, two multispecialty focus groups were conducted to explore the topic of decision-making around resource utilization, after which qualitative analysis was used to generate survey questions. The survey was extensively pilot-tested and refined for emergency medicine (EM) to focus on advanced diagnostic imaging (i.e., computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]). The survey was then administered to a national, purposive sample of EPs and EM trainees. Simple descriptive statistics to summarize physician responses are presented. In this study, 478 EPs were approached, of whom 435 (91%) completed the survey; 68% of respondents were board-certified, and roughly half worked in academic emergency departments (EDs). Over 85% of respondents believe too many diagnostic tests are ordered in their own EDs, and 97% said at least some (mean = 22%) of the advanced imaging studies they personally order are medically unnecessary. The main perceived contributors were fear of missing a low-probability diagnosis and fear of litigation. Solutions most commonly felt to be "extremely" or "very" helpful for reducing unnecessary imaging included malpractice reform (79%), increased patient involvement through education (70%) and shared decision-making (56%), feedback to physicians on test-ordering metrics (55%), and improved education of physicians on diagnostic testing (50%). Overordering of advanced imaging may be a systemic problem, as many EPs believe a substantial proportion of such studies, including some they personally order, are medically unnecessary. Respondents cited multiple complex factors with several potential high

  18. Artifacts in slab average-intensity-projection images reformatted from JPEG 2000 compressed thin-section abdominal CT data sets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Kil Joong; Mantiuk, Rafal; Kim, Hye-ri; Kim, Young Hoon

    2008-06-01

    The objective of our study was to assess the effects of compressing source thin-section abdominal CT images on final transverse average-intensity-projection (AIP) images. At reversible, 4:1, 6:1, 8:1, 10:1, and 15:1 Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) 2000 compressions, we compared the artifacts in 20 matching compressed thin sections (0.67 mm), compressed thick sections (5 mm), and AIP images (5 mm) reformatted from the compressed thin sections. The artifacts were quantitatively measured with peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and a perceptual quality metric (High Dynamic Range Visual Difference Predictor [HDR-VDP]). By comparing the compressed and original images, three radiologists independently graded the artifacts as 0 (none, indistinguishable), 1 (barely perceptible), 2 (subtle), or 3 (significant). Friedman tests and exact tests for paired proportions were used. At irreversible compressions, the artifacts tended to increase in the order of AIP, thick-section, and thin-section images in terms of PSNR (p < 0.0001), HDR-VDP (p < 0.0001), and the readers' grading (p < 0.01 at 6:1 or higher compressions). At 6:1 and 8:1, distinguishable pairs (grades 1-3) tended to increase in the order of AIP, thick-section, and thin-section images. Visually lossless threshold for the compression varied between images but decreased in the order of AIP, thick-section, and thin-section images (p < 0.0001). Compression artifacts in thin sections are significantly attenuated in AIP images. On the premise that thin sections are typically reviewed using an AIP technique, it is justifiable to compress them to a compression level currently accepted for thick sections.

  19. Respiratory motion correction for free-breathing 3D abdominal MRI using CNN-based image registration: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jun; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Jue; Wang, Xiaoying

    2018-02-01

    Free-breathing abdomen imaging requires non-rigid motion registration of unavoidable respiratory motion in three-dimensional undersampled data sets. In this work, we introduce an image registration method based on the convolutional neural network (CNN) to obtain motion-free abdominal images throughout the respiratory cycle. Abdominal data were acquired from 10 volunteers using a 1.5 T MRI system. The respiratory signal was extracted from the central-space spokes, and the acquired data were reordered in three bins according to the corresponding breathing signal. Retrospective image reconstruction of the three near-motion free respiratory phases was performed using non-Cartesian iterative SENSE reconstruction. Then, we trained a CNN to analyse the spatial transform among the different bins. This network could generate the displacement vector field and be applied to perform registration on unseen image pairs. To demonstrate the feasibility of this registration method, we compared the performance of three different registration approaches for accurate image fusion of three bins: non-motion corrected (NMC), local affine registration method (LREG) and CNN. Visualization of coronal images indicated that LREG had caused broken blood vessels, while the vessels of the CNN were sharper and more consecutive. As shown in the sagittal view, compared to NMC and CNN, distorted and blurred liver contours were caused by LREG. At the same time, zoom-in axial images presented that the vessels were delineated more clearly by CNN than LREG. The statistical results of the signal-to-noise ratio, visual score, vessel sharpness and registration time over all volunteers were compared among the NMC, LREG and CNN approaches. The SNR indicated that the CNN acquired the best image quality (207.42 ± 96.73), which was better than NMC (116.67 ± 44.70) and LREG (187.93 ± 96.68). The image visual score agreed with SNR, marking CNN (3.85 ± 0.12) as the best, followed by LREG (3.43 ± 0

  20. Balancing Radiation and Contrast Media Dose in Single-Pass Abdominal Multidetector CT: Prospective Evaluation of Image Quality.

    PubMed

    Camera, Luigi; Romano, Federica; Liccardo, Immacolata; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Imbriaco, Massimo; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Pizzuti, Laura Micol; Segreto, Sabrina; Maurea, Simone; Brunetti, Arturo

    2015-11-01

    As both contrast and radiation dose affect the quality of CT images, a constant image quality in abdominal contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (CE-MDCT) could be obtained balancing radiation and contrast media dose according to the age of the patients. Seventy-two (38 Men; 34 women; aged 20-83 years) patients underwent a single-pass abdominal CE-MDCT. Patients were divided into three different age groups: A (20-44 years); B (45-65 years); and C (>65 years). For each group, a different noise index (NI) and contrast media dose (370 mgI/mL) was selected as follows: A (NI, 15; 2.5 mL/kg), B (NI, 12.5; 2 mL/kg), and C (NI, 10; 1.5 mL/kg). Radiation exposure was reported as dose-length product (DLP) in mGy × cm. For quantitative analysis, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were calculated for both the liver (L) and the abdominal aorta (A). Statistical analysis was performed with a one-way analysis of variance. Standard imaging criteria were used for qualitative analysis. Although peak hepatic enhancement was 152 ± 16, 128 ± 12, and 101 ± 14 Hounsfield units (P < .001) for groups A, B, and C, respectively, no significant differences were observed in the corresponding SNRL with 9.2 ± 1.4, 9.1 ± 1.2, and 9.2 ± 3. Radiation (mGy × cm) and contrast media dose (mL) administered were 476 ± 147 and 155 ± 27 for group A, 926 ± 291 and 130 ± 16 for group B, and 1981 ± 451 and 106 ± 15 for group C, respectively (P < .001). None of the studies was graded as poor or inadequate by both readers, and the prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa ranged between 0.48 and 0.93 for all but one criteria. A constant image quality in CE-MDCT can be obtained balancing radiation and contrast media dose administered to patients of different age. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pancreas segmentation from 3D abdominal CT images using patient-specific weighted subspatial probabilistic atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasawa, Kenichi; Oda, Masahiro; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Rueckert, Daniel; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal organ segmentations from CT volumes are now widely used in the computer-aided diagnosis and surgery assistance systems. Among abdominal organs, the pancreas is especially difficult to segment because of its large individual differences of the shape and position. In this paper, we propose a new pancreas segmentation method from 3D abdominal CT volumes using patient-specific weighted-subspatial probabilistic atlases. First of all, we perform normalization of organ shapes in training volumes and an input volume. We extract the Volume Of Interest (VOI) of the pancreas from the training volumes and an input volume. We divide each training VOI and input VOI into some cubic regions. We use a nonrigid registration method to register these cubic regions of the training VOI to corresponding regions of the input VOI. Based on the registration results, we calculate similarities between each cubic region of the training VOI and corresponding region of the input VOI. We select cubic regions of training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region. We subspatially construct probabilistic atlases weighted by the similarities in each cubic region. After integrating these probabilistic atlases in cubic regions into one, we perform a rough-to-precise segmentation of the pancreas using the atlas. The results of the experiments showed that utilization of the training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region led good results of the pancreas segmentation. The Jaccard Index and the average surface distance of the result were 58.9% and 2.04mm on average, respectively.

  2. Abdominal Adiposity Distribution Quantified by Ultrasound Imaging and Incident Hypertension in a General Population.

    PubMed

    Seven, Ekim; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan; Jeppesen, Jørgen L

    2016-11-01

    Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension. However, different distributions of abdominal adipose tissue may affect hypertension risk differently. The main purpose of this study was to explore the association of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with incident hypertension in a population-based setting. We hypothesized that VAT, rather than SAT, would be associated with incident hypertension. VAT and SAT were determined by ultrasound imagining in 3363 randomly selected Danes (mean age 49 years, 56% women, mean body mass index 25.8 kg/m 2 ). We constructed multiple logistic regression models to compute standardized odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals per SD increase in SAT and VAT. Of the 2119 normotensive participants at baseline, 1432, with mean SAT of 2.8 cm and mean VAT of 5.7 cm, returned 5 years later for a follow-up examination and among them 203 had developed hypertension. In models including both VAT and SAT, the Framingham Hypertension Risk Score variables (age, sex, smoking status, family history of hypertension, and baseline blood pressure) and glycated hemoglobin, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for incident hypertension for 1 SD increase in VAT and SAT was 1.27 (1.08-1.50, P=0.004) and 0.97 (0.81-1.15, P=0.70), respectively. Adjusting for body mass index instead of SAT attenuated the association between VAT and incident hypertension, but it was still significant (odds ratio, 1.22 [1.01-1.48, P=0.041] for each SD increase in VAT). In conclusion, ultrasound-determined VAT, but not SAT, was associated with incident hypertension in a random sample of Danish adults. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. A reappraisal of pediatric abdominal surface anatomy utilizing in vivo cross-sectional imaging.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Hemanth; Taghavi, Kiarash; Mirjalili, S Ali

    2016-03-01

    Despite being integral to medical and surgical practice, pediatric anatomy has remained relatively neglected except for a few landmark works. Neonatal and pediatric anatomy differs structurally and functionally from adult anatomy in many ways. The aim of the current study was to reappraise common abdominal surface landmarks of important structures in infants and children. After cases with related pathologies had been excluded, computer tomography scans of 90 children were divided into three age groups and systematically analyzed. The vertebral levels of the unpaired branches of the abdominal aorta (AA) were recorded. The vertebral level and relationship to the midline of the bifurcation of the AA and the formation of the inferior vena cava were measured. The renal long axes, costal relationships, renal artery vertebral levels, and hilar vertebral levels were measured. The splenic long axis and relationship to the mid-axillary line were also measured. The renal length was disproportionately large in the youngest age group and increased less with age (7.12 cm, 7.85 cm, 8.86 cm). The renal artery was consistently found around L1; the left kidney was related to the 11th and 12th ribs posteriorly, the right kidney only to the 12th rib. The AA bifurcated to the right of the midline in 10% of children. The unpaired visceral branches of the aorta were commonly found at T12 (celiac artery), L1 (superior mesenteric artery), and L3 (inferior mesenteric artery). The current study provides age-standardized surface landmarks and measurements for major abdominal vascular structures and solid organs in normal children. The clinical applications of these data are multiple and diverse. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The effect of ethnicity on in-hospital mortality following emergency abdominal surgery: a national cohort study using Hospital Episode Statistics.

    PubMed

    Vohra, R S; Evison, F; Bejaj, I; Ray, D; Patel, P; Pinkney, T D

    2015-11-01

    Ethnicity has complex effects on health and the delivery of health care in part related to language and cultural barriers. This may be important in patients requiring emergency abdominal surgery where delays have profound impact on outcomes. The aim here was to test if variations in outcomes (e.g. in-hospital mortality) exist by ethnic group following emergency abdominal surgery. Retrospective cohort study using population-level routinely collected administrative data from England (Hospital Episode Statistics). Adult patients undergoing emergency abdominal operations between April 2008 and March 2012 were identified. Operations were divided into: 'major', 'hepatobiliary' or 'appendectomy/minor'. The primary outcome was all cause in-hospital mortality. Univariable and multivariable analysis odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals, CI) adjusting for selected factors were performed. 359,917 patients were identified and 80.7% of patients were White British, 4.7% White (Other), 2.4% Afro-Caribbean, 1.6% Indian, 2.6% Chinese, 3.1% Asian (Other) and 4.9% not known, with crude in-hospital mortality rates of 4.4%, 3.1%, 2.0%, 2.6%, 1.6%, 1.7% and 5.17%, respectively. The majority of patients underwent appendectomy/minor (61.9%) compared to major (20.9%) or hepatobiliary (17.2%) operations (P < 0.001) with an in-hospital mortality of 1.7%, 11.5% and 3.9% respectively. Adjusted mortality was largely similar across ethnic groups except where ethnicity was not recorded (compared to White British patients following major surgery OR 2.05, 95% 1.82-2.31, P < 0.01, hepatobiliary surgery OR 2.78, 95% CI 2.31-3.36, P = 0.01 and appendectomy/minor surgery OR 1.78, 95% 1.52-2.08, P < 0.01). Ethnicity is not associated with poorer outcomes following emergency abdominal surgery. However, ethnicity is not recorded in 5% of this cohort and this represents an important, yet un-definable, group with significantly poorer outcomes. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health

  5. Differences in regional homogeneity between patients with Crohn's disease with and without abdominal pain revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lu-Yi; Jin, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Si-Yao; Shi, Yin; Zhang, Jian-Ye; Zeng, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Li-Li; Qin, Wei; Zhao, Ji-Meng; Calhoun, Vince D.; Tian, Jie; Wu, Huan-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal pain processing in the central nervous system may be related to abdominal pain in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in resting-state brain activity in CD patients in remission and its relationship with the presence of abdominal pain. Twenty-five CD patients with abdominal pain, 25 CD patients without abdominal pain, and 32 healthy subjects were scanned using a 3.0 T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to assess resting-state brain activity. Daily pain scores were collected 1 week before fMRI scanning. We found that patients with abdominal pain exhibited lower ReHo values in the insula, middle cingulate cortex (MCC), and supplementary motor area, and higher ReHo values in the temporal pole. In contrast, patients without abdominal pain exhibited lower ReHo values in the hippocampal/parahippocampal cortex and higher ReHo values in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (all P<0.05, corrected). The ReHo values of the insula and MCC were significantly negatively correlated with daily pain scores for patients with abdominal pain (r=−0.53, P=0.008, and r=−0.61, P=0.002, respectively). These findings suggest that resting-state brain activities are different between remissive CD patients with and without abdominal pain, and that abnormal activities in insula and MCC are closely related to the severity of abdominal pain. PMID:26761381

  6. MINER - A Mobile Imager of Neutrons for Emergency Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, John E. M.; Brennan, James S.; Gerling, Mark D

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a mobile fast neutron imaging platform to enhance the capabilities of emergency responders in the localization and characterization of special nuclear material. This mobile imager of neutrons for emergency responders (MINER) is based on the Neutron Scatter Camera, a large segmented imaging system that was optimized for large-area search applications. Due to the reduced size and power requirements of a man-portable system, MINER has been engineered to fit a much smaller form factor, and to be operated from either a battery or AC power. We chose a design that enabled omnidirectional (4π) imaging, with only a ~twofoldmore » decrease in sensitivity compared to the much larger neutron scatter cameras. The system was designed to optimize its performance for neutron imaging and spectroscopy, but it does also function as a Compton camera for gamma imaging. This document outlines the project activities, broadly characterized as system development, laboratory measurements, and deployments, and presents sample results in these areas. Additional information can be found in the documents that reside in WebPMIS.« less

  7. Utility of cervical spinal and abdominal computed tomography in diagnosing occult pneumothorax in patients with blunt trauma: Computed tomographic imaging protocol matters.

    PubMed

    Akoglu, Haldun; Akoglu, Ebru Unal; Evman, Serdar; Akoglu, Tayfun; Denizbasi, Arzu; Guneysel, Ozlem; Onur, Ozge; Onur, Ender

    2012-10-01

    Small pneumothoraces (PXs), which are not initially recognized with a chest x-ray film and diagnosed by a thoracic computed tomography (CT), are described as occult PX (OCPX). The objective of this study was to evaluate cervival spine (C-spine) and abdominal CT (ACT) for diagnosing OCPX and overt PX (OVPX). All patients with blunt trauma who presented consecutively to the emergency department during a 26-months period were included. Among all the chest CTs (CCTs) (6,155 patients) conducted during that period, 254 scans were confirmed to have a true PX. The findings in their C-spine CT and ACT were compared with the findings in CCTs. Among these patients, 254 had a diagnosis of PX confirmed with CCT. OCPXs were identified on the chest computed tomographic scan of 128 patients (70.3%), whereas OVPXs were evident in 54 patients (29.7%). Computed tomographic imaging of the C-spine was performed in 74% of patients with OCPX and 66.7% of patients with OVPX trauma. Only 45 (35.2%) cases of OCPX and 42 (77.8%) cases of OVPX were detected by C-spine CT. ACT was performed in almost all patients, and 121 (95.3%) of 127 of these correctly identified an existing OCPX. Sensitivity of C-spine CT and ACT was 35.1% and 96.5%, respectively; specificity was 100% and 100%, respectively. Almost all OCPXs, regardless of intrathoracic location, could be detected by ACT or by combining C-spine and abdominal computed tomographic screening for patients. If the junction of the first and second vertebra is used as the caudad extent, C-spine CT does not have sufficient power to diagnose more than a third of the cases. Diagnostic study, level III.

  8. Patients Presenting to the Emergency Unit with Gynaecological Lower Abdominal Pain, with and without Pathological Clinical Findings - Service Utilisation, Pain History, Implications.

    PubMed

    Siedentopf, F; Wowro, E; Möckel, M; Kentenich, H; David, M

    2016-09-01

    Introduction: Few studies have evaluated the utilisation of emergency gynaecological services, although lower abdominal pain (LAP) is one of the most common symptoms prompting emergency presentation. Although such pain may be caused by potentially life-threatening gynaecological diseases, very often no clinical cause is found. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of emergency presentations in order to enable quicker identification of real emergencies in routine clinical practice. Materials and Methods: Standardised, so-called first aid cards of 1066 consecutive patients with LAP presenting acutely to one emergency unit were analysed in this retrospective, cross-sectional study. Results: Over one third of cases did not constitute actual medical emergencies on objective criteria, with investigations yielding "no pathological findings". Parameters were identified that more often lead to hospital admission, e.g. palpation of a mass/resistance or at least one pathological ultrasound finding. In addition, it was found that symptoms of longer duration (average 8 days), and not only acute LAP, were also often experienced by patients as emergencies. Conclusion: A diagnosis of "no pathological findings", which was common in our study, suggests a subjective experience of an emergency from the patient's point of view, although the possibility of unrecognised pathology has to be borne in mind. Apart from functional disorders, the origins of symptoms may include psychosomatic causes and psychosocial problems, which cannot be further defined in the emergency care setting. Also, the phenomenon of increased utilisation of emergency services parallel to the assumed opening hours of routine outpatient care facilities must be seen in a critical light.

  9. Use of a web-based image reporting and tracking system for assessing abdominal imaging examination quality issues in a single practice.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Johnson, Evan; Sanger, Joseph J

    2015-10-01

    This article presents our local experience in the implementation of a real-time web-based system for reporting and tracking quality issues relating to abdominal imaging examinations. This system allows radiologists to electronically submit examination quality issues during clinical readouts. The submitted information is e-mailed to a designate for the given modality for further follow-up; the designate may subsequently enter text describing their response or action taken, which is e-mailed back to the radiologist. Review of 558 entries over a 6-year period demonstrated documentation of a broad range of examination quality issues, including specific issues relating to protocol deviation, post-processing errors, positioning errors, artifacts, and IT concerns. The most common issues varied among US, CT, MRI, radiography, and fluoroscopy. In addition, the most common issues resulting in a patient recall for repeat imaging (generally related to protocol deviation in MRI and US) were identified. In addition to submitting quality problems, radiologists also commonly used the tool to provide recognition of a well-performed examination. An electronic log of actions taken in response to radiologists' submissions indicated that both positive and negative feedback were commonly communicated to the performing technologist. Information generated using the tool can be used to guide subsequent quality improvement initiatives within a practice, including continued protocol standardization as well as education of technologists in the optimization of abdominal imaging examinations.

  10. Molecular Imaging of Influenza and Other Emerging Respiratory Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, James; Paragas, Jason; Jahrling, Peter B.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the pathogenesis and therapy of influenza and other emerging respiratory viral infections would be aided by methods that directly visualize pathophysiologic processes in patients and laboratory animals. At present, imaging of diseases, such as swine-origin H1N1 influenza, is largely restricted to chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT), which can detect pulmonary structural changes in severely ill patients but are more limited in characterizing the early stages of illness, differentiating inflammation from infection or tracking immune responses. In contrast, imaging modalities, such as positron emission tomography, single photon emission CT, magnetic resonance imaging, and bioluminescence imaging, which have become useful tools for investigating the pathogenesis of a range of disease processes, could be used to advance in vivo studies of respiratory viral infections in patients and animals. Molecular techniques might also be used to identify novel biomarkers of disease progression and to evaluate new therapies. PMID:21422476

  11. Emerging Technology Update Intravascular Photoacoustic Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Fw van der Steen, Antonius; Regar, Evelyn; van Soest, Gijs

    2016-10-01

    The identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries is emerging as an important tool for guiding atherosclerosis diagnosis and interventions. Assessment of plaque vulnerability requires knowledge of both the structure and composition of the plaque. Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging is able to show the morphology and composition of atherosclerotic plaque. With imminent improvements in IVPA imaging, it is becoming possible to assess human coronary artery disease in vivo . Although some challenges remain, IVPA imaging is on its way to being a powerful tool for visualising coronary atherosclerotic features that have been specifically associated with plaque vulnerability and clinical syndromes, and thus such imaging might become valuable for clinical risk assessment in the catheterisation laboratory.

  12. Effects of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Peng, Yun; Liu, ZuXiang; Li, Shilian; Lv, Zhongli; Tian, LiFang; Zhu, Jie; Zhao, XuNa; Chen, Min

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to study the influence of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children. The design was a longitudinal, clinical intervention study of acupuncture therapy. SUBJECTS were 10 healthy, obese children (age: 11.4 ± 1.65 years, body-mass index [BMI]: 29.03 ± 4.81 kg/m(2)). Measurements included various anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat (assessed by MRI) and hepatic fat content (assessed by (1)H-MRS) at baseline and after 1 month of acupuncture therapy. One (1) month of acupuncture therapy significantly reduced the subjects' BMI by 3.5% (p = 0.005), abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume by 16.04% (p < 0.0001), abdominal total adipose tissue volume by 10.45% (p = 0.001), and abdominal visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio by 10.59% (p = 0.007). Decreases in body weight (-2.13%), waist circumference (-1.44%), hip circumference (-0.33%), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (-0.99%), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume (-5.63%), and intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content (-9.03%) were also observed, although these were not significant (p > 0.05). There was a significant correlation between the level of abdominal fat (SAT, VAT) and anthropometric parameters (weight, BMI, waist circumferences, hip circumferences). There was no statistically significant correlation between IHTG and anthropometric parameters or abdominal fat content. The first direct experimental evidence is provided demonstrating that acupuncture therapy significantly reduces BMI and abdominal adipose tissue by reducing abdominal VAT content without significant changes in body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, abdominal SAT, or IHTG content. Thus, the use of acupuncture therapy to selectively target a reduction in abdominal VAT content should become more important and more popular in

  13. An automated segmentation for direct assessment of adipose tissue distribution from thoracic and abdominal Dixon-technique MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Jason E.; Fernandez-Del-Valle, Maria; Hayden, Ryan; Mitra, Sunanda

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) together have become the gold standard in the precise quantification of body fat. The study of the quantification of fat in the human body has matured in recent years from a simplistic interest in the whole-body fat content to detailing regional fat distributions. The realization that body-fat, or adipose tissue (AT) is far from being a mere aggregate mass or deposit but a biologically active organ in and of itself, may play a role in the association between obesity and the various pathologies that are the biggest health issues of our time. Furthermore, a major bottleneck in most medical image assessments of adipose tissue content and distribution is the lack of automated image analysis. This motivated us to develop a proper and at least partially automated methodology to accurately and reproducibly determine both body fat content and distribution in the human body, which is to be applied to cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. The AT considered here is located beneath the skin (subcutaneous) as well as around the internal organs and between muscles (visceral and inter-muscular). There are also special fat depots on and around the heart (pericardial) as well as around the aorta (peri-aortic). Our methods focus on measuring and classifying these various AT deposits in the human body in an intervention study that involves the acquisition of thoracic and abdominal MR images via a Dixon technique.

  14. Dual-energy CT in patients with abdominal malignant lymphoma: impact of noise-optimised virtual monoenergetic imaging on objective and subjective image quality.

    PubMed

    Lenga, L; Czwikla, R; Wichmann, J L; Leithner, D; Albrecht, M H; D'Angelo, T; Arendt, C T; Booz, C; Hammerstingl, R; Vogl, T J; Martin, S S

    2018-06-05

    To investigate the impact of noise-optimised virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) reconstructions on quantitative and qualitative image parameters in patients with malignant lymphoma at dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) examinations of the abdomen. Thirty-five consecutive patients (mean age, 53.8±18.6 years; range, 21-82 years) with histologically proven malignant lymphoma of the abdomen were included retrospectively. Images were post-processed with standard linear blending (M_0.6), traditional VMI, and VMI+ technique at energy levels ranging from 40 to 100 keV in 10 keV increments. Signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were objectively measured in lymphoma lesions. Image quality, lesion delineation, and image noise were rated subjectively by three blinded observers using five-point Likert scales. Quantitative image quality parameters peaked at 40-keV VMI+ (SNR, 15.77±7.74; CNR, 18.27±8.04) with significant differences compared to standard linearly blended M_0.6 (SNR, 7.96±3.26; CNR, 13.55±3.47) and all traditional VMI series (p<0.001). Qualitative image quality assessment revealed significantly superior ratings for image quality at 60-keV VMI+ (median, 5) in comparison with all other image series (p<0.001). Assessment of lesion delineation showed the highest rating scores for 40-keV VMI+ series (median, 5), while lowest subjective image noise was found for 100-keV VMI+ reconstructions (median, 5). Low-keV VMI+ reconstructions led to improved image quality and lesion delineation of malignant lymphoma lesions compared to standard image reconstruction and traditional VMI at abdominal DECT examinations. Copyright © 2018 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Alvarado score should be used to reduce emergency department length of stay and radiation exposure in select patients with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jamie J; Carr, Bryan W; Rogers, Tyrone; Field, Matthew S; Zarzaur, Ben L; Savage, Stephanie A; Hammer, Peter M; Brewer, Brian L; Feliciano, David V; Rozycki, Grace S

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal pain is the common reason patients seek treatment in emergency departments (ED), and computed tomography (CT) is frequently used for diagnosis; however, length of stay (LOS) in the ED and risks of radiation remain a concern. The hypothesis of this study was the Alvarado score (AS) could be used to reduce CT scans and decrease ED LOS for patients with suspected acute appendicitis (AA). A retrospective review of patients who underwent CT to rule out AA from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2015, was performed. Patient demographics, medical history, ED documentation, operative interventions, complications, and LOS were all collected. Alvarado score was calculated from the medical record. Time to CT completion was calculated from times the patient was seen by ED staff, CT order, and CT report. Four hundred ninety-two patients (68.1% female; median age, 33 years) met the inclusion criteria. Most CT scans (70%) did not have findings consistent with AA. Median AS for AA on CT scan was 7, compared with 3 for negative CT (p < 0.001). One hundred percent of female patients with AS of 10 and males with AS of 9 or greater had AA confirmed by surgical pathology. Conversely, 5% or less of female patients with AS of 2 or less and 0% of male patients with AS of 1 or less were diagnosed with AA. One hundred six (21.5%) patients had an AS within these ranges and collectively spent 10,239 minutes in the ED from the time of the CT order until the radiologist's report. Males with an AS of 9 or greater and females with AS of 10 should be considered for treatment of AA without imaging. Males with AS of 1 or less and females with AS of 2 or less can be safely discharged with follow-up. Using AS, a significant proportion of patients can avoid the radiation risk, the increased cost, and increased ED LOS associated with CT. Diagnostic IV, therapeutic IV.

  16. Quantification of Abdominal Fat in Obese and Healthy Adolescents Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Free Software for Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Eloi, Juliana Cristina; Epifanio, Matias; de Gonçalves, Marília Maia; Pellicioli, Augusto; Vieira, Patricia Froelich Giora; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Bruscato, Neide; Soder, Ricardo Bernardi; Santana, João Carlos Batista; Mouzaki, Marialena; Baldisserotto, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Computed tomography, which uses ionizing radiation and expensive software packages for analysis of scans, can be used to quantify abdominal fat. The objective of this study is to measure abdominal fat with 3T MRI using free software for image analysis and to correlate these findings with anthropometric and laboratory parameters in adolescents. This prospective observational study included 24 overweight/obese and 33 healthy adolescents (mean age 16.55 years). All participants underwent abdominal MRI exams. Visceral and subcutaneous fat area and percentage were correlated with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and insulin resistance. Student's t test and Mann-Whitney's test was applied. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare proportions. To determine associations Pearson's linear correlation or Spearman's correlation were used. In both groups, waist circumference (WC) was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001 and P = 0.01 respectively), and triglycerides were associated with fat percentage (P = 0.046 and P = 0.071 respectively). In obese individuals, total cholesterol/HDL ratio was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.03) and percentage (P = 0.09), and insulin and HOMA-IR were associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001) and percentage (P = 0.005). 3T MRI can provide reliable and good quality images for quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat by using a free software package. The results demonstrate that WC is a good predictor of visceral fat in obese adolescents and visceral fat area is associated with total cholesterol/HDL ratio, insulin and HOMA-IR.

  17. Diffusion-weighted imaging in pediatric body MR imaging: principles, technique, and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Chavhan, Govind B; Alsabban, Zehour; Babyn, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging is an emerging technique in body imaging that provides indirect information about the microenvironment of tissues and lesions and helps detect, characterize, and follow up abnormalities. Two main challenges in the application of DW imaging to body imaging are the decreased signal-to-noise ratio of body tissues compared with neuronal tissues due to their shorter T2 relaxation time, and image degradation related to physiologic motion (eg, respiratory motion). Use of smaller b values and newer motion compensation techniques allow the evaluation of anatomic structures with DW imaging. DW imaging can be performed as a breath-hold sequence or a free-breathing sequence with or without respiratory triggering. Depending on the mobility of water molecules in their microenvironment, different normal tissues have different signals at DW imaging. Some normal tissues (eg, lymph nodes, spleen, ovarian and testicular parenchyma) are diffusion restricted, whereas others (eg, gallbladder, corpora cavernosa, endometrium, cartilage) show T2 shine-through. Epiphyses that contain fatty marrow and bone cortex appear dark on both DW images and apparent diffusion coefficient maps. Current and emerging applications of DW imaging in pediatric body imaging include tumor detection and characterization, assessment of therapy response and monitoring of tumors, noninvasive detection and grading of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, detection of abscesses, and evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. RSNA, 2014

  18. A novel diagnostic aid for intra-abdominal adhesion detection in cine-MR imaging: Pilot study and initial diagnostic impressions.

    PubMed

    Randall, David; Joosten, Frank; ten Broek, Richard; Gillott, Richard; Bardhan, Karna Dev; Strik, Chema; Prins, Wiesje; van Goor, Harry; Fenner, John

    2017-07-14

    A non-invasive diagnostic technique for abdominal adhesions is not currently available. Capture of abdominal motion due to respiration in cine-MRI has shown promise, but is difficult to interpret. This article explores the value of a complimentary diagnostic aid to facilitate the non-invasive detection of abdominal adhesions using cine-MRI. An image processing technique was developed to quantify the amount of sliding that occurs between the organs of the abdomen and the abdominal wall in sagittal cine-MRI slices. The technique produces a 'sheargram' which depicts the amount of sliding which has occurred over 1-3 respiratory cycles. A retrospective cohort of 52 patients, scanned for suspected adhesions, made 281 cine-MRI sagittal slices available for processing. The resulting sheargrams were reported by two operators and compared to expert clinical judgement of the cine-MRI scans. The sheargram matched clinical judgement in 84% of all sagittal slices and 93-96% of positive adhesions were identified on the sheargram. The sheargram displayed a slight skew towards sensitivity over specificity, with a high positive adhesion detection rate but at the expense of false positives. Good correlation between sheargram and absence/presence of inferred adhesions indicates quantification of sliding motion has potential to aid adhesion detection in cine-MRI. Advances in Knowledge: This is the first attempt to clinically evaluate a novel image processing technique quantifying the sliding motion of the abdominal contents against the abdominal wall. The results of this pilot study reveal its potential as a diagnostic aid for detection of abdominal adhesions.

  19. Imaging Breast Density: Established and Emerging Modalities1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Gulsen, Gultekin; Su, Min-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density has been proven as an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Women with dense breast tissue visible on a mammogram have a much higher cancer risk than women with little density. A great research effort has been devoted to incorporate breast density into risk prediction models to better estimate each individual’s cancer risk. In recent years, the passage of breast density notification legislation in many states in USA requires that every mammography report should provide information regarding the patient’s breast density. Accurate definition and measurement of breast density are thus important, which may allow all the potential clinical applications of breast density to be implemented. Because the two-dimensional mammography-based measurement is subject to tissue overlapping and thus not able to provide volumetric information, there is an urgent need to develop reliable quantitative measurements of breast density. Various new imaging technologies are being developed. Among these new modalities, volumetric mammographic density methods and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging are the most well studied. Besides, emerging modalities, including different x-ray–based, optical imaging, and ultrasound-based methods, have also been investigated. All these modalities may either overcome some fundamental problems related to mammographic density or provide additional density and/or compositional information. The present review article aimed to summarize the current established and emerging imaging techniques for the measurement of breast density and the evidence of the clinical use of these density methods from the literature. PMID:26692524

  20. Can Abdominal Computed Tomography Imaging Help Accurately Identify a Dedifferentiated Component in a Well-Differentiated Liposarcoma?

    PubMed

    Bhosale, Priya; Wang, Jieqi; Varma, Datla; Jensen, Corey; Patnana, Madhavi; Wei, Wei; Chauhan, Anil; Feig, Barry; Patel, Shreyaskumar; Somaiah, Neeta; Sagebiel, Tara

    To assess the ability of computed tomography (CT) to differentiate an atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDLPS) from a WDLPS with a dedifferentiated component (DDLPS) within it. Forty-nine untreated patients with abdominal atypical lipomatous tumors/well-differentiated liposarcomas who had undergone contrast-enhanced CT were identified using an institutional database. Three radiologists who were blinded to the pathology findings evaluated all the images independently to determine whether a dedifferentiated component was present within the WDLPS. The CT images were evaluated for fat content (≤25% or >25%); presence of ground-glass density, enhancing and/or necrotic nodules; presence of a capsule surrounding the mass; septations; and presence and pattern of calcifications. A multivariate logistic regression model with generalized estimating equations was used to correlate imaging features with pathology findings. Kappa statistics were calculated to assess agreement between the three radiologists. On the basis of pathological findings, 12 patients had been diagnosed with DDLPS within a WDLPS and 37 had been diagnosed with WDLPS. The presence of an enhancing or a centrally necrotic nodule within the atypical lipomatous tumor was associated with dedifferentiated liposarcoma (P = 0.02 and P = 0.0003, respectively). The three readers showed almost perfect agreement in overall diagnosis (κ r = 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.99). An enhancing or centrally necrotic nodule may be indicative of a dedifferentiated component in well-differentiated liposarcoma. Ground-glass density nodules may not be indicative of dedifferentiation.

  1. Ultrasound imaging transducer motion during clinical maneuvers: respiration, active straight leg raise test and abdominal drawing in.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Jackie L; Warner, Martin B; Stokes, Maria J

    2010-08-01

    Clinical use of ultrasound imaging by physiotherapists is increasing; however, the clinical setting may be problematic due to variability inherent in the environment. As transducer motion interferes with accurate measurement, this study aimed to measure handheld transducer motion, relative to the pelvis, during a clinical simulation involving typical maneuvers employed in a physiotherapy assessment of the lumbopelvic region. Transducer motion about three axes and through one plane was measured (Vicon, Oxford, UK) on 12 participants during three clinical maneuvers at four abdominal imaging sites. Data were grouped and means used to determine discrepancies in transducer and pelvic motion for each imaging site/maneuver combination. None of the conditions produced large transducer motions relative to the pelvis and all findings were within previously established guidelines for acceptable amounts of transducer motion. These findings suggest that an ultrasound transducer can be held relatively stationary in a clinical setting, for the maneuvers tested. Copyright 2010 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Free Breathing Versus Breath Hold Diffusion Weighted Imaging in Terms Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) Values for Solid Abdominal Organs.

    PubMed

    Herek, Duygu; Karabulut, Nevzat; Kocyıgıt, Ali; Yagcı, Ahmet Baki

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of normal abdominal parenchymal organs and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements in the same patients with breath hold (BH) and free breathing (FB) diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Forty-eight patients underwent both BH and FB DWI. Spherical region of interest (ROI) was placed on the right hepatic lobe, spleen, pancreas, and renal cortices. ADC values were calculated for each organ on each sequence using an automated software. Image noise, defined as the standard deviation (SD) of the signal intensities in the most artifact-free area of the image background was measured by placing the largest possible ROI on either the left or the right side of the body outside the object in the recorded field of view. SNR was calculated using the formula: SNR=signal intensity (SI) (organ) /standard deviation (SD) (noise) . There were no statistically significant differences in ADC values of the abdominal organs between BH and FB DWI sequences ( p >0.05). There were statistically significant differences between SNR values of organs on BH and FB DWIs. SNRs were found to be better on FB DWI than BH DWI ( p <0.001). Free breathing DWI technique reduces image noise and increases SNR for abdominal examinations. Free breathing technique is therefore preferable to BH DWI in the evaluation of abdominal organs by DWI.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF CLINICAL IMAGE QUALITY IN PAEDIATRIC ABDOMINAL CT EXAMINATIONS: DEPENDENCY ON THE LEVEL OF ADAPTIVE STATISTICAL ITERATIVE RECONSTRUCTION (ASiR) AND THE TYPE OF CONVOLUTION KERNEL.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Joel; Båth, Magnus; Ledenius, Kerstin; Caisander, Håkan; Thilander-Klang, Anne

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different combinations of convolution kernel and the level of Adaptive Statistical iterative Reconstruction (ASiR™) on diagnostic image quality as well as visualisation of anatomical structures in paediatric abdominal computed tomography (CT) examinations. Thirty-five paediatric patients with abdominal pain with non-specified pathology undergoing abdominal CT were included in the study. Transaxial stacks of 5-mm-thick images were retrospectively reconstructed at various ASiR levels, in combination with three convolution kernels. Four paediatric radiologists rated the diagnostic image quality and the delineation of six anatomical structures in a blinded randomised visual grading study. Image quality at a given ASiR level was found to be dependent on the kernel, and a more edge-enhancing kernel benefitted from a higher ASiR level. An ASiR level of 70 % together with the Soft™ or Standard™ kernel was suggested to be the optimal combination for paediatric abdominal CT examinations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Quantitative comparison and evaluation of software packages for assessment of abdominal adipose tissue distribution by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Bonekamp, S; Ghosh, P; Crawford, S; Solga, S F; Horska, A; Brancati, F L; Diehl, A M; Smith, S; Clark, J M

    2008-01-01

    To examine five available software packages for the assessment of abdominal adipose tissue with magnetic resonance imaging, compare their features and assess the reliability of measurement results. Feature evaluation and test-retest reliability of softwares (NIHImage, SliceOmatic, Analyze, HippoFat and EasyVision) used in manual, semi-automated or automated segmentation of abdominal adipose tissue. A random sample of 15 obese adults with type 2 diabetes. Axial T1-weighted spin echo images centered at vertebral bodies of L2-L3 were acquired at 1.5 T. Five software packages were evaluated (NIHImage, SliceOmatic, Analyze, HippoFat and EasyVision), comparing manual, semi-automated and automated segmentation approaches. Images were segmented into cross-sectional area (CSA), and the areas of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Ease of learning and use and the design of the graphical user interface (GUI) were rated. Intra-observer accuracy and agreement between the software packages were calculated using intra-class correlation. Intra-class correlation coefficient was used to obtain test-retest reliability. Three of the five evaluated programs offered a semi-automated technique to segment the images based on histogram values or a user-defined threshold. One software package allowed manual delineation only. One fully automated program demonstrated the drawbacks of uncritical automated processing. The semi-automated approaches reduced variability and measurement error, and improved reproducibility. There was no significant difference in the intra-observer agreement in SAT and CSA. The VAT measurements showed significantly lower test-retest reliability. There were some differences between the software packages in qualitative aspects, such as user friendliness. Four out of five packages provided essentially the same results with respect to the inter- and intra-rater reproducibility. Our results using SliceOmatic, Analyze or NIHImage were comparable and could

  5. Quantitative comparison and evaluation of software packages for assessment of abdominal adipose tissue distribution by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bonekamp, S; Ghosh, P; Crawford, S; Solga, SF; Horska, A; Brancati, FL; Diehl, AM; Smith, S; Clark, JM

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine five available software packages for the assessment of abdominal adipose tissue with magnetic resonance imaging, compare their features and assess the reliability of measurement results. Design Feature evaluation and test–retest reliability of softwares (NIHImage, SliceOmatic, Analyze, HippoFat and EasyVision) used in manual, semi-automated or automated segmentation of abdominal adipose tissue. Subjects A random sample of 15 obese adults with type 2 diabetes. Measurements Axial T1-weighted spin echo images centered at vertebral bodies of L2–L3 were acquired at 1.5 T. Five software packages were evaluated (NIHImage, SliceOmatic, Analyze, HippoFat and EasyVision), comparing manual, semi-automated and automated segmentation approaches. Images were segmented into cross-sectional area (CSA), and the areas of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Ease of learning and use and the design of the graphical user interface (GUI) were rated. Intra-observer accuracy and agreement between the software packages were calculated using intra-class correlation. Intra-class correlation coefficient was used to obtain test–retest reliability. Results Three of the five evaluated programs offered a semi-automated technique to segment the images based on histogram values or a user-defined threshold. One software package allowed manual delineation only. One fully automated program demonstrated the drawbacks of uncritical automated processing. The semi-automated approaches reduced variability and measurement error, and improved reproducibility. There was no significant difference in the intra-observer agreement in SAT and CSA. The VAT measurements showed significantly lower test–retest reliability. There were some differences between the software packages in qualitative aspects, such as user friendliness. Conclusion Four out of five packages provided essentially the same results with respect to the inter- and intra-rater reproducibility. Our

  6. Spectrum of magnetic resonance imaging findings in pancreatic and other abdominal manifestations of Von Hippel-Lindau disease in a series of 23 patients: a pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Graziani, Rossella; Mautone, Simona; Vigo, Mario; Manfredi, Riccardo; Opocher, Giuseppe; Falconi, Massimo

    2014-01-10

    Von Hippel Lindau disease is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited multisystem disorder characterized by development of benign and malignant tumors. The abdominal manifestation of the syndrome are protean. Magnetic resonance plays an important role in identification of abdominal abnormalities and follow-up of lesions. To describe magnetic resonance imaging findings and patterns of pancreatic and other principal abdominal manifestations in a series of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease patients and to review literature. We retrospectively reviewed abdominal magnetic resonance studies performed in 23 patients (10 males, 13 females) diagnosed of VHL. In all examined patients abdominal involvement was present. The pancreatic imaging findings detected were: unilocular cystic lesions (6/23: 26.1%); serous cystadenomas (11/23: 47.8%), including diffuse lesions (8/23: 34.8%); solid neuroendocrine tumors (8/23: 34.8%); cystic neuroendocrine tumors (1/23: 4.3%). The renal findings detected were: simple renal cysts (18/23: 78.3%); complex renal cysts (13/23: 56.5%), including benign lesions (10/23: 43.5%) and malignant lesions (3/23: 13.0%); renal carcinomas (11/23: 47.8%) and 5 of these (45.5%) were multiple and bilateral. Five patients (21.7%) presented pheochromocytoma (4 of these were bilateral; 80.0%) and 1 patient (4.3%) presented cystadenoma of the epididymis. In VHL disease patients, magnetic resonance imaging plays an essential role in the identification of pancreatic and other abdominal lesions, in their follow-up, in the screening of asymptomatic gene carriers, and in their long-term surveillance.

  7. Evaluation of Abdominal Computed Tomography Image Quality Using a New Version of Vendor-Specific Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Corey T; Telesmanich, Morgan E; Wagner-Bartak, Nicolaus A; Liu, Xinming; Rong, John; Szklaruk, Janio; Qayyum, Aliya; Wei, Wei; Chandler, Adam G; Tamm, Eric P

    2017-01-01

    To qualitatively and quantitatively compare abdominal computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with a new version of model-based iterative reconstruction (Veo 3.0; GE Healthcare) to those created with Veo 2.0. This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board and was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant. The raw data from 29 consecutive patients who had undergone CT abdomen scanning was used to reconstruct 4 sets of 3.75-mm axial images: Veo 2.0, Veo 3.0 standard, Veo 3.0 5% resolution preference (RP), and Veo 3.0 20% RP. A slice thickness optimization of 3.75 mm and texture feature was selected for Veo 3.0 reconstructions.The images were reviewed by 3 independent readers in a blinded, randomized fashion using a 5-point Likert scale and 5-point comparative scale.Multiple 2-dimensional circular regions of interest were defined for noise and contrast-to-noise ratio measurements. Line profiles were drawn across the 7 lp/cm bar pattern of the CatPhan 600 phantom for spatial resolution evaluation. The Veo 3.0 standard image set was scored better than Veo 2.0 in terms of artifacts (mean difference, 0.43; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.25-0.6; P < 0.0001), overall image quality (mean difference, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.62-1.13; P < 0.0001) and qualitative resolution (mean difference, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.69-1.1; P < 0.0001). Although the Veo 3.0 standard and RP05 presets were preferred across most categories, the Veo 3.0 RP20 series ranked best for bone detail. Image noise and spatial resolution increased along a spectrum with Veo 2.0 the lowest and RP20 the highest. Veo 3.0 enhances imaging evaluation relative to Veo 2.0; readers preferred Veo 3.0 image appearance despite the associated mild increases in image noise. These results provide suggested parameters to be used clinically and as a basis for future evaluations, such as focal lesion detection, in the oncology setting.

  8. Evaluation of Abdominal CT Image Quality Using a New Version of Vendor-Specific Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Corey T.; Telesmanich, Morgan E.; Wagner-Bartak, Nicolaus A.; Liu, Xinming; Rong, John; Szklaruk, Janio; Qayyum, Aliya; Wei, Wei; Chandler, Adam G.; Tamm, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To qualitatively and quantitatively compare abdominal CT images reconstructed with a new version of model-based iterative reconstruction (Veo 3.0; GE Healthcare) to those created with Veo 2.0. Materials & Methods This retrospective study was approved by our IRB and was HIPPA compliant. The raw data from 29 consecutive patients who had undergone CT abdomen scanning was used to reconstruct 4 sets of 3.75mm axial images: Veo 2.0, Veo 3.0 standard, Veo 3.0 5% resolution preference and Veo 3.0 20% resolution preference. A slice thickness optimization of 3.75 mm and texture feature was selected for Veo 3.0 reconstructions. The images were reviewed by three independent readers in a blinded, randomized fashion using a 5-point Likert scale and 5-point comparative scale. Multiple 2D circular regions of interest were defined for noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements. Line profiles were drawn across the 7 lp/cm bar pattern of the CatPhan 600 phantom for spatial resolution evaluation. Results The Veo 3.0 standard image set was scored better than Veo 2.0 in terms of artifacts (mean difference 0.43, 95% CI 0.25-0.6, P<0.0001), overall image quality (mean difference 0.87, 95% CI 0.62-1.13, P<0.0001) and qualitative resolution (mean difference 0.9, 95% CI 0.69-1.1, P<0.0001). While the Veo 3.0 standard and RP05 presets were preferred across most categories, the Veo 3.0 RP20 series ranked best for bone detail. Image noise and spatial resolution increased along a spectrum with Veo 2.0 the lowest and RP20 the highest. Conclusion Veo 3.0 enhances imaging evaluation relative to Veo 2.0; readers preferred Veo 3.0 image appearance despite the associated mild increases in image noise. These results provide suggested parameters to be used clinically and as a basis for future evaluations such as focal lesion detection in the oncology setting. PMID:27529683

  9. Perforated peptic ulcer associated with abdominal compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Jiun-Jen; Weng, Yi-Ming; Weng, Chia-Sui

    2008-11-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an increased intra-abdominal pressure with adverse physiologic consequences. Abdominal compartment syndrome caused by perforated peptic ulcer is rare owing to early diagnosis and management. Delayed recognition of perforated peptic ulcer with pneumoperitoneum, bowel distension, and decreased abdominal wall compliance can make up a vicious circle and lead to ACS. We report a case of perforated peptic ulcer associated with ACS. A 74-year-old man with old stroke and dementia history was found to have distended abdomen, edema of bilateral legs, and cyanosis. Laboratory tests revealed deterioration of liver and kidney function. Abdominal compartment syndrome was suspected, and image study was arranged to find the cause. The study showed pneumoperitoneum, contrast stasis in heart with decreased caliber of vessels below the abdominal aortic level, and diffuse lymphedema at the abdominal walls. Emergent laparotomy was performed. Perforated peptic ulcer was noted and the gastrorrhaphy was done. The symptoms, and liver and kidney function improved right after emergent operation.

  10. Image analysis tools and emerging algorithms for expression proteomics

    PubMed Central

    English, Jane A.; Lisacek, Frederique; Morris, Jeffrey S.; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Dunn, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Since their origins in academic endeavours in the 1970s, computational analysis tools have matured into a number of established commercial packages that underpin research in expression proteomics. In this paper we describe the image analysis pipeline for the established 2-D Gel Electrophoresis (2-DE) technique of protein separation, and by first covering signal analysis for Mass Spectrometry (MS), we also explain the current image analysis workflow for the emerging high-throughput ‘shotgun’ proteomics platform of Liquid Chromatography coupled to MS (LC/MS). The bioinformatics challenges for both methods are illustrated and compared, whilst existing commercial and academic packages and their workflows are described from both a user’s and a technical perspective. Attention is given to the importance of sound statistical treatment of the resultant quantifications in the search for differential expression. Despite wide availability of proteomics software, a number of challenges have yet to be overcome regarding algorithm accuracy, objectivity and automation, generally due to deterministic spot-centric approaches that discard information early in the pipeline, propagating errors. We review recent advances in signal and image analysis algorithms in 2-DE, MS, LC/MS and Imaging MS. Particular attention is given to wavelet techniques, automated image-based alignment and differential analysis in 2-DE, Bayesian peak mixture models and functional mixed modelling in MS, and group-wise consensus alignment methods for LC/MS. PMID:21046614

  11. Outside CT imaging among emergency department transfer patients.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jeffrey C; Sodickson, Aaron; Ledbetter, Stephen

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the quantity and types of outside computed tomographic (CT) examinations submitted for reinterpretation among emergency department (ED) transfers to a tertiary care, level I trauma, academic medical center and the frequency of and reasons for repeat imaging. Reinterpretation requests for outside CT studies accompanying ED transfer patients over a 4-month period were prospectively audited. Clinicians completed forms specifying type of CT study, outside report availability, interpretational discrepancies, repeat imaging requests, and reasons for repeat imaging. A total of 425 CT studies were reviewed among 255 transfer patients, with a mean of 2.8 examinations (range, 0-16) on 1.7 patients (range, 0-8) per day. The patients' mean age was 59 years, and 57% were male. The clinicians reported no outside verbal or written reports for 16% of patients. Interpretational discrepancies were noted in 12% of those with outside reports. Repeat scans might have been avoided in as many as 25% of rescanned patients (35% of repeat examinations) because they were performed solely for imaging or information technology reasons (inadequate imaging, compact disc inoperability, or unavailable images within the hospital's picture archiving and communication system). Rescanned trauma patients in particular had a high per patient rate (32%) of potentially avoidable reasons, with a lower rate (11%) in nontrauma patients. Outside CT imaging in ED transfers adds workload and resource requirements for receiving institutions. A communication gap exists between transferring and receiving institutions, and interpretational discrepancies are common. Process improvement measures are suggested that might reduce the substantial rates of potentially avoidable reimaging.

  12. 3D Printed Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Phantom for Image Guided Surgical Planning with a Patient Specific Fenestrated Endovascular Graft System.

    PubMed

    Meess, Karen M; Izzo, Richard L; Dryjski, Maciej L; Curl, Richard E; Harris, Linda M; Springer, Michael; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Rudin, Stephen; Ionita, Ciprian N

    2017-02-11

    Following new trends in precision medicine, Juxatarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (JAAA) treatment has been enabled by using patient-specific fenestrated endovascular grafts. The X-ray guided procedure requires precise orientation of multiple modular endografts within the arteries confirmed via radiopaque markers. Patient-specific 3D printed phantoms could familiarize physicians with complex procedures and new devices in a risk-free simulation environment to avoid periprocedural complications and improve training. Using the Vascular Modeling Toolkit (VMTK), 3D Data from a CTA imaging of a patient scheduled for Fenestrated EndoVascular Aortic Repair (FEVAR) was segmented to isolate the aortic lumen, thrombus, and calcifications. A stereolithographic mesh (STL) was generated and then modified in Autodesk MeshMixer for fabrication via a Stratasys Eden 260 printer in a flexible photopolymer to simulate arterial compliance. Fluoroscopic guided simulation of the patient-specific FEVAR procedure was performed by interventionists using all demonstration endografts and accessory devices. Analysis compared treatment strategy between the planned procedure, the simulation procedure, and the patient procedure using a derived scoring scheme. With training on the patient-specific 3D printed AAA phantom, the clinical team optimized their procedural strategy. Anatomical landmarks and all devices were visible under x-ray during the simulation mimicking the clinical environment. The actual patient procedure went without complications. With advances in 3D printing, fabrication of patient specific AAA phantoms is possible. Simulation with 3D printed phantoms shows potential to inform clinical interventional procedures in addition to CTA diagnostic imaging.

  13. Appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Travis

    2017-09-01

    Appendicitis is a frequently encountered surgical problem in the Emergency Department (ED). Appendicitis typically results from obstruction of the appendiceal lumen, although trauma has been reported as an infrequent cause of acute appendicitis. Intestinal injury and hollow viscus injury following blunt abdominal trauma are well reported in the literature but traumatic appendicitis is much less common. The pathophysiology is uncertain but likely results from several mechanisms, either in isolation or combination. These include direct compression/crush injury, shearing injury, or from indirect obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by an ileocecal hematoma or traumatic impaction of stool into the appendix. Presentation typically mirrors that of non-traumatic appendicitis with nausea, anorexia, fever, and right lower quadrant abdominal tenderness and/or peritonitis. Evaluation for traumatic appendicitis requires a careful history and physical exam. Imaging with ultrasound or computed tomography is recommended if the history and physical do not reveal an acute surgical indication. Treatment includes intravenous antibiotics and surgical consultation for appendectomy. This case highlights a patient who developed acute appendicitis following blunt trauma to the abdomen sustained during a motor vehicle accident. Appendicitis must be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in any patient who presents to the ED with abdominal pain, including those whose pain begins after sustaining blunt trauma to the abdomen. Because appendicitis following trauma is uncommon, timely diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. /sup 99m/Tc-IDA hepatobiliary imaging following upper abdominal surgery. [IDA = acetanilide iminodiacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthall, L.; Fonseca, C.; Arzoumanian, A.

    1979-03-01

    Bile flow patterns were studied with serial /sup 99m/Tc-IDA images in 19 patients with cholecysto- and choledochointestinal anastomoses, gastroenteric bypasses, and combinations of the two. Complications such as anastomotic, afferent, and efferent loop obstruction and bile leakage were readily detected even in the presence of jaundice. This noninvasive technique warrants further investigation to determine its indications and weaknesses.

  15. Verifying placement of small-bore feeding tubes: electromagnetic device images versus abdominal radiographs.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Vera; Phang, Jean; Abrams, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    Clinicians are unsure if radiography is needed to confirm correct positioning of feeding tubes inserted with assistance from an electromagnetic system. To compare radiographic reports of feeding tube placement with images generated by an electromagnetic feeding tube placement device. The medical records of 200 consecutive patients who had feeding tubes inserted with assistance from an electromagnetic feeding tube placement device were reviewed retrospectively. Radiographic reports of tube site were compared with images generated by the device. Radiographic evidence of tube sites was available in 188 cases: 184 tubes were located in portions of the gastrointestinal tract. Ninety of the 188 tubes were situated in the optimal site (distal duodenum or jejunum) radiographically. Images generated by the electromagnetic device were available in 176 cases; of these, 52 tubes appeared to end in the expected left lower quadrant. Tubes shown on radiographs to be in other sites also occasionally appeared to end in the left lower quadrant. Nurses using the device did not recognize 4 of the 188 tubes (2.1%) that were inadvertently placed in the lung. No consistent pattern of quadrant distribution was found for tubes positioned in the stomach or proximal duodenum. Images generated by the electromagnetic tube placement device provided inconsistent results regarding tube location. A small percentage of seriously malpositioned tubes were not detected by using the electromagnetic device. These findings do not support eliminating radiographs to confirm correct tube placement following use of an electromagnetic tube placement device. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  16. Prospective Evaluation of Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) Algorithm in Abdominal CT: A comparison of reduced dose with standard dose imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lubner, Meghan G.; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Kim, David H.; Tang, Jie; Munoz del Rio, Alejandro; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively study CT dose reduction using the “prior image constrained compressed sensing” (PICCS) reconstruction technique. Methods Immediately following routine standard dose (SD) abdominal MDCT, 50 patients (mean age, 57.7 years; mean BMI, 28.8) underwent a second reduced-dose (RD) scan (targeted dose reduction, 70-90%). DLP, CTDIvol and SSDE were compared. Several reconstruction algorithms (FBP, ASIR, and PICCS) were applied to the RD series. SD images with FBP served as reference standard. Two blinded readers evaluated each series for subjective image quality and focal lesion detection. Results Mean DLP, CTDIvol, and SSDE for RD series was 140.3 mGy*cm (median 79.4), 3.7 mGy (median 1.8), and 4.2 mGy (median 2.3) compared with 493.7 mGy*cm (median 345.8), 12.9 mGy (median 7.9 mGy) and 14.6 mGy (median 10.1) for SD series, respectively. Mean effective patient diameter was 30.1 cm (median 30), which translates to a mean SSDE reduction of 72% (p<0.001). RD-PICCS image quality score was 2.8±0.5, improved over the RD-FBP (1.7±0.7) and RD-ASIR(1.9±0.8)(p<0.001), but lower than SD (3.5±0.5)(p<0.001). Readers detected 81% (184/228) of focal lesions on RD-PICCS series, versus 67% (153/228) and 65% (149/228) for RD-FBP and RD-ASIR, respectively. Mean image noise was significantly reduced on RD-PICCS series (13.9 HU) compared with RD-FBP (57.2) and RD-ASIR (44.1) (p<0.001). Conclusion PICCS allows for marked dose reduction at abdominal CT with improved image quality and diagnostic performance over reduced-dose FBP and ASIR. Further study is needed to determine indication-specific dose reduction levels that preserve acceptable diagnostic accuracy relative to higher-dose protocols. PMID:24943136

  17. PET Imaging of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with 64Cu-Labeled Anti-CD105 Antibody Fab Fragment.

    PubMed

    Shi, Sixiang; Orbay, Hakan; Yang, Yunan; Graves, Stephen A; Nayak, Tapas R; Hong, Hao; Hernandez, Reinier; Luo, Haiming; Goel, Shreya; Theuer, Charles P; Nickles, Robert J; Cai, Weibo

    2015-06-01

    The critical challenge in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) research is the accurate diagnosis and assessment of AAA progression. Angiogenesis is a pathologic hallmark of AAA, and CD105 is highly expressed on newly formed vessels. Our goal was to use (64)Cu-labeled anti-CD105 antibody Fab fragment for noninvasive assessment of angiogenesis in the aortic wall in a murine model of AAA. Fab fragment of TRC105, a mAb that specifically binds to CD105, was generated by enzymatic papain digestion and conjugated to NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) for (64)Cu labeling. The binding affinity/specificity of NOTA-TRC105-Fab was evaluated by flow cytometry and various ex vivo studies. BALB/c mice were anesthetized and treated with calcium phosphate to induce AAA and underwent weekly PET scans using (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab. Biodistribution and autoradiography studies were also performed to confirm the accuracy of PET results. NOTA-TRC105-Fab exhibited high purity and specifically bound to CD105 in vitro. Uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab increased from a control level of 3.4 ± 0.1 to 9.5 ± 0.4 percentage injected dose per gram (%ID/g) at 6 h after injection on day 5 and decreased to 7.2 ± 1.4 %ID/g on day 12, which correlated well with biodistribution and autoradiography studies (i.e., much higher tracer uptake in AAA than normal aorta). Of note, enhanced AAA contrast was achieved, due to the minimal background in the abdominal area of mice. Degradation of elastic fibers and highly expressed CD105 were observed in ex vivo studies. (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab cleared rapidly through the kidneys, which enabled noninvasive PET imaging of the aorta with enhanced contrast and showed increased angiogenesis (CD105 expression) during AAA. (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab PET may potentially be used for future diagnosis and prognosis of AAA. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  18. Emulation of the laparoscopic environment for image-guided liver surgery via an abdominal phantom system with anatomical ligamenture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiselman, Jon S.; Collins, Jarrod A.; Clements, Logan W.; Weis, Jared A.; Simpson, Amber L.; Geevarghese, Sunil K.; Jarnagin, William R.; Miga, Michael I.

    2017-03-01

    In order to rigorously validate techniques for image-guided liver surgery (IGLS), an accurate mock representation of the intraoperative surgical scene with quantifiable localization of subsurface targets would be highly desirable. However, many attempts to reproduce the laparoscopic environment have encountered limited success due to neglect of several crucial design aspects. The laparoscopic setting is complicated by factors such as gas insufflation of the abdomen, changes in patient orientation, incomplete organ mobilization from ligaments, and limited access to organ surface data. The ability to accurately represent the influences of anatomical changes and procedural limitations is critical for appropriate evaluation of IGLS methodologies such as registration and deformation correction. However, these influences have not yet been comprehensively integrated into a platform usable for assessment of methods in laparoscopic IGLS. In this work, a mock laparoscopic liver simulator was created with realistic ligamenture to emulate the complexities of this constrained surgical environment for the realization of laparoscopic IGLS. The mock surgical system reproduces an insufflated abdominal cavity with dissectible ligaments, variable levels of incline matching intraoperative patient positioning, and port locations in accordance with surgical protocol. True positions of targets embedded in a tissue-mimicking phantom are measured from CT images. Using this setup, image-to-physical registration accuracy was evaluated for simulations of laparoscopic right and left lobe mobilization to assess rigid registration performance under more realistic laparoscopic conditions. Preliminary results suggest that non-rigid organ deformations and the region of organ surface data collected affect the ability to attain highly accurate registrations in laparoscopic applications.

  19. Emergence of molecular imaging of aortic aneurysm; implications for risk stratification and management

    PubMed Central

    Golestani, Reza; Sadeghi, Mehran M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Imaging cellular and molecular processes associated with aneurysm expansion, dissection, and rupture can potentially transform the management of patients with thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysm (TAA and AAA). Here, we review recent advances in molecular imaging of aortic aneurysm, focusing on imaging modalities with the greatest potential for clinical translation and application, PET, SPECT and MRI. Inflammation (e.g., with 18F-FDG, nanoparticles) and matrix remodeling (e.g., with matrix metalloproteinase-targeted tracers) are highlighted as promising targets for molecular imaging of aneurysm. Potential alternative or complementary approaches to molecular imaging for aneurysm risk stratification are briefly discussed. PMID:24381115

  20. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of upper abdominal organs at different time points: Apparent diffusion coefficient normalization using a reference organ.

    PubMed

    Song, Ji Soo; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Byon, Jung Hee; Jin, Gong Yong

    2017-05-01

    To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of upper abdominal organs acquired at different time points, and to investigate the usefulness of normalization. We retrospectively evaluated 58 patients who underwent three rounds of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging of the upper abdomen. MR examinations were performed using three different 3.0 Tesla (T) and one 1.5T systems, with variable b value combinations and respiratory motion compensation techniques. The ADC values of the upper abdominal organs from three different time points were analyzed, using the ADC values of the paraspinal muscle (ADC psm ) and spleen (ADC spleen ) for normalization. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and comparison of dependent ICCs were used for statistical analysis. The ICCs of the original ADC and ADC psm showed fair to substantial agreement, while ADC spleen showed substantial to almost perfect agreement. The ICC of ADC spleen of all anatomical regions showed less variability compared with that of the original ADC (P < 0.005). Normalized ADC using the spleen as a reference organ significantly decreased variability in measurement of the upper abdominal organs in different MR systems at different time points and could be regarded as an imaging biomarker for future multicenter, longitudinal studies. 5 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;45:1494-1501. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. COMPARISON OF ADAPTIVE STATISTICAL ITERATIVE RECONSTRUCTION (ASIR™) AND MODEL-BASED ITERATIVE RECONSTRUCTION (VEO™) FOR PAEDIATRIC ABDOMINAL CT EXAMINATIONS: AN OBSERVER PERFORMANCE STUDY OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGE QUALITY.

    PubMed

    Hultenmo, Maria; Caisander, Håkan; Mack, Karsten; Thilander-Klang, Anne

    2016-06-01

    The diagnostic image quality of 75 paediatric abdominal computed tomography (CT) examinations reconstructed with two different iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms-adaptive statistical IR (ASiR™) and model-based IR (Veo™)-was compared. Axial and coronal images were reconstructed with 70 % ASiR with the Soft™ convolution kernel and with the Veo algorithm. The thickness of the reconstructed images was 2.5 or 5 mm depending on the scanning protocol used. Four radiologists graded the delineation of six abdominal structures and the diagnostic usefulness of the image quality. The Veo reconstruction significantly improved the visibility of most of the structures compared with ASiR in all subgroups of images. For coronal images, the Veo reconstruction resulted in significantly improved ratings of the diagnostic use of the image quality compared with the ASiR reconstruction. This was not seen for the axial images. The greatest improvement using Veo reconstruction was observed for the 2.5 mm coronal slices. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Imaging investigations in Spine Trauma: The value of commonly used imaging modalities and emerging imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Tins, Bernhard J

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic spine injuries can be devastating for patients affected and for health care professionals if preventable neurological deterioration occurs. This review discusses the imaging options for the diagnosis of spinal trauma. It lays out when imaging is appropriate and when it is not. It discusses strength and weakness of available imaging modalities. Advanced techniques for spinal injury imaging will be explored. The review concludes with a review of imaging protocols adjusted to clinical circumstances.

  3. Dose reduction in abdominal computed tomography: intraindividual comparison of image quality of full-dose standard and half-dose iterative reconstructions with dual-source computed tomography.

    PubMed

    May, Matthias S; Wüst, Wolfgang; Brand, Michael; Stahl, Christian; Allmendinger, Thomas; Schmidt, Bernhard; Uder, Michael; Lell, Michael M

    2011-07-01

    We sought to evaluate the image quality of iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) in half-dose (HD) datasets compared with full-dose (FD) and HD filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction in abdominal computed tomography (CT). To acquire data with FD and HD simultaneously, contrast-enhanced abdominal CT was performed with a dual-source CT system, both tubes operating at 120 kV, 100 ref.mAs, and pitch 0.8. Three different image datasets were reconstructed from the raw data: Standard FD images applying FBP which served as reference, HD images applying FBP and HD images applying IRIS. For the HD data sets, only data from 1 tube detector-system was used. Quantitative image quality analysis was performed by measuring image noise in tissue and air. Qualitative image quality was evaluated according to the European Guidelines on Quality criteria for CT. Additional assessment of artifacts, lesion conspicuity, and edge sharpness was performed. : Image noise in soft tissue was substantially decreased in HD-IRIS (-3.4 HU, -22%) and increased in HD-FBP (+6.2 HU, +39%) images when compared with the reference (mean noise, 15.9 HU). No significant differences between the FD-FBP and HD-IRIS images were found for the visually sharp anatomic reproduction, overall diagnostic acceptability (P = 0.923), lesion conspicuity (P = 0.592), and edge sharpness (P = 0.589), while HD-FBP was rated inferior. Streak artifacts and beam hardening was significantly more prominent in HD-FBP while HD-IRIS images exhibited a slightly different noise pattern. Direct intrapatient comparison of standard FD body protocols and HD-IRIS reconstruction suggest that the latest iterative reconstruction algorithms allow for approximately 50% dose reduction without deterioration of the high image quality necessary for confident diagnosis.

  4. SU-E-I-23: A General KV Constrained Optimization of CNR for CT Abdominal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, V; Zhang, J

    Purpose: While Tube current modulation has been well accepted for CT dose reduction, kV adjusting in clinical settings is still at its early stage. This is mainly due to the limited kV options of most current CT scanners. kV adjusting can potentially reduce radiation dose and optimize image quality. This study is to optimize CT abdomen imaging acquisition based on the assumption of a continuous kV, with the goal to provide the best contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Methods: For a given dose (CTDIvol) level, the CNRs at different kV and pitches were measured with an ACR GAMMEX phantom. Themore » phantom was scanned in a Siemens Sensation 64 scanner and a GE VCT 64 scanner. A constrained mathematical optimization was used to find the kV which led to the highest CNR for the anatomy and pitch setting. Parametric equations were obtained from polynomial fitting of plots of kVs vs CNRs. A suitable constraint region for optimization was chosen. Subsequent optimization yielded a peak CNR at a particular kV for different collimations and pitch setting. Results: The constrained mathematical optimization approach yields kV of 114.83 and 113.46, with CNRs of 1.27 and 1.11 at the pitch of 1.2 and 1.4, respectively, for the Siemens Sensation 64 scanner with the collimation of 32 x 0.625mm. An optimized kV of 134.25 and 1.51 CNR is obtained for a GE VCT 64 slice scanner with a collimation of 32 x 0.625mm and a pitch of 0.969. At 0.516 pitch and 32 x 0.625 mm an optimized kV of 133.75 and a CNR of 1.14 was found for the GE VCT 64 slice scanner. Conclusion: CNR in CT image acquisition can be further optimized with a continuous kV option instead of current discrete or fixed kV settings. A continuous kV option is a key for individualized CT protocols.« less

  5. 3D Printed Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Phantom for Image Guided Surgical Planning with a Patient Specific Fenestrated Endovascular Graft System

    PubMed Central

    Meess, Karen M.; Izzo, Richard L.; Dryjski, Maciej L.; Curl, Richard E.; Harris, Linda M.; Springer, Michael; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Rudin, Stephen; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2017-01-01

    Following new trends in precision medicine, Juxatarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (JAAA) treatment has been enabled by using patient-specific fenestrated endovascular grafts. The X-ray guided procedure requires precise orientation of multiple modular endografts within the arteries confirmed via radiopaque markers. Patient-specific 3D printed phantoms could familiarize physicians with complex procedures and new devices in a risk-free simulation environment to avoid periprocedural complications and improve training. Using the Vascular Modeling Toolkit (VMTK), 3D Data from a CTA imaging of a patient scheduled for Fenestrated EndoVascular Aortic Repair (FEVAR) was segmented to isolate the aortic lumen, thrombus, and calcifications. A stereolithographic mesh (STL) was generated and then modified in Autodesk MeshMixer for fabrication via a Stratasys Eden 260 printer in a flexible photopolymer to simulate arterial compliance. Fluoroscopic guided simulation of the patient-specific FEVAR procedure was performed by interventionists using all demonstration endografts and accessory devices. Analysis compared treatment strategy between the planned procedure, the simulation procedure, and the patient procedure using a derived scoring scheme. Results With training on the patient-specific 3D printed AAA phantom, the clinical team optimized their procedural strategy. Anatomical landmarks and all devices were visible under x-ray during the simulation mimicking the clinical environment. The actual patient procedure went without complications. Conclusions With advances in 3D printing, fabrication of patient specific AAA phantoms is possible. Simulation with 3D printed phantoms shows potential to inform clinical interventional procedures in addition to CTA diagnostic imaging. PMID:28638171

  6. 3D printed abdominal aortic aneurysm phantom for image guided surgical planning with a patient specific fenestrated endovascular graft system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meess, Karen M.; Izzo, Richard L.; Dryjski, Maciej L.; Curl, Richard E.; Harris, Linda M.; Springer, Michael; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Rudin, Stephen; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2017-03-01

    Following new trends in precision medicine, Juxatarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (JAAA) treatment has been enabled by using patient-specific fenestrated endovascular grafts. The X-ray guided procedure requires precise orientation of multiple modular endografts within the arteries confirmed via radiopaque markers. Patient-specific 3D printed phantoms could familiarize physicians with complex procedures and new devices in a risk-free simulation environment to avoid periprocedural complications and improve training. Using the Vascular Modeling Toolkit (VMTK), 3D Data from a CTA imaging of a patient scheduled for Fenestrated EndoVascular Aortic Repair (FEVAR) was segmented to isolate the aortic lumen, thrombus, and calcifications. A stereolithographic mesh (STL) was generated and then modified in Autodesk MeshMixer for fabrication via a Stratasys Eden 260 printer in a flexible photopolymer to simulate arterial compliance. Fluoroscopic guided simulation of the patient-specific FEVAR procedure was performed by interventionists using all demonstration endografts and accessory devices. Analysis compared treatment strategy between the planned procedure, the simulation procedure, and the patient procedure using a derived scoring scheme. Results: With training on the patient-specific 3D printed AAA phantom, the clinical team optimized their procedural strategy. Anatomical landmarks and all devices were visible under x-ray during the simulation mimicking the clinical environment. The actual patient procedure went without complications. Conclusions: With advances in 3D printing, fabrication of patient specific AAA phantoms is possible. Simulation with 3D printed phantoms shows potential to inform clinical interventional procedures in addition to CTA diagnostic imaging.

  7. One Stage Emergency Pancreatoduodenectomy  for Isolated Injury to Pancreatic Head Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sumanta Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Major pancreatic injury following blunt abdominal trauma by itself is a relatively rare occurrence, and in vast majority of cases (95%) it is associated with injury to adjacent major vessels and organs; thus making isolated major pancreatic injury even rarer. While most pancreatic injuries are managed by simple measures like debridement and drainage, complex proximal injury poses surgical challenge regarding surgical skill and judgement. Disproportionate approach at any stage of management can contribute  to high mortality and morbidity. Emergency pancreatoduodenectomy plays a limited but important role in managing serious trauma to proximal pancreas and duodenum. Author presents a case where isolated injury to head of pancreas required emergency pancreatoduodenectomy. After a bizarre road accident, a middle aged male underwent emergency laparotomy for intraperitoneal bleeding and during exploration a deep transverse laceration with ampullary disruption was found in the head of the organ. Duodenum in all its part was intact and there was no other injury. The nature and site of injury made emergency pancreatoduodenectomy the only viable option. Leaking pancreatojejunostomy enhances infective complications that lead to late mortality. To circumvent this problem there is enthusiasm for staged surgery with resection and tube pancreatostomy in first stage, leaving the difficult anastomosis for a later date, However, if the patient is haemodynamically stable and operated reasonably early, one stage pancreatoduodenectomy gives good result and avoids repeating surgery with inherent problems and reduces hospital stay. For successful management of pancreatic trauma it is essential to make early diagnosis of duct disruption, with sound application of operative skill and judgement by treating surgeon.

  8. Correlation of the association of serum lactate, random blood sugar, and revised trauma score as predictors of outcome in hemodynamically unstable abdominal emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allwell-Brown, E; Afuwape, O O; Ayandipo, O; Alonge, T

    2016-01-01

    Elevated levels of serum lactate and glucose during resuscitation have been demonstrated to be predictors of morbidity and mortality in hemodynamically unstable patients with surgical abdominal conditions. However, the rate of return to normal levels of both lactate and blood glucose may be better predictors of mortality and morbidity. The aims of this study are: (I) To determine the pattern of serum lactate and glucose changes in patients with surgical abdominal conditions requiring resuscitation within 48 hours of presentation. (II) To correlate the predictive capability of these two independent parameters. (III) To correlate the predictive values of these parameters with the revised trauma score (RTS). This is a prospective observational study conducted over three months. The patients admitted by the general surgery division requiring resuscitation from shock was included in this study. Resuscitation was carried out with crystalloids. The estimation of serum lactate and glucose levels was done at presentation (0 hours), 12, 24 and 48 hours after admission. The revised trauma score (RTS) was calculated for each patient at presentation and at 12, 24 and 48 hours subsequently. The patients were followed up four weeks or when death occurred within four weeks of presentation. Forty four patients were recruited in the study. There were seven mortalities. The mean serum levels of Plasma glucose and lactate of all the patients were elevated at presentation in the emergency department. Survival was better with a return to normal serum lactate within 12 hours. On the other hand the random plasma glucose (RPG) levels may not be useful in prognosticating patients. However a combination of serum lactate, RTS (at 24 and 48 hours) and RPG at 48 hours may improve predictive parameters in trauma related cases.

  9. Abdominal CT with model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR): initial results of a prospective trial comparing ultralow-dose with standard-dose imaging.

    PubMed

    Pickhardt, Perry J; Lubner, Meghan G; Kim, David H; Tang, Jie; Ruma, Julie A; del Rio, Alejandro Muñoz; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to report preliminary results of an ongoing prospective trial of ultralow-dose abdominal MDCT. Imaging with standard-dose contrast-enhanced (n = 21) and unenhanced (n = 24) clinical abdominal MDCT protocols was immediately followed by ultralow-dose imaging of a matched series of 45 consecutively registered adults (mean age, 57.9 years; mean body mass index, 28.5). The ultralow-dose images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). Standard-dose series were reconstructed with FBP (reference standard). Image noise was measured at multiple predefined sites. Two blinded abdominal radiologists interpreted randomly presented ultralow-dose images for multilevel subjective image quality (5-point scale) and depiction of organ-based focal lesions. Mean dose reduction relative to the standard series was 74% (median, 78%; range, 57-88%; mean effective dose, 1.90 mSv). Mean multiorgan image noise for low-dose MBIR was 14.7 ± 2.6 HU, significantly lower than standard-dose FBP (28.9 ± 9.9 HU), low-dose FBP (59.2 ± 23.3 HU), and ASIR (45.6 ± 14.1 HU) (p < 0.001). The mean subjective image quality score for low-dose MBIR (3.0 ± 0.5) was significantly higher than for low-dose FBP (1.6 ± 0.7) and ASIR (1.8 ± 0.7) (p < 0.001). Readers identified 213 focal noncalcific lesions with standard-dose FBP. Pooled lesion detection was higher for low-dose MBIR (79.3% [169/213]) compared with low-dose FBP (66.2% [141/213]) and ASIR (62.0% [132/213]) (p < 0.05). MBIR shows great potential for substantially reducing radiation doses at routine abdominal CT. Both FBP and ASIR are limited in this regard owing to reduced image quality and diagnostic capability. Further investigation is needed to determine the optimal dose level for MBIR that maintains adequate diagnostic performance. In general, objective and subjective image quality measurements do

  10. [Abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Sido, B; Grenacher, L; Friess, H; Büchler, M W

    2005-09-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma is much more frequent than penetrating abdominal trauma in Europe. As a consequence of improved quality of computed tomography, even complex liver injuries are increasingly being treated conservatively. However, missed hollow viscus injuries still remain a problem, as they considerably increase mortality in multiply injured patients. Laparoscopy decreases the rate of unnecessary laparotomies in perforating abdominal trauma and helps to diagnose injuries of solid organs and the diaphragm. However, the sensitivity in detecting hollow viscus injuries is low and the role of laparoscopy in blunt abdominal injury has not been defined. If intra-abdominal bleeding is difficult to control in hemodynamically unstable patients, damage control surgery with packing of the liver, total splenectomy, and provisional closure of hollow viscus injuries is of importance. Definitive surgical treatment follows hemodynamic stabilization and restoration of hemostasis. Injuries of the duodenum and pancreas after blunt abdominal trauma are often associated with other intra-abdominal injuries and the treatment depends on their location and severity.

  11. Optimizing Patient-centered Communication and Multidisciplinary Care Coordination in Emergency Diagnostic Imaging: A Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, Amber K; Merck, Lisa H; Froemming, Adam T; Vaughan, William; Brown, Michael D; Hess, Erik P; Applegate, Kimberly E; Comfere, Nneka I

    2015-12-01

    Patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging relies on efficient communication and multispecialty care coordination to ensure optimal imaging utilization. The construct of the emergency diagnostic imaging care coordination cycle with three main phases (pretest, test, and posttest) provides a useful framework to evaluate care coordination in patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging. This article summarizes findings reached during the patient-centered outcomes session of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization." The primary objective was to develop a research agenda focused on 1) defining component parts of the emergency diagnostic imaging care coordination process, 2) identifying gaps in communication that affect emergency diagnostic imaging, and 3) defining optimal methods of communication and multidisciplinary care coordination that ensure patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging. Prioritized research questions provided the framework to define a research agenda for multidisciplinary care coordination in emergency diagnostic imaging. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  12. Characterization of the mechanical behavior and pathophysiological state of abdominal aortic aneurysms based on 4D ultrasound strain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittek, Andreas; Blase, Christopher; Derwich, Wojciech; Schmitz-Rixen, Thomas; Fritzen, Claus-Peter

    2017-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are a degenerative disease of the human aortic wall that may lead to weakening and eventually rupture of the wall with high mortality rates. Since the currently established criterion for surgical or endovascular treatment of the disease is imprecise in the individual case and treatment is not free of complications, the need for additional patient-individual biomarkers for short-term AAA rupture risk as basis for improved clinical decision making. Time resolved 3D ultrasound combined with speckle tracking algorithms is a novel non-invasive medical imaging technique that provides full-field displacement and strain measurements of aortic and aneurysmal wall motion. This is patient-individual information that has not been used so far to assess wall strength and rupture risk. The current study uses simple statistical indices of the heterogeneous spatial distribution of in-plane strain components as biomarkers for the pathological state of the aortic and aneurysmal wall. The pathophysiological rationale behind this approach are the known changes in microstructural composition of the aortic wall with progression of AAA development that results in increased stiffening and heterogeneity of the walls mechanical properties and in decreased wall strength. In a comparative analysis of the aortic wall motion of young volunteers without known cardiovascular diseases, aged arteriosclerotic patients without AAA, and AAA patients, mean values of all in-plane strain components were significantly reduced, and the heterogeneity of circumferential strain was significantly increased in the AAA group compared to both other groups. The capacity of the proposed method to differentiate between wall motion of aged, arteriosclerotic patients and AAA patients is a promising step towards a new method for in vivo assessment of AAA wall strength or stratification of AAA rupture risk as basis for improved clinical decision making on surgical or endovascular

  13. Abdominal emergency in elderly: a case of small bowel obstruction and ischemia caused by bulky IA ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Assenza, M; Campana, G; Centonze, L; Simonelli, L; Romeo, V; Marchese, S; Andreoli, C; Modini, C

    2013-01-01

    Bowel obstruction resulting from colorectal and ovarian cancer is a serious and distressing complication of these malignancies. This may be caused by diffuse peritoneal carcinomatosis, bulky masses filling the pelvis and abdomen or postoperative adhesions, and should be carefully worked out by pre-operative imaging. We report the case of a small bowel obstruction and intestinal ischemia caused by a bulky (20x40 cm in diameter) cystic ovarian neoplasm that was found to be a stage IA G2 cystadenocarcinoma, successfully managed by uterus-sparing surgery.

  14. Segmentation precision of abdominal anatomy for MRI-based radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Camille E.; Zhu, Fan; Lee, Andrew Y.; Yanle, Hu; Parikh, Parag J.

    2014-01-01

    The limited soft tissue visualization provided by computed tomography, the standard imaging modality for radiotherapy treatment planning and daily localization, has motivated studies on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for better characterization of treatment sites, such as the prostate and head and neck. However, no studies have been conducted on MRI-based segmentation for the abdomen, a site that could greatly benefit from enhanced soft tissue targeting. We investigated the interobserver and intraobserver precision in segmentation of abdominal organs on MR images for treatment planning and localization. Manual segmentation of 8 abdominal organs was performed by 3 independent observers on MR images acquired from 14 healthy subjects. Observers repeated segmentation 4 separate times for each image set. Interobserver and intraobserver contouring precision was assessed by computing 3-dimensional overlap (Dice coefficient [DC]) and distance to agreement (Hausdorff distance [HD]) of segmented organs. The mean and standard deviation of intraobserver and interobserver DC and HD values were DCintraobserver = 0.89 ± 0.12, HDintraobserver = 3.6 mm ± 1.5, DCinterobserver = 0.89 ± 0.15, and HDinterobserver = 3.2 mm ± 1.4. Overall, metrics indicated good interobserver/intraobserver precision (mean DC > 0.7, mean HD < 4 mm). Results suggest that MRI offers good segmentation precision for abdominal sites. These findings support the utility of MRI for abdominal planning and localization, as emerging MRI technologies, techniques, and onboard imaging devices are beginning to enable MRI-based radiotherapy. PMID:24726701

  15. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-11-14

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Abdominal aortic feminism

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. PMID:25398912

  17. Free-breathing black-blood CINE fast-spin echo imaging for measuring abdominal aortic wall distensibility: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jyh-Miin; Patterson, Andrew J.; Chao, Tzu-Cheng; Zhu, Chengcheng; Chang, Hing-Chiu; Mendes, Jason; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Gillard, Jonathan H.; Graves, Martin J.

    2017-05-01

    The paper reports a free-breathing black-blood CINE fast-spin echo (FSE) technique for measuring abdominal aortic wall motion. The free-breathing CINE FSE includes the following MR techniques: (1) variable-density sampling with fast iterative reconstruction; (2) inner-volume imaging; and (3) a blood-suppression preparation pulse. The proposed technique was evaluated in eight healthy subjects. The inner-volume imaging significantly reduced the intraluminal artifacts of respiratory motion (p  =  0.015). The quantitative measurements were a diameter of 16.3  ±  2.8 mm and wall distensibility of 2.0  ±  0.4 mm (12.5  ±  3.4%) and 0.7  ±  0.3 mm (4.1  ±  1.0%) for the anterior and posterior walls, respectively. The cyclic cross-sectional distensibility was 35  ±  15% greater in the systolic phase than in the diastolic phase. In conclusion, we developed a feasible CINE FSE method to measure the motion of the abdominal aortic wall, which will enable clinical scientists to study the elasticity of the abdominal aorta.

  18. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation.

    PubMed

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, I A; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated.

  19. Anaphylaxis, Intra-Abdominal Infections, Skin Lacerations, and Behavioral Emergencies: A Literature Review of Austere Analogs for a near Earth Asteroid Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chough, Natacha G.; Watkins, Sharmi; Menon, Anil S.

    2012-01-01

    As space exploration is directed towards destinations beyond low-Earth orbit, the consequent new set of medical risks will drive requirements for new capabilities and more resources to ensure crew health. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Conditions List (SMEMCL), developed by the Exploration Medical Capability element of the Human Research Program, addresses the risk of "unacceptable health and mission outcomes due to limitations of in-flight medical capabilities". It itemizes 85 evidence-based clinical requirements for eight different mission profiles and identifies conditions warranting further research and technology development. Each condition is given a clinical priority for each mission profile. Four conditions -- intra-abdominal infections, skin lacerations, anaphylaxis, and behavioral emergencies -- were selected as a starting point for analysis. A systematic literature review was performed to understand how these conditions are treated in austere, limited-resource, space-analog environments (i.e., high-altitude and mountain environments, submarines, military deployments, Antarctica, isolated wilderness environments, in-flight environments, and remote, resource-poor, rural environments). These environments serve as analogs to spaceflight because of their shared characteristics (limited medical resources, delay in communication, confined living quarters, difficulty with resupply, variable time to evacuation). Treatment of these four medical conditions in austere environments provides insight into medical equipment and training requirements for exploration-class missions.

  20. Improved Peritoneal Cavity and Abdominal Organ Imaging Using a Biphasic Contrast Agent Protocol and Spectral Photon Counting Computed Tomography K-Edge Imaging.

    PubMed

    Si-Mohamed, Salim; Thivolet, Arnaud; Bonnot, Pierre-Emmanuel; Bar-Ness, Daniel; Képénékian, Vahan; Cormode, David P; Douek, Philippe; Rousset, Pascal

    2018-05-23

    of better diagnostic quality, with increased sharpness compared with the CT-like images (P < 0.0001). Intraperitoneal diffusion was excellent, with similar peritoneal opacification index on SPCCT images and overlay of contrast material maps (P = 1) without a significant difference between protocol A (37.0 ± 1.7) and protocol B (35.3 ± 1.5) (P = 0.34). Only the contrast material maps demonstrated clear visual separation of the contrast agents, allowing specific quantification of the physiological enhancement in the liver, spleen, and kidney and the urinary clearance in the renal pelvis and bladder. Renal excretion of the contrast agents injected IP was observed and was consistent with blood diffusion. Spectral photon-counting CT can be used to perform a complete peritoneal dual-contrast protocol, enabling a good assessment of the peritoneal cavity and abdominal organs in rats.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  1. The utility of focused abdominal ultrasound in blunt abdominal trauma: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Helling, Thomas S; Wilson, Jennifer; Augustosky, Kim

    2007-12-01

    Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) has become commonplace in the management of blunt abdominal trauma. However, newer computed tomography (CT) scanners have decreased imaging time for trauma patients and provide more detailed examination of abdominal contents. It was the aim of the current study to evaluate practice patterns of FAST and abdominal CT in blunt trauma victims. This was a retrospective study of all blunt trauma patients (N = 299) who received at least 1 FAST examination in the emergency department by surgeons and were admitted. Patients were tracked for subsequent CT scanning, disposition from the emergency department, any operative findings, and survival. Twenty-one of 299 patients (7%) had a positive FAST. There were 7 deaths and 14 patients were taken directly to the operating room (OR) for control of abdominal bleeding. Thirty-one of 299 (10%) had equivocal FAST. There were 4 deaths and 8 patients were taken to the OR for control of abdominal bleeding. A total of 247 of the 299 patients had a negative FAST. CT scans were performed in 193: 15 showed a visceral injury. There were 13 deaths and 29 patients were taken to the OR (4 for bleeding). Patients with a positive FAST had a higher mortality than FAST-negative patients (P < .001) and greater likelihood for operation (P < .001). Those with equivocal FAST had a greater likelihood for operation than FAST-negative patients (P < .05). FAST examinations can identify patients at risk for hemorrhage and in whom operation may be needed and, therefore, can guide mobilization of hospital resources. FAST-negative patients can be managed expectantly, using more specific imaging techniques.

  2. SU-F-I-47: Optimizing Protocols for Image Quality and Dose in Abdominal CT of Large Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L; Yester, M

    Purpose: Newer CT scanners are able to use scout views to adjust mA throughout the scan in order to achieve a given noise level. However, given constraints of radiologist preferences for kVp and rotation time, it may not be possible to achieve an acceptable noise level for large patients. A study was initiated to determine for which patients kVp and/or rotation time should be changed in order to achieve acceptable image quality. Methods: Patient scans were reviewed on two new Emergency Department scanners (Philips iCT) to identify patients over a large range of sizes. These iCTs were set with amore » limit of 500 mA to safeguard against a failure that might cause a CT scan to be (incorrectly) obtained at too-high mA. Scout views of these scans were assessed for both AP and LAT patient width and AP and LAT standard deviation in an ROI over the liver. Effective diameter and product of the scout standard deviations over the liver were both studied as possible metrics for identifying patients who would need kVp and/or rotation time changed. The mA used for the liver in the CT was compared to these metrics for those patients whose CT scans showed acceptable image quality. Results: Both effective diameter and product of the scout standard deviations over the liver result in similar predictions for which patients will require the kVp and/or rotation time to be changed to achieve an optimal combination of image quality and dose. Conclusion: Two mechanisms for CT technologists to determine based on scout characteristics what kVp, mA limit, and rotation time to use when DoseRight with our physicians’ preferred kVp and rotation time will not yield adequate image quality are described.« less

  3. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  4. Quantifying Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Thigh Muscle Volume and Hepatic Proton Density Fat Fraction: Repeatability and Accuracy of an MR Imaging-based, Semiautomated Analysis Method.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Michael S; Haufe, William; Hooker, Jonathan; Borga, Magnus; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof; Romu, Thobias; Tunón, Patrik; Hamilton, Gavin; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony; Loomba, Rohit; Sirlin, Claude B

    2017-05-01

    Purpose To determine the repeatability and accuracy of a commercially available magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based, semiautomated method to quantify abdominal adipose tissue and thigh muscle volume and hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF). Materials and Methods This prospective study was institutional review board- approved and HIPAA compliant. All subjects provided written informed consent. Inclusion criteria were age of 18 years or older and willingness to participate. The exclusion criterion was contraindication to MR imaging. Three-dimensional T1-weighted dual-echo body-coil images were acquired three times. Source images were reconstructed to generate water and calibrated fat images. Abdominal adipose tissue and thigh muscle were segmented, and their volumes were estimated by using a semiautomated method and, as a reference standard, a manual method. Hepatic PDFF was estimated by using a confounder-corrected chemical shift-encoded MR imaging method with hybrid complex-magnitude reconstruction and, as a reference standard, MR spectroscopy. Tissue volume and hepatic PDFF intra- and interexamination repeatability were assessed by using intraclass correlation and coefficient of variation analysis. Tissue volume and hepatic PDFF accuracy were assessed by means of linear regression with the respective reference standards. Results Adipose and thigh muscle tissue volumes of 20 subjects (18 women; age range, 25-76 years; body mass index range, 19.3-43.9 kg/m 2 ) were estimated by using the semiautomated method. Intra- and interexamination intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.996-0.998 and coefficients of variation were 1.5%-3.6%. For hepatic MR imaging PDFF, intra- and interexamination intraclass correlation coefficients were greater than or equal to 0.994 and coefficients of variation were less than or equal to 7.3%. In the regression analyses of manual versus semiautomated volume and spectroscopy versus MR imaging, PDFF slopes and intercepts were close

  5. Is there evidence for more than two diffusion components in abdominal organs? - A magnetic resonance imaging study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wurnig, Moritz C; Germann, Manon; Boss, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The most commonly applied model for the description of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data in perfused organs is bicompartmental intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) analysis. In this study, we assessed the ground truth of underlying diffusion components in healthy abdominal organs using an extensive DWI protocol and subsequent computation of apparent diffusion coefficient 'spectra', similar to the computation of previously described T 2 relaxation spectra. Diffusion datasets of eight healthy subjects were acquired in a 3-T magnetic resonance scanner using 68 different b values during free breathing (equidistantly placed in the range 0-1005 s/mm 2 ). Signal intensity curves as a function of the b value were analyzed in liver, spleen and kidneys using non-negative least-squares fitting to a distribution of decaying exponential functions with minimum amplitude energy regularization. In all assessed organs, the typical slow- and fast-diffusing components of the IVIM model were detected [liver: true diffusion D = (1.26 ± 0.01) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, pseudodiffusion D* = (270 ± 44) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s; kidney cortex: D = (2.26 ± 0.07) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, D* = (264 ± 78) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s; kidney medulla: D = (1.57 ± 0.28) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, D* = (168 ± 18) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s; spleen: D = (0.91 ± 0.01) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, D* = (69.8 ± 0.50) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s]. However, in the liver and kidney, a third component between D and D* was found [liver: D' = (43.8 ± 5.9) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s; kidney cortex: D' = (23.8 ± 11.5) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s; kidney medulla: D' = (5.23 ± 0.93) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s], whereas no third component was detected in the spleen. Fitting with a diffusion kurtosis model did not lead to a better fit of the resulting curves to the acquired data compared with apparent diffusion coefficient spectrum analysis. For a most accurate description of diffusion properties in the liver and the kidneys, a more sophisticated model seems to be required including three diffusion

  6. The relevance of image quality indices for dose optimization in abdominal multi-detector row CT in children: experimental assessment with pediatric phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisse, H. J.; Brenot, J.; Pierrat, N.; Gaboriaud, G.; Savignoni, A.; DeRycke, Y.; Neuenschwander, S.; Aubert, B.; Rosenwald, J.-C.

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed and compared various image quality indices in order to manage the dose of pediatric abdominal MDCT protocols and to provide guidance on dose reduction. PMMA phantoms representing average body diameters at birth, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years and 15 years of age were scanned in a four-channel MDCT with a standard pediatric abdominal CT protocol. Image noise (SD, standard deviation of CT number), noise derivative (ND, derivative of the function of noise with respect to dose) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured. The 'relative' low-contrast detectability (rLCD) was introduced as a new quantity to adjust LCD to the various phantom diameters on the basis of the LCD1% assessed in a Catphan® phantom and a constant central absorbed dose. The required variations of CTDIvol16 with respect to phantom size were analyzed in order to maintain each image quality index constant. The use of a fixed SD or CNR level leads to major dose ratios between extreme patient sizes (factor 22.7 to 44 for SD, 31.7 to 51.5 for CNR2.8%), whereas fixed ND and rLCD result in acceptable dose ratios ranging between factors of 2.9 and 3.9 between extreme phantom diameters. For a 5-9 mm rLCD1%, adjusted ND values range between -0.84 and -0.11 HU mGy-1. Our data provide guidance on dose reduction on the basis of patient dimensions and the required rLCD (e.g., to get a constant 7 mm rLCD1% for abdominal diameters of 10, 13, 16, 20 and 25 cm, tube current-time product should be adjusted in order to obtain CTDIvol16 values of 6.2, 7.2, 8.8, 11.6 and 17.7 mGy, respectively).

  7. Over length quantification of the multiaxial mechanical properties of the ascending, descending and abdominal aorta using Digital Image Correlation.

    PubMed

    Peña, Juan A; Corral, Victoria; Martínez, Miguel A; Peña, Estefanía

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize that the biaxial mechanical properties of the aorta may be dependent on arterial location. To demonstrate any possible position-related difference, our study analyzed and compared the biaxial mechanical properties of the ascending thoracic aorta, descending thoracic aorta and infrarenal abdominal aorta stemming from the same porcine subjects, and reported values of constitutive parameters for well-known strain energy functions, showing how these mechanical properties are affected by location along the aorta. When comparing ascending thoracic aorta, descending thoracic aorta and infrarenal abdominal aorta, abdominal tissues were found to be stiffer and highly anisotropic. We found that the aorta changed from a more isotropic to a more anisotropic tissue and became progressively less compliant and stiffer with the distance to the heart. We observed substantial differences in the anisotropy parameter between aortic samples where abdominal samples were more anisotropic and nonlinear than the thoracic samples. The phenomenological model was not able to capture the passive biaxial properties of each specific porcine aorta over a wide range of biaxial deformations, showing the best prediction root mean square error ε=0.2621 for ascending thoracic samples and, especially, the worst for the infrarenal abdominal samples ε=0.3780. The micro-structured model with Bingham orientation density function was able to better predict biaxial deformations (ε=0.1372 for ascending thoracic aorta samples). The root mean square error of the micro-structural model and the micro-structured model with von Mises orientation density function were similar for all positions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Emergency department imaging: are weather and calendar factors associated with imaging volume?

    PubMed

    Burns, K; Chernyak, V; Scheinfeld, M H

    2016-12-01

    To identify weather and calendar factors that would enable prediction of daily emergency department (ED) imaging volume to aid appropriate scheduling of imaging resources for efficient ED function. Daily ED triage and imaging volumes for radiography, computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound were obtained from hospital databases for the period between January 2011 and December 2013 at a large tertiary urban hospital with a Level II trauma centre. These data were tabulated alongside daily weather conditions (temperature, wind and precipitation), day of week, season, and holidays. Multivariate analysis was performed. Pearson correlations were used to measure the association between number of imaging studies performed and ED triage volume. For every additional 50 triaged patients, the odds of having high (imaging volume ≥90th percentile) radiography, CT, and ultrasound volume increased by 4.3 times (p<0.001), 1.5 times (p=0.02), and 1.4 times (p=0.02), respectively. Tuesday was an independent predictor of high radiography volume (odds ratio=2.8) and Monday was an independent predictor of high CT volume (odds ratio=3.0). Weekday status was an independent factor increasing the odds of a high US volume compared to Saturday (odds ratios ranging from 5.6-9.8). Weather factors and other calendar variables were not independent predictors of high imaging volume. Using Pearson correlations, ED triage volume correlated with number of radiographs, CT, and ultrasound examinations with r=0.73, 0.37, and 0.41, respectively (p<0.0001). As ED triage volume was found to be the only factor associated with imaging volume for all techniques, analysis of predictors of ED triage volumes at a particular healthcare facility would be useful to determine imaging needs. Although calendar and weather factors were found to be minor or non-significant independent predictors of ED imaging utilisation, these may be important in influencing the actual number of ED triages. Copyright © 2016 The

  9. Initial observations using a novel "cine" magnetic resonance imaging technique to detect changes in abdominal motion caused by encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Benjamin; Summers, Angela; Fenner, John; Gillott, Richard; Hutchinson, Charles E; Spencer, Paul A; Wilkie, Martin; Hurst, Helen; Herrick, Sarah; Brenchley, Paul; Augustine, Titus; Bardhan, Karna D

    2011-01-01

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is an uncommon complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD), with high mortality and morbidity. The peritoneum thickens, dysfunctions, and forms a cocoon that progressively "strangulates" the small intestine, causing malnutrition, ischemia, and infarction. There is as yet no reliable noninvasive means of diagnosis, but recent developments in image analysis of cine magnetic resonance imaging for the recognition of adhesions offers a way forward. We used this protocol before surgery in 3 patients with suspected EPS. Image analysis revealed patterns of abdominal movement that were markedly different from the patterns in healthy volunteers. The volunteers showed marked movement throughout the abdomen; in contrast, movement in EPS patients was restricted to just below the diaphragm. This clear difference provides early "proof of principle" of the approach that we have developed.

  10. Abdominal rigidity

    MedlinePlus

    ... other symptoms do you have at the same time? For example, do you have abdominal pain ? You may have the following tests: Barium studies of the stomach and intestines (such as an upper GI series ) Blood tests Colonoscopy Gastroscopy Peritoneal lavage Stool studies ...

  11. Abdominal 4D flow MR imaging in a breath hold: combination of spiral sampling and dynamic compressed sensing for highly accelerated acquisition.

    PubMed

    Dyvorne, Hadrien; Knight-Greenfield, Ashley; Jajamovich, Guido; Besa, Cecilia; Cui, Yong; Stalder, Aurélien; Markl, Michael; Taouli, Bachir

    2015-04-01

    To develop a highly accelerated phase-contrast cardiac-gated volume flow measurement (four-dimensional [4D] flow) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique based on spiral sampling and dynamic compressed sensing and to compare this technique with established phase-contrast imaging techniques for the quantification of blood flow in abdominal vessels. This single-center prospective study was compliant with HIPAA and approved by the institutional review board. Ten subjects (nine men, one woman; mean age, 51 years; age range, 30-70 years) were enrolled. Seven patients had liver disease. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Two 4D flow acquisitions were performed in each subject, one with use of Cartesian sampling with respiratory tracking and the other with use of spiral sampling and a breath hold. Cartesian two-dimensional (2D) cine phase-contrast images were also acquired in the portal vein. Two observers independently assessed vessel conspicuity on phase-contrast three-dimensional angiograms. Quantitative flow parameters were measured by two independent observers in major abdominal vessels. Intertechnique concordance was quantified by using Bland-Altman and logistic regression analyses. There was moderate to substantial agreement in vessel conspicuity between 4D flow acquisitions in arteries and veins (κ = 0.71 and 0.61, respectively, for observer 1; κ = 0.71 and 0.44 for observer 2), whereas more artifacts were observed with spiral 4D flow (κ = 0.30 and 0.20). Quantitative measurements in abdominal vessels showed good equivalence between spiral and Cartesian 4D flow techniques (lower bound of the 95% confidence interval: 63%, 77%, 60%, and 64% for flow, area, average velocity, and peak velocity, respectively). For portal venous flow, spiral 4D flow was in better agreement with 2D cine phase-contrast flow (95% limits of agreement: -8.8 and 9.3 mL/sec, respectively) than was Cartesian 4D flow (95% limits of agreement: -10.6 and 14.6 m

  12. Unindicated multiphase CT scans in non-traumatic abdominal emergencies for women of reproductive age: a significant source of unnecessary exposure.

    PubMed

    Giannitto, Caterina; Campoleoni, Mauro; Maccagnoni, Sara; Angileri, Alessio Salvatore; Grimaldi, Maria Carmela; Giannitto, Nino; De Piano, Francesca; Ancona, Eleonora; Biondetti, Pietro Raimondo; Esposito, Andrea Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    To determine the frequency of unindicated CT phases and the resultant excess of absorbed radiation doses to the uterus and ovaries in women of reproductive age who have undergone CT for non-traumatic abdomino-pelvic emergencies. We reviewed all abdomino-pelvic CT examinations in women of reproductive age (40 years or less), between 1 June 2012 and 31 January 2015. We evaluated the appropriateness of each CT phase on the basis of clinical indications, according to ACR appropriateness criteria and evidence-based data from the literature. The doses to uterus and ovaries for each phase were calculated with the CTEXPO software, taking into consideration the size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) after measuring the size of every single patient. The final cohort was composed of 76 female patients with an average age of 30 (from 19 to 40 years). In total, 197 CT phases were performed with an average of 2.6 phases per patient. Out of these, 93 (47%) were unindicated with an average of 1.2 inappropriate phases per patient. Unindicated scans were most frequent for appendicitis and unlocalized abdominal pain. The excesses of mean radiation doses to the uterus and ovaries due to unindicated phases were, respectively, of 38 and 33 mSv per patient. In our experience, unindicated additional CT phases were numerous with a significant excess radiation dose without an associated clinical benefit. This excess of radiation could have been avoided by widespread adoption of the ACR appropriateness criteria and evidence-based data from the literature.

  13. A Newborn With Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Alwan, Riham; Drake, Meredith; Gurria Juarez, Juan; Emery, Kathleen H; Shaaban, Aimen F; Szabo, Sara; Sobolewski, Brad

    2017-11-01

    A previously healthy 3-week-old boy presented with 5 hours of marked fussiness, abdominal distention, and poor feeding. He was afebrile and well perfused. His examination was remarkable for localized abdominal tenderness and distention. He was referred to the emergency department in which an abdominal radiograph revealed gaseous distention of the bowel with a paucity of gas in the pelvis. Complete blood cell count and urinalysis were unremarkable. His ongoing fussiness and abnormal physical examination prompted consultation with surgery and radiology. Our combined efforts ultimately established an unexpected diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Advancing Patient-centered Outcomes in Emergency Diagnostic Imaging: A Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Kanzaria, Hemal K; McCabe, Aileen M; Meisel, Zachary M; LeBlanc, Annie; Schaffer, Jason T; Bellolio, M Fernanda; Vaughan, William; Merck, Lisa H; Applegate, Kimberly E; Hollander, Judd E; Grudzen, Corita R; Mills, Angela M; Carpenter, Christopher R; Hess, Erik P

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic imaging is integral to the evaluation of many emergency department (ED) patients. However, relatively little effort has been devoted to patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) in emergency diagnostic imaging. This article provides background on this topic and the conclusions of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference PCOR work group regarding "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization." The goal was to determine a prioritized research agenda to establish which outcomes related to emergency diagnostic imaging are most important to patients, caregivers, and other key stakeholders and which methods will most optimally engage patients in the decision to undergo imaging. Case vignettes are used to emphasize these concepts as they relate to a patient's decision to seek care at an ED and the care received there. The authors discuss applicable research methods and approaches such as shared decision-making that could facilitate better integration of patient-centered outcomes and patient-reported outcomes into decisions regarding emergency diagnostic imaging. Finally, based on a modified Delphi process involving members of the PCOR work group, prioritized research questions are proposed to advance the science of patient-centered outcomes in ED diagnostic imaging. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  15. Automatic abdominal lymph node detection method based on local intensity structure analysis from 3D x-ray CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mizuno, Shinji; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Hidemi; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Misawa, Kazunari; Ito, Masaaki; Nawano, Shigeru; Mori, Kensaku

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an automated method of abdominal lymph node detection to aid the preoperative diagnosis of abdominal cancer surgery. In abdominal cancer surgery, surgeons must resect not only tumors and metastases but also lymph nodes that might have a metastasis. This procedure is called lymphadenectomy or lymph node dissection. Insufficient lymphadenectomy carries a high risk for relapse. However, excessive resection decreases a patient's quality of life. Therefore, it is important to identify the location and the structure of lymph nodes to make a suitable surgical plan. The proposed method consists of candidate lymph node detection and false positive reduction. Candidate lymph nodes are detected using a multi-scale blob-like enhancement filter based on local intensity structure analysis. To reduce false positives, the proposed method uses a classifier based on support vector machine with the texture and shape information. The experimental results reveal that it detects 70.5% of the lymph nodes with 13.0 false positives per case.

  16. Imaging features of non-traumatic vascular liver emergencies.

    PubMed

    Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Akca, Onur; Ocal, Osman; Akpinar, Erhan; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2017-05-01

    Acute non-traumatic liver disorders can originate from abnormalities of the hepatic artery, portal vein and hepatic veins. Ultrasonography and computed tomography can be used in non-traumatic acute vascular liver disorders according to patient status, indication and appropriateness of imaging modality. Awareness of the imaging findings, in the appropriate clinical context, is crucial for prompt and correct diagnosis, as delay may cause severe consequences with significant morbidity and mortality. This review article will discuss imaging algorithms, and multimodality imaging findings for suspected acute vascular disorders of the liver.

  17. Comparison between low (3:1) and high (6:1) pitch for routine abdominal/pelvic imaging with multislice computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Sahani, Dushyant; Saini, Sanjay; D'Souza, Roy V; O'Neill, Mary Jane; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Halpern, Elkan F; Mueller, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of low helical pitch acquisition (3:1) and high helical pitch acquisition (6:1) for routine abdominal/pelvic imaging with multislice computed tomography (CT). Three hundred eighty-four patients referred for abdominal/pelvic CT were examined in a breath-hold on a multislice CT scanner (LightSpeed QX/I; General Electric Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI). Patients were randomized and scanned with pitch of 3:1 or 6:1 using a constant 140 peak kV and 280-300 mA. Images were reconstructed at a 3.75-mm slice thickness. Direct comparison between the two pitches was possible in a subset of 40 patients who had a follow-up scan performed with the second pitch used in each patient. A comparison was also performed between standard dose CT using a pitch of 6:1 and 20% reduced radiation dose CT using a pitch of 3:1. Two readers performed a blind evaluation using a three-point scale for image quality, anatomic details, and motion artifacts. Statistical analysis was performed using a rank sum test and the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Overall image quality mean scores were 2.5 and 2.3 for a pitch of 3:1 and a pitch of 6:1, respectively (P = 0.134). Likewise, mean anatomic detail and motion artifact scores were 2.5 and 2.6 for a 3:1 pitch and 2.3 and 2.5 for a 6:1 pitch, respectively (P > 0.05). In patients with a direct comparison of the two pitches (with the standard radiation dose as well as with a 20% reduction in milliamperes), no statistically significant difference in the performance of the two pitches was observed (P > 0.05). Image quality with a high pitch (6:1) is acceptable for routine abdominal/pelvic CT.

  18. The Detection of Focal Liver Lesions Using Abdominal CT: A Comparison of Image Quality Between Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction V and Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangyun; Kwon, Heejin; Cho, Jihan

    2016-12-01

    To investigate image quality characteristics of abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans reconstructed with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction V (ASIR-V) vs currently using applied adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). This institutional review board-approved study included 35 consecutive patients who underwent CT of the abdomen. Among these 35 patients, 27 with focal liver lesions underwent abdomen CT with a 128-slice multidetector unit using the following parameters: fixed noise index of 30, 1.25 mm slice thickness, 120 kVp, and a gantry rotation time of 0.5 seconds. CT images were analyzed depending on the method of reconstruction: ASIR (30%, 50%, and 70%) vs ASIR-V (30%, 50%, and 70%). Three radiologists independently assessed randomized images in a blinded manner. Imaging sets were compared to focal lesion detection numbers, overall image quality, and objective noise with a paired sample t test. Interobserver agreement was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient. The detection of small focal liver lesions (<10 mm) was significantly higher when ASIR-V was used when compared to ASIR (P <0.001). Subjective image noise, artifact, and objective image noise in liver were generally significantly better for ASIR-V compared to ASIR, especially in 50% ASIR-V. Image sharpness and diagnostic acceptability were significantly worse in 70% ASIR-V compared to various levels of ASIR. Images analyzed using 50% ASIR-V were significantly better than three different series of ASIR or other ASIR-V conditions at providing diagnostically acceptable CT scans without compromising image quality and in the detection of focal liver lesions. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mass Spectrometry Imaging, an Emerging Technology in Neuropsychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza; Svenningsson, Per; Andrén, Per E

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging is a powerful tool for directly determining the distribution of proteins, peptides, lipids, neurotransmitters, metabolites and drugs in neural tissue sections in situ. Molecule-specific imaging can be achieved using various ionization techniques that are suited to different applications but which all yield data with high mass accuracies and spatial resolutions. The ability to simultaneously obtain images showing the distributions of chemical species ranging from metal ions to macromolecules makes it possible to explore the chemical organization of a sample and to correlate the results obtained with specific anatomical features. The imaging of biomolecules has provided new insights into multiple neurological diseases, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Mass spectrometry imaging can also be used in conjunction with other imaging techniques in order to identify correlations between changes in the distribution of important chemical species and other changes in the properties of the tissue. Here we review the applications of mass spectrometry imaging in neuroscience research and discuss its potential. The results presented demonstrate that mass spectrometry imaging is a useful experimental method with diverse applications in neuroscience. PMID:23966069

  20. Mass spectrometry imaging, an emerging technology in neuropsychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza; Svenningsson, Per; Andrén, Per E

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging is a powerful tool for directly determining the distribution of proteins, peptides, lipids, neurotransmitters, metabolites and drugs in neural tissue sections in situ. Molecule-specific imaging can be achieved using various ionization techniques that are suited to different applications but which all yield data with high mass accuracies and spatial resolutions. The ability to simultaneously obtain images showing the distributions of chemical species ranging from metal ions to macromolecules makes it possible to explore the chemical organization of a sample and to correlate the results obtained with specific anatomical features. The imaging of biomolecules has provided new insights into multiple neurological diseases, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Mass spectrometry imaging can also be used in conjunction with other imaging techniques in order to identify correlations between changes in the distribution of important chemical species and other changes in the properties of the tissue. Here we review the applications of mass spectrometry imaging in neuroscience research and discuss its potential. The results presented demonstrate that mass spectrometry imaging is a useful experimental method with diverse applications in neuroscience.

  1. Sci-Fri PM: Radiation Therapy, Planning, Imaging, and Special Techniques - 04: Assessment of intra-fraction motion during lung SABR VMAT using a custom abdominal compression device

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Derek; Robinson, Mark; Araujo, Cynthia

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Lung SABR patients are treated using Volumetrically Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT), utilizing 2 arcs with Conebeam CT (CBCT) image-guidance prior to each arc. Intra-fraction imaging can prolong treatment time (up to 20%), and the aim of this study is to determine if it is necessary. Methods: We utilize an in-house abdominal compression device to minimize respiratory motion, 4DCT to define the ITV, a 5 mm PTV margin and a 2–3 mm PRV margin. We treated 23 patients with VMAT, fifteen were treated to 48 Gy in 4 fractions, while eight were treated with up to 60 Gy in 8more » fractions. Intrafraction motion was assessed by the translational errors recorded for the second CBCT. Results: There was no significant difference (t-test, p=0.93) in the intra-fraction motion between the patients treated with 4 and 8 fractions, or between the absolute translations in each direction (ANOVA, p=0.17). All 124 intra-fraction CBCT images were analysed and 95% remained localized within the 5 mm PTV margin The mean magnitude of the vector displacement was 1.8 mm. Conclusions: For patients localized with an abdominal compression device, the intrafraction CBCT image may not be necessary, if it is only the tumor coverage that is of concern, as the patients are typically well within the 5 mm PTV margin. On the other hand, if there is a structure with a smaller PRV margin, an intrafraction CBCT is recommended to ensure that the dose limit for the organ at risk is not exceeded.« less

  2. Abdominal Organ Location, Morphology, and Rib Coverage for the 5(th), 50(th), and 95(th) Percentile Males and Females in the Supine and Seated Posture using Multi-Modality Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Ashley R; Gayzik, F Scott; Moreno, Daniel P; Martin, R Shayn; Stitzel, Joel D

    The purpose of this study was to use data from a multi-modality image set of males and females representing the 5(th), 50(th), and 95(th) percentile (n=6) to examine abdominal organ location, morphology, and rib coverage variations between supine and seated postures. Medical images were acquired from volunteers in three image modalities including Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and upright MRI (uMRI). A manual and semi-automated segmentation method was used to acquire data and a registration technique was employed to conduct a comparative analysis between abdominal organs (liver, spleen, and kidneys) in both postures. Location of abdominal organs, defined by center of gravity movement, varied between postures and was found to be significant (p=0.002 to p=0.04) in multiple directions for each organ. In addition, morphology changes, including compression and expansion, were seen in each organ as a result of postural changes. Rib coverage, defined as the projected area of the ribs onto the abdominal organs, was measured in frontal, lateral, and posterior projections, and also varied between postures. A significant change in rib coverage between postures was measured for the spleen and right kidney (p=0.03 and p=0.02). The results indicate that posture affects the location, morphology and rib coverage area of abdominal organs and these implications should be noted in computational modeling efforts focused on a seated posture.

  3. Splenic trauma during abdominal wall liposuction: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Harnett, Paul; Koak, Yashwant; Baker, Daryl

    2008-01-01

    Summary A 35-year-old woman collapsed 18 hours after undergoing abdominal wall liposuction. Abdominal CT scan revealed a punctured spleen. She underwent an emergency splenectomy and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:18387911

  4. Image-based tracking: a new emerging standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonisse, Jim; Randall, Scott

    2012-06-01

    Automated moving object detection and tracking are increasingly viewed as solutions to the enormous data volumes resulting from emerging wide-area persistent surveillance systems. In a previous paper we described a Motion Imagery Standards Board (MISB) initiative to help address this problem: the specification of a micro-architecture for the automatic extraction of motion indicators and tracks. This paper reports on the development of an extended specification of the plug-and-play tracking micro-architecture, on its status as an emerging standard across DoD, the Intelligence Community, and NATO.

  5. Differential nongenetic impact of birth weight versus third-trimester growth velocity on glucose metabolism and magnetic resonance imaging abdominal obesity in young healthy twins.

    PubMed

    Pilgaard, Kasper; Hammershaimb Mosbech, Thomas; Grunnet, Louise; Eiberg, Hans; Van Hall, Gerrit; Fallentin, Eva; Larsen, Torben; Larsen, Rasmus; Poulsen, Pernille; Vaag, Allan

    2011-09-01

    Low birth weight is associated with type 2 diabetes, which to some extent may be mediated via abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance. Fetal growth velocity is high during the third trimester, constituting a potential critical window for organ programming. Intra-pair differences among monozygotic twins are instrumental in determining nongenetic associations between early environment and adult metabolic phenotype. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between size at birth and third-trimester growth velocity on adult body composition and glucose metabolism using intra-pair differences in young healthy twins. Fifty-eight healthy twins (42 monozygotic/16 dizygotic) aged 18-24 yr participated. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Whole-body fat was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan, whereas abdominal visceral and sc fat (L1-L4) were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Third-trimester growth velocity was determined by repeated ultrasound examinations. Size at birth was nongenetically inversely associated with adult visceral and sc fat accumulation but unrelated to adult insulin action. In contrast, fetal growth velocity during third trimester was not associated with adult visceral or sc fat accumulation. Interestingly, third-trimester growth was associated with insulin action in a paradoxical inverse manner. Abdominal adiposity including accumulation of both sc and visceral fat may constitute primary nongenetic factors associated with low birth weight and reduced fetal growth before the third trimester. Reduced fetal growth during vs. before the third trimester may define distinct adult trajectories of metabolic and anthropometric characteristics influencing risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

  6. A new method for the noninvasive determination of abdominal muscle feedforward activity based on tissue velocity information from tissue Doppler imaging.

    PubMed

    Mannion, A F; Pulkovski, N; Schenk, P; Hodges, P W; Gerber, H; Loupas, T; Gorelick, M; Sprott, H

    2008-04-01

    Rapid arm movements elicit anticipatory activation of the deep-lying abdominal muscles; this appears modified in back pain, but the invasive technique used for its assessment [fine-wire electromyography (EMG)] has precluded its widespread investigation. We examined whether tissue-velocity changes recorded with ultrasound (M-mode) tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) provided a viable noninvasive alternative. Fourteen healthy subjects rapidly flexed, extended, and abducted the shoulder; recordings were made of medial deltoid (MD) surface EMG and of fine-wire EMG and TDI tissue-velocity changes of the contralateral transversus abdominis, obliquus internus, and obliquus externus. Muscle onsets were determined by blinded visual analysis of EMG and TDI data. TDI could not distinguish between the relative activation of the three muscles, so in subsequent analyses only the onset of the earliest abdominal muscle activity was used. The latter occurred <50 ms after the onset of medial deltoid EMG (i.e., was feedforward) and correlated with the corresponding EMG onsets (r = 0.47, P < 0.0001). The mean difference between methods was 20 ms and was likely explained by electromechanical delay; limits of agreement were wide (-40 to +80 ms) but no greater than those typical of repeated measurements using either technique. The between-day standard error of measurement of the TDI onsets (examined in 16 further subjects) was 16 ms. TDI yielded reliable and valid measures of the earliest onset of feedforward activity within the anterolateral abdominal muscle group. The method can be used to assess muscle dysfunction in large groups of back-pain patients and may also be suitable for the noninvasive analysis of other deep-lying or small/thin muscles.

  7. Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis: emerging markers, tools, and techniques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis and effective monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are important for a positive outcome. Instant treatment often results in faster reduction of inflammation and, as a consequence, less structural damage. Anatomical imaging techniques have been in use for a long time, facilitating diagnosis and monitoring of RA. However, mere imaging of anatomical structures provides little information on the processes preceding changes in synovial tissue, cartilage, and bone. Molecular imaging might facilitate more effective diagnosis and monitoring in addition to providing new information on the disease pathogenesis. A limiting factor in the development of new molecular imaging techniques is the availability of suitable probes. Here, we review which cells and molecules can be targeted in the RA joint and discuss the advances that have been made in imaging of arthritis with a focus on such molecular targets as folate receptor, F4/80, macrophage mannose receptor, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, phosphatidylserine, and matrix metalloproteinases. In addition, we discuss a new tool that is being introduced in the field, namely the use of nanobodies as tracers. Finally, we describe additional molecules displaying specific features in joint inflammation and propose these as potential new molecular imaging targets, more specifically receptor activator of nuclear factor κB and its ligand, chemokine receptors, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, αVβ3 integrin, P2X7 receptor, suppression of tumorigenicity 2, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein, and osteoclast-stimulatory transmembrane protein. PMID:25099015

  8. Multi-energy spectral CT: adding value in emergency body imaging.

    PubMed

    Punjabi, Gopal V

    2018-04-01

    Most vendors offer scanners capable of dual- or multi-energy computed tomography (CT) imaging. Advantages of multi-energy CT scanning include superior tissue characterization, detection of subtle iodine uptake differences, and opportunities to reduce contrast dose. However, utilization of this technology in the emergency department (ED) remains low. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate the value of multi-energy CT scanning in emergency body imaging.

  9. Applications of emerging imaging techniques for meat quality and safety detection and evaluation: A review.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhenjie; Sun, Da-Wen; Pu, Hongbin; Gao, Wenhong; Dai, Qiong

    2017-03-04

    With improvement in people's living standards, many people nowadays pay more attention to quality and safety of meat. However, traditional methods for meat quality and safety detection and evaluation, such as manual inspection, mechanical methods, and chemical methods, are tedious, time-consuming, and destructive, which cannot meet the requirements of modern meat industry. Therefore, seeking out rapid, non-destructive, and accurate inspection techniques is important for the meat industry. In recent years, a number of novel and noninvasive imaging techniques, such as optical imaging, ultrasound imaging, tomographic imaging, thermal imaging, and odor imaging, have emerged and shown great potential in quality and safety assessment. In this paper, a detailed overview of advanced applications of these emerging imaging techniques for quality and safety assessment of different types of meat (pork, beef, lamb, chicken, and fish) is presented. In addition, advantages and disadvantages of each imaging technique are also summarized. Finally, future trends for these emerging imaging techniques are discussed, including integration of multiple imaging techniques, cost reduction, and developing powerful image-processing algorithms.

  10. SU-F-J-159: Influence of the Elevated Posterior Position by Using the Customized Vacuum-Bag On the Abdominal MR Image Quality: A Quantitative Phantom Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, O; Yuan, J; Law, M

    Purpose: Signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) of MR abdominal imaging in diagnostic radiology is maximized by minimizing the coil-to-patient distance. However, for radiotherapy applications, customized vacuum-bag is needed for abdominal immobilization at the cost of the increasing distance to the posterior spine coil. This sub-optimized coil setting for RT applications may compromise image quality, such as SNR and homogeneity, thus potentially affect tissue delineation. In this study, we quantitatively evaluate the effect of the vertical position change on SNR and image quality change using an ACR MR phantom. Methods: An ACR MR phantom was placed on the flat couch top. Images were acquiredmore » using an 18-channel body array coil and spine coil on a dedicated 1.5T MR-simulator. The scan was repeated three times with the ACR phantom elevated up to 7.5cm from the couch top, with a step size of 2.5cm. All images were acquired using standard ACR test sequence protocol of 2D spin-echo T1-weighted(TR/TE=500/200ms) and T2-weighted(TR/TE1/TE2=2000/20/80) sequences. For all scans, pre-scan normalization was turned on, and the distance between the phantom and the anterior 18-channel body array coil was kept constant. SNR was calculated using the slice with a large water-only region of the phantom. Percent intensity uniformity(PIU) and low contrast object detectability(LCD) were assessed by following ACR test guidelines. Results: The decrease in image SNR(from 335.8 to 169.3) and LCD(T1: from 31 to 19 spokes, T2: 26 to 16 spokes) were observed with increasing vertical distance. After elevating the phantom by 2.5cm(approximately the thickness of standard vacuum-bag), SNR change(from 335.8 to 275.5) and LCD(T1: 31 to 26 spokes, T2: 26 to 21 spokes) change were noted. However, similar PIU was obtained for all choices of vertical distance (T1: 94.5%–95.0%, T2: 94.4%–96.8%). Conclusion: After elevating the scan object, reduction in SNR level and contrast detectability but no change

  11. Light and sound - emerging imaging techniques for inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Knieling, Ferdinand; Waldner, Maximilian J

    2016-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are known to have a high demand of recurrent evaluation for therapy and disease activity. Further, the risk of developing cancer during the disease progression is increasing from year to year. New, mostly non-radiant, quick to perform and quantitative methods are challenging, conventional endoscopy with biopsy as gold standard. Especially, new physical imaging approaches utilizing light and sound waves have facilitated the development of advanced functional and molecular modalities. Besides these advantages they hold the promise to predict personalized therapeutic responses and to spare frequent invasive procedures. Within this article we highlight their potential for initial diagnosis, assessment of disease activity and surveillance of cancer development in established techniques and recent advances such as wide-view full-spectrum endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, autofluorescence endoscopy, endocytoscopy, confocal laser endoscopy, multiphoton endoscopy, molecular imaging endoscopy, B-mode and Doppler ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, ultrasound molecular imaging, and elastography. PMID:27433080

  12. Emerging Endoscopic Imaging Technologies for Bladder Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Aristeo; Liao, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    Modern urologic endoscopy is the result of continuous innovations since early 19th century. White light cystoscopy is the primary strategy for identification, resection, and local staging of bladder cancer. While highly effective, white light cystoscopy has several well-recognized shortcomings. Recent advances in optical imaging technologies and device miniaturization hold the potential to improve bladder cancer diagnosis and resection. Photodynamic diagnosis and narrow band imaging are the first to enter the clinical arena. Confocal laser endomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography, Raman spectroscopy, UV autofluorescence, and others have shown promising clinical and pre-clinical feasibility. We review their mechanisms of action, highlight their respective advantages, and propose future directions. PMID:24658832

  13. Advancing the Use of Administrative Data for Emergency Department Diagnostic Imaging Research.

    PubMed

    Kuehl, Damon R; Berdahl, Carl T; Jackson, Tiffany D; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Mistry, Rakesh D; Bhargavan-Chatfield, Mythreyi; Raukar, Neha P; Carr, Brendan G; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Kocher, Keith E

    2015-12-01

    Administrative data are critical to describing patterns of use, cost, and appropriateness of imaging in emergency care. These data encompass a range of source materials that have been collected primarily for a nonresearch use: documenting clinical care (e.g., medical records), administering care (e.g., picture archiving and communication systems), or financial transactions (e.g., insurance claims). These data have served as the foundation for large, descriptive studies that have documented the rise and expanded role of diagnostic imaging in the emergency department (ED). This article summarizes the discussions of the breakout session on the use of administrative data for emergency imaging research at the May 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization." The authors describe the areas where administrative data have been applied to research evaluating the use of diagnostic imaging in the ED, the common sources for these data, and the strengths and limitations of administrative data. Next, the future role of administrative data is examined for answering key research questions in an evolving health system increasingly focused on measuring appropriateness, ensuring quality, and improving value for health spending. This article specifically focuses on four thematic areas: data quality, appropriateness and value, special populations, and policy interventions. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  14. An incidentally found inflamed uterine myoma causing low abdominal pain, using Tc-99m-tektrotyd single photon emission computed tomography-CT hybrid imaging.

    PubMed

    Zandieh, Shahin; Schütz, Matthias; Bernt, Reinhard; Zwerina, Jochen; Haller, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old woman presented with a history of right hemicolectomy due to an ileocecal neuroendocrine tumor and left breast metastasis. Owing to a slightly elevated chromogranin A-level and lower abdominal pain, single photon emission computed tomography-computer tomography (SPECT-CT) was performed. There were no signs of recurrence on the SPECT-CT scan, but the patient was incidentally found to have an inflamed intramural myoma. We believe that the slightly elevated chromogranin A-level was caused by the hypertension that the patient presented. In the clinical context, this is a report of an inflamed uterine myoma seen as a false positive result detected by TC-99m-Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide (Tektrotyd) SPECT-CT hybrid imaging.

  15. Maximizing Iodine Contrast-to-Noise Ratios in Abdominal CT Imaging through Use of Energy Domain Noise Reduction and Virtual Monoenergetic Dual-Energy CT.

    PubMed

    Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Fletcher, Joel G; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2015-08-01

    To determine the iodine contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for abdominal computed tomography (CT) when using energy domain noise reduction and virtual monoenergetic dual-energy (DE) CT images and to compare the CNR to that attained with single-energy CT at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board with waiver of informed consent. A syringe filled with diluted iodine contrast material was placed into 30-, 35-, and 45-cm-wide water phantoms and scanned with a dual-source CT scanner in both DE and single-energy modes with matched scanner output. Virtual monoenergetic images were generated, with energies ranging from 40 to 110 keV in 10-keV steps. A previously developed energy domain noise reduction algorithm was applied to reduce image noise by exploiting information redundancies in the energy domain. Image noise and iodine CNR were calculated. To show the potential clinical benefit of this technique, it was retrospectively applied to a clinical DE CT study of the liver in a 59-year-old male patient by using conventional and iterative reconstruction techniques. Image noise and CNR were compared for virtual monoenergetic images with and without energy domain noise reduction at each virtual monoenergetic energy (in kiloelectron volts) and phantom size by using a paired t test. CNR of virtual monoenergetic images was also compared with that of single-energy images acquired with 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. Noise reduction of up to 59% (28.7 of 65.7) was achieved for DE virtual monoenergetic images by using an energy domain noise reduction technique. For the commercial virtual monoenergetic images, the maximum iodine CNR was achieved at 70 keV and was 18.6, 16.6, and 10.8 for the 30-, 35-, and 45-cm phantoms. After energy domain noise reduction, maximum iodine CNR was achieved at 40 keV and increased to 30.6, 25.4, and 16.5. These CNRs represented improvement of up to 64% (12.0 of 18.6) with the energy domain noise

  16. Quality of routine diagnostic abdominal images generated from a novel detector-based spectral CT scanner: a technical report on a phantom and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Hojjati, Mojgan; Van Hedent, Steven; Rassouli, Negin; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Jordan, David; Dhanantwari, Amar; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the image quality of routine diagnostic images generated from a novel detector-based spectral detector CT (SDCT) and compare it with CT images obtained from a conventional scanner with an energy-integrating detector (Brilliance iCT), Routine diagnostic (conventional/polyenergetic) images are non-material-specific images that resemble single-energy images obtained at the same radiation, METHODS: ACR guideline-based phantom evaluations were performed on both SDCT and iCT for CT adult body protocol. Retrospective analysis was performed on 50 abdominal CT scans from each scanner. Identical ROIs were placed at multiple locations in the abdomen and attenuation, noise, SNR, and CNR were measured. Subjective image quality analysis on a 5-point Likert scale was performed by 2 readers for enhancement, noise, and image quality. On phantom studies, SDCT images met the ACR requirements for CT number and deviation, CNR and effective radiation dose. In patients, the qualitative scores were significantly higher for the SDCT than the iCT, including enhancement (4.79 ± 0.38 vs. 4.60 ± 0.51, p = 0.005), noise (4.63 ± 0.42 vs. 4.29 ± 0.50, p = 0.000), and quality (4.85 ± 0.32, vs. 4.57 ± 0.50, p = 0.000). The SNR was higher in SDCT than iCT for liver (7.4 ± 4.2 vs. 7.2 ± 5.3, p = 0.662), spleen (8.6 ± 4.1 vs. 7.4 ± 3.5, p = 0.152), kidney (11.1 ± 6.3 vs. 8.7 ± 5.0, p = 0.033), pancreas (6.90 ± 3.45 vs 6.11 ± 2.64, p = 0.303), aorta (14.2 ± 6.2 vs. 11.0 ± 4.9, p = 0.007), but was slightly lower in lumbar-vertebra (7.7 ± 4.2 vs. 7.8 ± 4.5, p = 0.937). The CNR of the SDCT was also higher than iCT for all abdominal organs. Image quality of routine diagnostic images from the SDCT is comparable to images of a conventional CT scanner with energy-integrating detectors, making it suitable for diagnostic purposes.

  17. Deep feature classification of angiomyolipoma without visible fat and renal cell carcinoma in abdominal contrast-enhanced CT images with texture image patches and hand-crafted feature concatenation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hansang; Hong, Helen; Kim, Junmo; Jung, Dae Chul

    2018-04-01

    To develop an automatic deep feature classification (DFC) method for distinguishing benign angiomyolipoma without visible fat (AMLwvf) from malignant clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from abdominal contrast-enhanced computer tomography (CE CT) images. A dataset including 80 abdominal CT images of 39 AMLwvf and 41 ccRCC patients was used. We proposed a DFC method for differentiating the small renal masses (SRM) into AMLwvf and ccRCC using the combination of hand-crafted and deep features, and machine learning classifiers. First, 71-dimensional hand-crafted features (HCF) of texture and shape were extracted from the SRM contours. Second, 1000-4000-dimensional deep features (DF) were extracted from the ImageNet pretrained deep learning model with the SRM image patches. In DF extraction, we proposed the texture image patches (TIP) to emphasize the texture information inside the mass in DFs and reduce the mass size variability. Finally, the two features were concatenated and the random forest (RF) classifier was trained on these concatenated features to classify the types of SRMs. The proposed method was tested on our dataset using leave-one-out cross-validation and evaluated using accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV), and area under receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). In experiments, the combinations of four deep learning models, AlexNet, VGGNet, GoogleNet, and ResNet, and four input image patches, including original, masked, mass-size, and texture image patches, were compared and analyzed. In qualitative evaluation, we observed the change in feature distributions between the proposed and comparative methods using tSNE method. In quantitative evaluation, we evaluated and compared the classification results, and observed that (a) the proposed HCF + DF outperformed HCF-only and DF-only, (b) AlexNet showed generally the best performances among the CNN models, and (c) the proposed TIPs

  18. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life ... familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: abdominal aorta, abdominal aortic aneurysm, abdominal pain, ...

  19. Challenges and opportunities for imaging journals: emerging from the shadows.

    PubMed

    Kressel, Herbert Y

    2011-09-01

    In this article, we will discuss the challenges and opportunities for imaging journals in the next decades. These include: the importance of optimizing online communication to enhance exchange of ideas in the sciences and the necessity to facilitate the development of quantitative tools that will aid in risk stratification, diagnosis, monitoring of therapy, and disease surveillance in an era of "P4 medicine". Journals will also need to promote the evidence-based evaluation of promising technologies so that the resources expended in healthcare may be most effectively used.

  20. MIDG-Emerging grid technologies for multi-site preclinical molecular imaging research communities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jasper; Documet, Jorge; Liu, Brent; Park, Ryan; Tank, Archana; Huang, H K

    2011-03-01

    Molecular imaging is the visualization and identification of specific molecules in anatomy for insight into metabolic pathways, tissue consistency, and tracing of solute transport mechanisms. This paper presents the Molecular Imaging Data Grid (MIDG) which utilizes emerging grid technologies in preclinical molecular imaging to facilitate data sharing and discovery between preclinical molecular imaging facilities and their collaborating investigator institutions to expedite translational sciences research. Grid-enabled archiving, management, and distribution of animal-model imaging datasets help preclinical investigators to monitor, access and share their imaging data remotely, and promote preclinical imaging facilities to share published imaging datasets as resources for new investigators. The system architecture of the Molecular Imaging Data Grid is described in a four layer diagram. A data model for preclinical molecular imaging datasets is also presented based on imaging modalities currently used in a molecular imaging center. The MIDG system components and connectivity are presented. And finally, the workflow steps for grid-based archiving, management, and retrieval of preclincial molecular imaging data are described. Initial performance tests of the Molecular Imaging Data Grid system have been conducted at the USC IPILab using dedicated VMware servers. System connectivity, evaluated datasets, and preliminary results are presented. The results show the system's feasibility, limitations, direction of future research. Translational and interdisciplinary research in medicine is increasingly interested in cellular and molecular biology activity at the preclinical levels, utilizing molecular imaging methods on animal models. The task of integrated archiving, management, and distribution of these preclinical molecular imaging datasets at preclinical molecular imaging facilities is challenging due to disparate imaging systems and multiple off-site investigators. A

  1. Abdominal Pain in the Geriatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Magidson, Phillip D; Martinez, Joseph P

    2016-08-01

    With an aging population, emergency department clinicians can expect an increase in geriatric patients presenting with abdominal pain. Compared with younger patients, this patient population is less likely to present with classic symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory values of abdominal disease. However, the morbidity and mortality associated with elderly patients presenting with abdominal pathologic conditions are significant. For this reason, the clinician must be familiar with some subtle and not so subtle differences when caring for the geriatric patient with abdominal pain to ensure timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Segmentation precision of abdominal anatomy for MRI-based radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, Camille E.; Zhu, Fan; Lee, Andrew Y.

    2014-10-01

    The limited soft tissue visualization provided by computed tomography, the standard imaging modality for radiotherapy treatment planning and daily localization, has motivated studies on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for better characterization of treatment sites, such as the prostate and head and neck. However, no studies have been conducted on MRI-based segmentation for the abdomen, a site that could greatly benefit from enhanced soft tissue targeting. We investigated the interobserver and intraobserver precision in segmentation of abdominal organs on MR images for treatment planning and localization. Manual segmentation of 8 abdominal organs was performed by 3 independent observersmore » on MR images acquired from 14 healthy subjects. Observers repeated segmentation 4 separate times for each image set. Interobserver and intraobserver contouring precision was assessed by computing 3-dimensional overlap (Dice coefficient [DC]) and distance to agreement (Hausdorff distance [HD]) of segmented organs. The mean and standard deviation of intraobserver and interobserver DC and HD values were DC{sub intraobserver} = 0.89 ± 0.12, HD{sub intraobserver} = 3.6 mm ± 1.5, DC{sub interobserver} = 0.89 ± 0.15, and HD{sub interobserver} = 3.2 mm ± 1.4. Overall, metrics indicated good interobserver/intraobserver precision (mean DC > 0.7, mean HD < 4 mm). Results suggest that MRI offers good segmentation precision for abdominal sites. These findings support the utility of MRI for abdominal planning and localization, as emerging MRI technologies, techniques, and onboard imaging devices are beginning to enable MRI-based radiotherapy.« less

  3. Optimization of abdominal fat quantification on CT imaging through use of standardized anatomic space: A novel approach

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The quantification of body fat plays an important role in the study of numerous diseases. It is common current practice to use the fat area at a single abdominal computed tomography (CT) slice as a marker of the body fat content in studying various disease processes. This paper sets out to answer three questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. At what single anatomic slice location do the areas of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) estimated from the slice correlate maximally with the corresponding fat volume measures? How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? Are there combinations of multiple slices (not necessarily contiguous) whose area sum correlates better with volume than does single slice area with volume? Methods: The authors propose a novel strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. The authors then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. To address the third issue, the authors carry out similar correlation studies by utilizing two and three slices for calculating area sum. Results: Based on 50 abdominal CT data sets, the proposed mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized currently for single slice area estimation as a marker. Conclusions: The maximum area-to-volume correlation achieved is quite high, suggesting that it may be reasonable to estimate body fat by measuring the area of fat from a single anatomic slice at the site of maximum correlation and use this as a marker. The site of maximum correlation is not at L4-L5 as commonly assumed

  4. Optimization of abdominal fat quantification on CT imaging through use of standardized anatomic space: A novel approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K., E-mail: jay@mail.med.upenn.edu; Torigian, Drew A.

    Purpose: The quantification of body fat plays an important role in the study of numerous diseases. It is common current practice to use the fat area at a single abdominal computed tomography (CT) slice as a marker of the body fat content in studying various disease processes. This paper sets out to answer three questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. At what single anatomic slice location do the areas of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) estimated from the slice correlate maximally with the corresponding fat volume measures? How doesmore » one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? Are there combinations of multiple slices (not necessarily contiguous) whose area sum correlates better with volume than does single slice area with volume? Methods: The authors propose a novel strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. The authors then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. To address the third issue, the authors carry out similar correlation studies by utilizing two and three slices for calculating area sum. Results: Based on 50 abdominal CT data sets, the proposed mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized currently for single slice area estimation as a marker. Conclusions: The maximum area-to-volume correlation achieved is quite high, suggesting that it may be reasonable to estimate body fat by measuring the area of fat from a single anatomic slice at the site of maximum correlation and use this as a marker. The site of maximum correlation is not at L4-L5 as commonly

  5. Stress myocardial perfusion imaging in the emergency department--new techniques for speed and diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Sheri D; Harrison, Mark A; Duvall, W Lane

    2012-05-01

    Emergency room evaluations of patients presenting with chest pain continue to rise, and these evaluations which often include cardiac imaging, are an increasing area of resource utilization in the current health system. Myocardial perfusion imaging from the emergency department remains a vital component of the diagnosis or exclusion of coronary artery disease as the etiology of chest pain. Recent advances in camera technology, and changes to the imaging protocols have allowed MPI to become a more efficient way of providing this diagnostic information. Compared with conventional SPECT, new high-efficiency CZT cameras provide a 3-5 fold increase in photon sensitivity, 1.65-fold improvement in energy resolution and a 1.7-2.5-fold increase in spatial resolution. With stress-only imaging, rest images are eliminated if stress images are normal, as they provide no additional prognostic or diagnostic value and cancelling the rest images would shorten the length of the test which is of particular importance to the ED population. The rapid but accurate triage of patients in an ED CPU is essential to their care, and stress-only imaging and new CZT cameras allow for shorter test time, lower radiation doses and lower costs while demonstrating good clinical outcomes. These changes to nuclear stress testing can allow for faster throughput of patients through the emergency department while providing a safe and efficient evaluation of chest pain.

  6. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of abdominal solid organ and major vessel: comparison of enhancement effect between Gd-EOB-DTPA and Gd-DTPA.

    PubMed

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Sone, Teruki; Yamamoto, Akira; Yoshida, Koji; Kakuba, Koki; Tanimoto, Daigo; Higashi, Hiroki; Yamashita, Takenori

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the differences in enhancement of the abdominal solid organ and the major vessel on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) obtained with gadolinium ethoxybenzyldiethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA: EOB) and gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) in the same patients. A total of 13 healthy volunteers underwent repeat assessments of abdominal MR examinations with DCE-MRI using either Gd-DTPA at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight or EOB at a dose of 0.025 mmol/kg body weight. DCE images were obtained at precontrast injection and in the arterial phase (AP: 25 seconds), portal phase (PP: 70 seconds), and equilibrium phase (EP: 3 minutes). The signal intensities (SIs) of liver at AP, PP, and EP; the SIs of spleen, renal cortex, renal medulla, pancreas, adrenal gland, aorta at AP; and the SIs of portal vein and inferior vena cava (IVC) at PP were defined using region-of-interest measurements, and were used for calculation of signal intensity ratio (SIR). The mean SIRs of liver (0.195+/-0.140), spleen (1.35+/-0.353), renal cortex (1.58+/-0.517), renal medulla (0.548+/-0.259), pancreas (0.540+/-0.183), adrenal gland (1.04+/-0.405), and aorta (2.44+/-0.648) at AP as well as the mean SIRs of portal vein (1.85+/-0.477) and IVC (1.16+/-0.187) at PP in the EOB images were significantly lower than those (0.337+/-0.200, 1.99+/-0.443, 2.01+/-0.474, 0.742+/-0.336, 0.771+/-0.227, 1.26+/-0.442, 3.22+/-1.20, 2.73+/-0.429, and 1.68+/-0.366, respectively) in the Gd-DTPA images (P<0.05 each). There was no significant difference in mean SIR of liver at PP between EOB (0.529+/-0.124) and Gd-DTPA (0.564+/-0.139). Conversely, the mean SIR of liver at EP was significantly higher with EOB (0.576+/-0.167) than with Gd-DTPA (0.396+/-0.093) (P<0.001). Lower arterial vascular and parenchymal enhancement with Gd-EOB, as compared with Gd-DTPA, may require reassessment of its dose, despite the higher late venous phase liver parenchymal

  7. Harmonic Motion Imaging for Abdominal Tumor Detection and High-intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation Monitoring: A Feasibility Study in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Hou, Gary Y.; Han, Yang; Payen, Thomas; Palermo, Carmine F.; Olive, Kenneth P.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2015-01-01

    Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) is a radiation force-based elasticity imaging technique that tracks oscillatory tissue displacements induced by sinusoidal ultrasonic radiation force to assess relative tissue stiffness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of HMI in pancreatic tumor detection and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring. The HMI system consisted of a focused ultrasound transducer, which generated sinusoidal radiation force to induce oscillatory tissue motion at 50 Hz, and a diagnostic ultrasound transducer, which detected the axial tissue displacements based on acquired radiofrequency signals using a 1D cross-correlation algorithm. For pancreatic tumor detection, HMI images were generated for pancreatic tumors in transgenic mice and normal pancreases in wild-type mice. The obtained HMI images showed a high contrast between normal and malignant pancreases with an average peak-to-peak HMI displacement ratio of 3.2. Histological analysis showed that no tissue damage was associated with HMI when it was used for the sole purpose of elasticity imaging. For pancreatic tumor ablation monitoring, the focused ultrasound transducer was operated with a higher acoustic power and longer pulse length than that used in tumor detection to simultaneously induce HIFU thermal ablation and oscillatory tissue displacements, allowing HMI monitoring without interrupting tumor ablation. HMI monitoring of HIFU ablation found significant decreases in the peak-to-peak HMI displacements before and after HIFU ablation with a reduction rate ranging from 15.8% to 57.0%. The formation of thermal lesions after HIFU exposure was confirmed by histological analysis. This study demonstrated the feasibility of HMI in abdominal tumor detection and HIFU ablation monitoring. PMID:26415128

  8. Harmonic motion imaging for abdominal tumor detection and high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation monitoring: an in vivo feasibility study in a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Hou, Gary Y; Han, Yang; Payen, Thomas; Palermo, Carmine F; Olive, Kenneth P; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-09-01

    Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) is a radiationforce- based elasticity imaging technique that tracks oscillatory tissue displacements induced by sinusoidal ultrasonic radiation force to assess the resulting oscillatory displacement denoting the underlying tissue stiffness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of HMI in pancreatic tumor detection and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring. The HMI system consisted of a focused ultrasound transducer, which generated sinusoidal radiation force to induce oscillatory tissue motion at 50 Hz, and a diagnostic ultrasound transducer, which detected the axial tissue displacements based on acquired radio-frequency signals using a 1-D cross-correlation algorithm. For pancreatic tumor detection, HMI images were generated for pancreatic tumors in transgenic mice and normal pancreases in wild-type mice. The obtained HMI images showed a high contrast between normal and malignant pancreases with an average peak-to-peak HMI displacement ratio of 3.2. Histological analysis showed that no tissue damage was associated with HMI when it was used for the sole purpose of elasticity imaging. For pancreatic tumor ablation monitoring, the focused ultrasound transducer was operated at a higher acoustic power and longer pulse length than that used in tumor detection to simultaneously induce HIFU thermal ablation and oscillatory tissue displacements, allowing HMI monitoring without interrupting tumor ablation. HMI monitoring of HIFU ablation found significant decreases in the peak-to-peak HMI displacements before and after HIFU ablation with a reduction rate ranging from 15.8% to 57.0%. The formation of thermal lesions after HIFU exposure was confirmed by histological analysis. This study demonstrated the feasibility of HMI in abdominal tumor detection and HIFU ablation monitoring.

  9. Emerging Imaging and Genomic Tools for Developmental Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Keller, Philipp J

    2016-03-21

    Animal development is a complex and dynamic process orchestrated by exquisitely timed cell lineage commitment, divisions, migration, and morphological changes at the single-cell level. In the past decade, extensive genetic, stem cell, and genomic studies provided crucial insights into molecular underpinnings and the functional importance of genetic pathways governing various cellular differentiation processes. However, it is still largely unknown how the precise coordination of these pathways is achieved at the whole-organism level and how the highly regulated spatiotemporal choreography of development is established in turn. Here, we discuss the latest technological advances in imaging and single-cell genomics that hold great promise for advancing our understanding of this intricate process. We propose an integrated approach that combines such methods to quantitatively decipher in vivo cellular dynamic behaviors and their underlying molecular mechanisms at the systems level with single-cell, single-molecule resolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. New and emerging patient-centered CT imaging and image-guided treatment paradigms for maxillofacial trauma.

    PubMed

    Dreizin, David; Nam, Arthur J; Hirsch, Jeffrey; Bernstein, Mark P

    2018-06-20

    This article reviews the conceptual framework, available evidence, and practical considerations pertaining to nascent and emerging advances in patient-centered CT-imaging and CT-guided surgery for maxillofacial trauma. These include cinematic rendering-a novel method for advanced 3D visualization, incorporation of quantitative CT imaging into the assessment of orbital fractures, low-dose CT imaging protocols made possible with contemporary scanners and reconstruction techniques, the rapidly growing use of cone-beam CT, virtual fracture reduction with design software for surgical pre-planning, the use of 3D printing for fabricating models and implants, and new avenues in CT-guided computer-aided surgery.

  11. Fully automatic detection and segmentation of abdominal aortic thrombus in post-operative CTA images using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    López-Linares, Karen; Aranjuelo, Nerea; Kabongo, Luis; Maclair, Gregory; Lete, Nerea; Ceresa, Mario; García-Familiar, Ainhoa; Macía, Iván; González Ballester, Miguel A

    2018-05-01

    Computerized Tomography Angiography (CTA) based follow-up of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) treated with Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR) is essential to evaluate the progress of the patient and detect complications. In this context, accurate quantification of post-operative thrombus volume is required. However, a proper evaluation is hindered by the lack of automatic, robust and reproducible thrombus segmentation algorithms. We propose a new fully automatic approach based on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNN) for robust and reproducible thrombus region of interest detection and subsequent fine thrombus segmentation. The DetecNet detection network is adapted to perform region of interest extraction from a complete CTA and a new segmentation network architecture, based on Fully Convolutional Networks and a Holistically-Nested Edge Detection Network, is presented. These networks are trained, validated and tested in 13 post-operative CTA volumes of different patients using a 4-fold cross-validation approach to provide more robustness to the results. Our pipeline achieves a Dice score of more than 82% for post-operative thrombus segmentation and provides a mean relative volume difference between ground truth and automatic segmentation that lays within the experienced human observer variance without the need of human intervention in most common cases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) in low contrast helical abdominal imaging via a transfer function based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da; Li, Xinhua; Liu, Bob

    2012-03-01

    Since the introduction of ASiR, its potential in noise reduction has been reported in various clinical applications. However, the influence of different scan and reconstruction parameters on the trade off between ASiR's blurring effect and noise reduction in low contrast imaging has not been fully studied. Simple measurements on low contrast images, such as CNR or phantom scores could not explore the nuance nature of this problem. We tackled this topic using a method which compares the performance of ASiR in low contrast helical imaging based on an assumed filter layer on top of the FBP reconstruction. Transfer functions of this filter layer were obtained from the noise power spectra (NPS) of corresponding FBP and ASiR images that share the same scan and reconstruction parameters. 2D transfer functions were calculated as sqrt[NPSASiR(u, v)/NPSFBP(u, v)]. Synthesized ACR phantom images were generated by filtering the FBP images with the transfer functions of specific (FBP, ASiR) pairs, and were compared with the ASiR images. It is shown that the transfer functions could predict the deterministic blurring effect of ASiR on low contrast objects, as well as the degree of noise reductions. Using this method, the influence of dose, scan field of view (SFOV), display field of view (DFOV), ASiR level, and Recon Mode on the behavior of ASiR in low contrast imaging was studied. It was found that ASiR level, dose level, and DFOV play more important roles in determining the behavior of ASiR than the other two parameters.

  13. Content analysis of Australian direct-to-consumer websites for emerging breast cancer imaging devices.

    PubMed

    Vreugdenburg, Thomas D; Laurence, Caroline O; Willis, Cameron D; Mundy, Linda; Hiller, Janet E

    2014-09-01

    To describe the nature and frequency of information presented on direct-to-consumer websites for emerging breast cancer imaging devices. Content analysis of Australian website advertisements from 2 March 2011 to 30 March 2012, for three emerging breast cancer imaging devices: digital infrared thermal imaging, electrical impedance scanning and electronic palpation imaging. Type of imaging offered, device safety, device performance, application of device, target population, supporting evidence and comparator tests. Thirty-nine unique Australian websites promoting a direct-to-consumer breast imaging device were identified. Despite a lack of supporting evidence, 22 websites advertised devices for diagnosis, 20 advertised devices for screening, 13 advertised devices for prevention and 13 advertised devices for identifying breast cancer risk factors. Similarly, advertised ranges of diagnostic sensitivity (78%-99%) and specificity (44%-91%) were relatively high compared with published literature. Direct comparisons with conventional screening tools that favoured the new device were highly prominent (31 websites), and one-third of websites (12) explicitly promoted their device as a suitable alternative. Australian websites for emerging breast imaging devices, which are also available internationally, promote the use of such devices as safe and effective solutions for breast cancer screening and diagnosis in a range of target populations. Many of these claims are not supported by peer-reviewed evidence, raising questions about the manner in which these devices and their advertising material are regulated, particularly when they are promoted as direct alternatives to established screening interventions.

  14. Non-contrast CT at comparable dose to an abdominal radiograph in patients with acute renal colic; impact of iterative reconstruction on image quality and diagnostic performance.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, P D; Murphy, K P; Hayes, S A; Carey, K; Sammon, J; Crush, L; O'Neill, F; Normoyle, B; McGarrigle, A M; Barry, J E; Maher, M M

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to assess the performance of low-dose non-contrast CT of the urinary tract (LD-CT) acquired at radiation exposures close to that of abdominal radiography using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR). Thirty-three patients with clinically suspected renal colic were prospectively included. Conventional dose (CD-CT) and LD-CT data sets were contemporaneously acquired. LD-CT images were reconstructed with 40 %, 70 % and 90 % ASiR. Image quality was subjectively and objectively measured. Images were also clinically interpreted. Mean ED was 0.48 ± 0.07 mSv for LD-CT compared with 4.43 ± 3.14 mSv for CD-CT. Increasing the percentage ASiR resulted in a step-wise reduction in mean objective noise (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Seventy % ASiR LD-CT images had higher diagnostic acceptability and spatial resolution than 90 % ASiR LD-CT images (p < 0.001). Twenty-seven calculi (diameter = 5.5 ± 1.7 mm), including all ureteric stones, were correctly identified using 70 % ASiR LD-CT with two false positives and 16 false negatives (diameter = 2.3 ± 0.7 mm) equating to a sensitivity and specificity of 72 % and 94 %. Seventy % ASiR LD-CT had a sensitivity and specificity of 87 % and 100 % for detection of calculi >3 mm. Reconstruction of LD-CT images with 70 % ASiR resulted in superior image quality than FBP, 40 % ASIR and 90 % ASIR. LD-CT with ASIR demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity for detection of calculi >3 mm. • Low-dose CT studies for urinary calculus detection were performed with a mean dose of 0.48 ± 0.07 mSv • Low-dose CT with 70 % ASiR detected calculi >3 mm with a sensitivity and specificity of 87 % and 100 % • Reconstruction with 70 % ASiR was superior to filtered back projection, 40 % ASiR and 90 % ASiR images.

  15. Automatic segmentation of the liver using multi-planar anatomy and deformable surface model in abdominal contrast-enhanced CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Yujin; Hong, Helen; Chung, Jin Wook; Yoon, Young Ho

    2012-02-01

    We propose an effective technique for the extraction of liver boundary based on multi-planar anatomy and deformable surface model in abdominal contrast-enhanced CT images. Our method is composed of four main steps. First, for extracting an optimal volume circumscribing a liver, lower and side boundaries are defined by positional information of pelvis and rib. An upper boundary is defined by separating the lungs and heart from CT images. Second, for extracting an initial liver volume, optimal liver volume is smoothed by anisotropic diffusion filtering and is segmented using adaptively selected threshold value. Third, for removing neighbor organs from initial liver volume, morphological opening and connected component labeling are applied to multiple planes. Finally, for refining the liver boundaries, deformable surface model is applied to a posterior liver surface and missing left robe in previous step. Then, probability summation map is generated by calculating regional information of the segmented liver in coronal plane, which is used for restoring the inaccurate liver boundaries. Experimental results show that our segmentation method can accurately extract liver boundaries without leakage to neighbor organs in spite of various liver shape and ambiguous boundary.

  16. Non-vascular interventional procedures: effective dose to patient and equivalent dose to abdominal organs by means of DICOM images and Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Longo, Mariaconcetta; Marchioni, Chiara; Insero, Teresa; Donnarumma, Raffaella; D'Adamo, Alessandro; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Fanelli, Fabrizio; Salvatori, Filippo Maria; Cannavale, Alessandro; Di Castro, Elisabetta

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluates X-ray exposure in patient undergoing abdominal extra-vascular interventional procedures by means of Digital Imaging and COmmunications in Medicine (DICOM) image headers and Monte Carlo simulation. The main aim was to assess the effective and equivalent doses, under the hypothesis of their correlation with the dose area product (DAP) measured during each examination. This allows to collect dosimetric information about each patient and to evaluate associated risks without resorting to in vivo dosimetry. The dose calculation was performed in 79 procedures through the Monte Carlo simulator PCXMC (A PC-based Monte Carlo program for calculating patient doses in medical X-ray examinations), by using the real geometrical and dosimetric irradiation conditions, automatically extracted from DICOM headers. The DAP measurements were also validated by using thermoluminescent dosemeters on an anthropomorphic phantom. The expected linear correlation between effective doses and DAP was confirmed with an R(2) of 0.974. Moreover, in order to easily calculate patient doses, conversion coefficients that relate equivalent doses to measurable quantities, such as DAP, were obtained. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A report on the Academic Emergency Medicine 2015 consensus conference "Diagnostic imaging in the emergency department: a research agenda to optimize utilization".

    PubMed

    Gunn, Martin L; Marin, Jennifer R; Mills, Angela M; Chong, Suzanne T; Froemming, Adam T; Johnson, Jamlik O; Kumaravel, Manickam; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2016-08-01

    In May 2015, the Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Diagnostic imaging in the emergency department: a research agenda to optimize utilization" was held. The goal of the conference was to develop a high-priority research agenda regarding emergency diagnostic imaging on which to base future research. In addition to representatives from the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine, the multidisciplinary conference included members of several radiology organizations: American Society for Emergency Radiology, Radiological Society of North America, the American College of Radiology, and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. The specific aims of the conference were to (1) understand the current state of evidence regarding emergency department (ED) diagnostic imaging utilization and identify key opportunities, limitations, and gaps in knowledge; (2) develop a consensus-driven research agenda emphasizing priorities and opportunities for research in ED diagnostic imaging; and (3) explore specific funding mechanisms available to facilitate research in ED diagnostic imaging. Through a multistep consensus process, participants developed targeted research questions for future research in six content areas within emergency diagnostic imaging: clinical decision rules; use of administrative data; patient-centered outcomes research; training, education, and competency; knowledge translation and barriers to imaging optimization; and comparative effectiveness research in alternatives to traditional computed tomography use.

  18. Multimodality Imaging Approach towards Primary Aortic Sarcomas Arising after Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Case Series Report.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Mudassar; Fowler, Kathryn J; Mellnick, Vincent M; Sicard, Gregorio A; Narra, Vamsi R

    2016-06-01

    Primary aortic neoplasms are rare. Aortic sarcoma arising after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a scarce subset of primary aortic malignancies, reports of which are infrequent in the published literature. The diagnosis of aortic sarcoma is challenging due to its non-specific clinical presentation, and the prognosis is poor due to delayed diagnosis, rapid proliferation, and propensity for metastasis. Post-EVAR, aortic sarcomas may mimic other more common aortic processes on surveillance imaging. Radiologists are rarely knowledgeable about this rare entity for which multimodality imaging and awareness are invaluable in early diagnosis. A series of three pathologically confirmed cases are presented to display the multimodality imaging features and clinical presentations of aortic sarcoma arising after EVAR.

  19. A case of timely satellite image acquisitions in support of coastal emergency environmental response management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Werle, Dirk; Lu, Zhong; Rangoonwala, Amina; Suzuoki, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    The synergistic application of optical and radar satellite imagery improves emergency response and advance coastal monitoring from the realm of “opportunistic” to that of “strategic.” As illustrated by the Hurricane Ike example, synthetic aperture radar imaging capabilities are clearly applicable for emergency response operations, but they are also relevant to emergency environmental management. Integrated with optical monitoring, the nearly real-time availability of synthetic aperture radar provides superior consistency in status and trends monitoring and enhanced information concerning causal forces of change that are critical to coastal resource sustainability, including flooding extent, depth, and frequency.

  20. Knowledge Translation and Barriers to Imaging Optimization in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Probst, Marc A; Dayan, Peter S; Raja, Ali S; Slovis, Benjamin H; Yadav, Kabir; Lam, Samuel H; Shapiro, Jason S; Farris, Coreen; Babcock, Charlene I; Griffey, Richard T; Robey, Thomas E; Fortin, Emily M; Johnson, Jamlik O; Chong, Suzanne T; Davenport, Moira; Grigat, Daniel W; Lang, Eddy L

    2015-12-01

    Researchers have attempted to optimize imaging utilization by describing which clinical variables are more predictive of acute disease and, conversely, what combination of variables can obviate the need for imaging. These results are then used to develop evidence-based clinical pathways, clinical decision instruments, and clinical practice guidelines. Despite the validation of these results in subsequent studies, with some demonstrating improved outcomes, their actual use is often limited. This article outlines a research agenda to promote the dissemination and implementation (also known as knowledge translation) of evidence-based interventions for emergency department (ED) imaging, i.e., clinical pathways, clinical decision instruments, and clinical practice guidelines. We convened a multidisciplinary group of stakeholders and held online and telephone discussions over a 6-month period culminating in an in-person meeting at the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference. We identified the following four overarching research questions: 1) what determinants (barriers and facilitators) influence emergency physicians' use of evidence-based interventions when ordering imaging in the ED; 2) what implementation strategies at the institutional level can improve the use of evidence-based interventions for ED imaging; 3) what interventions at the health care policy level can facilitate the adoption of evidence-based interventions for ED imaging; and 4) how can health information technology, including electronic health records, clinical decision support, and health information exchanges, be used to increase awareness, use, and adherence to evidence-based interventions for ED imaging? Advancing research that addresses these questions will provide valuable information as to how we can use evidence-based interventions to optimize imaging utilization and ultimately improve patient care. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  1. Recurrent severe abdominal pain in the pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Homme, James L; Foster, Ashley A

    2014-05-01

    Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is a blockage occurring at the junction of the ureter and the renal pelvis. Pediatric patients with UPJO pose a diagnostic challenge when they present to the emergency department (ED) with severe recurrent abdominal pain if there is not a level of suspicion for this condition. Our aim was to review presentation of UPJO to the ED, methods of diagnosis, and treatment of this common but often overlooked condition. We report on 2 patients, a 9-year-old and 3-year-old, who had multiple presentations to health care providers and the ED with intermittent and recurrent abdominal pain. Subsequent testing, including ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) with diuretic-recreated symptoms, revealed UPJO. Open pyeloplasty was performed, resulting in complete resolution of symptoms. UPJO is an important diagnosis to consider when patients present to the ED with recurrent abdominal pain. US can be helpful in suspecting the diagnosis, but often CT, magnetic resonance urography, or diuretic scintigraphy is required for confirmation. Diuretics can be used to aid diagnostic testing by reproducing abdominal pain at the time of imaging. Referral to a urologist for open pyeloplasty is definitive treatment for this condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of core stability and general exercise on abdominal muscle thickness in non-specific chronic low back pain using ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, MohammadBagher; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Jamshidi, Aliashraf; Zarabi, Vida; Pourahmadi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-05-01

    There is a controversy regarding whether core stability exercise (CSE) is more effective than general exercise (GE) for chronic LBP. To compare different exercises regarding their effect on improving back strength and stability, performance of abdominal muscles is a useful index. Ultrasound imaging for measuring muscle thickness could be used to assess muscle performance. The aim of this study was to compare CSE and GE in chronic LBP using ultrasound imaging for measurement of thickness of the deep stabilizing and main global trunk muscles in non-specific chronic LBP. Each program included 16 training sessions three times a week. Using ultrasound imaging, four transabdominal muscle thickness were measured before and after the intervention. Disability and pain were measured as secondary outcomes. After the intervention on participants (n = 43), a significant increase in muscle thickness (hypertrophy) was seen only in right and left rectus abdominis in the GE group, but significant difference to the CSE group was only on the right side. Disability and pain reduced within the groups without a significant difference in the change between them. The present results provided evidence that only GE increased right and left rectus muscle thickness. The only significant difference between CSE and GE groups was the right rectus thickness. As rectus is a global muscle, the effect of GE on strength improvement (one side stronger than the other) may have a negative effect on motor control of lumbopelvic muscles and possibly increase the risk of back pain occurring or becoming worse, though this was not observed in the present study.

  3. Incidental Findings in Abdominal Dual-Energy Computed Tomography: Correlation Between True Noncontrast and Virtual Noncontrast Images Considering Renal and Liver Cysts and Adrenal Masses.

    PubMed

    Slebocki, Karin; Kraus, Bastian; Chang, De-Hua; Hellmich, Martin; Maintz, David; Bangard, Christopher

    To assess correlation between attenuation measurements of incidental findings in abdominal second generation dual-energy computed tomography (CT) on true noncontrast (TNC) and virtual noncontrast (VNC) images. Sixty-three patients underwent arterial dual-energy CT (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens; pitch factor, 0.75-1.0; gantry rotation time, 0.28 seconds) after endovascular aneurysm repair, consisting of a TNC single energy CT scan (collimation, 128 × 0.6 mm; 120 kVp) and a dual-energy arterial phase scan (collimation, 32 × 0.6 mm, 140 and 100 kVp; blended, 120 kVp data set). Attenuation measurements in Hounsfield units (HU) of liver parenchyma and incidental findings like renal and hepatic cysts and adrenal masses on TNC and VNC images were done by drawing regions of interest. Statistical analysis was performed by paired t test and Pearson correlation. Incidental findings were detected in 56 (89%) patients. There was excellent correlation for both renal (n = 40) and hepatic cysts (n = 12) as well as adrenal masses (n = 6) with a Pearson correlation of 0.896, 0.800, and 0.945, respectively, and mean attenuation values on TNC and VNC images of 10.6 HU ± 12.8 versus 5.1 HU ± 17.5 (attenuation value range from -8.8 to 59.1 HU vs -11.8 to 73.4 HU), 6.4 HU ± 5.8 versus 6.3 HU ± 4.6 (attenuation value range from 2.0 to 16.2 HU vs -3.0 to 15.9 HU), and 12.8 HU ± 11.2 versus 12.4 HU ± 10.2 (attenuation value range from -2.3 to 27.5 HU vs -2.2 to 23.6 HU), respectively. As proof of principle, liver parenchyma measurements also showed excellent correlation between TNC and VNC (n = 40) images with a Pearson correlation of 0.839 and mean attenuation values on TNC and VNC images of 47.2 HU ± 10.5 versus 43.8 HU ± 8.7 (attenuation value range from 21.9 to 60.2 HU vs 4.5 to 65.3 HU). In conclusion, attenuation measurements of incidental findings like renal cysts or adrenal masses on TNC and VNC images derived from second generation dual-energy CT scans show excellent

  4. Semi-automatic motion compensation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound images from abdominal organs for perfusion analysis.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Sebastian; Nylund, Kim; Sævik, Fredrik; Engjom, Trond; Mézl, Martin; Jiřík, Radovan; Dimcevski, Georg; Gilja, Odd Helge; Tönnies, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a system for correcting motion influences in time-dependent 2D contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) images to assess tissue perfusion characteristics. The system consists of a semi-automatic frame selection method to find images with out-of-plane motion as well as a method for automatic motion compensation. Translational and non-rigid motion compensation is applied by introducing a temporal continuity assumption. A study consisting of 40 clinical datasets was conducted to compare the perfusion with simulated perfusion using pharmacokinetic modeling. Overall, the proposed approach decreased the mean average difference between the measured perfusion and the pharmacokinetic model estimation. It was non-inferior for three out of four patient cohorts to a manual approach and reduced the analysis time by 41% compared to manual processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    PubMed Central

    Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761

  6. Instant wireless transmission of radiological images using a personal digital assistant phone for emergency teleconsultation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Keun; Yoo, Sun K; Kim, Sun H

    2005-01-01

    The instant transmission of radiological images may be important for making rapid clinical decisions about emergency patients. We have examined an instant image transfer system based on a personal digital assistant (PDA) phone with a built-in camera. Images displayed on a picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) monitor can be captured by the camera in the PDA phone directly. Images can then be transmitted from an emergency centre to a remote physician via a wireless high-bandwidth network (CDMA 1 x EVDO). We reviewed the radiological lesions in 10 normal and 10 abnormal cases produced by modalities such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) and digital angiography. The images were of 24-bit depth and 1,144 x 880, 1,120 x 840, 1,024 x 768, 800 x 600, 640 x 480 and 320 x 240 pixels. Three neurosurgeons found that for satisfactory remote consultation a minimum size of 640 x 480 pixels was required for CT and MR images and 1,024 x 768 pixels for angiography images. Although higher resolution produced higher clinical satisfaction, it also required more transmission time. At the limited bandwidth employed, higher resolutions could not be justified.

  7. Emerging Themes in Image Informatics and Molecular Analysis for Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Rohit; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-07-11

    Pathology is essential for research in disease and development, as well as for clinical decision making. For more than 100 years, pathology practice has involved analyzing images of stained, thin tissue sections by a trained human using an optical microscope. Technological advances are now driving major changes in this paradigm toward digital pathology (DP). The digital transformation of pathology goes beyond recording, archiving, and retrieving images, providing new computational tools to inform better decision making for precision medicine. First, we discuss some emerging innovations in both computational image analytics and imaging instrumentation in DP. Second, we discuss molecular contrast in pathology. Molecular DP has traditionally been an extension of pathology with molecularly specific dyes. Label-free, spectroscopic images are rapidly emerging as another important information source, and we describe the benefits and potential of this evolution. Third, we describe multimodal DP, which is enabled by computational algorithms and combines the best characteristics of structural and molecular pathology. Finally, we provide examples of application areas in telepathology, education, and precision medicine. We conclude by discussing challenges and emerging opportunities in this area.

  8. Emerging Themes in Image Informatics and Molecular Analysis for Digital Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Rohit; Madabhushi, Anant

    2017-01-01

    Pathology is essential for research in disease and development, as well as for clinical decision making. For more than 100 years, pathology practice has involved analyzing images of stained, thin tissue sections by a trained human using an optical microscope. Technological advances are now driving major changes in this paradigm toward digital pathology (DP). The digital transformation of pathology goes beyond recording, archiving, and retrieving images, providing new computational tools to inform better decision making for precision medicine. First, we discuss some emerging innovations in both computational image analytics and imaging instrumentation in DP. Second, we discuss molecular contrast in pathology. Molecular DP has traditionally been an extension of pathology with molecularly specific dyes. Label-free, spectroscopic images are rapidly emerging as another important information source, and we describe the benefits and potential of this evolution. Third, we describe multimodal DP, which is enabled by computational algorithms and combines the best characteristics of structural and molecular pathology. Finally, we provide examples of application areas in telepathology, education, and precision medicine. We conclude by discussing challenges and emerging opportunities in this area. PMID:27420575

  9. Clinical Decision Rules for Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Nathan M; Rodriguez, Robert M; Carpenter, Christopher R; Sun, Benjamin C; Theyyunni, Nik; Ohle, Robert; Dodd, Kenneth W; Schoenfeld, Elizabeth M; Elm, Kendra D; Kline, Jeffrey A; Holmes, James F; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2015-12-01

    Major gaps persist in the development, validation, and implementation of clinical decision rules (CDRs) for diagnostic imaging. The objective of this working group and article was to generate a consensus-based research agenda for the development and implementation of CDRs for diagnostic imaging in the emergency department (ED). The authors followed consensus methodology, as outlined by the journal Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM), combining literature review, electronic surveys, telephonic communications, and a modified nominal group technique. Final discussions occurred in person at the 2015 AEM consensus conference. A research agenda was developed, prioritizing the following questions: 1) what are the optimal methods to justify the derivation and validation of diagnostic imaging CDRs, 2) what level of evidence is required before disseminating CDRs for widespread implementation, 3) what defines a successful CDR, 4) how should investigators best compare CDRs to clinical judgment, and 5) what disease states are amenable (and highest priority) to development of CDRs for diagnostic imaging in the ED? The concepts discussed herein demonstrate the need for further research on CDR development and implementation regarding diagnostic imaging in the ED. Addressing this research agenda should have direct applicability to patients, clinicians, and health care systems. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  10. Intra-abdominal abscess demonstrating an unusually large intra-abdominal pattern on an indium-111 leukocyte scan

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.R.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; ter Penning, B.

    1988-12-01

    Indium-111 WBC imaging of a patient with occult septicemia revealed a large focal pattern of radiopharmaceutical distribution within the abdominal cavity at 24 hours post radiopharmaceutical administration. This finding was felt to represent a large intra-abdominal abscess. A five liter peritoneal abscess was found at surgery. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of an intra-abdominal abscess.

  11. [Abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging: a comparative study on the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease diagnosis in morbidly obese patients].

    PubMed

    Chaves, Gabriela Villaça; Pereira, Sílvia Elaine; Saboya, Carlos José; Cortes, Caroline; Ramalho, Rejane

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the concordance between abdominal ultrasound and an MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) in the diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and concordance of these two methods with the histopathological exam. The population studied was comprised of 145 patients with morbid obesity (BMI > or = 40 Kg/m(2)), of both genders. NAFLD diagnosis was performed by MRI and Ultrasound. Liver biopsy was performed in a sub-sample (n=40). To evaluate the concordance of these two methods, the kappa coefficient was used. Concordance between both methods (MRI and Ultrasound) was poor and not significant (Kappa adjusted= 0.27; CI 95%= 0.07-0.39.) Nevertheless a slight concordance was found between diagnosis of NAFLD by ultrasound and the hepatic biopsy, with 83.,3% of concordant results and Kappa adjusted= 0.67.Results of an MRI and the histopathological exam were compared and results showed 53.6% of concordant results and kappa adjusted= 0.07. The concordance found in the diagnosis performed using the ultrasound method and the hepatic biopsy, shows a need to implement and perform more research on the use of ultrasound to validate and reconsider these methods. This would minimize the need to perform biopsies to detect and diagnose such disease.

  12. B1-control receive array coil (B-RAC) for reducing B1+ inhomogeneity in abdominal imaging at 3T-MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Yukio; Soutome, Yoshihisa; Habara, Hideta; Bito, Yoshitaka; Ochi, Hisaaki

    2018-02-01

    B1+ inhomogeneity in the human body increases as the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) frequency increases. Various methods have thus been developed to reduce B1+ inhomogeneity, such as a dielectric pad, a coupling coil, parallel transmit, and radio-frequency (RF) shimming. However, B1+ inhomogeneity still remains in some cases of abdominal imaging. In this study, we developed a B1-control receive array coil (B-RAC). Unlike the conventional receive array coil, B-RAC reduces B1+ inhomogeneity by using additional PIN diodes to generate the inductive loop during the RF transmit period. The inductive loop can generate dense and sparse regions of the magnetic flux, which can be used to compensate for B1+ inhomogeneity. First, B-RAC is modeled in the numerical simulation, and the spatial distributions of B1+ in a phantom and a human model were analyzed. Next, we fabricated a 12-channel B-RAC and measured receive sensitivity and B1+ maps in a 3T-MRI experiment. It was demonstrated that B-RAC can reduce B1+ inhomogeneity in the phantom and human model without increasing the maximum local specific absorption rate (SAR) in the body. B-RAC was also found to have almost the same the receive sensitivity as the conventional receive coil. Using RF shimming combined with B-RAC was revealed to more effectively reduce B1+ inhomogeneity than using only RF shimming. Therefore, B-RAC can reduce B1+ inhomogeneity while maintaining the receive sensitivity.

  13. Developing a Research Agenda to Optimize Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: An Executive Summary of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Marin, Jennifer R; Mills, Angela M

    2015-12-01

    The 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization" was held on May 12, 2015, with the goal of developing a high-priority research agenda on which to base future research. The specific aims of the conference were to (1) understand the current state of evidence regarding emergency department (ED) diagnostic imaging use and identify key opportunities, limitations, and gaps in knowledge; (2) develop a consensus-driven research agenda emphasizing priorities and opportunities for research in ED diagnostic imaging; and (3) explore specific funding mechanisms available to facilitate research in ED diagnostic imaging. Over a 2-year period, the executive committee and other experts in the field convened regularly to identify specific areas in need of future research. Six content areas within emergency diagnostic imaging were identified before the conference and served as the breakout groups on which consensus was achieved: clinical decision rules; use of administrative data; patient-centered outcomes research; training, education, and competency; knowledge translation and barriers to imaging optimization; and comparative effectiveness research in alternatives to traditional computed tomography use. The executive committee invited key stakeholders to assist with the planning and to participate in the consensus conference to generate a multidisciplinary agenda. There were a total of 164 individuals involved in the conference and spanned various specialties, including general emergency medicine, pediatric emergency medicine, radiology, surgery, medical physics, and the decision sciences.

  14. Histological Image Feature Mining Reveals Emergent Diagnostic Properties for Renal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Sonal; Phan, John H.; Young, Andrew N.; Wang, May D.

    2016-01-01

    Computer-aided histological image classification systems are important for making objective and timely cancer diagnostic decisions. These systems use combinations of image features that quantify a variety of image properties. Because researchers tend to validate their diagnostic systems on specific cancer endpoints, it is difficult to predict which image features will perform well given a new cancer endpoint. In this paper, we define a comprehensive set of common image features (consisting of 12 distinct feature subsets) that quantify a variety of image properties. We use a data-mining approach to determine which feature subsets and image properties emerge as part of an “optimal” diagnostic model when applied to specific cancer endpoints. Our goal is to assess the performance of such comprehensive image feature sets for application to a wide variety of diagnostic problems. We perform this study on 12 endpoints including 6 renal tumor subtype endpoints and 6 renal cancer grade endpoints. Keywords-histology, image mining, computer-aided diagnosis PMID:28163980

  15. Optimization of window settings for standard and advanced virtual monoenergetic imaging in abdominal dual-energy CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Damiano; Parinella, Ashley H; Schoepf, U Joseph; Stroebel, Maxwell H; Mangold, Stefanie; Wichmann, Julian L; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Ball, B Devon; De Santis, Domenico; Laghi, Andrea; De Cecco, Carlo N

    2017-03-01

    To determine the optimal window setting for displaying virtual monoenergetic reconstructions of third generation dual-source, dual-energy CT (DECT) angiography of the abdomen. Forty-five patients were evaluated with DECT angiography (90/150 kV, 180/90 ref. mAs). Three datasets were reconstructed: standard linear blending (M_0.6), 70 keV traditional virtual monoenergetic (M70), and 40 keV advanced noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic (M40+). The best window setting (width and level, W/L) was assessed by two blinded observers and was correlated with aortic attenuation to obtain the Optimized W/L setting (O-W/L). Subjective image quality was assessed, and vessel diameters were measured to determine any possible influences between different W/L settings. Repeated measures of variance were used to evaluate comparison of W/L values, image quality, and vessel sizing between M_0.6, M70, and M40+. The Best W/L (B-W/L) for M70 and M40+ was 880/280 and 1410/450, respectively. Results from regression analysis inferred an O-W/L of 850/270 for M70 and 1350/430 for M40+. Significant differences for W and L were found between the Best and the Optimized W/L for M40+, and between M70 and M40+ for both the Best and Optimized W/L. No significant differences for vessel measurements were found using the O-W/L for M40+ compared to the standard M_0.6 (p ≥ 0.16), and significant differences were observed when using the B-W/L with M40+ compared to M_0.6 (p ≤ 0.04). In order to optimize virtual monoenergetic imaging with both traditional M70 and advanced M40+, adjusting the W/L settings is necessary. Our results suggest a W/L setting of 850/270 for M70 and 1350/430 for M40+.

  16. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon).

    PubMed

    Serafimidis, Costas; Katsarolis, Ioannis; Vernadakis, Spyros; Rallis, George; Giannopoulos, George; Legakis, Nikolaos; Peros, George

    2006-02-13

    Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon) is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, especially in adult population. Diagnosis is usually incidental at laparotomy. We discuss one such rare case, outlining the fact that an intra-operative surprise diagnosis could have been facilitated by previous investigations. A 56 year-old man presented in A&E department with small bowel ileus. He had a history of 6 similar episodes of small bowel obstruction in the past 4 years, which resolved with conservative treatment. Pre-operative work-up did not reveal any specific etiology. At laparotomy, a fibrous capsule was revealed, in which small bowel loops were encased, with the presence of interloop adhesions. A diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was established and extensive adhesiolysis was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and follow-up. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, although rare, may be the cause of a common surgical emergency such as small bowel ileus, especially in cases with attacks of non-strangulating obstruction in the same individual. A high index of clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent character of small bowel ileus combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. Clinicians must rigorously pursue a preoperative diagnosis, as it may prevent a "surprise" upon laparotomy and result in proper management.

  17. Are all after-hours diagnostic imaging appropriate? An Australian Emergency Department pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Fergus William; Zhai, Shaun

    2016-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining the extent to which after-hours diagnostic imaging is appropriate within the case hospital's Emergency Department. This was amid growing concerns of the inappropriateness of some medical investigations within the Australian health-care system. After-hours referral data and patient notes were used in reviewing the clinical case. Diagnostic imaging was deemed appropriate if reflective of clinical guidelines, and if not reflective, whether the investigation changed the patient's ongoing management. Results indicated that 96.37% of after-hours diagnostic imaging adhered to clinical guidelines and was appropriately requested, with 95.85% changing the ongoing management of the patient. The most sought after diagnostic imaging procedures were Chest X-Ray (30.83%), and CT Brain (16.58%), with 99.16% and 98.44 appropriateness respectively. Chest pain (14.49%) and motor vehicle accidents (8.12%) were the leading reason for ordering after-hours imaging. This study provided an Emergency Department example as it relates to after-hours diagnostic imaging appropriateness. This study found that most after-hours referrals were appropriate.

  18. Traumatic and non-traumatic adrenal emergencies.

    PubMed

    Chernyak, Victoria; Patlas, Michael N; Menias, Christine O; Soto, Jorge A; Kielar, Ania Z; Rozenblit, Alla M; Romano, Luigia; Katz, Douglas S

    2015-12-01

    Multiple traumatic and non-traumatic adrenal emergencies are occasionally encountered during the cross-sectional imaging of emergency department patients. Traumatic adrenal hematomas are markers of severe polytrauma, and can be easily overlooked due to multiple concomitant injuries. Patients with non-traumatic adrenal emergencies usually present to an emergency department with a non-specific clinical picture. The detection and management of adrenal emergencies is based on cross-sectional imaging. Adrenal hemorrhage, adrenal infection, or rupture of adrenal neoplasm require immediate detection to avoid dire consequences. More often however, adrenal emergencies are detected incidentally in patients being investigated for non-specific acute abdominal pain. A high index of suspicion is required for the establishment of timely diagnosis and to avert potentially life-threatening complications. We describe cross-sectional imaging findings in patients with traumatic and non-traumatic adrenal hemorrhage, adrenal infarctions, adrenal infections, and complications of adrenal masses.

  19. Female Adolescent Presenting With Abdominal Pain: Accidental Wire Bristle Ingestion Leading to Colonic Perforation.

    PubMed

    Di Guglielmo, Matthew; Savage, Jillian; Gould, Sharon; Murphy, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    Abdominal pain in female adolescents is a common presentation to both the emergency department and the outpatient pediatric clinic. The broad differential diagnosis for abdominal pain requires a high index of suspicion to make an accurate diagnosis of foreign body ingestion as the etiology. Foreign body ingestion occurs in all age groups, but sequelae of gastrointestinal tract perforation in children are rare. Treatment for perforation requires consultation of the pediatric general surgeon. Clinicians should take care to not overlook subtle imaging findings or dietary/exposure history, even in the context of a patient with known history of abdominal pain. We report the accidental ingestion of a wire bristle from a grill cleaning brush by a female adolescent. The patient, previously treated and seen for constipation and irritable bowel syndrome in the outpatient gastroenterology clinic, was referred to the emergency department after identification of a foreign body on abdominal radiography. Emergency department physicians discovered the history of grilling and consumption of grilled food, facilitating diagnosis of a wire bristle as the foreign body. The metallic foreign body had migrated to the colon, where it perforated and lodged into the abdominal wall, causing acute, focal symptoms. Observation in the hospital with pain control and infection management allowed for elective laparoscopy. The surgical team removed the object with minimal morbidity and avoided laparotomy. Reports of unintended ingestion of wire bristles have been increasingly reported in the literature; however, most focus on injury to the upper airway or upper digestive tract and subsequent endoscopic or laryngoscopic removal. Most reports detail injury in adult patients, pediatric case reports with digestive tract injury are uncommon, and foreign body removal after lower digestive tract injury in children from a wire bristle has not been reported. We caution pediatric emergency medicine and

  20. Regional and socioeconomic disparities in emergency department use of radiographic imaging for acute pediatric sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Sedaghat, Ahmad R; Cunningham, Michael J; Ishman, Stacey L

    2014-01-01

    Acute pediatric sinusitis (APS) is a common complication of pediatric upper respiratory tract infections. Children with all degrees of APS severity may present to emergency departments (EDs) for evaluation and management. This study was designed to analyze the use of imaging in APS presenting to U.S. EDs. A cross-sectional analysis of the 2008 National Emergency Department Sample database was performed. One hundred one thousand six hundred sixty children, aged ≤18 years, assigned at least one ICD9 code for APS were identified. Current procedural terminology codes for sinus plain film radiographs, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging identified children who underwent sinus imaging. Association of performance of sinus imaging was sought with multiple predictor variables including clinicodemographic and hospital characteristics. The use of any imaging was associated with older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.07; p < 0.001), male gender (OR = 1.57; p < 0.001), and diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis (OR = 2.46; p < 0.001). Imaging was more common in metropolitan teaching (OR = 1.40;0 p < 0.001) and nonteaching (OR = 5.64; p < 0.001) hospitals. Markers of higher socioeconomic status--private health insurance (OR = 1.37; p < 0.001) and higher income level (OR = 1.96; p < 0.001)--were associated with greater use of imaging, especially CT scans. The use of ED imaging in APS is appropriately associated with factors known to be associated with APS complications. However, additional disparities with respect to regional and socioeconomic factors exist. Interventions to eliminate these health care disparities in use of imaging resources may lead to quality improvement in care and outcomes for APS.

  1. Factors associated with imaging overuse in the emergency department: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tung, Monica; Sharma, Ritu; Hinson, Jeremiah S; Nothelle, Stephanie; Pannikottu, Jean; Segal, Jodi B

    2018-02-01

    Emergency departments (ED) are sites of prevalent imaging overuse; however, determinants that drive imaging in this setting are not well-characterized. We systematically reviewed the literature to summarize the determinants of imaging overuse in the ED. We searched MEDLINE® and Embase® from January 1998 to March 2017. Studies were included if they were written in English, contained original data, pertained to a U.S. population, and identified a determinant associated with overuse of imaging in the ED. Twenty relevant studies were included. Fourteen evaluated computerized tomography (CT) scanning in patents presenting to a regional ED who were then transferred to a level 1 trauma center; incomplete transfer of data and poor image quality were the most frequently described reasons for repeat scanning. Unnecessary pre-transfer scanning or repeated scanning after transfer, in multiple studies, was highest among older patients, those with higher Injury Severity Scores (ISS) and those being transferred further. Six studies explored determinants of overused imaging in the ED in varied conditions, with overuse greater in older patients and those having more comorbid diseases. Defensive imaging reportedly influenced physician behavior. Less integration of services across the health system also predisposed to overuse of imaging. The literature is heterogeneous with surprisingly few studies of determinants of imaging in minor head injury or of spine imaging. Older patient age and higher ISS were the most consistently associated with ED imaging overuse. This review highlights the need for precise definitions of overuse of imaging in the ED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Shape-intensity prior level set combining probabilistic atlas and probability map constrains for automatic liver segmentation from abdominal CT images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinke; Cheng, Yuanzhi; Guo, Changyong; Wang, Yadong; Tamura, Shinichi

    2016-05-01

    Propose a fully automatic 3D segmentation framework to segment liver on challenging cases that contain the low contrast of adjacent organs and the presence of pathologies from abdominal CT images. First, all of the atlases are weighted in the selected training datasets by calculating the similarities between the atlases and the test image to dynamically generate a subject-specific probabilistic atlas for the test image. The most likely liver region of the test image is further determined based on the generated atlas. A rough segmentation is obtained by a maximum a posteriori classification of probability map, and the final liver segmentation is produced by a shape-intensity prior level set in the most likely liver region. Our method is evaluated and demonstrated on 25 test CT datasets from our partner site, and its results are compared with two state-of-the-art liver segmentation methods. Moreover, our performance results on 10 MICCAI test datasets are submitted to the organizers for comparison with the other automatic algorithms. Using the 25 test CT datasets, average symmetric surface distance is [Formula: see text] mm (range 0.62-2.12 mm), root mean square symmetric surface distance error is [Formula: see text] mm (range 0.97-3.01 mm), and maximum symmetric surface distance error is [Formula: see text] mm (range 12.73-26.67 mm) by our method. Our method on 10 MICCAI test data sets ranks 10th in all the 47 automatic algorithms on the site as of July 2015. Quantitative results, as well as qualitative comparisons of segmentations, indicate that our method is a promising tool to improve the efficiency of both techniques. The applicability of the proposed method to some challenging clinical problems and the segmentation of the liver are demonstrated with good results on both quantitative and qualitative experimentations. This study suggests that the proposed framework can be good enough to replace the time-consuming and tedious slice-by-slice manual

  3. The emerging science of quantitative imaging biomarkers terminology and definitions for scientific studies and regulatory submissions.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Larry G; Barnhart, Huiman X; Buckler, Andrew J; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; Kondratovich, Marina V; Toledano, Alicia; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Filice, Ross; Zhang, Zheng; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2015-02-01

    The development and implementation of quantitative imaging biomarkers has been hampered by the inconsistent and often incorrect use of terminology related to these markers. Sponsored by the Radiological Society of North America, an interdisciplinary group of radiologists, statisticians, physicists, and other researchers worked to develop a comprehensive terminology to serve as a foundation for quantitative imaging biomarker claims. Where possible, this working group adapted existing definitions derived from national or international standards bodies rather than invent new definitions for these terms. This terminology also serves as a foundation for the design of studies that evaluate the technical performance of quantitative imaging biomarkers and for studies of algorithms that generate the quantitative imaging biomarkers from clinical scans. This paper provides examples of research studies and quantitative imaging biomarker claims that use terminology consistent with these definitions as well as examples of the rampant confusion in this emerging field. We provide recommendations for appropriate use of quantitative imaging biomarker terminological concepts. It is hoped that this document will assist researchers and regulatory reviewers who examine quantitative imaging biomarkers and will also inform regulatory guidance. More consistent and correct use of terminology could advance regulatory science, improve clinical research, and provide better care for patients who undergo imaging studies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... plaque buildup causes the walls of the abdominal aorta to become weak and bulge outward like a ... treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, is a ...

  5. Image and Imaging an Emergency Department: Expense and Benefit of Different Quality Assessment Methods

    PubMed Central

    Pfortmueller, Carmen Andrea; Keller, Michael; Mueller, Urs; Zimmermann, Heinz; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In this era of high-tech medicine, it is becoming increasingly important to assess patient satisfaction. There are several methods to do so, but these differ greatly in terms of cost, time, and labour and external validity. The aim of this study is to describe and compare the structure and implementation of different methods to assess the satisfaction of patients in an emergency department. Methods. The structure and implementation of the different methods to assess patient satisfaction were evaluated on the basis of a 90-minute standardised interview. Results. We identified a total of six different methods in six different hospitals. The average number of patients assessed was 5012, with a range from 230 (M5) to 20 000 patients (M2). In four methods (M1, M3, M5, and M6), the questionnaire was composed by a specialised external institute. In two methods, the questionnaire was created by the hospital itself (M2, M4).The median response rate was 58.4% (range 9–97.8%). With a reminder, the response rate increased by 60% (M3). Conclusion. The ideal method to assess patient satisfaction in the emergency department setting is to use a patient-based, in-emergency department-based assessment of patient satisfaction, planned and guided by expert personnel. PMID:23984073

  6. AN OVERVIEW OF ELASTOGRAPHY – AN EMERGING BRANCH OF MEDICAL IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Sarvazyan, Armen; Hall, Timothy J.; Urban, Matthew W.; Fatemi, Mostafa; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Garra, Brian S.

    2011-01-01

    From times immemorial manual palpation served as a source of information on the state of soft tissues and allowed detection of various diseases accompanied by changes in tissue elasticity. During the last two decades, the ancient art of palpation gained new life due to numerous emerging elasticity imaging (EI) methods. Areas of applications of EI in medical diagnostics and treatment monitoring are steadily expanding. Elasticity imaging methods are emerging as commercial applications, a true testament to the progress and importance of the field. In this paper we present a brief history and theoretical basis of EI, describe various techniques of EI and, analyze their advantages and limitations, and overview main clinical applications. We present a classification of elasticity measurement and imaging techniques based on the methods used for generating a stress in the tissue (external mechanical force, internal ultrasound radiation force, or an internal endogenous force), and measurement of the tissue response. The measurement method can be performed using differing physical principles including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound imaging, X-ray imaging, optical and acoustic signals. Until recently, EI was largely a research method used by a few select institutions having the special equipment needed to perform the studies. Since 2005 however, increasing numbers of mainstream manufacturers have added EI to their ultrasound systems so that today the majority of manufacturers offer some sort of Elastography or tissue stiffness imaging on their clinical systems. Now it is safe to say that some sort of elasticity imaging may be performed on virtually all types of focal and diffuse disease. Most of the new applications are still in the early stages of research, but a few are becoming common applications in clinical practice. PMID:22308105

  7. Developing a Research Agenda to Optimize Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: An Executive Summary of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Marin, Jennifer R; Mills, Angela M

    2015-12-01

    The 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference, "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization," was held on May 12, 2015, with the goal of developing a high-priority research agenda on which to base future research. The specific aims of the conference were to: 1) understand the current state of evidence regarding emergency department (ED) diagnostic imaging utilization and identify key opportunities, limitations, and gaps in knowledge; 2) develop a consensus-driven research agenda emphasizing priorities and opportunities for research in ED diagnostic imaging; and 3) explore specific funding mechanisms available to facilitate research in ED diagnostic imaging. Over a 2-year period, the executive committee and other experts in the field convened regularly to identify specific areas in need of future research. Six content areas within emergency diagnostic imaging were identified prior to the conference and served as the breakout groups on which consensus was achieved: clinical decision rules; use of administrative data; patient-centered outcomes research; training, education, and competency; knowledge translation and barriers to imaging optimization; and comparative effectiveness research in alternatives to traditional computed tomography use. The executive committee invited key stakeholders to assist with planning and to participate in the consensus conference to generate a multidisciplinary agenda. There were 164 individuals involved in the conference spanning various specialties, including emergency medicine (EM), radiology, surgery, medical physics, and the decision sciences. This issue of AEM is dedicated to the proceedings of the 16th annual AEM consensus conference as well as original research related to emergency diagnostic imaging. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  8. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  9. Parental knowledge of radiation exposure in medical imaging used in the pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Hans-David R; Clingenpeel, Joel; Perkins, Amy M; Rose, Whitney; Abdullah-Anyiwo, Joel

    2013-06-01

    We sought to quantify the knowledge base among parents and legal guardians presenting to our pediatric emergency department regarding radiation exposure during medical imaging and potential risks to children resulting from ionizing radiation. We sought to examine if a child's previous exposure to medical imaging changed caregiver knowledge base and discern caregivers' preference for future education on this topic. A prospective convenience sample survey was performed of caregivers who presented with their child to our tertiary pediatric emergency department. Parents or legal guardians (18-89 years) who accompanied a child (0-17 years) were eligible for inclusion and approached for enrollment. A structured questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers, and a chart review was conducted to ascertain if their child had a history of previous imaging. Sixty percent of caregivers interviewed (n = 205 of 340) did not associate any long-term negative effects with medical imaging. Among participants who did express a perceived risk from medical imaging radiation exposure, only 50% could indicate a known negative effect from exposure. We found no significant association between a child having had documented imaging studies and awareness of long-term negative effects (P = 0.22). Participants preferred to learn more about this topic from an Internet-based resource (50%), informational pamphlet (38%), or via treating physician (33%). Parents and legal guardians are largely unaware that exposure to radiation during medical imaging carries an inherent risk for their child. Health care providers wishing to educate caregivers should utilize reliable Internet sources, educational pamphlets, and direct communication.

  10. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging-Derived Collagen Content and Maturity Correlates with Stress in the Aortic Wall of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Patients.

    PubMed

    Cheheltani, Rabee; Pichamuthu, Joseph E; Rao, Jayashree; Weinbaum, Justin S; Kiani, Mohammad F; Vorp, David A; Pleshko, Nancy

    2017-03-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a degenerative disease of the aorta characterized by severe disruption of the structural integrity of the aortic wall and its major molecular constituents. From the early stages of disease, elastin in the aorta becomes highly degraded and is replaced by collagen. Questions persist as to the contribution of collagen content, quality and maturity to the potential for rupture. Here, using our recently developed Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) method, we quantified collagen content and maturity in the wall of AAA tissues in pairs of specimens with different wall stresses. CT scans of AAAs from 12 patients were used to create finite element models to estimate stress in different regions of tissue. Each patient underwent elective repair of the AAA, and two segments of the AAA tissues from anatomic regions more proximal or distal with different wall stresses were evaluated by histology and FT-IRIS after excision. For each patient, collagen content was generally greater in the tissue location with lower wall stress, which corresponded to the more distal anatomic regions. The wall stress/collagen ratio was greater in the higher stress region compared to the lower stress region (1.01 ± 1.09 vs. 0.55 ± 0.084, p = 0.02). The higher stress region also corresponded to the location with reduced intraluminal thrombus thickness. Further, collagen maturity tended to decrease with increased collagen content (p = 0.068, R = 0.38). Together, these results suggest that an increase in less mature collagen content in AAA patients does not effectively compensate for the loss of elastin in the aortic wall, and results in a reduced capability to endure wall stresses.

  11. Gastroretentive Ranitidine Hydrochloride Tablets with Combined Floating and Bioadhesive Properties: Factorial Design Analysis, In Vitro Evaluation and In Vivo Abdominal X-Ray Imaging.

    PubMed

    Abduljabbar, Hana N; Badr-Eldin, Shaimaa M; Aldawsari, Hibah M

    2015-01-01

    Ranitidine HCl is an H2-antagonist that suffers from low oral bioavailability of 50%. The site-specific absorption from the upper part of the small intestine and the colonic metabolism of the drug could partially contribute to its reduced bioavailability. To surmount these drawbacks, this work aimed at the formulation of Ranitidine HCl gastroretentive floating-biaodhesive tablets. A 3(2) factorial design was applied to assess the effects of matrix former (HPMC K100M): drug ratio, and the release retardant (Carbopol 971) amount on the characteristics of the tablets prepared using direct compression technique. The prepared tablets were thoroughly evaluated for physical properties, floating, swelling, bioadhesive and in vitro release behaviors. Statistical analysis of the results revealed significant effects for both formulation variables on the swelling index, maximum detachment force and cumulative percent drug released after 6 hours. In addition, the matrix- former: drug ratio showed a statistically significant effect on the floating lag time. Kinetic analysis of the release data indicated Higuchi diffusion kinetics and anomalous transport mechanism for all formulations. Scanning electron micrographs of the selected tablet formulation; F8, revealed intact surface without any perforations or channels in the dry state, while polymer expansion (relaxation) with some perforated areas were observed on the surface of the tablets after 12 hours dissolution in 0.1 N HCl. Furthermore, in vivo abdominal x-ray imaging showed good floating behavior of the selected formulation; F8, for up to 6 hours with appropriate bioadhesive property. In conclusion, the selected ranitidine HCl floating-bioadhesive tablets could be regarded as a promising gastroretentive drug delivery system that could deliver the drug at a controlled rate.

  12. Does this adult patient have a blunt intra-abdominal injury?

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Daniel K; Simel, David L; Wisner, David H; Holmes, James F

    2012-04-11

    Blunt abdominal trauma often presents a substantial diagnostic challenge. Well-informed clinical examination can identify patients who require further diagnostic evaluation for intra-abdominal injuries after blunt abdominal trauma. To systematically assess the precision and accuracy of symptoms, signs, laboratory tests, and bedside imaging studies to identify intra-abdominal injuries in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. We conducted a structured search of MEDLINE (1950-January 2012) and EMBASE (1980-January 2012) to identify English-language studies examining the identification of intra-abdominal injuries. A separate, structured search was conducted for studies evaluating bedside ultrasonography. We included studies of diagnostic accuracy for intra-abdominal injury that compared at least 1 finding with a reference standard of abdominal computed tomography, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, laparotomy, autopsy, and/or clinical course for intra-abdominal injury. Twelve studies on clinical findings and 22 studies on bedside ultrasonography met inclusion criteria for data extraction. Critical appraisal and data extraction were independently performed by 2 authors. The prevalence of intra-abdominal injury in adult emergency department patients with blunt abdominal trauma among all evidence level 1 and 2 studies was 13% (95% CI, 10%-17%), with 4.7% (95% CI, 2.5%-8.6%) requiring therapeutic surgery or angiographic embolization of injuries. The presence of a seat belt sign (likelihood ratio [LR] range, 5.6-9.9), rebound tenderness (LR, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.8-24), hypotension (LR, 5.2; 95% CI, 3.5-7.5), abdominal distention (LR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.9-7.6), or guarding (LR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.3-5.9) suggest an intra-abdominal injury. The absence of abdominal tenderness to palpation does not rule out an intra-abdominal injury (summary LR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.46-0.80). The presence of intraperitoneal fluid or organ injury on bedside ultrasound assessment is more accurate than any history and

  13. Acute abdomen in children due to extra-abdominal causes.

    PubMed

    Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Gardikis, Stefanos; Cassimos, Dimitrios; Kambouri, Katerina; Tsalkidou, Evanthia; Deftereos, Savas; Chatzimichael, Athanasios

    2008-06-01

    Acute abdominal pain in children is a common cause for referral to the emergency room and for subsequent hospitalization to pediatric medical or surgical departments. There are rare occasions when the abdominal pain is derived from extra-abdominal organs or systems. The aim of the present study was to establish the most common extra-abdominal causes of acute abdominal pain. The notes of all children (1 month-14 years of age) examined for acute abdominal pain in the Accident and Emergency (A&E) Department of Alexandroupolis District University Hospital in January 2001-December 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. Demographic data, clinical signs and symptoms, and laboratory findings were recorded, as well as the final diagnosis and outcome. Of a total number of 28 124 children who were brought to the A&E department, in 1731 the main complaint was acute abdominal pain. In 51 children their symptoms had an extra-abdominal cause, the most frequent being pneumonia (n = 15), tonsillitis (n = 10), otitis media (n = 9), and acute leukemia (n = 5). Both abdominal and extra-abdominal causes should be considered by a pediatrician who is confronted with a child with acute abdominal pain.

  14. A new system for digital image acquisition, storage and presentation in an accident and emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, G; Roebuck, S; Steedman, D

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To develop a computer based storage system for clinical images—radiographs, photographs, ECGs, text—for use in teaching, training, reference and research within an accident and emergency (A&E) department. Exploration of methods to access and utilise the data stored in the archive. Methods—Implementation of a digital image archive using flatbed scanner and digital camera as capture devices. A sophisticated coding system based on ICD 10. Storage via an "intelligent" custom interface. Results—A practical solution to the problems of clinical image storage for teaching purposes. Conclusions—We have successfully developed a digital image capture and storage system, which provides an excellent teaching facility for a busy A&E department. We have revolutionised the practice of the "hand-over meeting". PMID:11435357

  15. Near-infrared fluorescent probes in cancer imaging and therapy: an emerging field

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xiaomin; Wang, Fuli; Qin, Weijun; Yang, Xiaojian; Yuan, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging is an attractive modality for early cancer detection with high sensitivity and multi-detection capability. Due to convenient modification by conjugating with moieties of interests, NIRF probes are ideal candidates for cancer targeted imaging. Additionally, the combinatory application of NIRF imaging and other imaging modalities that can delineate anatomical structures extends fluorometric determination of biomedical information. Moreover, nanoparticles loaded with NIRF dyes and anticancer agents contribute to the synergistic management of cancer, which integrates the advantage of imaging and therapeutic functions to achieve the ultimate goal of simultaneous diagnosis and treatment. Appropriate probe design with targeting moieties can retain the original properties of NIRF and pharmacokinetics. In recent years, great efforts have been made to develop new NIRF probes with better photostability and strong fluorescence emission, leading to the discovery of numerous novel NIRF probes with fine photophysical properties. Some of these probes exhibit tumoricidal activities upon light radiation, which holds great promise in photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, and photoimmunotherapy. This review aims to provide a timely and concise update on emerging NIRF dyes and multifunctional agents. Their potential uses as agents for cancer specific imaging, lymph node mapping, and therapeutics are included. Recent advances of NIRF dyes in clinical use are also summarized. PMID:24648733

  16. Near-infrared fluorescent probes in cancer imaging and therapy: an emerging field.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiaomin; Wang, Fuli; Qin, Weijun; Yang, Xiaojian; Yuan, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging is an attractive modality for early cancer detection with high sensitivity and multi-detection capability. Due to convenient modification by conjugating with moieties of interests, NIRF probes are ideal candidates for cancer targeted imaging. Additionally, the combinatory application of NIRF imaging and other imaging modalities that can delineate anatomical structures extends fluorometric determination of biomedical information. Moreover, nanoparticles loaded with NIRF dyes and anticancer agents contribute to the synergistic management of cancer, which integrates the advantage of imaging and therapeutic functions to achieve the ultimate goal of simultaneous diagnosis and treatment. Appropriate probe design with targeting moieties can retain the original properties of NIRF and pharmacokinetics. In recent years, great efforts have been made to develop new NIRF probes with better photostability and strong fluorescence emission, leading to the discovery of numerous novel NIRF probes with fine photophysical properties. Some of these probes exhibit tumoricidal activities upon light radiation, which holds great promise in photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, and photoimmunotherapy. This review aims to provide a timely and concise update on emerging NIRF dyes and multifunctional agents. Their potential uses as agents for cancer specific imaging, lymph node mapping, and therapeutics are included. Recent advances of NIRF dyes in clinical use are also summarized.

  17. Current oncologic concepts and emerging techniques for imaging of head and neck squamous cell cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sadick, Maliha; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Hoermann, Karl; Sadick, Haneen

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is increasing and currently they account for 5% of all malignancies worldwide. Inspite of ongoing developments in diagnostic imaging and new therapeutic options, HNSCC still represents a multidisciplinary challenge. One of the most important prognostic factors in HNSCC is the presence of lymph node metastases. Patients with confirmed nodal involvement have a considerable reduction of their 5-year overall survival rate. In the era of individually optimised surgery, chemotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy, the main role of pre- and posttherapeutic imaging remains cancer detection at an early stage and accurate follow-up. The combined effort of early diagnosis and close patient monitoring after surgery and/or radio-chemotherapy influences disease progression and outcome predicition in patients with HNSCC. This review article focuses on currrent oncologic concepts and emerging tools in imaging of head and neck squamous cell cancer. Besides the diagnostic spectrum of the individual imaging modalities, their limitations are also discussed. One main part of this article is dedicated to PET-CT which combines functional and morphological imaging. Furthermore latest developments in MRI are presented with regard to lymph node staging and response prediction. Last but not least, a clinical contribution in this review explains, which information the head and neck surgeon requires from the multimodality imaging and its impact on operation planning. PMID:23320060

  18. The relationship of body mass index and abdominal fat on the radiation dose received during routine computed tomographic imaging of the abdomen and pelvis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Victoria O; McDermott, Shaunagh; Buckley, Orla; Allen, Sonya; Casey, Michael; O'Laoide, Risteard; Torreggiani, William C

    2012-11-01

    To determine the relationship of increasing body mass index (BMI) and abdominal fat on the effective dose acquired from computed tomography (CT) abdomen and pelvis scans. Over 6 months, dose-length product and total milliamp-seconds (mAs) from routine CT abdomen and pelvis scans of 100 patients were recorded. The scans were performed on a 64-slice CT scanner by using an automatic exposure control system. Effective dose (mSv) based on dose-length product, BMI, periumbilical fat thickness, and intra-abdominal fat were documented for each patient. BMI, periumbilical fat thickness, and intra-abdominal fat were compared with effective dose. Thirty-nine men and 61 women were included in the study (mean age, 56.3 years). The mean BMI was 26.2 kg/m(2). The mean effective dose was 10.3 mSv. The mean periumbilical fat thickness was 2.4 cm. Sixty-five patients had a small amount of intra-abdominal fat, and 35 had a large amount of intra-abdominal fat. The effective dose increased with increasing BMI (P < .001) and increasing amounts of intra-abdominal fat (P < .001). For every kilogram of weight, there is a 0.13 mSv increase in effective dose, which is equal to 6.5 chest radiographs per CT examination. For an increase in BMI by 5 kg/m(2), there is a 1.95 mSv increase in effective dose, which is equal to 97.5 chest radiographs per CT examination. Increasing BMI and abdominal fat significantly increases the effective dose received from CT abdomen and pelvis scans. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Automated detection of extradural and subdural hematoma for contrast-enhanced CT images in emergency medical care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Takeshi; Matoba, Naoto; Zhou, Xiangrong; Yokoi, Shinya; Aizawa, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroshi; Sakashita, Keiji; Matsuoka, Tetsuya

    2007-03-01

    We have been developing the CAD scheme for head and abdominal injuries for emergency medical care. In this work, we have developed an automated method to detect typical head injuries, rupture or strokes of brain. Extradural and subdural hematoma region were detected by comparing technique after the brain areas were registered using warping. We employ 5 normal and 15 stroke cases to estimate the performance after creating the brain model with 50 normal cases. Some of the hematoma regions were detected correctly in all of the stroke cases with no false positive findings on normal cases.

  20. Use of diagnostic imaging in the emergency department for cervical spine injuries in Kingston, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Pickett, William; Kukaswadia, Atif; Thompson, Wendy; Frechette, Mylene; McFaull, Steven; Dowdall, Hilary; Brison, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the use and clinical yield of diagnostic imaging (radiography, computed tomography, and medical resonance imaging) ordered to assist in the diagnosis of acute neck injuries presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in Kingston, Ontario, from 2002-2003 to 2009-2010. Acute neck injury cases were identified using records from the Kingston sites of the Canadian National Ambulatory Care Reporting System. Use of radiography was analyzed over time and related to proportions of cases diagnosed with clinically significant cervical spine injuries. A total of 4,712 neck injury cases were identified. Proportions of cases referred for diagnostic imaging to the neck varied significantly over time, from 30.4% in 2002-2003 to 37.6% in 2009-2010 (ptrend  =  0.02). The percentage of total cases that were positive for clinically significant cervical spine injury ("clinical yield") also varied from a low of 5.8% in 2005-2006 to 9.2% in 2008-2009 (ptrend  =  0.04), although the clinical yield of neck-imaged cases did not increase across the study years (ptrend  =  0.23). Increased clinical yield was not observed in association with higher neck imaging rates whether that yield was expressed as a percentage of total cases positive for clinically significant injury (p  =  0.29) or as a percentage of neck-imaged cases that were positive (p  =  0.77). We observed increases in the use of diagnostic images over time, reflecting a need to reinforce an existing clinical decision rule for cervical spine radiography. Temporal increases in the clinical yield for total cases may suggest a changing case mix or more judicious use of advanced types of diagnostic imaging.

  1. Thoracic-abdominal imaging with a novel dual-layer spectral detector CT: intra-individual comparison of image quality and radiation dose with 128-row single-energy acquisition.

    PubMed

    Haneder, Stefan; Siedek, Florian; Doerner, Jonas; Pahn, Gregor; Grosse Hokamp, Nils; Maintz, David; Wybranski, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Background A novel, multi-energy, dual-layer spectral detector computed tomography (SDCT) is commercially available now with the vendor's claim that it yields the same or better quality of polychromatic, conventional CT images like modern single-energy CT scanners without any radiation dose penalty. Purpose To intra-individually compare the quality of conventional polychromatic CT images acquired with a dual-layer spectral detector (SDCT) and the latest generation 128-row single-energy-detector (CT128) from the same manufacturer. Material and Methods Fifty patients underwent portal-venous phase, thoracic-abdominal CT scans with the SDCT and prior CT128 imaging. The SDCT scanning protocol was adapted to yield a similar estimated dose length product (DLP) as the CT128. Patient dose optimization by automatic tube current modulation and CT image reconstruction with a state-of-the-art iterative algorithm were identical on both scanners. CT image contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was compared between the SDCT and CT128 in different anatomic structures. Image quality and noise were assessed independently by two readers with 5-point-Likert-scales. Volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ), and DLP were recorded and normalized to 68 cm acquisition length (DLP 68 ). Results The SDCT yielded higher mean CNR values of 30.0% ± 2.0% (26.4-32.5%) in all anatomic structures ( P < 0.001) and excellent scores for qualitative parameters surpassing the CT128 (all P < 0.0001) with substantial inter-rater agreement (κ ≥ 0.801). Despite adapted scan protocols the SDCT yielded lower values for CTDI vol (-10.1 ± 12.8%), DLP (-13.1 ± 13.9%), and DLP 68 (-15.3 ± 16.9%) than the CT128 (all P < 0.0001). Conclusion The SDCT scanner yielded better CT image quality compared to the CT128 and lower radiation dose parameters.

  2. Traumatic abdominal hernia complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Aleix; Garrigós-Ortega, Gonzalo; Gómez-Abril, Segundo Ángel; Martí-Martínez, Eva; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a critical illness involving skin and soft tissues, which may develop after blunt abdominal trauma causing abdominal wall hernia and representing a great challenge for physicians. A 52-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a road accident, presenting blunt abdominal trauma with a large non-reducible mass in the lower-right abdomen. A first, CT showed abdominal hernia without signs of complication. Three hours after ICU admission, he developed hemodynamic instability. Therefore, a new CT scan was requested, showing signs of hernia complication. He was moved to the operating room where a complete transversal section of an ileal loop was identified. Five hours after surgery, he presented a new episode of hemodynamic instability with signs of skin and soft tissue infection. Due to the high clinical suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis development, wide debridement was performed. Following traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH), patients can present unsuspected injuries in abdominal organs. Helical CT can be falsely negative in the early moments, leading to misdiagnosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection and, consequently, resuscitation measures, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and early surgical debridement are required. This type of fasciitis can develop after blunt abdominal trauma following wall hernia without skin disruption.

  3. Emerging roles for integrated imaging modalities in cardiovascular cell-based therapeutics: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Psaltis, Peter J.; Simari, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite preclinical promise, the progress of cell-based therapy to clinical cardiovascular practice has been slowed by several challenges and uncertainties that have been highlighted by the conflicting results of human trials. Most telling has been the revelation that current strategies fall short of achieving sufficient retention and engraftment of cells to meet the ambitious objective of myocardial regeneration. This has sparked novel research into the refinement of cell biology and delivery to overcome these shortcomings. Within this context, molecular imaging has emerged as a valuable tool for providing noninvasive surveillance of cell fate in vivo. Direct and indirect labelling of cells can be coupled with clinically relevant imaging modalities, such as radionuclide single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, to assess their short- and long-term distributions, along with their viability, proliferation and functional interaction with the host myocardium. This review details the strengths and limitations of the different cell labelling and imaging techniques and their potential application to the clinical realm. We also consider the broader, multifaceted utility of imaging throughout the cell therapy process, providing a discussion of its considerable value during cell delivery and its importance during the evaluation of cardiac outcomes in clinical studies. PMID:21901381

  4. Abdominal pain in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Melissa M; Bates, David Gregory; Andrews, Tina; Adkins, Laura; Thornton, Jennifer; Denham, Jolanda M

    2014-02-01

    The differential diagnosis of abdominal pain is broad in any child, and further complicated in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Acute causes of abdominal pain may require emergent surgery, such as for appendicitis or obstruction caused by a bezoar. Rapid intervention is necessary and life-saving in children with SCD and acute splenic or hepatic sequestration. The majority of children with SCD presenting to the physician's office or emergency department will have subacute reasons for their abdominal pain, including but not limited to constipation, urinary tract infection, peptic ulcer disease, and cholecystitis. Vaso-occlusive pain often presents in children as abdominal pain, but is a diagnosis of exclusion. The case of a 10-year-old girl with intermittent abdominal pain is used as a starting point to review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the most acute and common causes of abdominal pain in children with SCD.

  5. Abdominal Sarcoidosis Mimicking Peritoneal Carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Roh, Won Seok; Lee, Seungho; Park, Ji Hyun; Kang, Jeonghyun

    2018-04-01

    We present a patient diagnosed with skin sarcoidosis, breast cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and peritoneal sarcoidosis with a past history of colorectal cancer. During stage work up for breast cancer, suspicious lesions on peritoneum were observed in imaging studies. Considering our patient's history and imaging findings, we initially suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis. However, the peritoneal lesion was diagnosed as sarcoidosis in laparoscopic biopsy. This case demonstrates that abdominal sarcoidosis might be considered as a differential diagnosis when there is a lesion suspected of being peritoneal carcinomatosis with nontypical clinical presentations.

  6. The effect of a chest imaging lecture on emergency department doctors' ability to interpret chest CT images: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Keijzers, Gerben; Sithirasenan, Vasugi

    2012-02-01

    To assess the chest computed tomography (CT) imaging interpreting skills of emergency department (ED) doctors and to study the effect of a CT chest imaging interpretation lecture on these skills. Sixty doctors in two EDs were randomized, using computerized randomization, to either attend a chest CT interpretation lecture or not to attend this lecture. Within 2 weeks of the lecture, the participants completed a questionnaire on demographic variables, anatomical knowledge, and diagnostic interpretation of 10 chest CT studies. Outcome measures included anatomical knowledge score, diagnosis score, and the combined overall score, all expressed as a percentage of correctly answered questions (0-100). Data on 58 doctors were analyzed, of which 27 were randomized to attend the lecture. The CT interpretation lecture did not have an effect on anatomy knowledge scores (72.9 vs. 70.2%), diagnosis scores (71.2 vs. 69.2%), or overall scores (71.4 vs. 69.5%). Twenty-nine percent of doctors stated that they had a systematic approach to chest CT interpretation. Overall self-perceived competency for interpreting CT imaging (brain, chest, abdomen) was low (between 3.2 and 5.2 on a 10-point Visual Analogue Scale). A single chest CT interpretation lecture did not improve chest CT interpretation by ED doctors. Less than one-third of doctors had a systematic approach to chest CT interpretation. A standardized systematic approach may improve interpretation skills.

  7. Effect of Electroacupuncture on Visceral and Hepatic Fat in Women with Abdominal Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Study Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hong; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Shuyun; Chen, Zhenyan

    2017-04-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and hepatic fat deposition are the most important risk factors for women's health. Acupuncture, including electroacupuncture (EA), is used to treat obesity throughout the world. The effect of EA is evaluated mainly by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Few studies have assessed its effect in reducing VAT volume and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) based on an exact measurement method such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study aimed to resolve this issue. Thirty subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The control group (n = 15) did not receive any intervention and maintained a normal diet and their usual exercise habits. The treatment group (n = 15) received EA three times a week for 3 months. BMI and WC were measured using different devices. VAT and HFF were measured by MRI and calculated by related software before and after the intervention. A marked difference was evident in group that received EA treatment in the following tests. The differences in BMI (U = 21.00, p < 0.001), WC (U = 40.50, p = 0.002), VAT volume (U = 13.00, p < 0.001), and mean HFF (U = 0.00, p < 0.001) before and after the intervention in the treatment group were distinct and significant compared with those of the control group. Three months later, the treatment group showed a lower BMI (W = 91.00, p = 0.001), WC (t = 4.755, p < 0.001), VAT volume (t = 5.164, p < 0.001), and mean HFF (W = 120.00, p = 0.001) compared with pretreatment levels. Compared with the control group, the treatment group showed a lower VAT volume (t = 60.00, p = 0.029) after 3 months of treatment. After 3 months, the control group showed higher mean HFF (t = -2.900, p = 0.012) and VAT volume (W = 11.50, p = 0.006) compared with their initial levels. Based on MRI evaluation, this randomized controlled study proved that EA treatment reduces BMI and WC as well as VAT

  8. SU-F-BRB-01: How Effective Is Abdominal Compression at Reducing Lung Motion? An Analysis Using Deformable Image Registration Within Different Sub-Regions of the Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Paradiso, D; Pearce, A; Leszczynski, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of employing abdominal compression (AC) in reducing motion for the target region and sub-regions of the lung as part of the planning process for radiation therapy. Methods: Fourteen patients with early lung cancer were scanned with 4DCT and it was determined that target motion exceeded our institutional limit of > 8 mm motion and received a repeat 4DCT with AC. For each 4DCT, deformable image registration (DIR) was used to map the max inhale to the max exhale phase to determine the deformation vector fields (DVF). DIR was performed with Morphons and Demons algorithms. Themore » mean DVF was used to represent that sub-region for each patient. The magnitudes of the mean DVF were quantified for the target and 12 sub-regions in the AP, LR SI directions. The sub-regions were contoured on each lung as (add prefix R or L for lung): Upper-Anterior (UA), Upper-Posterior (UP), Mid-Anterior (MA), Mid-Posterior (MP), Lower-Anterior (LA) and Lower-Posterior (LP). Results: The min/max SI motion for the target on the uncompressed 4DCT was 8mm/24.5 mm. The magnitude of decrease in SI was greatest in the RLP region (3.7±4.0mm) followed by target region (3.3±2.2mm) and finally the LLP region (3.0±3.5mm). The magnitude of decrease in 3D vector followed the same trend; RLP (3.5±2.2mm) then GTV (3.5±2.6mm) then LLP (2.7±3.8mm). 79% of the cases had a SI decrease of >12.5%, 43% had a SI decrease of >25% and 21% had a SI decrease of >50% as compared to the motion on the uncompressed 4DCT. Conclusion: AC is useful in reducing motion with the largest decreases observed in the lower posterior regions of the lungs. However, it should be noted that AC will not greatly decrease motion for all cases as 21% of cases did not reduce SI motion more than 12.5% of initial motion.« less

  9. Abdominal exploration - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100049.htm Abdominal exploration - series—Normal ... intestine (jejunum and ileum), the large intestine (colon), the liver, the spleen, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the uterus, ...

  10. Review and Implementation of the Emerging CCSDS Recommended Standard for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Lossless Image Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Jose Enrique; Auge, Estanislau; Santalo, Josep; Blanes, Ian; Serra-Sagrista, Joan; Kiely, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    A new standard for image coding is being developed by the MHDC working group of the CCSDS, targeting onboard compression of multi- and hyper-spectral imagery captured by aircraft and satellites. The proposed standard is based on the "Fast Lossless" adaptive linear predictive compressor, and is adapted to better overcome issues of onboard scenarios. In this paper, we present a review of the state of the art in this field, and provide an experimental comparison of the coding performance of the emerging standard in relation to other state-of-the-art coding techniques. Our own independent implementation of the MHDC Recommended Standard, as well as of some of the other techniques, has been used to provide extensive results over the vast corpus of test images from the CCSDS-MHDC.

  11. Feasibility Study of Using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) and Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) for Reducing Radiation and Iodine Contrast Dose in Abdominal CT Patients with High BMI Values.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zheng; Zhao, Xin-ming; Zhao, Yan-feng; Wang, Xiao-yi; Zhou, Chun-wu

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively investigate the effect of using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) for reducing radiation and iodine contrast dose in abdominal CT patients with high BMI values. 26 patients (weight > 65kg and BMI ≥ 22) underwent abdominal CT using GSI mode with 300mgI/kg contrast material as study group (group A). Another 21 patients (weight ≤ 65kg and BMI ≥ 22) were scanned with a conventional 120 kVp tube voltage for noise index (NI) of 11 with 450mgI/kg contrast material as control group (group B). GSI images were reconstructed at 60keV with 50%ASIR and the conventional 120kVp images were reconstructed with FBP reconstruction. The CT values, standard deviation (SD), signal-noise-ratio (SNR), contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) of 26 landmarks were quantitatively measured and image quality qualitatively assessed using statistical analysis. As for the quantitative analysis, the difference of CNR between groups A and B was all significant except for the mesenteric vein. The SNR in group A was higher than B except the mesenteric artery and splenic artery. As for the qualitative analysis, all images had diagnostic quality and the agreement for image quality assessment between the reviewers was substantial (kappa = 0.684). CT dose index (CTDI) values for non-enhanced, arterial phase and portal phase in group A were decreased by 49.04%, 40.51% and 40.54% compared with group B (P = 0.000), respectively. The total dose and the injection rate for the contrast material were reduced by 14.40% and 14.95% in A compared with B. The use of GSI and ASIR provides similar enhancement in vessels and image quality with reduced radiation dose and contrast dose, compared with the use of conventional scan protocol.

  12. The Accuracy of Urinalysis in Predicting Intra-Abdominal Injury Following Blunt Traumas.

    PubMed

    Sabzghabaei, Anita; Shojaee, Majid; Safari, Saeed; Hatamabadi, Hamid Reza; Shirvani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    In cases of blunt abdominal traumas, predicting the possible intra-abdominal injuries is still a challenge for the physicians involved with these patients. Therefore, this study was designed, to evaluate the accuracy of urinalysis in predicting intra-abdominal injuries. Patients aged 15 to 65 years with blunt abdominal trauma who were admitted to emergency departments were enrolled. Abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan with intravenous contrast and urinalysis were requested for all the included patients. Demographic data, trauma mechanism, the results of urinalysis, and the results of abdominopelvic CT scan were gathered. Finally, the correlation between the results of abdominopelvic CT scan, and urinalysis was determined. Urinalysis was considered positive in case of at least one positive value in gross appearance, blood in dipstick, or red blood cell count. 325 patients with blunt abdominal trauma were admitted to the emergency departments (83% male with the mean age of 32.63±17.48 years). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of urinalysis, were 77.9% (95% CI: 69.6-84.4), 58.5% (95% CI: 51.2-65.5), 56% (95% CI: 48.5-63.3), 79.6% (95% CI: 71.8-85.7), 1.27% (95% CI: 1.30-1.57), and 0.25% (95% CI: 0.18-0.36), respectively. The diagnostic value of urinalysis in prediction of blunt traumatic intra-abdominal injuries is low and it seems that it should be considered as an adjuvant diagnostic tool, in conjunction with other sources such as clinical findings and imaging.

  13. Emergency physicians' attitudes and preferences regarding computed tomography, radiation exposure, and imaging decision support.

    PubMed

    Griffey, Richard T; Jeffe, Donna B; Bailey, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Although computerized decision support for imaging is often recommended for optimizing computed tomography (CT) use, no studies have evaluated emergency physicians' (EPs') preferences regarding computerized decision support in the emergency department (ED). In this needs assessment, the authors sought to determine if EPs view overutilization as a problem, if they want decision support, and if so, the kinds of support they prefer. A 42-item, Web-based survey of EPs was developed and used to measure EPs' attitudes, preferences, and knowledge. Key contacts at local EDs sent letters describing the study to their physicians. Exploratory principal components analysis (PCA) was used to determine the underlying factor structure of multi-item scales, Cronbach's alpha was used to measure internal consistency of items on a scale, Spearman correlations were used to describe bivariate associations, and multivariable linear regression analysis was used to identify variables independently associated with physician interest in decision support. Of 235 surveys sent, 155 (66%) EPs responded. Five factors emerged from the PCA. EPs felt that: 1) CT overutilization is a problem in the ED (α = 0.75); 2) a patient's cumulative CT study count affects decisions of whether and what type of imaging study to order only some of the time (α = 0.75); 3) knowledge that a patient has had prior CT imaging for the same indication makes EPs less likely to order a CT (α = 0.42); 4) concerns about malpractice, patient satisfaction, or insistence on CTs affect CT ordering decisions (α = 0.62); and 5) EPs want decision support before ordering CTs (α = 0.85). Performance on knowledge questions was poor, with only 18% to 39% correctly responding to each of the three multiple-choice items about effective radiation doses of chest radiograph and single-pass abdominopelvic CT, as well as estimated increased risk of cancer from a 10-mSv exposure. Although EPs wanted information on patients' cumulative

  14. Diagnostic concordance between mobile interfaces and conventional workstations for emergency imaging assessment.

    PubMed

    Venson, José Eduardo; Bevilacqua, Fernando; Berni, Jean; Onuki, Fabio; Maciel, Anderson

    2018-05-01

    Mobile devices and software are now available with sufficient computing power, speed and complexity to allow for real-time interpretation of radiology exams. In this paper, we perform a multivariable user study that investigates concordance of image-based diagnoses provided using mobile devices on the one hand and conventional workstations on the other hand. We performed a between-subjects task-analysis using CT, MRI and radiography datasets. Moreover, we investigated the adequacy of the screen size, image quality, usability and the availability of the tools necessary for the analysis. Radiologists, members of several teams, participated in the experiment under real work conditions. A total of 64 studies with 93 main diagnoses were analyzed. Our results showed that 56 cases were classified with complete concordance (87.69%), 5 cases with almost complete concordance (7.69%) and 1 case (1.56%) with partial concordance. Only 2 studies presented discordance between the reports (3.07%). The main reason to explain the cause of those disagreements was the lack of multiplanar reconstruction tool in the mobile viewer. Screen size and image quality had no direct impact on the mobile diagnosis process. We concluded that for images from emergency modalities, a mobile interface provides accurate interpretation and swift response, which could benefit patients' healthcare. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome after Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: Quaternary Syndromes?

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, A W; Nickerson, D; Roberts, D J; Rosen, M J; McBeth, P B; Petro, C C; Berrevoet, Frederik; Sugrue, M; Xiao, Jimmy; Ball, C G

    2017-06-01

    Reconstruction with reconstitution of the container function of the abdominal compartment is increasingly being performed in patients with massive ventral hernia previously deemed inoperable. This situation places patients at great risk of severe intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome if organ failure ensues. Intra-abdominal hypertension and especially abdominal compartment syndrome may be devastating systemic complications with systematic and progressive organ failure and death. We thus reviewed the pathophysiology and reported clinical experiences with abnormalities of intra-abdominal pressure in the context of abdominal wall reconstruction. Bibliographic databases (1950-2015), websites, textbooks, and the bibliographies of previously recovered articles for reports or data relating to intra-abdominal pressure, intra-abdominal hypertension, and the abdominal compartment syndrome in relation to ventral, incisional, or abdominal hernia repair or abdominal wall reconstruction. Surgeons should thus consider and carefully measure intra-abdominal pressure and its resultant effects on respiratory parameters and function during abdominal wall reconstruction. The intra-abdominal pressure post-operatively will be a result of the new intra-peritoneal volume and the abdominal wall compliance. Strategies surgeons may utilize to ameliorate intra-abdominal pressure rise after abdominal wall reconstruction including temporizing paralysis of the musculature either temporarily or semi-permanently, pre-operative progressive pneumoperitoneum, permanently removing visceral contents, or surgically releasing the musculature to increase the abdominal container volume. In patients without complicating shock and inflammation, and in whom the abdominal wall anatomy has been so functionally adapted to maximize compliance, intra-abdominal hypertension may be transient and tolerable. Intra-abdominal hypertension/abdominal compartment syndrome in the specific setting of

  16. Bogota bag in the treatment of abdominal wound dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Sukumar, N; Shaharin, S; Razman, J; Jasmi, A Y

    2004-06-01

    A patient who underwent emergency laparotomy for rectal prolapse developed repeated abdominal wound dehiscence and subsequently an enteric fistula. The management of abdominal wound dehiscence is discussed, specifically with regards to the Bogota bag. Use of Bogota bag has been reported worldwide but this may be the first report here.

  17. Abdominal Aortic Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Borioni, Raoul; Garofalo, Mariano; De Paulis, Ruggero; Nardi, Paolo; Scaffa, Raffaele; Chiariello, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    Isolated abdominal aortic dissections are rare events. Their anatomic and clinical features are different from those of atherosclerotic aneurysms. We report 4 cases of isolated abdominal aortic dissection that were successfully treated with surgical or endovascular intervention. The anatomic and clinical features and a review of the literature are also presented. PMID:15902826

  18. Abdominal Trauma Revisited.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, David V

    2017-11-01

    Although abdominal trauma has been described since antiquity, formal laparotomies for trauma were not performed until the 1800s. Even with the introduction of general anesthesia in the United States during the years 1842 to 1846, laparotomies for abdominal trauma were not performed during the Civil War. The first laparotomy for an abdominal gunshot wound in the United States was finally performed in New York City in 1884. An aggressive operative approach to all forms of abdominal trauma till the establishment of formal trauma centers (where data were analyzed) resulted in extraordinarily high rates of nontherapeutic laparotomies from the 1880s to the 1960s. More selective operative approaches to patients with abdominal stab wounds (1960s), blunt trauma (1970s), and gunshot wounds (1990s) were then developed. Current adjuncts to the diagnosis of abdominal trauma when serial physical examinations are unreliable include the following: 1) diagnostic peritoneal tap/lavage, 2) surgeon-performed ultrasound examination; 3) contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis; and 4) diagnostic laparoscopy. Operative techniques for injuries to the liver, spleen, duodenum, and pancreas have been refined considerably since World War II. These need to be emphasized repeatedly in an era when fewer patients undergo laparotomy for abdominal trauma. Finally, abdominal trauma damage control is a valuable operative approach in patients with physiologic exhaustion and multiple injuries.

  19. ASTER and USGS EROS disaster response: emergency imaging after Hurricane Katrina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The value of remotely sensed imagery during times of crisis is well established, and the increasing spatial and spectral resolution in newer systems provides ever greater utility and ability to discriminate features of interest (International Charter, Space and Major Disasters, 2005). The existing suite of sensors provides an abundance of data, and enables warning alerts to be broadcast for many situations in advance. In addition, imagery acquired soon after an event occurs can be used to assist response and remediation teams in identifying the extent of the affected area and the degree of damage. The data characteristics of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Refl ection Radiometer (ASTER) are well-suited for monitoring natural hazards and providing local and regional views after disaster strikes. For this reason, and because of the system fl exibility in scheduling high-priority observations, ASTER is often tasked to support emergency situations. The Emergency Response coordinators at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) work closely with staff at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at EROS and the ASTER Science Team as they fulfi ll their mission to acquire and distribute data during critical situations. This article summarizes the role of the USGS/EROS Emergency Response coordinators, and provides further discussion of ASTER data and the images portrayed on the cover of this issue

  20. The focused abdominal sonography for trauma examination can reliably identify patients with significant intra-abdominal hemorrhage in life-threatening pelvic fractures.

    PubMed

    Christian, Nicole Townsend; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Moore, Ernest E; Geddes, Andrea E; Wagenaar, Amy E; Fox, Charles J; Pieracci, Fredric M

    2018-06-01

    The focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) examination has been reported to be unreliable in pelvic fracture patients. Additionally, given the advent of new therapeutic interventions, such as resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA), rapid identification of intra-abdominal hemorrhage compared with Zone III hemorrhage may guide different therapeutic strategies. We hypothesized that FAST is reliable for detecting clinically significant intra-abdominal hemorrhage in the face of complex pelvic fractures. Our pelvic fracture database of all hemodynamically unstable patients requiring intervention from January 1, 2005, to July 1, 2015, was reviewed. The FAST examination was compared with operative and computed tomography (CT) scan findings. Confirmatory evaluation for FAST(-) patients was considered positive if therapeutic intervention was required. During the study period, 81 patients in refractory shock with FAST imaging in our emergency department (ED) underwent pelvic packing. Mean age was 45 ± 2 years and Injury Severity Score was 50 ± 1.5. The FAST examination was negative in 53 patients; 52 patients did not require operative intervention for abdominal bleeding while one patient required splenectomy. The FAST examination was positive in 28 patients; 26 had findings confirmed by CT or laparotomy while two patients did not have intra-abdominal hemorrhage on further evaluation. The sensitivity and specificity for FAST in this population was 96% and 96%, respectively, positive predictive value was 93%, and negative predictive value was 98%. The false-negative and -positive rates for FAST were 2% and 7%. Focused abdominal sonography for trauma examination reliably identifies clinically significant hemoperitoneum in life-threatening, pelvic fracture related hemorrhage. The incidence of a false-negative FAST in this unstable pelvic fracture population was 2%. FAST results may be used when determining the role of REBOA in these

  1. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  2. Emergency Physicians’ Attitudes and Preferences Regarding Computed Tomography, Radiation Exposure, and Imaging Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Griffey, Richard T.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Bailey, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although computerized decision support for imaging is often recommended for optimizing computed tomography (CT) use, no studies have evaluated emergency physicians’ (EPs’) preferences regarding computerized decision support in the emergency department (ED). In this needs assessment, the authors sought to determine if EPs view overutilization as a problem, if they want decision support, and if so, the kinds of support they prefer. Methods A 42-item, Web-based survey of EPs was developed and used to measure EPs’ attitudes, preferences, and knowledge. Key contacts at local EDs sent letters describing the study to their physicians. Exploratory principal components analysis (PCA) was used to determine the underlying factor structure of multi-item scales, Cronbach’s alpha was used to measure internal consistency of items on a scale, Spearman correlations were used to describe bivariate associations, and multivariable linear regression analysis was used to identify variables independently associated with physician interest in decision support. Results Of 235 surveys sent, 155 (66%) EPs responded. Five factors emerged from the PCA. EPs felt that: 1) CT overutilization is a problem in the ED (α = 0.75); 2) a patient’s cumulative CT study count affects decisions of whether and what type of imaging study to order only some of the time (α = 0.75); 3) knowledge that a patient has had prior CT imaging for the same indication makes EPs less likely to order a CT (α = 0.42); 4) concerns about malpractice, patient satisfaction, or insistence on CTs affect CT ordering decisions (α = 0.62); and 5) EPs want decision support before ordering CTs (α = 0.85). Performance on knowledge questions was poor, with only 18% to 39% correctly responding to each of the three multiple-choice items about effective radiation doses of chest radiograph and single-pass abdominopelvic CT, as well as estimated increased risk of cancer from a 10-mSv exposure. Although EPs wanted

  3. Desmoid tumors of the abdominal wall: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Overhaus, Marcus; Decker, Pan; Fischer, Hans Peter; Textor, Hans Jochen; Hirner, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Background Desmoid tumors are slow growing deep fibromatoses with aggressive infiltration of adjacent tissue but without any metastatic potential. Case Presentation We report on two female patients with desmoid tumor of the abdominal wall who underwent primary resection. Both patients had a history of an earlier abdominal surgery. Preoperative evaluation included abdominal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. The histology in both cases revealed a desmoid tumor. Conclusion Complete surgical resection is the first line management of this tumor entity. PMID:12890284

  4. Congenital heart disease manifested as acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Macha, Mahender; Gupta, Dipin; Molina, Ezequiel; Palma, Jon; Rothman, Steven

    2007-06-12

    We present a case of a 53-year-old man with complaints of severe abdominal pain and nausea. Emergency department abdominal workup was non-diagnostic. Physical examination revealed signs of right- and left-heart failure. A past medical history of dysrhythmias and chronic abdominal complaints prompted hospital admission. Subsequent right heart catheterization revealed a significant left-to-right shunt. CT scan of the chest and angiography confirmed the diagnosis of an abnormal ascending vein between the innominate vein and the left superior pulmonary vein. After the anomalous vein was ligated, the patient's abdominal pain resolved.

  5. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-03-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study I was a systematic review of the existing standardized methods for assessing quality of life after incisional hernia repair. After a systematic search in the electronic databases Embase and PubMed, a total of 26 studies using standardized measures for assessment of quality of life after incisional hernia repair were found. The most commonly used questionnaire was the generic Short-Form 36, which assesses overall health-related quality of life, addressing both physical and mental health. The second-most common questionnaire was the Carolinas Comfort Scale, which is a disease specific questionnaire addressing pain, movement limitation and mesh sensation in relation to a current or previous hernia. In total, eight different questionnaires were used at varying time points in the 26 studies. In conclusion, standardization of timing and method of quality of life assessment after incisional hernia repair was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the

  6. A magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the transversus abdominis muscle during drawing-in of the abdominal wall in elite Australian Football League players with and without low back pain.

    PubMed

    Hides, Julie A; Boughen, Carly L; Stanton, Warren R; Strudwick, Mark W; Wilson, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    Single-blinded quasi-experimental study. To investigate the ability of elite football players with and without low back pain (LBP) to voluntarily draw-in the abdominal wall. While there has been considerable debate regarding the contribution of the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle to control the lumbar spine and pelvis, there is evidence that retraining motor control of the deep trunk muscles is commensurate with decreases in LBP. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to assess the TrA muscle during the draw-in maneuver, with the contraction of the TrA muscle reducing the circumference of the trunk. Impairments in performance of the draw-in maneuver have been shown in people with LBP. Forty-three elite players from a team in the Australian Football League were allocated to 3 groups: those with "no LBP," "a history of LBP but no current LBP," or "current LBP." MRI was used to image the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the trunk at the level of the L3-4 disc at the start and end of the draw-in maneuver. There was a significant decrease in the CSA of the trunk with the performance of the draw-in maneuver (P<.001). Subjects in the "no LBP" group were better able to "draw-in" the abdominal wall than subjects with current LBP (P = .015). This study provides evidence of an altered ability to draw-in the abdominal wall in footballers with current LBP. Retraining contraction of the TrA muscle may constitute one part of an exercise-therapy approach for athletes with current LBP.

  7. Imaging biomarkers in Parkinson's disease and Parkinsonian syndromes: current and emerging concepts.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Usman; Compagnone, Jordana; Aviv, Richard I; Strafella, Antonio P; Black, Sandra E; Lang, Anthony E; Masellis, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Two centuries ago in 1817, James Parkinson provided the first medical description of Parkinson's disease, later refined by Jean-Martin Charcot in the mid-to-late 19th century to include the atypical parkinsonian variants (also termed, Parkinson-plus syndromes). Today, Parkinson's disease represents the second most common neurodegenerative disorder with an estimated global prevalence of over 10 million. Conversely, atypical parkinsonian syndromes encompass a group of relatively heterogeneous disorders that may share some clinical features with Parkinson's disease, but are uncommon distinct clinicopathological diseases. Decades of scientific advancements have vastly improved our understanding of these disorders, including improvements in in vivo imaging for biomarker identification. Multimodal imaging for the visualization of structural and functional brain changes is especially important, as it allows a 'window' into the underlying pathophysiological abnormalities. In this article, we first present an overview of the cardinal clinical and neuropathological features of, 1) synucleinopathies: Parkinson's disease and other Lewy body spectrum disorders, as well as multiple system atrophy, and 2) tauopathies: progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration. A comprehensive presentation of well-established and emerging imaging biomarkers for each disorder are then discussed. Biomarkers for the following imaging modalities are reviewed: 1) structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using T1, T2, and susceptibility-weighted sequences for volumetric and voxel-based morphometric analyses, as well as MRI derived visual signatures, 2) diffusion tensor MRI for the assessment of white matter tract injury and microstructural integrity, 3) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for quantifying proton-containing brain metabolites, 4) single photon emission computed tomography for the evaluation of nigrostriatal integrity (as assessed by presynaptic dopamine

  8. Abdomino-phrenic dyssynergia in patients with abdominal bloating and distension.

    PubMed

    Villoria, Albert; Azpiroz, Fernando; Burri, Emanuel; Cisternas, Daniel; Soldevilla, Alfredo; Malagelada, Juan-R

    2011-05-01

    The abdomen normally accommodates intra-abdominal volume increments. Patients complaining of abdominal distension exhibit abnormal accommodation of colonic gas loads (defective contraction and excessive protrusion of the anterior wall). However, abdominal imaging demonstrated diaphragmatic descent during spontaneous episodes of bloating in patients with functional gut disorders. We aimed to establish the role of the diaphragm in abdominal distension. In 20 patients complaining of abdominal bloating and 15 healthy subjects, we increased the volume of the abdominal cavity with a colonic gas load, while measuring abdominal girth and electromyographic activity of the anterior abdominal muscles and of the diaphragm. In healthy subjects, the colonic gas load increased girth, relaxed the diaphragm, and increased anterior wall tone. With the same gas load, patients developed significantly more abdominal distension; this was associated with paradoxical contraction of the diaphragm and relaxation of the internal oblique muscle. In this experimental provocation model, abnormal accommodation of the diaphragm is involved in abdominal distension.

  9. Role of Surgery in Stages II and III Pediatric Abdominal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A 5-Years Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Amany M.; Sayd, Heba A.; Hamza, Hesham M.; Salem, Mohamed A.

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are the most common extra nodal presentation of pediatric NHL. Our aim is to assess the role of surgery as a risk factor and to evaluate the impact of risk-adjusted systemic chemotherapy on survival of patients with stages II and III disease. This study included 35 pediatric patients with abdominal NHL treated over five years at South Egypt Cancer Institute (SECI), Assiut University, between January 2005 and January 2010. The data of every patient included: Age, sex, and presentation, staging work up to determine extent of the disease and the type of resection performed, histopathological examination, details of chemotherapy, disease free survival and overall survival. The study included 25 boys and 10 girls with a median age of six years (range: 2.5:15). Thirty patients (86%) presented with abdominal pain, 23 patients (66%) presented with abdominal mass and distention, 13 patients (34%) presented with weight loss, and intestinal obstruction occurred in six patients (17%). The ileo-cecal region and abdominal lymph nodes were the commonest sites (48.5%, 21% respectively). Burkitt's lymphoma was the most common histological type in 29 patients (83%). Ten (28.5%) stage II (group A) and 25 (71.5%) stage III (group B). Complete resections were performed in 10 (28.5%), debulking in 6 (17%) and imaging guided biopsy in 19 (54%). A11 patients received systemic chemotherapy. The median follow up duration was 63 months (range 51-78 months). The parameters that significantly affect the overall survival were stage at presentation complete resection for localized disease. In conclusion, the extent of disease at presentation is the most important prognostic factor in pediatric abdominal NHL. Surgery is restricted to defined situations such as; abdominal emergencies, diagnostic biopsy and total tumor extirpation in localized disease. Chemotherapy is the cornerstone in the management of pediatric abdominal NHL. PMID:24212775

  10. Role of Surgery in Stages II and III Pediatric Abdominal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A 5-Years Experience.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amany M; Sayd, Heba A; Hamza, Hesham M; Salem, Mohamed A

    2011-03-29

    Abdominal Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are the most common extra nodal presentation of pediatric NHL. Our aim is to assess the role of surgery as a risk factor and to evaluate the impact of risk-adjusted systemic chemotherapy on survival of patients with stages II and III disease. This study included 35 pediatric patients with abdominal NHL treated over five years at South Egypt Cancer Institute (SECI), Assiut University, between January 2005 and January 2010. The data of every patient included: Age, sex, and presentation, staging work up to determine extent of the disease and the type of resection performed, histopathological examination, details of chemotherapy, disease free survival and overall survival. The study included 25 boys and 10 girls with a median age of six years (range: 2.5:15). Thirty patients (86%) presented with abdominal pain, 23 patients (66%) presented with abdominal mass and distention, 13 patients (34%) presented with weight loss, and intestinal obstruction occurred in six patients (17%). The ileo-cecal region and abdominal lymph nodes were the commonest sites (48.5%, 21% respectively). Burkitt's lymphoma was the most common histological type in 29 patients (83%). Ten (28.5%) stage II (group A) and 25 (71.5%) stage III (group B). Complete resections were performed in 10 (28.5%), debulking in 6 (17%) and imaging guided biopsy in 19 (54%). A11 patients received systemic chemotherapy. The median follow up duration was 63 months (range 51-78 months). The parameters that significantly affect the overall survival were stage at presentation complete resection for localized disease. In conclusion, the extent of disease at presentation is the most important prognostic factor in pediatric abdominal NHL. Surgery is restricted to defined situations such as; abdominal emergencies, diagnostic biopsy and total tumor extirpation in localized disease. Chemotherapy is the cornerstone in the management of pediatric abdominal NHL.

  11. MO-DE-202-00: Image-Guided Interventions: Advances in Intraoperative Imaging, Guidance, and An Emerging Role for Medical Physics in Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    At least three major trends in surgical intervention have emerged over the last decade: a move toward more minimally invasive (or non-invasive) approach to the surgical target; the development of high-precision treatment delivery techniques; and the increasing role of multi-modality intraoperative imaging in support of such procedures. This symposium includes invited presentations on recent advances in each of these areas and the emerging role for medical physics research in the development and translation of high-precision interventional techniques. The four speakers are: Keyvan Farahani, “Image-guided focused ultrasound surgery and therapy” Jeffrey H. Siewerdsen, “Advances in image registration and reconstruction for image-guidedmore » neurosurgery” Tina Kapur, “Image-guided surgery and interventions in the advanced multimodality image-guided operating (AMIGO) suite” Raj Shekhar, “Multimodality image-guided interventions: Multimodality for the rest of us” Learning Objectives: Understand the principles and applications of HIFU in surgical ablation. Learn about recent advances in 3D–2D and 3D deformable image registration in support of surgical safety and precision. Learn about recent advances in model-based 3D image reconstruction in application to intraoperative 3D imaging. Understand the multi-modality imaging technologies and clinical applications investigated in the AMIGO suite. Understand the emerging need and techniques to implement multi-modality image guidance in surgical applications such as neurosurgery, orthopaedic surgery, vascular surgery, and interventional radiology. Research supported by the NIH and Siemens Healthcare.; J. Siewerdsen; Grant Support - National Institutes of Health; Grant Support - Siemens Healthcare; Grant Support - Carestream Health; Advisory Board - Carestream Health; Licensing Agreement - Carestream Health; Licensing Agreement - Elekta Oncology.; T. Kapur, P41EB015898; R. Shekhar, Funding: R42CA137886 and R41

  12. Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Koop, Herbert; Koprdova, Simona; Schürmann, Christine

    2016-01-29

    Chronic abdominal wall pain is a poorly recognized clinical problem despite being an important element in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. This review is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and EMBASE employing the terms "abdominal wall pain" and "cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. In 2% to 3% of patients with chronic abdominal pain, the pain arises from the abdominal wall; in patients with previously diagnosed chronic abdominal pain who have no demonstrable pathological abnormality, this likelihood can rise as high as 30% . There have only been a small number of clinical trials of treatment for this condition. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, with the aid of Carnett's test. The characteristic clinical feature is strictly localized pain in the anterior abdominal wall, which is often mischaracterized as a "functional" complaint. In one study, injection of local anesthesia combined with steroids into the painful area was found to relieve pain for 4 weeks in 95% of patients. The injection of lidocaine alone brought about improvement in 83-91% of patients. Long-term pain relief ensued after a single lidocaine injection in 20-30% of patients, after repeated injections in 40-50% , and after combined lidocaine and steroid injections in up to 80% . Pain that persists despite these treatments can be treated with surgery (neurectomy). Chronic abdominal wall pain is easily diagnosed on physical examination and can often be rapidly treated. Any physician treating patients with abdominal pain should be aware of this condition. Further comparative treatment trials will be needed before a validated treatment algorithm can be established.

  13. Emerging enhanced imaging technologies of the esophagus: spectroscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy, and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Robles, Lourdes Y; Singh, Satish; Fisichella, Piero Marco

    2015-05-15

    Despite advances in diagnoses and therapy, esophageal adenocarcinoma remains a highly lethal neoplasm. Hence, a great interest has been placed in detecting early lesions and in the detection of Barrett esophagus (BE). Advanced imaging technologies of the esophagus have then been developed with the aim of improving biopsy sensitivity and detection of preplastic and neoplastic cells. The purpose of this article was to review emerging imaging technologies for esophageal pathology, spectroscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). We conducted a PubMed search using the search string "esophagus or esophageal or oesophageal or oesophagus" and "Barrett or esophageal neoplasm" and "spectroscopy or optical spectroscopy" and "confocal laser endomicroscopy" and "confocal microscopy" and "optical coherence tomography." The first and senior author separately reviewed all articles. Our search identified: 19 in vivo studies with spectroscopy that accounted for 1021 patients and 4 ex vivo studies; 14 clinical CLE in vivo studies that accounted for 941 patients and 1 ex vivo study with 13 patients; and 17 clinical OCT in vivo studies that accounted for 773 patients and 2 ex vivo studies. Human studies using spectroscopy had a very high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of BE. CLE showed a high interobserver agreement in diagnosing esophageal pathology and an accuracy of predicting neoplasia. We also found several clinical studies that reported excellent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for the detection of BE using OCT. Advanced imaging technology for the detection of esophageal lesions is a promising field that aims to improve the detection of early esophageal lesions. Although advancing imaging techniques improve diagnostic sensitivities and specificities, their integration into diagnostic protocols has yet to be perfected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Abdominal Wall Desmoid during Pregnancy: Diagnostic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Awwad, Johnny; Hammoud, Nadine; Farra, Chantal; Fares, Farah; Abi Saad, George; Ghazeeri, Ghina

    2013-01-01

    Background. Desmoids are benign tumors, with local invasive features and no metastatic potential, which have rarely been described to be pregnancy associated. Case. We described the rapid growth of an anterior abdominal wall mass in a 40-year-old pregnant woman. Due to its close proximity to the enlarged uterus, it was misdiagnosed to be a uterine leiomyoma by ultrasound examination. Final tissue diagnosis and radical resection were done at the time of abdominal delivery. Conclusion. Due to the diagnostic limitations of imaging techniques, desmoids should always be considered when the following manifestations are observed in combination: progressive growth of a solitary abdominal wall mass during pregnancy and well-delineated smooth tumor margins demonstrated by imaging techniques. This case emphasizes the importance of entertaining uncommon medical conditions in the differential diagnosis of seemingly common clinical manifestations. PMID:23346436

  15. School Nurses on the Front Lines of Medicine: An Adolescent Female Student with Severe Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi

    2016-09-01

    Abdominal pain is a common chief complaint encountered by school nurses. This article explains the etiology of abdominal pain in children and adolescents, describes the office assessment, and delineates life-threatening conditions associated with severe abdominal pain that may prompt the school nurse to transfer the student to a local emergency department. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Computerized follow-up of discrepancies in image interpretation between emergency and radiology departments.

    PubMed

    Siegel, E; Groleau, G; Reiner, B; Stair, T

    1998-08-01

    Radiographs are ordered and interpreted for immediate clinical decisions 24 hours a day by emergency physicians (EP's). The Joint Commission for Accreditation of Health Care Organizations requires that all these images be reviewed by radiologists and that there be some mechanism for quality improvement (QI) for discrepant readings. There must be a log of discrepancies and documentation of follow up activities, but this alone does not guarantee effective Q.I. Radiologists reviewing images from the previous day and night often must guess at the preliminary interpretation of the EP and whether follow up action is necessary. EP's may remain ignorant of the final reading and falsely assume the initial diagnosis and treatment were correct. Some hospitals use a paper system in which the EP writes a preliminary interpretation on the requisition slip, which will be available when the radiologist dictates the final reading. Some hospitals use a classification of discrepancies based on clinical import and urgency, and communicated to the EP on duty at the time of the official reading, but may not communicate discrepancies to the EP's who initial read the images. Our computerized radiology department and picture archiving and communications system have increased technologist and radiologist productivity, and decreased retakes and lost films. There are fewer face-to-face consultants of radiologists and clinicians, but more communication by telephone and electronic annotation of PACS images. We have integrated the QI process for emergency department (ED) images into the PACS, and gained advantages over the traditional discrepancy log. Requisitions including clinical indications are entered into the Hospital Information System and then appear on the PACS along with images on readings. The initial impression, time of review, and the initials of the EP are available to the radiologist dictating the official report. The radiologist decides if there is a discrepancy, and whether it

  17. Voltage Imaging of Waking Mouse Cortex Reveals Emergence of Critical Neuronal Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Gregory; Fagerholm, Erik D.; Mutoh, Hiroki; Leech, Robert; Sharp, David J.; Shew, Woodrow L.

    2014-01-01

    Complex cognitive processes require neuronal activity to be coordinated across multiple scales, ranging from local microcircuits to cortex-wide networks. However, multiscale cortical dynamics are not well understood because few experimental approaches have provided sufficient support for hypotheses involving multiscale interactions. To address these limitations, we used, in experiments involving mice, genetically encoded voltage indicator imaging, which measures cortex-wide electrical activity at high spatiotemporal resolution. Here we show that, as mice recovered from anesthesia, scale-invariant spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal activity gradually emerge. We show for the first time that this scale-invariant activity spans four orders of magnitude in awake mice. In contrast, we found that the cortical dynamics of anesthetized mice were not scale invariant. Our results bridge empirical evidence from disparate scales and support theoretical predictions that the awake cortex operates in a dynamical regime known as criticality. The criticality hypothesis predicts that small-scale cortical dynamics are governed by the same principles as those governing larger-scale dynamics. Importantly, these scale-invariant principles also optimize certain aspects of information processing. Our results suggest that during the emergence from anesthesia, criticality arises as information processing demands increase. We expect that, as measurement tools advance toward larger scales and greater resolution, the multiscale framework offered by criticality will continue to provide quantitative predictions and insight on how neurons, microcircuits, and large-scale networks are dynamically coordinated in the brain. PMID:25505314

  18. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... are, or may be, pregnant. Alternative Names Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, ...

  19. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... this problem include: Smoking High blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most ... body from an aortic aneurysm, you will need surgery right away. If the aneurysm is small and ...

  20. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... An abdominal CT scan makes detailed pictures of the structures inside your belly very quickly. This test may be used to look ...

  1. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood clots to the lungs) Abdominal or chest wall pain: Shingles (herpes zoster infection) Costochondritis (inflammation of ... or tumors), fat (evidence of impaired digestion and absorption of food), and the presence of germs. X- ...

  2. Abdominal cocoon: sonographic features.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, S Boopathy; Palanivelu, Chinnusamy; Sendhilkumar, Karuppusamy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan

    2003-07-01

    An abdominal cocoon is a rare condition in which the small bowel is encased in a membrane. The diagnosis is usually established at surgery. Here we describe the sonographic features of this condition.

  3. WE-G-BRD-01: A Data-Driven 4D-MRI Motion Model to Estimate Full Field-Of-View Abdominal Motion From 2D Image Navigators During MR-Linac Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Stemkens, B; Tijssen, RHN; Denis de Senneville, B Denis

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate full field-of-view abdominal respiratory motion from fast 2D image navigators using a 4D-MRI based motion model. This will allow for radiation dose accumulation mapping during MR-Linac treatment. Methods: Experiments were conducted on a Philips Ingenia 1.5T MRI. First, a retrospectively ordered 4D-MRI was constructed using 3D transient-bSSFP with radial in-plane sampling. Motion fields were calculated through 3D non-rigid registration. From these motion fields a PCA-based abdominal motion model was constructed and used to warp a 3D reference volume to fast 2D cine-MR image navigators that can be used for real-time tracking. To test this procedure, a time-seriesmore » consisting of two interleaved orthogonal slices (sagittal and coronal), positioned on the pancreas or kidneys, were acquired for 1m38s (dynamic scan-time=0.196ms), during normal, shallow, or deep breathing. The coronal slices were used to update the optimal weights for the first two PCA components, in order to warp the 3D reference image and construct a dynamic 4D-MRI time-series. The interleaved sagittal slices served as an independent measure to test the model’s accuracy and fit. Spatial maps of the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) and histograms of the motion differences within the pancreas and kidneys were used to evaluate the method. Results: Cranio-caudal motion was accurately calculated within the pancreas using the model for normal and shallow breathing with an RMSE of 1.6mm and 1.5mm and a histogram median and standard deviation below 0.2 and 1.7mm, respectively. For deep-breathing an underestimation of the inhale amplitude was observed (RMSE=4.1mm). Respiratory-induced antero-posterior and lateral motion were correctly mapped (RMSE=0.6/0.5mm). Kidney motion demonstrated good motion estimation with RMSE-values of 0.95 and 2.4mm for the right and left kidney, respectively. Conclusion: We have demonstrated a method that can calculate dynamic 3D abdominal motion in a large

  4. Medical evacuation for unrecognized abdominal wall pain: a case series.

    PubMed

    Msonda, Hapu T; Laczek, Jeffrey T

    2015-05-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a frequently encountered complaint in the primary care setting. The abdominal wall is the etiology of this pain in 10 to 30% of all cases of chronic abdominal pain. Abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment at the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle has been attributed as a cause of this pain. In the military health care system, patients with unexplained abdominal pain are often transferred to military treatment facilities via the Military Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) system. We present two cases of patients who transferred via MEDEVAC to our facility for evaluation and treatment of chronic abdominal pain. Both patients had previously undergone extensive laboratory evaluation, imaging, and invasive procedures, such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy before transfer. Upon arrival, history and physical examinations suggested an abdominal wall source to their pain, and both patients experienced alleviation of their abdominal wall pain with lidocaine and corticosteroid injection. This case series highlights the need for military physicians to be aware of abdominal wall pain. Early diagnosis of abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome by eliciting Carnett's sign will limit symptom chronicity, avoid unnecessary testing, and even prevent medical evacuation. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. Diagnostic approach to constipation impacts pediatric emergency department disposition.

    PubMed

    Chumpitazi, Corrie E; Rees, Chris A; Camp, Elizabeth A; Henkel, Erin B; Valdez, Karina L; Chumpitazi, Bruno P

    2017-10-01

    Constipation is a common cause of abdominal pain in children presenting to the emergency department (ED). The objectives of this study were to determine the diagnostic evaluation undertaken for constipation and to assess the association of the evaluation with final ED disposition. A retrospective chart review of children presenting to the pediatric ED of a quaternary care children's hospital with abdominal pain that received a soap suds enema therapy. A total of 512 children were included, 270 (52.7%) were female, and the median age was 8.0 (IQR: 4.0-11.0). One hundred and thirty eight patients (27%) had a digital rectal exam (DRE), 120 (22.8%) had bloodwork performed, 218 (43%) had urinalysis obtained, 397 (77.5%) had abdominal radiographs, 120 (23.4%) had abdominal ultrasounds, and 18 (3.5%) had computed tomography scans. Children who had a DRE had a younger median age (6.0, IQR: 3.0-9.25 vs. 8.0, IQR: 4.0-12.0; p<0.001) and were significantly less likely to have radiologic imaging (OR=0.50, 95% CI 0.32-0.78; p=0.002), but did not have an increased odds of being discharged home. After adjusting for gender, ethnicity, and significant past medical history those with an abdominal radiograph were less likely to be discharged to home (aOR=0.56, 95% CI 0.31-1.01; p=0.05). The diagnostic evaluation of children diagnosed with fecal impaction in the ED varied. Abdominal imaging may be avoided if children receive a DRE. When children presenting to the ED with abdominal pain had an abdominal radiograph, they were more likely to be admitted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fast T1 and T2 mapping methods: the zoomed U-FLARE sequence compared with EPI and snapshot-FLASH for abdominal imaging at 11.7 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Géraldine; Jiménez-González, María; Plaza-García, Sandra; Beraza, Marta; Reese, Torsten

    2017-06-01

    A newly adapted zoomed ultrafast low-angle RARE (U-FLARE) sequence is described for abdominal imaging applications at 11.7 Tesla and compared with the standard echo-plannar imaging (EPI) and snapshot fast low angle shot (FLASH) methods. Ultrafast EPI and snapshot-FLASH protocols were evaluated to determine relaxation times in phantoms and in the mouse kidney in vivo. Owing to their apparent shortcomings, imaging artefacts, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and variability in the determination of relaxation times, these methods are compared with the newly implemented zoomed U-FLARE sequence. Snapshot-FLASH has a lower SNR when compared with the zoomed U-FLARE sequence and EPI. The variability in the measurement of relaxation times is higher in the Look-Locker sequences than in inversion recovery experiments. Respectively, the average T1 and T2 values at 11.7 Tesla are as follows: kidney cortex, 1810 and 29 ms; kidney medulla, 2100 and 25 ms; subcutaneous tumour, 2365 and 28 ms. This study demonstrates that the zoomed U-FLARE sequence yields single-shot single-slice images with good anatomical resolution and high SNR at 11.7 Tesla. Thus, it offers a viable alternative to standard protocols for mapping very fast parameters, such as T1 and T2, or dynamic processes in vivo at high field.

  7. Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma of the abdominal wall

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, L. Ben; Ghariani, B.; Rabeh, A.; Dali, N.; Said, W.; Hendaoui, L.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Ewing sarcoma is most commonly a bone tumour which has usually extended into the soft tissues at the time of diagnosis. Exceptionally, this tumour can have an extraskeletal origin. Clinical or imaging findings are non-specific and diagnosis is based on histology. We report a case of an extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma developed in the soft tissues of the abdominal wall in a 35-year-old woman who presented a painful abdominal wall tumefaction. Ultrasongraphy and computed tomography showed a large, well-defined soft tissue mass developed in the left anterolateral muscle group of the abdominal wall. Surgical biopsy was performed and an extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma was identified histologically. PMID:18818133

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging - A troubleshooter in obstetric emergencies: A pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rohini; Bajaj, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Nishith; Chandra, Ranjan; Misra, Ritu Nair; Malik, Amita; Thukral, Brij Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    The application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in pregnancy faced initial skepticism of physicians because of fetal safety concerns. The perceived fetal risk has been found to be unwarranted and of late, the modality has attained acceptability. Its role in diagnosing fetal anomalies is well recognized and following its safety certification in pregnancy, it is finding increasing utilization during pregnancy and puerperium. However, the use of MRI in maternal emergency obstetric conditions is relatively limited as it is still evolving. In early gestation, ectopic implantation is one of the major life-threatening conditions that are frequently encountered. Although ultrasound (USG) is the accepted mainstay modality, the diagnostic predicament persists in many cases. MRI has a role where USG is indeterminate, particularly in the extratubal ectopic pregnancy. Later in gestation, MRI can be a useful adjunct in placental disorders like previa, abruption, and adhesion. It is a good problem-solving tool in adnexal masses such as ovarian torsion and degenerated fibroid, which have a higher incidence during pregnancy. Catastrophic conditions like uterine rupture can also be preoperatively and timely diagnosed. MRI has a definite role to play in postpartum and post-abortion life-threatening conditions, e.g., retained products of conception, and gestational trophoblastic disease, especially when USG is inconclusive or inadequate. PMID:27081223

  9. The costs and utility of imaging in evaluating dizzy patients in the emergency room.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Syed F; Syamal, Mausumi N; Yaremchuk, Kathleen; Peterson, Edward; Seidman, Michael

    2013-09-01

    To determine the usefulness and the costs of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of patients with dizziness in the emergency department (ED). Retrospective chart review. Charts of patients with a specific health maintenance insurance plan presenting with dizziness and vertigo to a large health system's ED between January 2008 and January 2011 were reviewed. Patient demographics, signs/symptoms, and CT and MRI results were assessed. CT and MRI charges were determined based on positive versus unremarkable findings. Data analysis included stepwise logistic regressions. Of 1681 patients identified, 810 (48%) received CT brain/head scan totaling $988,200 in charges. Of these, only 0.74% yielded clinically significant pathology requiring intervention. However, 12.2% of MRI studies yielded discovery of significant abnormalities. Logistic regression analysis revealed that older patients (P = .001) were more likely to receive a CT scan. In the 3-year period studied, CT scans for ED patients with dizziness and vertigo yielded a low predictive value for significant pathology. These data reveal a great opportunity for cost savings by developing stricter guidelines for ordering CT scans for this set of ED patients. The use of MRI in all cases of dizziness was found to be neither practical nor useful. However, appropriately directed MRI of the brain is recommended in patients with dizziness and other neurological signs or symptoms. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Abdominal wall abscess secondary to spontaneous rupture of pyogenic liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Zizzo, Maurizio; Zaghi, Claudia; Manenti, Antonio; Luppi, Davide; Ugoletti, Lara; Bonilauri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Pyogenic liver abscess is a rare cause of hospitalization, related to a mortality rate ranging between 15% and 19%. Treatment of choice is represented by image-guided percutaneous drainage in combination with antibiotic therapy but, in some selected cases, surgical treatment is necessary. In extremely rare cases, spontaneous rupture of liver abscess may occur, free in the peritoneal cavity or in neighboring organs, an event which is generally considered a surgical emergency. A 95-years-old woman was hospitalized with fever, upper abdominal pain, mild dyspepsia and massive swelling of the anterior abdominal wall. Computed tomography revealed an oval mass located in the abdominal wall of 12cm×14cm×7cm, in continuity with an abscess of the left hepatic lobe. Because Proteus mirabilis was detected in both the liver abscess and the abdominal wall abscess, the patient was diagnosed with a ruptured pyogenic liver abscess. After spontaneous drainage to the exterior of the hepato-parietal abscess, she was successfully treated with antibiotics alone. Pyogenic liver abscess is a serious and life-threatening illness. Abscess rupture might occur. Many authors consider this complication a surgical emergency, but the site of abscess rupture changes the clinical history of the disease: in case of free rupture into the peritoneum, emergency surgery is mandatory, while a rupture localized in neighboring tissues or organs can be successfully treated by a combination of systemic antibiotics and fine needle aspiration and/or percutaneous drainage of the abscess. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Newly-developed, forward-viewing echoendoscope: a comparative pilot study to the standard echoendoscope in the imaging of abdominal organs and feasibility of endoscopic ultrasound-guided interventions.

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Takuji; Nakai, Yousuke; Lee, John G; Park, Do Hyun; Muthusamy, V Raman; Chang, Kenneth J

    2012-02-01

    Multiple diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) procedures have been widely performed using a standard oblique-viewing (OV) curvilinear array (CLA) echoendoscope. Recently, a new, forward-viewing (FV) CLA was developed, with the advantages of improved endoscopic viewing and manipulation of devices. However, the FV-CLA echoendoscope has a narrower ultrasound scanning field, and lacks an elevator, which might represent obstacles for clinical use. The aim of this study was to compare the FV-CLA echoendoscope to the OV-CLA echoendoscope for EUS imaging of abdominal organs, and to assess the feasibility of EUS-guided interventions using the FV-CLA echoendoscope. EUS examinations were first performed and recorded using the OV-CLA echoendoscope, followed immediately by the FV-CLA echoendoscope. Video recordings were then assessed by two independent endosonographers in a blinded fashion. The EUS visualization and image quality of specific abdominal organs/structures were scored. Any indicated fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or intervention was performed using the FV-CLA echoendoscope, with the OV-CLA echoendoscope as salvage upon failure. A total of 21 patients were examined in the study. Both echoendoscopes had similar visualization and image quality for all organs/structures, except the common hepatic duct (CHD), which was seen significantly better with the FV-CLA echoendoscope. EUS interventions were conducted in eight patients, including FNA of pancreatic mass (3), pancreatic cyst (3), and cystgastrostomy (2). The FV-CLA echoendoscope was successful in seven patients. One failed FNA of the pancreatic head cyst was salvaged using the OV-CLA echoendoscope. There were no differences between the FV-CLA echoendoscope and the OV-CLA echoendoscope in visualization or image quality on upper EUS, except for the superior image quality of CHD using the FV-CLA echoendoscope. Therefore, the disadvantages of the FV-CLA echoendoscope appear minimal in light of the

  12. Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ser Yee; Pormento, James G; Koong, Heng Nung

    2009-04-01

    Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis are common bedside procedures with diagnostic, therapeutic and palliative roles. We describe a useful and familiar a useful and familiar technique with the use of a multiple lumen catheter commonly used for central venous line insertion for drainage of ascites or moderate to large pleural effusions. The use of a multiple lumen catheter allows easier and more rapid aspiration of fluid with a smaller probability of the side holes being blocked as compared to the standard needle or single catheter methods. This is particularly useful in situations where the dedicated commercial kits for thoracocentesis and abdominal paracentesis are not readily available.

  13. Post ventriculoperitoneal shunt abdominal pseudocyst: Challenges posed in management.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Raashid; Baba, Aejaz A; Bhat, Nisar A; Mufti, Gowhar; Mir, Younis A; Sajad, Wani

    2017-01-01

    In patients with hydrocephalus, the abdominal cavity has been used for absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) since 1905. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt operation is followed by abdominal complications in about 5-47% cases. Abdominal CSF pseudo cyst is an uncommon, but well described complication. This survey was conducted to study the clinical profile and management of this entity. We present our experience with cases of CSF pseudo cyst in children. Retrospective analysis of 4 cases diagnosed to have abdominal pseudo cyst following VP shunt between 2008 and 2013. All the four cases were suspected clinically and diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography. In three patients, the cyst was multilocular and of varying size. Fourth one had a unilocular cyst at the lower end of VP shunt. All the four patients had features of varying degree raised intracranial pressure and a two patients had abdominal signs also. All the patients needed open exploration. Cyst fluid was drained and partial to complete excision of the cyst was done along with the repositioning of the shunt in abdominal cavity in three patients and exteriorization of shunt in one patient. Patients were followed for any further complication over a period of 1-year. Abdominal pseudo cyst is a rare complication after VP Shunt and could result in shunt malfunction or abdominal symptoms and signs. Whenever suspected it should be confirmed by imaging, followed by open exploration and repositioning of the shunt.

  14. Post ventriculoperitoneal shunt abdominal pseudocyst: Challenges posed in management

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Raashid; Baba, Aejaz A.; Bhat, Nisar A.; Mufti, Gowhar; Mir, Younis A.; Sajad, Wani

    2017-01-01

    Background: In patients with hydrocephalus, the abdominal cavity has been used for absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) since 1905. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt operation is followed by abdominal complications in about 5-47% cases. Abdominal CSF pseudo cyst is an uncommon, but well described complication. Aim: This survey was conducted to study the clinical profile and management of this entity. We present our experience with cases of CSF pseudo cyst in children. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 4 cases diagnosed to have abdominal pseudo cyst following VP shunt between 2008 and 2013. All the four cases were suspected clinically and diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography. Results: In three patients, the cyst was multilocular and of varying size. Fourth one had a unilocular cyst at the lower end of VP shunt. All the four patients had features of varying degree raised intracranial pressure and a two patients had abdominal signs also. All the patients needed open exploration. Cyst fluid was drained and partial to complete excision of the cyst was done along with the repositioning of the shunt in abdominal cavity in three patients and exteriorization of shunt in one patient. Patients were followed for any further complication over a period of 1-year. Conclusion: Abdominal pseudo cyst is a rare complication after VP Shunt and could result in shunt malfunction or abdominal symptoms and signs. Whenever suspected it should be confirmed by imaging, followed by open exploration and repositioning of the shunt. PMID:28413525

  15. Staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Taviloglu, Korhan

    2003-07-01

    To review the current developments in staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma. To overview the steps of damage control laparotomy. The ever increasing importance of the resuscitation phase with current intensive care unit (ICU) support techniques should be emphasized. General surgeons should be familiar to staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma and collaborate with ICU teams, interventional radiologists and several other specialties to overcome this entity.

  16. Functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Grover, Madhusudan; Drossman, Douglas A

    2010-10-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a relatively less common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder defined by the presence of constant or frequently recurring abdominal pain that is not associated with eating, change in bowel habits, or menstrual periods (Drossman Gastroenterology 130:1377-1390, 2006), which points to a more centrally targeted (spinal and supraspinal) basis for the symptoms. However, FAPS is frequently confused with irritable bowel syndrome and other functional GI disorders in which abdominal pain is associated with eating and bowel movements. FAPS also differs from chronic abdominal pain associated with entities such as chronic pancreatitis or chronic inflammatory bowel disease, in which the pain is associated with peripherally acting factors (eg, gut inflammation or injury). Given the central contribution to the pain experience, concomitant psychosocial disturbances are common and strongly influence the clinical expression of FAPS, which also by definition is associated with loss of daily functioning. These factors make it critical to use a biopsychosocial construct to understand and manage FAPS, because gut-directed treatments are usually not successful in managing this condition.

  17. Low-dose abdominal computed tomography for detection of urinary stone disease - Impact of additional spectral shaping of the X-ray beam on image quality and dose parameters.

    PubMed

    Dewes, Patricia; Frellesen, Claudia; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Fischer, Sebastian; Vogl, Thomas J; Bauer, Ralf W; Schulz, Boris

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate a novel tin filter-based abdominal CT protocol for urolithiasis in terms of image quality and CT dose parameters. 130 consecutive patients with suspected urolithiasis underwent non-enhanced CT with three different protocols: 48 patients (group 1) were examined at tin-filtered 150kV (150kV Sn) on a third-generation dual-source-CT, 33 patients were examined with automated kV-selection (110-140kV) based on the scout view on the same CT-device (group 2), and 49 patients were examined on a second-generation dual-source-CT (group 3) with automated kV-selection (100-140kV). Automated exposure control was active in all groups. Image quality was subjectively evaluated on a 5-point-likert-scale by two radiologists and interobserver agreement as well as signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) was calculated. Dose-length-product (DLP) and volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) were compared. Image quality was rated in favour for the tin filter protocol with excellent interobserver agreement (ICC=0.86-0.91) and the difference reached statistical significance (p<0.001). SNR was significantly higher in group 1 and 2 compared to second-generation DSCT (p<0.001). On third-generation dual-source CT, there was no significant difference in SNR between the 150kV Sn and the automated kV selection protocol (p=0.5). The DLP of group 1 was 23% and 21% (p<0.002) lower in comparison to group 2 and 3, respectively. So was the CTDIvol of group 1 compared to group 2 (-36%) and 3 (-32%) (p<0.001). Additional shaping of a 150kV source spectrum by a tin filter substantially lowers patient exposure while improving image quality on un-enhanced abdominal computed tomography for urinary stone disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Pylephlebitis: a rare but possible complication of intra-abdominal infections].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bru, Susana; Nofuentes-Riera, Carmen; García-Marín, Andrés; Luri-Prieto, Paloma; Morales-Calderón, Miguel; García-García, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Pylephlebitis or septic thrombophlebitis of the portal venous system is a rare but serious complication of intra-abdominal infections which drain into the portal venous system. Its diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion and imaging tests, mainly a computed tomography scan, given the lack of specificity of the signs and symptoms. Spread of septic emboli is the major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyse patients diagnosed in our hospital. Retrospective descriptive study of patients diagnosed with pylephlebitis in our hospital. Four patients were included, 3 men and one woman. In 3 cases it was acute cholecystitis that led to the diagnosis of pylephlebitis at the same time as the intra-abdominal infection. Emergency surgery was performed in one case, whilst the other 2 were treated conservatively. Blood cultures were performed in all cases, and empirical antibiotic treatment was used. In the only case of acute appendicitis, diagnosis of pylephlebitis was achieved during the study of postoperative fever, with empirical antibiotic treatment also being started. The haematologist was requested to start the required anticoagulation therapy in all cases. Pylephlebitis is a rare complication of intra-abdominal infections that may make lead to a worse outcome. A high level of suspicion is required as well as imaging tests to make an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of radionuclide imaging in the triage of patients with chest pain in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Abbott, B G; Wackers, F J

    2000-02-01

    The triage of patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain and a normal or nondiagnostic ECG poses a significant diagnostic challenge to emergency physicians and cardiologists, leading to unnecessary hospital admissions and substantial associated costs. Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging can potentially play an important role in this setting, by providing both a safe and efficient means to risk stratify patients with a low-to-moderate likelihood of unstable angina. The proposed algorithm may serve as a strategy to improve utilization of hospital resources while safely identifying the subgroup of patients with acute chest discomfort who do not need to be admitted to the hospital.

  20. Evaluation of a new imaging tool for use with major trauma cases in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Crönlein, Moritz; Holzapfel, Konstantin; Beirer, Marc; Postl, Lukas; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Pförringer, Dominik; Huber-Wagner, Stefan; Biberthaler, Peter; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig

    2016-11-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate potential benefits of a new diagnostic software prototype (Trauma Viewer, TV) automatically reformatting computed tomography (CT) data on diagnostic speed and quality, compared to CT-image data evaluation using a conventional CT console. Multiple trauma CT data sets were analysed by one expert radiology and one expert traumatology fellow independently twice, once using the TV and once using the secondary conventional CT console placed in the CT control room. Actual analysis time and precision of diagnoses assessment were evaluated. The TV and CT-console results were compared respectively, but also a comparison to the initial multiple trauma CT reports assessed by emergency radiology fellows considered as the gold standard was performed. Finally, design and function of the Trauma Viewer were evaluated in a descriptive manner. CT data sets of 30 multiple trauma patients were enrolled. Mean time needed for analysis of one CT dataset was 2.43 min using the CT console and 3.58 min using the TV respectively. Thus, secondary conventional CT console analysis was on average 1.15 min shorter compared to the TV analysis. Both readers missed a total of 11 diagnoses using the secondary conventional CT console compared to 12 missed diagnoses using the TV. However, none of these overlooked diagnoses resulted in an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) > 2 corresponding to life threatening injuries. Even though it took the two expert fellows a little longer to analyse the CT scans on the prototype TV compared to the CT console, which can be explained by the new user interface of the TV, our preliminary results demonstrate that, after further development, the TV might serve as a new diagnostic feature in the trauma room management. Its high potential to improve time and quality of CT-based diagnoses might help in fast decision making regarding treatment of severely injured patients.

  1. Emergent ultrasound evaluation of the pediatric female pelvis.

    PubMed

    Back, Susan J; Maya, Carolina L; Zewdneh, Daniel; Epelman, Monica

    2017-08-01

    Ultrasound is the primary imaging modality of the pediatric female pelvis and is often requested to evaluate girls with pelvic or abdominal pain or abnormal bleeding. The US interpretation can help guide the clinician toward medical or surgical management. Here we discuss the normal US anatomy of the female pelvis and illustrate, through case examples, conditions encountered when performing emergent pelvic US for common and uncommon clinical scenarios.

  2. Abdominal Wall Endometriosis Mimicking Metastases.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Rakul; Anoop, T M; Mony, Rari P

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal wall lesions can be broadly divided into nontumorous and tumorous conditions. Nontumorous lesions include congenital lesion, abdominal wall hernia, inflammation and infection, vascular lesions, and miscellaneous conditions like hematoma. Tumorous lesions include benign and malignant neoplasms. Here, we report an unusual case of abdominal wall endometriosis mimicking metastases in a patient with breast carcinoma.

  3. Effectiveness of Interventions to Decrease Image Ordering for Low Back Pain Presentations in the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaocheng; Desai, Shashwat; Krebs, Lynette D; Kirkland, Scott W; Keto-Lambert, Diana; Rowe, Brian H

    2018-01-08

    Low back pain (LBP) is an extremely frequent reason for patients to present to an emergency department (ED). Despite evidence against the utility of imaging, simple and advanced imaging (i.e., computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging) for patients with LBP has become increasingly frequent in the ED. The objective of this review was to identify and examine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing image ordering in the ED for LBP patients. A protocol was developed a priori, following the PRISMA guidelines, and registered with PROSPERO. Six bibliographic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews, SCOPUS, CINAHL, and Dissertation Abstracts) and the gray literature were searched. Comparative studies assessing interventions that targeted image ordering in the ED for adult patients with LBP were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently screened study eligibility and completed data extraction. Study quality was completed independently by two reviewers using the before-after quality assessment checklist, with a third-party mediator resolving any differences. Due to a limited number of studies and significant heterogeneity, only a descriptive analysis was performed. The search yielded 603 unique citations of which a total of five before-after studies were included. Quality assessment identified potential biases relating to comparability between the pre- and postintervention groups, reliable assessment of outcomes, and an overall lack of information on the intervention (i.e., time point, description, intervention data collection). The type of interventions utilized included clinical decision support tools, clinical practice guidelines, a knowledge translation initiative, and multidisciplinary protocols. Overall, four studies reported a decrease in the relative percentage change in imaging in a specific image modality (22.7%-47.4%) following implementation of the interventions; however, one study reported a 35% increase in patient

  4. Focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) in blunt paediatric abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Ahmad Vaqas; Qazi, Saqib Hamid; Khan, Muhammad Arif Mateen; Akhtar, Wassem; Majeed, Amina

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the role of focussed abdominal sonography for trauma in blunt paediatric abdominal trauma patients, and to see if the role of computed tomography scan could be limited to only those cases in which sonography was positive. The retrospective study covered 10 years, from January 1,2000 to December 31,2009, and was conducted at the Department of Radiology and Department of Emergency Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. It comprised cases of 174 children from birth to 14 years who had presented with blunt abdominal trauma and had focussed abdominal sonography for trauma done at the hospital. The findings were correlated with computed tomography scan of the abdomen and clinical follow-up. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of focussed abdominal sonography for trauma were calculated for blunt abdominal trauma. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Of the total 174 cases, 31 (17.81%) were later confirmed by abdominal scan. Of these 31 children, sonography had been positive in 29 (93.54%) children. In 21 (67.74%) of the 31 children, sonograpy had been true positive; 8 (25%) (8/31) were false positive; and 2 (6%) (2/31) were false negative. There were 6 (19.3%) children in which sonography was positive and converted to laparotomy. There was no significant difference on account of gender (p>0.356). Focussed abdominal sonography for trauma in the study had sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 95%, positive predictive value of 73%, and negative predictive value of 73% with accuracy of 94%. All patients who had negative sonography were discharged later, and had no complication on clinical follow-up. Focussed abdominal sonography for trauma is a fairly reliable mode to assess blunt abdominal trauma in children. It is a useful tool to pick high-grade solid and hollow viscous injury. The results suggest that the role of computed tomography scan can be limited to those cases in which focussed

  5. [Clinical Approach to Abdominal Pain as Functional Origin].

    PubMed

    Ryu, Han Seung; Choi, Suck Chei

    2018-02-25

    Abdominal pain is a common symptom that patients refer to a hospital. Organic causes should be differentiated in patients with abdominal pain and treatment should be administered in accordance with the causes. A meticulous history taking and physical examination are highly useful in making a diagnosis, and blood tests, imaging modalities, and endoscopy are useful for confirming diagnosis. However, in many cases, patients have functional disorders with no obvious abnormal findings obtained even if many diagnostic tests are performed. Patients with functional disorders usually complain the vague abdominal pain located in the center and other portions of the abdominal area. Although the most representative disease is irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal pain syndrome is currently researched as a new disease entity of functional abdominal pain. As various receptors related to functional abdominal pain have been discovered, drugs associated with those receptors are used to treat the disorders, and additional new drugs are vigorously developed. In addition, medical therapy with pharmacological or non-pharmacological psychiatric treatment is effective for treating functional abdominal pain.

  6. AAPM/RSNA physics tutorials for residents: MR imaging: brief overview and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Michael A; Ibrahim, Tamer S; Ouwerkerk, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become established as a diagnostic and research tool in many areas of medicine because of its ability to provide excellent soft-tissue delineation in different areas of interest. In addition to T1- and T2-weighted imaging, many specialized MR techniques have been designed to extract metabolic or biophysical information. Diffusion-weighted imaging gives insight into the movement of water molecules in tissue, and diffusion-tensor imaging can reveal fiber orientation in the white matter tracts. Metabolic information about the object of interest can be obtained with spectroscopy of protons, in addition to imaging of other nuclei, such as sodium. Dynamic contrast material-enhanced imaging and recently proton spectroscopy play an important role in oncologic imaging. When these techniques are combined, they can assist the physician in making a diagnosis or monitoring a treatment regimen. One of the major advantages of the different types of MR imaging is the ability of the operator to manipulate image contrast with a variety of selectable parameters that affect the kind and quality of the information provided. The elements used to obtain MR images and the factors that affect formation of an MR image include MR instrumentation, localization of the MR signal, gradients, k-space, and pulse sequences. RSNA, 2007

  7. Diffusion-weighted imaging determinants for acute ischemic stroke diagnosis in the emergency room.

    PubMed

    Brunser, Alejandro M; Cavada, Gabriel; Venturelli, Paula Muñoz; Olavarría, Verónica; Rojo, Alexis; Almeida, Juan; Díaz, Violeta; Hoppe, Arnold; Lavados, Pablo

    2018-05-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical-radiological determinants of diffusion-weighted image (DWI) abnormalities in patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke (AIS) seen at the emergency room (ER). During the study period, 882 consecutive patients were screened at Clínica Alemana de Santiago, Chile; 786 had AIS and 711 (90.4%) were included. DWI demonstrated 87.3% sensitivity and 99.0% specificity, with a positive likelihood ratio of 79 and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.13 for the detection of AIS. In the univariate analysis, a positive DWI in AIS was associated with admission National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.1%), time from symptom onset to DWI (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05), presence of a relevant intracranial artery occlusion (OR 3.18, 95% CI 1.75-5.76), posterior circulation ischemia (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.7), brainstem location of the AIS (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.093-0.27), infratentorial location of AIS (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.70), and lacunar (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.68) or undetermined stroke etiology (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.3-0.31). In multivariate analysis, only admission NIHSS score (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.13), time from symptom onset to DWI (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.13), brainstem location (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.051-0.37), and lacunar (OR: 0.4, 95% CI 0.21-0.78) or undetermined etiology (OR: 0.4, 95% CI 0.22-0.78) remained independently associated. DWI detects AIS accurately; the positivity of these evaluations in the ER is associated only with NIHSS on admission, time to DWI, brainstem location, and AIS etiology.

  8. Diagnostic ultrasonography in cattle with abdominal fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the ultrasonographic findings in 14 cows with abdominal fat necrosis. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed the presence of heterogeneous hyperechoic masses and hyperechoic omentum with localized masses floating in a hypoechoic peritoneal fluid. A hyperechogenic rim was imaged around both kidneys. The intestines were coated with hyperechoic capsules and the intestinal lumens were constricted. Ultrasonographic examination of the pancreatic parenchyma showed an overall increased echogenicity which was homogenously distributed in 3 cases. A diagnosis of abdominal fat necrosis was made with ultrasound-guided biopsy of the echogenic masses, and thereafter at postmortem examination. Results from this study demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasonography as an imaging modality for antemortem diagnosis of abdominal lipomatosis in cattle. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first that illustrates ultrasonographic findings in cattle affected with abdominal lipomatosis.

  9. Fulminant abdominal gas gangrene in metastatic colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    BOZKURT, MUSTAFA; OKUTUR, KEREM; AYDIN, KÜBRA; NAMAL, ESAT; ÖZTÜRK, AKIN; BALCI, CEM; DEMIR, GÖKHAN

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of fulminant abdominal gas gangrene in a patient with metastatic colon cancer. A 39-year-old patient with descending colon, high-grade adenocarcinoma and coexisting liver and lymph node metastases received two courses of chemotherapy. The patient developed sudden acute abdominal symptoms accompanied by septic shock parameters. The imaging findings on computed tomography were characteristic for abdominal gas gangrene, involving liver metastases, portal vein and lymph nodes with associated pneumoperitoneum. The patient succumbed to the disease within hours following the onset of symptoms. PMID:22740933

  10. Fulminant abdominal gas gangrene in metastatic colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Mustafa; Okutur, Kerem; Aydin, Kübra; Namal, Esat; Oztürk, Akin; Balci, Cem; Demir, Gökhan

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of fulminant abdominal gas gangrene in a patient with metastatic colon cancer. A 39-year-old patient with descending colon, high-grade adenocarcinoma and coexisting liver and lymph node metastases received two courses of chemotherapy. The patient developed sudden acute abdominal symptoms accompanied by septic shock parameters. The imaging findings on computed tomography were characteristic for abdominal gas gangrene, involving liver metastases, portal vein and lymph nodes with associated pneumoperitoneum. The patient succumbed to the disease within hours following the onset of symptoms.

  11. Diagnosis of a sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy: ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Palmucci, Stefano; Lanza, Maria Letizia; Gulino, Fabrizio; Scilletta, Beniamino; Ettorre, Giovanni Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Sigmoid volvulus complicating pregnancy is a rare, non-obstetric cause of abdominal pain that requires prompt surgical intervention (decompression) to avoid intestinal ischemia and perforation. We report the case of a 31-week pregnant woman with abdominal pain and subsequent development of constipation. Preoperative diagnosis was achieved using magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography: the large bowel distension and a typical whirl sign - near a sigmoid colon transition point - suggested the diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus. The decision to refer the patient for emergency laparotomy was adopted without any ionizing radiation exposure, and the pre-operative diagnosis was confirmed after surgery. Imaging features of sigmoid volvulus and differential diagnosis from other non-obstetric abdominal emergencies in pregnancy are discussed in our report, with special emphasis on the diagnostic capabilities of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:24967020

  12. Diagnosis of a sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy: ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Palmucci, Stefano; Lanza, Maria Letizia; Gulino, Fabrizio; Scilletta, Beniamino; Ettorre, Giovanni Carlo

    2014-02-01

    Sigmoid volvulus complicating pregnancy is a rare, non-obstetric cause of abdominal pain that requires prompt surgical intervention (decompression) to avoid intestinal ischemia and perforation. We report the case of a 31-week pregnant woman with abdominal pain and subsequent development of constipation. Preoperative diagnosis was achieved using magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography: the large bowel distension and a typical whirl sign - near a sigmoid colon transition point - suggested the diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus. The decision to refer the patient for emergency laparotomy was adopted without any ionizing radiation exposure, and the pre-operative diagnosis was confirmed after surgery. Imaging features of sigmoid volvulus and differential diagnosis from other non-obstetric abdominal emergencies in pregnancy are discussed in our report, with special emphasis on the diagnostic capabilities of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  13. Development of a mobile emergency patient information and imaging communication system based on CDMA-1X EVDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Keon Ho; Jung, Haijo; Kang, Won-Suk; Jang, Bong Mun; Kim, Joong Il; Han, Dong Hoon; Yoo, Sun-Kook; Yoo, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2006-03-01

    The wireless mobile service with a high bit rate using CDMA-1X EVDO is now widely used in Korea. Mobile devices are also increasingly being used as the conventional communication mechanism. We have developed a web-based mobile system that communicates patient information and images, using CDMA-1X EVDO for emergency diagnosis. It is composed of a Mobile web application system using the Microsoft Windows 2003 server and an internet information service. Also, a mobile web PACS used for a database managing patient information and images was developed by using Microsoft access 2003. A wireless mobile emergency patient information and imaging communication system is developed by using Microsoft Visual Studio.NET, and JPEG 2000 ActiveX control for PDA phone was developed by using the Microsoft Embedded Visual C++. Also, the CDMA-1X EVDO is used for connections between mobile web servers and the PDA phone. This system allows fast access to the patient information database, storing both medical images and patient information anytime and anywhere. Especially, images were compressed into a JPEG2000 format and transmitted from a mobile web PACS inside the hospital to the radiologist using a PDA phone located outside the hospital. Also, this system shows radiological images as well as physiological signal data, including blood pressure, vital signs and so on, in the web browser of the PDA phone so radiologists can diagnose more effectively. Also, we acquired good results using an RW-6100 PDA phone used in the university hospital system of the Sinchon Severance Hospital in Korea.

  14. Assessment of image quality and low-contrast detectability in abdominal CT of obese patients: comparison of a novel integrated circuit with a conventional discrete circuit detector at different tube voltages.

    PubMed

    Euler, A; Heye, T; Kekelidze, M; Bongartz, G; Szucs-Farkas, Z; Sommer, C; Schmidt, B; Schindera, Sebastian T

    2015-03-01

    To compare image quality and low-contrast detectability of an integrated circuit (IC) detector in abdominal CT of obese patients with conventional detector technology at low tube voltages. A liver phantom with 45 lesions was placed in a water container to mimic an obese patient and examined on two different CT systems at 80, 100 and 120 kVp. The systems were equipped with either the IC or conventional detector. Image noise was measured, and the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) was calculated. Low-contrast detectability was assessed independently by three radiologists. Radiation dose was estimated by the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). The image noise was significantly lower, and the CNR was significantly higher with the IC detector at 80, 100 and 120 kVp, respectively (P = 0.023). The IC detector resulted in an increased lesion detection rate at 80 kVp (38.1 % vs. 17.2 %) and 100 kVp (57.0 % vs. 41.0 %). There was no difference in the detection rate between the IC detector at 100 kVp and the conventional detector at 120 kVp (57.0 % vs. 62.2 %). The CTDIvol at 80, 100 and 120 kVp measured 4.5-5.2, 7.3-7.9 and 9.8-10.2 mGy, respectively. The IC detector at 100 kVp resulted in similar low-contrast detectability compared to the conventional detector with a 120-kVp protocol at a radiation dose reduction of 37 %.

  15. Comparison of free-breathing with navigator-controlled acquisition regimes in abdominal diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images: Effect on ADC and IVIM statistics.

    PubMed

    Jerome, Neil P; Orton, Matthew R; d'Arcy, James A; Collins, David J; Koh, Dow-Mu; Leach, Martin O

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect on diffusion-weighted image-derived parameters in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) models from choice of either free-breathing or navigator-controlled acquisition. Imaging was performed with consent from healthy volunteers (n = 10) on a 1.5T Siemens Avanto scanner. Parameter-matched free-breathing and navigator-controlled diffusion-weighted images were acquired, without averaging in the console, for a total scan time of ∼10 minutes. Regions of interest were drawn for renal cortex, renal pyramid, whole kidney, liver, spleen, and paraspinal muscle. An ADC diffusion model for these regions was fitted for b-values ≥ 250 s/mm(2) , using a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, and an IVIM model was fitted for all images using a Bayesian method. ADC and IVIM parameters from the two acquisition regimes show no significant differences for the cohort; individual cases show occasional discrepancies, with outliers in parameter estimates arising more commonly from navigator-controlled scans. The navigator-controlled acquisitions showed, on average, a smaller range of movement for the kidneys (6.0 ± 1.4 vs. 10.0 ± 1.7 mm, P = 0.03), but also a smaller number of averages collected (3.9 ± 0.1 vs. 5.5 ± 0.2, P < 0.01) in the allocated time. Navigator triggering offers no advantage in fitted diffusion parameters, whereas free-breathing appears to offer greater confidence in fitted diffusion parameters, with fewer outliers, for matched acquisition periods. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. "Butterfly under a Pin": An Emergent Teacher Image amid Mandated Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Cheryl J.

    2012-01-01

    The author examines 1 experienced teacher's image of teaching and how it was purposely changed--through external intervention and against the individual's will--from the view of teacher as curriculum maker to the view of teacher as curriculum implementer. Laura's account of the "butterfly under a pin" image, a version of the…

  17. Smart image sensors: an emerging key technology for advanced optical measurement and microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, Peter

    1996-08-01

    Optical microsystems typically include photosensitive devices, analog preprocessing circuitry and digital signal processing electronics. The advances in semiconductor technology have made it possible today to integrate all photosensitive and electronical devices on one 'smart image sensor' or photo-ASIC (application-specific integrated circuits containing photosensitive elements). It is even possible to provide each 'smart pixel' with additional photoelectronic functionality, without compromising the fill factor substantially. This technological capability is the basis for advanced cameras and optical microsystems showing novel on-chip functionality: Single-chip cameras with on- chip analog-to-digital converters for less than $10 are advertised; image sensors have been developed including novel functionality such as real-time selectable pixel size and shape, the capability of performing arbitrary convolutions simultaneously with the exposure, as well as variable, programmable offset and sensitivity of the pixels leading to image sensors with a dynamic range exceeding 150 dB. Smart image sensors have been demonstrated offering synchronous detection and demodulation capabilities in each pixel (lock-in CCD), and conventional image sensors are combined with an on-chip digital processor for complete, single-chip image acquisition and processing systems. Technological problems of the monolithic integration of smart image sensors include offset non-uniformities, temperature variations of electronic properties, imperfect matching of circuit parameters, etc. These problems can often be overcome either by designing additional compensation circuitry or by providing digital correction routines. Where necessary for technological or economic reasons, smart image sensors can also be combined with or realized as hybrids, making use of commercially available electronic components. It is concluded that the possibilities offered by custom smart image sensors will influence the design

  18. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-02

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain.

  19. Delayed rupture of gallbladder following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Debajyoti; Agarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Krittika; Garg, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-09-01

    A 29-year-old gentleman presented to surgery emergency with severe upper abdominal pain and vomiting. He reported to had been hit in his abdomen by a ball during a cricket match. Computerized tomogram of the abdomen revealed hematoma within the gallbladder lumen, laceration of segment six of liver, and hemoperitoneum. The patient did not agree for laparotomy advised to him, and so, managed conservatively. The patient reported back to us with high grade fever, jaundice, and painful abdominal distension after seven days of discharge from the hospital. His abdominal examination showed features of generalized peritonitis. Surgical abdominal exploration revealed a single perforation in the fundus of gallbladder with frozen calot'striangle. Subtotal cholecystectomy was done. Histopathology of excised gallbladder revealed xanthogranulomatous inflammation. The present case report highlights that early exploration and cholecystectomy should be considered in patients with gallbladder injury to obviate the risk of delayed perforation.