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Sample records for abdominal fat depots

  1. Fatty acid composition of fat depots in wintering Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    I determined the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, abdominal, visceral, and leg saddle depots in adult female Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) wintering in north-central Missouri during October 1984-March 1985. Mean levels of C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 generally were highest in the subcutaneous and abdominal depots. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fats was highest in the leg saddle depot and lowest in the abdominal depot. I also assessed the differences among sexes, seasons, and years in fatty acid composition of abdominal fat depots in adult geese collected during October-March, 1985-1987. Adult females had consistently higher levels of C14:0 in abdominal depots than males. Fatty acid composition of the abdominal depot differed among years but not by season. In the abdominal depot, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 were higher in 1986-1987 compared with the previous two years, whereas C18:3 was highest in 1984-1985. Differences among years reflected changes in winter diet. Fatty acids of wintering geese were similar to those previously found in breeding Canada Geese.

  2. Abdominal obesity: a marker of ectopic fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    In the early 1980s, we analyzed the metabolic profile of 930 men and women and concluded that an abdominal distribution of fat for a given BMI is associated with increased insulin resistance and risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The correlation between abdominal fat and metabolic dysfunction has since been validated in many studies, and waist circumference is now a criterion for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Several mechanisms for this relationship have been postulated; however, we now know that visceral fat is only one of many ectopic fat depots used when the subcutaneous adipose tissue cannot accommodate excess fat because of its limited expandability.

  3. Depot Dependent Effects of Dexamethasone on Gene Expression in Human Omental and Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues from Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Karastergiou, Kalypso; Gower, Adam; Fried, Susan K.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids promote fat accumulation in visceral compared to subcutaneous depots, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. To identify long-term changes in gene expression that are differentially sensitive or responsive to glucocorticoids in these depots, paired samples of human omental (Om) and abdominal subcutaneous (Abdsc) adipose tissues obtained from obese women during elective surgery were cultured with the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone (Dex, 0, 1, 10, 25 and 1000 nM) for 7 days. Dex regulated 32% of the 19,741 genes on the array, while 53% differed by Depot and 2.5% exhibited a Depot*Dex concentration interaction. Gene set enrichment analysis showed Dex regulation of the expected metabolic and inflammatory pathways in both depots. Cluster analysis of the 460 transcripts that exhibited an interaction of Depot and Dex concentration revealed sets of mRNAs for which the responses to Dex differed in magnitude, sensitivity or direction between the two depots as well as mRNAs that responded to Dex only in one depot. These transcripts were also clearly depot different in fresh adipose tissue and are implicated in processes that could affect adipose tissue distribution or functions (e.g. adipogenesis, triacylglycerol synthesis and storage, insulin action). Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the depot differences in the effect of Dex on the expression of specific genes and pathways that regulate adipose function may offer novel insights into understanding the biology of visceral adipose tissues and their links to metabolic health. PMID:28005982

  4. Relationships between Rodent White Adipose Fat Pads and Human White Adipose Fat Depots

    PubMed Central

    Chusyd, Daniella E.; Wang, Donghai; Huffman, Derek M.; Nagy, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue (WAT) development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of WAT. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent WAT as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat. PMID:27148535

  5. Change in Intra-Abdominal Fat Predicts the Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Americans.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Catherine A; Kahn, Steven E; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas.

  6. Assessment of goat fat depots using ultrasound technology and multiple multivariate prediction models.

    PubMed

    Peres, A M; Dias, L G; Joy, M; Teixeira, A

    2010-02-01

    Assessment of fat depots for several goat body parts is an expensive and time-consuming task requiring a trained technician. Therefore, the establishment of models to predict fat depots based on data requiring simpler and easier procedures, such as ultrasound measurements, that could be carried out in vivo, would be a major advantage. An interesting alternative to the use of multiple linear regression models is the use of partial least squares or artificial neural network models because they allow the establishment of one model to simultaneously predict different fat depots of interest. In this work, the applicability of these models to simultaneously predict 7 goat fat depots (subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat, total carcass fat, omental fat, kidney and pelvic fat, mesenteric fat, and total body fat) was investigated. Although satisfactory correlation and prediction results were obtained using the multiple partial least squares model (cross-verification and validation R(2) and standard prediction error values between 0.66 and 0.98 and 247 and 2,168, respectively), the best global correlation and prediction performances were achieved with the multiple radial basis function artificial neural network (verification and validation R(2) and standard prediction error values between 0.82 and 0.96 and 304 and 1,707, respectively). These 2 multiple models allowed correlating and predicting simultaneously the 7 goat fat depots based on the goat BW and on only 2 ultrasonic measures (lumbar subcutaneous fat between fifth and sixth vertebrae and the fat depth at the third sternebra). Moreover, both multiple models showed better results compared with those obtained with multiple linear regression models proposed in previous work.

  7. Metformin induces glucose uptake in human preadipocyte-derived adipocytes from various fat depots.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M; Timper, K; Radimerski, T; Dembinski, K; Frey, D M; Zulewski, H; Keller, U; Müller, B; Christ-Crain, M; Grisouard, J

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of metformin on basal and insulin-induced glucose uptake in subcutaneous and visceral preadipocyte-derived adipocytes from obese and non-obese patients, preadipocytes were obtained from subcutaneous and visceral fat depots during abdominal surgery. Differentiation efficiency was evaluated by measurement of intracellular triglyceride accumulation. Preadipocyte-derived adipocytes were treated with metformin (1 mM) for 24 h with or without the addition of insulin (100 nM) for 20 min and glucose uptake was measured. In cells from each donor, intracellular triglyceride accumulation was more abundant in subcutaneous preadipocyte-derived adipocytes than in visceral preadipocyte-derived adipocytes (p < 0.001). Insulin stimulated glucose uptake in subcutaneous preadipocyte-derived adipocytes from both non-obese and obese patients (p < 0.001 vs. basal). In visceral preadipocyte-derived adipocytes, insulin did not increase basal glucose uptake. In subcutaneous preadipocyte-derived adipocytes from non-obese and obese patients, metformin alone increased glucose uptake to 2.7 +/- 0.2 (p < 0.001) and 2.1 +/- 0.1 fold (p < 0.001) respectively. Metformin increased glucose uptake in visceral preadipocyte-derived adipocytes from non-obese (1.7 +/- 0.1 fold vs. basal, p < 0.001) and obese (2.0 +/- 0.2 fold vs. basal, p < 0.001) patients. Combined treatment with metformin and insulin increased glucose uptake in subcutaneous preadipocyte-derived adipocytes from both non-obese and obese patients (p < 0.001 vs. insulin alone). In preadipocyte-derived adipocytes glucose uptake is induced by metformin independent of the fat depot origin of the preadipocytes (subcutaneous or visceral) and the obesity state of the patients (non-obese or obese). In adipocytes, metformin seems to induce glucose uptake independent of insulin suggesting an alternative mechanism of action of this drug.

  8. Gluteal and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue depots as stroma cell source: gluteal cells display increased adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potentials.

    PubMed

    Iwen, Karl Alexander; Priewe, Anna-Christin; Winnefeld, Marc; Rose, Christian; Siemers, Frank; Rohwedel, Jürgen; Cakiroglu, Figen; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schepky, Andreas; Klein, Johannes; Kramer, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Human adipose-derived stroma cells (ADSCs) have successfully been employed in explorative therapeutic studies. Current evidence suggests that ADSCs are unevenly distributed in subcutaneous adipose tissue; therefore, the anatomical origin of ADSCs may influence clinical outcomes. This study was designed to investigate proliferation and differentiation capacities of ADSCs from the gluteal and abdominal depot of 8 females. All had normal BMI (22.01 ± 0.39 kg/m(2) ) and waist circumference (81.13 ± 2.33 cm). Examination by physicians and analysis of 31 laboratory parameters did not reveal possibly confounding medical disorders. Gluteal and abdominal adipose tissue was sampled by en bloc resection on day 7 (±1) after the last menses. Histological examination did not reveal significant depot-specific differences. As assessed by BrdU assay, proliferation of cells from both depots was similar after 24 h and analysis of 15 cell surface markers by flow cytometry identified the isolated cells as ADSCs, again without depot-specific differences. ADSCs from both depots differentiated poorly to chondroblasts. Gluteal ADSCs displayed significantly higher adipogenic differentiation potential than abdominal cells. Osteogenic differentiation was most pronounced in gluteal cells, whereas differentiation of abdominal ADSCs was severely impaired. Our data demonstrate a depot-specific difference in ADSC differentiation potential with abdominal cells failing to meet the criteria of multipotent ADSCs. This finding should be taken into account in future explorations of ADSC-derived therapeutic strategies.

  9. Identification of a new supraclavicular brown fat depot in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rediscovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in healthy adult humans raises the possibility of utilizing BAT to combat obesity and its related metabolic disorders. Adult humans possess limited amounts of BAT with the most thermoactive depot located in the supraclavicular area of the neck. Understan...

  10. Uniform fatty acid mobilization from anatomically distinct fat depots in the sable (Martes zibellina).

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2007-07-01

    The mobilization of fatty acids (FA) is a selective process in humans, rodents and the few previously studied carnivores. The FA composition of and mobilization from different fat depots reflect the functions of adipose tissues, e.g. in energy storage or insulation. Sixteen farm-raised sables (Martes zibellina), a terrestrial mustelid, were assigned into a fed control group or fasted for 4 days. The FA composition of the sable was relatively similar to other previously studied mustelids. The masses of the different fat depots decreased by 28-55% during fasting. The subcutaneous (sc) and intraabdominal (iab) fats had a uniform FA composition and the sable could mobilize both sc and iab FA. 18:3n-3, 18:4n-3 and 16:1n-7 were effectively mobilized, while long-chain saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) increased in proportion. Relative mobilization (RM) correlated inversely with the FA chain length and Delta9-desaturation increased RM of several MUFA compared to SFA. The results reinforce the hypothesis that the terrestrial sable can utilize sc and iab fat depots as energy reserves during nutritional scarcity. The natural history of the species is an important determinant of the FA composition and RM between anatomically different fat depots.

  11. Carcass characteristics and fat depots in Iberian and F Large White × Landrace pigs intensively finished or raised outdoors in oak-tree forests.

    PubMed

    Bressan, M C; Almeida, J; Santos Silva, J; Bettencourt, C; Francisco, A; Gama, L T

    2016-06-01

    A factorial experiment was performed with 117 barrows belonging to the Iberian (IB) and crossbred F Large White × Landrace (F) genetic groups, either intensively finished (IN) or finished outdoors on pasture in an oak and cork tree forest (EX). Information was collected on carcass weight, yield, and dimensions; weight of organs, carcass cuts, and abdominal fat depots; backfat depth; measurements of the longissimus thoracis (LT); and yield of different leg tissues. For the 41 slaughter and carcass traits analyzed, the interaction between genetic group and finishing system was significant ( < 0.05) in 18 traits, and overall, there was a more pronounced influence of genetic group than of finishing system. In most variables, particularly those related with fat deposition, the interaction reflected mostly changes in mean differences among genetic groups rather than in their ranking, where IB pigs consistently produced fatter carcasses, regardless of the finishing system. Liver weight in IB-EX pigs was lower by nearly 8% when compared with F-EX or IB-IN pigs, but the opposite pattern was found in F pigs, where liver weight in F-EX pigs was higher by 16% relative to IB-EX pigs or to F-IN pigs. The deposition of adipose tissue was much larger ( < 0.05) in IB pigs compared with F pigs, with means for fat depots in IB pigs that were higher by about 25% in total abdominal fat, 94% in dorsal fat depth, 72% in intermuscular plus subcutaneous fat in the leg, and over 300% in intramuscular fat (IMF). The deposition of lean tissue was much lower in IB pigs ( < 0.05), with means for trimmed loin weight corresponding to about one-half of the means obtained in F pigs, whereas lean percentage in the leg of IB pigs was about two-thirds of the mean in F pigs and the mean area of the LT was nearly one-half of that observed in F pigs in the same finishing system ( < 0.05). A strong correlation was observed between the various fat depots when the full data set was considered (correlations

  12. Inverse regulation of basal lipolysis in perigonadal and mesenteric fat depots in mice.

    PubMed

    Wueest, Stephan; Yang, Xingyuan; Liu, Jun; Schoenle, Eugen J; Konrad, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Given the strong link between visceral adiposity and (hepatic) insulin resistance as well as liver steatosis, it is crucial to characterize obesity-associated alterations in adipocyte function, particularly in fat depots drained to the liver. Yet these adipose tissues are not easily accessible in humans, and the most frequently studied depot in rodents is the perigonadal, which is drained systemically. In the present study, we aimed to study alterations in lipolysis between mesenteric and perigonadal adipocytes in mice. Basal free fatty acid and glycerol release was significantly lower in perigonadal compared with mesenteric adipocytes isolated from chow-fed C57BL/6J mice. However, this difference completely vanished in high-fat diet-fed mice. Consistently, protein levels of the G(0)/G(1) switch gene 2 (G0S2), which were previously found to be inversely related to basal lipolysis, were significantly lower in mesenteric compared with perigonadal fat of chow-fed mice. Similarly, perilipin was differently expressed between the two depots. In addition, adipocyte-specific overexpression of G0S2 led to significantly decreased basal lipolysis in mesenteric adipose tissue of chow-fed mice. In conclusion, lipolysis is differently regulated between perigonadal and mesenteric adipocytes, and these depot-specific differences might be explained by altered regulation of G0S2 and/or perilipin.

  13. KNEE-JOINT LOADING IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: INFLUENCE OF ABDOMINAL AND THIGH FAT

    PubMed Central

    Messier, Stephen P.; Beavers, Daniel P.; Loeser, Richard F.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Khajanchi, Shubham; Legault, Claudine; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Hunter, David J.; DeVita, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Using three separate models that included total body mass, total lean and total fat mass, and abdominal and thigh fat as independent measures, we determined their association with knee-joint loads in older overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Fat depots were quantified using computed tomography and total lean and fat mass determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 176 adults (age = 66.3 yr., BMI = 33.5 kg·m−2) with radiographic knee OA. Knee moments and joint bone-on-bone forces were calculated using gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. Results Higher total body mass was significantly associated (p ≤ 0.0001) with greater knee compressive and shear forces, compressive and shear impulses (p < 0.0001), patellofemoral forces (p< 0.006), and knee extensor moments (p = 0.003). Regression analysis with total lean and total fat mass as independent variables revealed significant positive associations of total fat mass with knee compressive (p = 0.0001), shear (p < 0.001), and patellofemoral forces (p = 0.01) and knee extension moment (p = 0.008). Gastrocnemius and quadriceps forces were positively associated with total fat mass. Total lean mass was associated with knee compressive force (p = 0.002). A regression model that included total thigh and total abdominal fat found both were significantly associated with knee compressive and shear forces (p ≤ 0.04). Thigh fat was associated with the knee abduction (p = 0.03) and knee extension moment (p = 0.02). Conclusions Thigh fat, consisting predominately of subcutaneous fat, had similar significant associations with knee joint forces as abdominal fat despite its much smaller volume and could be an important therapeutic target for people with knee OA. PMID:25133996

  14. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  15. Elucidation of Molecular Mechanisms of Physiological Variations between Bovine Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat Depots under Different Nutritional Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Romao, Josue Moura; Jin, Weiwu; He, Maolong; McAllister, Tim; Guan, Le Luo

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and metabolism. There is sparse understanding of the molecular regulation at the protein level of bovine adipose tissues, especially within different fat depots under different nutritional regimes. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences in protein expression between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in steers fed different diets and to identify the potential regulatory molecular mechanisms of protein expression. Subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were collected from 16 British-continental steers (15.5 month old) fed a high-fat diet (7.1% fat, n=8) or a control diet (2.7% fat, n=8). Protein expression was profiled using label free quantification LC-MS/MS and expression of selected transcripts was evaluated using qRT-PCR. A total of 682 proteins were characterized and quantified with fat depot having more impact on protein expression, altering the level of 51.0% of the detected proteins, whereas diet affected only 5.3%. Functional analysis revealed that energy production and lipid metabolism were among the main functions associated with differentially expressed proteins between fat depots, with visceral fat being more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat as proteins associated with lipid and energy metabolism were upregulated. The expression of several proteins was significantly correlated to subcutaneous fat thickness and adipocyte size, indicating their potential as adiposity markers. A poor correlation (r=0.245) was observed between mRNA and protein levels for 9 genes, indicating that many proteins may be subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 8 miRNAs were predicted to regulate more than 20% of lipid metabolism proteins differentially expressed between fat depots, suggesting that miRNAs play a role in adipose tissue regulation. Our results show that proteomic changes support the distinct metabolic and physiological characteristics observed between

  16. The effects of metabolizable energy intake on body fat depots of adult Pelibuey ewes fed roughage diets under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Chay-Canul, A J; Ayala-Burgos, A J; Ku-Vera, J C; Magaña-Monforte, J G; Tedeschi, L O

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of metabolizable energy intake (MEI) on changes in fat depots of adult Pelibuey ewes fed roughage diets under tropical conditions. Eighteen 3-year-old Pelibuey ewes with similar body weight (BW) of 37.6 ± 4.0 kg and body condition score (BCS) of 2.5 ± 0.20 were randomly assigned to three groups of six ewes each in a completely randomized design. Ewes were housed in metabolic crates and fed three levels of MEI: low (L), medium (M), and high (H) for 65 days to achieve different BW and BCS. At the end of the experiment, the ewes were slaughtered. Data recorded at slaughter were: weights of viscera and carcass. Internal fat (IF, internal adipose tissue) was dissected, weighed, and grouped as pelvic (around kidneys and pelvic region), omental, and mesenteric regions. Carcass was split at the dorsal midline in two equal halves, weighed, and chilled at 6°C during 24 h. After refrigeration, the left half of the carcass was completely dissected into subcutaneous and intermuscular fat (carcass fat). Dissected carcass fat (CF) of the left carcass was adjusted as whole carcass. At low levels of MEI, proportion of IF and CF was approximately 50%; however, as the MEI was increased, the proportion of IF was increased up to 57% and 60% for M and H, respectively. Omental and pelvic fat depots were those which increased in a larger proportion with respect to the mesenteric fat depot. Regression equations between the weight of each body fat depot and BW had a coefficient of determination (r (2)) that ranged between 0.37 for mesenteric fat and 0.87 for CF. The regression with BCS had a r (2) that ranged between 0.57 for mesenteric and 0.71 for TBF. BW was the best predictor for TBF, CF, omental fat, and pelvic fat; whereas, BCS was better than BW in predicting IF and mesenteric fat. Inclusion of both BW and BCS in multiple regressions improved the prediction for all fat depots, except for pelvic fat, which was best

  17. Prolonged high-fat diet induces gradual and fat depot-specific DNA methylation changes in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Zwamborn, Ramona A. J.; Slieker, Roderick C.; Mulder, Petra C. A.; Zoetemelk, Inge; Verschuren, Lars; Suchiman, H. Eka D.; Toet, Karin H.; Droog, Simone; Slagboom, P. Eline; Kooistra, Teake; Kleemann, Robert; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.

    2017-01-01

    High-fat diets (HFD) are thought to contribute to the development of metabolism-related diseases. The long-term impact of HFD may be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, and indeed, HFD has been reported to induce DNA methylation changes in white adipose tissue (WAT) near metabolism related genes. However, previous studies were limited to a single WAT depot, a single time-point and primarily examined the pre-pubertal period. To define dynamic DNA methylation patterns specific for WAT depots, we investigated DNA methylation of Pparg2 and Leptin in gonadal adipose tissue (GAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), at baseline and after 6, 12 and 24 weeks of HFD exposure in adult mice. HFD induced hypermethylation of both the Leptin promoter (max. 19.6% at week 24, P = 2.6·10−3) and the Pparg2 promoter in GAT (max. 10.5% at week 12, P = 0.001). The differential methylation was independent of immune cell infiltration upon HFD exposure. In contrast, no differential methylation in the Pparg2 and Leptin promoter was observed in SAT. Leptin and Pparg2 DNA methylation were correlated with gene expression in GAT. Our study shows that prolonged exposure to HFD in adulthood is associated with a gradually increasing DNA methylation level at the Leptin and Pparg2 promoters in a depot-specific manner. PMID:28256596

  18. Unusual fatty acids in the depot fat of the Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis).

    PubMed

    Käkelä, R; Hyvärinen, H; Vainiotalo, P

    1996-03-01

    Unusual fatty acids in the adipose tissue of the Canadian beaver were analysed by argentation thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of several adducts and spectroscopic measurements. The total proportion of trans-octadecenoic fatty acids and the distribution of double bonds in these acids resembled those of ruminant fats. Because trans-11-18:1 was the main trans-18:1 isomer of beaver fat and a conjugated diene cis-9, trans-11-18:2 was also detected, it can be deduced that linoleic acid (cis-9, cis-12-18:2) is biohydrogenated in the beaver. The ideas that microbial processes intervene before normal absorption and fatty acid metabolism of the beaver is also supported by the larger amounts of anteiso odd-chain fatty acids with respect to the corresponding iso acids in the beaver depots. In addition, the distribution of double bonds in the cis-octadecenoic acids was wide, as it is in the depot fats of ruminants.

  19. Abdominal fat analyzed by DEXA scan reflects visceral body fat and improves the phenotype description and the assessment of metabolic risk in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiyi; Wilson, Jenny L; Khaksari, Mohammad; Cowley, Michael A; Enriori, Pablo J

    2012-09-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between visceral fat content and metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and liver steatosis. Obese mouse models are an excellent tool to study metabolic diseases; however, there are limited methods for the noninvasive measurement of fat distribution in mice. Although micromagnetic resonance imaging and microcomputed tomography are the "gold standards" in the measurement of fat distribution, more economical and accessible methods are required. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is an effective method in characterizing fat content; however, it cannot discriminate between visceral and subcutaneous fat depots. We demonstrate that an evaluation of abdominal fat content measured by DEXA through the selection of one localized abdominal area strongly correlates with visceral fat content in C57BL/6J mice. We found that DEXA is able to measure fat pad volume ex vivo with high accuracy; however, the measurement of visceral fat in vivo shows an overestimation caused by subcutaneous tissue interference. The overestimation is almost constant for a wide range of values, and thus it is possible to correct the data for a more accurate estimation of visceral fat content. We demonstrate the utility of this technique in characterizing phenotypes of several obese mouse models (ob/ob, db/db, MC4R-KO, and DIO) and evaluating the effect of treatments on visceral fat content in longitudinal studies. Additionally, we also establish abdominal obesity as a potential biomarker for metabolic abnormalities (liver fat accumulation, insulin resistance/diabetes) in mice, similar to that described in humans.

  20. Beige differentiation of adipose depots in mice lacking prolactin receptor protects against high-fat-diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Auffret, Julien; Viengchareun, Say; Carré, Nadège; Denis, Raphaël G P; Magnan, Christophe; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Muscat, Adeline; Fève, Bruno; Lombès, Marc; Binart, Nadine

    2012-09-01

    Stimulating conversion of white fat to metabolically active adipocytes (beige fat) constitutes a promising strategy against weight gain and its deleterious associated-disorders. We provide direct evidence that prolactin (PRL), best known for its actions on the mammary gland, plays a pivotal role in energy balance through the control of adipocyte differentiation and fate. Here we show that lack of prolactin receptor (PRLR) causes resistance to high-fat-diet-induced obesity due to enhanced energy expenditure and increased metabolic rate. Mutant mice displayed reduced fat mass associated with appearance of massive brown-like adipocyte foci in perirenal and subcutaneous but not in gonadal fat depots under a high-fat diet. Positron emission tomography imaging further demonstrated the occurrence of these thermogenic brown fat depots in adult mice, providing additional support for recruitable brown-like adipocytes (beigeing) in white fat depots. Consistent with the activation of brown adipose tissue, PRLR inactivation increases expression of master genes controlling brown adipocyte fate (PRDM16) and mitochondrial function (PGC1α, UCP1). Altered pRb/Foxc2 expression suggests that this PRL-regulated pathway may contribute to beige cell commitment. Together, these results provide direct genetic evidence that PRLR affects energy balance and metabolic adaptation in rodents via effects on brown adipose tissue differentiation and function.

  1. Diagnostic ultrasonography in cattle with abdominal fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the ultrasonographic findings in 14 cows with abdominal fat necrosis. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed the presence of heterogeneous hyperechoic masses and hyperechoic omentum with localized masses floating in a hypoechoic peritoneal fluid. A hyperechogenic rim was imaged around both kidneys. The intestines were coated with hyperechoic capsules and the intestinal lumens were constricted. Ultrasonographic examination of the pancreatic parenchyma showed an overall increased echogenicity which was homogenously distributed in 3 cases. A diagnosis of abdominal fat necrosis was made with ultrasound-guided biopsy of the echogenic masses, and thereafter at postmortem examination. Results from this study demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasonography as an imaging modality for antemortem diagnosis of abdominal lipomatosis in cattle. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first that illustrates ultrasonographic findings in cattle affected with abdominal lipomatosis.

  2. Contrasting Cellularity and Fatty Acid Composition in Fat Depots from Alentejana and Barrosã Bovine Breeds Fed High and Low Forage Diets

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Ana S.H.; Lopes, Paula A.; Estevão, Marta; Martins, Susana V.; Alves, Susana P.; Pinto, Rui M.A.; Pissarra, Hugo; Correia, Jorge J.; Pinho, Mário; Fontes, Carlos M.G.A.; Prates, José A.M.

    2012-01-01

    During the finishing phase of bovines, large amounts of subcutaneous and visceral fats are deposited leading to production inefficiencies with major impact on meat quality. A better understanding of the cellularity features of the main fat depots could provide strategies for adipose tissue manipulation. This study assessed the effect of feeding diets with distinct forage to concentrate ratios on the cellularity of two fat depots of beef cattle and their implications on the fatty acid profile. Thus, two phylogenetically distant Portuguese bovine breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected. The results did not show differences in subcutaneous fat deposition nor in visceral fat depots partitioning. Plasma adipokines concentration failed to show a consistent relationship with fatness, as leptin remained constant in all experimental groups, whereas interleukin-6 was influenced by breed. Fat depot seems to determine the area and number of adipocytes, with larger adipocytes and a lower number of cells in subcutaneous fat than in mesenteric fat. Neither breed nor diet influenced adipocytes area and number. The contents of total fatty acids, partial sums of fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomeric profile were affected by breed and fat depot. The incorporation of saturated fatty acids (SFA), trans fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) was higher in mesenteric fat depot, whereas subcutaneous fat depot had greater percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In addition, SFA and MUFA proportions seem to be breed-related. In spite of the less relevant role of diet, the percentages of PUFA and BCFA were influenced by this factor. Under these experimental conditions, the effect of fat depot on cellularity and fatty acid composition prevails over breed or diet, as reinforced by the principal component analysis. PMID:22253565

  3. Fat depot-specific gene signature and ECM remodeling of Sca1(high) adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Masakuni; Inoue, Mayumi; Jiang, Yibin; Barnes, Richard H; Buchner, David A; Chun, Tae-Hwa

    2014-06-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca1 or Ly6A/E) is a cell surface marker that is widely expressed in mesenchymal stem cells, including adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). We hypothesized that the fat depot-specific gene signature of Sca1(high) ASCs may play the major role in defining adipose tissue function and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in a depot-specific manner. Herein we aimed to characterize the unique gene signature and ECM remodeling of Sca1(high) ASCs isolated from subcutaneous (inguinal) and visceral (epididymal) adipose tissues. Sca1(high) ASCs are found in the adventitia and perivascular areas of adipose tissues. Sca1(high) ASCs purified with magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) demonstrate dendrite or round shape with the higher expression of cytokines and chemokines (e.g., Il6, Cxcl1) and the lower expression of a glucose transporter (Glut1). Subcutaneous and visceral fat-derived Sca1(high) ASCs particularly differ in the gene expressions of adhesion and ECM molecules. While the expression of the major membrane-type collagenase (MMP14) is comparable between the groups, the expressions of secreted collagenases (MMP8 and MMP13) are higher in visceral Sca1(high) ASCs than in subcutaneous ASCs. Consistently, slow but focal MMP-dependent collagenolysis was observed with subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived vascular stromal cells, whereas rapid and bulk collagenolysis was observed with visceral adipose tissue-derived cells in MMP-dependent and -independent manners. These results suggest that the fat depot-specific gene signatures of ASCs may contribute to the distinct patterns of ECM remodeling and adipose function in different fat depots.

  4. Selection against abdominal fat percentage may increase intramuscular fat content in broilers.

    PubMed

    Leng, L; Zhang, H; Dong, J Q; Wang, Z P; Zhang, X Y; Wang, S Z; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Li, H

    2016-10-01

    Excessive abdominal fat content (AFC) has negative impacts on feed efficiency and carcass quality. Unlike AFC, intramuscular fat content (IMFC) could be a favourable trait, which has a positive impact on meat quality. To meet consumers' needs, a long-term goal of broiler breeders is to decrease AFC and improve the IMFC simultaneously. The current study was designed to investigate the relationship between AFC and IMFC and to compare IMFC, including the pectoral major muscle fat content (PIMFC) and intramuscular fat content of leg muscle (LIMFC), between two broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat percentage over 17 generations. The results showed that there was a significant difference in PIMFC and LIMFC between the two lines in all five generation populations used. The birds in the lean line had significantly lower AFC but higher PIMFC and LIMFC than the birds in the fat line. We also detected differences in the liver fat content (LFC) between the two lines and the results showed that birds in the fat line had significant higher LFC than birds in the lean line. Our results indicated that a desirable broiler line with higher IMFC but lower AFC could be obtained by genetic selection.

  5. Lipoprotein alterations, abdominal fat distribution and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Schreier, L E; Berg, G A; Basilio, F M; Lopez, G I; Etkin, A E; Wikinski, R L

    1999-04-01

    Plasma lipid profile and abdominal obesity have been associated with breast cancer risk, however published results have been inconsistent. To clarify these associations we studied lipid and lipoprotein alterations, obesity degree and body fat distribution, in 30 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients without treatment and 30 controls matched by age and menopausal status. Both pre and postmenopausal breast cancer patients presented higher body mass index, waist/hip ratio and insulin levels than their matched controls. An increase in triglycerides and a decrease in HDL-cholesterol, especially in the HDL2 subfraction, were observed in patients with breast cancer. Besides, HDL particle from these patients showed increased apo A1/HDL-cholesterol ratio. These alterations were correlated with waist/hip ratio. The association between lipoprotein alterations and abdominal obesity independent of menopausal status, in untreated newly diagnosed breast cancer patients is reported for the first time in this study.

  6. Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is a hypertension risk factor in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Takeoka, Atsushi; Tayama, Jun; Yamasaki, Hironori; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ogawa, Sayaka; Saigo, Tatsuo; Kawano, Hiroaki; Abiru, Norio; Hayashida, Masaki; Maeda, Takahiro; Shirabe, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Accumulation of intra-abdominal fat is related to hypertension. Despite this, a relationship between hypertension and intra-abdominal fat in young adulthood is not clear. In this study, we verify whether intra-abdominal fat accumulation increases a hypertension risk in young adult subjects. In a cross-sectional study, intra-abdominal fat area was measured using a dual bioelectrical impedance analysis instrument in 697 university students (20.3 ± 0.7 years, 425 men). Blood pressure and anthropometric factors were measured. Lifestyle variables including smoking, drinking, physical activity, and eating behavior were assessed with questionnaire. High blood pressure risk (systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg) with increasing intra-abdominal fat area was evaluated. Participants were divided into 5 groups according to their intra-abdominal fat area (≤24.9, 25–49.9, 50–74.9, 75–99.9, and ≥100 cm2). As compared with the values of the smallest intra-abdominal fat area group, the crude and lifestyle-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were elevated in larger intra-abdominal fat area groups [OR 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66–2.80; OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.60–7.57; OR 7.71, 95% CI 2.75–22.22; OR 18.74, 95% CI 3.93–105.64, respectively). The risk increase was observed only in men. Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is related to high blood pressure in men around 20 years of age. These results indicate the importance of evaluation and reduction of intra-abdominal fat to prevent hypertension. PMID:27828861

  7. Interrelationships between changes in anthropometric variables and computed tomography indices of abdominal fat distribution in response to a 1-year physical activity-healthy eating lifestyle modification program in abdominally obese men.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Nicole; Pelletier-Beaumont, Emilie; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Lemieux, Isabelle; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The objectives were to (i) measure the effects of a 1-year lifestyle modification program on body fat distribution/anthropometric variables; (ii) determine the interrelationships between changes in all these variables; and (iii) investigate whether there is a selective reduction in deep (DSAT) vs. superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SSAT) at the abdominal level following a 1-year lifestyle modification program. Anthropometric variables, body composition and abdominal and midthigh fat distribution were assessed at baseline and after 1 year in 109 sedentary, dyslipidemic and abdominally obese men. Reductions in anthropometric variables, skinfold thicknesses (except the trunk/extremity ratio) and fat mass as well as an increase in fat-free mass were observed after 1 year (p < 0.0001). Decreases in abdominal adipose tissue volumes were also noted (-23%, -26%, -18%, -19%, -17%, p < 0.0001 for total adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, DSAT and SSAT, respectively). Adipose tissue areas at midthigh also decreased (-18%, -18%, -17%, p < 0.0001 for total, deep, and subcutaneous adipose tissue, respectively). A reduction (-9%, p < 0.0001) in low-attenuation muscle area and an increase (+1%, p < 0.05) in normal-attenuation muscle area were also observed. There was a positive relationship between changes in visceral adipose tissue and changes in DSAT (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001) or SSAT (r = 0.63, p < 0.0001). Although absolute changes in DSAT were greater than changes in SSAT, relative changes in both depots were similar, independent of changes in visceral adipose tissue. The 1-year lifestyle modification program therefore improved the body fat distribution pattern and midthigh muscle quality in abdominally obese men.

  8. Novel obesity risk loci do not determine distribution of body fat depots: a whole-body MRI/MRS study.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Axel; Thamer, Claus; Heni, Martin; Machicao, Fausto; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Stefan, Norbert; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Staiger, Harald

    2010-06-01

    A recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies has identified six new risk-loci for common obesity. We studied whether these risk loci influence the distribution of body fat depots. We genotyped 1,469 nondiabetic subjects for the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) TMEM18 rs6548238, KCTD15 rs11084753, GNPDA2 rs10938397, SH2B1 rs7498665, MTCH2 rs10838738, and NEGR1 rs2815752. We assessed BMI, waist circumference, total body fat, and lean body mass (bioimpedance). All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for estimation of insulin sensitivity. In 332 subjects, we measured total adipose tissue (TAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), nonvisceral adipose tissue (NVAT), liver fat content, and intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In the dominant inheritance model, the risk alleles of TMEM18 rs6548238 and MTCH2 rs10838738 were nominally associated with higher BMI (P = 0.04, both). The risk allele of TMEM18 rs6548238 was additionally associated with higher waist circumference and total body fat (P fat distribution (all P > 0.009, dominant inheritance model). Therefore, our results suggest that these new obesity SNPs, despite their influence on BMI, are neither associated with a metabolically unfavorable nor with a favorable body composition.

  9. Mobile encapsulated bodies comprising fat necrosis and fibrous tissue in the abdominal cavity of cows.

    PubMed

    Herzog, K; Burgdorf, W; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    2010-11-01

    The microscopical features of 18 samples of fat necrosis and/or fibrous tissue removed from the abdominal cavity during laparotomy from 15 cows were studied. The nodular, ivory-coloured mobile structures were free-floating in the abdominal cavity, were not attached to any abdominal tissues or organs, and were completely surrounded by a fibrous capsule. Abdominal fat necrosis (bovine lipomatosis) was not observed in any animal. The structures comprised either necrotic fat, fibrous tissue or varying proportions of both. Focal calcification and mild inflammatory cell infiltration and accumulations of haemosiderin were also present. Microscopically, the lesions resembled encapsulated fat necrosis occurring in human subcutaneous tissue. The mechanisms of development of these mobile encapsulated bodies in cows is unknown and it is not clear how, in the absence of a blood supply, there can be inflammatory cell infiltration, calcification and proliferation of fibroblasts.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study for Muscle Fat Content and Abdominal Fat Traits in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xianhu; Kuang, Youyi; Lv, Weihua; Cao, Dingchen; Sun, Zhipeng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2016-01-01

    Muscle fat content is an important phenotypic trait in fish, as it affects the nutritional, technical and sensory qualities of flesh. To identify loci and candidate genes associated with muscle fat content and abdominal fat traits, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the common carp 250 K SNP assay in a common carp F2 resource population. A total of 18 loci surpassing the genome-wide suggestive significance level were detected for 4 traits: fat content in dorsal muscle (MFdo), fat content in abdominal muscle (MFab), abdominal fat weight (AbFW), and AbFW as a percentage of eviscerated weight (AbFP). Among them, one SNP (carp089419) affecting both AbFW and AbFP reached the genome-wide significance level. Ten of those loci were harbored in or near known genes. Furthermore, relative expressions of 5 genes related to MFdo were compared using dorsal muscle samples with high and low phenotypic values. The results showed that 4 genes were differentially expressed between the high and low phenotypic groups. These genes are, therefore, prospective candidate genes for muscle fat content: ankyrin repeat domain 10a (ankrd10a), tetratricopeptide repeat, ankyrin repeat and coiled-coil containing 2 (tanc2), and four jointed box 1 (fjx1) and choline kinase alpha (chka). These results offer valuable insights into the complex genetic basis of fat metabolism and deposition. PMID:28030623

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study for Muscle Fat Content and Abdominal Fat Traits in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xianhu; Kuang, Youyi; Lv, Weihua; Cao, Dingchen; Sun, Zhipeng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2016-01-01

    Muscle fat content is an important phenotypic trait in fish, as it affects the nutritional, technical and sensory qualities of flesh. To identify loci and candidate genes associated with muscle fat content and abdominal fat traits, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the common carp 250 K SNP assay in a common carp F2 resource population. A total of 18 loci surpassing the genome-wide suggestive significance level were detected for 4 traits: fat content in dorsal muscle (MFdo), fat content in abdominal muscle (MFab), abdominal fat weight (AbFW), and AbFW as a percentage of eviscerated weight (AbFP). Among them, one SNP (carp089419) affecting both AbFW and AbFP reached the genome-wide significance level. Ten of those loci were harbored in or near known genes. Furthermore, relative expressions of 5 genes related to MFdo were compared using dorsal muscle samples with high and low phenotypic values. The results showed that 4 genes were differentially expressed between the high and low phenotypic groups. These genes are, therefore, prospective candidate genes for muscle fat content: ankyrin repeat domain 10a (ankrd10a), tetratricopeptide repeat, ankyrin repeat and coiled-coil containing 2 (tanc2), and four jointed box 1 (fjx1) and choline kinase alpha (chka). These results offer valuable insights into the complex genetic basis of fat metabolism and deposition.

  12. Arnebia euchroma ointment can reduce abdominal fat thickness and abdominal circumference of overweight women: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Siavash, Mansour; Naseri, Mohsen; Rahimi, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a worldwide health problem which is associated with a lot of complications. One of these comorbidities is the metabolic syndrome that is in correlation with abdominal fat thickness and waist circumference. Various methods were used to reduce abdominal fat thickness such as liposuction. A noninvasive method is the topical agent. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Arnebia euchroma (AE) ointment on the abdominal fat thickness. Materials and Methods: This study was a double-blind clinical trial which was done at the endocrinology clinic in Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2014. After explaining the procedure and obtaining informed consent, the candidates were randomly divided into the case and control groups. The participants of the case and control groups applied AE ointment or placebo for 6 weeks on their abdominal area. Body mass index, waist and buttock circumference, and abdominal fat thickness were measured in both case and control groups at their first visit and then at the next 2, 4, and 6 weeks. We used t-test for comparing parametric variables between groups, paired t-test for changes from baseline to final, and repeated measure ANOVA for changes at different steps. Results: Sixty female candidates participated in this study (thirty in each group). Ten patients left the study and fifty participants finished the trial. At the end of the study, participants had a significant weight loss (2.96 ± 1.6 kg, P < 0.001) that was slightly more in the case group (3.15 ± 1.5 kg vs. 2.75 ± 1.7, P = 0.375). Abdominal circumference also decreased significantly in the participants (11.3 ± 6.7 cm, P < 0.001), but the changes were more significant in the case group (13.9 vs. 6.5 cm, P = 0.004). Similarly, abdominal fat thickness decreased significantly in the participants (2.3 ± 1.1 cm, P < 0.001), although changes were not significantly different between two groups (2.53 vs. 2.04 cm, P = 0.139). Conclusion: Topical AE ointment

  13. Anatomic Fat Depots and Coronary Plaque Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Uninfected Men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Palella, Frank J; McKibben, Rebeccah; Post, Wendy S; Li, Xiuhong; Budoff, Matthew; Kingsley, Lawrence; Witt, Mallory D; Jacobson, Lisa P; Brown, Todd T

    2016-04-01

    Methods.  In a cross-sectional substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, noncontrast cardiac computed tomography (CT) scanning for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring was performed on all men, and, for men with normal renal function, coronary CT angiography (CTA) was performed. Associations between fat depots (visceral adipose tissue [VAT], abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue [aSAT], and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue [tSAT]) with coronary plaque presence and extent were assessed with logistic and linear regression adjusted for age, race, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, body mass index (BMI), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) parameters. Results.  Among HIV-infected men (n = 597) but not HIV-uninfected men (n = 343), having greater VAT was positively associated with noncalcified plaque presence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, P < .05), with a significant interaction (P < .05) by HIV serostatus. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected men had lower median aSAT and tSAT and greater median VAT among men with BMI <25 and 25-29.9 kg/m(2). Among HIV-infected men, VAT was positively associated with presence of coronary plaque on CTA after adjustment for CVD risk factors (OR = 1.04, P < .05), but not after additional adjustment for BMI. There was an inverse association between aSAT and extent of total plaque among HIV-infected men, but not among HIV-uninfected men. Lower tSAT was associated with greater CAC and total plaque score extent regardless of HIV serostatus. Conclusions.  The presence of greater amounts of VAT and lower SAT may contribute to increased risk for coronary artery disease among HIV-infected persons.

  14. Anatomic Fat Depots and Coronary Plaque Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Uninfected Men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Palella, Frank J.; McKibben, Rebeccah; Post, Wendy S.; Li, Xiuhong; Budoff, Matthew; Kingsley, Lawrence; Witt, Mallory D.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Brown, Todd T.

    2016-01-01

    Methods. In a cross-sectional substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, noncontrast cardiac computed tomography (CT) scanning for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring was performed on all men, and, for men with normal renal function, coronary CT angiography (CTA) was performed. Associations between fat depots (visceral adipose tissue [VAT], abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue [aSAT], and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue [tSAT]) with coronary plaque presence and extent were assessed with logistic and linear regression adjusted for age, race, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, body mass index (BMI), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) parameters. Results. Among HIV-infected men (n = 597) but not HIV-uninfected men (n = 343), having greater VAT was positively associated with noncalcified plaque presence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, P < .05), with a significant interaction (P < .05) by HIV serostatus. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected men had lower median aSAT and tSAT and greater median VAT among men with BMI <25 and 25–29.9 kg/m2. Among HIV-infected men, VAT was positively associated with presence of coronary plaque on CTA after adjustment for CVD risk factors (OR = 1.04, P < .05), but not after additional adjustment for BMI. There was an inverse association between aSAT and extent of total plaque among HIV-infected men, but not among HIV-uninfected men. Lower tSAT was associated with greater CAC and total plaque score extent regardless of HIV serostatus. Conclusions. The presence of greater amounts of VAT and lower SAT may contribute to increased risk for coronary artery disease among HIV-infected persons. PMID:27419170

  15. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women.

    PubMed

    Fox, Caroline S; Liu, Yongmei; White, Charles C; Feitosa, Mary; Smith, Albert V; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Lohman, Kurt; Johnson, Andrew D; Foster, Meredith C; Greenawalt, Danielle M; Griffin, Paula; Ding, Jinghong; Newman, Anne B; Tylavsky, Fran; Miljkovic, Iva; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Launer, Lenore; Garcia, Melissa; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Carr, J Jeffrey; Gudnason, Vilmunder; Harris, Tamara B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Borecki, Ingrid B

    2012-01-01

    Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT) to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio, our most significant p-value was rs11118316 at LYPLAL1 gene (p = 3.1 × 10E-09), previously identified in association with waist-hip ratio. For SAT, the most significant SNP was in the FTO gene (p = 5.9 × 10E-08). Given the known gender differences in body fat distribution, we performed sex-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p = 1.6 × 10-08), but not men (p = 0.75). Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p = 0.006) but not men (p = 0.24) for BMI and waist circumference (p = 0.04 [women], p = 0.49 [men]). Finally, we interrogated our data for the 14 recently published loci for body fat distribution (measured by waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI); associations were observed at 7 of these loci. In contrast, we observed associations at only 7/32 loci previously identified in association with BMI; the majority of overlap was observed with SAT. Genome-wide association for visceral and subcutaneous fat revealed a SNP for

  16. The Relationship Between Brown Adipose Tissue Content in Supraclavicular Fat Depots and Insulin Sensitivity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ustyuzhanin, Dmitry; Philippov, Yury; Mayorov, Alexander; Shestakova, Marina; Shariya, Merab; Ternovoy, Sergey; Dedov, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The evaluation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and its role in metabolism and obesity remains an important topic in the recent literature. This study evaluated the influence of the BAT triglyceride content measured by proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and prediabetes on insulin sensitivity. Methods: A total of 25 patients with DM2 and prediabetes (45.9 ± 10.1 years old, body mass index [BMI] of 31.6 ± 5.4 kg/m2) underwent anthropometric measurements (BMI), insulin sensitivity analysis (M value during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), proton MR spectroscopy, and blood tests (total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides). The relationship between the triglyceride content in the supraclavicular fat depot and insulin sensitivity, anthropometric measurements, and blood test results was assessed. Results: The triglyceride content in the supraclavicular fat depot varied between 79.2% and 97.1% (mean: 92.6% ± 4.2%). The triglyceride content in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of the neck was significantly higher (85.3%–99.3%; mean: 95.5% ± 2.9%; P = 0.0007). The triglyceride content in the supraclavicular fat depot exhibited a significantly moderate correlation with the BMI (r = 0.64; P = 0.0009). A significant weak negative correlation between the supraclavicular fat content and M value was revealed (r = −0.44; P = 0.002). Patients with high insulin resistance (IR) had a higher triglyceride content in the supraclavicular fat depot than patients with normal and lower IR (94.3% ± 2.0% vs. 90.4% ± 5.2%; P = 0.02). Conclusions: Reducing the BAT content in the supraclavicular fat depot can influence the development of IR in patients with DM2 and prediabetes. PMID:28118051

  17. Fat depot-specific differences in pref-1 gene expression and adipocyte cellularity between Wagyu and Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomoya; Higuchi, Mikito; Nakanishi, Naoto

    2014-03-07

    Preadipocyte factor-1 (pref-1) is specifically expressed in preadipocytes and acts as a gatekeeper of adipogenesis by maintaining the preadipocyte state and preventing adipocyte differentiation. We hypothesized that the breed differences of adipogenic capacity in cattle could be explained by the expression level of pref-1. In this experiment, we studied the expression level of the pref-1 gene and adipocyte cellularity in subcutaneous and mesenteric adipose tissues of Japanese Black (Wagyu) and Holstein fattening cattle. In subcutaneous adipose tissue, there were no significant differences in the pref-1 gene expression levels and adipocyte sizes between the breeds. In contrast, the expression level of the pref-1 gene in mesenteric adipose tissue of Holsteins was significantly higher than that of Wagyu. In addition, the size of mesenteric adipocytes in Holsteins was significantly smaller than that of Wagyu. These results indicate that the breed differences of fattening cattle affect the expression pattern of the pref-1 gene and adipocyte cellularity in a fat depot-specific manner.

  18. Histopathological changes in the pancreas of cattle with abdominal fat necrosis

    PubMed Central

    TANI, Chikako; PRATAKPIRIYA, Watanyoo; TANI, Mineto; YAMAUCHI, Takenori; HIRAI, Takuya; YAMAGUCHI, Ryoji; ANO, Hitoshi; KATAMOTO, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    The association between pancreatic disorder and abdominal fat necrosis in cattle remains unclear. The pancreases of 29 slaughtered cattle with or without fat necrosis were collected to investigate pathological changes. Japanese Black (JB) cattle were classified into the FN group (with abdominal fat necrosis; n=9) and N group (without fat necrosis; n=5). The pancreases were also collected from 15 Holstein Friesian (HF) cows. All JB cattle showed high body condition scores. Regarding the pathological findings, fatty pancreas which involves adipocyte infiltration into the pancreas and fat necrosis (saponification) were observed in 25 and 27 cases, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-Iba-1 antibody showed large numbers of macrophages surrounding the saponified fat in the pancreas. CD3-positive T cells were significantly more common in the pancreas of both the FN and N groups compared with the HF group (P<0.05). Furthermore, fibrosis in the pancreas exhibited a correlative tendency with the formation of necrotic fat mass in the peritoneal cavity (P<0.1). These results indicate that obesity leads to increased severity of pancreatic disorder, including fatty pancreas and pancreatitis. The pathological lesions in the pancreas may play a key role in abdominal fat necrosis through the inflammatory process. PMID:27795463

  19. Effects of balanced selection for intramuscular fat and abdominal fat percentage and estimates of genetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Jiang, M; Fan, W L; Xing, S Y; Wang, J; Li, P; Liu, R R; Li, Q H; Zheng, M Q; Cui, H X; Wen, J; Zhao, G P

    2017-02-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content contributes to meat flavor and improves meat quality. Excessive abdominal fat, however, leads to a waste of feed resources. Here, an independent up-selection for IMF was used as a control (Line C), and a balanced selection program, with up-selection for IMF and down-selection AFP (Line B), was studied in JingXing yellow chickens. The mean of IMF and AFP within a family was the phenotypic value upon which selection was based. The selective pressures of IMF in line B and line C were the same in each generation. At G5, the IMF was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that at G0 in both lines. For AFP, Line C was significantly higher at G5 (P < 0.05) than at G0, but the difference in Line B was not significant (P > 0.05). IMF increased by 11.4% and AFP decreased by 1.5% in Line B compared with the G0 generation. In contrast, the IMF increased by 17.6%, but was accompanied by an 18.7% increase in AFP, in control Line C. Of 10 other traits measured, body weight at 56 d age (BW56) and the percentages of eviscerated weight (EWP) showed a significant difference between the 2 lines (P < 0.05). The heritabilities for IMF and AFP, estimated by the DMU package, were 0.16 and 0.32, respectively. A moderate positive correlation existed between IMF and AFP (0.35). A balanced selection program for increasing IMF while controlling AFP (Line B) is shown here to be effective in practical chicken breeding.

  20. Abdominal adiposity, insulin and bone quality in young male rats fed a high-fat diet containing soybean or canola oil

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Carlos, Aluana Santana; de Sousa dos Santos, Aline; Monteiro, Alexandra Maria Vieira; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Nascimento-Saba, Celly Cristina Alves

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with healthy bone properties. However, fatty diets can induce obesity. Our objective was to evaluate intra-abdominal adiposity, insulin, and bone growth in rats fed a high-fat diet containing low ratios of omega-6/omega-3 provided in canola oil. METHODS: After weaning, rats were grouped and fed either a control diet (7S), a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S) or a high-fat diet of canola oil (19C) until they were 60 days old. Differences were considered to be significant if p<0.05. RESULTS: After 60 days, the 19S and 19C groups showed more energy intake, body density growth and intra-abdominal fat mass. However, the 19S group had a higher area (200%) and a lower number (44%) of adipocytes, while the 7S and 19C groups did not differ. The serum concentrations of glucose and insulin and the insulin resistance index were significantly increased in the 19C group (15%, 56%, and 78%, respectively) compared to the 7S group. Bone measurements of the 19S and 19C groups showed a higher femur mass (25%) and a higher lumbar vertebrae mass (11%) and length (5%). Computed tomography analysis revealed more radiodensity in the proximal femoral epiphysis and lumbar vertebrae of 19C group compared to the 7S and 19S groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the amount and source of fat used in the diet after weaning increase body growth and fat depots and affect insulin resistance and, consequently, bone health. PMID:22012056

  1. Activation of β3-adrenoceptors increases in vivo free fatty acid uptake and utilization in brown but not white fat depots in high-fat-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Amy; Kjellstedt, Ann; Carreras, Alba; Böttcher, Gerhard; Peng, Xiao-Rong; Seale, Patrick; Oakes, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) present potential new therapies for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here, we examined the effects of β3-adrenergic stimulation on tissue-specific uptake and storage of free fatty acids (FFA) and its implications for whole body FFA metabolism in diet-induced obese rats using a multi-radiotracer technique. Male Wistar rats were high fat-fed for 12 wk and administered β3-agonist CL316,243 (CL, 1 mg·kg−1·day−1) or saline via osmotic minipumps during the last 3 wk. The rats were then fasted and acutely infused with a tracer mixture ([14C]palmitate and the partially metabolized R-[3H]bromopalmitate) under anesthesia. CL infusion decreased body weight gain and fasting plasma glucose levels. While core body temperature was unaffected, infrared thermography showed an increase in tail heat dissipation following CL infusion. Interestingly, CL markedly increased both FFA storage and utilization in interscapular and perirenal BAT, whereas the flux of FFA to skeletal muscle was decreased. In this rat model of obesity, only sporadic populations of beige adipocytes were detected in the epididymal WAT depot of CL-infused rats, and there was no change in FFA uptake or utilization in WAT following CL infusion. In summary, β3-agonism robustly increased FFA flux to BAT coupled with enhanced utilization. Increased BAT activation most likely drove the increased tail heat dissipation to maintain thermostasis. Our results emphasize the quantitative role of brown fat as the functional target of β3-agonism in obesity. PMID:27780820

  2. Jejunal perforation after abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting

    PubMed Central

    Coronado-Malagón, Martin; Tauffer-Carrion, Luis Tomas

    2012-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented to the emergency department 24 h after undergoing abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting at a private plastic surgery clinic. She presented with the classic evolution of a bowel perforation secondary to abdominal liposuction. A computed tomography (CT) scan found free air in her abdominal cavity. Based on the CT scan and the persistent pain experienced by the patient, an abdominal laparatomy was urgently performed. A jejunum perforation was found and was treated with a resection of the affected segment followed by intestinal anastomosis. The patient had a successful recovery and was discharged seven days later. The present article also reviews the classical presentation of a bowel perforation following abdominal liposuction. PMID:23997589

  3. Jejunal perforation after abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Coronado-Malagón, Martin; Tauffer-Carrion, Luis Tomas

    2012-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented to the emergency department 24 h after undergoing abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting at a private plastic surgery clinic. She presented with the classic evolution of a bowel perforation secondary to abdominal liposuction. A computed tomography (CT) scan found free air in her abdominal cavity. Based on the CT scan and the persistent pain experienced by the patient, an abdominal laparatomy was urgently performed. A jejunum perforation was found and was treated with a resection of the affected segment followed by intestinal anastomosis. The patient had a successful recovery and was discharged seven days later. The present article also reviews the classical presentation of a bowel perforation following abdominal liposuction.

  4. Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is a hypertension risk factor in young adulthood: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Takeoka, Atsushi; Tayama, Jun; Yamasaki, Hironori; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ogawa, Sayaka; Saigo, Tatsuo; Kawano, Hiroaki; Abiru, Norio; Hayashida, Masaki; Maeda, Takahiro; Shirabe, Susumu

    2016-11-01

    Accumulation of intra-abdominal fat is related to hypertension. Despite this, a relationship between hypertension and intra-abdominal fat in young adulthood is not clear. In this study, we verify whether intra-abdominal fat accumulation increases a hypertension risk in young adult subjects.In a cross-sectional study, intra-abdominal fat area was measured using a dual bioelectrical impedance analysis instrument in 697 university students (20.3 ± 0.7 years, 425 men). Blood pressure and anthropometric factors were measured. Lifestyle variables including smoking, drinking, physical activity, and eating behavior were assessed with questionnaire. High blood pressure risk (systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg) with increasing intra-abdominal fat area was evaluated.Participants were divided into 5 groups according to their intra-abdominal fat area (≤24.9, 25-49.9, 50-74.9, 75-99.9, and ≥100 cm). As compared with the values of the smallest intra-abdominal fat area group, the crude and lifestyle-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were elevated in larger intra-abdominal fat area groups [OR 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66-2.80; OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.60-7.57; OR 7.71, 95% CI 2.75-22.22; OR 18.74, 95% CI 3.93-105.64, respectively). The risk increase was observed only in men.Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is related to high blood pressure in men around 20 years of age. These results indicate the importance of evaluation and reduction of intra-abdominal fat to prevent hypertension.

  5. Equations of prediction for abdominal fat in brown egg-laying hens fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Souza, C; Jaimes, J J B; Gewehr, C E

    2016-12-03

    The objective was to use noninvasive measurements to formulate equations for predicting the abdominal fat weight of laying hens in a noninvasive manner. Hens were fed with different diets; the external body measurements of birds were used as regressors. We used 288 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement, submitted for 16 wk to 2 metabolizable energy levels (2,550 and 2,800 kcal/kg) and 3 levels of crude protein in the diet (150, 160, and 170 g/kg), totaling 6 treatments, with 48 hens each. Sixteen hens per treatment of 92 wk age were utilized to evaluate body weight, bird length, tarsus and sternum, greater and lesser diameter of the tarsus, and abdominal fat weight, after slaughter. The equations were obtained by using measures evaluated with regressors through simple and multiple linear regression with the stepwise method of indirect elimination (backward), with P < 0.10 for all variables remaining in the model. The weight of abdominal fat as predicted by the equations and observed values for each bird were subjected to Pearson's correlation analysis. The equations generated by energy levels showed coefficients of determination of 0.50 and 0.74 for 2,800 and 2,550 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy, respectively, with correlation coefficients of 0.71 and 0.84, with a highly significant correlation between the calculated and observed values of abdominal fat. For protein levels of 150, 160, and 170 g/kg in the diet, it was possible to obtain coefficients of determination of 0.75, 0.57, and 0.61, with correlation coefficients of 0.86, 0.75, and 0.78, respectively. Regarding the general equation for predicting abdominal fat weight, the coefficient of determination was 0.62; the correlation coefficient was 0.79. The equations for predicting abdominal fat weight in laying hens, based on external measurements of the birds, showed positive coefficients of determination and correlation coefficients, thus

  6. Influence of dietary fat source and copper supplementation on broiler performance, fatty acid profile of meat and depot fat, and on cholesterol content in meat.

    PubMed

    Skrivan, M; Skrivanová, V; Marounek, M; Tůmová, E; Wolf, J

    2000-12-01

    1. Three hundred and twenty d-old chickens were fed on a wheat/maize-soyabean meal diet supplemented with (i) 50 g/kg lard, (ii) 25 g/kg lard and 25 g/kg rapeseed oil, (iii) 50 g/kg rapeseed oil, and (iv) 50 g/kg rapeseed oil and 200 mg copper per kg as copper sulphate pentahydrate. 2. Final weights at 39 d of age in chickens receiving rapeseed oil were lower by 9% than in those fed on the diet containing only lard (P<0.05). The fatty acids profiles of lipids extracted from the tissues of 10 chickens per group reflected those of the diets. 3. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of breast muscles and abdominal fat (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids) was increased and the ratio of n-6:n-3 fatty acids was decreased by the substitution of lard by rapeseed oil (P<0.001). These changes were more pronounced for the adipose tissue than for breast muscles. 4. Copper sulphate supplementation increased the final body weight of chickens by 4.3% (P<0.05), reduced the saturated fatty acid (SFA) proportion (P<0.05) in abdominal fat and increased the PUFA:SFA ratio (P<0.05). The magnitude of improvement, however, was small. 5. The substitution of rapeseed oil for lard decreased the concentration of cholesterol in breast muscles by 13%. Copper supplementation further reduced the cholesterol content by 25%. Both effects were significant (P<0.001).

  7. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  8. Analysis of the Human Proteome in Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat Depots in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Patients with Morbid Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lingling; Kojima, Kyoko; Zhou, Lihua; Crossman, David K; Mobley, James A; Grams, Jayleen

    2015-01-01

    No longer regarded as simply a storage depot, fat is a dynamic organ acting locally and systemically to modulate energy homeostasis, glucose sensitivity, insulin resistance, and inflammatory pathways. Here, mass spectrometry was used to survey the proteome of patient matched subcutaneous fat and visceral fat in 20 diabetic vs 22 nondiabetic patients with morbid obesity. A similar number of proteins (~600) were identified in each tissue type. When stratified by diabetic status, 19 and 41 proteins were found to be differentially abundant in subcutaneous fat and omentum, respectively. These proteins represent pathways known to be involved in metabolism. Five of these proteins were differentially abundant in both fat depots: moesin, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, protein cordon-bleu, zinc finger protein 611, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6B1. Three proteins, decorin, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6B1, and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, were further tested for validation by western blot analysis. Investigation of the proteins reported here is expected to expand on the current knowledge of adipose tissue driven biochemistry in diabetes and obesity, with the ultimate goal of identifying clinical targets for the development of novel therapeutic interventions in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. To our knowledge, this study is the first to survey the global proteome derived from each subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue obtained from the same patient in the clinical setting of morbid obesity, with and without diabetes. It is also the largest study of diabetic vs nondiabetic patients with 42 patients surveyed. PMID:26472921

  9. Influence of amount and type of dietary fat on deposition, adipocyte count and iodine number of abdominal fat in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wongsuthavas, S; Terapuntuwat, S; Wongsrikeaw, W; Katawatin, S; Yuangklang, C; Beynen, A C

    2008-02-01

    This study described the relation between the type and amount of dietary fat on the deposition of abdominal fat by broiler chickens. It was hypothesized that at higher fat intakes, the well-known lowering effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the deposition of abdominal fat would be diminished. Experimental diets were formulated to contain three levels of added fat (3%, 6% and 9%). Each level had different proportions of the saturated fatty acids (SFA) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) by installing the ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 with the use of tallow and soybean oil. Arbor Acres chicks, aged 7 days, were fed one of the 15 experimental diets until they were aged 42 days. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. There was no systematic effect of the dietary fat type and the amount on the weight gain and the feed intake. The lowest SFA:UFA ratio of 1:5 produced the lowest feed conversion rates, irrespective of the amount of the fat in the diet. The abdominal fat deposition was similar in the birds fed on diets containing either 3% or 6% added fat, but deposition was lower than in those fed 9% fat. A decrease in the SFA:UFA ratio of the diet was associated with a dose-dependent decrease in abdominal fat, irrespective of the amount of fat in the diet. This observation leads to the rejection of the hypothesis stated above. A decrease in the dietary SFA:UFA from 1:1 to 1:4 caused a decrease in the number of the fat cells per surface unit of breast meat. It is concluded that an increased intake of soybean oil at the expense of tallow reduced the abdominal fat deposition and the number of fat cells in the breast meat of broiler chickens.

  10. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  11. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  12. Effect of the inclusion time of dietary saturated and unsaturated fats before slaughter on the accumulation and composition of abdominal fat in female broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sanz, M; Lopez-Bote, C J; Flores, A; Carmona, J M

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this experiment was to assess the effects of four different feeding programs designed to include tallow, a saturated fat at 0, 8, 12, and 28 d prior to slaughter on female broiler performance and the deposition, fatty acid profile, and melting point of abdominal fat. The following treatment groups were established according to dietary inclusion--from 21 to 49 d of age--of: sunflower oil (SUN), sunflower oil followed by tallow during the last 8 d (SUN + 8TALL), sunflower oil followed by tallow during the last 12 d (SUN + 12TALL), and tallow (TALL). The diets were designed to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Abdominal fat deposition increased linearly with increasing number of days in which birds were fed the tallow-enriched diet. However, linear and quadratic response patterns were found between days before slaughter in which the birds were fed the tallow-enriched diet and abdominal fat melting points. This result suggested an exponential response in which 85% of the maximum level was already attained when the dietary fat type changed from an unsaturated to a saturated condition during the last 8 d of the feeding period. The use of an unsaturated fat source during the first stages of growth, and the substitution of a saturated fat for a few days before slaughter, may offer the advantage of lower abdominal fat deposition and an acceptable fat fluidity compared with the use of a saturated fat source during the whole growing and finishing period.

  13. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  14. Intra-abdominal fat is related to metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fat liver disease in obese youth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an association between adiposity, especially intra-abdominal adipose tissue, and hemodynamic/metabolic comorbidities in adults, however it is not clear in pediatric population. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) with values of intra-abdominal (IAAT) and subcutaneous (SCAT) adipose tissue in obese children and adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study. Subjects: 182 obese sedentary children and adolescents (aged 6 to 16 y), identified by the body mass index (BMI). Measurements: Body composition and trunk fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry- DXA; lipid profile, blood pressure and pubertal stage were also assessed. NAFLD was classified as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2) and severe (3), and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were identified by ultrasound. The MS was identified according to the cut offs proposed by World Health Organization adapted for children and adolescents. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables, and the binary logistic regression indicated the magnitude of the associations adjusted by potential cofounders (sex, age, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR). Results Higher quartile of SCAT was associated with elevated blood pressure (p = 0.015), but not associated with NAFLD (p = 0.665). Higher IAAT was positively associated with increased dyslipidemia (p = 0.001), MS (p = 0.013) and NAFLD (p = 0.005). Intermediate (p = 0.007) and highest (p = 0.001) quartile of IAAT were also associated with dyslipidemia, independently of age, sex, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance). Conclusion Obese children and adolescents, with higher IAAT are more prone to develop MS and NAFLD than those with higher values of SCAT, independent of possible confounding variables. PMID:23919592

  15. [Evaluation of Intra-abdominal fat distribution using X-ray CT data for detection of rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Ogura, Toshihiro; Takatsu, Kazuaki; Negishi, Ryoichi; Koizumi, Kouichi; Satou, Masanori; Yanai, Kazuya; Sasaki, Isamu; Fukuda, Kazuya; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Kouno, Atsushi; Shimomura, Younosuke

    2005-06-20

    To develop a novel method of detecting rectal cancer, we assessed relationships between intra-abdominal fat distribution and rectal cancer in Japanese patients. Subjects comprised 38 patients with rectal cancer apparent on CT-colonography and 110 other cases. The intra-abdominal fat area was determined by calculating pixel distribution with attenuation values from -140 HU to -40 HU. The area of intra-abdominal fat was measured on axial images using an interslice gap of 10 mm. Profile curves of intra-abdominal fat were in the plane direction from diaphragm to anus. Of note is the fact that Ogura's peak, a secondary small peak around the rectal cancer, was apparent on the profile of intra-abdominal fat, with 73.7% of rectal cancers displaying Ogura's peak. In comparison, only 19.1% of other cases displayed Ogura's peak on this profile. The relationship between fat and rectal cancer is difficult to explain. However, making good use of these results showing intra-abdominal fat distribution, a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for detecting rectal cancer according to the presence of Ogura's peak has potential as a method of mass screening. As only 148 cases were investigated in the present study, the accumulation of additional data is needed. More detailed studies with larger patient populations are warranted.

  16. Comparison of serum biochemical parameters between two broiler chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content.

    PubMed

    Dong, J-Q; Zhang, H; Jiang, X-F; Wang, S-Z; Du, Z-Q; Wang, Z-P; Leng, L; Cao, Z-P; Li, Y-M; Luan, P; Li, H

    2015-07-01

    In humans, obesity is associated with increased or decreased levels of serum biochemical indicators. However, the relationship is not as well understood in chickens. Due to long-term intense selection for fast growth rate, modern broilers have the problem of excessive fat deposition, exhibiting biochemical or metabolic changes. In the current study, the Northeast Agricultural University broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content (NEAUHLF) were used to identify differences in serum biochemical parameters between the 2 lines. A total of 18 serum biochemical indicators were investigated in the 16th, 17th, and 18th generation populations of NEAUHLF, and the genetic parameters of these serum biochemical indicators were estimated. After analyzing the data from these 3 generations together, the results showed that the levels of 16 of the tested serum biochemical parameters were significantly different between the lean and fat birds. In the fat birds, serum concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL-C:low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total bile acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate transaminase (AST):alanine transaminase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), uric acid, and creatinine were very significantly higher (P < 0.01), whereas LDL-C, albumin:globulin, glucose, AST, ALT, and free fatty acids concentrations in serum were very significantly lower than those in the lean birds (P < 0.01). Of these 16 serum biochemical parameters, 5 (LDL-C, HDL-C:LDL-C, total bile acid, albumin, and albumin:globulin) had high heritabilities (0.58 ≤ h2 ≤ 0.89), 6 (HDL-C, total protein, globulin, AST:ALT, GGT, and creatinine) had moderate heritabilities (0.29 ≤ h2 ≤ 0.48), and the remaining 5 had low heritabilities (h2 < 0.20). Serum HDL-C, HDL-C:LDL-C, and glucose had higher positive genetic correlation coefficients (rg) with abdominal fat traits (0.30 ≤ rg ≤ 0.80), whereas serum globulin, AST, and uric acid

  17. Genome-wide association studies suggest sex-specific loci associated with abdominal and visceral fat

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yun Ju; Pérusse, Louis; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Fornage, Myriam; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rice, Treva; Terry, Gregg; Jacobs, David R.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Curran, Joanne E; Carr, John Jeffrey; Blangero, John; Ghosh, Sujoy; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D.C.; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify loci associated with abdominal fat and replicate prior findings, we performed genome-wide association (GWA) studies of abdominal fat traits: subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total adipose tissue (TAT) and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VSR). Subjects and Methods Sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses were performed on each trait with (TRAIT-BMI) or without (TRAIT) adjustment for BMI, and cohort-specific results were combined via a fixed effects meta-analysis. A total of 2,513 subjects of European descent were available for the discovery phase. For replication, 2,171 European Americans and 772 African Americans were available. Results A total of 52 SNPs encompassing 7 loci showed suggestive evidence of association (p < 1.0 × 10−6) with abdominal fat in the sex-combined analyses. The strongest evidence was found on chromosome 7p14.3 between a SNP near BBS9 gene and VAT (rs12374818; p= 1.10 × 10−7), an association that was replicated (p = 0.02). For the BMI-adjusted trait, the strongest evidence of association was found between a SNP near CYCSP30 and VAT-BMI (rs10506943; p= 2.42 × 10−7). Our sex-specific analyses identified one genome-wide significant (p < 5.0 × 10−8) locus for SAT in women with 11 SNPs encompassing the MLLT10, DNAJC1 and EBLN1 genes on chromosome 10p12.31 (p = 3.97 × 10−8 to 1.13 × 10−8). The THNSL2 gene previously associated with VAT in women was also replicated (p= 0.006). The six gene/loci showing the strongest evidence of association with VAT or VAT-BMI were interrogated for their functional links with obesity and inflammation using the Biograph knowledge-mining software. Genes showing the closest functional links with obesity and inflammation were ADCY8 and KCNK9, respectively. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for new loci influencing abdominal visceral (BBS9, ADCY8, KCNK9) and subcutaneous (MLLT10/DNAJC1/EBLN1) fat, and confirmed a locus (THNSL2

  18. Comparison of CT and dual-energy DEXA using a modified trunk compartment in the measurement of abdominal fat.

    PubMed

    Lane, James T; Mack-Shipman, Lynn R; Anderson, Joseph C; Moore, Timothy E; Erickson, Judi M; Ford, Timothy C; Stoner, Julie A; Larsen, Jennifer L

    2005-08-01

    The quantification of abdominal fat is a marker of health risk. While dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is easily applied, it measures overall fat, although abdominal fat may be a better indicator of health risk from obesity. We have evaluated whether a subcomponent of DEXA measurements correlates better with computed tomography (CT) for body fat than those traditionally used. Forty-seven healthy adults (22 M/25 F), aged 54.5+/-15.8 yr (mean+/-SD), with BMI of 27.1+/-4.6 kg/m2 participated in a cross-sectional study. Body fat was measured using abdominal CT and DEXA for total fat, trunk fat, and a modified trunk measurement that excludes the chest, termed "lower trunk," and compared. The coefficient of variation for DEXA measurements for trunk, lower trunk, and total body were 1.98, 3.12, and 0.85%, respectively. Mean DEXA for percentage fat ranged from 31.7% to 34.1% for trunk, lower trunk, and total body, compared to 54.2% for abdominal CT (p<0.003 for each pairwise comparison). Lower trunk, whole trunk, and total body DEXA measurements were not different. Measurement of subcomponents of fat content by DEXA is not superior to whole body measurements and remains consistently lower than measurements by CT.

  19. Effect of Tesamorelin on Liver Fat and Visceral Fat in HIV-Infected Patients With Abdominal Fat Accumulation: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Takara L.; Feldpausch, Meghan N.; Oh, Jinhee; Branch, Karen L.; Lee, Hang; Torriani, Martin; Grinspoon, Steven K.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Among HIV-infected patients, visceral adiposity is associated with metabolic dysregulation and ectopic fat accumulation. Tesamorelin, a growth hormone-releasing hormone analogue, specifically targets visceral fat reduction, but its effects on liver fat are unknown. Objective To investigate the effect of tesamorelin on visceral and liver fat. Design, Setting, and Participants Fifty antiretroviral-treated HIV-infected men and women with abdominal fat accumulation were recruited for this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial at Massachusetts General Hospital. The first patient was enrolled on 1/10/2011; the final patient completed his 6 month study visit on 9/6/2013. Intervention Tesamorelin 2mg vs. placebo SC daily for 6 months Main Outcomes Primary endpoints were changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver fat. Secondary endpoints included glucose and other metabolic endpoints. Results 76 patients were screened and 54 randomized. 50 presented for baseline assessment and 48 received treatment with study drug. Tesamorelin significantly reduced VAT (Δ −34 [−53, −15] vs. 8 [−14, 30] cm2, mean [95% CI], tesamorelin vs. placebo, treatment effect −42cm2 [95% CI −71, −14], P = 0.005) and liver fat (Δ −2.0 [−6.4, 0.1] vs. 0.9 [−0.6, 3.7] lipid-to-water %, median [IQR], tesamorelin vs. placebo, P=0.003) over 6 months, for a net treatment effect of −2.9 lipid-to-water %. Fasting glucose increased in the tesamorelin group at 2 weeks (Δ 9 [5, 13] vs. 2 [−3, 8] mg/dL, mean [95% CI], treatment effect 7mg/dL [95% CI 1, 14], P=0.03), but overall changes over 6 months in fasting glucose (Δ 4 [−2, 10] vs. 2 [−4, 7] mg/dL, mean [95% CI], treatment effect 2mg/dL [95% CI −6, 10], P=0.72) and 2 hour glucose (Δ −1 [−18, 15] vs. −8 [−24, 8] mg/dL, mean [95% CI], treatment effect 7mg/dL [95% CI −16, 29], P=0.53) were not significant. Conclusions and Relevance In this preliminary study of HIV-infected patients with

  20. Abdominal fat ratio - a novel parameter for predicting conversion in laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Scott, S I; Farid, S; Mann, C; Jones, R; Kang, P; Evans, J

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Laparoscopic surgery has become the standard for colorectal cancer resection in the UK but it can be technically challenging in patients who are obese. Patients whose body fat is mainly inside the abdominal cavity are more challenging than those whose fat is mainly outside the abdominal cavity. Abdominal fat ratio (AFR) is a simple parameter proposed by the authors to aid identification of this subgroup. MATERIALS AND METHODS All 195 patients who underwent elective, laparoscopic colorectal cancer resections from March 2010 to November 2013 were included in the study. For patients who were obese (body mass index greater than 30), preoperative staging computed tomography was used to determine AFR. This was assessed by two different, blinded observers and compared with conversion rate. RESULTS Of the 195 patients, 58 (29.7%) fell into the obese group and 137 (70.3%) into the non-obese group. The median AFR of the obese group that were converted to open surgery was significantly higher at 5.9 compared with those completed laparoscopically (3.3, P = 0.0001, Mann-Whitney). There was no significant difference in conversion rate when looking at body mass index, tumour site or size. DISCUSSION Previous studies have found body mass index, age, gender, previous abdominal surgery, site and locally advanced tumours to be associated with an increased risk of conversion. This study adds AFR to the list of risk factors. CONCLUSION AFR is a simple, reproducible parameter which can help to predict conversion risk in obese patients undergoing colorectal cancer resection.

  1. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in genetically fat and lean chickens reveals adipokines, lipogenic genes and a link between hemostasis and leanness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This descriptive study of the abdominal fat transcriptome takes advantage of two experimental lines of meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus), which were selected over seven generations for a large difference in abdominal (visceral) fatness. At the age of selection (9 wk), the fat line (FL) and lean line (LL) chickens exhibit a 2.5-fold difference in abdominal fat weight, while their feed intake and body weight are similar. These unique avian models were originally created to unravel genetic and endocrine regulation of adiposity and lipogenesis in meat-type chickens. The Del-Mar 14K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray was used for a time-course analysis of gene expression in abdominal fat of FL and LL chickens during juvenile development (1–11 weeks of age). Results Microarray analysis of abdominal fat in FL and LL chickens revealed 131 differentially expressed (DE) genes (FDR≤0.05) as the main effect of genotype, 254 DE genes as an interaction of age and genotype and 3,195 DE genes (FDR≤0.01) as the main effect of age. The most notable discoveries in the abdominal fat transcriptome were higher expression of many genes involved in blood coagulation in the LL and up-regulation of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in FL chickens. Many of these DE genes belong to pathways controlling the synthesis, metabolism and transport of lipids or endocrine signaling pathways activated by adipokines, retinoid and thyroid hormones. Conclusions The present study provides a dynamic view of differential gene transcription in abdominal fat of chickens genetically selected for fatness (FL) or leanness (LL). Remarkably, the LL chickens over-express a large number of hemostatic genes that could be involved in proteolytic processing of adipokines and endocrine factors, which contribute to their higher lipolysis and export of stored lipids. Some of these changes are already present at 1 week of age before the divergence in fatness. In contrast, the FL chickens have

  2. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Resnyk, Christopher W.; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H.; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J.; Cogburn, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5–2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  3. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Resnyk, Christopher W; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J; Cogburn, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  4. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates. PMID:27656630

  5. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-08-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

  6. The relationship of abdominal fat mass assessed by helical or conventional computed tomography to serum leptin concentration.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Junji; Sasaki, Takeyoshi; Watanabe, Mitsuyo

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we focused on the relationship of intra-abdominal visceral fat (VF) or subcutaneous fat (SF) mass to serum leptin levels, and also on the relationship of leptin to serum lipid and lipoprotein concentration. Subjects with obesity (26 men, 26 women) were recruited for this study. We obtained helical CT scans with a tube current of 150 mA, voltage of 120 kV and 2:1 pitch (table speed in relation to slice thickness), starting at the upper edge of the liver and continuing to the pelvis. The intra-abdominal visceral fat (VF) volume was measured by drawing a line within the muscle wall surrounding the abdominal cavity. The abdominal SF volume was calculated by subtracting the VF volume from the total abdominal fat volume. By comparison, the abdominal VF and SF areas were determined at the umbilical level by the established slice-by-slice CT scanning technique. We found: 1) abdominal SF mass, either as volume or area, was a more important determinant of serum leptin than was VF mass; 2) among TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C, only TG had a positive correlation to serum leptin levels in men, whereas in women no lipid parameters had any relationship with leptin; and 3) VF mass had a positive correlation to serum TC and TG in men, whereas SF did not. The present study provides considerable evidence on the relationship between abdominal fat mass and serum leptin, and shows that the relationships between serum leptin and serum lipids and lipoproteins are not straightforward. We also suggest that fat area measured by conventional CT is a better indicator than its corresponding volume assessed by helical CT, based on the present results showing its closer association to serum lipids.

  7. Effects of peroxidized corn oil on performance, AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ehr, I J; Kerr, B J; Persia, M E

    2015-07-01

    There is a trend to use more alternative lipids in poultry diets, either through animal-vegetable blends, distillers corn oil, or yellow grease. This has resulted in the use of lipids in poultry diets with a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, which have a greater potential for peroxidation. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of peroxidized corn oil on broiler performance, dietary AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight. The same refined corn oil sample was divided into 3 subsamples, 2 of which were exposed to different peroxidative processes. The 3 diets contained the unperoxidized corn oil (UO), a slowly peroxidized corn oil (SO; heated for 72 h at 95°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min), or a rapidly peroxidized corn oil (RO; heated for 12 h at 185°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min). Diets were fed from 0 to 14 d of age with each lipid fed at a 5% inclusion rate, continuing on from 15 to 27 d of age with each lipid fed at a 10% inclusion rate. There were 6 Ross 708 broiler chicks per cage with 10 replicates for each of the 3 dietary treatments. Abdominal fat pad and excreta collection was performed on d 27. Body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured for the 0 to 14 and 0 to 27 d periods. The increased level of peroxidation reduced AMEn in broiler diets (UO = 3,490 kcal/kg; SO = 3,402 kcal/kg; RO = 3,344 kcal/kg on an as-is basis; SEM = 12.9, P ≤ 0.01). No significant treatment differences were observed among oil supplemented birds for BW gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, or abdominal fat pad weight. In conclusion, corn oil peroxidation status resulted in a decrease in dietary AMEn, but had minimal effects on broiler performance or fat pad weights.

  8. Effect of walking exercise on abdominal fat, insulin resistance and serum cytokines in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hye-Ryun; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Kong, Ji-Young; Lee, Sang-Hee; Yang, Seung-Hun; Ha, Chang-Duk; Kang, Hyun-Sik

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of 12-week walking exercise on abdominal fat, insulin resistance and serum cytokines in obese women. [Methods] Following baseline measurements, obese women (N = 20) who met obesity criterion of BMI at 25 kg/m2 or greater were randomly assigned to the control (n = 10) or exercise groups (n = 10). Women assigned to the exercise group participated in a walking exercise (with an intensity of 50-60% of predetermined VO2max, a frequency of 3 days per week and duration of 50-70 minutes targeting 400 kcal of energy expenditure per session) for 12 weeks, while women assigned to the control group maintained their sedentary lifestyle. After the 12-week walking intervention, post-test measurements were conducted using the same procedure as the baseline measurement. Analyses of variance with repeated measures were used to evaluate any significant time by group interactions for the measured variables. [Results] With respect to body fat parameters, significant time-by-group interactions were found in the abdominal subcutaneous (p = < 0.001) and visceral adipose tissues (p = 0.011). The exercise group had significant reductions in both subcutaneous and visceral adiposity, and the control group had no significant changes in those parameters. Similarly, there were significant time by group interactions in fasting glucose (p = 0.008), HOMA-IR (p = 0.029), serum TNF-α (p = 0.027), and IL-6 (p = 0.048) such that the exercise group had significant reductions in those parameters, with no such significant changes found in the control group. The exercise group also had a significant increase in serum adiponectin (p = 0.002), whereas the control group had no significant change in the parameter. [Conclusion] In summary, the current findings suggest that walking exercise can provide a safe and effective lifestyle strategy against abdominal obesity and serum insulin resistance markers in obese women. PMID:25566464

  9. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid and vitamin E on performance, energy metabolism, and change of fat depot mass in transitional dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schäfers, S; von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Drong, C; Frahm, J; Kluess, J; Raschka, C; Rehage, J; Tröscher, A; Pelletier, W; Dänicke, S

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E as well as their interaction on performance variables and lipomobilization during late pregnancy and early lactation (wk 6 antepartum until wk 10 postpartum). For this purpose, 59 pluriparous German Holstein cows were assigned to 4 dietary groups in a 2 × 2 design with the factors CLA and vitamin E at 2 levels. For this trial, we selected cows with a high body condition score because they are more likely to mobilize fat and consequently are at a higher risk of developing ketosis. Furthermore, concentrate proportions were adjusted to provoke ketosis. Lactation performance variables were analyzed in 3 periods (d 42 antepartum until calving, 1 to 21 d in milk, 22 to 70 d in milk). Dry matter intake and net energy intake were reduced in animals receiving CLA. Milk fat content was reduced in the CLA group compared with the control group (4.83 vs. 5.46% in period 2; 3.36 vs. 4.57% in period 3). In the vitamin E and the CLA + vitamin E groups, reduction of milk fat content was observed in period 3 (3.76 vs. 4.57% compared with the control group). Milk yield was not affected by treatment. β-Hydroxybutyrate concentrations and liver lipid contents were not influenced by CLA or vitamin E. Moreover, longitudinal changes of adipose tissue depot mass were not affected by dietary treatments. Results suggest that the effects CLA had on milk composition were compensated by an increased milk yield and a decreased dry matter intake. Reduced milk energy output in CLA-treated animals was compensated by a reduced dry matter intake. Therefore, the net energy balance was not affected by either treatment. Consequently, we found no group effect on the mobilization of adipose tissue.

  10. Physical Activity and Reduced Intra-abdominal Fat in Midlife African-American and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Sheila A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Avery, Elizabeth F.; Wesley, Deidre E.; Powell, Lynda H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine whether self-reported physical activity (PA), including recreational, household, and exercise activities, is associated with intra-abdominal fat (IAF) in community-dwelling white and black midlife women. We performed a cross-sectional study of 369 women from the Chicago site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) ancillary study, the SWAN Fat Patterning Study. PA level was the independent variable, and IAF, assessed by computerized tomography (CT) scan, was the dependent variable. Measures were obtained at SWAN Fat Patterning Baseline visit between August 2002 and December 2005. Linear regression models explored the association between PA and IAF. The first model included IAF as the outcome and total score PA as the main predictor, adjusting for total percent fat mass, age, and ethnicity. The second model included education, parity, sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) level, and depressive symptoms, measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Each 1-point higher total PA score was associated with a 4.0 cm2 lower amount of IAF (P = 0.004), independent of total percent fat mass, age, ethnicity, SHBG level, educational level, CES-D, and parity. Associations did not differ between white and black women. This study demonstrates a significant negative association between PA and IAF independent of multiple covariates in midlife women. Our findings suggest that motivating white and black women to increase PA during midlife may lessen IAF, which may have a positive impact on subsequent development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19876007

  11. Changes in adiponectin and inflammatory genes in response to hormonal imbalances in female mice and exacerbation of depot selective visceral adiposity by high-fat diet: implications for insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Chen, Xinlei; Aravindakshan, Jayaprakash; Sairam, M Ram

    2007-12-01

    Early obesity and late onset of insulin resistance associated with hormonal imbalances occur in FSH receptor-deficient follitropin receptor knockout female mice. This study tests the hypothesis that chronic high-fat diet aggravates obesogenic changes in a depot-specific manner and explores some molecular links of hormone imbalances with insulin resistance. In SV 129 mice, hormonal imbalances seem obligatory for exacerbation of diet-induced obesity. Visceral adiposity, glucose intolerance, and lipid disturbances in 9-month follitropin receptor knockout females were associated with decrease in adiponectin signaling. High-molecular-weight plasma adiponectin and adipose tissue adiponectin mRNA were decreased. Adiponectin receptors R1 and R2 mRNA was selectively altered in mesenteric fat but not periuterine fat. R2 decreased in the liver and R1 was higher in muscle. Whereas hepatic adenosine monophosphate T-activated protein kinase activity was down-regulated, both phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase enzymes were up-regulated. Longitudinally, diminishing sex hormone signaling in adipose tissue was associated with progressive down-regulation of adiponectin activity and gradual impaired glucose tolerance. Chronic high-fat diet in SV129 wild-type mice did not produce overt obesity but induced visceral fat depot changes accompanied by liver lipid accumulation, high cholesterol, and up-regulation of inflammation gene mRNAs. Thus, TNF-alpha, C-C motif chemokine receptor-2, and C-C motif chemokine ligand-2 were selectively elevated in mesenteric fat without altering glucose tolerance and adiponectin signaling. Our study highlights adiponectin signaling and regulation to be involved in hormone imbalance-induced insulin resistance and demonstrates selective visceral adipose depot alterations by chronic high-fat diet and induction of inflammatory genes.

  12. Color and fatty acid profile of abdominal fat pads from broiler chickens fed lobster meal.

    PubMed

    Rathgeber, B M; Anderson, D M; Thompson, K L; Macisaac, J L; Budge, S

    2011-06-01

    Consumer demands for food products enriched with healthful n-3 fatty acids are steadily increasing. Feeding marine byproducts may provide an economical means of increasing the long-chain n-3 content of broiler tissues. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary lobster meal (LM) on the color and fatty acid profile of broiler chicken fatty tissue. Broilers were fed increasing levels (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%) of LM for 35 d. Fat pad samples were collected at slaughter and color and fatty acid concentrations were determined. A linear effect was found of LM on red coloration (P < 0.05) as dietary LM increased. Fat pad eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels also increased (P < 0.0001) in a linear fashion. The essential long-chain fatty acids were lower for the 10% LM diet (0.37 mg of EPA/g; 0.16 mg of DHA/g) compared with the 8% LM diet (0.51 mg of EPA/g; 0.27 mg of DHA/g). Using lobster meal as a feed ingredient resulted in broiler abdominal fat pads with a favorable increase in n-3 fatty acids.

  13. Disproportionate fat stranding: a helpful CT sign in patients with acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Jose M; Sirlin, Claude B; Pinto, Pedro S; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Stella, Damien L; Casola, Giovanna

    2004-01-01

    Fat stranding adjacent to thickened bowel wall seen at computed tomography (CT) in patients with acute abdominal pain suggests an acute process of the gastrointestinal tract, but the differential diagnosis is wide. The authors observed "disproportionate" fat stranding (ie, stranding more severe than expected for the degree of bowel wall thickening present) and explored how this finding suggests a narrower differential diagnosis, one that is centered in the mesentery: diverticulitis, epiploic appendagitis, omental infarction, and appendicitis. The characteristic CT findings (in addition to fat stranding) of each of these entities often lead to a final diagnosis. Diverticulitis manifests with mild, smooth bowel wall thickening and no lymphadenopathy. Epiploic appendagitis manifests with central areas of high attenuation and a hyperattenuated rim, in addition to its characteristic location adjacent to the colon. In contrast, omental infarction is always centered in the omentum. The most specific finding of appendicitis is a dilated, fluid-filled appendix. Correct noninvasive diagnosis is important because treatment approaches for these conditions range from monitoring to surgery.

  14. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Abdominal Fat Partitioning in Healthy Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiantao; Sloan, Matthew; Fox, Caroline S.; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E.; Saltzman, Edward; Rogers, Gail T.; Jacques, Paul F.; McKeown, Nicola M.

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal adiposity, particularly visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is independently linked to the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may be associated with abnormal fat accumulation in VAT. We examined whether habitual SSB consumption and diet soda intakes are differentially associated with deposition of body fat. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using previously collected data in 2596 middle-aged adults (1306 men and 1290 women) from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. VAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured using multidetector computed tomography. Habitual intake of SSBs and diet soda was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. We observed that SSB consumption was positively associated with VAT after adjustment for SAT and other potential confounders (P-trend < 0.001). We observed an inverse association between SSB consumption and SAT (P-trend = 0.04) that persisted after additional adjustment for VAT (P-trend < 0.001). Higher SSB consumption was positively associated with the VAT-to-SAT ratio (P-trend < 0.001). No significant association was found between diet soda consumption and either VAT or the VAT-to-SAT ratio, but diet soda was positively associated with SAT (P-trend < 0.001). Daily consumers of SSBs had a 10% higher absolute VAT volume and a 15% greater VAT-to-SAT ratio compared with nonconsumers, whereas consumption of diet soda was not associated with either volume or distribution of VAT. PMID:24944282

  15. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with abdominal fat partitioning in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiantao; Sloan, Matthew; Fox, Caroline S; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E; Saltzman, Edward; Rogers, Gail T; Jacques, Paul F; McKeown, Nicola M

    2014-08-01

    Abdominal adiposity, particularly visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is independently linked to the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may be associated with abnormal fat accumulation in VAT. We examined whether habitual SSB consumption and diet soda intakes are differentially associated with deposition of body fat. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using previously collected data in 2596 middle-aged adults (1306 men and 1290 women) from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. VAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured using multidetector computed tomography. Habitual intake of SSBs and diet soda was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. We observed that SSB consumption was positively associated with VAT after adjustment for SAT and other potential confounders (P-trend < 0.001). We observed an inverse association between SSB consumption and SAT (P-trend = 0.04) that persisted after additional adjustment for VAT (P-trend < 0.001). Higher SSB consumption was positively associated with the VAT-to-SAT ratio (P-trend < 0.001). No significant association was found between diet soda consumption and either VAT or the VAT-to-SAT ratio, but diet soda was positively associated with SAT (P-trend < 0.001). Daily consumers of SSBs had a 10% higher absolute VAT volume and a 15% greater VAT-to-SAT ratio compared with nonconsumers, whereas consumption of diet soda was not associated with either volume or distribution of VAT.

  16. Body mass index, abdominal fatness and the risk of gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Aune, Dagfinn; Norat, Teresa; Vatten, Lars J

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated a positive association between adiposity and gallbladder disease risk, however, the shape of the dose-response relationship and differences between overall and abdominal adiposity remains to be clarified. We conducted a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio and risk of gallbladder disease. PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to January 9th 2015. Summary relative risks were calculated using a random effects model. Seventeen prospective studies of BMI and gallbladder disease risk with 55,670 cases among 1,921,103 participants were included. The summary relative risk (RR) for a 5 unit increment in BMI was 1.63 (95 % CI 1.49-1.78, I(2) = 98 %). There was evidence of a nonlinear association overall and among women, p(nonlinearity) < 0.0001, but not among men, p(nonlinearity) = 0.99, with a slight flattening of the curve at very high BMI levels (BMI 40-45), however, the risk of gallbladder disease increased almost twofold even within the "normal" BMI range. The summary RR for a 10 cm increase in waist circumference was 1.46 (95 % CI 1.24-1.72, I(2) = 98 %, n = 5) and for a 0.1 unit increment in waist-to-hip ratio was 1.44 (95 % CI 1.26-1.64, I(2) = 92 %, n = 4). Associations were attenuated, but still significant, when BMI and abdominal adiposity measures were mutually adjusted. Our results confirm a positive association between both general and abdominal fatness and the risk of gallbladder disease. There is an almost twofold increase in the risk even within the "normal" BMI range, suggesting that even moderate increases in BMI may increase risk.

  17. Effectiveness of thigh-to-thigh current path for the measurement of abdominal fat in bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki Hwan; Lim, Yong Gyu; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-12-01

    We present a new method measuring body impedance using a thigh-to-thigh current path, which can reflect the abdominal fat portion more sensitively and can be conveniently applied during the daily use on a toilet seat. Two pairs of electrodes were installed on a toilet seat to provide current and to permit voltage measurement through a thigh-to-thigh current path. The effectiveness of the method was compared with conventional foot-to-foot and hand-to-foot current paths by simulation and by experiments referenced to computed tomography (CT) image analysis. Body impedance using three different current paths was measured, and abdominal CT images were acquired for eight subjects. Measured body impedances were compared with the visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (VF/SF) calculated from the CT-determined abdominal fat volume. The thigh-to-thigh current path was about 75% more sensitive in abdominal fat measurement than the conventional current paths in simulation experiments and displayed a higher VF/SF correlation (r = 0.768) than the foot-to-foot (r = 0.425) and hand-to-foot (r = 0.497) current paths.

  18. Fat accumulation, fatty acids and melting point changes in broiler chick abdominal fat as affected by time of dietary fat feeding and slaughter age.

    PubMed

    Carmona, J M; Lopez-Bote, C J; Daza, A; Rey, A I

    2017-03-23

    1. This work aims to quantify changes in fatty acid profile, melting point, abdominal fat accumulation and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production depending on dietary fat source and age at slaughter, and to estimate the optimal date for the change from an unsaturated fat to a saturated fat diet or vice versa. 2. Treatments established were (1) birds fed 8% tallow from 21 to 49 d (TTT); (2) birds fed 8% tallow from 21 to 37 d and 8% sunflower oil from d 38 to 49 (TSS); (3) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 37 d and 8% tallow from d 38 to 49 (STT); (4) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 41 d and 8% tallow from d 42 to 49 (SST); (5) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 49 d (SSS). Birds from each group were slaughtered on d 21, 29, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46 and 49. 3. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) proportion in the SSS group reached maximum values at d 40 and fitted a quadratic response. This group also showed a decrease in saturated fatty acids (SATs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) of lower intensity than the PUFA increase. The highest synthesis of SAT + MUFA was found in the SSS and TSS groups, whereas these had the lowest body-to-dietary PUFA ratio. 4. A high and quadratic increase in the MUFA proportion was observed during the first 10 d of feeding with the tallow-enriched diet at the expenses of the proportion of PUFA that quadratically decreased (minimum values at d 38). 5. Lipogenic and desaturation capacity decreased with age. 6. The TSS group increased tissue PUFA content faster that the SST group decreased PUFA content after the change in diet which indicates that the earlier feeding has to be taken into consideration for obtaining higher or lower changes in quality parameters. 7. The melting point of the SSS group showed a lower response to the dietary treatment in the initial period when compared to the TTT treatment. 8. The TTT, STT, SST and TSS groups showed similar fat accumulation, and changes in lipid

  19. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J.; Lee, William R.; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences. PMID:26295149

  20. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J; Lee, William R; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences.

  1. Swimming eliminates the weight gain and abdominal fat associated with ovariectomy in the retired breeder rat despite high-fat diet selection.

    PubMed

    Melton, S A; Hegsted, M; Keenan, M J; Zhang, Y; Morris, S; Potter Bulot, L; O'Neil, C E; Morris, G S

    2000-08-01

    The effects of swim-training on choice of dietary fat, carbohydrate or protein, weight gain, energy intake, and energy efficiency were examined in ovariectomized and sham-operated retired breeder rats. After a 3 week training period of increased duration, rats swam for 75 min per session (5 days per week) for 4 weeks. Ovariectomized rats gained more weight than sham rats, while swimming reduced weight gain and abdominal fat. As a percentage of total intake, macronutrient choices (weight and energy) were similar for all groups, ovariectomized animals consumed more food and more energy, compared with sham animals. All rats freely chose the majority of their food (g) as carbohydrate and the majority of energy (kJ) as fat. Results indicate that a moderate intensity training program of swimming prevented the weight gain following ovariectomy in older rats despite their excessive caloric intake of fat.

  2. Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity in early pregnancy together predict impaired glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, L R; Berger, H; Retnakaran, R; Vlachou, P A; Maguire, J L; Nathens, A B; Connelly, P W; Ray, J G

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity individually reflect insulin resistance, but their combined effect on glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy is unknown. A cohort of 476 pregnant women prospectively underwent sonographic assessment of hepatic fat and visceral (VAT) and total (TAT) adipose tissue at 11–14 weeks' gestation. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation between the presence of maternal hepatic fat and/or the upper quartile (Q) of either VAT or TAT and the odds of developing the composite outcome of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or gestational diabetes mellitus at 24–28 weeks' gestation, based on a 75 g OGTT. Upon adjusting for maternal age, ethnicity, family history of DM and body mass index (BMI), the co-presence of hepatic fat and quartile 4 (Q4) of VAT (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.5, 95% CI: 2.3–18.5) or hepatic fat and Q4 of TAT (aOR 7.8 95% CI 2.8–21.7) were each associated with the composite outcome, relative to women with neither sonographic feature. First-trimester sonographic evidence of maternal hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity may independently predict the development of impaired glucose homeostasis and GDM in mid-pregnancy. PMID:27643724

  3. Estrogen improved metabolic syndrome through down-regulation of VEGF and HIF-1α to inhibit hypoxia of periaortic and intra-abdominal fat in ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinwen; Xiang, Qiuling; Lin, Guiping; Fu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Kewen; Jiang, Ping; Zheng, Shuhui; Wang, Tinghuai

    2012-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MBS), a cluster of metabolic abnormalities and visceral fat accumulation, increases cardiovascular risks in postmenopausal women. In addition to visceral fat, perivascular adipose tissue has been recently found to play an important role in vascular pathophysiology. Hence, the present study investigates the effects of estrogen on both intra-abdominal fat (visceral fat) and periaortic fat (perivascular fat) accumulation as well as hypoxia in ovariectomized female rats. Female rats were divided into sham operation, ovariectomy and ovariectomy with 17β-estradiol supplementation groups. Twelve weeks later, we found that estrogen improved MBS via reducing body weight gain, the weight of periaortic and intra-abdominal fat, hepatic triglyceride, and total serum cholesterol levels. Estrogen also increased insulin sensitivity through restoring glucose and serum leptin levels. For periaortic fat, western blot showed estrogen inhibited hypoxia by reducing the levels of VEGF and HIF-1α, which is consistent with the results from immunohistochemical staining. The correlation analysis indicated that perivascular fat had a positive correlation with body weight, intra-abdominal fat or serum total cholesterol, but a negative correlation with insulin sensitivity index. For intra-abdominal fat, real-time fluorescent RT-PCR showed estrogen improved fat dysfunction via reducing the levels of relative leptin, MCP-1 but increasing adiponectin mRNA. Estrogen reduced the levels of VEGF and HIF-1α to inhibit hypoxia but restored the levels of PPARγ and Srebp-1c, which are important for lipid capacity function of intra-abdominal fat. These results demonstrated estrogen improved MBS through down-regulating VEGF and HIF-1α to inhibit hypoxia of periaortic and intra-abdominal fat in ovariectomized female rats.

  4. Single injection of clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks decreases abdominal fat pad weight in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ijiri, Daichi; Ishitani, Kanae; El-Deep, Mahmoud Mohamed Hamza; Kawaguchi, Mana; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of clenbuterol injection into newly hatched chicks on both the abdominal fat pad tissue weight and the skeletal muscle weight during subsequent growth. Twenty-seven 1-day-old chicks were divided into two groups, receiving either a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clenbuterol (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not affected by clenbuterol injection during the 5-week experimental period, while the abdominal fat pad tissue weight of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was lower than that of the control chicks at 5 weeks post-injection. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were significantly increased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, while plasma triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of fatty acid synthase was lower in the liver of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Conversely, the skeletal muscle weights were not affected by clenbuterol injection. These results suggest that a single clenbuterol injection into 1-day-old chicks decreases the abdominal fat pad tissue weight, but may not affect skeletal muscle weights during growth. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. The Associations of Multiple Dimensions of Discrimination and Abdominal Fat in African American Adults: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Tené T.; Liu, Jiankang; Mount, David L.; Younge, Sinead N.; Jenkins, William C.; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Discrimination may be adversely associated with abdominal obesity, but few studies have examined associations with abdominal fat. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine whether discrimination was independently associated with visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) fat and whether these associations differed by sex and age. Methods Participants self-reported experiences of everyday and lifetime discrimination. The main reason for and the coping response to these experiences were also reported. VAT and SAT were quantified by computed tomography. Results In fully adjusted models, higher reports of everyday discrimination were associated with greater SAT, but not VAT, volumes in men only: SAT increased by 3.6 (standard error = 1.8)cm3 for each unit increase in the everyday discrimination score. In women, higher reports of lifetime non-racial discrimination were associated with greater VAT (71.6±32.0, P<0.05) and SAT (212.6±83.6, P<0.05), but these relationships were attenuated after controlling for body mass index. Conclusions These cross-sectional findings do not fully support the independent hypothesis of discrimination and abdominal fat. Additional investigations involving longitudinal designs are warranted. PMID:22278393

  6. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  7. Male mice are susceptible to high fat diet-induced hyperglycaemia and display increased circulatory retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels and its expression in visceral adipose depots.

    PubMed

    Asha, G V; Raja Gopal Reddy, M; Mahesh, M; Vajreswari, A; Jeyakumar, S M

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A and its metabolites are known to modulate adipose tissue development and its associated complications. Here, we assessed the vitamin A status and its metabolic pathway gene expression in relation to sexual dimorphism by employing 35 days old C57BL/6J male and female mice, which were fed either stock or high fat (HF) diet for 26 weeks. HF diet feeding increased body weight/weight gain and white adipose tissue (WAT) of visceral and subcutaneous regions, however, increase in vitamin A levels observed only in subcutaneous WAT. Further, the expression of most of the vitamin A metabolic pathway genes showed no sexual dimorphism. The observed HF diet-induced hyperglycaemia in male corroborates with increased retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels in plasma and its expression in visceral adipose depots. In conclusion, the male mice are susceptible to high fat diet-induced hyperglycaemia and display higher plasma RBP4 levels, possibly due to its over-expression in visceral adipose depots.

  8. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on abdominal and liver fat deposition and blood lipids: a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Bendsen, N T; Chabanova, E; Thomsen, H S; Larsen, T M; Newman, J W; Stender, S; Dyerberg, J; Haugaard, S B; Astrup, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) is, according to observational studies, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the causal mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Besides inducing dyslipidemia, TFA intake is suspected to promote abdominal and liver fat deposition. Objective: We examined the effect of a high intake of TFA as part of an isocaloric diet on whole-body, abdominal and hepatic fat deposition, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women. Methods: In a 16-week double-blind parallel intervention study, 52 healthy overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil providing 15.7 g day−1 of TFA or a control oil with mainly oleic and palmitic acid. Before and after the intervention, body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, abdominal fat by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and liver fat by 1H MR spectroscopy. Results: Compared with the control fat, TFA intake decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol by 10%, increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol by 18% and resulted in an increased LDL/HDL-cholesterol ratio (baseline adjusted mean (95% CI) difference between diet groups 0.41 (0.22; 0.60); P<0.001). TFA tended to increase the body fat (0.46 (−0.20; 1.17) kg; P=0.16) and waist circumference (1.1 (−0.1; 2.4) cm; P=0.08) more than the control fat, whereas neither abdominal nor liver fat deposition was affected by TFA. Conclusion: The adverse effect of dietary TFA on cardiovascular disease risk involves induction of dyslipidemia, and perhaps body fat, whereas weight gain-independent accumulation of ectopic fat could not be identified as a contributory factor during short-term intake. PMID:23154296

  9. Optimization of abdominal fat quantification on CT imaging through use of standardized anatomic space: A novel approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The quantification of body fat plays an important role in the study of numerous diseases. It is common current practice to use the fat area at a single abdominal computed tomography (CT) slice as a marker of the body fat content in studying various disease processes. This paper sets out to answer three questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. At what single anatomic slice location do the areas of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) estimated from the slice correlate maximally with the corresponding fat volume measures? How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? Are there combinations of multiple slices (not necessarily contiguous) whose area sum correlates better with volume than does single slice area with volume? Methods: The authors propose a novel strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. The authors then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. To address the third issue, the authors carry out similar correlation studies by utilizing two and three slices for calculating area sum. Results: Based on 50 abdominal CT data sets, the proposed mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized currently for single slice area estimation as a marker. Conclusions: The maximum area-to-volume correlation achieved is quite high, suggesting that it may be reasonable to estimate body fat by measuring the area of fat from a single anatomic slice at the site of maximum correlation and use this as a marker. The site of maximum correlation is not at L4-L5 as commonly assumed

  10. Noncontrast computed tomography can predict the outcome of shockwave lithotripsy via accurate stone measurement and abdominal fat distribution determination.

    PubMed

    Geng, Jiun-Hung; Tu, Hung-Pin; Shih, Paul Ming-Chen; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Jang, Mei-Yu; Wu, Wen-Jen; Li, Ching-Chia; Chou, Yii-Her; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease of the urinary system. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) has become one of the standard treatments for renal and ureteral stones; however, the success rates range widely and failure of stone disintegration may cause additional outlay, alternative procedures, and even complications. We used the data available from noncontrast abdominal computed tomography (NCCT) to evaluate the impact of stone parameters and abdominal fat distribution on calculus-free rates following SWL. We retrospectively reviewed 328 patients who had urinary stones and had undergone SWL from August 2012 to August 2013. All of them received pre-SWL NCCT; 1 month after SWL, radiography was arranged to evaluate the condition of the fragments. These patients were classified into stone-free group and residual stone group. Unenhanced computed tomography variables, including stone attenuation, abdominal fat area, and skin-to-stone distance (SSD) were analyzed. In all, 197 (60%) were classified as stone-free and 132 (40%) as having residual stone. The mean ages were 49.35 ± 13.22 years and 55.32 ± 13.52 years, respectively. On univariate analysis, age, stone size, stone surface area, stone attenuation, SSD, total fat area (TFA), abdominal circumference, serum creatinine, and the severity of hydronephrosis revealed statistical significance between these two groups. From multivariate logistic regression analysis, the independent parameters impacting SWL outcomes were stone size, stone attenuation, TFA, and serum creatinine. [Adjusted odds ratios and (95% confidence intervals): 9.49 (3.72-24.20), 2.25 (1.22-4.14), 2.20 (1.10-4.40), and 2.89 (1.35-6.21) respectively, all p < 0.05]. In the present study, stone size, stone attenuation, TFA and serum creatinine were four independent predictors for stone-free rates after SWL. These findings suggest that pretreatment NCCT may predict the outcomes after SWL. Consequently, we can use these predictors for selecting

  11. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS.

  12. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haifeng; Tong, Tom K.; Qiu, Weifeng; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Shi

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session) high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n = 15), MICT (n = 15), or no training (CON, n = 13) for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA) and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA) of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2), ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2), and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p > 0.05) were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%), total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg), and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg), gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg), and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p > 0.05) regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency. PMID:28116314

  13. Body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile in response to a novel hydroxycitric acid-based dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sashwati; Rink, Cameron; Khanna, Savita; Phillips, Christina; Bagchi, Debasis; Bagchi, Manashi; Sen, Chandan K

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is a global public health problem, with about 315 million people worldwide estimated to fall into the WHO-defined obesity categories. Traditional herbal medicines may have some potential in managing obesity. Botanical dietary supplements often contain complex mixtures of phytochemicals that have additive or synergistic interactions. The dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, also known as Malabar tamarind, is a unique source of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), which exhibits a distinct sour taste and has been safely used for centuries in Southeastern Asia to make meals more filling. Recently it has been demonstrated that HCA-SX or Super Citrimax, a novel derivative of HCA, is safe when taken orally and that HCA-SX is bioavailable in the human plasma as studied by GC-MS. Although HCA-SX has been observed to be conditionally effective in weight management in experimental animals as well as in humans, its mechanism of action remains to be understood. We sought to determine the effects of low-dose oral HCA-SX on the body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. We observed that at doses relevant for human consumption dietary HCA-SX significantly contained body weight growth. This response was associated with lowered abdominal fat leptin expression while plasma leptin levels remained unaffected. Repeated high-density microarray analysis of 9960 genes and ESTs present in the fat tissue identified a small set (approximately 1% of all genes screened) of specific genes sensitive to dietary HCA-SX. Other genes, including vital genes transcribing for mitochondrial/nuclear proteins and which are necessary for fundamental support of the tissue, were not affected by HCA-SX. Under the current experimental conditions, HCA-SX proved to be effective in restricting body weight gain in adult rats. Functional characterization of HCA-SX-sensitive genes revealed that upregulation of genes encoding serotonin receptors represent a distinct effect of

  14. A Lower-Carbohydrate, Higher-Fat Diet Reduces Abdominal and Intermuscular Fat and Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes123

    PubMed Central

    Gower, Barbara A; Goss, Amy M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity, particularly visceral and ectopic adiposity, increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if restriction of dietary carbohydrate is beneficial for body composition and metabolic health. Methods: Two studies were conducted. In the first, 69 overweight/obese men and women, 53% of whom were European American (EA) and 47% of whom were African American (AA), were provided with 1 of 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 43%, 18%, and 39%, respectively) for 8 wk at a eucaloric level and 8 wk at a hypocaloric level. In the second study, 30 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were provided with 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 41%, 19%, and 40%, respectively) at a eucaloric level for 8 wk in a random-order crossover design. Results: As previously reported, among overweight/obese adults, after the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the lower-carbohydrate vs. the lower-fat diet lost more intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) (11 ± 3% vs. 1 ± 3%; P < 0.05). After weight loss, participants who consumed the lower-carbohydrate diet had 4.4% less total fat mass. Original to this report, across the entire 16-wk study, AAs lost more fat mass with a lower-carbohydrate diet (6.2 vs. 2.9 kg; P < 0.01), whereas EAs showed no difference between diets. As previously reported, among women with PCOS, the lower-carbohydrate arm showed decreased fasting insulin (−2.8 μIU/mL; P < 0.001) and fasting glucose (−4.7 mg/dL; P < 0.01) and increased insulin sensitivity (1.06 arbitrary units; P < 0.05) and “dynamic” β-cell response (96.1 · 109; P < 0.001). In the lower-carbohydrate arm, women lost both IAAT (−4.8 cm2; P < 0.01) and intermuscular fat (−1.2 cm2; P < 0.01). In the lower-fat arm, women lost lean mass (−0

  15. Quantification of Abdominal Fat in Obese and Healthy Adolescents Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Free Software for Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eloi, Juliana Cristina; Epifanio, Matias; de Gonçalves, Marília Maia; Pellicioli, Augusto; Vieira, Patricia Froelich Giora; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Bruscato, Neide; Soder, Ricardo Bernardi; Santana, João Carlos Batista; Mouzaki, Marialena; Baldisserotto, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Computed tomography, which uses ionizing radiation and expensive software packages for analysis of scans, can be used to quantify abdominal fat. The objective of this study is to measure abdominal fat with 3T MRI using free software for image analysis and to correlate these findings with anthropometric and laboratory parameters in adolescents. Methods This prospective observational study included 24 overweight/obese and 33 healthy adolescents (mean age 16.55 years). All participants underwent abdominal MRI exams. Visceral and subcutaneous fat area and percentage were correlated with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and insulin resistance. Student’s t test and Mann-Whitney’s test was applied. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to compare proportions. To determine associations Pearson’s linear correlation or Spearman’s correlation were used. Results In both groups, waist circumference (WC) was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001 and P = 0.01 respectively), and triglycerides were associated with fat percentage (P = 0.046 and P = 0.071 respectively). In obese individuals, total cholesterol/HDL ratio was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.03) and percentage (P = 0.09), and insulin and HOMA-IR were associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001) and percentage (P = 0.005). Conclusions 3T MRI can provide reliable and good quality images for quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat by using a free software package. The results demonstrate that WC is a good predictor of visceral fat in obese adolescents and visceral fat area is associated with total cholesterol/HDL ratio, insulin and HOMA-IR. PMID:28129354

  16. Preventive effect of a melon extract rich in superoxide scavenging activity on abdominal and liver fat and adipokine imbalance in high-fat-fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Décordé, Kelly; Agne, Anta; Lacan, Dominique; Ramos, Jeanne; Fouret, Gilles; Ventura, Emilie; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2009-07-22

    Studies showed that dietary antioxidants could be a therapy against obesity that is associated with a state of oxidative stress. Thus, this paper investigates whether a dietary ingredient, a melon juice extract rich in superoxide dismutase, would prevent the development of such obesity in hamsters. Five groups received a standard diet or a high-fat diet (HF) plus a daily gavage with water (control) or extract at 0.7, 2.8, or 5.6 mg/day. After 84 days, the higher dose lowered triglyceridemia (68%), production of liver superoxide anion (12%), mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity (40%), lipid and protein oxidation products (35 and 35%, respectively), and leptinemia (99%) and increased adiponectinemia (29%), leading to a concomitant reduction in insulinemia (39%), insulin resistance (41%), and abdominal lipids (25%). The extract triggered a remarkable decrease of liver lipids (73%) and fully prevented the steatohepatitis induced by the HF diet. Chronic consumption of this melon extract may represent a new alternative to reduce obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

  17. Estimating carcass fat and protein in northern pintails during the nonbreeding season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    I used northern pintails (Anas acuta) collected from August through March 1979-82 in the Sacramento Valley, California to derive equations to predict ether-extracted carcass fat, carcass protein, and skeletal lean dry weight. Ether-extracted carcass fat was best predicted by total fat depot weight (wet skin, abdominal fat, and intestinal fat) (r2 = 0.94) and estimates based on carcass water content (r2 = 0.93-0.98). Measured carcass protein was best predicted by a multiple regression including total protein depot weight (breast muscles, leg muscles, and gizzard) and tarsus length (R2 = 0.79). I predicted skeletal lean dry weight by a multiple regression incorporating culmen, tarsus, and wing length (R2 = 0.77). Predicted carcass fat agreed well with measured carcass fat in an independent data set of 30 pintails using total fat depot (r2 = 0.92-0.96) and carcass water (r2 = 0.97-0.99), but predicted carcass protein agreed less well with measured protein.

  18. Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercised-induced weight loss. Methods: Participants (N=132) were randomly assigned to receive a 500 mL beverage containing approximately 625 mg of...

  19. Estimating Negative Effect of Abdominal Obesity on Mildly Decreased Kidney Function Using a Novel Index of Body-Fat Distribution

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Conventional obesity-related indicators, included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and conicity index (C-index), have some limitations. We examined the usefulness of trunk/body fat mass ratio (T/Br) to predict negative effect of abnormal fat distribution on excretory kidney function. We analyzed anthropometric, biochemical and densitometric data from a nation-wide, population-based, case-control study (the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [KNHANES] IV and V). A total of 11,319 participants were divided into 2 groups according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL·min-1·1.73 m-2) as follows: Group I (n = 7,980), eGFR ≥ 90 and ≤ 120; and group II (n = 3,339), eGFR ≥ 60 and < 90. Linear regression analysis revealed that T/Br was closely related to eGFR (β = −0.3173, P < 0.001), and the correlation remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, BMI, WC, C-index, systolic blood pressure (BP), hemoglobin, and smoking amount (β = −0.0987, P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that T/Br (odds ratio [OR] = 1.046; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.039–1.054) was significantly associated with early decline of kidney function, and adjustment for age, gender, BMI, C-index, systolic BP, hemoglobin, serum glucose level, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and smoking amount did not reduce the association (OR = 1.020; 95% CI = 1.007–1.033). T/Br is useful in estimating the negative impact of abdominal obesity on the kidney function. PMID:28244287

  20. Whole-body electromyostimulation as a means to impact muscle mass and abdominal body fat in lean, sedentary, older female adults: subanalysis of the TEST-III trial

    PubMed Central

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 months of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) exercise on appendicular muscle mass and abdominal fat mass in subjects specifically at risk for sarcopenia and abdominal obesity, but unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally. Methods Forty-six lean, nonsportive (<60 minutes of exercise per week), elderly women (aged 75 ± 4 years) with abdominal obesity according to International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n=23) which performed 18 minutes of intermittent, bipolar WB-EMS (85 Hz) three sessions in 14 days or an “active” control group (n=23). Whole-body and regional body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine appendicular muscle mass, upper leg muscle mass, abdominal fat mass, and upper leg fat mass. Maximum strength of the leg extensors was determined isometrically by force plates. Results After 12 months, significant intergroup differences were detected for the primary end-points of appendicular muscle mass (0.5% ± 2.0% for the WB-EMS group versus −0.8% ± 2.0% for the control group, P=0.025) and abdominal fat mass (−1.2% ± 5.9% for the WB-EMS group versus 2.4% ± 5.8% for the control group, P=0.038). Further, upper leg lean muscle mass changed favorably in the WB-EMS group (0.5% ± 2.5% versus −0.9% ± 1.9%, in the control group, P=0.033), while effects for upper leg fat mass were borderline nonsignificant (−0.8% ± 3.5% for the WB-EMS group versus 1.0% ± 2.6% for the control group, P=0.050). With respect to functional parameters, the effects for leg extensor strength were again significant, with more favorable changes in the WB-EMS group (9.1% ± 11.2% versus 1.0% ± 8.1% in the control group, P=0.010). Conclusion In summary, WB-EMS showed positive effects on the parameters of sarcopenia and regional fat accumulation. Further, considering the good acceptance of this technology by

  1. In utero exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces metabolic disorder and increases fat accumulation in visceral depots of C57BL/6J mice offspring

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hailun; Liu, Yali; Wang, Wei; Ding, Lifeng; Teng, Weiping; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Excessive visceral fat accumulation is associated with metabolic disorders. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a candidate environmental obesogen, affects lipid metabolism and adipogenesis. Perinatal exposure to DEHP may be associated with metabolic disorders of dams and offspring. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of exposure of pregnant dams to DEHP on the metabolism and fat distribution of their offspring, and to determine the mechanisms for these effects. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were administered DEHP via gavage (0.05 or 500 mg/kg/day) from gestational days 1–19. Pups were sacrificed at nine weeks of age. Serum leptin, insulin, lipid and fasting glucose levels, and the weights of the inguinal (subcutaneous) and gonadal (visceral) fat pads were determined. mRNA expression levels of two developmental genes, T-box 15 (Tbx15) and glypican 4 (Gpc4) were detected in fat tissues. A 100% abortion rate was exhibited in 500 mg/kg DEHP-treated dams, whereas exposure to 0.05 mg/kg DEHP did not affect reproductive outcomes. Pups from the 0.05 mg/kg exposure group were used for subsequent experimentation. Serum leptin, insulin, lipid and fasting glucose concentrations in these pups were significantly higher than those of control pups (P<0.05). Although no significant change in body weight was detected, the visceral fat weights of DEHP-exposed pups were significantly higher than those of control pups (P<0.05). Compared with controls, mRNA expression levels of Tbx15 in subcutaneous fat and Gpc4 in visceral fat were significantly increased among DEHP-exposed pups (P<0.01). The present results suggest that in utero exposure to an environmentally safe dose of DEHP may lead to excessive visceral fat accumulation and metabolic disorders in offspring and that aberrant expression of Tbx15 and Gpc4 may have an important role in these effects. PMID:28105114

  2. T2-based temperature monitoring in abdominal fat during HIFU treatment of patients with uterine fibroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozhinsky, Eugene; Kohi, Maureen; Ghanouni, Pejman; Rieke, Viola

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we have implemented T2-based monitoring of near-field heating in patients undergoing HIFU ablation of uterine fibroids using Insightec ExAblate system. In certain areas, near-field heating can reach 18°C and the tissue may experience sustained heating of more than 10°C for the period of 2 hours or more. This indicates a cumulative thermal dose that may cause necrosis. Our results show the feasibility and importance of measuring near-field heating in subcutaneous fat.

  3. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities.

  4. [Systolic pressure, abdominal obesity and body fat, metabolic syndrome predictors in Spanish preschoolers].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Hervás, Ana Isabel; Rizo Baeza, María Mercedes; Martínez Amorós, Natalia; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2015-05-01

    Se plantea como objetivo determinar la presencia de predictores de síndrome metabólico en niños de 2 a 7 años en relación a su estado nutricional. Método: Estudio descriptivo con análisis cuantitativo en 260 niños de 2-7 años (135 niñas y 125 niños), 66% del total censados. Se midieron parámetros antropométricos y tensión arterial y se calcularon IMC, grasa corporal según Hoffman e índice cintura-talla (ICT). Se realizaron subgrupos con Z-Score del IMC según edad y sexo (bajo peso, normopeso, sobrepeso y obesidad), según grasa corporal (normal y con exceso), ICT (normal y obesidad abdominal) y tensión sistólica (normotensos e hipertensos según edad y sexo). Se utilizó como variable principal la clasificación según Z-Score del IMC. Resultados: La prevalencia combinada de sobrepeso y obesidad fue del 27%, sin diferencias por sexo. El estado nutricional relacionó significativamente con tensión arterial, grasa corporal e índice cintura-talla. Mayor porcentaje de obesos con tensión arterial sistólica alta que de normonutridos (OR=4.1; IC95% 1.7-9.8; p.

  5. Effects of starch- vs. fiber-based energy supplements during winter grazing on partitioning of fat among depots and adipose tissue gene expression in growing cattle and final carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sharman, E D; Lancaster, P A; Krehbiel, C R; Hilton, G G; Stein, D R; Desilva, U; Horn, G W

    2013-05-01

    Fifty-five normal-weaned Angus steers (268 ± 22 kg; 265 ± 16 d of age) were used to evaluate the effects of starch- vs. fiber-based energy supplements for stocker cattle grazing low-quality dormant native range on growth performance, body composition, and adipose tissue development of different fat depots. Steers were randomly allotted to 4 treatments: 1.02 kg·steer(-1)·d(-1) of a 40% CP cottonseed meal-based supplement (CON), corn/soybean meal-based supplement fed at 1% of BW (CORN), soybean hull/soybean meal-based supplement fed at 1% of BW (SBH), or dried distillers grains with solubles fed at 1% of BW (DDGS). All supplements were individually fed 5 d/wk during the 121-d winter grazing phase. After winter grazing, 3 steers per treatment were harvested to determine body composition and carcass characteristics, and collect subcutaneous (SC) and perirenal (PR) adipose tissue samples. The remaining steers grazed cool-season grass pastures for 74 d without supplementation before finishing. Steers were fed a common finishing diet for 113 d before harvest, at which time carcass characteristics were collected at a commercial abattoir. Energy supplementation increased (P < 0.01) winter grazing ADG compared with CON steers, and CORN steers had greater (P < 0.01) ADG than SBH and DDGS steers. Energy supplementation increased (P < 0.04) mesenteric/omental fat mass but did not influence (P > 0.13) 12th rib fat thickness or marbling score at intermediate harvest compared with CON steers. The mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and markers of adipogenesis were greater (P < 0.05) in PR adipose tissue of energy-supplemented steers compared with CON steers but not in SC adipose tissue. Fiber-supplemented steers had greater (P < 0.01) mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and fatty acid binding protein 4 compared with CORN steers in PR adipose tissue but not SC adipose tissue. At final harvest, energy-supplemented steers had greater (P < 0.05) KPH and yield grade

  6. Adverse Fat Depots and Marrow Adiposity Are Associated With Skeletal Deficits and Insulin Resistance in Long-Term Survivors of Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mostoufi-Moab, Sogol; Magland, Jeremy; Isaacoff, Elizabeth J; Sun, Wenli; Rajapakse, Chamith S; Zemel, Babette; Wehrli, Felix; Shekdar, Karuna; Baker, Joshua; Long, Jin; Leonard, Mary B

    2015-09-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (alloHSCT) survivors treated with total body irradiation (TBI) exhibit bone deficits and excess adiposity, potentially related to altered mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into osteoblasts or adipocytes. We examined associations among fat distribution, bone microarchitecture, and insulin resistance in alloHSCT survivors after TBI. This was a cross-sectional observational study of 25 alloHSCT survivors (aged 12 to 25 years) a median of 9.7 (4.3 to 19.3) years after alloHSCT compared to 25 age-, race-, and sex-matched healthy controls. Vertebral MR spectroscopic imaging and tibia micro-MRI were used to quantify marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and trabecular microarchitecture. Additional measures included DXA whole-body fat mass (WB-FM), leg lean mass (Leg-LM), trunk visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and CT calf muscle density. Insulin resistance in alloHSCT survivors was estimated by HOMA-IR. AlloHSCT survivors had lower Leg-LM (p < 0.001) and greater VAT (p < 0.01), MAT (p < 0.001), and fat infiltration of muscle (p = 0.04) independent of WB-FM, versus matched controls; BMI did not differ. Survivors had lower bone volume fraction and abnormal microarchitecture including greater erosion and more rod-like structure versus controls (all p = 0.04); 14 had vertebral deformities and two had compression fractures. Greater WB-FM, VAT, MAT, and muscle fat infiltration were associated with abnormal trabecular microarchitecture (p < 0.04 for all). AlloHSCT HOMA-IR was elevated, associated with younger age at transplantation (p < 0.01), and positively correlated with WB-FM and VAT (both p < 0.01). In conclusion, the markedly increased marrow adiposity, abnormal bone microarchitecture, and abnormal fat distribution highlight the risks of long-term treatment-related morbidity and mortality in alloHSCT recipients after TBI. Trabecular deterioration was associated with marrow and visceral adiposity. Furthermore, long-term survivors

  7. Effect of rate of body weight gain in steers during the stocker phase. I. Growth, partitioning of fat among depots, and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Sharman, E D; Lancaster, P A; McMurphy, C P; Garmyn, A J; Pye, B J; Mafi, G G; Goad, C L; Phillips, W A; Starkey, J D; Krehbiel, C R; Horn, G W

    2013-09-01

    , compared with the other treatments; however, there were no differences (P = 0.99) in final marbling scores. In Exp. 2, CON steers had lower (P < 0.05) 12th-rib fat thickness and tended (P = 0.10) to have greater marbling scores, compared with the other treatments. These data suggest that changes in the partitioning of fat among depots during the stocker phase may not be reflected after finishing when steers are fed to a common 12th-rib fat thickness.

  8. Divergent phenotype of rat thoracic and abdominal perivascular adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Nathan T.; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J.; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2013-01-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is implicated as a source of proatherogenic cytokines. Phenotypic differences in local PVAT depots may contribute to differences in disease susceptibility among arteries and even regions within an artery. It has been proposed that PVAT around the abdominal and thoracic aorta shares characteristics of white and brown adipose tissue (BAT), respectively; however, a detailed comparison of the phenotype of these PVAT depots has not been performed. Using young and older adult rats, we compared the phenotype of PVATs surrounding the abdominal and thoracic aorta to each other and also to epididymal white and subscapular BAT. Compared with young rats, older rats exhibited greater percent body fat (34.5 ± 3.1 vs. 10.4 ± 0.9%), total cholesterol (112.2 ± 7.5 vs. 58.7 ± 6.3 mg/dl), HOMA-insulin resistance (1.7 ± 0.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.1 a.u.), as well as reduced ACh-induced relaxation of the aorta (maximal relaxation: 54 ± 10 vs. 77 ± 6%) (all P < 0.05). Expression of inflammatory genes and markers of immune cell infiltration were greater in abdominal PVAT than in thoracic PVAT, and overall, abdominal and thoracic PVATs resembled the phenotype of white adipose tissue (WAT) and BAT, respectively. Histology and electron microscopy indicated structural similarity between visceral WAT and abdominal PVAT and between BAT and thoracic PVAT. Our data provide evidence that abdominal PVAT is more inflamed than thoracic PVAT, a difference that was by and large independent of sedentary aging. Phenotypic differences in PVAT between regions of the aorta may be relevant in light of the evidence in large animals and humans that the abdominal aorta is more vulnerable to atherosclerosis than the thoracic aorta. PMID:23389108

  9. Adipose depots differ in cellularity, adipokines produced, gene expression, and cell systems

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Michael V; Du, Min; Wang, Songbo; Bergen, Werner G; Fernyhough-Culver, Melinda; Basu, Urmila; Poulos, Sylvia P; Hausman, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    The race to manage the health concerns related to excess fat deposition has spawned a proliferation of clinical and basic research efforts to understand variables including dietary uptake, metabolism, and lipid deposition by adipocytes. A full appreciation of these variables must also include a depot-specific understanding of content and location in order to elucidate mechanisms governing cellular development and regulation of fat deposition. Because adipose tissue depots contain various cell types, differences in the cellularity among and within adipose depots are presently being documented to ascertain functional differences. This has led to the possibility of there being, within any one adipose depot, cellular distinctions that essentially result in adipose depots within depots. The papers comprising this issue will underscore numerous differences in cellularity (development, histogenesis, growth, metabolic function, regulation) of different adipose depots. Such information is useful in deciphering adipose depot involvement both in normal physiology and in pathology. Obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, carcass composition of meat animals, performance of elite athletes, physiology/pathophysiology of aging, and numerous other diseases might be altered with a greater understanding of adipose depots and the cells that comprise them—including stem cells—during initial development and subsequent periods of normal/abnormal growth into senescence. Once thought to be dormant and innocuous, the adipocyte is emerging as a dynamic and influential cell and research will continue to identify complex physiologic regulation of processes involved in adipose depot physiology. PMID:26317047

  10. The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous and abdominal fat in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum.

    PubMed

    Hostens, M; Fievez, V; Leroy, J L M R; Van Ranst, J; Vlaeminck, B; Opsomer, G

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fatty acid (FA) profile and assess desaturase indices of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the blood, as well as in the abdominal (ABD) and subcutaneous (SUBC) fat stores, in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Blood, ABD, and SUBC samples were taken from 50 Holstein cows offered for surgery to correct LDA. The FA profile of the 3 compartments was determined by gas chromatography after lipid extraction, methylation, and, in the case of blood plasma, separation of lipid classes. The most abundant FA in all 3 compartments were 16:0, 18:0, and 18:1 cis-9, with a total proportion of 82.5, 68.0, and 74.1g/100 g of FA in ABD, NEFA, and SUBC, respectively. A principal component analysis was performed on the entire FA profile as well as on the Δ(9)-desaturase indices (14:1 cis-9/14:0, 16:1 cis-9/16:0, 18:1 cis-9/18:0). The principal component analysis extracted 2 principal components (PC), representing 51.6% (PC1) and 21.1% (PC2) of the total variance in FA composition of the 3 compartments. The loading plot for the regression factors revealed a strong positive correlation between PC1 with the Δ(9)-desaturase indices and the proportions of 14:1 cis-9 and 16:1 cis-9, and revealed a negative correlation with the proportion of 18:0 and saturated FA. The correlation with PC2 was positive for the proportion of unsaturated FA, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3, and negative for the proportion of 14:0, 16:0, and saturated FA. The SUBC could be distinguished from the NEFA and ABD by a positive score for PC1, whereas differentiation among the latter 2 compartments could be made by a positive (NEFA) or negative (ABD) score for PC2. The Δ(9)-desaturase indices for C14 and C16 differed between all compartments but were numerically closer for NEFA and ABD versus NEFA and SUBC. The desaturase indices of the main FA (18:1 cis-9 and 18:0) did not differ between NEFA and ABD. These results support the existence of a different FA

  11. Effect of increasing body condition on key regulators of fat metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue depot and circulation of nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Locher, L; Häussler, S; Laubenthal, L; Singh, S P; Winkler, J; Kinoshita, A; Kenéz, Á; Rehage, J; Huber, K; Sauerwein, H; Dänicke, S

    2015-02-01

    In response to negative energy balance, overconditioned cows mobilize more body fat than thin cows and subsequently are prone to develop metabolic disorders. Changes in adipose tissue (AT) metabolism are barely investigated in overconditioned cows. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the effect of increasing body condition on key regulator proteins of fat metabolism in subcutaneous AT and circulation of dairy cows. Nonlactating, nonpregnant dairy cows (n=8) investigated in the current study served as a model to elucidate the changes in the course of overcondition independent from physiological changes related to gestation, parturition, and lactation. Cows were fed diets with increasing portions of concentrate during the first 6wk of the experiment until 60% were reached, which was maintained for 9wk. Biopsy samples from AT of the subcutaneous tailhead region were collected every 8wk, whereas blood was sampled monthly. Within the experimental period cows had an average BW gain of 243±33.3 kg. Leptin and insulin concentrations were increased until wk 12. Based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids, the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity were calculated. High-concentrate feeding led to decreased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment due to high insulin and glucose concentrations indicating decreased insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin, an adipokine-promoting insulin sensitivity, decreased in subcutaneous AT, but remained unchanged in the circulation. The high-concentrate diet affected key enzymes reflecting AT metabolism such as AMP-activated protein kinase and hormone-sensitive lipase, both represented as the proportion of the phosphorylated protein to total protein, as well as fatty acid synthase. The extent of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and the protein expression of fatty acid synthase were inversely regulated throughout the experimental period, whereas

  12. Influence of different fat emulsions with 10 or 20% MCT/LCT or LCT on lipoproteins in plasma of patients after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Hailer, S; Jauch, K W; Wolfram, G

    1998-01-01

    In patients after elective abdominal surgery, different fat emulsions were used to compare their efficacy in total parenteral nutrition and in normalizing plasma lipoprotein levels. In five different groups with 5 patients each, half of the nonprotein calories were given as medium-chain triglycerides/long-chain triglycerides (1:1) or as long-chain triglycerides alone in 10 or 20% fat emulsions or as glucose alone in a control group for 7 days. After surgery, an initial decrease of all plasma lipoprotein components was followed by a different behavior of glyceride-glycerol, cholesterol, phospholipids, and apolipoproteins. Glyceride-glycerol in very-low-density lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins is increasing during infusion of fat emulsions and decreasing during overnight interruption of infusions. After the 7-day infusion period, there was no significant difference in very-low-density lipoprotein glyceride-glycerol as compared with the values before different infusions. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is reaching and exceeding preoperative concentrations between the 4th and the 7th day, most during infusion of 10% fat emulsion and especially due to an increase of free cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I reach preoperative levels during infusion of fat emulsions but not with glucose alone. Higher than preoperative values are reached in phospholipids with all fat infusions already on day 4. Abnormal lipoprotein X occurred least with the medium-chain/long-chain triglyceride 20% fat-infusion. This fat emulsion is suggested as having the best normalizing effect on plasma lipoproteins and best tolerance in patients after surgery.

  13. Sirtuins 1-7 expression in human adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral fat depots: influence of obesity and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Stefania; Di Rocco, Giuliana; Toietta, Gabriele; Russo, Matteo A; Petrangeli, Elisa; Salvatori, Luisa

    2016-11-14

    The sirtuin family comprises seven NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases which control the overall health of organisms through the regulation of pleiotropic metabolic pathways. Sirtuins are important modulators of adipose tissue metabolism and their expression is higher in lean than obese subjects. At present, the role of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells has not been investigated yet. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the expression of the complete panel of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells isolated from both subcutaneous and visceral fat of non-obese and obese subjects. We aimed at investigating the influence of obesity on sirtuins' levels, their role in obesity-associated inflammation, and the relationship with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, which also plays functions in adipose tissue metabolism. The mRNA levels in the four types of adipose-derived stem cells were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in untreated cells and also after 8 h of hypoxia exposure. Correlations among sirtuins' expression and clinical and molecular parameters were also analyzed. We found that sirtuin1-6 exhibited significant higher mRNA expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells of non-obese subjects. Sirtuin1-6 levels were markedly reduced in visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients. Sirtuins' expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells correlated negatively with body mass index and C-reactive protein and positively with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta. Finally, only in the visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients hypoxia-induced mRNA expression of all of the sirtuins. Our results highlight that sirtuins' levels in adipose-derived stem cells are consistent with protective effects against visceral obesity and inflammation, and suggest a transcriptional mechanism through which acute hypoxia up-regulates sirtuins in the visceral

  14. Telerobotics for depot modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Petroski, S. B.

    1994-01-01

    Development and application of telerobotics technology for the enhancement of the quality of the Air Logistic Centers (ALC) repair and remanufacturing processes is described. Telerobotics provides the means for bridging the gap between manual operation and full automation. The Robotics and Automation Center for Excellence (RACE) initiated the Unified Telerobotics Architecture Project (UTAP) to support the development and application of telerobotics for depot operation.

  15. Impact of weight loss with or without exercise on abdominal fat and insulin resistance in obese individuals: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Trussardi Fayh, Ana Paula; Lopes, André Luiz; Fernandes, Pablo Rober; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Friedman, Rogério

    2013-08-28

    Evidence supports an important contribution of abdominal obesity and inflammation to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and CVD. Weight loss in obese individuals can reduce inflammation and, consequently, IR, but the role of training remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of body weight reduction with and without exercise over abdominal fat tissue (primary outcome) and IR. In this randomised clinical trial, forty-eight obese individuals (age 31·8 (SD 6·0) years, BMI 34·8 (SD 2·7) kg/m2) were randomised to either a diet-only group (DI) or a diet and exercise group (DI þ EXE). Treatment was maintained until 5% of the initial body weight was lost. At baseline and upon completion, the following parameters were analysed: biochemical parameters such as glycaemia and insulin for the determination of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and abdominal computed tomography for the determination of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. A total of thirteen individuals dropped out before completing the weight-loss intervention and did not repeat the tests. In both the DI (n 18) and DI þ EXE (n 17) groups, we observed significant and similar decreases of visceral adipose tissue (difference between means: 7·9 (95% CI 29·5, 25·2) cm2, P¼0·36), hs-CRP (difference between means: 20·06 (95% CI 20·19, 0·03) mg/l, P¼0·39) and HOMA (difference between means: 20·04 (95% CI 20·17, 0·08), P¼0·53). In the present study, 5% weight loss reduced abdominal fat and IR in obese individuals and exercise did not add to the effect of weight loss on the outcome variables.

  16. Omental infarction and its mimics: imaging features of acute abdominal conditions presenting with fat stranding greater than the degree of bowel wall thickening.

    PubMed

    Tonerini, Michele; Calcagni, Francesca; Lorenzi, Silvia; Scalise, Paola; Grigolini, Alessandro; Bemi, Pietro

    2015-08-01

    The segmental omental infarction is a rare self-limited disorder presenting with aspecific clinical symptoms that may mimic several acute abdominal conditions. Therefore, a correct noninvasive diagnosis is important because treatment approaches range from monitoring to surgery. As omental infarction results in an important fat stranding that is much greater than the degree of bowel wall thickening, it suggests a narrower differential diagnosis: appendicitis, diverticulitis, epiploic appendagitis, and mesenteric panniculitis. In this pictorial essay, we point out the importance of imaging in identifying this typical sign allowing alternate diagnoses such as segmental omental infarction that can be conservatively managed.

  17. The effect of aqueous extract of gross and commercial yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) on intra-abdominal and epididymal fat and glucose levels in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Raquel D'Agostini; Bueno, Audrin Loss Scopel; Gallon, Carin Weirich; Gomes, Luana Ferreira; Kaiser, Samuel; Pavei, Cabral; Ortega, George González; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos; Jahn, Matheus Parmegiani

    2011-09-01

    This study analyzed the plasma lipid profile, glucose levels and fat deposits in male rats treated with aqueous extract of gross yerba mate, commercial yerba mate or water. Yerba mate treatment did not change body weight gain and lipid profile. The consumption of gross yerba mate significantly increased blood glucose (6.6 mmol/L) as compared to the water (4.8 mmol/L) and commercial group (5.2 mmol/L) and decreased epididymal and intra-abdominal deposits (10.1mg/g and 23.7 mg/g of weight) as compared to the water (15.4 mg/g and 36.9 mg/g of weight) and commercial group (12.5mg/g and 28 mg/g of weight). The results suggest that gross yerba mate reduces fat more efficiently but produces a greater increase in blood glucose when compared to commercial yerba mate and water groups.

  18. Regular tart cherry intake alters abdominal adiposity, adipose gene transcription, and inflammation in obesity-prone rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Seymour, E M; Lewis, Sarah K; Urcuyo-Llanes, Daniel E; Tanone, Ignasia I; Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2009-10-01

    Obesity, systemic inflammation, and hyperlipidemia are among the components of metabolic syndrome, a spectrum of phenotypes that can precede the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Animal studies show that intake of anthocyanin-rich extracts can affect these phenotypes. Anthocyanins can alter the activity of tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which affect energy substrate metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown if physiologically relevant, anthocyanin-containing whole foods confer similar effects to concentrated, anthocyanin extracts. The effect of anthocyanin-rich tart cherries was tested in the Zucker fatty rat model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. For 90 days, rats were pair-fed a higher fat diet supplemented with either 1% (wt/wt) freeze-dried, whole tart cherry powder or with a calorie- and macronutrient-matched control diet. Tart cherry intake was associated with reduced hyperlipidemia, percentage fat mass, abdominal fat (retroperitoneal) weight, retroperitoneal interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, and plasma IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Tart cherry diet also increased retroperitoneal fat PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma mRNA (P = .12), decreased IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA, and decreased nuclear factor kappaB activity. In conclusion, in at-risk obese rats fed a high fat diet, physiologically relevant tart cherry consumption reduced several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and reduced both systemic and local inflammation. Tart cherries may reduce the degree or trajectory of metabolic syndrome, thereby reducing risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

  19. [Regional distribution of the body fat: use of image techniques as tools for nutritional diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Pérez Miguelsanz, M J; Cabrera Parra, W; Varela Moreiras, G; Garaulet, M

    2010-01-01

    Fat mass is the most variable component in the human body, both when comparing several individuals and when considering changes in the same person throughout life. Obesity is characterized by an excess of body fat that affects health and well-being of individuals. Risk associated with excess body fat is due, in part, to location of fat rather than to total amount. Today is stated that causes and metabolic consequences of regional distribution of fat are of particular clinical importance. To identify a compartment of morbid adipose tissue and to be able to act on it is one of the main aims of the present research. In this review, we have revised the existing literature on location and characteristics of total body fat in human adult. We have focused on abdominal region, basing this review on the use of modern imaging techniques available nowadays, such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, with their advantages and limitations. The purpose of this review is to assess whether it is possible to know the body composition and fat distribution on the basis of image methods. Computed tomography technique was first applied in studies of obesity, but today, due to the inconvenience of irradiating the patient, this technique is being replaced by magnetic resonance that, in addition to avoid radiation, provides images of extraordinary quality. Both methods allow to subdivide the classic general fat depots in others more specific. Subcutaneous fat depot can be superficial or deep, while visceral can be divided in mesenteric, omental or epiploic, retroperitoneal and perirrenal fat. In addition, these modern techniques of imaging permit to study muscular fat, considered by some authors as the new fat compartment. Muscular fat includes fat located between skeletal muscle fibers, called extramyocellular fat, as well as lipids located within skeletal muscle fibers (intramyocellular fat). Its importance lies not only in size, similar to visceral fat, but on its

  20. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  1. Use of prediction equations to determine the accuracy of whole-body fat and fat-free mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass measurements from a single abdominal image using computed tomography in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, Robert D; Cardiff, Katrina; Rosenthall, Leonard; Lucar, Enriqueta; Trutschnigg, Barbara; Vigano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single abdominal images from computed tomography (CT) in advanced cancer patients (ACP) have important diagnostic and prognostic value. The question arises as to whether CT scans can serve as surrogates for DXA in terms of whole-body fat-free mass (FFM), whole-body fat mass (FM), and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) mass. Predictive equations to estimate body composition for ACP from CT images have been proposed (Mourtzakis et al. 2008; Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metabol. 33(5): 997-1006); however, these equations have yet to be validated in an independent cohort of ACP. Thus, this study evaluated the accuracy of these equations in estimating FFM, FM, and ASM mass using CT images at the level of the third lumbar vertebrae and compared these values with DXA measurements. FFM, FM, and ASM mass were estimated from the prediction equations proposed by Mourtzakis and colleagues (2008) using single abdominal CT images from 43 ACP and were compared with whole-body DXA scans using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman analyses. Despite a moderate to high correlation between the actual (DXA) and predicted (CT) values for FM (rho = 0.93; p ≤ 0.001), FFM (rho = 0.78; p ≤ 0.001), and ASM mass (rho = 0.70; p ≤ 0.001), Bland-Altman analyses revealed large range-of-agreement differences between the 2 methods (29.39 kg for FFM, 15.47 kg for FM, and 3.99 kg for ASM mass). Based on the magnitude of these differences, we concluded that prediction equations using single abdominal CT images have poor accuracy, cannot be considered as surrogates for DXA, and may have limited clinical utility.

  2. Function Point Analysis Depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, R.; Martinez, El; Szafran, J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Function Point Analysis (FPA) Depot is a web application originally designed by one of the NE-C3 branch's engineers, Jamie Szafran, and created specifically for the Software Development team of the Launch Control Systems (LCS) project. The application consists of evaluating the work of each developer to be able to get a real estimate of the hours that is going to be assigned to a specific task of development. The Architect Team had made design change requests for the depot to change the schema of the application's information; that information, changed in the database, needed to be changed in the graphical user interface (GUI) (written in Ruby on Rails (RoR and the web service/server side in Java to match the database changes. These changes were made by two interns from NE-C, Ricardo Muniz from NE-C3, who made all the schema changes for the GUI in RoR and Edwin Martinez, from NE-C2, who made all the changes in the Java side.

  3. HPMC supplementation reduces abdominal fat content, intestinal permeability, inflammation, and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a highly viscous non-fermentable soluble dietary fiber, were evaluated on adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in diet induced obese (DIO) mice fed a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with either HPMC or insoluble fiber. DIO C57BL/6J m...

  4. Abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue is Associated with Myocardial Infarction in Patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Alejandro A.; Young, Tom P.; Kurugol, Sila; Eckbo, Erick; Muralidhar, Nina; Chapman, Joshua K.; Kinney, Gregory L.; Ross, James C.; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Harmouche, Rola; Black-Shinn, Jennifer L.; Budoff, Matthew; Bowler, Russell P.; Hokanson, John; Washko, George R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are frequent and a major cause of death in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, various fat depots including abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and liver fat have been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesize that these adipose tissue compartments are associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with COPD. Methods We collected measures of VAT and SAT areas and liver attenuation on the computed tomography scan of the chest from 1267 patients with COPD. MI was a self-reported physician-diagnosed outcome. The association between fat depots and self-reported history of MI was assessed by logistic regression analysis in which the patients within the 2 lowest tertiles of VAT and SAT areas were the reference group. Results Eighty three patients (6.6%) reported a history of MI at the time of enrollment. Compared to patients who did not have an MI episode, those who had a prior MI had a higher VAT area (mean ± SD, 303.4 ± 208.5 vs. 226.8 ± 172.6 cm2; P=0.002) with no differences in SAT area and liver fat. After adjustment for age, gender, obesity, pack years of smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes, patients within the upper tertile (vs. those in the lower tertiles) of VAT area had increased odds of MI (odds ratio [OR] 1.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 – 3.41). Conclusion Increased abdominal visceral fat is independently associated with a history of MI in individuals with COPD. PMID:25914898

  5. Interaction between corticosterone and insulin in obesity: regulation of lard intake and fat stores.

    PubMed

    la Fleur, Susanne E; Akana, Susan F; Manalo, Sotara L; Dallman, Mary F

    2004-05-01

    Passive elevations in glucocorticoids result in increased insulin and abdominal obesity with peripheral wasting, as observed in Cushing's syndrome, with little effect on chow intake. In the absence of insulin (streptozotocin-induced diabetes) diabetic rats markedly increase their chow intake in proportion to glucocorticoids. Given a choice of lard or chow, diabetic rats first eat lard, then reduce caloric intake to normal for 48 h before returning to hyperphagia on chow alone. We performed three experiments to determine the relationship of corticosterone and insulin to lard intake, chow intake, body weight, hormones, and fat depots. The results of these studies clarify the actions of both circulating glucocorticoids and insulin on caloric intake in adult male rats. Our experiments show that glucocorticoids provoke dose-related increases in total caloric intake that persist for days and weeks; the results also suggest that increasing insulin concentrations stimulated by glucocorticoids determine the amount of fat intake. Furthermore, we show that lard intake is associated with increasing insulin concentrations. Additionally, the results in adrenalectomized and adrenalectomized, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats strongly suggest that it is a combination of corticosterone and insulin that increases abdominal fat depot weight. Independently of the hormonally manipulated rats, the results also show that intact rats voluntarily eat a considerable and stable proportion of their daily calories as lard when given a choice between lard and chow. These results suggest that some human obesities may result from elevated glucocorticoids and insulin increasing the proportional intake of high density calories.

  6. Ethnic and sex differences in body fat and visceral and subcutaneous adiposity in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Staiano, A E; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2012-10-01

    Body fat and the specific depot where adipose tissue (AT) is stored can contribute to cardiometabolic health risks in children and adolescents. Imaging procedures including magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography allow for the exploration of individual and group differences in pediatric adiposity. This review examines the variation in pediatric total body fat (TBF), visceral AT (VAT) and subcutaneous AT (SAT) due to age, sex, maturational status and ethnicity. TBF, VAT and SAT typically increase as a child ages, though different trends emerge. Girls tend to accumulate more TBF and SAT during and after puberty, depositing fat preferentially in the gynoid and extremity regions. In contrast, pubertal and postpubertal boys tend to deposit more fat in the abdominal region, particularly in the VAT depot. Sexual maturation significantly influences TBF, VAT and SAT. Ethnic differences in TBF are mixed. VAT tends to be higher in white and Hispanic youth, whereas SAT is typically higher in African American youth. Asian youth typically have less gynoid fat but more VAT than whites. Obesity per se may attenuate sex and ethnic differences. Particular health risks are associated with high amounts of TBF, VAT and SAT, including insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, metabolic syndrome and hypertension. These risks are affected by genetic, biological and lifestyle factors including physical activity, nutrition and stress. Synthesizing evidence is difficult as there is no consistent methodology or definition to estimate and define depot-specific adiposity, and many analyses compare SAT and VAT without controlling for TBF. Future research should include longitudinal examinations of adiposity changes over time in representative samples of youth to make generalizations to the entire pediatric population and examine variation in organ-specific body fat.

  7. Reducing Hazardous Emissions at Anniston Army Depot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Emissions at Anniston Army Depot Mr. Jack Kelley, ARL Mr. Wayne Ziegler, ARL Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reducing Hazardous Emissions at Anniston Army Depot 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Anniston Army Depot  Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) performs depot level maintenance for combat tanks

  8. Abdominal Myosteatosis is Independently Associated to Hyperinsulinemia and Insulin Resistance among Older Men without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Miljkovic, Iva; Cauley, Jane A.; Wang, Patty Y.; Holton, Kathleen F.; Lee, Christine G.; Sheu, Yahtyng; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Andrew R.; Lewis, Cora B.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Marshall, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    Design and Methods Skeletal muscle adipose tissue (AT) infiltration (myosteatosis) increases with aging and may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It remains unclear if myosteatosis is associated to glucose and insulin homeostasis independent of total and central adiposity. We evaluated the association between intermuscular AT (IMAT) in the abdominal skeletal muscles (total, paraspinal and psoas) and fasting serum glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 393 non-diabetic Caucasian men aged 65+. Abdominal IMAT, visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) AT (cm3) were measured by quantitative computed tomography at the L4-L5 intervertebral space. Results In age, study site, height and muscle volume adjusted regression analyses, total abdominal and psoas (but not paraspinal) IMAT were positively associated with glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR (all P < 0.003). The associations between total abdominal and psoas IMAT and insulin and HOMA-IR remained significant after further adjusting for lifestyle factors, as well as DXA total body fat, VAT or SAT in separate models (all P <0.009). Conclusions Our study indicates a previously unreported, independent association between abdominal myosteatosis and hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance among older Caucasian men. These associations may be specific for particular abdominal muscle depots, illustrating the potential importance of separately studying specific muscle groups. PMID:23408772

  9. Diabetes: insulin resistance and derangements in lipid metabolism. Cure through intervention in fat transport and storage.

    PubMed

    Raz, Itamar; Eldor, Roi; Cernea, Simona; Shafrir, Eleazar

    2005-01-01

    We present multiple findings on derangements in lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes. The increase in the intracellular deposition of triglycerides (TG) in muscles, liver and pancreas in subjects prone to diabetes is well documented and demonstrated to attenuate glucose metabolism by interfering with insulin signaling and insulin secretion. The obesity often associated with type 2 diabetes is mainly central, resulting in the overload of abdominal adipocytes with TG and reducing fat depot capacity to protect other tissues from utilizing a large proportion of dietary fat. In contrast to subcutaneous adipocytes, the central adipocytes exhibit a high rate of basal lipolysis and are highly sensitive to fat mobilizing hormones, but respond poorly to lipolysis restraining insulin. The enlarged visceral adipocytes are flooding the portal circulation with free fatty acids (FFA) at metabolically inappropriate time, when FFA should be oxidized, thus exposing nonadipose tissues to fat excess. This leads to ectopic TG accumulation in muscles, liver and pancreatic beta-cells, resulting in insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. This situation, based on a large number of observations in humans and experimental animals, confirms that peripheral adipose tissue is closely regulated, performing a vital role of buffering fluxes of FFA in the circulation. The central adipose tissues tend to upset this balance by releasing large amounts of FFA. To reduce the excessive fat outflow from the abdominal depots and prevent the ectopic fat deposition it is important to decrease the volume of central fat stores or increase the peripheral fat stores. One possibility is to downregulate the activity of lipoprotein lipase, which is overexpressed in abdominal relatively to subcutaneous fat stores. This can be achieved by gastrointestinal bypass or gastroplasty, which decrease dietary fat absorption, or by direct means that include surgical removal of mesenteric fat. Indirect treatment consists

  10. Use of MRI and CT for fat imaging in children and youth: what have we learned about obesity, fat distribution and metabolic disease risk?

    PubMed

    Samara, A; Ventura, E E; Alfadda, A A; Goran, M I

    2012-08-01

    Childhood obesity is a matter of great concern for public health. Efforts have been made to understand its impact on health through advanced imaging techniques. An increasing number of studies focus on fat distribution and its associations with metabolic risk, in interaction with genetics, environment and ethnicity, in children. The present review is a qualitative synthesis of the existing literature on visceral and subcutaneous abdominal, intrahepatic and intramuscular fat. Our search revealed 80 original articles. Abdominal as well as ectopic fat depots are prevalent already in childhood and contribute to abnormal metabolic parameters, starting early in life. Visceral, hepatic and intramuscular fat seem to be interrelated but their patterns as well as their independent contribution on metabolic risk are not clear. Some ethnic-specific characteristics are also prevalent. These results encourage further research in childhood obesity by using imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. These imaging methods can provide a better understanding of fat distribution and its relationships with metabolic risk, compared to less detailed fat and obesity assessment. However, studies on bigger samples and with a prospective character are warranted.

  11. Dietary supplementation of chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsook; Bartley, Glenn E; Arvik, Torey; Lipson, Rebecca; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Seo, Kunho; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2014-02-26

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated using male Golden Syrian hamsters fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd), or Syrah (SyrSd) pomace as compared to a HF control diet for 3 weeks. Hamsters fed the ChrSd diet had significantly lowered plasma total-, VLDL-, and LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the CabSd, SyrSd, and control diets. The improved plasma cholesterol after ChrSd was correlated with the up-regulation of hepatic genes related to cholesterol (CYP51) and bile acid (CYP7A1) synthesis as well as LDL-cholesterol uptake (LDLR). A reduction of hepatic lipid content was associated with altered expression of the genes related to lipid metabolism. However, fecal total lipid content was not changed. Expression of ileal apical sodium bile acid transporter (ASBT) was not affected by ChrSd, indicating unchanged ileal bile acid reabsorption. The antiobesity effect of the ChrSd diet appears to be related to expression of adipogenesis- and inflammation-related genes in adipose tissue. These findings suggest that flavonoid-rich Chardonnay grape seed flour induced cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, and anti-inflammatory health benefits and attenuation of hepatic steatosis via regulation of gene expression related to cholesterol, bile acid, and lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue.

  12. Wulf Cattle Depot NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit SD-0034606, the Wulf Cattle Depot is authorized to discharge and must operate their facility in accordance with effluent limitations, monitoring requirements, and other provisions set forth herein.

  13. Non-Invasive Quantification of White and Brown Adipose Tissues and Liver Fat Content by Computed Tomography in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lubura, Marko; Hesse, Deike; Neumann, Nancy; Scherneck, Stephan; Wiedmer, Petra; Schürmann, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Obesity and its distribution pattern are important factors for the prediction of the onset of diabetes in humans. Since several mouse models are suitable to study the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes the aim was to validate a novel computed tomograph model (Aloka-Hitachi LCT-200) for the quantification of visceral, subcutaneous, brown and intrahepatic fat depots in mice. Methods Different lean and obese mouse models (C57BL/6, B6.V-Lepob, NZO) were used to determine the most adequate scanning parameters for the detection of the different fat depots. The data were compared with those obtained after preparation and weighing the fat depots. Liver fat content was determined by biochemical analysis. Results The correlations between weights of fat tissues on scale and weights determined by CT were significant for subcutaneous (r2 = 0.995), visceral (r2 = 0.990) and total white adipose tissue (r2 = 0.992). Moreover, scans in the abdominal region, between lumbar vertebrae L4 to L5 correlated with whole-body fat distribution allowing experimenters to reduce scanning time and animal exposure to radiation and anesthesia. Test-retest reliability and measurements conducted by different experimenters showed a high reproducibility in the obtained results. Intrahepatic fat content estimated by CT was linearly related to biochemical analysis (r2 = 0.915). Furthermore, brown fat mass correlated well with weighted brown fat depots (r2 = 0.952). In addition, short-term cold-expose (4°C, 4 hours) led to alterations in brown adipose tissue attributed to a reduction in triglyceride content that can be visualized as an increase in Hounsfield units by CT imaging. Conclusion The 3D imaging of fat by CT provides reliable results in the quantification of total, visceral, subcutaneous, brown and intrahepatic fat in mice. This non-invasive method allows the conduction of longitudinal studies of obesity in mice and therefore enables experimenters to investigate

  14. FPA Depot - Web Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avila, Edwin M. Martinez; Muniz, Ricardo; Szafran, Jamie; Dalton, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Lines of code (LOC) analysis is one of the methods used to measure programmer productivity and estimate schedules of programming projects. The Launch Control System (LCS) had previously used this method to estimate the amount of work and to plan development efforts. The disadvantage of using LOC as a measure of effort is that one can only measure 30% to 35% of the total effort of software projects involves coding [8]. In the application, instead of using the LOC we are using function point for a better estimation of hours in each software to develop. Because of these disadvantages, Jamie Szafran of the System Software Branch of Control And Data Systems (NE-C3) at Kennedy Space Canter developed a web application called Function Point Analysis (FPA) Depot. The objective of this web application is that the LCS software architecture team can use the data to more accurately estimate the effort required to implement customer requirements. This paper describes the evolution of the domain model used for function point analysis as project managers continually strive to generate more accurate estimates.

  15. Abdominal Fat and Sarcopenia in Women Significantly Alter Osteoblasts Homeostasis In Vitro by a WNT/β-Catenin Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wannenes, Francesca; Papa, Vincenza; Greco, Emanuela A.; Fornari, Rachele; Marocco, Chiara; Di Luigi, Luigi; Donini, Lorenzo M.; Lenzi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and sarcopenia have been associated with mineral metabolism derangement and low bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated whether imbalance of serum factors in obese or obese sarcopenic patients could affect bone cell activity in vitro. To evaluate and characterize potential cellular and molecular changes of human osteoblasts, cells were exposed to sera of four groups of patients: (1) affected by obesity with normal BMD (O), (2) affected by obesity with low BMD (OO), (3) affected by obesity and sarcopenia (OS), and (4) affected by obesity, sarcopenia, and low BMD (OOS) as compared to subjects with normal body weight and normal BMD (CTL). Patients were previously investigated and characterized for body composition, biochemical and bone turnover markers. Then, sera of different groups of patients were used to incubate human osteoblasts and evaluate potential alterations in cell homeostasis. Exposure to OO, OS, and OOS sera significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and BMP4 expression compared to cells exposed to O and CTL, indicating a detrimental effect on osteoblast differentiation. Interestingly, sera of all groups of patients induced intracellular alteration in Wnt/β-catenin molecular pathway, as demonstrated by the significant alteration of specific target genes expression and by altered β-catenin cellular compartmentalization and GSK3β phosphorylation. In conclusion our results show for the first time that sera of obese subjects with low bone mineral density and sarcopenia significantly alter osteoblasts homeostasis in vitro, indicating potential detrimental effects of trunk fat on bone formation and skeletal homeostasis. PMID:24963291

  16. Effects of a eucaloric reduced-carbohydrate diet on body composition and fat distribution in women with PCOS

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Amy M.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Ovalle, Fernando; Goree, Laura Lee; Azziz, Ricardo; Desmond, Renee A.; Bates, G. Wright; Gower, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if consumption of a reduced-carbohydrate (CHO) diet would result in preferential loss of adipose tissue under eucaloric conditions, and whether changes in adiposity were associated with changes in postprandial insulin concentration. Methods In a crossover-diet intervention, 30 women with PCOS consumed a reduced-CHO diet (41:19:40%energy from CHO:protein:fat) for 8 weeks and a standard diet (55:18:27) for 8 weeks. Body composition by DXA and fat distribution by CT were assessed at baseline and following each diet phase. Insulin AUC was obtained from a solid meal test (SMT) during each diet phase. Results Participants lost 3.7% and 2.2% total fat following the reduced-CHO diet and STD diet, resp. (p<0.05 for difference between diets). The reduced-CHO diet induced a decrease in subcutaneous-abdominal, intra-abdominal, and thigh-intermuscular adipose tissue (−7.1%, −4.6%, and −11.5%, resp.), and the STD diet induced a decrease in total lean mass. Loss of fat mass following the reduced CHO diet arm was associated with lower insulin AUC (p<0.05) during the SMT. Conclusions In women with PCOS, consumption of a diet lower in CHO resulted in preferential loss of fat mass from metabolically harmful adipose depots, whereas a diet high in CHO appeared to promote repartitioning of lean mass to fat mass. PMID:25125349

  17. Effects of GH on Body Composition and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Young Men With Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Gerweck, Anu V.; Lin, Eleanor; Landa, Melissa G.; Torriani, Martin; Schoenfeld, David A.; Hemphill, Linda C.; Miller, Karen K.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Visceral adiposity is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk and decreased GH secretion. Objective: Our objective was to determine the effects of GH administration in abdominally obese young men on body composition, including liver fat, mitochondrial function, and cardiovascular (CV) risk markers. Design and Participants: This was a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 62 abdominally obese men (IGF-1 below the mean, no exclusion based on GH level), 21 to 45 years of age. Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated abdominal fat depots, thigh muscle and fat (computed tomography), fat and lean mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), intramyocellular and intrahepatic lipids (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy), mitochondrial function (dynamic phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy), CV risk markers, carotid intimal-medial thickness, and endothelial function. Results: GH administration resulted in a mean IGF-1 SD score increase from −1.9 ± 0.08 to −0.2 ± 0.3 in the GH group and a decrease in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT/sc adipose tissue, trunk/extremity fat, intrahepatic lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and apolipoprotein B/low-density lipoprotein vs placebo after controlling for the increase in weight observed in both groups. There were inverse associations between change in IGF-1 levels and change in VAT, VAT/sc adipose tissue, trunk fat, trunk/extremity fat, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and apolipoprotein B. Mitochondrial function improved in the GH group compared with placebo after controlling for change in glucose. There was no change in thigh fat, muscle mass, intramyocellular lipids, cholesterol, fibrinogen, intimal-medial thickness, or endothelial function. There was no increase in fasting glucose or hemoglobin A1c in the GH vs placebo group, although glucose during the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test increased slightly. Conclusion: GH replacement in abdominally obese men improves

  18. Lipid signaling and fat storage in the dark-eyed junco.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jacqueline M; Bergeon Burns, Christine M; Rendon, Nikki M; Rosvall, Kimberly A; Bradshaw, Heather B; Ketterson, Ellen D; Demas, Gregory E

    2017-02-02

    Seasonal hyperphagia and fattening promote survivorship in migratory and wintering birds, but reduced adiposity may be more advantageous during the breeding season. Factors such as photoperiod, temperature, and food predictability are known environmental determinants of fat storage, but the underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms are less clear. Endocannabinoids and other lipid signaling molecules regulate multiple aspects of energy balance including appetite and lipid metabolism. However, these functions have been established primarily in mammals; thus the role of lipid signals in avian fat storage remains largely undefined. Here we examined relationships between endocannabinoid signaling and individual variation in fat storage in captive white-winged juncos (Junco hyemalis aikeni) following a transition to long-day photoperiods. We report that levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), but not anandamide (AEA), in furcular and abdominal fat depots correlate negatively with fat mass. Hindbrain mRNA expression of CB1 endocannabinoid receptors also correlates negatively with levels of fat, demonstrating that fatter animals experience less central and peripheral endocannabinoid signaling when in breeding condition. Concentrations of the anorexigenic lipid, oleoylethanolamide (OEA), also inversely relate to adiposity. These findings demonstrate unique and significant relationships between adiposity and lipid signaling molecules in the brain and periphery, thereby suggesting a potential role for lipid signals in mediating adaptive levels of fat storage.

  19. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Loan, Marta D.; Keim, Nancy L.; Adams, Sean H.; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R.; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A.; Spurlock, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered. PMID:21941636

  20. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Van Loan, Marta D; Keim, Nancy L; Adams, Sean H; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A; Spurlock, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  1. Abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome: contribution to global cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Lemieux, Isabelle; Bergeron, Jean; Pibarot, Philippe; Mathieu, Patrick; Larose, Eric; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Bertrand, Olivier F; Poirier, Paul

    2008-06-01

    There is currently substantial confusion between the conceptual definition of the metabolic syndrome and the clinical screening parameters and cut-off values proposed by various organizations (NCEP-ATP III, IDF, WHO, etc) to identify individuals with the metabolic syndrome. Although it is clear that in vivo insulin resistance is a key abnormality associated with an atherogenic, prothrombotic, and inflammatory profile which has been named by some the "metabolic syndrome" or by others "syndrome X" or "insulin resistance syndrome", it is more and more recognized that the most prevalent form of this constellation of metabolic abnormalities linked to insulin resistance is found in patients with abdominal obesity, especially with an excess of intra-abdominal or visceral adipose tissue. We have previously proposed that visceral obesity may represent a clinical intermediate phenotype reflecting the relative inability of subcutaneous adipose tissue to act as a protective metabolic sink for the clearance and storage of the extra energy derived from dietary triglycerides, leading to ectopic fat deposition in visceral adipose depots, skeletal muscle, liver, heart, etc. Thus, visceral obesity may partly be a marker of a dysmetabolic state and partly a cause of the metabolic syndrome. Although waist circumference is a better marker of abdominal fat accumulation than the body mass index, an elevated waistline alone is not sufficient to diagnose visceral obesity and we have proposed that an elevated fasting triglyceride concentration could represent, when waist circumference is increased, a simple clinical marker of excess visceral/ectopic fat. Finally, a clinical diagnosis of visceral obesity, insulin resistance, or of the metabolic syndrome is not sufficient to assess global risk of cardiovascular disease. To achieve this goal, physicians should first pay attention to the classical risk factors while also considering the additional risk resulting from the presence of abdominal

  2. Predictors of Treatment Response to Tesamorelin, a Growth Hormone-Releasing Factor Analog, in HIV-Infected Patients with Excess Abdominal Fat

    PubMed Central

    Mangili, Alexandra; Falutz, Julian; Mamputu, Jean-Claude; Stepanians, Miganush; Hayward, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Background Tesamorelin, a synthetic analog of human growth hormone-releasing factor, decreases visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy. Objectives 1) To evaluate the utility of patient characteristics and validated disease-risk scores, namely indicator variables for the metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation (MetS-IDF) or the National Cholesterol Education Program (MetS-NCEP) and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), as predictors of VAT reduction during tesamorelin therapy at 3 and 6 months, and 2) To explore the characteristics of patients who reached a threshold of VAT <140 cm2, a level associated with lower risk of adverse health outcomes, after 6 months of treatment with tesamorelin. Methods Data were analyzed from two Phase 3 studies in which HIV-infected patients with excess abdominal fat were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive tesamorelin 2 mg (n = 543) or placebo (n = 263) subcutaneously daily for 6 months, using ANOVA and ANCOVA models. Results Metabolic syndrome (MetS-IDF or MetS-NCEP) and FRS were significantly associated with VAT at baseline. Presence of metabolic syndrome ([MetS-NCEP), triglyceride levels >1.7 mmol/L, and white race had a significant impact on likelihood of response to tesamorelin after 6 months of therapy (interaction p-values 0.054, 0.063, and 0.025, respectively). No predictive factors were identified at 3 months. The odds of a VAT reduction to <140 cm2 for subjects treated with tesamorelin was 3.9 times greater than that of subjects randomized to placebo after controlling for study, gender, baseline body mass index (BMI) and baseline VAT (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.03; 7.44). Conclusions Individuals with baseline MetS-NCEP, elevated triglyceride levels, or white race were most likely to experience reductions in VAT after 6 months of tesamorelin treatment. The odds of response of VAT <140 cm2 was 3.9 times greater for tesamorelin

  3. A cellular model for the investigation of depot specific human adipocyte biology

    PubMed Central

    Todorčević, Marijana; Hilton, Catriona; McNeil, Catriona; Christodoulides, Constantinos; Hodson, Leanne; Karpe, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Upper-body adiposity is associated with increased metabolic disease risk, while lower-body adiposity is paradoxically protective. Efforts to understand the underlying mechanisms require appropriate and reproducible in vitro culture models. We have therefore generated immortalised (im) human preadipocyte (PAD) cell lines derived from paired subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue. These cell lines, denoted imAPAD and imGPAD display enhanced proliferation and robust adipogenic capacities. Differentiated imAPAD and imGPAD adipocytes synthesize triglycerides de novo and respond lipolytically to catecholamine-stimulation. Importantly the cells retain their depot-of-origin ‘memory’ as reflected by inherent differences in fatty acid metabolism and expression of depot-specific developmental genes. These features make these cell lines an invaluable tool for the in vitro investigation of depot-specific human adipocyte biology.

  4. Rapid development of fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis in the American mink (Neovison vison): effects of food deprivation and re-alimentation on body fat depots, tissue fatty acid profiles, hematology and endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Conway, Rebecca; Pal, Catherine; Harris, Lora; Saarela, Seppo; Strandberg, Ursula; Nieminen, Petteri

    2010-02-01

    Hepatic lipidosis is a common pathological finding in the American mink (Neovison vison) and can be caused by nutritional imbalance due to obesity or rapid body weight loss. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the timeline and characterize the development of hepatic lipidosis in mink in response to 0-7 days of food deprivation and liver recovery after 28 days of re-feeding. We report here the effects on hematological and endocrine variables, body fat mobilization, the development of hepatic lipidosis and the alterations in the liver lipid classes and tissue fatty acid (FA) sums. Food deprivation resulted in the rapid mobilization of body fat, most notably visceral, causing elevated hepatosomatic index and increased liver triacylglycerol content. The increased absolute amounts of liver total phospholipids and phosphatidylcholine suggested endoplasmic reticulum stress. The hepatic lipid infiltration and the altered liver lipid profiles were associated with a significantly reduced proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in the livers and the decrease was more evident in the females. Likewise, re-feeding of the female mink resulted in a more pronounced recovery of the liver n-3 PUFA. The rapid decrease in the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in response to food deprivation could trigger an inflammatory response in the liver. This could be a key contributor to the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in mink influencing disease progression.

  5. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depots to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicles such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing, and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid, and Mars missions. A Mars Orbital Depot is also described to support ongoing Mars missions. New concepts for vehicle designs are presented that can be launched on current 5-meter diameter expendable launch vehicles. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a LEO Depot, L1 Depot, and Mars Orbital Depot based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. The high-energy depots at L1 and Mars orbit are compatible with, but do not require, electric propulsion tug use for propellant and/or cargo delivery. New reusable in-space crew transportation vehicles include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot and the L1 Depot, a new reusable Lunar Lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface, and a Deep Space Habitat (DSH) to support crew missions from the L1 Depot to ESL2, Asteroid, and Mars destinations. A 6 meter diameter Mars lander concept is presented that can be launched without a fairing based on the Delta IV heavy Payload Planners Guide, which indicates feasibility of a 6.5 meter fairing. This lander would evolve to re-usable operations when propellant production is established on Mars. Figure 1 provides a summary of the possible missions this infrastructure can support. Summary mission profiles are presented

  6. Thigh fat and muscle each contribute to excess cardiometabolic risk in South Asians, independent of visceral adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Sophie V; Tillin, Therese; Wright, Andrew; Mayet, Jamil; Godsland, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Whincup, Peter; Hughes, Alun D; Chaturvedi, Nishi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare fat distribution and associations between fat depots and cardiometabolic traits in South Asians and Europeans. Methods Five hundred and fourteen South Asians and 669 Europeans, aged 56-86. Questionnaires, record review, blood testing, and coronary artery calcification scores provided diabetes and clinical plus subclinical coronary heart disease (CHD) diagnoses. Abdominal visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue, thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue (TSAT), intermuscular and intramuscular thigh fat and thigh muscle were measured by CT. Results Accounting for body size, South Asians had greater VAT and TSAT than Europeans, but less thigh muscle. Associations between depots and disease were stronger in South Asians than Europeans. In multivariable analyses in South Asians, VAT was positively associated with diabetes and CHD, while TSAT and thigh muscle were protective for diabetes, and thigh muscle for CHD. Differences in VAT and thigh muscle only partially explained the excess diabetes and CHD in South Asians versus Europeans. Insulin resistance did not account for the effects of TSAT or thigh muscle. Conclusions Greater VAT and TSAT and lesser thigh muscle in South Asians contributed to ethnic differences in cardiometabolic disease. Effects of TSAT and thigh muscle were independent of insulin resistance. PMID:24862429

  7. Network technology for depot modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, C.J.

    1990-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to summarize existing and emerging information system technology and standards applicable to Depot System Command (DESCOM) modernization efforts. The intent of this summarization is to provide the Revitalization of Army Depots for the Year 2000 (READY 2000) team a clear understanding of the enabling information system technologies required to support effective modernization activities. Much of the information contained in this report was acquired during the last year in support of the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) Facility Integrated Manufacturing Management System (FIMMS) project at PNL, which is targeting the modernization of plant-wide information systems at Army Ammunition Plants. The objective of information system modernization is to improve the effectiveness of an organization in performing its mission. Information system modernization strives to meet this objective by creating an environment where data is electronically captured near the source and readily available to all areas of the organization. Advanced networks, together with related information system technology, are the enabling mechanisms that make modern information system infrastructures possible. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of advanced information system network technology to support depot modernization planners in making technology management decisions. Existing and emerging Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) standards are explained, as well as a brief assessment of existing products compliant with these standards. Finally, recommendations for achieving plant-wide integration using existing products are presented, and migration strategies for full OSI compliance are introduced. 5 refs., 16 figs. (JF)

  8. Enhanced Competition: Shaping the Depots after Next.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Staff Analyst, Office of Business Planning , Joint Depot Maintenance Analysis Group, telephone interview by author, 7 February 1998. 39Deutsch...Technology, 11 March 1996, 49-50. Jenkinson, Dave, Staff Analyst, Office of Business Planning , Joint Depot Maintenance Analysis Group. Telephone interview

  9. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depot servicing platforms to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) systems such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support a new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid and Mars Missions. New vehicle design concepts are presented that can be launched on current 5 meter diameter ELV systems. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot, L1 Depot and missions beyond L1; a new reusable lunar lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface; and Mars orbital Depot are based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. Data provided includes the number of launches required for each mission utilizing current ELV systems (Delta IV Heavy or equivalent) and the approximate vehicle masses and propellant requirements. Also included is a discussion on affordability with ideas on technologies that could reduce the number of launches required and thoughts on how this infrastructure include competitive bidding for ELV flights and propellant services, developments of new reusable in-space vehicles and development of a multiuse infrastructure that can support many government and commercial missions simultaneously.

  10. Associations of Different Adipose Tissue Depots with Insulin Resistance: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingzhi; Hu, Tian; Zhang, Shaoyan; Zhou, Li

    2015-12-21

    Fat distribution is strongly associated with insulin resistance, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, associations of different adipose tissue depots or/and obesity indices with insulin resistance have not been systematically evaluated. In this study we examined associations of different adipose tissue depots/obesity indices with insulin resistance, as measured by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in observational studies. A total of 40 studies with 56 populations and 29 adipose tissue depots/obesity indices were included in the meta-analysis. There were strong correlation between HOMA-IR and visceral fat mass (r = 0.570, 95% confidence interval(CI): 0.424~0.687), total fat mass (r = 0.492, 95%CI: 0.407~0.570), body mass index (r = 0.482, 95%CI: 0.445~0.518) and waist circumference (r = 0.466, 95%CI: 0.432~0.500), except lower extremity fat (r = 0.088, 95%CI: -0.116~0.285). Sample size, diabetic status, gender, mean of body mass index, and race contributed to heterogeneity of these associations. This study showed a positive correlation between insulin resistance and most adipose tissue depots/obesity indices, and the strongest association is for visceral fat mass.

  11. Storage depot for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Szulinski, Milton J.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

  12. Metabolic characteristics of human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissueafter overnight fast

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Sandy M.

    2012-01-01

    Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue is one of the largest fat depots and contributes the major proportion of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Little is known about aspects of human adipose tissue metabolism in vivo other than lipolysis. Here we collated data from 331 experiments in 255 healthy volunteers over a 23-year period, in which subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism was studied by measurements of arterio-venous differences after an overnight fast. NEFA and glycerol were released in a ratio of 2.7:1, different (P < 0.001) from the value of 3.0 that would indicate no fatty acid re-esterification. Fatty acid re-esterification was 10.2 ± 1.4%. Extraction of triacylglycerol (TG) (fractional extraction 5.7 ± 0.4%) indicated intravascular lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase, and this contributed 21 ± 3% of the glycerol released. Glucose uptake (fractional extraction 2.6 ± 0.3%) was partitioned around 20–25% for provision of glycerol 3-phosphate and 30% into lactate production. There was release of lactate and pyruvate, with extraction of the ketone bodies 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, although these were small numerically compared with TG and glucose uptake. NEFA release (expressed per 100 g tissue) correlated inversely with measures of fat mass (e.g., with BMI, rs = −0.24, P < 0.001). We examined within-person variability. Systemic NEFA concentrations, NEFA release, fatty acid re-esterification, and adipose tissue blood flow were all more consistent within than between individuals. This picture of human adipose tissue metabolism in the fasted state should contribute to a greater understanding of adipose tissue physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:22167523

  13. Ghrelin induces abdominal obesity via GHS-R-dependent lipid retention.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jeffrey S; Kotokorpi, Pia; Eccles, Sinan R; Barnes, Sarah K; Tokarczuk, Pawel F; Allen, Sophie K; Whitworth, Hilary S; Guschina, Irina A; Evans, Bronwen A J; Mode, Agneta; Zigman, Jeffrey M; Wells, Timothy

    2009-06-01

    Circulating ghrelin elevates abdominal adiposity by a mechanism independent of its central orexigenic activity. In this study we tested the hypothesis that peripheral ghrelin induces a depot-specific increase in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass in vivo by GH secretagogue receptor (GHS-R(1a))-mediated lipolysis. Chronic iv infusion of acylated ghrelin increased retroperitoneal and inguinal WAT volume in rats without elevating superficial sc fat, food intake, or circulating lipids and glucose. Increased retroperitoneal WAT mass resulted from adipocyte enlargement probably due to reduced lipid export (ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 mRNA expression and circulating free fatty acids were halved by ghrelin infusion). In contrast, ghrelin treatment did not up-regulate biomarkers of adipogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 or CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha) or substrate uptake (glucose transporter 4, lipoprotein lipase, or CD36) and although ghrelin elevated sterol-regulatory element-binding protein 1c expression, WAT-specific mediators of lipogenesis (liver X receptor-alpha and fatty acid synthase) were unchanged. Adiposity was unaffected by infusion of unacylated ghrelin, and the effects of acylated ghrelin were abolished by transcriptional blockade of GHS-R(1a), but GHS-R(1a) mRNA expression was similar in responsive and unresponsive WAT. Microarray analysis suggested that depot-specific sensitivity to ghrelin may arise from differential fine tuning of signal transduction and/or lipid-handling mechanisms. Acylated ghrelin also induced hepatic steatosis, increasing lipid droplet number and triacylglycerol content by a GHS-R(1a)-dependent mechanism. Our data imply that, during periods of energy insufficiency, exposure to acylated ghrelin may limit energy utilization in specific WAT depots by GHS-R(1a)-dependent lipid retention.

  14. DEPOT database: Reference manual and user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Clancey, P.; Logg, C.

    1991-03-01

    DEPOT has been developed to provide tracking for the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) control system equipment. For each piece of equipment entered into the database, complete location, service, maintenance, modification, certification, and radiation exposure histories can be maintained. To facilitate data entry accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, barcoding technology has been used extensively. DEPOT has been an important tool in improving the reliability of the microsystems controlling SLC. This document describes the components of the DEPOT database, the elements in the database records, and the use of the supporting programs for entering data, searching the database, and producing reports from the information.

  15. Abdominal ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney - blood and urine flow Abdominal ultrasound References Chen L. Abdominal ultrasound imaging. In: Sahani DV, Samir ... the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should not be used ...

  16. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    ... tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap Images Digestive system Peritoneal sample References Garcia-Tiso G. ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  17. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... call your doctor. In Spanish— Dolor abdominal en niños menores de 12 años What is recurrent abdominal ... Functional abdominal pain (FAP) typically affects kids ages 4-12, and is quite common, affecting up to ...

  18. Depot Maintenance: Improved Strategic Planning Needed to Ensure That Army and Marine Corps Depots Can Meet Future Maintenance Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    of Representatives DEPOT MAINTENANCE Improved Strategic Planning Needed to Ensure That Army and Marine Corps Depots Can Meet Future...Depot Maintenance. Improved Strategic Planning Needed to Ensure That Army and Marine Corps Depots Can Meet Future Maintenance Requirements 5a... Strategic Planning Needed to Ensure That Army and Marine Corps Depots Can Meet Future Maintenance Requirements Highlights of GAO-09-865, a report to

  19. Depot -- Drug Education Program for Oregon Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlaadt, Richard G.

    1974-01-01

    Depot was designed to provide teachers with a general understanding of the drug scene, implement the new state drug education guide, distribute and implement drug resources, and stimulate local school drug education programs. (Author)

  20. Orbiting propellant depot safety. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Appendices to support the findings of the Orbiting Propellant Depot Safety study are presented. The subjects discussed are ullage control subsystems, evaluation of methods, propellant transfer, and baseline subsystem selection.

  1. Space propulsion technology and cryogenic fluid depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Larry A.

    1988-01-01

    Information on space propulsion and technology and the cryogenic fluid depot is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on orbit transfer, electric propulsion, spacecraft propulsion, and program objectives.

  2. Acquired haemophilia in recipients of depot thioxanthenes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A J; Manson, L M; Dasani, H; Beddall, A; Collins, P; Shima, M; Ludlam, C A

    2000-11-01

    We present two cases in which the occurrence of acquired haemophilia is associated with the use of depot preparations of the thioxanthenes zuclopenthixol and flupenthixol. These drugs have not previously been implicated in the aetiology of acquired haemophilia.

  3. Abdominal Fat Is Associated With Lower Bone Formation and Inferior Bone Quality in Healthy Premenopausal Women: A Transiliac Bone Biopsy Study

    PubMed Central

    Dempster, David W.; Recker, Robert R.; Lappe, Joan M.; Zhou, Hua; Zwahlen, Alexander; Müller, Ralph; Zhao, Binsheng; Guo, Xiaotao; Lang, Thomas; Saeed, Isra; Liu, X. Sherry; Guo, X. Edward; Cremers, Serge; Rosen, Clifford J.; Stein, Emily M.; Nickolas, Thomas L.; McMahon, Donald J.; Young, Polly; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Context: The conventional view that obesity is beneficial for bone strength has recently been challenged by studies that link obesity, particularly visceral obesity, to low bone mass and fractures. It is controversial whether effects of obesity on bone are mediated by increased bone resorption or decreased bone formation. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate bone microarchitecture and remodeling in healthy premenopausal women of varying weights. Design: We measured bone density and trunk fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 40 women and by computed tomography in a subset. Bone microarchitecture, stiffness, remodeling, and marrow fat were assessed in labeled transiliac bone biopsies. Results: Body mass index (BMI) ranged from 20.1 to 39.2 kg/m2. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-trunk fat was directly associated with BMI (r = 0.78, P < .001) and visceral fat by computed tomography (r = 0.79, P < .001). Compared with women in the lowest tertile of trunk fat, those in the highest tertile had inferior bone quality: lower trabecular bone volume (20.4 ± 5.8 vs 29.1 ± 6.1%; P = .001) and stiffness (433 ± 264 vs 782 ± 349 MPa; P = .01) and higher cortical porosity (8.8 ± 3.5 vs 6.3 ± 2.4%; P = .049). Bone formation rate (0.004 ± 0.002 vs 0.011 ± 0.008 mm2/mm · year; P = .006) was 64% lower in the highest tertile. Trunk fat was inversely associated with trabecular bone volume (r = −0.50; P < .01) and bone formation rate (r = −0.50; P < .001). The relationship between trunk fat and bone volume remained significant after controlling for age and BMI. Conclusions: At the tissue level, premenopausal women with more central adiposity had inferior bone quality and stiffness and markedly lower bone formation. Given the rising levels of obesity, these observations require further investigation. PMID:23515452

  4. Forecasting Wartime Depot-Level Component Workloads.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Baseline Study the NALC assumed that all failures sent to the depot must be repaired, despite the fact that ASO plans to buy war reserve stock to...be bought to fill these demands. Note, however, that the stock buy for the 0 exponential pipeline case is somewhat less than that required for the...daily demands on depot supply to BCN rates Minimum workload 200 - Baseline- 23 month scenario -Low BCM 175 - .. . High BCM7i. -- Hgh BCM half sortie 150

  5. Epicardial fat: a new cardiovascular therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat is the visceral fat depot of the heart. Given its rapid metabolism, organ fat specificity and simple objective measurability, epicardial fat can serve as target for pharmaceutical agents targeting the adipose tissue. Epicardial fat has shown to significantly respond to thiazolidinediones, glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and statins. Epicardial fat may represent a measurable risk factor and modifiable therapeutic target. Targeted pharmaceutical interventions may allow the epicardial fat to resume its physiological role. A drug-induced browning effect on epicardial fat suggests the development of pharmacological strategies to increase energy consumption. The potential of modulating the epicardial fat transcriptome with targeted pharmacological agents can open new avenues in the pharmacotherapy of cardio-metabolic diseases.

  6. Characterization of stromal vascular fraction and adipose stem cells from subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral morbidly obese human adipose tissue depots

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Karina Ribeiro; Côrtes, Isis; Liechocki, Sally; Carneiro, João Regis Ivar; Souza, Antônio Augusto Peixoto; Borojevic, Radovan; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa Menezes

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives The pathological condition of obesity is accompanied by a dysfunctional adipose tissue. We postulate that subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral obese abdominal white adipose tissue depots could have stromal vascular fractions (SVF) with distinct composition and adipose stem cells (ASC) that would differentially account for the pathogenesis of obesity. Methods In order to evaluate the distribution of SVF subpopulations, samples of subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral adipose tissues from morbidly obese women (n = 12, BMI: 46.2±5.1 kg/m2) were collected during bariatric surgery, enzymatically digested and analyzed by flow cytometry (n = 12). ASC from all depots were evaluated for morphology, surface expression, ability to accumulate lipid after induction and cytokine secretion (n = 3). Results A high content of preadipocytes was found in the SVF of subcutaneous depot (p = 0.0178). ASC from the three depots had similar fibroblastoid morphology with a homogeneous expression of CD34, CD146, CD105, CD73 and CD90. ASC from the visceral depot secreted the highest levels of IL-6, MCP-1 and G-CSF (p = 0.0278). Interestingly, preperitoneal ASC under lipid accumulation stimulus showed the lowest levels of all the secreted cytokines, except for adiponectin that was enhanced (p = 0.0278). Conclusions ASC from preperitoneal adipose tissue revealed the less pro-inflammatory properties, although it is an internal adipose depot. Conversely, ASC from visceral adipose tissue are the most pro-inflammatory. Therefore, ASC from subcutaneous, visceral and preperitoneal adipose depots could differentially contribute to the chronic inflammatory scenario of obesity. PMID:28323901

  7. [Abdominal paracentesis].

    PubMed

    Glauser, Frédéric; Barras, Anne-Catherine; Pache, Isabelle; Monti, Matteo

    2008-10-29

    Abdominal paracentesis is frequently performed in the clinical setting. Every newly developed ascites need to be investigated by abdominal paracentesis. Any clinical or biological deterioration in patients with chronic ascites also requires a new paracentesis. Therapeutically abdominal paracentesis is performed for refractory or symptomatic ascites. As other invasive procedures, it is critical to master its indications, contra-indications and complications. The aim of this article is to review the basics of abdominal paracentesis in order to help physicians to carry out this technical skill.

  8. Injectable controlled release depots for large molecules

    PubMed Central

    Schwendeman, Steven P.; Shah, Ronak B.; Bailey, Brittany A.; Schwendeman, Anna S.

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable, injectable depot formulations for long-term controlled drug release have improved therapy for a number of drug molecules and led to over a dozen highly successful pharmaceutical products. Until now, success has been limited to several small molecules and peptides, although remarkable improvements have been accomplished in some of these cases. For example, twice-a-year depot injections with leuprolide are available compared to the once-a-day injection of the solution dosage form. Injectable depots are typically prepared by encapsulation of the drug in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), a polymer that is used in children every day as a resorbable suture material, and therefore, highly biocompatible. PLGAs remain today as one of the few “real world” biodegradable synthetic biomaterials used in US FDA-approved parenteral long-acting-release (LAR) products. Despite their success, there remain critical barriers to the more widespread use of PLGA LAR products, particularly for delivery of more peptides and other large molecular drugs, namely proteins. In this review, we describe key concepts in the development of injectable PLGA controlled-release depots for peptides and proteins, and then use this information to identify key issues impeding greater widespread use of PLGA depots for this class of drugs. Finally, we examine important approaches, particularly those developed in our research laboratory, toward overcoming these barriers to advance commercial LAR development. PMID:24929039

  9. Injectable controlled release depots for large molecules.

    PubMed

    Schwendeman, Steven P; Shah, Ronak B; Bailey, Brittany A; Schwendeman, Anna S

    2014-09-28

    Biodegradable, injectable depot formulations for long-term controlled drug release have improved therapy for a number of drug molecules and led to over a dozen highly successful pharmaceutical products. Until now, success has been limited to several small molecules and peptides, although remarkable improvements have been accomplished in some of these cases. For example, twice-a-year depot injections with leuprolide are available compared to the once-a-day injection of the solution dosage form. Injectable depots are typically prepared by encapsulation of the drug in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), a polymer that is used in children every day as a resorbable suture material, and therefore, highly biocompatible. PLGAs remain today as one of the few "real world" biodegradable synthetic biomaterials used in US FDA-approved parenteral long-acting-release (LAR) products. Despite their success, there remain critical barriers to the more widespread use of PLGA LARproducts, particularly for delivery of more peptides and other large molecular drugs, namely proteins. In this review, we describe key concepts in the development of injectable PLGA controlled-release depots for peptides and proteins, and then use this information to identify key issues impeding greater widespread use of PLGA depots for this class of drugs. Finally, we examine important approaches, particularly those developed in our research laboratory, toward overcoming these barriers to advance commercial LAR development.

  10. 1. OVERVIEW, LOOKING EAST OF SIDE ELEVATION OF THE DEPOT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW, LOOKING EAST OF SIDE ELEVATION OF THE DEPOT (RIGHT) WHICH SERVES AS THE HEART OF DIXIE RAILROAD MUSEUM. AT LEFT IS HISTORIC RAILROAD ROLLING STOCK FROM THE MUSEUM'S COLLECTIONS. - Wilton Depot, Ninth Street, Calera, Shelby County, AL

  11. Sustainment: Making it Better. A Focus on Organic Depot Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    vi Tables Page Table 1 – Example of Internet Use Applied to Depot Operations with User Interface...u. Table 1 – Example of Internet Use Applied to Depot Operations with User Interface Available Potential Financial News Sustainment News News

  12. LOOKING WEST, BETWEEN READING DEPOT BRIDGE AND SKEW ARCH BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING WEST, BETWEEN READING DEPOT BRIDGE AND SKEW ARCH BRIDGE (HAER No. PA-116). - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Reading Depot Bridge, North Sixth Street at Woodward Street, Reading, Berks County, PA

  13. 2. LOOKING NW, WITH READING DEPOT IN BACKGROUND. Philadelphia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOOKING NW, WITH READING DEPOT IN BACKGROUND. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  14. Public-Private Partnerships for Depot-Level Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    reviews public - private partnerships for depot-level maintenance and leases of DoD depot-level facilities. The Services have used a number of authorities to establish these public-private statutory and regulatory authorities.

  15. Refilling drug delivery depots through the blood.

    PubMed

    Brudno, Yevgeny; Silva, Eduardo A; Kearney, Cathal J; Lewin, Sarah A; Miller, Alex; Martinick, Kathleen D; Aizenberg, Michael; Mooney, David J

    2014-09-02

    Local drug delivery depots have significant clinical utility, but there is currently no noninvasive technique to refill these systems once their payload is exhausted. Inspired by the ability of nanotherapeutics to target specific tissues, we hypothesized that blood-borne drug payloads could be modified to home to and refill hydrogel drug delivery systems. To address this possibility, hydrogels were modified with oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) that provide a target for drug payloads in the form of free alginate strands carrying complementary ODNs. Coupling ODNs to alginate strands led to specific binding to complementary-ODN-carrying alginate gels in vitro and to injected gels in vivo. When coupled to a drug payload, sequence-targeted refilling of a delivery depot consisting of intratumor hydrogels completely abrogated tumor growth. These results suggest a new paradigm for nanotherapeutic drug delivery, and this concept is expected to have applications in refilling drug depots in cancer therapy, wound healing, and drug-eluting vascular grafts and stents.

  16. Chronic stress and comfort foods: self-medication and abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Dallman, Mary F; Pecoraro, Norman C; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2005-07-01

    Central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) networks are recruited by chronic stressors and elevated glucocorticoids (GCs) that initiate recruitment of central CRF activity in the amygdala. Increased central activity of the CRF network stimulates all monoaminergic cell groups, as well as premotor autonomic and other limbic structures resulting in the typical arousal, behavioral changes, autonomic, and neuroendocrine changes that accompany the chronic imposition of a stressor. By contrast, elevated GCs appear, through a variety of means to counteract the effects of central CRF, which they have initiated. Together with insulin, the GCs stimulate drive for and ingestion of "comfort foods" that may directly result in reduction of the negative effects of the chronic stressor in the nucleus Accumbens, through stimulation of the anterior, more pleasure-associated part of this cell group, thus reducing the weight of the stress-stimulated posterior, more defensive part. Furthermore, the shift in caloric intake from chow to preference for "comfort foods," together with elevated GCs and insulin, reorganize energy stores from a peripheral to a central distribution, primarily as abdominal fat. A signal associated with this fat depot appears, as with eating "comfort foods," to reduce the influence of the chronic stress network on behaviors, autonomic, and neuroendocrine outflow.

  17. Opa3, a novel regulator of mitochondrial function, controls thermogenesis and abdominal fat mass in a mouse model for Costeff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wells, Timothy; Davies, Jennifer R; Guschina, Irina A; Ball, Daniel J; Davies, Jeffrey S; Davies, Vanessa J; Evans, Bronwen A J; Votruba, Marcela

    2012-11-15

    The interrelationship between brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) is emerging as an important factor in obesity, but the effect of impairing non-shivering thermogenesis in BAT on lipid storage in WAT remains unclear. To address this, we have characterized the metabolic phenotype of a mouse model for Costeff syndrome, in which a point mutation in the mitochondrial membrane protein Opa3 impairs mitochondrial activity. Opa3(L122P) mice displayed an 80% reduction in insulin-like growth factor 1, postnatal growth retardation and hepatic steatosis. A 90% reduction in uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in interscapular BAT was accompanied by a marked reduction in surface body temperature, with a 2.5-fold elevation in interscapular BAT mass and lipid storage. The sequestration of circulating lipid into BAT resulted in profound reductions in epididymal and retroperitoneal WAT mass, without affecting subcutaneous WAT. The histological appearance and intense mitochondrial staining in intra-abdominal WAT suggest significant 'browning', but with UCP1 expression in WAT of Opa3(L122P) mice only 62% of that in wild-type littermates, any precursor differentiation does not appear to result in thermogenically active beige adipocytes. Thus, we have identified Opa3 as a novel regulator of lipid metabolism, coupling lipid uptake with lipid processing in liver and with thermogenesis in BAT. These findings indicate that skeletal and metabolic impairment in Costeff syndrome may be more significant than previously thought and that uncoupling lipid uptake from lipid metabolism in BAT may represent a novel approach to controlling WAT mass in obesity.

  18. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is ...

  19. [Abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Gschossmann, J M; Holtmann, G; Netzer, P; Essig, M; Balsiger, B M; Scheurer, U

    2005-10-01

    Abdominal pain can result from a variety of different intra- and extra-abdominal disorders. Given the wide variety of etiological triggers for this pain, the primary task during the first stage of the diagnostic work-up is to determine as soon as possible the underlying cause and the degree of emergency. The aim of this evaluation is to adapt the therapeutic measures which are necessary for a causal treatment to the individual situation. Contrary to somatic causes of abdominal pain, the availability of such a causal therapy for functional bowel disorders is still very limited. Given this dilemma, the therapeutic focus of abdominal pain associated with these functional syndromes has to be placed on symptom-oriented treatment.

  20. Techno-economic analysis of decentralized biomass processing depots.

    PubMed

    Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S; Tumuluru, Jaya S; Jacobson, Jacob J; Cafferty, Kara G; Hansen, Jason K; Kenney, Kevin; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Bals, Bryan

    2015-10-01

    Decentralized biomass processing facilities, known as biomass depots, may be necessary to achieve feedstock cost, quantity, and quality required to grow the future U.S. bioeconomy. In this paper, we assess three distinct depot configurations for technical difference and economic performance. The depot designs were chosen to compare and contrast a suite of capabilities that a depot could perform ranging from conventional pelleting to sophisticated pretreatment technologies. Our economic analyses indicate that depot processing costs are likely to range from ∼US$30 to US$63 per dry metric tonne (Mg), depending upon the specific technology implemented and the energy consumption for processing equipment such as grinders and dryers. We conclude that the benefits of integrating depots into the overall biomass feedstock supply chain will outweigh depot processing costs and that incorporation of this technology should be aggressively pursued.

  1. Multiple adipose depots increase cardiovascular risk via local and systemic effects

    PubMed Central

    Karastergiou, Kalypso; Fried, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue modifies the development of cardiovascular disease in a complex manner: obesity is a major risk factor, but particularly when accompanied with a central fat distribution. For that reason the characteristics of visceral adipose tissue attracted the majority of research interest thus far and measurement of waist circumference is now recommended for everyday clinical practice. However, the direct, causative role of visceral fat in cardiometabolic disease remains to be established. Epidemiological and clinical studies show that accumulation of fat subcutaneously, in the gluteo-femoral area, is protective for cardiovascular disease, but the exact molecular mechanisms remain again unclear. In the last few years, imaging allowed the study of smaller fat depots that may interact locally with important tissues: epicardial fat with the myocardium, perivascular fat with the vessel wall and the developing atherosclerotic plaque, renal sinus fat with the renal artery. Unraveling the heterogeneous fat distribution and metabolic phenotypes in human obesity will facilitate optimal assessment of cardiovascular risk in overweight and obese individuals. PMID:23982264

  2. Recombinant Human Growth Hormone and Rosiglitazone for Abdominal Fat Accumulation in HIV-Infected Patients with Insulin Resistance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Factorial Trial

    PubMed Central

    Glesby, Marshall J.; Albu, Jeanine; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Ham, Kirsis; Engelson, Ellen; He, Qing; Muthukrishnan, Varalakshmi; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Donovan, Daniel; Ernst, Jerry; Lesser, Martin; Kotler, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume in HIV-infected patients but can worsen glucose homeostasis and lipoatrophy. We aimed to determine if adding rosiglitazone to rhGH would abrogate the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity (SI) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume. Methodology/Principal Findings Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial using a 2×2 factorial design in which HIV-infected subjects with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were randomized to rhGH 3 mg daily, rosiglitazone 4 mg twice daily, combination rhGH + rosiglitazone, or double placebo (control) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in SI by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test from entry to week 12. Body composition was assessed by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual Xray absorptiometry (DEXA). Seventy-seven subjects were randomized of whom 72 initiated study drugs. Change in SI from entry to week 12 differed across the 4 arms by 1-way ANCOVA (P = 0.02); by pair-wise comparisons, only rhGH (decreasing SI; P = 0.03) differed significantly from control. Changes from entry to week 12 in fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve on 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test differed across arms (1-way ANCOVA P = 0.004), increasing in the rhGH arm relative to control. VAT decreased significantly in the rhGH arms (−17.5% in rhGH/rosiglitazone and −22.7% in rhGH) but not in the rosiglitazone alone (−2.5%) or control arms (−1.9%). SAT did not change significantly in any arm. DEXA results were consistent with the MRI data. There was no significant rhGH x rosiglitazone interaction for any body composition parameter. Conclusions/Significance The addition of rosiglitazone abrogated the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance while not significantly modifying the lowering effect of rhGH on VAT. Trial Registration

  3. Supplement of bamboo extract lowers serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 concentration in mice fed a diet containing a high level of saturated fat.

    PubMed

    Higa, Jason K; Liu, Wanyu; Berry, Marla J; Panee, Jun

    2011-12-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is an inflammatory chemokine up-regulated in obese subjects, contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes. The present study investigated the inhibitory effect of an ethanol-water extract from bamboo (BEX, Phyllostachys edulis) on the blood concentration of MCP-1. C57BL/6J mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet with or without the BEX supplement (11 g dry mass/17 000 kJ) for 6 months. A total of ten mice were used in each group. Body weight and food consumption were measured weekly. After euthanisation, the weight of visceral fat and circulating MCP-1 concentration were measured. In comparison with the standard control group, the high-fat control group had increased body weight, abdominal fat storage and serum MCP-1 concentration by 60 % (P < 0·001), 266 % (P < 0·001) and 180 % (P < 0·01), respectively. In comparison with the high-fat control group, the high-fat BEX group showed a 3 % decrease in body weight (P < 0·01), 24 % decrease in mesenteric fat depot (P < 0·01) and 49 % decrease in serum MCP-1 concentration (P < 0·05). The present study suggests that the BEX supplement in the high-fat diet ameliorates elevated MCP-1 concentrations in the blood, and whether this is related to modulated endocrine properties of the visceral fat is to be studied.

  4. Molecular Heterogeneities of Adipose Depots - Potential Effects on Adipose-Muscle Cross-Talk in Humans, Mice and Farm Animals

    PubMed Central

    Komolka, Katrin; Albrecht, Elke; Wimmers, Klaus; Michal, Jennifer J.; Maak, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is considered as a major endocrine organ that secretes numerous proteins called adipokines. The heterogeneous nature of adipose tissue in different parts of the body suggests respective heterogeneity of proteomes and secretomes. This review consolidates knowledge from recent studies targeting the diversity of different adipose depots affecting the pattern of secreted adipokines and discusses potential consequences for the cross-talk between adipose and skeletal muscle in humans, rodent models and farm animals. Special attention is paid to muscle-associated fat depots like inter- and intramuscular fat that become focus of attention in the context of the rather new notion of skeletal muscle as a major endocrine organ. Understanding the complexity of communication between adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells will allow developing strategies for improvement of human health and for sustainable production of high quality meat. PMID:25057322

  5. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  6. Abdominal cavity myolipoma presenting as an enlarging incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Mark O; Richardson, Michael L; Rubin, Brian P; Baird, Geoffrey S

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of an abdominal cavity myolipoma which herniated through a low transverse abdominal (Pfannenstiel) incision, and presented as an enlarging abdominal wall mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to surgery demonstrated an encapsulated solid tumor mass demonstrating fat signal and and increased T2-weighted signal. Postsurgical histological tissue diagnosis was myolipoma. Recognition of the intra- and extraperitoneal location of this abdominal tumor was essential for accurate surgical planning.

  7. Stock Funding of Depot Level Reparable Components.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy , or decision, unless so designated by other official documentation. Results...Jan 80 MC COY, R. F. CIV DALO-RMI Oct 78 - May 80 GAWORSKI, J. j. CIV DACA- OMO Feb 79 - Aug 79 CRICE, S. CIV DCSLOG, FORSOOM Jul 79 - Aug 79 CLEMENTS...SUPPLY MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS, POLICIES , SYSTEMS OR PROCEDURES WOULD NOT BE REQUIRED BY IMPLEMENTION OF A STOCK FUND APPROACH TO DEPOT REPARABLES

  8. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91–111. Seek Help for ... and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website ... Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders 700 West Virginia ...

  9. Public-Private Partnerships at Air Force Maintenance Depots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-10

    Report No. D-2010-067 June 10, 2010 Public - Private Partnerships at Air Force Maintenance Depots Report...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Public - Private Partnerships at Air Force Maintenance Depots 5a...June 10, 2010 i Results in Brief: Public - Private Partnerships at Air Force Maintenance Depots What We Did We

  10. DoD Depot-Level Reparable Supply Chain Management: Process Effectiveness and Opportunities for Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Logistics Complex AMC Army Materiel Command AMCOM Aviation and Missile Life Cycle Management Command ANAD Anniston Army Depot AOIB Army Organic...Complex (ALC) (supply and maintenance), Oklahoma City ALC (supply and maintenance), Warner Robins ALC (supply), Anniston Army Depot, Corpus Christi...NIINs NOTE: CCAD = Corpus Christi Army Depot, TYAD = Tobyhanna Army Depot, LEAD = Letterkenny Army Depot, ANAD = Anniston Army Depot. RAND RR398-4.1 C

  11. Depot- and sex-specific effects of maternal obesity in offspring's adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Lecoutre, Simon; Deracinois, Barbara; Laborie, Christine; Eberlé, Delphine; Guinez, Céline; Panchenko, Polina E; Lesage, Jean; Vieau, Didier; Junien, Claudine; Gabory, Anne; Breton, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    According to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept, alterations of nutrient supply in the fetus or neonate result in long-term programming of individual body weight (BW) setpoint. In particular, maternal obesity, excessive nutrition, and accelerated growth in neonates have been shown to sensitize offspring to obesity. The white adipose tissue may represent a prime target of metabolic programming induced by maternal obesity. In order to unravel the underlying mechanisms, we have developed a rat model of maternal obesity using a high-fat (HF) diet (containing 60% lipids) before and during gestation and lactation. At birth, newborns from obese dams (called HF) were normotrophs. However, HF neonates exhibited a rapid weight gain during lactation, a key period of adipose tissue development in rodents. In males, increased BW at weaning (+30%) persists until 3months of age. Nine-month-old HF male offspring was normoglycemic but showed mild glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypercorticosteronemia. Despite no difference in BW and energy intake, HF adult male offspring was predisposed to fat accumulation showing increased visceral (gonadal and perirenal) depots weights and hyperleptinemia. However, only perirenal adipose tissue depot exhibited marked adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia with elevated lipogenic (i.e. sterol-regulated element binding protein 1 (Srebp1), fatty acid synthase (Fas), and leptin) and diminished adipogenic (i.e. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-Hds1)) mRNA levels. By contrast, very few metabolic variations were observed in HF female offspring. Thus, maternal obesity and accelerated growth during lactation program offspring for higher adiposity via transcriptional alterations of visceral adipose tissue in a depot- and sex-specific manner.

  12. Whole body fat: content and distribution.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E L; Fitzpatrick, J A; Malik, S J; Taylor-Robinson, S D; Bell, J D

    2013-08-01

    Obesity and its co-morbidities, including type II diabetes, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases, have become one of the biggest health issues of present times. The impact of obesity goes well beyond the individual and is so far-reaching that, if it continues unabated, it will cause havoc with the economies of most countries. In order to be able to fully understand the relationship between increased adiposity (obesity) and its co-morbidity, it has been necessary to develop proper methodology to accurately and reproducibly determine both body fat content and distribution, including ectopic fat depots. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (MRS) have recently emerged as the gold-standard for accomplishing this task. Here, we will review the use of different MRI techniques currently being used to determine body fat content and distribution. We also discuss the pros and cons of MRS to determine ectopic fat depots in liver, muscle, pancreas and heart and compare these to emerging MRI techniques currently being put forward to create ectopic fat maps. Finally, we will discuss how MRI/MRS techniques are helping in changing the perception of what is healthy and what is normal and desirable body-fat content and distribution.

  13. Improving Air Force Depot Programming by Linking Resources to Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Mathematical Formulation of the Depot Purchased Equipment...basis for the similitude of capability across these business areas and a quantitative anchor for programming trades. Anecdotal information indicates that... mathematical formulation. Description of the Depot Purchased Equipment Maintenance Model The requirements process designates, for each year in the FYDP, a number

  14. Architecture Study for a Fuel Depot Supplied from Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrin, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Heretofore, discussions of space fuel depots assumed the depots would be supplied from Earth. However, the confirmation of deposits of water ice at the lunar poles in 2009 suggests the possibility of supplying a space depot with liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen produced from lunar ice. This architecture study sought to determine the optimum architecture for a fuel depot supplied from lunar resources. Four factors - the location of propellant processing (on the Moon or on the depot), the location of the depot (on the Moon, or at L1, GEO, or LEO), the location of propellant transfer (L1, GEO, or LEO), and the method of propellant transfer (bulk fuel or canister exchange) were combined to identify 18 potential architectures. Two design reference missions (DRMs) - a satellite servicing mission and a cargo mission to Mars - were used to create demand for propellants, while a third DRM - a propellant delivery mission - was used to examine supply issues. The architectures were depicted graphically in a network diagram with individual segments representing the movement of propellant from the Moon to the depot, and from the depot to the customer.

  15. Architecture Study for a Fuel Depot Supplied from Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrin, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Heretofore, discussions of space fuel depots assumed the depots would be supplied from Earth. However, the confirmation of deposits of water ice at the lunar poles in 2009 suggests the possibility of supplying a space depot with liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen produced from lunar ice. This architecture study sought to determine the optimum architecture for a fuel depot supplied from lunar resources. Four factors - the location of propellant processing (on the Moon or on the depot), the location of the depot (on the Moon or in cislunar space), and if in cislunar space, where (LEO, GEO, or Earth-Moon L1), and the method of propellant transfer (bulk fuel or canister exchange) were combined to identify 18 potential architectures. Two design reference missions (DRMs) - a satellite servicing mission and a cargo mission to Mars - were used to create demand for propellants, while a third DRM - a propellant delivery mission - was used to examine supply issues. The architectures were depicted graphically in a network diagram with individual segments representing the movement of propellant from the Moon to the depot, and from the depot to the customer

  16. [Effect of rapeseed in beef cattle feeding on fatty acid composition, vitamin E content and oxidative stability of body fat].

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, G; Richter, G H; Wendemuth, M; Möckel, P; Graf, H; Jahreis, G; Lübbe, F

    1994-12-01

    Four groups of five fattening bulls each consumed a concentrate--wheat straw-diet (2.5:1) supplemented with either 0, 7, 14 or 21% ground rape seed for 350 days. Rape seed contained 427 g crude fat (ether extract) and 127 mg vitamin E per kg dry matter. The supplementation with rapeseed increased the fat concentrations in the rations from 25 to 50, 75 and 100 g, and of vitamin E from 11 to 19, 26 and 34 mg per kg dry matter. All bulls were slaughtered with about 560 kg body weight. Fatty acid composition of depot fat and of the fat of musc. long. dorsi were determined by gas liquid chromatography. Vitamin E concentrations in blood, depot fat and muscle were determined by HPLC. Oxidative stability of depot fat was measured as induction time by means of rancimat-test. Rape seed supplementation decreased C16-fatty acids and increased C18-fatty acids in depot and muscle fat. Muscle fat contained significantly more mono and poly unsaturated fatty acids (40.2 and 7.4%) than depot fat (33.5 and 2.0%, respectively). Rape seed supplementation enhanced significantly the vitamin E-concentrations in all body samples. In depot fat vit. E increased from 4.5 to 7.3, 8.5 and 14.9 micrograms/g. Induction time increased from 10.9 to 18.5, 16.1 and 19.5 h, when 0, 7, 14 or 21% rapeseed were added.

  17. Genome-wide association of pericardial fat identifies a unique locus for ectopic fat.

    PubMed

    Fox, Caroline S; White, Charles C; Lohman, Kurt; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Cohen, Paul; Zhang, Yingying; Johnson, Andrew D; Emilsson, Valur; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Y-D Ida; Taylor, Kent D; Allison, Matthew; Budoff, Matthew; Rotter, Jerome I; Carr, J Jeffrey; Hoffmann, Udo; Ding, Jingzhong; Cupples, L Adrienne; Liu, Yongmei

    2012-01-01

    Pericardial fat is a localized fat depot associated with coronary artery calcium and myocardial infarction. We hypothesized that genetic loci would be associated with pericardial fat independent of other body fat depots. Pericardial fat was quantified in 5,487 individuals of European ancestry from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of pericardial fat adjusted for age, sex, weight, and height. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted, and validation was obtained in an additional 3,602 multi-ethnic individuals from the MESA study. We identified a genome-wide significant signal in our primary meta-analysis at rs10198628 near TRIB2 (MAF 0.49, p = 2.7 × 10(-08)). This SNP was not associated with visceral fat (p = 0.17) or body mass index (p = 0.38), although we observed direction-consistent, nominal significance with visceral fat adjusted for BMI (p = 0.01) in the Framingham Heart Study. Our findings were robust among African ancestry (n = 1,442, p = 0.001), Hispanic (n = 1,399, p = 0.004), and Chinese (n = 761, p = 0.007) participants from the MESA study, with a combined p-value of 5.4E-14. We observed TRIB2 gene expression in the pericardial fat of mice. rs10198628 near TRIB2 is associated with pericardial fat but not measures of generalized or visceral adiposity, reinforcing the concept that there are unique genetic underpinnings to ectopic fat distribution.

  18. Abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, V. K.

    1998-01-01

    Tuberculosis has staged a global comeback and forms a dangerous combination with AIDS. The abdomen is one of the common sites of extrapulmonary involvement. Patients with abdominal tuberculosis have a wide range and spectrum of symptoms and signs; the disease is therefore a great mimic. Diagnosis, mainly radiological and supported by endoscopy, is difficult to make and laparotomy is required in a large number of patient. Management involves judicious combination of antitubercular therapy and surgery which may be required to treat complications such as intestinal obstruction and perforation. The disease, though potentially curable, carries a significant morbidity and mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:9926119

  19. Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight & intra-abdominal adipose tissue loss or reduce adipocyte size & inflammatory markers in overweight & obese adults; Controlled feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Research on the role of dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective: A 15 week controlled feeding study to answer the question: do dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a mode...

  20. Facts about saturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    Cholesterol - saturated fat; Atherosclerosis - saturated fat; Hardening of the arteries - saturated fat; Hyperlipidemia - saturated fat; Hypercholesterolemia - saturated fat; Coronary artery disease - saturated fat; ...

  1. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, M.V.; Vierck, J.L.; Hausman, G.J.; Guan, L.L.; Fernyhough, M.E.; Poulos, S.P.; Mir, P.S.; Jiang, Z.

    2010-04-02

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  2. Potential link between excess added sugar intake and ectopic fat: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: The effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat accumulation is a subject of debate. Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to examine the potential effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat depots. Data Sources: MEDLINE, CA...

  3. Radiological Final Status Survey of the Hammond Depot, Hammond, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    T.J. Vitkus

    2008-04-07

    ORISE conducted extensive scoping, characterization, and final status surveys of land areas and structures at the DNSC’s Hammond Depot located in Hammond, Indiana in multiple phases during 2005, 2006 and 2007.

  4. 32. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 161 TYPICAL SECTION & DETAILS. Sheet 5 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. 33. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 STAIR & TOILET ROOM DETAILS. Sheet 6 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. 35. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 END WALL FRAMING. Sheet 9 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. 34. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 70'0' TRUSS. Sheet 7 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  8. 30. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 161 PLOT PLAN & TRANSVERSE SECTION. Sheet 1 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. 31. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 STAIR & TOILET ROOM DETAILS. Sheet 3 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  10. Use of Depot Antipsychotic Medications for Medication Nonadherence in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    West, Joyce C.; Marcus, Steven C.; Wilk, Joshua; Countis, Lisa M.; Regier, Darrel A.; Olfson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To describe factors associated with initiation of depot antipsychotic medications in psychiatric outpatients with schizophrenia and recent medication nonadherence. Methods: A national sample of psychiatrists reported on adult outpatients with schizophrenia who were nonadherent with oral antipsychotic medications in the last year. Results: In total, 17.6% of psychiatrists initiated depot antipsychotic injections. Initiation was significantly and positively associated with public insurance, prior inpatient admission, proportion of time nonadherent, average or above average intellectual functioning, and living in a mental health residence. Use was inversely associated with using second-generation antipsychotics and other oral psychotropic medications prior to medication nonadherence. Psychiatrists who were male, nonwhite, and more optimistic about managing nonadherence were more likely to initiate depot injections. Conclusions: Initiation of depot injections is a joint function of patient, physician, treatment, and setting factors. Use of long-acting preparations in this population is uncommon despite clinical recommendations urging their use. PMID:18093962

  11. A Cryogenic Propellant Production Depot for Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth D.; Henley, Mark W.; Gutierrez, Sonia; Fikes, John; Carrington, Connie; Smitherman, David; Gerry, Mark; Sutherlin, Steve; Beason, Phil; Howell, Joe (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The cost of access to space beyond low Earth orbit can be lowered if vehicles can refuel in orbit. The power requirements for a propellant depot that electrolyzes water and stores cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen can be met using technology developed for space solar power. A propellant depot is described that will be deployed in a 400 km circular equatorial orbit, receive tanks of water launched into a lower orbit from Earth by gun launch or reusable launch vehicle, convert the water to liquid hydrogen and oxygen, and store up to 500 metric tonnes of cryogenic propellants. Orbital maneuvering vehicles will transfer the Earth-launched propellant tanks from the lower orbit to the depot orbit. The propellant stored in the depot can support transportation from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit, the Moon, LaGrange points, Mars, etc. The propellant tanks on the depot are modified versions of those used in the Delta IV-Heavy launch vehicle. The tanks are configured in an in-line gravity-gradient configuration to minimize drag and settle the propellant. Temperatures can be maintained by body-mounted radiators; these will also provide some shielding against orbital debris. Power is supplied by a pair of solar arrays mounted perpendicular to the orbital plane, which rotate once per orbit to track the Sun. The majority of the power will be used to run the electrolysis system. Technology needed for an orbiting propellant depot can be tested and demonstrated in the near-term on the ground, on a Shuttle-deployed free-flyer, and on the International Space Station. Further along, an orbital depot can be deployed that stores liquid hydrogen and oxygen launched from Earth, to be followed by a full conversion and storage depot.

  12. 5. Photocopy titled 'Map of Naval Ammunition Depot, Bremerton (Puget ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy titled 'Map of Naval Ammunition Depot, Bremerton (Puget Sound), Wash.' dated June 30, 1947. Buildings 103 and 104 are shaded and located left of center near top of map. HABS film is an 8x10' high-contrast negative made from original map in the collection of the Department of Public Works, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, WA. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Munitions Storage Bunker, Naval Ammunitions Depot, North of Campbell Trail, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  13. Ginkgo biloba Extract Improves Insulin Signaling and Attenuates Inflammation in Retroperitoneal Adipose Tissue Depot of Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Bruna Kelly Sousa; Banin, Renata Mancini; Dornellas, Ana Paula Segantine; de Andrade, Iracema Senna; Zemdegs, Juliane Costa Silva; Caperuto, Luciana Chagas; Oyama, Lila Missae; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Telles, Monica Marques

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high incidence and severity of obesity and its related disorders, it is highly desirable to develop new strategies to treat or even to prevent its development. We have previously described that Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) improved insulin resistance and reduced body weight gain of obese rats. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effect of GbE on both inflammatory cascade and insulin signaling in retroperitoneal fat depot of diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed with high fat diet for 2 months and thereafter treated for 14 days with 500 mg/kg of GbE. Rats were then euthanized and samples from retroperitoneal fat depot were used for western blotting, RT-PCR, and ELISA experiments. The GbE treatment promoted a significant reduction on both food/energy intake and body weight gain in comparison to the nontreated obese rats. In addition, a significant increase of both Adipo R1 and IL-10 gene expressions and IR and Akt phosphorylation was also observed, while NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and TNF-α levels were significantly reduced. Our data suggest that GbE might have potential as a therapy to treat obesity-related metabolic diseases, with special interest to treat obese subjects resistant to adhere to a nutritional education program. PMID:25960614

  14. Differential Development of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Different Adipose Tissue Depots Along Aging in Wistar Rats: Effects of Caloric Restriction.

    PubMed

    Sierra Rojas, Johanna X; García-San Frutos, Miriam; Horrillo, Daniel; Lauzurica, Nuria; Oliveros, Eva; Carrascosa, Jose María; Fernández-Agulló, Teresa; Ros, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes increases with aging and these disorders are associated with inflammation. Insulin resistance and inflammation do not develop at the same time in all tissues. Adipose tissue is one of the tissues where inflammation and insulin resistance are established earlier during aging. Nevertheless, the existence of different fat depots states the possibility of differential roles for these depots in the development of age-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. To explore this, we analyzed insulin signaling and inflammation in epididymal, perirenal, subcutaneous, and brown adipose tissues during aging in Wistar rats. Although all tissues showed signs of inflammation and insulin resistance with aging, epididymal fat was the first to develop signs of inflammation and insulin resistance along aging among white fat tissues. Subcutaneous adipose tissue presented the lowest degree of inflammation and insulin resistance that developed latter with age. Brown adipose tissue also presented latter insulin resistance and inflammation but with lower signs of macrophage infiltration. Caloric restriction ameliorated insulin resistance and inflammation in all tissues, being more effective in subcutaneous and brown adipose tissues. These data demonstrate differential susceptibility of the different adipose depots to the development of age-associated insulin resistance and inflammation.

  15. Effects of dietary fat and saturated fat content on liver fat and markers of oxidative stress in overweight/obese men and women under weight-stable conditions.

    PubMed

    Marina, Anna; von Frankenberg, Anize Delfino; Suvag, Seda; Callahan, Holly S; Kratz, Mario; Richards, Todd L; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2014-10-28

    Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate) or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10): 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate). Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNFα, IFN-γ) and oxidative stress (urinary F2-α isoprostanes) were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI): change -2.13% (-3.74%, -0.52%)), but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-α isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  16. The link between abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Liza K; Prins, Johannes B

    2008-04-01

    The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors associated with abdominal obesity is well established. Although currently lacking a universal definition, the metabolic syndrome describes a constellation of metabolic abnormalities, including abdominal obesity, and was originally introduced to characterize a population at high cardiovascular risk. Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that secretes several inflammatory and immune mediators known as adipokines. Dysregulation of adipokine secretion, free fatty acid toxicity, and the site-specific differences in abdominal (visceral) versus subcutaneous fat support abdominal obesity as a causal factor mediating the insulin resistance, increased risk of diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in the metabolic syndrome.

  17. Coconut fats.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  18. Fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Canteli, B; Saez, F; de los Ríos, A; Alvarez, C

    1996-04-01

    We report the MR appearance of a case of subcutaneous fat necrosis, which is a previously unreported etiology for knee mass. The role of MR imaging in differentiating fat necrosis from other causes of soft tissue masses is discussed. We conclude that MR characteristics of subcutaneous fat necrosis are typical and allow its differentiation from other types of soft tissue lesions.

  19. In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot Stepping Stone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Mankins, John C.; Fikes, John C.

    2005-01-01

    An In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot (ISCPD) is an important stepping stone to provide the capability to preposition, store, manufacture, and later use the propellants for Earth-Neighborhood campaigns and beyond. An in-space propellant depot will provide affordable propellants and other similar consumables to support the development of sustainable and affordable exploration strategies as well as commercial space activities. An in-space propellant depot not only requires technology development in key areas such as zero boil-off storage and fluid transfer, but in other areas such as lightweight structures, highly reliable connectors, and autonomous operations. These technologies can be applicable to a broad range of propellant depot concepts or specific to a certain design. In addition, these technologies are required for spacecraft and orbit transfer vehicle propulsion and power systems, and space life support. Generally, applications of this technology require long-term storage, on-orbit fluid transfer and supply, cryogenic propellant production from water, unique instrumentation and autonomous operations. This paper discusses the reasons why such advances are important to future affordable and sustainable operations in space. This paper also discusses briefly R&D objectives comprising a promising approach to the systems planning and evolution into a meaningful stepping stone design, development, and implementation of an In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot. The success of a well-planned and orchestrated approach holds great promise for achieving innovation and revolutionary technology development for supporting future exploration and development of space.

  20. Thermal Examination of an Orbiting Cryogenic Fuel Depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Patrick V.; Canfield, Steven L.; Carrington, Connie; Fikes, John

    2002-01-01

    For many years NASA has been interested in the storage and transfer of cryogenic fuels in space. Lunar, L2 and other chemical propulsive space vehicle missions now have staged refueling needs that a fuel depot would satisfy. The depot considered is located in lower earth orbit. Many considerations must go into designing and building such a station. Multi-layer insulation systems, thermal shielding and low conductive structural supports are the principal means of protecting the system from excessive heat loss due to boiloff. This study focuses on the thermal losses associated with storing LH2 in a passively cooled fuel depot in a lower earth equatorial orbit. The corresponding examination looks at several configurations of the fuel depot. An analytical model has been developed to determine the thermal advantages and disadvantages of three different fuel depot configurations. Each of the systems consists of three Boeing rocket bodies arranged in various configurations. The first two configurations are gravity gradient stabilized while the third one is a spin-stabilized concept. Each concept was chosen for self-righting capabilities as well as the fuel settling capabilities, however the purpose of this paper is to prove which of the three concepts is the most efficient passively cooled system. The specific areas to be discussed are the heating time from the fusion temperature to the vaporization temperature and the amount of boiloff for a specific number of orbits. Each of the previous points is compared using various sun exposed surface areas of the tanks.

  1. A Cryogenic Propellant Production Depot for Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth D.; Henley, Mark; Guitierrez, Sonia; Fikes, John; Carrington, Connie; Smitherman, David; Gerry, Mark; Sutherlin, Steve; Beason, Phil; Howell, Joe (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The cost of access to space beyond low Earth orbit can be lowered if vehicles can refuel in orbit. The power requirements for a propellant depot that electrolyzes water and stores cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen can be met using technology developed for space solar power. A propellant depot is described that will be deployed in a 400 km circular equatorial orbit, receive tanks of water launched into a lower orbit from Earth by gun launch or reusable launch vehicle, convert the water to liquid hydrogen and oxygen, and store Lip to 500 metric tonnes of cryogenic propellants. The propellant stored in the depot can support transportation from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit, the Moon, LaGrange points, Mars, etc. The tanks are configured in an inline gravity-gradient configuration to minimize drag and settle the propellant. Temperatures can be maintained by body-mounted radiators; these will also provide some shielding against orbital debris. Power is supplied by a pair of solar arrays mounted perpendicular to the orbital plane, which rotate once per orbit to track the Sun. In the longer term, cryogenic propellant production technology can be applied to a larger LEO depot, as well as to the use of lunar water resources at a similar depot elsewhere.

  2. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental impacts of continuing to store M55 rockets at Lexington-Blue Grass Depot Activity, Anniston Army Depot, Umatilla Depot Activity, Pine Bluff Arsenal, and Tooele Army Depot

    SciTech Connect

    Boyette, J.A.; Breck, J.E.; Coleman, P.R.; Griffin, G.D.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, P.E.; Kornegay, F.C.; Ogles, M.R.; Schweitzer, M.; Sigal, L.L.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose is to provide an assessment of the potential health and environmental impacts of continuing to store M55 rockets filled with nerve agent GB or VX at their current storage locations at Anniston Army Depot in Alabama, Lexington-Blue Grass Depot Activity in Kentucky, Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas, Tooele Army Depot in Utah, and Umatilla Depot Activity in Oregon. The assessment considers the possible impacts of (1) normal storage (with no release to the environment) and (2) two postulated accidents on the air quality, ground and surface water, aquatic ecology, terrestrial ecology, human health, and cultural and socioeconomic resources in and around the various storage depots. The analysis considers three basic scenarios during storage: (1) normal operations; (2) a minor spill of agent (the contents of one rocket released to the biosphere); and (3) a maximum credible event or MCE. The MCE is an igloo fire resulting in the aerosolization of a small (in the case of GB) or an extremely small (in the case of VX) percentage of the igloo's nerve agent contents to the biosphere. The extremely low probabilities of such accidents, which are reported elsewhere, are noted. Our assessments of the impacts of a minor spill and of an MCE consider two sets of meteorological conditions: conservative most likely and worst-case. In addition, we assume that an agent plume would travel toward the area of highest population density. 21 figs., 47 tabs.

  3. Architecture Study for a Fuel Depot Supplied from Lunar Assets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrin, Thomas M.; Casler, James G.

    2016-01-01

    This architecture study sought to determine the optimum architecture for a fuel depot supplied from lunar assets. Four factors - the location of propellant processing (on the Moon or on the depot), the depot location (on the Moon, L1, GEO, or LEO), the propellant transfer location (L1, GEO, or LEO), and the propellant transfer method (bulk fuel or canister exchange) were combined to identify 18 candidate architectures. Two design reference missions (DRMs) - a commercial satellite servicing mission and a Government cargo mission to Mars - created demand for propellants, while a propellant delivery DRM examined supply issues. The study concluded Earth-Moon L1 is the best location for an orbiting depot. For all architectures, propellant boiloff was less than anticipated, and was far overshadowed by delta-v requirements and resulting fuel consumption. Bulk transfer is the most flexible for both the supplier and customer. However, since canister exchange bypasses the transfer of bulk cryogens and necessary chilldown losses, canister exchange shows promise and merits further investigation. Overall, this work indicates propellant consumption and loss is an essential factor in assessing fuel depot architectures.

  4. EPA and Home Depot Offer Tips to Conserve Water, Save Money

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (PHILADELPHIA - March 16, 2015) Officials from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and The Home Depot kicked off Fix a Leak Week today at The Home Depot store in South Philadelphia by demonstrating several simple, inexpensive improvement

  5. Insulin sensitivity and regional fat gain in response to overfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, S. B.; Jensen, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Although insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes are associated with upper body fat distribution, it is unknown whether insulin resistance predisposes to upper body fat gain or whether upper body fat gain causes insulin resistance. Our objective was to determine whether insulin sensitivity predicts abdominal (subcutaneous and/or visceral) fat gain in normal weight adults. Twenty-eight (15 men) lean (BMI = 22.1±2.5 kg/m2), healthy adults underwent ~8 weeks of overfeeding to gain ~4 kg fat. Body composition was assessed before and after overfeeding using DXA and abdominal CT to measure total and regional (visceral, abdominal, and lower body subcutaneous) fat gain. We assessed insulin sensitivity with an IV glucose tolerance test and the 24h insulin area-under-the-curve(AUC). We found a wide range of insulin sensitivity and a relatively narrow range of body fat distribution in this normal weight cohort. Participants gained 3.8±1.7 kg of body fat (4.6±2.2 kg body weight). The baseline 24h AUC of insulin concentration was positively correlated with percent body fat (r=0.43, p<0.05). The contribution of leg fat gain to total fat gain ranged from 29–79%, while the contributions of abdominal subcutaneous fat and visceral fat gain to total fat gain ranged from 17–69% and −5–22%, respectively. Baseline insulin sensitivity, whether measured by an IVGTT or the 24h AUC insulin Si, did not predict upper body subcutaneous or visceral fat gain in response to overfeeding. We conclude that reduced insulin sensitivity is not an obligate precursor to upper body fat gain. PMID:21127472

  6. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis or plaque buildup causes the ... weak and bulge outward like a balloon. An AAA develops slowly over time and has few noticeable ...

  7. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000162.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ...

  8. DEPOT: A Database of Environmental Parameters, Organizations and Tools

    SciTech Connect

    CARSON,SUSAN D.; HUNTER,REGINA LEE; MALCZYNSKI,LEONARD A.; POHL,PHILLIP I.; QUINTANA,ENRICO; SOUZA,CAROLINE A.; HIGLEY,KATHRYN; MURPHIE,WILLIAM

    2000-12-19

    The Database of Environmental Parameters, Organizations, and Tools (DEPOT) has been developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) as a central warehouse for access to data essential for environmental risk assessment analyses. Initial efforts have concentrated on groundwater and vadose zone transport data and bioaccumulation factors. DEPOT seeks to provide a source of referenced data that, wherever possible, includes the level of uncertainty associated with these parameters. Based on the amount of data available for a particular parameter, uncertainty is expressed as a standard deviation or a distribution function. DEPOT also provides DOE site-specific performance assessment data, pathway-specific transport data, and links to environmental regulations, disposal site waste acceptance criteria, other environmental parameter databases, and environmental risk assessment models.

  9. Guidelines for establishing a donor human milk depot.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Sheela R; List, Betsy A; Morrow, Georgia B

    2010-02-01

    Human milk is the preferred choice for infant feeding. When a sick or premature infant's own mother's milk is unavailable, donor human milk is becoming more widely used. Many potential milk donors do not live within close proximity to the 10 North American not-for-profit milk banks. Transporting milk via commercial carriers can be inconvenient and costly for recipient banks. A network of donor human milk depots is one practical way to increase the quantity of available donor human milk. This article provides guidelines and practical suggestions for establishing a donor human milk depot.

  10. NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot (NSLD) - The application of ATE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpkins, Lorenz G.; Jenkins, Henry C.; Mauceri, A. Jack

    1990-01-01

    The concept of the NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot (NSLD) developed for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Program is described. The function of the NSLD at Cape Canaveral is to perform the acceptance and diagnostic testing of the Shuttle's space-rated line-replaceable units and shop-replaceable units (SRUs). The NSLD includes a comprehensive electronic automatic test station, program development stations, and assorted manufacturing support equipment (including thermal and vibration test equipment, special test equipment, and a card SRU test system). The depot activities also include the establishment of the functions for manufacturing of mechanical parts, soldering, welding, painting, clean room operation, procurement, and subcontract management.

  11. Several statins increase body and liver fat accumulation in a model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, L; Hijona, E; Macarulla, M T; Gracia, A; Larrechi, I; Bujanda, L; Hijona, L; Portillo, M P

    2013-06-01

    Statins are a family of drugs used in hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of statins on body and liver fat accumulation in obese Zucker rats. Seventy Zucker (fa/fa) rats were divided into seven groups. Rats from six statin groups were treated with pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, fluvastatin and lovastatin respectively, at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg body weight/day. After 6 weeks, liver and white adipose tissue from intra-abdominal and subcutaneous locations were dissected and weighed. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from rosuvastatin, atorvastatin, fluvastatin and lovastatin treated rats was significantly increased. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity was increased by the administration of fluvastatin and lovastatin, as was glucose-6-P dehydrogenase (G6PDH) by the administration of atorvastatin and lovastatin. No changes were observed in malic enzyme (ME) activity. Furthermore, heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase (HR-LPL) was increased in all groups where the subcutaneous depot was increased, and total LPL increased only in rosuvastatin and fluvastatin-treated groups. With regard to liver, there were no changes in weight but the amount of triacylglycerols was increased in rosuvastatin group, as well as its liver damage was higher. In this group FAS and G6PDH activities were increased and no changes were observed in ME, acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a (CPT-1a) activities. All statins, with the exception of simvastatin, worsen insulin resistance. These results show that statins have different effects on body fat accumulation. Moreover, rosuvastatin also shows a prosteatotic effect. These results should be taken into account for statin choice in prescription.

  12. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  13. Technology requirements for an orbiting fuel depot: A necessary element of a space infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, R. M.; Corban, R. R.; Willoughby, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced planning within NASA has identified several bold space exploration initiatives. The successful implementation of these missions will require a supporting space infrastructure which would include a fuel depot, an orbiting facility to store, transfer and process large quantities of cryogenic fluids. In order to adequately plan the technology development programs required to enable the construction and operation of a fuel depot, a multidisciplinary workshop was convened to assess critical technologies and their state of maturity. Since technology requirements depend strongly on the depot design assumptions, several depot concepts are presented with their effect on criticality ratings. Over 70 depot-related technology areas are addressed.

  14. Technology requirements for an orbiting fuel depot - A necessary element of a space infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, R. M.; Corban, R. R.; Willoughby, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced planning within NASA has identified several bold space exploration initiatives. The successful implementation of these missions will require a supporting space infrastructure which would include a fuel depot, an orbiting facility to store, transfer and process large quantities of cryogenic fluids. In order to adequately plan the technology development programs required to enable the construction and operation of a fuel depot, a multidisciplinary workshop was convened to assess critical technologies and their state of maturity. Since technology requirements depend strongly on the depot design assumptions, several depot concepts are presented with their effect of criticality ratings. Over 70 depot-related technology areas are addressed.

  15. Computer-aided acquisition and logistics support (CALS): Concept of Operations for Depot Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, N.C.; Greer, D.K.

    1993-04-01

    This CALS Concept of Operations for Depot Maintenance provides the foundation strategy and the near term tactical plan for CALS implementation in the depot maintenance environment. The user requirements enumerated and the overarching architecture outlined serve as the primary framework for implementation planning. The seamless integration of depot maintenance business processes and supporting information systems with the emerging global CALS environment will be critical to the efficient realization of depot user's information requirements, and as, such will be a fundamental theme in depot implementations.

  16. Orbiting Depot and Reusable Lander for Lunar Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A document describes a conceptual transportation system that would support exploratory visits by humans to locations dispersed across the surface of the Moon and provide transport of humans and cargo to sustain one or more permanent Lunar outpost. The system architecture reflects requirements to (1) minimize the amount of vehicle hardware that must be expended while maintaining high performance margins and (2) take advantage of emerging capabilities to produce propellants on the Moon while also enabling efficient operation using propellants transported from Earth. The system would include reusable single- stage lander spacecraft and a depot in a low orbit around the Moon. Each lander would have descent, landing, and ascent capabilities. A crew-taxi version of the lander would carry a pressurized crew module; a cargo version could carry a variety of cargo containers. The depot would serve as a facility for storage and for refueling with propellants delivered from Earth or propellants produced on the Moon. The depot could receive propellants and cargo sent from Earth on a variety of spacecraft. The depot could provide power and orbit maintenance for crew vehicles from Earth and could serve as a safe haven for lunar crews pending transport back to Earth.

  17. Red River Depot Operations Center Design Simulation Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    prcepallets) (pilfts) (second) in i (21) 99.8% 1.4 25.2 itdal Acaumulating Cnvyr (17) 1.2 palets 0.0 0.0 P&P/Stow Accumulating... dispensed early in the pickers’ 8-hour shift. Similarly, most material from outside the DOC arrives early in each work day. 48 Defense Depot Red River

  18. Radiological Scoping Survey of the Scotia Depot Scotia, New York

    SciTech Connect

    E. N. Bailey

    2005-02-05

    At the request of the Defense Logistics Agency, the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education conducted radiological scoping surveys of the Scotia Depot during the period of September 24 through 27, 2007. The scoping survey included visual inspections and limited radiological surveys performed in accordance with area classification that included surface scans, total and removable activity measurements, and soil sampling.

  19. Training Needs Analysis for Bus Depot Managers at GSRTC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Hardik; Gopal, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With rapid industrialization and population growth in the urban and rural areas in India, the demand for public transport has risen sharply. In the fast changing scenario in the public transit sector, the role of a bus depot manager (DM) has also undergone substantial transformation. This paper aims to identify and gauge the…

  20. Simple, Robust Cryogenic Propellant Depot for Near Term Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, Christopher; Pitchford, Brian; Mustafi, Shuvo; Wollen, Mark; Walls, Laurie; Schmidt, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The ability to refuel cryogenic propulsion stages on-orbit provides an innovative paradigm shift for space transportation supporting National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Exploration program as well as deep space robotic, national security and commercial missions. Refueling enables large beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions without requiring super heavy lift vehicles that must continuously grow to support increasing mission demands as America s exploration transitions from early Lagrange point missions to near Earth objects (NEO), the lunar surface and eventually Mars. Earth-to-orbit launch can be optimized to provide competitive, cost-effective solutions that allow sustained exploration. This paper describes an experimental platform developed to demonstrate the major technologies required for fuel depot technology. This test bed is capable of transferring residual liquid hydrogen (LH2) or liquid oxygen (LO2) from a Centaur upper stage, and storage in a secondary tank for up to one year on-orbit. A dedicated, flight heritage spacecraft bus is attached to an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) ring supporting experiments and data collection. This platform can be deployed as early as Q1 2013. The propellant depot design described in this paper can be deployed affordably this decade supporting missions to Earth-Moon Lagrange points and lunar fly by. The same depot concept can be scaled up to support more demanding missions and launch capabilities. The enabling depot design features, technologies and concept of operations are described.

  1. Development of a Lunar Consumables Storage and Distribution Depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Notardonato, William

    2004-01-01

    NASA is in the preliminary planning stages for a future lunar base as a response to President George W. Bush's recent announcement of a new sustained exploration program beyond low earth orbit. Kennedy Space Center engineers are supporting this program by utilizing experience in Spaceport system design and operations to help develop a Lunar Consumables Depot. This depot will store propellants, life support fluids, and other consumables either transported from Earth or manufactured from In Situ resources. The depot will distribute these consumables in an energy efficient manner to end users including spacecraft, habitation modules, and rovers. This paper addresses some of the changes to lunar base architecture design as a result of advances in knowledge of lunar resources over the past 35 years, as well as technology advances in the area of In Situ Resource Utilization and consumable storage and distribution. A general system level description of the depot will be presented, including overall design philosophy and high level requirements. Finally, specific subsystem technologies that have been or will be developed by KSC will be addressed. Examples of these technologies are automated umbilicals, cryogenic refrigerators, novel storage vessels, advanced heat switches and heat exchangers, and self healing gaskets and wires.

  2. How to get fat: nutritional mechanisms of seasonal fat accumulation in migratory songbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairlein, Franz

    2002-01-01

    Many migratory birds accumulate large amounts of lipids as the prime energy source for their long-distance flights. This fat accumulation is mostly under endogenous control, reflecting genetically programmed temporal shifts of the body mass set point. It is accompanied by an increase in daily food intake and food utilisation efficiency and by a seasonal shift in food selection. In particular, seasonal frugivory appears to play a key role in many migrants. Fruits have a high content of fatty acids indispensable for building up the specific depot lipids. In addition, plant secondary compounds seem to play some kind of supportive role, but the mechanisms are not yet known. The effect of being fat on the metabolic situation in migrant birds appears to be similar to the metabolic syndrome in obese humans. The fat migratory bird provides a model through which to study nutritional factors as well as the biochemical and endocrine regulation of food intake, body mass and obesity.

  3. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid; PUFA; Cholesterol - polyunsaturated fat; Atherosclerosis - polyunsaturated fat; Hardening of the arteries - polyunsaturated fat; Hyperlipidemia - polyunsaturated fat; Hypercholesterolemia - polyunsaturated ...

  4. Dietary Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... PHOs to food. Try to replace them with oils such as canola, olive, safflower, sesame, or sunflower. Of course, eating too much fat will put on the pounds. Fat has twice as many calories as proteins or carbohydrates. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  5. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental impacts of transporting M55 rockets from Lexington-Blue Grass Depot activity, Anniston Army depot, and Umatilla depot activity to alternative disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.; Breck, J.E.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Coleman, P.R.; Griffin, G.D.; Hillsman, E.L.; Holcomb, M.C.; Johnson, P.E.; Kornegay, F.C.; Peterson, B.E.

    1986-03-01

    This assessment discusses the potential health and environmental impacts of transporting M55 rockets filled with nerve agent GB or VX from various existing Army storage depots to alternative Army depots for disposal. The origin depots include Anniston Army Depot in Alabama, Lexington-Blue Grass Depot Activity in Kentucky, and Umatilla Depot Activity in Oregon. The destination depots include Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas, Tooele Army Depot in Utah, and the facility on Johnston Island in the central Pacific Ocean. This assessment considers the possible impacts of normal transport operations and of two postulated accident scenarios on the air quality, ground and surface water, aquatic ecology, terrestrial ecology, human health, and cultural and socioeconomic resources of the various transport corridors involved. The impacts of these scenarios are assessed for truck, train, and air transport for each orgin-destination pair. The analysis considers three basic scenario during transport: (1) normal operations with no atmospheric release of nerve agent; (2) a minor agent spill (the contents of one rocket being released to the biosphere); and (3) a worst-case accident involving the release of a large, specified quantity of nerve agent to the biosphere. The extremely low probabilities of such accidents, which are reported elsewhere, are noted.

  6. Effects of Cryolipolysis on Abdominal Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rodrigo Marcel Valentim; Oliveira, Glenda; Tavares, Maely Azevedo da Silva; Medeiros, Melyssa Lima; Andrada, Camila Procopio; Neto, Luis Gonzaga de Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Cryolipolysis is a noninvasive technique of localized fat reduction. Controlled cold exposure is performed in the selective destruction of fat cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cryolipolysis on adipocytes elimination through histological and sonographic analyses. This study reports the case of a 46-year-old female patient, with complaint of localized abdominal fat and in the preoperative period of abdominoplasty. The patient was submitted to a single 60-minute application of cryolipolysis, temperature of −5°C, on the hypogastrium area, 5 cm below the umbilicus. To study the effects of this treatment, ultrasound images taken before the session and 7, 15, 30, and 45 days after the therapy were analysed. After the abdominoplasty, parts of the treated and the untreated withdrawn abdominal tissues were evaluated macro- and microscopically. In ultrasound images, as well as in macroscopic and histological analyses, significant adipocytes destruction was detected, with consequent fat layer reduction and integrity of areas that were adjacent to the treated tissue. The presence of fibrosis observed during therapy and acknowledged through performed analyses encourages further studies to clarify such finding. PMID:27895944

  7. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy.

  8. Abdominal visceral adiposity influences CD4+ T cell cytokine production in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ozias, Marlies K; Li, Shengqi; Hull, Holly R; Brooks, William M; Petroff, Margaret G; Carlson, Susan E

    2015-02-01

    Women with pre-gravid obesity are at risk for pregnancy complications. While the macrophage response of obese pregnant women categorized by body mass index (BMI) has been documented, the relationship between the peripheral CD4(+) T cell cytokine profile and body fat compartments during pregnancy is unknown. In this study, third trimester peripheral CD4(+) T cell cytokine profiles were measured in healthy pregnant women [n=35; pre-pregnancy BMI: 18.5-40]. CD4(+) T cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated to examine their capacity to generate cytokines. Between 1 and 3weeks postpartum, total body fat was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat masses were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Pearson's correlation was performed to assess relationships between cytokines and fat mass. Results showed that greater abdominal visceral fat mass was associated with a decrease in stimulated CD4(+) T cell cytokine expression. IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-12p70, IL-10 and IL-17A were inversely related to visceral fat mass. Chemokines CCL3 and IL-8 and growth factors G-CSF and FLT-3L were also inversely correlated. Additionally, total body fat mass was inversely correlated with FGF-2 while abdominal subcutaneous fat mass and BMI were unrelated to any CD4(+) T cell cytokine. In conclusion, lower responsiveness of CD4(+) T cell cytokines associated with abdominal visceral fat mass is a novel finding late in gestation.

  9. [Treatment of bradycardiac arrhythmias with depot-orciprenaline (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    So, C S; Volger, E

    1976-07-02

    24 patients with bradycardiac arrhythmias of various origin were treated with a new depot preparation of orciprenaline. The special galenical preparation guarantees effectiveness ofr 8-10 hours. In 21 patients (87%), therefore, one dragee morning and evening was sufficient to obtain a mean rise in frequency of 57%. The preparation had to be discontinued in 3 cases because of side effects such as increase in ventricular extrasystoles, anginal complaints and critical rise of blood pressure in hypertension. Because of its trouble-free administration in a depot form the preparation not only offers a practical advantage over the short-acting commercial preparations, but also shows a reliable efficacy. It can therefore be given under regular supervision in all forms of bradycardiac arrhythmias with stable ventricular frequency and satisfactory cardiac output.

  10. Master Environmental Plan: Fort Wingate Depot Activity, Gallup, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Biang, C.A.; Yuen, C.R.; Biang, R.P.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    The master environmental plan is based on an environmental assessment of the areas requiring environmental evaluation (AREEs) at Fort Wingate Depot Activity near Gallup, New Mexico. The Fort Wingate Depot Activity is slated for closure under the Base Closure and Realignment Act, Public Law 100--526. The MEP assesses the current status, describes additional data requirements, recommends actions for the sites, and establishes a priority order for actions. The plan was developed so that actions comply with hazardous waste and water quality regulations of the State of New Mexico and applicable federal regulations. It contains a brief history of the site, relevant geological and hydrological information, and a description of the current status for each AREE along with a discussion of the available site-specific data that pertain to existing or potential contamination and the impact on the environment. 35 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs.

  11. The Home Depot Upgrades its Corporate Building Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-03-01

    The Home Depot partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build new, low-energy buildings that are at least 50% below Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  12. Life-cycle analysis of depot versus rehabilitation manual wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A; Robertson, R N; Lawrence, B; Heil, T; Albright, S J; VanSickle, D P; Gonzalez, J

    1996-02-01

    The proper selection of a wheelchair requires making several critical decisions, not the least of which is what type of wheelchair is appropriate. The International Organization for Standards (ISO) continues to develop and refine wheelchair standards. Standards allow the objective comparison of products from various sources, permitting consumers or clinicians to assess wheelchairs with which they are not familiar by comparing test results. This study consisted of three components: 1) the comparison of fatigue test results with a planar ANSI/RESNA test dummy to a HERL contoured test dummy; 2) the comparison of fatigue test results for common depot versus common rehabilitation manual wheelchairs; and 3) the comparison of fatigue test results for manual rehabilitation wheelchairs with solid 8-inch casters versus those with pneumatic 8-inch casters. Rehabilitation wheelchairs lasted on average 13.2 times longer than the depot wheelchairs. Both types, tested with the standard ISO-ANSI/RESNA dummy, lasted on average 2.1 times longer than those wheelchairs tested using the contoured dummy. The three rehabilitation wheelchairs equipped with 8-inch pneumatic casters lasted on average 3.2 times longer than the 6 rehabilitation wheelchairs equipped with solid 8-inch casters. The depot wheelchairs cost about 3.4 times as much to operate per cycle or per meter than the rehabilitation wheelchairs. The rehabilitation wheelchairs tended to experience component failures, while the depot wheelchairs tended to experience frame failures. Our testing indicates that the tests in the ISO-ANSI/RESNA standards can relate design features to fatigue test results and durability. Rehabilitation wheelchairs tend to use higher quality materials and better manufacturing practices, and they provide greater mobility for wheelchair users. Purchasers and prescribers of wheelchairs should consider the life-cycle cost and not just the purchase price for wheelchairs.

  13. Genetic Marker Discovery in Complex Traits: A Field Example on Fat Content and Composition in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Pena, Ramona Natacha; Ros-Freixedes, Roger; Tor, Marc; Estany, Joan

    2016-12-14

    Among the large number of attributes that define pork quality, fat content and composition have attracted the attention of breeders in the recent years due to their interaction with human health and technological and sensorial properties of meat. In livestock species, fat accumulates in different depots following a temporal pattern that is also recognized in humans. Intramuscular fat deposition rate and fatty acid composition change with life. Despite indication that it might be possible to select for intramuscular fat without affecting other fat depots, to date only one depot-specific genetic marker (PCK1 c.2456C>A) has been reported. In contrast, identification of polymorphisms related to fat composition has been more successful. For instance, our group has described a variant in the stearoyl-coA desaturase (SCD) gene that improves the desaturation index of fat without affecting overall fatness or growth. Identification of mutations in candidate genes can be a tedious and costly process. Genome-wide association studies can help in narrowing down the number of candidate genes by highlighting those which contribute most to the genetic variation of the trait. Results from our group and others indicate that fat content and composition are highly polygenic and that very few genes explain more than 5% of the variance of the trait. Moreover, as the complexity of the genome emerges, the role of non-coding genes and regulatory elements cannot be disregarded. Prediction of breeding values from genomic data is discussed in comparison with conventional best linear predictors of breeding values. An example based on real data is given, and the implications in phenotype prediction are discussed in detail. The benefits and limitations of using large SNP sets versus a few very informative markers as predictors of genetic merit of breeding candidates are evaluated using field data as an example.

  14. Genetic Marker Discovery in Complex Traits: A Field Example on Fat Content and Composition in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Pena, Ramona Natacha; Ros-Freixedes, Roger; Tor, Marc; Estany, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Among the large number of attributes that define pork quality, fat content and composition have attracted the attention of breeders in the recent years due to their interaction with human health and technological and sensorial properties of meat. In livestock species, fat accumulates in different depots following a temporal pattern that is also recognized in humans. Intramuscular fat deposition rate and fatty acid composition change with life. Despite indication that it might be possible to select for intramuscular fat without affecting other fat depots, to date only one depot-specific genetic marker (PCK1 c.2456C>A) has been reported. In contrast, identification of polymorphisms related to fat composition has been more successful. For instance, our group has described a variant in the stearoyl-coA desaturase (SCD) gene that improves the desaturation index of fat without affecting overall fatness or growth. Identification of mutations in candidate genes can be a tedious and costly process. Genome-wide association studies can help in narrowing down the number of candidate genes by highlighting those which contribute most to the genetic variation of the trait. Results from our group and others indicate that fat content and composition are highly polygenic and that very few genes explain more than 5% of the variance of the trait. Moreover, as the complexity of the genome emerges, the role of non-coding genes and regulatory elements cannot be disregarded. Prediction of breeding values from genomic data is discussed in comparison with conventional best linear predictors of breeding values. An example based on real data is given, and the implications in phenotype prediction are discussed in detail. The benefits and limitations of using large SNP sets versus a few very informative markers as predictors of genetic merit of breeding candidates are evaluated using field data as an example. PMID:27983643

  15. Fundamental understanding of drug absorption from a parenteral oil depot.

    PubMed

    Kalicharan, Raween W; Schot, Peter; Vromans, Herman

    2016-02-15

    Oil depots are parenteral drug formulations meant for sustained release of lipophilic compounds. Until now, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of drug absorption from oil depots is lacking. The aim of this paper was to fill this gap. A clinical study with healthy volunteers was conducted. An oil depot with nandrolone decanoate and benzyl alcohol was subcutaneously administered in the upper arm of female volunteers. Pharmacokinetic profiles of both substances were related to each other and to literature data. Benzyl alcohol absorbs much more rapidly than nandrolone. In detail, it appears that benzyl alcohol enters the central compartment directly, while nandrolone decanoate is recovered in serum after a lag time. This lag time is also seen in literature data, although not reported explicitly. The absorption of nandrolone is enhanced by the presence of benzyl alcohol. This is most likely an effect of altered oil viscosity and partition coefficient between the oil and aqueous phase. The absorption rate constant of compounds is found to be related to the logP of the solubilized prodrug. The absorption rate is however not only determined by the physico-chemical properties of the formulation but also by the tissue properties. Here, it is argued that lymphatic flow must be considered as a relevant parameter.

  16. Developing a safe on-orbit cryogenic depot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Nicholas J.

    1992-09-01

    New U.S. space initiatives will require technology to realize planned programs such as piloted lunar and Mars missions. Key to the optimal execution of such missions are high performance orbit transfer vehicles and propellant storage facilities. Large amounts of liquid hydrogen and oxygen demand a uniquely designed on-orbit cryogenic propellant depot. Because of the inherent dangers in propellant storage and handling, a comprehensive system safety program must be established. This paper shows how the myriad and complex hazards demonstrate the need for an integrated safety effort to be applied from program conception through operational use. Even though the cryogenic depot is still in the conceptual stage, many of the hazards have been identified, including fatigue due to heavy thermal loading from environmental and operating temperature extremes, micrometeoroid and/or depot ancillary equipment impact (this is an important problem due to the large surface area needed to house the large quantities of propellant), docking and maintenance hazards, and hazards associated with extended extravehicular activity. Various safety analysis techniques were presented for each program phase. Specific system safety implementation steps were also listed. Enhanced risk assessment was demonstrated through the incorporation of these methods.

  17. Developing a safe on-orbit cryogenic depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, Nicholas J.

    1992-01-01

    New U.S. space initiatives will require technology to realize planned programs such as piloted lunar and Mars missions. Key to the optimal execution of such missions are high performance orbit transfer vehicles and propellant storage facilities. Large amounts of liquid hydrogen and oxygen demand a uniquely designed on-orbit cryogenic propellant depot. Because of the inherent dangers in propellant storage and handling, a comprehensive system safety program must be established. This paper shows how the myriad and complex hazards demonstrate the need for an integrated safety effort to be applied from program conception through operational use. Even though the cryogenic depot is still in the conceptual stage, many of the hazards have been identified, including fatigue due to heavy thermal loading from environmental and operating temperature extremes, micrometeoroid and/or depot ancillary equipment impact (this is an important problem due to the large surface area needed to house the large quantities of propellant), docking and maintenance hazards, and hazards associated with extended extravehicular activity. Various safety analysis techniques were presented for each program phase. Specific system safety implementation steps were also listed. Enhanced risk assessment was demonstrated through the incorporation of these methods.

  18. Fat discrimination: a phenotype with potential implications for studying fat intake behaviors and obesity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lisa C H; Sakimura, Johannah; May, Daniel; Breen, Cameron; Driggin, Elissa; Tepper, Beverly J; Chung, Wendy K; Keller, Kathleen L

    2012-01-18

    Variations in fat preference and intake across humans are poorly understood in part because of difficulties in studying this behavior. The objective of this study was to develop a simple procedure to assess fat discrimination, the ability to accurately perceive differences in the fat content of foods, and assess the associations between this phenotype and fat ingestive behaviors and adiposity. African-American adults (n=317) were tested for fat discrimination using 7 forced choice same/different tests with Italian salad dressings that ranged in fat-by-weight content from 5 to 55%. Performance on this procedure was determined by tallying the number of trials in which a participant correctly identified the pair of samples as "same" or "different" across all test pairs (ranging from 1 to 7). Individuals who received the lowest scores on this task (≤3 out of 7 correct) were classified as fat non-discriminators (n=33) and those who received the highest scores (7 out of 7 correct) were classified as fat discriminators (n=59). These 2 groups were compared for the primary outcome variables: reported food intake, preferences, and adiposity. After adjusting for BMI, sex, age, and dietary restraint and disinhibition, fat non-discriminators reported greater consumption of both added fats and reduced fat foods (p<0.05 for both). Fat non-discriminators also had greater abdominal adiposity compared to fat discriminators (p<0.05). Test-retest scores performed in a subset of participants (n=40) showed moderate reliability of the fat discrimination test (rho=0.53; p<0.01). If these results are replicated, fat discrimination may serve as clinical research tool to identify participants who are at risk for obesity and other chronic diseases due to increased fat intake.

  19. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T

    2000-01-01

    The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  20. Fatty acid profiles and relative mobilization during fasting in adipose tissue depots of the American marten (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Collinsb, Danielle; Grant, Judy; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2006-03-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) is a boreal forest marten with low body adiposity but high metabolic rate. The study describes the FA composition in white adipose tissue depots of the species and the influence of food deprivation on them. American marten (n = 8) were fasted for 2 d with 7 control animals. Fasting resulted in a 13.4% weight loss, while the relative fat mass was >25% lower in the fasted animals. The FA composition of the fat depots of the trunk was quite similar to other previously studied mustelids with 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, and 18:2n-6 as the most abundant FA. In the extremities, there were higher proportions of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and PUFA. Food deprivation decreased the proportions of 16:0 and 16:1 n-7, while the proportion of long-chain MUFA increased in the trunk. The mobilization of FA was selective, as 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, and particular n-3 PUFA were preferentially mobilized. Relative mobilization correlated negatively with the carbon chain length in saturated FA (SFA) and n-9 MUFA. The delta9-desaturation of SFA enhanced the mobilization of the corresponding MUFA, but the positional isomerism of the first double bond did not correlate consistently with relative mobilization in MUFA or PUFA. In the marten, the FA composition of the extremities was highly resistant to fasting, and the tail tip and the paws contained more long-chain PUFA to prevent the solidification of lipids and to maintain cell membrane fluidity during cooling.

  1. Cost analysis of paint-waste-incineration technology at U. S. Army depots. Final report, Nov 88-Oct 91

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.D.; McKibben, R.S.

    1991-10-01

    The U.S. Army Depot System Command (DESCOM) has 16 maintenance depots located throughout the U.S. Several army depots generate paint wastes that must be disposed of. These depots are located in different parts of the country, and a comprehensive strategy is required to manage the disposal of the paint wastes generated at the individual depots. Incineration is a candidate technology for disposal of such wastes. This report presents an economic analysis of developing an incineration strategy. The economic analysis of paint waste incineration was limited to six major maintenance depots: Anniston, Corpus Christi, Letterkenny, Red River, Tobyhanna, and Tooele. These particular depots are included in the analysis because they are responsible for the majority of all paint wastes generated annually be DESCOM. Three scenarios were evaluated: (1) locating an incinerator at each depot, (2) locating an incinerator at a single site and transporting waste from other depots to this location, and (3) using multiple units at two or more depots. The analysis considers the locations of the army depots, the types and quantities of the wastes they generate, and transportation of the wastes. It also assumes that the individual army depots are equally equipped for proper management of the paint waste by the incineration technology and that the waste can be transferred between the depots without any restrictions. It is further assumed that only incinerable paint wastes will be treated.

  2. Enhancement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in estuarine invertebrates by surface runoff at a decommissioned military fuel depot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Roster, N.

    1999-01-01

    Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined in blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) and shore crabs (Hemigrapsus sp.) at a recently closed military fuel depot in central San Francisco Bay, California. In April 1996, during a period of above average precipitation, specimens were collected at the depot, near the depot, and at sites 10 and 20 km south of the depot. Four weeks after the rains ended, blue mussels were again collected at the depot, and at two additional sites in the central Bay region. In April, total PAHs in mussels from the depot were significantly higher only than that in mussels collected 20 km from the depot; however, seven specific, substituted PAHs were higher at the depot than at all other sites. In June, only two of the 38 PAHs common in mussels in April were detected at the depot; these concentrations were comparable to ambient concentrations in mussels at the Bay. It seemed that bioavailability of PAHs at the depot was enhanced by rainfall, probably due to the mobilization of PAHs via groundwater into the Bay. Concentrations in mussels from chronically contaminated sites were about five times higher than mussels collected from the depot. Low PAH concentrations were detected in shore crabs near the depot, and the highest levels were not associated with the depot. Observed PAH concentrations are discussed in relation to upper trophic organisms.

  3. Depot-specific effects of the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone on adipose tissue glucose uptake and metabolisms⃞

    PubMed Central

    Festuccia, William T.; Blanchard, Pierre-Gilles; Turcotte, Véronique; Laplante, Mathieu; Sariahmetoglu, Meltem; Brindley, David N.; Deshaies, Yves

    2009-01-01

    We investigated mechanisms whereby peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonism redistributes lipid from visceral (VF) toward subcutaneous fat (SF) by studying the impact of PPARγ activation on VF and SF glucose uptake and metabolism, lipogenesis, and enzymes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis. VF (retroperitoneal) and SF (inguinal) of rats treated or not for 7 days with rosiglitazone (15 mg/kg/day) were evaluated in vivo for glucose uptake and lipogenesis and in vitro for glucose metabolism, gene expression, and activities of glycerolphosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), phosphatidate phosphatase-1 (or lipin-1), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase. Rosiglitazone increased SF glucose uptake, GLUT4 mRNA, and insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation, conversion to lactate, glycogen, and the glycerol and fatty acid components of TAG. In VF, only glucose incorporation into TAG-glycerol was stimulated by rosiglitazone and less so than in SF (1.5- vs. 3-fold). mRNA levels of proteins involved in glycolysis, Krebs cycle, glycogen synthesis, and lipogenesis were markedly upregulated by rosiglitazone in SF and again less so in VF. Rosiglitazone activated TAG-glycerol synthesis in vivo (2.8- vs. 1.9-fold) and lipin activity (4.6- vs. 1.5-fold) more strongly in SF than VF, whereas GPAT activity was increased similarly in both depots. The preferential increase in glucose uptake and intracellular metabolism in SF contributes to the PPARγ-mediated redistribution of TAG from VF to SF, which in turn favors global insulin sensitization. PMID:19201733

  4. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cancer Infection of the tubes (salpingitis) Ectopic pregnancy Fibroid tumors of the uterus (womb) Malignant tumors of the uterus or cervix Endometriosis Adhesions (scars) Screening and Diagnosis How is the cause of abdominal pain determined? ...

  5. [The abdominal catastrophe].

    PubMed

    Seiler, Christian A

    2011-08-01

    Patients with an abdominal catastrophe are in urgent need of early, interdisciplinary medical help. The treatment plan should be based on medical priorities and clear leadership. First priority should be given to achieve optimal oxygenation of blood and stabilization of circulation during all treatment-phases. The sicker the patient, the less invasive the (surgical) treatment should to be, which means "damage control only". This short article describes 7 important, pragmatic rules that will help to increase the survival of a patient with an abdominal catastrophe. Preexisting morbidity and risk factors must be included in the overall risk-evaluation for every therapeutic intervention. The challenge in patients with an abdominal catastrophe is to carefully balance the therapeutic stress and the existing resistance of the individual patient. The best way to avoid abdominal disaster, however, is its prevention.

  6. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  7. Acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Stone, R

    1998-01-01

    Abdominal pain is among the most frequent ailments reported in the office setting and can account for up to 40% of ailments in the ambulatory practice. Also, it is in the top three symptoms of patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) and accounts for 5-10% of all ED primary presenting ailments. There are several common sources for acute abdominal pain and many for subacute and chronic abdominal pain. This article explores the history-taking, initial evaluation, and examination of the patient presenting with acute abdominal pain. The goal of this article is to help differentiate one source of pain from another. Discussion of acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis, appendicitis, ectopic pregnancy, diverticulitis, gastritis, and gastroenteritis are undertaken. Additionally, there is discussion of common laboratory studies, diagnostic studies, and treatment of the patient with the above entities.

  8. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease , pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis. cancers of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as ... injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, kidneys or other internal organs in cases of ...

  9. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... the results of abdominoplasty. Many feel a new sense of self-confidence. Alternative Names Cosmetic surgery of the abdomen; Tummy tuck; Abdominoplasty Images Abdominoplasty - series Abdominal muscles References McGrath MH, Pomerantz J. Plastic surgery. In: Townsend ...

  10. Adiposity in children and adolescents: Correlates and clinical consequences of fat stored in specific body depots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2011 Pennington Biomedical Research Center's Scientific Symposium focused on adiposity in children and adolescents. The symposium was attended by 15 speakers and other invited experts. The specific objectives of the symposium were to (i) integrate the latest published and unpublished findings on...

  11. Abdominal involvement in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Neyman, Edward G; Georgiades, Christos S; Fishman, Elliot K

    2002-10-01

    Rising incidence of disseminated and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB), especially in immunocompromised hosts and patients with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, has resulted in an increase of unusual clinical and radiographic presentations of TB. With CT being a common part of emergency room (ER) evaluation of abdominal pain, it is imperative that radiologists be able to recognize abdominal presentations of TB. We discuss and illustrate typical and less common CT manifestations of tuberculosis in the abdomen to help ER radiologists in this task.

  12. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Savarese, R P; Rosenfeld, J C; DeLaurentis, D A

    1986-05-01

    Between January 1976 and December 1982, 181 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were treated surgically, and in 13 patients the aneurysms were found to be inflammatory. Inflammatory aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (IAAA) share important characteristics with typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysms. Diagnosis and surgical management of IAAA are distinctive which suggests that IAAA should be considered separately, as a varient of typical abdominal aortic aneurysms. IAAA occur predominantly in males. The presenting symptoms are often idiosyncratic and include severe abdominal or back pain, or both, and ureteral obstruction; the diagnosis of IAAA should be considered when these symptoms are present. Although grossly and microscopically, the perianeurysmal fibrosis resembles idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, the two conditions can be differentiated. At the present time, ultrasonography and computed tomography appear to offer reliable means for diagnosing IAAA. The presence of IAAA, whether established preoperatively or discovered unexpectedly at operation, necessitate certain modifications in the surgical approach, in order to avoid injuring the duodenum and the venous structures. Most patients can be successfully treated by resection and graft replacement. Rupture of the aneurysm in IAAA appears to be less frequent than in typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  13. Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-seop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n1 = 10) or a control group (n2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition data (abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage). [Results] Significant main effects of time in the waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage were found. Significant time-by-group interactions were found for waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage. [Conclusion] The use of the high-frequency current therapy may be beneficial for reducing the levels of abdominal obesity in young women. PMID:25642031

  14. [METHODS IN ABDOMINAL OBESITY].

    PubMed

    Savchenko, O; Zavalskaya, T; Lizogub, V; Kuzhel, O; Baitser, M; Zapeka, Y

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the anatomical and physiological, histological and topographic features of adipose tissue on the relationship of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. An advanced diagnostic techniques of total body fat and visceral fat content quantification as the most metabolically active are described.

  15. Overfeeding polyunsaturated and saturated fat causes distinct effects on liver and visceral fat accumulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Rosqvist, Fredrik; Iggman, David; Kullberg, Joel; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Johansson, Hans-Erik; Larsson, Anders; Johansson, Lars; Ahlström, Håkan; Arner, Peter; Dahlman, Ingrid; Risérus, Ulf

    2014-07-01

    Excess ectopic fat storage is linked to type 2 diabetes. The importance of dietary fat composition for ectopic fat storage in humans is unknown. We investigated liver fat accumulation and body composition during overfeeding saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). LIPOGAIN was a double-blind, parallel-group, randomized trial. Thirty-nine young and normal-weight individuals were overfed muffins high in SFAs (palm oil) or n-6 PUFAs (sunflower oil) for 7 weeks. Liver fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), total adipose tissue, pancreatic fat, and lean tissue were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Transcriptomics were performed in SAT. Both groups gained similar weight. SFAs, however, markedly increased liver fat compared with PUFAs and caused a twofold larger increase in VAT than PUFAs. Conversely, PUFAs caused a nearly threefold larger increase in lean tissue than SFAs. Increase in liver fat directly correlated with changes in plasma SFAs and inversely with PUFAs. Genes involved in regulating energy dissipation, insulin resistance, body composition, and fat-cell differentiation in SAT were differentially regulated between diets, and associated with increased PUFAs in SAT. In conclusion, overeating SFAs promotes hepatic and visceral fat storage, whereas excess energy from PUFAs may instead promote lean tissue in healthy humans.

  16. Gas production and transport in artificial sludge depots.

    PubMed

    van Kessel, T; van Kesteren, W G M

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a study to determine the impact of gas production in dredging sludge on the storage capacity of artificial sludge depots. Gas is produced as a result of the decomposition of organic material present in dredging spoil. This process, in which methane and carbon dioxide are formed, may lead to expansion of sludge layers, partly or even completely counterbalancing consolidation. The study shows that, even with a very conservative estimation of the rate of gas production, accumulation of gas occurs as convective and diffusive transport proceed very slowly. Nucleation of gas bubbles occurs already at a limited oversaturation of pore water. During their growth, bubbles push aside the surrounding grain matrix. Resulting stresses may initiate cracks around bubbles. If these cracks join, they may form channels stretching out to the depot surface and along which gas may escape. However, channels are only stable to a limited depth below which bubble accumulation may continue. The gas content at which sufficient cracks and channels are formed to balance the rate of gas production with the rate of outflow strongly depends on the constitutive properties of the dredging sludge considered. In sludge with a high shear strength (> 10 kPa), stable channels are created already at low deformations. However, a large expansion may occur in sludge with a low strength. The present study shows that accumulation of gas may continue until a bulk density less than that of water is attained. This is equivalent to a gas fraction of about 25-37%, depending on the initial water content of the sludge. Only then can gas escape as a result of instabilities in the sediment matrix. This should be well taken into account during the design and management of artificial depots.

  17. Saturated fat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay ...

  18. Potential link between excess added sugar intake and ectopic fat: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiantao; Karlsen, Micaela C.; Chung, Mei; Jacques, Paul F.; Saltzman, Edward; Smith, Caren E.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2016-01-01

    Context: The effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat accumulation is a subject of debate. Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to examine the potential effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat depots. Data Sources: MEDLINE, CAB Abstracts, CAB Global Health, and EBM (Evidence-Based Medicine) Reviews – Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched for studies published from 1973 to September 2014. Data Extraction: RCTs with a minimum of 6 days’ duration of added sugar exposure in the intervention group were selected. The dosage of added sugar intake as a percentage of total energy was extracted or calculated. Means and standard deviations of pre- and post-test measurements or changes in ectopic fat depots were collected. Data Synthesis: Fourteen RCTs were included. Most of the studies had a medium to high risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed that, compared with eucaloric controls, subjects who consumed added sugar under hypercaloric conditions likely increased ectopic fat, particularly in the liver (pooled standardized mean difference = 0.9 [95%CI, 0.6–1.2], n = 6) and muscles (pooled SMD = 0.6 [95%CI, 0.2–1.0], n = 4). No significant difference was observed in liver fat, visceral adipose tissue, or muscle fat when isocaloric intakes of different sources of added sugars were compared. Conclusions: Data from a limited number of RCTs suggest that excess added sugar intake under hypercaloric diet conditions likely increases ectopic fat depots, particularly in the liver and in muscle fat. There are insufficient data to compare the effect of different sources of added sugars on ectopic fat deposition or to compare intake of added sugar with intakes of other macronutrients. Future well-designed RCTs with sufficient power and duration are needed to address the role of sugars on ectopic fat deposition. PMID:26518034

  19. Energy engineering analysis program, Anniston Army Depot. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) study (Increment F) conducted at the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama by Science Applications, Incorporated (SAl) under Contract No. DACAOl-83-C-0099. The report includes an analysis of energy conservation projects that can be accomplished using various Army funds, Post funds, and new management procedures. Also found in the report is a complete listing of recently implemented energy conservation projects, recommended similar future projects and a presentation of current and projected Post energy usage. The result of this analysis indicates that current energy use (FY 1983) can be reduced by 23 percent if these recommendations are adopted.

  20. Depot Closings and the Destruction of Western Civilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    wx+ w hdu edu/ndu/mss/bookslessa/essamddm.html 3 Setting Off a Cham Reaction Durmg the cold war, DOD built up a serves of supply and repair depots...the An Force’s explanatron Representatrve Don Nickles R -OK, noted “What’s Cahforma7 Ten percent of the electoral votes It makes one wonder ” Other...Reahgmnent Conumss~on, mtemew wnh author at Nahonal War College. 23 October, 1997 ’ Cassata , Donna, “GAO Faults Au Force Declslon to Shut No Repau

  1. Depot effect of bioactive components in experimental membrane filtrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitev, D.; Peshev, D.; Peev, G.; Peeva, L.

    2017-01-01

    Depot effects were found to be accompanying phenomena of membrane separation processes. Accumulation of target species in the membrane matrix during feasibility tests can hamper proper conclusions or compromise the filtration results. Therefore, we investigated the effects of delayed membrane release of chlorogenic acid and caffeine, considered as key compounds of interest in spent coffee products’ recovery treatment. Permeate fluxes and key components release were studied in course of 24 hours via nanofiltration of pure solvent, both immediately after the mock solution filtration and after idle stay. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations advised for proper analysis of experimental data on membrane screening.

  2. The transportation depot: An orbiting vehicle support facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the details of an effort to produce conceptual designs for an orbiting platform, called a transportation depot, to handle assembly and processing of lunar, Martian, and related vehicles. High-level requirements for such a facility were established, and several concepts were developed to meet those requirements. By showing that the critical rigid-body momentum characteristics of each concept are similar to those of the dual-keel space station, some insight was gained about the controllability and utility of this type of facility. Finally, several general observations were made that highlight the advantages and disadvantages of particular design features.

  3. Anthropometric measurements as predictors of intraabdominal fat thickness.

    PubMed

    Roopakala, M S; Suresh, Anagha; Ashtalakshmi; Srinath; Ashok; Giridhar; Anand; Silvia, Wilma Delphine

    2009-01-01

    Central obesity is known to be an important risk factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and intraabdominal fat thickness has been found to be a reliable indicator of central obesity. Many anthropometric indicators have been suggested for measuring intraabdominal fat. The aim of this study was to relate various anthropometric measurements to intraabdominal fat thickness and to determine which among these is a better predictor of intra abdominal fat in normal subjects. This cross sectional study was carried out. in 60 healthy subjects (32 males and 28 females) in the age group of 25-55 years. Anthropometric measurements such as BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio were assessed by using standard methods. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were measured 1 cm above umbilicus by ultrasonography. Intraabdominal fat thickness was correlated with the anthropometric measures by Pearson's test. Multivariate linear regression test was used to find the best anthropometric measurement as a predictor of abdominal fat. Waist circumference showed a significant positive correlation with subcutaneous fat and visceral fat. Waist circumference was found to be the best predictor of intraabdominal fat thickness in normal subjects and therefore of central obesity.

  4. In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot (ISCPD) Architecture Definitions and Systems Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John C.; Howell, Joe T.; Henley, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the ISCPD Architecture Definitions and Systems Studies were to determine high leverage propellant depot architecture concepts, system configuration trades, and related technologies to enable more ambitious and affordable human and robotic exploration of the Earth Neighborhood and beyond. This activity identified architectures and concepts that preposition and store propellants in space for exploration and commercial space activities, consistent with Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESR&T) objectives. Commonalities across mission scenarios for these architecture definitions, depot concepts, technologies, and operations were identified that also best satisfy the Vision of Space Exploration. Trade studies were conducted, technology development needs identified and assessments performed to drive out the roadmap for obtaining an in-space cryogenic propellant depot capability. The Boeing Company supported the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by conducting this Depot System Architecture Development Study. The primary objectives of this depot architecture study were: (1) determine high leverage propellant depot concepts and related technologies; (2) identify commonalities across mission scenarios of depot concepts, technologies, and operations; (3) determine the best depot concepts and key technology requirements and (4) identify technology development needs including definition of ground and space test article requirements.

  5. 77 FR 30376 - Amendment of Restricted Area R-2101; Anniston Army Depot, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 73 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Restricted Area R-2101; Anniston... action amends the description of restricted area R-2101, Anniston Army Depot, AL, by removing the...'' from the time of designation for restricted area R-2101, Anniston Army Depot, AL, and inserting...

  6. A Business Process Analysis of the Surface Navys Depot Maintenance Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    depth analysis of the contract change process during execution of depot maintenance availabilities using five ships as case studies. It uses lean...shift risk to the contractor. This thesis conducts an in-depth analysis of the contract change process during execution of depot maintenance...Furnished Request ..........................................................................................24  viii 2. Request for Contract Change

  7. An Analysis of the Cost Accounting System for the Depot Maintenance Service, Air Force Industrial Fund.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Requirements .. ..... 11 * Current Cost Accounting System .. ...... 15 Summary ................... 18 III. Methodology. ................... 19 Data Collection...for depot maintenance operations. The third section describes the current cost accounting system used within the AFLC Depot Maintenance. Management...and provide recommendations for further research. 48 V. Conclusions and Recommendations The current cost accounting system works. Most of the

  8. 33 CFR 334.1244 - Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel Depot, Manchester, Washington; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel... REGULATIONS § 334.1244 Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel Depot, Manchester, Washington; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of Puget Sound surrounding the Manchester Fuel Depot Point A, a point along...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1244 - Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel Depot, Manchester, Washington; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel... REGULATIONS § 334.1244 Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel Depot, Manchester, Washington; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of Puget Sound surrounding the Manchester Fuel Depot Point A, a point along...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1244 - Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel Depot, Manchester, Washington; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel... REGULATIONS § 334.1244 Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel Depot, Manchester, Washington; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of Puget Sound surrounding the Manchester Fuel Depot Point A, a point along...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1244 - Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel Depot, Manchester, Washington; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel... REGULATIONS § 334.1244 Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel Depot, Manchester, Washington; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of Puget Sound surrounding the Manchester Fuel Depot Point A, a point along...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1244 - Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel Depot, Manchester, Washington; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel... REGULATIONS § 334.1244 Puget Sound, Manchester Fuel Depot, Manchester, Washington; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of Puget Sound surrounding the Manchester Fuel Depot Point A, a point along...

  13. NMR-based metabolic profiling in healthy individuals overfed different types of fat: links to changes in liver fat accumulation and lean tissue mass

    PubMed Central

    Elmsjö, A; Rosqvist, F; Engskog, M K R; Haglöf, J; Kullberg, J; Iggman, D; Johansson, L; Ahlström, H; Arvidsson, T; Risérus, U; Pettersson, C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overeating different dietary fatty acids influence the amount of liver fat stored during weight gain, however, the mechanisms responsible are unclear. We aimed to identify non-lipid metabolites that may differentiate between saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) overfeeding using a non-targeted metabolomic approach. We also investigated the possible relationships between plasma metabolites and body fat accumulation. Methods: In a randomized study (LIPOGAIN study), n=39 healthy individuals were overfed with muffins containing SFA or PUFA. Plasma samples were precipitated with cold acetonitrile and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Pattern recognition techniques were used to overview the data, identify variables contributing to group classification and to correlate metabolites with fat accumulation. Results: We previously reported that SFA causes a greater accumulation of liver fat, visceral fat and total body fat, whereas lean tissue levels increases less compared with PUFA, despite comparable weight gain. In this study, lactate and acetate were identified as important contributors to group classification between SFA and PUFA (P<0.05). Furthermore, the fat depots (total body fat, visceral adipose tissue and liver fat) and lean tissue correlated (P(corr)>0.5) all with two or more metabolites (for example, branched amino acids, alanine, acetate and lactate). The metabolite composition differed in a manner that may indicate higher insulin sensitivity after a diet with PUFA compared with SFA, but this needs to be confirmed in future studies. Conclusion: A non-lipid metabolic profiling approach only identified a few metabolites that differentiated between SFA and PUFA overfeeding. Whether these metabolite changes are involved in depot-specific fat storage and increased lean tissue mass during overeating needs further investigation. PMID:26479316

  14. Fat Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  15. Protection against fat cell hyperplasia in a hibernator, Glis glis.

    PubMed

    Mrosovsky, N; Nash, P; Faust, I M

    1987-10-01

    Dormice, Glis glis, were fed a high-fat diet for 11 mo in one experiment: in another experiment they were fed a high-fat diet for 5 mo, either at room temperature (21.5 degrees C) or in a warm room (27 degrees C). Only in the latter group did adipocyte hyperplasia occur; this was significant in all the fat depots studied (inguinal, retroperitoneal, and gonadal). In the other groups there was no evidence of fat cell hyperplasia, despite weight gains from approximately 160 g (peaks on chow diet) to approximately 250 g (maximums on high-fat diet). Instead, fat cell size, assessed from biopsies of the inguinal area, became considerably enlarged. Taken together with earlier data from other species, the results suggest that hibernators are protected against fat cell hyperplasia. In dormice this protection appears to be present at all phases of their seasonal weight cycles. For species that experience several cycles of weight gain and loss in their lives, it may be adaptive to avoid increases in adipocyte number.

  16. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition.

  17. Being fat and smart: A comparative analysis of the fat-brain trade-off in mammals.

    PubMed

    Heldstab, Sandra A; van Schaik, Carel P; Isler, Karin

    2016-11-01

    Humans stand out among non-aquatic mammals by having both an extremely large brain and a relatively large amount of body fat. To understand the evolution of this human peculiarity we report a phylogenetic comparative study of 120 mammalian species, including 30 primates, using seasonal variation in adult body mass as a proxy of the tendency to store fat. Species that rely on storing fat to survive lean periods are expected to be less active because of higher costs of locomotion and have increased predation risk due to reduced agility. Because a fat-storage strategy reduces the net cognitive benefit of a large brain without reducing its cost, such species should be less likely to evolve a larger brain than non-fat-storing species. We therefore predict that the two strategies to buffer food shortages (storing body fat and cognitive flexibility) are compensatory, and therefore predict negative co-evolution between relative brain size and seasonal variation in body mass. This trade-off is expected to be stronger in predominantly arboreal species than in more terrestrial ones, as the cost of transporting additional adipose depots is higher for climbing than for horizontal locomotion. We did, indeed, find a significant negative correlation between brain size and coefficient of variation (CV) in body mass in both sexes for the subsample of arboreal species, both in all mammals and within primates. In predominantly terrestrial species, in contrast, this correlation was not significant. We therefore suggest that the adoption of habitually terrestrial locomotor habits, accompanied by a reduced reliance on climbing, has allowed for a primate of our body size the unique human combination of unusually large brains and unusually large adipose depots.

  18. Cryogenic thermal system analysis for orbital propellant depot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Wilhite, Alan W.

    2014-09-01

    In any manned mission architecture, upwards of seventy percent of all payload delivered to orbit is propellant, and propellant mass fraction dominates almost all transportation segments of any mission requiring a heavy lift launch system like the Saturn V. To mitigate this, the use of an orbital propellant depot has been extensively studied. In this paper, a thermal model of an orbital propellant depot is used to examine the effects of passive and active thermal management strategies. Results show that an all passive thermal management strategy results in significant boil-off for both hydrogen and oxygen. At current launch vehicle prices, these boil-offs equate to millions of dollars lost per month. Zero boil-off of propellant is achievable with the use of active cryocoolers; however, the cooling power required to produce zero-boil-off is an order of magnitude higher than current state-of-the-art cryocoolers. This study shows a zero-boil-off cryocooler minimum power requirement of 80-100 W at 80 K for liquid oxygen, and 100-120 W at 20 K for liquid hydrogen for a representative Near-Earth Object mission. Research and development effort is required to improve the state-of-the-arts in-space cryogenic thermal management.

  19. Artificial immune algorithm for multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhongyi; Wang, Donggen; Xia, Linyuan; Chen, Xiaoling

    2008-10-01

    In the fast-developing logistics and supply chain management fields, one of the key problems in the decision support system is that how to arrange, for a lot of customers and suppliers, the supplier-to-customer assignment and produce a detailed supply schedule under a set of constraints. Solutions to the multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems (MDVRP) help in solving this problem in case of transportation applications. The objective of the MDVSP is to minimize the total distance covered by all vehicles, which can be considered as delivery costs or time consumption. The MDVSP is one of nondeterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) problem which cannot be solved to optimality within polynomial bounded computational time. Many different approaches have been developed to tackle MDVSP, such as exact algorithm (EA), one-stage approach (OSA), two-phase heuristic method (TPHM), tabu search algorithm (TSA), genetic algorithm (GA) and hierarchical multiplex structure (HIMS). Most of the methods mentioned above are time consuming and have high risk to result in local optimum. In this paper, a new search algorithm is proposed to solve MDVSP based on Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), which are inspirited by vertebrate immune systems. The proposed AIS algorithm is tested with 30 customers and 6 vehicles located in 3 depots. Experimental results show that the artificial immune system algorithm is an effective and efficient method for solving MDVSP problems.

  20. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Mikami, Y; Kyogoku, M

    1994-08-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is a distinct clinicopathological entity, characterized by: (1) clinical presentation, such as back pain, weight loss, and increased ESR, (2) patchy and/or diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and (3) marked periaortic fibrosis resulting in thickening of the aneurysmal wall and occasional retroperitoneal fibrosis. Its pathogenesis is unknown, but some authors support the theory that IAAA is a subtype of atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm because of close relationship between IAAA and atherosclerotic change. In this article, we describe clinical and histological features of IAAA on the basis of the literature and our review of 6 cases of IAAA, emphasizing the similarity and difference between IAAA and atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. Our review supports that marked lamellar fibrosis completely replacing the media and adventitia, patchy lymphocytic infiltration (mostly B cells) and endarteritis obliterans are characteristic features of IAAA.

  1. [Abdominal actinomycosis with IUD].

    PubMed

    Kamprath, S; Merker, A; Kühne-Heid, R; Schneider, A

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of abdominal actinomycosis in a 54 year old woman using an intrauterine device for a period of 8 years. The most important finding was a tuboovarialabscess at the left pelvic side with involvement of the serosa of the jejunum, ileum, sigma, and omentum majus. Intraoperative exploration showed a solid retroperitoneal infiltration between the pelvic side wall and sigma. Another infiltration was found on the left side of the abdominal wall. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and the patient was treated by a combination of Aminopenicillin and Metronidazol. After a period of three months we observed a complete regression of the clinical and the MRI findings.

  2. Abdominal organs (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... small intestine further digests food and begins the absorption of nutrients. Secretions from the pancreas in the ... gallbladder and liver emulsify fat and enhance the absorption of fatty acids. The large intestine temporarily stores ...

  3. Ultrasonography and computed tomography of inflammatory abdominal wall lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Rabinowitz, J.G.

    1982-09-01

    Twenty-four patients with inflammatory lesions of the abdominal wall were examined by ultrasonography. Nine of these patients underwent computed tomographic (CT) scanning as well. Both ultrasonography and CT clearly delineated the exact location and extent of abdominal wall abscesses. Abscesses were easily differentiated from cellulitis or phlegmon with ultrasound. The peritoneal line was more clearly delineated on ultrasonograms than on CT scans; abscesses were also more distinct on the ultrasonograms because of their low echogenicity compared with the surrounding structures. Gas bubbles, fat density with specific low attenuation values, and underlying inflamed bowel loops in obese patients with Crohn's disease were better delineated by CT.

  4. Fatness QTL on chicken chromosome 5 and interaction with sex

    PubMed Central

    Abasht, Behnam; Pitel, Frédérique; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Le Roy, Pascale; Demeure, Olivier; Vignoles, Florence; Simon, Jean; Cogburn, Larry; Aggrey, Sammy; Vignal, Alain; Douaire, Madeleine

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fatness in male chickens were previously identified on chromosome 5 (GGA5) in a three-generation design derived from two experimental chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat weight. A new design, established from the same pure lines, produced 407 F2 progenies (males and females) from 4 F1-sire families. Body weight and abdominal fat were measured on the F2 at 9 wk of age. In each sire family, selective genotyping was carried out for 48 extreme individuals for abdominal fat using seven microsatellite markers from GGA5. QTL analyses confirmed the presence of QTL for fatness on GGA5 and identified a QTL by sex interaction. By crossing one F1 sire heterozygous at the QTL with lean line dams, three recombinant backcross 1 (BC1) males were produced and their QTL genotypes were assessed in backcross 2 (BC2) progenies. These results confirmed the QTL by sex interaction identified in the F2 generation and they allow mapping of the female QTL to less than 8 Mb at the distal part of the GGA5. They also indicate that fat QTL alleles were segregating in both fat and lean lines. PMID:16635451

  5. Mammary Fat of Breast Cancer: Gene Expression Profiling and Functional Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Fu, Ziyi; Yin, Hong; Lu, Xun; Yu, Jing; Lu, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Mammary fat is the main composition of breast, and is the most probable candidate to affect tumor behavior because the fat produces hormones, growth factors and adipokines, a heterogeneous group of signaling molecules. Gene expression profiling and functional characterization of mammary fat in Chinese women has not been reported. Thus, we collected the mammary fat tissues adjacent to breast tumors from 60 subjects, among which 30 subjects had breast cancer and 30 had benign lesions. We isolated and cultured the stromal vascular cell fraction from mammary fat. The expression of genes related to adipose function (including adipogenesis and secretion) was detected at both the tissue and the cellular level. We also studied mammary fat browning. The results indicated that fat tissue close to malignant and benign lesions exhibited distinctive gene expression profiles and functional characteristics. Although the mammary fat of breast tumors atrophied, it secreted tumor growth stimulatory factors. Browning of mammary fat was observed and browning activity of fat close to malignant breast tumors was greater than that close to benign lesions. Understanding the diversity between these two fat depots may possibly help us improve our understanding of breast cancer pathogenesis and find the key to unlock new anticancer therapies. PMID:25291184

  6. Mammary fat of breast cancer: gene expression profiling and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengliang; Gao, Sheng; Chen, Fei; Fu, Ziyi; Yin, Hong; Lu, Xun; Yu, Jing; Lu, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Mammary fat is the main composition of breast, and is the most probable candidate to affect tumor behavior because the fat produces hormones, growth factors and adipokines, a heterogeneous group of signaling molecules. Gene expression profiling and functional characterization of mammary fat in Chinese women has not been reported. Thus, we collected the mammary fat tissues adjacent to breast tumors from 60 subjects, among which 30 subjects had breast cancer and 30 had benign lesions. We isolated and cultured the stromal vascular cell fraction from mammary fat. The expression of genes related to adipose function (including adipogenesis and secretion) was detected at both the tissue and the cellular level. We also studied mammary fat browning. The results indicated that fat tissue close to malignant and benign lesions exhibited distinctive gene expression profiles and functional characteristics. Although the mammary fat of breast tumors atrophied, it secreted tumor growth stimulatory factors. Browning of mammary fat was observed and browning activity of fat close to malignant breast tumors was greater than that close to benign lesions. Understanding the diversity between these two fat depots may possibly help us improve our understanding of breast cancer pathogenesis and find the key to unlock new anticancer therapies.

  7. Abdominal exploration - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100049.htm Abdominal exploration - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 4 Go to slide 2 ...

  8. Evaluation of olanzapine pamoate depot in seriously violent males with schizophrenia in the community

    PubMed Central

    Kasinathan, John; Sharp, Gillian; Barker, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Olanzapine is a well established treatment for schizophrenia. The olanzapine pamoate depot (long-acting injectable) formulation improves compliance and clinical trials have shown it to be effective. However, there are no previously published reports evaluating olanzapine depot in violent patients with schizophrenia in the community. We evaluated the clinical efficacy of olanzapine depot, its effect on violence, hospitalization and incarceration in community patients with schizophrenia and prior history of serious violence. Methods: This was a retrospective service evaluation in a community forensic psychiatry service where patients had schizophrenia spectrum disorder and a significant history of violence. Treatment resistance, substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder were common. Nine deidentified patient records were audited for 12 months pre and 12 months post olanzapine depot initiation to identify any clinical changes, breaches of (legislated) psychiatric treatment orders, hospital admission days, days incarcerated and emergency presentations. Results: Community forensic psychiatric patients treated with olanzapine depot showed an improvement in psychotic symptoms (p = 0.008) with overall decreases in violence, supported by reductions in hospitalization days (p = 0.018) and days incarcerated (p = 0.043). Several patients had reduced psychiatric treatment order breaches and emergency presentations. Conclusions: Community forensic psychiatric patients with schizophrenia responded to olanzapine depot with decreased violence and reduced hostility. A depot antipsychotic medication that reduces violence and improves engagement has significant implications for greater effective community management of forensic patients with schizophrenia. PMID:27721969

  9. Incision for abdominal laparoscopy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal laparoscopy is a useful aid in diagnosing disease or trauma in the abdominal cavity with less scarring than ... as liver and pancreatic resections may begin with laparoscopy to exclude the presence of additional tumors (metastatic ...

  10. [Myxofibrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Janů, F

    2016-01-01

    A number of benign and malignant tumors may develop in the abdominal cavity. Sarcomas are rather rare tumors of the abdominal cavity. They are often diagnosed at advanced growth stages as their local growth can cause clinical problems to the patients. The author presents a case report of myxofibrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity.Key words: myxofibrosarcoma.

  11. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for Tooele Army Depot North and South

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-29

    tp:r; d j LQ0ýa 277 -v (I 0 PORT DOCUMENTATION .EPO" *o. 2. 1. fc,=.. A:e.I,of o. PAGE fb 2 ~ . TWO* en Ub•k ot~ S ,. 111*00 Clater An Archeological...Potential Archeological B-1 Resources on Tooele Army Depot SUPPLEMENT An Archeological Overview for the Tooele Army S -1 Depot - Railroad Maintenance...SOUTTH P S o 5- 10 i5s SCALE (MILES) Figuit 1--l. GENERAL VICINITY MAP f cTlge Aouv r~canT1 /i MASTER FACILITY MAP OF THE TOOELE ARMY DEPOT NORTH POST

  12. The case for a centralized repair depot for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enlow, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    The first priority of the NSTS program is to make the Space Shuttle system fully operational and cost effective in providing routine access to space. In support of this priority an integrated logistics support system was planned, structured and is being implemented to support a launch-on-time goal of 95 percent. In achieving a 95 percent spares 'fill rate' in an environment of small fleet size, highly unique and high cost assets, significant spares cost can be incurred. A major portion of these costs are for the additional spares required when repair or acquisition times are lengthy. This paper provides a fundamental analysis of the costs and other factors involved in the spare and repair process and provides an optimized cost and process solution for the Space Shuttle program - a centralized repair depot located at KSC.

  13. Couches Minces de Titanate de Baryum Par Depot Organometallique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ousi Benomar, Wahib

    1993-01-01

    Nous avons demontre la possibilite de realiser des couches minces de titanate de baryum par depot organometallique. Les films sont obtenus apres dissolution d'organometalliques choisis dans un solvant et une cuisson a une temperature determinee par thermogravimetrie. Apres un second traitement thermique a des temperatures plus elevees, les echantillons presentent une structure polycristalline tetragonale; les cristallites sont observes par microscopie electronique a balayage. La mesure de la constante dielectrique a permis de mettre en evidence une transition de phase de la structure tetragonale a la structure cubique a une temperature d'environ 125^circC. Les mesures d'indice ont ete effectuees. On note une augmentation de l'indice de refraction des films avec la temperature indiquant une meilleure densification des films. Nous avons aussi montre qu'il etait possible d'utiliser ce materiau en tant que guide d'onde optique pour pouvoir exploiter ses proprietes electrooptiques dans l'avenir.

  14. [Conditions for blood components return, after storage in a depot].

    PubMed

    Hervé, I; Girard, A

    2008-11-01

    Recent changes in the regulation of blood components depots has allowed the Etablissement français du sang (EFS) to re-introduce blood components in the stock when they come back from the health establishment. This process is the responsibility of both EFS and health establishment. So collaboration between them is necessary to set an organisation to guarantee that blood components are transported and stored at optimum conditions. To achieve this, a checking procedure for the return process of blood components and a method that tracks the conditions they are exposed to during transportation are necessary. There are many temperature sensitive indicators available to track each unit of blood component. This article presents an organisation using a follow-up by electronic temperature monitors to record the temperature during the transportation and storage processes.

  15. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception in women with medical problems.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, M C

    1996-05-01

    Since few clinical trials of contraceptive agents are conducted on women with medical problems, use of these agents in these populations is often based more upon theoretical considerations than clinical data. Clinicians must distinguish the risk of estrogen in the combined oral contraceptive from the risk of the progestin-only contraceptive methods. This review compares the risks of pregnancy with the risks of contraceptive methods for patients with chronic hypertension, cardiac disease, thrombotic disorders, diabetes, epilepsy, lupus erythematosus and other medical disorders. For women with certain medical problems, estrogen, but not progestogen, may be contraindicated. For these women, a long-acting progestogen, such as depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), may offer distinct advantages.

  16. Advances in abdominal MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, J T

    1998-01-01

    Major technical advances in MR imaging have led to its wider use in the evaluation of abdominal disease. The principle new pulse sequence is the RARE sequence for T2-weighted imaging. Multishot and breath-hold single-shot RARE techniques are now widely used, and both have performed as well as conventional spin-echo imaging with far shorter acquisition times. The most notable improvements have been in the detection and characterization of hepatic lesions. Two liver-specific contrast agents received FDA approval during 1997: SPIO particles or ferumoxide and mangafodipir trisodium, a hepatocyte-specific agent. Both of these agents provide considerable benefit in the detection and characterization of hepatic lesions. Manganese enhancement has also proved useful in MR imaging of the pancreas, although fat-suppressed T1-weighted imaging with dynamic gadolinium enhancement has also yielded results comparable with those of contrast-enhanced CT. MR hydrography, a generic term for static fluid imaging, is another derivative of RARE fast T2-weighted imaging. MRCP, the best known example of MR hydrography, has been rapidly and widely employed as a primary method for imaging the biliary and pancreatic ducts and has become competitive with ERCP. MR vascular imaging, especially portal venography, has been used for noninvasive imaging of portal venous disease in Budd Chiari disease, before placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, and for pancreatic cancer staging. Finally, the development of conventional phased-array body coils and endorectal coils has enabled high-quality MR imaging of perirectal disease (including Crohn disease, fistula in ano, and postpartum sphincter dysfunction). Future abdominal applications of MR imaging will involve second-generation MR interventional techniques, including use of open systems, functional or diffusion-weighted imaging exploiting the molecular activity of tissues, and virtual MR endoscopy. Although CT continues to evolve

  17. Validity of Impedance Predictions at Various Levels of Fatness,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    estimates of total body water and of fat-free mass. The validity of RES to predict percent body fat (%BF) was evaluated in a sample of 403 male (Mean...were collected on a sample of 403 male and 135 female military personnel. Characteristics of this population sample are provided in Table 1...inferior to the axilla and at the nipple line as described by Beckett and Hodgdon (1985) and Behnke and Wilmore (1974), respectively. Abdominal

  18. Characterization and Multilineage Differentiation of Domestic and Black-Footed Cat Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells from Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Martha C; Qin, Qian; Biancardi, Monica N; Galiguis, Jason; Dumas, Cherie; MacLean, Robert A; Wang, Guoshun; Pope, C Earle

    2015-10-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow or adipose tissue is emerging as a promising tool for cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine in domestic and endangered animal species. Defining the differentiation capability of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (AMSCs) collected from different depot sites of adipose tissue will be essential for developing strategies for cell replacement therapy. In the present study, we compared the biological characteristics of domestic cat AMSCs isolated from visceral fat of the abdominal cavity (AB) with AMSCs from subcutaneous (SQ) tissue, and the functional capability of domestic and black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) AMSCs to differentiate into other cell types. Our results showed that both domestic and black-footed cat adipose-derived stromal vascular fractions contained AMSCs. Both domestic cat AB- and SQ-AMSCs showed important clonogenic ability and the minimal MSC immunophenotype as defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy in humans. However, domestic cat AB-AMSCs had higher percentages of cells positive for MSCs-associated cluster of differentiation (CD) markers CD90(+) and CD105(+) (92% and 80%, respectively) than those of SQ-AMSCs (77% and 58%, respectively). Although these results may suggest that AB-AMSCs may be more multipotent than SQ-AMSCs, both types of cells showed similar expression of pluripotent genes Oct-4 and Klf4, except for higher expression of Nanog than in AB-AMSCs, and equivalent in vitro multilineage differentiation. Under appropriate stimuli, the black-footed cat and both domestic cat AB- and SQ-AMSCs differentiated not only toward mesoderm cell lineages but also toward ectoderm cell lineage, such as neuron cell-like cells. Black-footed cat AMSCs had more capability to differentiate toward chondrocytes. These results suggest that the defined AMSC population (regardless of site of collection) could potentially be employed as a

  19. Dietary fat and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... These include fats found in fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Limit foods with saturated and trans fats (such as meats, full-fat dairy products, and processed foods). Fruits and vegetables are healthy snack foods. Children should be taught ...

  20. Effects of different sources of fat (calcium soap of palm oil vs. extruded linseed) in lactating ewes' diet on the fatty acid profile of their suckling lambs.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Gallardo, B; Mantecón, A R; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A; Manso, T

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing lactating ewe diets with extruded linseed on the fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat depots of suckling lambs. Twenty-four pregnant Churra ewes were divided into two groups based on the milk production, age, body weight and parity, and assigned to one of two treatments. Each ewe of the Control treatment was supplemented with 70 g/day of FAs from a calcium soap of palm oil, while the other treatment group (Lin) was supplemented with 128 g/day of extruded linseed. All lambs were reared exclusively on milk and were slaughtered when they reached 11 kg live weight. FA profiles of ewe milk, lamb meat and subcutaneous adipose tissue were determined by GC. Lamb performance was not affected by the treatments. Muscle fat and adipose tissue from the Lin treatment showed higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The percentages of α-linolenic (C18:3 n-3), docosahexaenoic (C22:6 n-3), vaccenic (trans-11 C18:1) and rumenic (cis-9, trans-11 C18:2) acids in both fat depots were higher in Lin than in Control suckling lambs. Furthermore, meat fat from Lin carcasses displayed a lower n-6/n-3 ratio than Control samples. Intramuscular depots clearly showed a greater content of PUFA, including cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio than subcutaneous fat. The results from this study demonstrate that dietary extruded linseed supplementation of lactating ewes enhances the nutritional quality of suckling lamb fat depots such as intramuscular and subcutaneous fats.

  1. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sachs, T; Schermerhorn, M

    2010-06-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) continues to be one of the most lethal vascular pathologies we encounter. Its management demands prompt and efficient evaluation and repair. Open repair has traditionally been the mainstay of treatment. However, the introduction of endovascular techniques has altered the treatment algorithm for ruptured AAA in most major medical centers. We present recent literature and techniques for ruptured AAA and its surgical management.

  2. The Abdominal Circulatory Pump

    PubMed Central

    Aliverti, Andrea; Bovio, Dario; Fullin, Irene; Dellacà, Raffaele L.; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Pedotti, Antonio; Macklem, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs) is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 50–75 ml with an ejection fraction of 4–6% and an output of 750–1500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.61±0.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.57±0.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart. PMID:19440240

  3. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  4. [Abdominal catastrophe--surgeon's view].

    PubMed

    Vyhnánek, F

    2010-07-01

    Abdominal catastrophe is a serious clinical condition, usually being a complication arising during treatment of intraabdominal nontraumatic disorders or abdominal injuries. Most commonly, inflamation- secondary peritonitis, is concerned. Abdominal catastrophe also includes secondary signs of sepsis, abdominal compartment syndrome and enterocutaneous fistules. Most septic abdominal disorders which show signs of abdominal catastrophy, require surgical intervention and reinterventions--planned or "on demand" laparotomies. During the postoperative period, the patient requires intensive care management, including steps taken to stabilize his/hers condition, management of sepsis and metabolic and nutritional support measures, as well as adequate indication for reoperations. New technologies aimed at prevention of complications in laparostomies and to improve conditions for final laparotomy closure are used in phase procedures for surgical management of intraabdominal infections. Despite the new technologies, abdominal catastrophe has higher morbidity and lethality risk rates.

  5. Abdominal SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Van Heertum, R.L.; Brunetti, J.C.; Yudd, A.P.

    1987-07-01

    Over the past several years, abdominal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has evolved from a research tool to an important clinical imaging modality that is helpful in the diagnostic assessment of a wide variety of disorders involving the abdominal viscera. Although liver-spleen imaging is the most popular of the abdominal SPECT procedures, blood pool imaging is becoming much more widely utilized for the evaluation of cavernous hemangiomas of the liver as well as other vascular abnormalities in the abdomen. Adjunctive indium leukocyte and gallium SPECT studies are also proving to be of value in the assessment of a variety of infectious and neoplastic diseases. As more experience is acquired in this area, SPECT should become the primary imaging modality for both gallium and indium white blood cells in many institutions. Renal SPECT, on the other hand, has only recently been used as a clinical imaging modality for the assessment of such parameters as renal depth and volume. The exact role of renal SPECT as a clinical tool is, therefore, yet to be determined. 79 references.

  6. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management.

  7. Functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, P; Aziz, Q

    2005-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is an uncommon functional gut disorder characterised by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain attributed to the gut but poorly related to gut function. It is associated with abnormal illness behaviour and patients show psychological morbidity that is often minimised or denied in an attempt to discover an organic cause for symptoms. Thus the conventional biomedical approach to the management of such patients is unhelpful and a person's symptom experience is more usefully investigated using a biopsychosocial evaluation, which necessarily entails a multidisciplinary system of healthcare provision. Currently the pathophysiology of the disorder is poorly understood but is most likely to involve a dysfunction of central pain mechanisms either in terms of attentional bias, for example, hypervigilance or a failure of central pain modulation/inhibition. Although modern neurophysiological investigation of patients is promising and may provide important insights into the pathophysiology of FAPS, current clinical management relies on an effective physician-patient relationship in which limits on clinical investigation are set and achievable treatment goals tailored to the patient's needs are pursued. PMID:15998821

  8. Drilling and testing of well 340, Fort Wingate Army Depot, McKinley County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shomaker, John W.

    1969-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by Fort Wingate Army Depot to designate a well location, suggest construction and testing procedures, and provide continuing technical advice with respect to the drilling of a new production well. The location was determined during a brief preliminary study of the Depot's water supply which is summarized in a report transmitted to the Depot in April of 1968, and the Geological Survey's suggestions for construction and testing are contained in the specifications written by the Post Engineer at the Depot as part of the well-drilling contract. A representative of the the Geological Survey was present during most of the drilling and testing of the well.

  9. Forward-looking recognition based on convex hull invariants of oil depot region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fangfang; Sun, Jiyin; Han, Bing; Xia, Jing

    2007-11-01

    Forward-looking navigation system is a fire-new technique for terminal guidance of intending precision-guided weapons and research on oil depot recognition of forward-looking imaging is an essential task for this control and guide system. As conventional matching methods could not overcome perspective transmutation, a new method to identify the forward-looking area of oil depot was advanced in this paper. First, constructed three statistics of regions based on convex hull, which were invariant to affine transform. Then, number of inside oilcans could easily be achieved by adding a decision step. Finally the area of oil depot could be located according to the comparison between the computed number and the foreknowable number under a given threshold. Experiments applied to optical images in different areas show that the proposed method is accurate and has wider application in identifying such small objects as oilcans, and it realizes automatically recognizing area of oil depot from forward-looking imaging.

  10. Abdominal tumors in children

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chaeyoun; Youn, Joong Kee; Han, Ji-Won; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in pediatric patients has been steadily increasing in recent years. However, its use for diagnosing and treating abdominal tumors in children is still limited compared with adults, especially when malignancy is a matter of debate. Here, we describe the experience at our center with pediatric abdominal tumors to show the safety and feasibility of MIS. Based on a retrospective review of patient records, we selected for study those pediatric patients who had undergone diagnostic exploration or curative resection for abdominal tumors at a single center from January 2010 through August 2015. Diagnostic exploration for abdominal tumors was performed in 32 cases and curative resection in 173 cases (205 operations). MIS was performed in 11 cases of diagnostic exploration (34.4%) and 38 cases of curative resection (21.9%). The mean age of the children who underwent MIS was 6.09 ± 5.2 years. With regard to diagnostic exploration, patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were found to be similar for MIS and open surgery. With regard to curative resection, however, the mean age was significantly lower among the patients who underwent open surgery (4.21 ± 4.20 vs 6.02 ± 4.99 for MIS, P = 0.047), and the proportion of malignancies was significantly higher (80% vs 39.4% for MIS, P < 0.001). MIS compared favorably with open surgery with respect to the rate of recurrence (6.7% vs 35.1%, P = 0.035), the rate of intraoperative transfusions (34.2% vs 58.5%, P = 0.01), the median amount of blood transfused (14 vs 22 mL/kg, P = 0.001), and the mean number of hospital days (4.66 ± 2.36 vs 7.21 ± 5.09, P < 0.001). Complication rates did not differ significantly between the MIS and open surgery groups. The operation was converted to open surgery in 3 cases (27.2%) of diagnostic MIS and in 5 cases (13.1%) of curative MIS. MIS was found to be both feasible and effective for the

  11. Detection of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor in various adipose tissue depots of dairy cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acids.

    PubMed

    Friedauer, K; Dänicke, S; Schulz, K; Sauerwein, H; Häussler, S

    2015-10-01

    Early lactating cows mobilize adipose tissue (AT) to provide energy for milk yield and maintenance and are susceptible to metabolic disorders and impaired immune response. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), mainly the trans-10, cis-12 isomer, reduce milk fat synthesis and may attenuate negative energy balance. Circulating glucocorticoids (GC) are increased during parturition in dairy cows and mediate differentiating and anti-inflammatory effects via glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the presence of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1). Activated GC are the main ligands for both receptors in AT; therefore, we hypothesized that tissue-specific GC metabolism is effected by varying amounts of GR, MR and 11βHSD1 and/or their localization within AT depots. Furthermore, the lipolytic and antilipogenic effects of CLA might influence the GC/GR/MR system in AT. Therefore, we aimed to localize GR and MR as well as the expression pattern and activity of 11βHSD1 in different AT depots during early lactation in dairy cows and to identify potential effects of CLA. Primiparous German Holstein cows were divided into a control (CON) and a CLA group. From day 1 post-partum (p.p.) until sample collection, the CLA group was fed with 100 g/d CLA (contains 10 g each of the cis-9, trans-11 and the trans-10, cis-12-CLA isomers). CON cows (n = 5 each) were slaughtered on day 1, 42 and 105 p.p., while CLA cows (n = 5 each) were slaughtered on day 42 and 105 p.p. Subcutaneous fat from tailhead, withers and sternum, and visceral fat from omental, mesenteric and retroperitoneal depots were sampled. The localization of GR and 11βHSD1 in mature adipocytes - being already differentiated - indicates that GC promote other effects via GR than differentiation. Moreover, MR were observed in the stromal vascular cell fraction and positively related to the pre-adipocyte marker Pref-1. However, only marginal CLA effects were observed in this study.

  12. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) Report, Sacramento Army Depot, Sacramento, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    nan. COC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3 . REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVEREDIApril 1994 Final Rep~ort 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S...2 1.3 Geographical and Environmental Setting ...................... 3 2.0 scope of Investigation...Remediation Areas, Sacramento Army Depot (Plate) .... 79 Figure 5-2: Tract Acquisition Map, Sacramento Army Depot (Plate) ....... 80 Figure 5- 3 : Parcel

  13. Electrospark Deposition for Depot- and Field-Level Component Repair and Replacement of Hard Chromium Plating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-07

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) Final Report Electrospark Deposition for Depot...19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 15-09-2006 Final Report March 2002 - November 2006 Electrospark Deposition for Depot- and Field-Level...303 Arlington, VA 22203 ESTCP WP-0202-FR Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Electrospark Deposition (ESD) is a microwelding process

  14. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Zimmerman, G.P.; Staub, W.P.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1990-09-01

    This is the 1990 Addendum (Volume 2) for the Phase I report on the disposal of chemicals and munitions at Anniston Army Depot. Included in the Addendum are responses to reviewers' comments on population density estimates, seismicity information, fault locations, and references. Reviewing agencies errata, and conclusions are also listed. Information presented does not change the principal conclusion reached by the Phase I report, that on-site disposal remains valid for Anniston Army Depot. (SM)

  15. Ten year outcomes of outpatients with schizophrenia on conventional depot antipsychotics: a systematic chart review.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Takahito; Suzuki, Takefumi; Sakurai, Hitoshi; Tsutsumi, Chisa; Den, Ryosuke; Mimura, Masaru; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-01

    Long-term follow-up data of patients with schizophrenia on depot antipsychotics have been few and the longest follow-up period has been up to 7 years. We carried out a systematic chart review to examine 10-year outcomes for outpatients with schizophrenia who were receiving a conventional depot antipsychotic. Maintenance of outpatient status for 10 years was considered as a favorable outcome. From the initial sample of 1587 outpatients, 90 patients who were receiving a depot antipsychotic were included in this study (mean±SD, age 44.0±13.0 years; men, N=54). Haloperidol decanoate, fluphenazine decanoate, fluphenazine enanthate, and haloperidol decanoate plus fluphenazine enanthate were used in 53 (58.9%), 29 (32.2%), seven (7.8%), and one (1.1%) patients, respectively. These depot antipsychotics accounted for 36.9% of the total antipsychotic dosage on average. Seventeen patients (18.9%) successfully maintained outpatient status for 10 years. The most frequent reason for dropout was 'hospitalization' (N=49, 54.4%), followed by 'referral to another clinic/hospital' (N=9, 10.0%) and 'side effects' (N=7, 7.8%). As only 36.9% of the chlorpromazine equivalents were administered through depot antipsychotics, it is difficult to draw any firm conclusion. Still, the data suggest that even depot antipsychotics may not sufficiently prevent relapse in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  16. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  17. Maternal Omega-3 Supplementation Increases Fat Mass in Male and Female Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Muhlhausler, Beverly Sara; Miljkovic, Dijana; Fong, Laura; Xian, Cory J.; Duthoit, Emmanuelle; Gibson, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Adipogenesis and lipogenesis are highly sensitive to the nutritional environment in utero and in early postnatal life. Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adult rats, however it is not known whether supplementing the maternal diet with omega-3 LCPUFA results in reduced fat deposition in the offspring. Female Albino Wistar rats were fed either a standard chow (Control, n = 10) or chow designed to provide ∼15 mg/kg/day of omega-3 LCPUFA, chiefly as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), throughout pregnancy and lactation (Omega-3, n = 11) and all pups were weaned onto a commercial rat chow. Blood and tissues were collected from pups at 3 and 6 weeks of age and weights of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots recorded. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the subcutaneous and visceral fat depots were determined using quantitative real time reverse transcription-PCR. Birth weight and postnatal growth were not different between groups. At 6 weeks of age, total percentage body fat was significantly increased in both male (5.09 ± 0.32% vs. 4.56 ± 0.2%, P < 0.04) and female (5.15 ± 0.37% vs. 3.89 ± 0.36%, P < 0.04) offspring of omega-3 dams compared to controls. The omega-3 LCPUFA content of erythrocyte phospholipids (as a% of total fatty acids) was higher in omega-3 offspring (6.7 ± 0.2% vs. 5.6 ± 0.2%, P < 0.001). There was no effect of maternal omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation on the expression of adipogenic or lipogenic genes in the offspring in either the visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. We have therefore established that an omega-3 rich environment during pregnancy and lactation in a rodent model increases fat accumulation in both male and female offspring, particularly in subcutaneous depots, but that this effect is not mediated via upregulation adipogenic/lipogenic gene transcription. These data suggest that maternal n−3 LCPUFA

  18. Visceral Fat as a Useful Parameter in the Differential Diagnosis of Crohn's Disease and Intestinal Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Jun Kwon; Kim, Jin Ok; Song, Soon Young; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Oh Young; Han, Dong Soo; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon; Hahm, Joon Soo; Kim, Sang-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Because of the similarities in the clinical presentations of Crohn's disease (CD) and intestinal tuberculosis (ITB), differential diagnosis is critical. Mesenteric adipose tissue hypertrophy and creeping fat are characteristic features of CD. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of visceral fat for the differential diagnosis of CD and ITB. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of 50 patients with findings of CD or ITB between January 2005 and July 2008. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed on all subjects during their first evaluation. The abdominal fat area was assessed using quantitative abdominal CT. Results The ratio of visceral fat to total fat (VF/TF) was significantly higher in male CD patients than in male ITB patients. The ratio of visceral fat to subcutaneous fat (VF/SF) was also higher in CD patients than in patients with ITB. For a VF/TF cut-off value of 0.46, the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of CD were 42.1% and 93.3% respectively, with positive and negative predictive values of 88.9% and 56.0%, respectively. Conclusion Measurement of the abdominal fat area using CT can be clinically useful for the differential diagnosis of CD and ITB. PMID:25349562

  19. Association between obesity and femoral neck strength according to age, sex, and fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Lee, S H; Kim, B J; Koh, J M

    2017-03-29

    Indicators of total and abdominal obesity were negatively associated with femoral neck strength indices. There are age-, sex-, and fat distribution-specific differences in the magnitude of these associations. These suggested that indicators of obesity with different magnitude according to age, sex, and fat distribution associated with poor bone health.

  20. Fat-to-glucose interconversion by hydrodynamic transfer of two glyoxylate cycle enzyme genes

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, P; Campion, J; Milagro, FI; Marzo, F; Martinez, JA

    2008-01-01

    The glyoxylate cycle, which is well characterized in higher plants and some microorganisms but not in vertebrates, is able to bypass the citric acid cycle to achieve fat-to-carbohydrate interconversion. In this context, the hydrodynamic transfer of two glyoxylate cycle enzymes, such as isocytrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS), could accomplish the shift of using fat for the synthesis of glucose. Therefore, 20 mice weighing 23.37 ± 0.96 g were hydrodinamically gene transferred by administering into the tail vein a bolus with ICL and MS. After 36 hours, body weight, plasma glucose, respiratory quotient and energy expenditure were measured. The respiratory quotient was increased by gene transfer, which suggests that a higher carbohydrate/lipid ratio is oxidized in such animals. This application could help, if adequate protocols are designed, to induce fat utilization for glucose synthesis, which might be eventually useful to reduce body fat depots in situations of obesity and diabetes. PMID:19077206

  1. Investigation of Fat Metabolism during Antiobesity Interventions by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pola, Arunima; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Gopalan, Venkatesh; Tan, Min-Li Sandra; Keong, Terry Yew; Zhou, Zhihong; Ishino, Seigo; Nakano, Yoshihide; Watanabe, Masanori; Horiguchi, Takashi; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Zhu, Bin; Velan, S Sendhil

    2014-01-01

    The focus of current treatments for obesity is to reduce the body weight or visceral fat, which requires longer duration to show effect. In this study, we investigated the short-term changes in fat metabolism in liver, abdomen, and skeletal muscle during antiobesity interventions including Sibutra mine treatment and diet restriction in obese rats using magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and blood chemistry. Sibutramine is an antiobesity drug that results in weight loss by increasing satiety and energy expenditure. The Sibutramine-treated rats showed reduction of liver fat and intramyocellular lipids on day 3. The triglycerides (TG) decreased on day 1 and 3 compared to baseline (day 0). The early response/nonresponse in different fat depots will permit optimization of treatment for better clinical outcome rather than staying with a drug for longer periods. PMID:25574137

  2. Switching harmful visceral fat to beneficial energy combustion improves metabolic dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Sui, Wenhai; Zhang, Meng; Dong, Mei; Lim, Sharon; Seki, Takahiro; Guo, Ziheng; Fischer, Carina; Lu, Huixia; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Jianmin; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Yangang; Cao, Caixia; Gao, Yanyan; Zhao, Xingguo; Sun, Meili; Sun, Yuping; Zhuang, Rujie; Samani, Nilesh J; Zhang, Yun; Cao, Yihai

    2017-02-23

    Visceral fat is considered the genuine and harmful white adipose tissue (WAT) that is associated to development of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Here, we present a new concept to turn the harmful visceral fat into a beneficial energy consumption depot, which is beneficial for improvement of metabolic dysfunctions in obese mice. We show that low temperature-dependent browning of visceral fat caused decreased adipose weight, total body weight, and body mass index, despite increased food intake. In high-fat diet-fed mice, low temperature exposure improved browning of visceral fat, global metabolism via nonshivering thermogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic steatosis. Genome-wide expression profiling showed upregulation of WAT browning-related genes including Cidea and Dio2. Conversely, Prdm16 was unchanged in healthy mice or was downregulated in obese mice. Surgical removal of visceral fat and genetic knockdown of UCP1 in epididymal fat largely ablated low temperature-increased global thermogenesis and resulted in the death of most mice. Thus, browning of visceral fat may be a compensatory heating mechanism that could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating visceral fat-associated obesity and diabetes.

  3. Relation of epicardial fat thickness to right ventricular cavity size in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2009-12-01

    Epicardial fat is the visceral fat depot of the heart and is commonly increased in obese subjects. Obesity is also associated with right ventricular (RV) enlargement. Nevertheless, whether epicardial fat might be independently associated with RV morphology is unknown. I evaluated the correlation between echocardiographic epicardial fat and RV cavity size in subjects with a wide range of adiposity. Echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness and RV end-diastolic diameter (RVEDD) were assessed in 50 obese and 50 normal weight subjects. Patients with clinical conditions that could affect the RVEDD were excluded. Obese subjects had a significantly greater epicardial fat thickness and RVEDD than normal weight subjects (10 +/- 4 vs 5 +/- 2 mm and 22 +/- 10 vs 15 +/- 5, respectively; p <0.01 for both). The univariate relation between the epicardial fat thickness and RVEDD was very significant (r = 0.82, p <0.01) for overall obese and normal weight subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that epicardial fat thickness was the best independent correlate of RVEDD (r(2) = 0.42, p <0.01) in overall subjects. In conclusion, increased RV epicardial fat accumulation is associated with enlarged RV cavity size.

  4. Abdominal perfusion computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis.

  5. Abdominal Perfusion Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M. Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis. PMID:25610249

  6. Recurrent pneumothorax following abdominal paracentesis.

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    A 62 year old man presented with abdominal ascites, without pleural effusion, due to peritoneal mesothelioma. He had chronic obstructive airways disease and a past history of right upper lobectomy for tuberculosis. On two occasions abdominal paracentesis was followed within 72 hours by pneumothorax. This previously unreported complication of abdominal paracentesis may be due to increased diaphragmatic excursion following the procedure and should be considered in patients with preexisting lung disease. PMID:2385561

  7. Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo, Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    COW 03 PUBLICATION REPORT 94-30227 * ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS IN CAIRO, BY RWIavni 0. IHibbs6 M. Kuanmm ad Z. Fun .Y .~ ... W I Form ApprovedREPORT...Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 8 April 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo...abdominal tuberculosis patients seen at Abbassia Fever Hospital in Cairo, Egypt from January 1990 to August 1992 are described; their mean age was 21.5

  8. Abdominal pregnancy- a case report.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Ii; Ude, Ac; Aderibigbe, Aso; Amu, Oc; Udeh, Pe; Obianyo, Nen; Ani, Coc

    2011-01-01

    A case of abdominal pregnancy in a 39 year old female gravida 4, para 0(+3) is presented. Ultrasonography revealed a viable abdominal pregnancy at 15 weeks gestational age. She was initially managed conservatively. Surgical intervention became necessary at 20 weeks gestational age following Ultrasound detection of foetal demise. The maternal outcome was favourable. This case is presented to highlight the dilemma associated with diagnosis and management of abdominal pregnancy with a review of literature.

  9. Emergency response concept plan for Anniston Army Depot and vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.; Sorensen, J.H.; Rogers, G.O.; Shumpert, B.L.; Miller, R.L.; Watson, A.P.; Chester, C.V.

    1989-10-01

    The continued storage and disposal of the United States' unitary chemical stockpile, including that portion stored at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) near Anniston, Alabama, have the potential for accidental releases that could escape installation boundaries and pose a threat to civilian populations. The US Army, in conjunction with the Federal Emergency Management Agency and other federal agencies, is committed to implement an emergency preparedness program that will significantly reduce the probability of adverse effects from such releases. This concept plan, which is but a part of a comprehensive ongoing effort, provides a framework for initiating such a program for the UMDA stockpile. This report develops information and methodologies that bear on two major decisions for such a program -- determining emergency planning zones and selecting protective action strategies. These decisions are based on the hazards posed by the UMDA stockpile and its disposal. These hazards, in turn, are based largely on the distribution of potential accidental releases associated with interim storage and disposal activities and associated external events (e.g., earthquakes and airplane crashes), the distribution of natural features that can affect an agent release (topographical features and meteorological characteristics), and the distribution of people and resources (e.g., homes, schools, and hospitals) potentially affected by an accidental release. 25 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Performance Gains of Propellant Management Devices for Liquid Hydrogen Depots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; McQuillen, John B.; Chato, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents background, experimental design, and preliminary experimental results for the liquid hydrogen bubble point tests conducted at the Cryogenic Components Cell 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the test series was to investigate the parameters that affect liquid acquisition device (LAD) performance in a liquid hydrogen (LH2) propellant tank, to mitigate risk in the final design of the LAD for the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission, and to provide insight into optimal LAD operation for future LH2 depots. Preliminary test results show an increase in performance and screen retention over the low reference LH2 bubble point value for a 325 2300 screen in three separate ways, thus improving fundamental LH2 LAD performance. By using a finer mesh screen, operating at a colder liquid temperature, and pressurizing with a noncondensible pressurant gas, a significant increase in margin is achieved in bubble point pressure for LH2 screen channel LADs.

  11. Depot risperidone-induced adverse metabolic alterations in female rats.

    PubMed

    Horska, Katerina; Ruda-Kucerova, Jana; Karpisek, Michal; Suchy, Pavel; Opatrilova, Radka; Kotolova, Hana

    2017-04-01

    Atypical antipsychotics are associated with adverse metabolic effects including weight gain, increased adiposity, dyslipidaemia, alterations in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Increasing evidence suggests that metabolic dysregulation precedes weight gain development. The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in adipokines, hormones and basic serum biochemical parameters induced by chronic treatment with depot risperidone at two doses (20 and 40 mg/kg) in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Dose-dependent metabolic alterations induced by risperidone after 6 weeks of treatment were revealed. Concomitant to weight gain and increased liver weight, an adverse lipid profile with an elevated triglyceride level was observed in the high exposure group, administered a 40 mg/kg dose repeatedly, while the low dose exposure group, administered a 20 mg/kg dose, developed weight gain without alterations in the lipid profile and adipokine levels. An initial peak in leptin serum level after the higher dose was observed in the absence of weight gain. This finding may indicate that the metabolic alterations observed in this study are not consequent to body weight gain. Taken together, these data may support the primary effects of atypical antipsychotics on peripheral tissues.

  12. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Siebenmann, R; Schneider, K; von Segesser, L; Turina, M

    1988-06-11

    348 cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm were reviewed for typical features of inflammatory aneurysm (IAAA) (marked thickening of aneurysm wall, retroperitoneal fibrosis and rigid adherence of adjacent structures). IAAA was present in 15 cases (14 male, 1 female). When compared with patients who had ordinary aneurysms, significantly more patients complained of back or abdominal pain (p less than 0.01). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was highly elevated. Diagnosis was established in 7 of 10 computed tomographies. 2 patients underwent emergency repair for ruptured aneurysm. Unilateral ureteral obstruction was present in 4 cases and bilateral in 1. Repair of IAAA was performed by a modified technique. Histological examination revealed thickening of the aortic wall, mainly of the adventitial layer, infiltrated by plasma cells and lymphocytes. One 71-year-old patient operated on for rupture of IAAA died early, and another 78-year-old patient after 5 1/2 months. Control computed tomographies revealed spontaneous regression of inflammatory infiltration after repair. Equally, hydronephrosis due to ureteral obstruction could be shown to disappear or at least to decrease. IAAA can be diagnosed by computed tomography with high sensitivity. Repair involves low risk, but modification of technique is necessary. The etiology of IAAA remains unclear.

  13. Fertility after abdominal myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Connolly, G; Doyle, M; Barrett, T; Byrne, P; De Mello, M; Harrison, R F

    2000-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the morbidity and pregnancy outcome of myomectomy in infertile women with uterine fibroids. This was a cross-sectional study. Records were reviewed for 100 consecutive women in the Rotunda Hospital who underwent myomectomy in the years 1995-1996. A questionnaire regarding subsequent fertility was sent. The study was carried out in the infertility unit at the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Seventy-five women responded. Multiple myomectomy was performed in 52 (70%). Mean fibroid size was 6.8 cm (range 2-14.5 cm). Nine women (12%) developed complications; five had menstrual problems, two had wound discomfort and two had abdominal discomfort. Twenty-five women (33%) became pregnant. Seven (28%) were IVF pregnancies. Overall six (24%) miscarried. In 19 of 25, pregnancy occurred where fibroids were the only identifiable cause of infertility. We conclude that abdominal myomectomy is associated with a favourable outcome in infertile women particularly if no other confounding variable is present.

  14. [Intra-abdominal mycoses].

    PubMed

    Boos, C; Kujath, P; Bruch, H-P

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of invasive mycoses in patients undergoing abdominal surgery amounts to approximately 8% and shows an upward trend in epidemiological studies. The lethality of these systemic mycoses, which are mostly based on Candida infections constitutes up to 60%. The development of a sytemic mycosis is marked by exogenic, endogenic and iatrogenic risk factors and typically displays tissue invasion after an initial fungal contamination or systemic dissemination via fungal sepsis. Fungal peritonitis is generally a monoinfection with Candida spp., where Candida albicans outweighs in 70% of cases. Aspergillus spp. are only detected abdominally in rare cases. The histological verification of a fungal invasion is regarded as proof of the existence of an invasive mycosis, but typical macroscopic findings with corresponding cultural findings can also confirm the diagnosis. Systemic mycosis requires an early initiation of a consistent antimycotic therapy as well as definitive surgical eradication of the focus in order to reduce high lethal rate. Resistances or incorrect dosages can be validated objectively by means of histological monitoring of the antimycotic therapy, thus affording early recognition of the need to change the substance class.

  15. Measurement of ground and nearby building vibration and noise induced by trains in a metro depot.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chao; Wang, Yimin; Wang, Peng; Guo, Jixing

    2015-12-01

    Metro depots are where subway trains are parked and where maintenance is carried out. They usually occupy the largest ground areas in metro projects. Due to land utilization problems, Chinese cities have begun to develop over-track buildings above metro depots for people's life and work. The frequently moving trains, when going into and out of metro depots, can cause excessive vibration and noise to over-track buildings and adversely affect the living quality of the building occupants. Considering the current need of reliable experimental data for the construction of metro depots, field measurements of vibration and noise on the ground and inside a nearby 3-story building subjected to moving subway trains were conducted in a metro depot at Guangzhou, China. The amplitudes and frequency contents of velocity levels were quantified and compared. The composite A-weighted equivalent sound levels and maximum sound levels were captured. The predicted models for vibration and noise of metro depot were proposed based on existing models and verified. It was found that the vertical vibrations were significantly greater than the horizontal vibrations on the ground and inside the building near the testing line. While at the throat area, the horizontal vibrations near the curved track were remarkably greater than the vertical vibrations. The attenuation of the vibrations with frequencies above 50 Hz was larger than the ones below 50 Hz, and the frequencies of vibration transmitting to adjacent buildings were mainly within 10-50 Hz. The largest equivalent sound level generated in the throat area was smaller than the testing line one, but the instantaneous maximum sound level induced by wheels squeal, contact between wheels and rail joints as well as turnout was close to or even greater than the testing line one. The predicted models gave a first estimation for design and assessment of newly built metro depots.

  16. Sagittal abdominal diameter is a more independent measure compared with waist circumference to predict arterial stiffness in subjects with type 2 diabetes - a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anthropometric measurements are useful in clinical practice since they are non-invasive and cheap. Previous studies suggest that sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) may be a better measure of visceral fat depots. The aim of this study was to prospectively explore and compare how laboratory and anthropometric risk markers predicted subclinical organ damage in 255 patients, with type 2 diabetes, after four years. Methods Baseline investigations were performed in 2006 and were repeated at follow-up in 2010. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was evaluated by ultrasonography and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured with applanation tonometry over the carotid and femoral arteries at baseline and at follow-up in a cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes aged 55–65 years old. Results There were significant correlations between apolipoprotein B (apoB) (r = 0.144, p = 0.03), C - reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.172, p = 0.009) at baseline and IMT measured at follow-up. After adjustment for sex, age, treatment with statins and Hba1c, the associations remained statistically significant. HbA1c, total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol did not correlate to IMT at follow-up. Baseline body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.130, p = 0.049), waist circumference (WC) (r = 0.147, p = 0.027) and sagittal Abdominal Diameter (SAD) (r = 0.184, p = 0.007) correlated to PWV at follow-up. Challenged with sex, SBP and HbA1c, the association between SAD, not WC nor BMI, and PWV remained statistically significant (p = 0.036). In a stepwise linear regression, entering both SAD and WC, the association between SAD and PWV was stronger than the association between WC and PWV. Conclusions We conclude that apoB and CRP, but not LDL-cholesterol predicted subclinical atherosclerosis. Furthermore, SAD was more independent in predicting arterial stiffness over time, compared with WC, in middle-aged men and women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23536999

  17. Dural repair using autologous fat: Our experience and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Di Vitantonio, Hambra; De Paulis, Danilo; Del Maestro, Mattia; Ricci, Alessandro; Dechordi, Soheila Raysi; Marzi, Sara; Millimaggi, Daniele F.; Galzio, Renato J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various materials have been proposed to obliterate dead spaces and to reconstruct dural defects during a neurosurgical approach. This study describes our technique of using the abdominal autologous fat graft and evaluates the complications and characteristics related to the use of this tissue during cranial procedures. Methods: Autologous fat grafts were used in 296 patients with basicranial and convexity extraaxial tumors from April 2005 to January 2015. The adipose tissue was removed from the paraumbilical abdominal region and was transformed into a thin foil. When possible, a watertight suture was made between the dural or bone edge with a fat graft. We always used fibrin glue to reinforce the dural closure. Results: Complications occurred between 2 days and 1 year following procedure. Cerebrospinal fluid leaks were found in 11 cases. No case of mortality, pseudomeningoceles, fistula, infections, bacterial meningitides, or lipoid meningitides was reported. No patient required removal of the graft. No adhesion was observed between the brain and the autologous fat. Other fat-related complications observed were 2 cases of fat necrosis in the abdomen and 2 cases of abdominal hemorrhage. Conclusion: The technique of harvesting and applying fat grafts is fairly simple, although it must be performed meticulously to be effective. Our experience has led us to believe that the use of fat grafts presents low morbidity and mortality. However, a neurosurgeon should never forget the possible late or early complications related to the use of fat grafts. PMID:27500007

  18. [Abdominal approaches and drainages of the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Hagel, C; Schilling, M

    2006-04-01

    Appropriate access to the abdominal cavity is the first and crucial step for successful abdominal surgical intervention. In planning the incision, several variables have to be considered, such as anatomy of the abdominal wall, localization of the target organ, and individual conditions (previous incisions, minimal access surgery, etc). Medial laparotomy is the preferred incision for emergency cases and ill-defined pathologies, allowing access and hence exploration to all quadrants. Transverse laparotomies give superior access to the dorsal and right aspects of the liver and cause less pain in patients unfit for regional anesthetic procedures. Draining of the abdominal cavity is used after various resective and reconstructive procedures, but there is little evidence for its use in a number of operations such as gastric, hepatic, and colorectal resections. Advantages and disadvantages of different abdominal wall incisions and drainages are discussed.

  19. Green tea extract improves high fat diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation, without affecting the serotoninergic system.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Marcos H; Zemdegs, Juliane C S; de Santana, Aline A; Santamarina, Aline B; Moreno, Mayara F; Hachul, Ana C L; dos Santos, Bruno; do Nascimento, Claudia M Oller; Ribeiro, Eliane B; Oyama, Lila M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate possible mechanisms of green tea's anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects in the hypothalamus, the central regulator of metabolism, of mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD), we analyzed proteins of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway and serotoninergic proteins involved in energy homeostasis. Thirty-day-old male Swiss mice were fed with HFD rich in saturated fat and green tea extract (GTE) for 8 weeks. After that, body weight and mass of fat depots were evaluated. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed 3 days prior to euthanasia; serum glucose, insulin and adiponectin were measured in fasted mice. Hypothalamic TLR4 pathway proteins, serotonin receptors 1B and 2C and serotonin transporter were analyzed by Western blotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A second set of animals was used to measure food intake in response to fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Mice fed with HFD had increased body weight and mass of fat depots, impaired oral glucose tolerance, elevated glucose and insulin and decreased adiponectin serum levels. TLR4, IκB-α, nuclear factor κB p50 and interleukin 6 were increased by HFD. Concomitant GTE treatment ameliorated these parameters. The serotoninergic system remained functional after HFD treatment despite a few alterations in protein content of serotonin receptors 1B and 2C and serotonin transporter. In summary, the GTE attenuated the deleterious effects of the HFD investigated in this study, partially due to reduced hypothalamic inflammation.

  20. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  1. CT of abdominal tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, B.M.; Mann, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.

  2. Space Resource Requirements for Future In-Space Propellant Production Depots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Fikes, John; Roy, Stephanie; Henley, Mark W.; Potter, Seth D.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 and 2001 studies were conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on the technical requirements and commercial potential for propellant production depots in low Earth orbit (LEO) to support future commercial, NASA, and other Agency missions. Results indicate that propellant production depots appear to be technically feasible given continued technology development, and there is a substantial growing market that depots could support. Systems studies showed that the most expensive part of transferring payloads to geosynchronous orbit (GEO) is the fuel. A cryogenic propellant production and storage depot stationed in LEO could lower the cost of missions to GEO and beyond. Propellant production separates water into hydrogen and oxygen through electrolysis. This process utilizes large amounts of power, therefore a depot derived from advanced space solar power technology was defined. Results indicate that in the coming decades there could be a significant demand for water-based propellants from Earth, moon, or asteroid resources if in-space transfer vehicles (upper stages) transitioned to reusable systems using water based propellants. This type of strategic planning move could create a substantial commercial market for space resources development, and ultimately lead toward significant commercial infrastructure development within the Earth-Moon system.

  3. A Practical, Affordable Cryogenic Propellant Depot Based on ULA's Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutter, Bernard F.; Zegler, Frank; O'Neil, Gary; Pitchford, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Mankind is embarking on the next step in the journey of human exploration. We are returning to the moon and eventually moving to Mars and beyond. The current Exploration architecture seeks a balance between the need for a robust infrastructure on the lunar surface, and the performance limitations of Ares I and V. The ability to refuel or top-off propellant tanks from orbital propellant depots offers NASA the opportunity to cost effectively and reliably satisfy these opposing requirements. The ability to cache large orbital quantities of propellant is also an enabling capability for missions to Mars and beyond. This paper describes an option for a propellant depot that enables orbital refueling supporting Exploration, national security, science and other space endeavors. This proposed concept is launched using a single EELV medium class rocket and thus does not require any orbital assembly. The propellant depot provides cryogenic propellant storage that utilizes flight proven technologies augmented with technologies currently under development. The propellant depot system, propellant management, flight experience, and key technologies are also discussed. Options for refueling the propellant depot along with an overview of Exploration architecture impacts are also presented.

  4. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; George, Reeba; Dixit, R.; Gupta, R. C.; Gupta, N.

    2013-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is an often overlooked cause of breathlessness in trauma wards. Presenting in a wide range of clinical signs of varying severity, fat embolism is usually diagnosed by a physician who keeps a high degree of suspicion. The clinical background, chronology of symptoms and corroborative laboratory findings are instrumental in a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. There are a few diagnostic criteria which are helpful in making a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. Management is mainly prevention of fat embolism syndrome, and organ supportive care. Except in fulminant fat embolism syndrome, the prognosis is usually good. PMID:23661916

  5. Modest Visceral Fat Gain Causes Endothelial Dysfunction In Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H.; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Orban, Marek; Gami, Apoor; Davison, Diane; Singh, Prachi; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Huyber, Christine; Votruba, Susanne; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Jensen, Michael D.; Somers, Virend K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine the impact of fat gain and its distribution on endothelial function in lean healthy humans. Background Endothelial dysfunction has been identified as an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Whether fat gain impairs endothelial function is unknown. Methods A randomized controlled study to assess the effects of fat gain on endothelial function. We recruited 43 normal weight healthy volunteers (mean age 29 years; 18 women). Subjects were assigned to gain weight (approximately 4 kg) (n=35) or to maintain weight (n=8). Endothelial function (brachial artery flow mediated dilation -FMD) was measured at baseline, after fat gain (8 weeks) and after weight loss (16 weeks) for fat-gainers and at baseline and follow-up (8 weeks) for weight-maintainers. Body composition was measured by DXA and abdominal CT scans. Results After an average weight gain of 4.1 kg, fat-gainers significantly increased their total, visceral and subcutaneous fat. Blood pressure and overnight polysomnography did not change after fat gain or loss. FMD remained unchanged in weight-maintainers. FMD decreased in fat-gainers (9.1 ± 3% vs. 7.8 ± 3.2%, p =0.003), but recovered to baseline when subjects shed the gained weight. There was a significant correlation between the decrease in FMD and the increase in visceral fat gain (rho = −0.42, p=0.004), but not with subcutaneous fat gain (rho = −0.22, p=0.15). Conclusions In normal weight healthy young subjects, modest fat gain results in impaired endothelial function, even in the absence of changes in blood pressure. Endothelial function recovers after weight loss. Increased visceral rather than subcutaneous fat predicts endothelial dysfunction. PMID:20705223

  6. Switching harmful visceral fat to beneficial energy combustion improves metabolic dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Sui, Wenhai; Zhang, Meng; Dong, Mei; Lim, Sharon; Seki, Takahiro; Guo, Ziheng; Fischer, Carina; Lu, Huixia; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Jianmin; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Yangang; Cao, Caixia; Gao, Yanyan; Zhao, Xingguo; Sun, Meili; Sun, Yuping; Zhuang, Rujie; Samani, Nilesh J.; Zhang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Visceral fat is considered the genuine and harmful white adipose tissue (WAT) that is associated to development of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Here, we present a new concept to turn the harmful visceral fat into a beneficial energy consumption depot, which is beneficial for improvement of metabolic dysfunctions in obese mice. We show that low temperature–dependent browning of visceral fat caused decreased adipose weight, total body weight, and body mass index, despite increased food intake. In high-fat diet–fed mice, low temperature exposure improved browning of visceral fat, global metabolism via nonshivering thermogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic steatosis. Genome-wide expression profiling showed upregulation of WAT browning–related genes including Cidea and Dio2. Conversely, Prdm16 was unchanged in healthy mice or was downregulated in obese mice. Surgical removal of visceral fat and genetic knockdown of UCP1 in epididymal fat largely ablated low temperature–increased global thermogenesis and resulted in the death of most mice. Thus, browning of visceral fat may be a compensatory heating mechanism that could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating visceral fat–associated obesity and diabetes. PMID:28239649

  7. Statistical modeling and MAP estimation for body fat quantification with MRI ratio imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wilbur C. K.; Johnson, David H.; Wilson, David L.

    2008-03-01

    We are developing small animal imaging techniques to characterize the kinetics of lipid accumulation/reduction of fat depots in response to genetic/dietary factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndromes. Recently, we developed an MR ratio imaging technique that approximately yields lipid/{lipid + water}. In this work, we develop a statistical model for the ratio distribution that explicitly includes a partial volume (PV) fraction of fat and a mixture of a Rician and multiple Gaussians. Monte Carlo hypothesis testing showed that our model was valid over a wide range of coefficient of variation of the denominator distribution (c.v.: 0-0:20) and correlation coefficient among the numerator and denominator (ρ 0-0.95), which cover the typical values that we found in MRI data sets (c.v.: 0:027-0:063, ρ: 0:50-0:75). Then a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate for the fat percentage per voxel is proposed. Using a digital phantom with many PV voxels, we found that ratio values were not linearly related to PV fat content and that our method accurately described the histogram. In addition, the new method estimated the ground truth within +1.6% vs. +43% for an approach using an uncorrected ratio image, when we simply threshold the ratio image. On the six genetically obese rat data sets, the MAP estimate gave total fat volumes of 279 +/- 45mL, values 21% smaller than those from the uncorrected ratio images, principally due to the non-linear PV effect. We conclude that our algorithm can increase the accuracy of fat volume quantification even in regions having many PV voxels, e.g. ectopic fat depots.

  8. The relationship between epicardial fat and indices of obesity and the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rabkin, Simon W

    2014-02-01

    Epicardial fat (epicardial adipose tissue, EAT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between EAT and generalized obesity, central or visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and the components of the metabolic syndrome--systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and fasting blood glucose (FBG)--that are linked to CAD. A systematic review of the literature, following meta-analysis guidelines, was conducted until May, 2013, using the search strategy "Obesity" OR "abdominal obesity" OR "metabolic syndrome" OR "metabolic syndrome X" AND "epicardial fat". Thirty-eight studies fulfilled the criteria. There was a highly significant (P<0.00001) correlation between EAT and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or VAT. The correlation between EAT and VAT was significantly (P<0.0001) greater than the correlation between EAT and WC, which in turn was significantly greater than the correlation between EAT and BMI. Overall, EAT was 7.5 ± 0.1 mm in thickness in the metabolic syndrome (n=427) compared to 4.0 ± 0.1 mm in controls (n=301). EAT correlated significantly (P<0.0001) with SBP, TGs, HDL, and FBG, but the strength of the association was less than one-half of the relationship of EAT to indices of obesity. The results of multivariate analysis were less consistent but show a relationship between EAT and metabolic syndrome independent of BMI. In summary, the very strong correlation between EAT and VAT suggests a relationship between these two adipose tissue depots. Measurement of EAT can be useful to indicate VAT. Whereas EAT correlates significantly with each of the components of the metabolic syndrome- SBP, TGs, HDL, or FBG-the magnitude of the relationship is considerably and significantly less than the relationship of EAT to BMI. These data show the strong relationship between EAT and BMI but especially with WC and VAT

  9. Multi-depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Pickup and Delivery Requests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sombuntham, Pandhapon; Kachitvichyanukul, Voratas

    2010-10-01

    This paper considers a multi-depot vehicle routing problem with pickup and delivery requests. In the problem of interest, each location may have goods for both pickup and delivery with multiple delivery locations that may not be the depots. These characteristics are quite common in industrial practice. A particle swarm optimization algorithm with multiple social learning structures is proposed for solving the practical case of multi-depot vehicle routing problem with simultaneous pickup and delivery and time window. A new decoding procedure is implemented using the PSO class provided in the ETLib object library. Computational experiments are carried out using the test instances for the pickup and delivery problem with time windows (PDPTW) as well as a newly generated instance. The preliminary results show that the proposed algorithm is able to provide good solutions to most of the test problems.

  10. Artificial intelligence technology assessment for the US Army Depot System Command

    SciTech Connect

    Pennock, K A

    1991-07-01

    This assessment of artificial intelligence (AI) has been prepared for the US Army's Depot System Command (DESCOM) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The report describes several of the more promising AI technologies, focusing primarily on knowledge-based systems because they have been more successful in commercial applications than any other AI technique. The report also identifies potential Depot applications in the areas of procedural support, scheduling and planning, automated inspection, training, diagnostics, and robotic systems. One of the principal objectives of the report is to help decisionmakers within DESCOM to evaluate AI as a possible tool for solving individual depot problems. The report identifies a number of factors that should be considered in such evaluations. 22 refs.

  11. Energy engineering analysis program, Anniston Army Depot; Energy Survey of Industrial Facilities (Ind); executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1988-11-01

    This report presents the results of the Army Industrial Facility Energy Survey of the Army Tank Rebuild Area at Anniston Army Depot (AAD). This project is being performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) under Contract No. DACA01-83-C-00099. The report includes an analyses of energy use within the industrial area, and supplies the identification and evaluation of energy conservation opportunities. The results obtained from the recommended projects indicate that the energy use of the manufacturing area could be reduced by 25 percent. Such savings assume that there will be no change in the level of production as well as no change in the production hours. Anniston Army Depot is commonly known as the Tank rebuild center of the free world and ranks among the largest US ammunition storage facilities. It is a part of the Army`s Depot System Command (DESCOM), which is a major subordinate command bf the US Army Materiel Development and Readiness Command (DARCOM).

  12. Learning about Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... have plenty of fat. They include nuts, oils, butter, and meats like beef. The name — fat — may ... you reach that goal. It includes a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, milk, and an apple. The ...

  13. Know Your Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... from plants that contain saturated fat include coconut, coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil (often called tropical ... from plants that contain saturated fat include coconut, coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil (often called tropical ...

  14. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  15. Saturated fats (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Saturated fats are found predominantly in animal products such as meat and dairy products, and are strongly associated with higher cholesterol levels. Tropical oils such as palm, coconut, and coconut butter, are also high in saturated fats.

  16. Learning about Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink low-fat or skim milk. Doing the Math How much fat should you eat? Experts say ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  17. 76 FR 62631 - Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, SC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S... Depot Parris Island. The public will continue to be able to use these portions of Archers Creek, Ribbon... Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island,...

  18. 33 CFR 334.270 - York River adjacent to Cheatham Annex Depot, Naval Supply Center, Williamsburg, Va.; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Annex Depot, Naval Supply Center, Williamsburg, Va.; restricted area. 334.270 Section 334.270 Navigation..., Williamsburg, Va.; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of York River bounded as follows: Beginning at a... Officer in Charge, Cheatham Annex Depot, Naval Supply Center, Williamsburg, Virginia. (2) The...

  19. 33 CFR 334.270 - York River adjacent to Cheatham Annex Depot, Naval Supply Center, Williamsburg, Va.; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Annex Depot, Naval Supply Center, Williamsburg, Va.; restricted area. 334.270 Section 334.270 Navigation..., Williamsburg, Va.; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of York River bounded as follows: Beginning at a... Officer in Charge, Cheatham Annex Depot, Naval Supply Center, Williamsburg, Virginia. (2) The...

  20. Energy Engineering Analysis Program, limited energy study of steam distribution systems, Hawthorne Army Ammunition Depot, Hawthorne, Nevada. Programming documents

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The project is a significant part of Hawthorne Army Ammunition Depot`s effort to achieve a 20-percent reduction in energy consumption by FY2000 versus FY1985 baseline levels. The project will also assure that heating services are provided to Industrial Area facilities on a continuing basis, supporting mission requirements.

  1. Role of Plasma Lipoproteins in Cortisone-Induced Fat Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Mahley, Robert W.; Gray, Mary E.; LeQuire, Virgil S.

    1972-01-01

    The clinical syndrome of fat embolism can be a complication in patients who have suffered long-bone fracture, and has been associated with a number of conditions in which bone fracture is not a factor. The origin of embolic fat (bone marrow or depot fat versus plasma lipoproteins) has been debated. To test the hypothesis that alterations in the composition of plasma very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) could lead to their coalescence and subsequent impaction in pulmonary vasculature, New Zealand white rabbits were injected intramuscularly with 25 mg of cortisone twice a day for 2, 4, 6, 11 and 12 days. Blood samples were obtained from unanesthetized animals prior to the cortisone treatment and at sacrifice. Pulmonary fat embolism that was similar histologically to that found in the human patient with the clinical syndrome was produced in all rabbits treated for 4-12 days. After the fourth day, all animals were hyperlipidemic. There was a tenfold increase in plasma VLDL concentration and the mean particle diameter of the VLDL was increased from 620 Å to 1016 Å. The proportion of triglyceride (TG) was increased, protein (PR) and phospholipid (PL) were decreased and total cholesterol (TC) was unaltered (untreated controls: PR, 16.4%; TG, 58.5%; PL, 19.2%; TC, 6.7% and cortisone-treated: PR, 8.4%; TG, 75.1%; PL, 11%; TC, 6.4%). The lipid composition of pulmonary embolic fat from rabbits treated with cortisone for 6 or 11 days was TG, 81%; PL, 13% and TC, 6%. VLDL from similarly treated rabbits had a lipid composition of TG, 79%; PL, 14.5% and TC, 6.6%. The TC concentration of bone marrow and depot fat from animals treated with cortisone for 11 days was <1%, and the PL concentration was <2%. These data support the hypothesis that plasma lipoproteins, primarily the VLDL, when altered in size and composition can coalesce into globules of sufficient size to occlude peripheral capillaries. ImagesFig 1Fig 2 PMID:5009252

  2. Acetate and glucose incorporation into subcutaneous, intramuscular, and visceral fat of finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Nayananjalie, W A D; Wiles, T R; Gerrard, D E; McCann, M A; Hanigan, M D

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of early grain feeding on acetate and glucose turnover rates and acetate and glucose preference for palmitate synthesis by subcutaneous fat (SCF), intramuscular fat (IMF), and visceral fat (VF) in finishing steers. Sixteen Angus × Simmental steers were used in the study; 8 were early weaned (EW) and fed a high-grain diet immediately after weaning for 100 or 148 d, and 8 remained with their dams on pasture until weaning at 202 ± 5 or 253 ± 5 d of age. Normal weaned (NW) and EW animals were combined and grazed to 374 ± 5 or 393 ± 5 d of age, when they were placed on a corn silage-based finishing ration until they achieved a SCF thickness of 1.0 to 1.2 cm (494 ± 17 d of age for EW steers and 502 ± 12 d of age for NW steers). Immediately before harvest, steers were continuously infused for 12 h with [2H3] acetate (1.63 mmol/min; n = 8) or [U-13C6] glucose (0.07 mmol/min; n = 8). Blood samples were collected before initiation of infusions and at the end of the infusion from 8 animals or at 1-h intervals for the first 11 h and at 15-min intervals for the last hour of infusion for the other 8 animals. Adipose tissue samples from SCF, IMF, and VF depots were collected at harvest, and lipids were extracted. Plasma enrichments of acetate and glucose and palmitate enrichment in each depot were used to calculate plasma turnover rates and fractional synthesis rates (FSR; % per h) of palmitate from each isotope. Early weaned steers had greater marbling scores compared to NW steers ( P< 0.05). Plasma turnover rates and FSR for EW and NW steers were similar except for SCF, where a greater FSR from acetate was observed for EW steers. It is possible the greater FSR for SCF was due to harvesting the animals at a slightly more advanced stage of conditioning as evidenced by the trend for greater 12th rib fat (P = 0.07). Plasma acetate turnover and palmitate FSR from acetate were much greater (P < 0.05) than the

  3. The MRI of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma in the abdominal cavity.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Huang Sui; Feng, Xu Lin; Yong, Li; Yong, Zhang; Lian, Zhong Jing; Ling, Liang Bi

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the MR appearances of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma in the abdominal cavity and evaluate the capabilities of MRI in diagnosis of the tumor. Eleven consecutive patients with an extraadrenal pheochromocytoma in abdominal cavity who underwent preoperative 0.5 T (n=5) or 1.5 T (n=6) superconductor MRI and had a surgical resection were enrolled in the study. The MR scanning protocol included axial T(2)-weighted imaging with or without fat-suppressed sequences, axial and coronal uncontrast and contrast T(1)-weighted sequences with or without fat suppression. The extraadrenal pheochromocytomas were found in retroperitoneum (n=5), the urinary bladder (n=1), the pelvis (n=1), the right prerenal area (n=1), the renal hilus (n=1), the left paramusculus psoas major (n=1) and liver (n=1). The mean maximal diameter of tumors was 55.9 mm (range 17.8-162.2 mm). The high signal intensity was seen on T(2)-weighted imaging in all tumors compared to muscle or liver, especially with fat suppression. The intratumoral septa and capsules were shown in 63.6% and 72.7% of cases, respectively, which had low signal intensity on T(2)-weighted imaging. These relative characteristics may be helpful for qualitative diagnosis of extraadrenal pheochromocytomas with MRI. Other usefulness of MRI was to locate the position, to decide the range of tumors and to show well the relationship between the tumor and near structures.

  4. Spatiotemporally Photoradiation-Controlled Intratumoral Depot for Combination of Brachytherapy and Photodynamic Therapy for Solid Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, Ratul; Schaal, Jeffrey; Li, Xinghai; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta; Asai, Daisuke; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Liu, Wenge

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to spatiotemporally control both tumor retention and the coverage of anticancer agents, we developed a photoradiation-controlled intratumoral depot (PRCITD) driven by convention enhanced delivery (CED). This intratumoral depot consists of recombinant elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) containing periodic cysteine residues and is conjugated with a photosensitizer, chlorin-e6 (Ce6) at the N-terminus of the ELP. We hypothesized that this cysteine-containing ELP (cELP) can be readily crosslinked through disulfide bonds upon exposure to oxidative agents, specifically the singlet oxygen produced during photodynamic stimulation. Upon intratumoral injection, CED drives the distribution of the soluble polypeptide freely throughout the tumor interstitium. Formation and retention of the depot was monitored using fluorescence molecular tomography imaging. When imaging shows that the polypeptide has distributed throughout the entire tumor, 660-nm light is applied externally at the tumor site. This photo-radiation wavelength excites Ce6 and generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of oxygen. The ROS induce in situ disulfide crosslinking of the cysteine thiols, stabilizing the ELP biopolymer into a stable therapeutic depot. Our results demonstrate that this ELP design effectively forms a hydrogel both in vitro and in vivo. These depots exhibit high stability in subcutaneous tumor xenografts in nude mice and significantly improved intratumoral retention compared to controls without crosslinking, as seen by fluorescent imaging and iodine-125 radiotracer studies. The photodynamic therapy provided by the PRCITD was found to cause significant tumor inhibition in a Ce6 dose dependent manner. Additionally, the combination of PDT and intratumoral radionuclide therapy co-delivered by PRCITD provided a greater antitumor effect than either monotherapy alone. These results suggest that the PRCITD could provide a stable platform for delivering synergistic, anti

  5. The obesity-induced transcriptional regulator TRIP-Br2 mediates visceral fat endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Guifen; Kong, Hyerim Whang; Fang, Difeng; McCann, Maximilian; Yang, Xiuying; Du, Guanhua; Blüher, Matthias; Zhu, Jinfang; Liew, Chong Wee

    2016-01-01

    The intimate link between location of fat accumulation and metabolic disease risk and depot-specific differences is well established, but how these differences between depots are regulated at the molecular level remains largely unclear. Here we show that TRIP-Br2 mediates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced inflammatory responses in visceral fat. Using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that obesity-induced circulating factors upregulate TRIP-Br2 specifically in visceral fat via the ER stress pathway. We find that ablation of TRIP-Br2 ameliorates both chemical and physiological ER stress-induced inflammatory and acute phase response in adipocytes, leading to lower circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines. Using promoter assays, as well as molecular and pharmacological experiments, we show that the transcription factor GATA3 is responsible for the ER stress-induced TRIP-Br2 expression in visceral fat. Taken together, our study identifies molecular regulators of inflammatory response in visceral fat that—given that these pathways are conserved in humans—might serve as potential therapeutic targets in obesity. PMID:27109496

  6. The reverse abdominal reduction and the 'waistcoating' procedure for the correction of the fixated Pfannenstiel incision.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Douglas H

    2016-05-01

    The principles of a standard abdominal reduction are well understood; this technique has been used for many years. However, a reverse abdominal reduction may be considered in some cases, for example, continued weight loss, and thus skin redundancy on the upper abdomen in patients who have already undergone abdominal reduction and upper abdomen improvement in patients requiring a mastopexy or breast reduction simultaneously. Reverse abdominal reduction is rarely mentioned in the medical literature, but it can prove successful; although the scar across the lower sternum has often been considered to be unsatisfactory, often it does not prove to be so. Thus, this procedure can be proven to be successful in suitable cases. Secondly, the Pfannenstiel incision, if not satisfactorily repaired in the first instance, can become fixated to the abdominal wall; this fixation along with the inevitable migration of skin and fat at its cephalic edge causes a rather displeasing contour defect when wearing tight-fitting swimwear. The principle of the waistcoating procedure is essentially to chamfer the fat cephalically; this procedure is employed for removing the Pfannenstiel scar from the abdominal wall. The principle is simple and effective and can be applied in cases with fixated scars. These two aforementioned principles are not commonly used, but they can prove particularly effective in suitable cases. We illustrate the principles.

  7. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias.

  8. A bizarre abdominal cystic lesion.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Giorgia; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Ricci, Claudio; Casadei, Riccardo; Santini, Donatella; Calculli, Lucia; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2010-09-06

    In spite of careful intraoperative precautions and gauze counts, mistakes can still occur during surgery. In the case reported, a retained gauze leaved during a surgical approach for removing a solid-cystic papillary tumor localized in the pancreatic tail, caused both persistent abdominal discomfort and the presence of an abdominal cystic lesion at imaging techniques. When a previous operative history is present, a foreign body should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an intra-abdominal cystic mass. Finally, radio-opaque marker should be routinely used by surgeons in order to reach a correct diagnosis in operated patients having retained gauze.

  9. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  10. Enhanced Preliminary Assessment Report: Fort Wingate Depot Activity Gallup, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    Fort Wingate Depot Activity * Gallup, New Mexico I fMarch 1990 DTIC I il E-LEcTrEII JUN 12 1990U Is eQ prepared for U Commander U.S. Army Toxic and...Activity Gallup, New Mexico March 1990 prepared for Commander, U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010...Claslification) Enhanced Preliminary Assessment Report: Fort Wingate Depot Activity, Gallup, New Mexico 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) 3a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b

  11. Are depot as effective as oral antipsychotics on first-episode psychosis?

    PubMed

    Orus, Cristián; Aceituno, David

    2016-05-23

    Depot antipsychotics have been generally used in patients with chronic schizophrenia with adherence problems to oral therapy. However, it has been suggested they can be a good alternative in earlier stages too. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified three systematic reviews including two pertinent randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is not clear whether there are differences between depot and oral antipsychotics in first-episode psychosis because the certainty of the available evidence is very low.

  12. Testing Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid Solutions for Depot Repair of Aluminum Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Liquid : Definition Table Salt (NaCl) Crystal Melting Point = 801 C Ionic Liquid (BMIM-PF6) Melting Point = 11 C An “ionic liquid ” (IL) is a salt in...Testing Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid Solutions for Depot Repair of Aluminum Coatings Elizabeth Berman, Ph.D., AFRL/RXSCP Natasha Voevodin, Ph.D...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Testing Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid Solutions for Depot Repair of

  13. Abdominal wall abscess: more than meets the eye.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Jamish; Gandhi, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    An 83-year-old, mildly demented rest home resident presented to the emergency department with a 2 day history of a right sided abdominal wall mass. He had a mechanical fall 2 days previously and landed on his right side and had attributed the mass to this. He had no symptoms apart from feeling bloated and not being able to pass wind for a day. He had passed a normal bowel motion the day before presentation. On abdominal examination there was an 11 × 4 cm mass in the right lower quadrant. It was firm in consistency, non-fluctuant and non-tender to touch. There was mild erythema over the area but no skin breaks. Chest radiograph was unremarkable. The abdominal film showed dilated small bowel and no large bowel could be seen. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a thick walled gallbladder with multiple calculi and air present. There was also an extensive air and fluid collection in the layers of the abdominal wall and subcutaneous fat which arose from a perforation of the gallbladder. The patient was not a surgical candidate due to multiple comorbidities. The patient was treated with antibiotics and underwent a CT guided percutaneous cholecystostomy. Despite the radiological intervention and antibiotics the patient progressively deteriorated and died peacefully 5 days after admission.

  14. [Penetrating abdominal injuries].

    PubMed

    Nesbakken, A; Pillgram-Larsen, J; Naess, F; Gerner, T; Solheim, K; Stadaas, J O; Gjøra, O

    1990-02-28

    We have reviewed the medical records of 111 patients treated for abdominal stab wounds during the period 1980-87. Our two hospitals serve a catchment area of about 450,000 people. Exploratory laparotomy was performed in 89 patients with suspected peritoneal penetration. In 16 patients the laparotomy was negative, and in 15 patients only minor injuries were noted. There were no serious complications in these 31 patients. Twenty-seven patients had thoracic wounds below the fourth intercostal space, 15 with intraabdominal injuries. The most common injuries were lacerations of the liver, the small bowel and the diaphragm. The mortality in the series was 2%. Stab wounds are infrequent in Norway, and most surgeons have limited experience of such injuries. We discuss whether to employ immediate exploratory laparotomy or selective management when the peritoneum has been penetrated. When there is no evidence of evisceration or omental protrusion, local exploration of the wound should be performed in order to confirm or exclude peritoneal penetration. Injury to the diaphragm and intraabdominal viscera should always be suspected in thoracic stab wounds below the fourth intercostal space.

  15. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-11-14

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer.

  16. Thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat using coaxial probe.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein; Nadimi, Esmaeil S

    2016-03-01

    In this Letter, a non-invasive method for thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat layer of abdominal wall is presented by using a coaxial probe. Fat layer has the highest impact on the averaged attenuation parameter of the abdominal wall due to its high thickness and low permittivity. The abdominal wall is modelled as a multi-layer medium and an analytical model for the probe is derived by calculation of its aperture admittance facing to this multi-layer medium. The performance of this model is then validated by a numerical simulation using finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) analysis. Simulation results show the high impact of the probe dimension and fat layer thickness on the sensitivity of the measured permittivity. The authors further investigate this sensitivity by statistical analysis of the permittivity variations. Finally, measuring in different locations relative to the body surface is presented as a solution to estimate the fat layer thickness in the presence of uncertainty of model parameters.

  17. Thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat using coaxial probe

    PubMed Central

    Nadimi, Esmaeil S.

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, a non-invasive method for thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat layer of abdominal wall is presented by using a coaxial probe. Fat layer has the highest impact on the averaged attenuation parameter of the abdominal wall due to its high thickness and low permittivity. The abdominal wall is modelled as a multi-layer medium and an analytical model for the probe is derived by calculation of its aperture admittance facing to this multi-layer medium. The performance of this model is then validated by a numerical simulation using finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) analysis. Simulation results show the high impact of the probe dimension and fat layer thickness on the sensitivity of the measured permittivity. The authors further investigate this sensitivity by statistical analysis of the permittivity variations. Finally, measuring in different locations relative to the body surface is presented as a solution to estimate the fat layer thickness in the presence of uncertainty of model parameters. PMID:27222737

  18. Early laparoscopic approach to pancreatic injury following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Adarsh; Abdelrahman, Husham; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2014-12-04

    The incidence of pancreatic injury following blunt abdominal trauma is rare. A timely accurate diagnosis of such injury is difficult and also the management remains controversial. Here, we reported the successful use of laparoscopy to diagnose, characterize and treat blunt pancreatic trauma in a 28-year-old male patient involved in a motor vehicle crash. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed peripancreatic fat stranding suggestive of pancreatic injury. With persistent clinical signs of peritonitis and laboratory investigations suggestive of pancreatitis, the patient underwent laparoscopic drainage of the lesser sac. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. The management of patients with blunt pancreatic injuries should be tailored to individual situations. Our experience suggests that a timely laparoscopic management of traumatic pancreatic injury is safe approach in selected cases.

  19. Abdominal Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Burden in Adolescents-Penn State Children Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    He, Fan; Rodriguez-Colon, Sol; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Bixler, Edward O.; Berg, Arthur; Kawasawa, Yuka Imamura; Sawyer, Marjorie D.; Liao, Duanping

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION To investigate the association between abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) burden in a population-based sample of adolescents. METHODS We used the data from 421 adolescents who completed the follow-up examination in the Penn State Children Cohort study. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to assess abdominal obesity, as measured by android/gynoid fat ratio (A/G ratio), android/whole body fat proportion (A/W proportion), visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous fat (SAT) areas. Continuous metabolic syndrome score (cMetS), calculated as the sum of the age and sex-adjusted standardized residual (Z-score) of five established MetS components, was used to assess the MetS burden. Linear regression models were used to analyze the impact of DXA measures on cMetS and individual cMetS components. All models were adjusted for age, race, sex, and general obesity. RESULTS Abdominal obesity is significantly associated with increased cMetS. With 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in A/G ratio, A/W proportion, VAT area, and SAT area, cMetS increased by 1.34 (SE=0.17), 1.25 (SE=0.19), 1.67 (SE=0.17), and 1.84 (SE=0.20) units, respectively. At individual component level, strongest association was observed between abdominal obesity and insulin resistance than lipid-based or blood pressure-based components. VAT and SAT had a stronger impact on insulin resistance than android ratio-based DXA measurements. CONCLUSIONS Abdominal obesity is associated with higher MetS burden in adolescent population. The association between abdominal obesity and insulin resistance measure is the strongest, suggesting the key impact of abdominal obesity on insulin resistance in adolescents Mets burden. PMID:25220887

  20. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome burden in adolescents--Penn State Children Cohort study.

    PubMed

    He, Fan; Rodriguez-Colon, Sol; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Bixler, Edward O; Berg, Arthur; Imamura Kawasawa, Yuka; Sawyer, Marjorie D; Liao, Duanping

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) burden in a population-based sample of adolescents, we used data from 421 adolescents who completed the follow-up examination in the Penn State Children Cohort study. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to assess abdominal obesity, as measured by android/gynoid fat ratio (A/G ratio), android/whole body fat proportion (A/W proportion), visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous fat (SAT) areas. Continuous metabolic syndrome score (cMetS), calculated as the sum of the age and sex-adjusted standardized residual (Z-score) of five established MetS components, was used to assess the MetS burden. Linear regression models were used to analyze the impact of DXA measures on cMetS components. All models were adjusted for age, race, sex, and general obesity. We found abdominal obesity is significantly associated with increased cMetS. With 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in A/G ratio, A/W proportion, VAT area, and SAT area, cMetS increased by 1.34 (SE=0.17), 1.25 (SE=0.19), 1.67 (SE=0.17), and 1.84 (SE=0.20) units, respectively. At individual component level, strongest association was observed between abdominal obesity and insulin resistance (IR) than lipid-based or blood pressure-based components. VAT and SAT had a stronger impact on IR than android ratio-based DXA measurements. In conclusion, abdominal obesity is associated with higher MetS burden in adolescent population. The association between abdominal obesity and IR measure is the strongest, suggesting the key impact of abdominal obesity on IR in adolescents MetS burden.

  1. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... signs or symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The final recommendation statement summarizes what the Task ... the potential benefits and harms of screening for AAA: (1) Men ages 65 to 75 who smoke ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ...

  3. Incentive spirometry after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, Suja P

    Patients face various possible complications after abdominal surgery. This article examines best practice in guiding and teaching them how to use an incentive spirometer to facilitate recovery and prevent respiratory complications.

  4. Adiponectin oligomers and ectopic fat in liver and skeletal muscle in humans.

    PubMed

    Kantartzis, Konstantinos; Staiger, Harald; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Claussen, Claus D; Machicao, Fausto; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Stefan, Norbert

    2009-02-01

    We aimed at determining which circulating forms of the adipokine adiponectin that increases lipid oxidation in liver and skeletal muscle are related to ectopic fat in these depots in humans. Plasma total-, high-molecular weight (HMW)-, middle-molecular weight (MMW)-, and low-molecular weight (LMW) adiponectin were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Their relationships with liver- and intramyocellular fat, measured using (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy, were investigated in 54 whites without type 2 diabetes. Liver fat, adjusted for gender, age, and total body fat, was associated only with HMW adiponectin (r = -0.35, P = 0.012), but not with total-, MMW-, or LMW adiponectin. In addition, subjects with fatty liver (liver fat > or =5.56%, n = 15) had significantly lower HMW- (P = 0.04), but not total-, MMW-, or LMW adiponectin levels, compared to controls (n = 39). Similarly, intramyocellular fat correlated only with HMW (r = -0.32, P = 0.039), but not with the other circulating forms of adiponectin. These data indicate that, among circulating forms of adiponectin, HMW is strongly related to ectopic fat, thus possibly representing the form of adiponectin regulating lipid oxidation in liver and skeletal muscle.

  5. Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Epicardial Fat Thickness in a Healthy Male Population

    PubMed Central

    Küçük, Uğur; Küçük, Hilal Olgun; Cüce, Ferhat; Balta, Sevket

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI), but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. Objective: We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Results: Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Conclusion: Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness. PMID:27509093

  6. MR-Based Assessment of Bone Marrow Fat in Osteoporosis, Diabetes, and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, Christian; Baum, Thomas; Dieckmeyer, Michael; Ruschke, Stefan; Diefenbach, Maximilian N.; Hauner, Hans; Kirschke, Jan S.; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.

    2016-01-01

    Bone consists of the mineralized component (i.e., cortex and trabeculae) and the non-mineralized component (i.e., bone marrow). Most of the routine clinical bone imaging uses X-ray-based techniques and focuses on the mineralized component. However, bone marrow adiposity has been also shown to have a strong linkage with bone health. Specifically, multiple previous studies have demonstrated a negative association between bone marrow fat fraction (BMFF) and bone mineral density. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) are ideal imaging techniques for non-invasively investigating the properties of bone marrow fat. In the present work, we first review the most important MRI and MRS methods for assessing properties of bone marrow fat, including methodologies for measuring BMFF and bone marrow fatty acid composition parameters. Previous MRI and MRS studies measuring BMFF and fat unsaturation in the context of osteoporosis are then reviewed. Finally, previous studies investigating the relationship between bone marrow fat, other fat depots, and bone health in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes are presented. In summary, MRI and MRS are powerful non-invasive techniques for measuring properties of bone marrow fat in osteoporosis, obesity, and type 2 diabetes and can assist in future studies investigating the pathophysiology of bone changes in the above clinical scenarios. PMID:27445977

  7. Abdominal Complications after Severe Burns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    abdominal compartment syndrome, schemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic ulcer disease and astritis requiring laparotomy, small bowel obstruction, rimary fungal...complications in- luded trauma exploratory laparotomy, abdominal com- artment syndrome, ischemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic lcer disease and gastritis, large...70%); 13 for other compli- ations, such as biliary or perineal conditions (26%); and 4 or feeding access (8%). For the civilians, 2 had trauma

  8. Association of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass with serum concentrations of adipokines in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomoyuki; Murata, Miho; Otani, Taeko; Tamemoto, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Masanobu; Ishikawa, San-E

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the association of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass with serum concentrations of adipokines in 130 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The levels of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, interleukin-18, and retinol-binding protein 4 were measured. Percentage body fat was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and subcutaneous and visceral fat areas were measured by abdominal CT. HS-CRP had significant positive correlations with percentage body fat and subcutaneous fat area, and a particularly significant positive correlation with visceral fat area. Serum adiponectin had a negative correlation with the subcutaneous and visceral fat areas, with the strongest correlation with the visceral fat area. Similar results were obtained for HMW adiponectin. Serum adiponectin had a negative correlation with visceral fat area in subjects with a visceral fat area < 100 cm², but not in those with a visceral fat area ≥ 100 cm². In contrast, serum HS-CRP showed a positive correlation with visceral fat area in subjects with visceral fat area ≥ 100 cm², but not in those with a visceral fat area < 100 cm². These findings indicate that an increased visceral fat area is associated with inflammatory changes, and that inflammatory reactions may alter the functional properties of visceral fat in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  9. Common abdominal emergencies in children.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, James

    2002-02-01

    Because young children often present to EDs with abdominal complaints, emergency physicians must have a high index of suspicion for the common abdominal emergencies that have serious sequelae. At the same time, they must realize that less serious causes of abdominal symptoms (e.g., constipation or gastroenteritis) are also seen. A gentle yet thorough and complete history and physical examination are the most important diagnostic tools for the emergency physician. Repeated examinations and observation are useful tools. Physicians should listen carefully to parents and their children, respect their concerns, and honor their complaints. Ancillary tests are inconsistent in their value in assessing these complaints. Abdominal radiographs can be normal in children with intussusception and even malrotation and early volvulus. Unlike the classic symptoms seen in adults, young children can display only lethargy or poor feeding in cases of appendicitis or can appear happy and playful between paroxysmal bouts of intussusception. The emergency physician therefore, must maintain a high index of suspicion for serious pathology in pediatric patients with abdominal complaints. Eventually, all significant abdominal emergencies reveal their true nature, and if one can be patient with the child and repeat the examinations when the child is quiet, one will be rewarded with the correct diagnosis.

  10. Visceral scalloping on abdominal computed tomography due to abdominal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal; Bhatia, Anmol; Malik, Sarthak; Singh, Navjeet; Rana, Surinder S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Scalloping of visceral organs is described in pseudomyxoma peritonei, malignant ascites, among other conditions, but not tuberculosis. Methods: We report findings from a retrospective study of patients with abdominal tuberculosis who had visceral scalloping on abdominal computed tomography (CT). Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis was made on the basis of combination of clinical, biochemical, radiological and microbiological criteria. The clinical data, hematological and biochemical parameters, and findings of chest X-ray, CT, Mantoux test, and HIV serology were recorded. Results: Of 72 patients with abdominal tuberculosis whose CT scans were included, seven patients had visceral scalloping. The mean age of these patients was 32.14 ± 8.43 years and four were men. While six patients had scalloping of liver, one had splenic scalloping. The patients presented with abdominal pain (all), abdominal distension (five patients), loss of weight or appetite (all), and fever (four patients). Mantoux test was positive in five, while none had HIV infection. The diagnosis was based on fluid (ascitic or collections) evaluation in four patients, ileo-cecal biopsy in one patient, fine needle aspiration from omental thickening in one patient, and sputum positivity for acid fast bacilli (AFB) in one patient. On CT examination, four patients had ascites, five had collections, one had lymphadenopathy, four had peritoneal involvement, three had pleural effusion, and two had ileo-cecal thickening. All except one patient received standard ATT for 6 months or 9 months (one patient). Pigtail drainage for collections was needed for two patients. Discussion: This report is the first description of visceral scalloping of liver and spleen in patients with abdominal tuberculosis. Previously, this finding has been reported primarily with pseudomyxoma peritonei and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Conclusion: Visceral scalloping may not conclusively distinguish peritoneal

  11. Encapsulation Thermogenic Preadipocytes for Transplantation into Adipose Tissue Depots

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lu; Shen, Qiwen; Mao, Zhongqi; Lee, L. James; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2015-01-01

    Cell encapsulation was developed to entrap viable cells within semi-permeable membranes. The engrafted encapsulated cells can exchange low molecular weight metabolites in tissues of the treated host to achieve long-term survival. The semipermeable membrane allows engrafted encapsulated cells to avoid rejection by the immune system. The encapsulation procedure was designed to enable a controlled release of bioactive compounds, such as insulin, other hormones, and cytokines. Here we describe a method for encapsulation of catabolic cells, which consume lipids for heat production and energy dissipation (thermogenesis) in the intra-abdominal adipose tissue of obese mice. Encapsulation of thermogenic catabolic cells may be potentially applicable to the prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Another potential application of catabolic cells may include detoxification from alcohols or other toxic metabolites and environmental pollutants. PMID:26066392

  12. Tests of the higher order turbulence model for atmospheric circulations (HOTMAC) at Deseret Chemical Depot

    SciTech Connect

    Costigan, K.R.

    1998-11-01

    Deseret Chemical Depot is one of the US Army`s storage facilities for its stockpile of chemical weapon agents. Congress has directed the Department of Defense to eliminate the aging stockpiles, which have existed since the end of World War II, and the US Army is destroying these lethal chemical munitions. Although the danger is slight, accurate predictions of the wind field in the valley are necessary for dispersion calculations in the event of an accident involving toxic chemicals at the depot. There are several small communities in Rush and Tooele valleys, including the town of Tooele, and Salt Lake City is located 65 km to the Northeast of Deseret Chemical Depot South area, at 1,300 m MSL and beyond the Oquirrh Mountains. The purpose of this report is to carry out three-dimensional numerical simulations of the atmospheric circulations in the region around Deseret Chemical Depot with the Higher Order Turbulence Model for Atmospheric Circulations (HOTMAC) and to evaluate the performance of the model. The code had been modified to assimilate local meteorological observations through the use of Newtonian nudging. The nudging scheme takes advantage of the extensive network of local observations in the valley.

  13. 33 CFR 334.850 - Lake Erie, west end, north of Erie Ordnance Depot, Lacarne, Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....850 Lake Erie, west end, north of Erie Ordnance Depot, Lacarne, Ohio. (a) The danger zone: Consists of the waters of Lake Erie within: (1) Danger Area I. The sector of a circle with a radius of 6,500 yards... and automatic weapons impact area. (c) Authorized dates and hours of firing: (1) Danger Area I. 6...

  14. Safety Extension Study Of Leuprolide Acetate (Lupron Depot) In The Treatment Of Central Precocious Puberty

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-08

    Precocious; Leuprolide Acetate; Luteinizing Hormone (LH); Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone Agonist (GnRHa); Tanner Staging; Depot Formulation; Suppression of LH; Central Precocious Puberty (CPP); Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone (GnRH); Lupron; GnRH Analog; Pediatrics Central Precocious Puberty

  15. Electrospark Deposition for Depot- and Field-Level Component Repair and Replacement of Hard Chromium Plating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electrospark Deposition for Depot- and Field-Level Component Repair and Replacement of Hard Chromium... electrospark deposition ESOH environmental, safety and occupational health ESTCP Environmental Security Technology Certification Program GEAE GE...returning components to service more rapidly. Electrospark deposition (ESD), also known as electrospark alloying (ESA), is a microwelding technique that

  16. Depot Sales of Goods and Services to Private Parties: Pricing in Partnering Agreements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    Public - private partnerships are agreements among organic depot maintenance activities and private industries or other entities to perform work or...shared risk than less collaborative business arrangements. Because the effort to build strong public - private partnerships within the Department of Defense

  17. Evaluation of cryogenic system test options for the OTV on-orbit propellant depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, John R.; Alton, T. James; Brown, Norman S.; Hueter, Uwe

    1987-01-01

    Future space missions to geosynchronous, lunar, and planetary orbits will require an orbital depot for stockpiling propellants. This depot will provide long-term storage of cryogens, requiring new technologies for fluid management in microgravity and further development of thermal management technologies for minimization of cryogen boiloff. Preliminary evaluations have been made to define a test program approach for reducing technical risk through verifying performance models and building a base of engineering data for depot design. A number of testing options were defined and evaluated, leading to selection of ground testing combined with an orbital systems test. Ground testing is inadequate because of critical microgravity concerns; extending testing aboard the Space Station was eliminated because the data would not be available soon enough to benefit the propellant depot design. The orbital test would either be a short-term test carried out in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter using a nonhazardous cryogen or a longer term test carried out with hydrogen aboard a free-flying experiment orbited with an expendable launch vehicle.

  18. Stromal vascular cells and adipogenesis: Cells within adipose depots regulate adipogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of investigations indicate the importance of adipose tissue stromal/stem cells to vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during adipogenesis. Early in development the stromal-vascular (S-V) elements control and dictate the extent of adipogenesis in a depot dependent manner. For instance, the...

  19. Nanosized sustained-release drug depots fabricated using modified tri-axial electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang-Zhi; Li, Jiao-Jiao; Yu, Deng-Guang; He, Mei-Feng; Yang, Jun-He; Williams, Gareth R

    2017-01-27

    Nanoscale drug depots, comprising a drug reservoir surrounded by a carrier membrane, are much sought after in contemporary pharmaceutical research. Using cellulose acetate (CA) as a filament-forming polymeric matrix and ferulic acid (FA) as a model drug, nanoscale drug depots in the form of core-shell fibers were designed and fabricated using a modified tri-axial electrospinning process. This employed a solvent mixture as the outer working fluid, as a result of which a robust and continuous preparation process could be achieved. The fiber-based depots had a linear morphology, smooth surfaces, and an average diameter of 0.62±0.07μm. Electron microscopy data showed them to have clear core-shell structures, with the FA encapsulated inside a CA shell. X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy results verified that FA was present in the crystalline physical form. In vitro dissolution tests revealed that the fibers were able to provide close to zero-order release over 36h, with no initial burst release and minimal tailing-off. The release properties of the depot systems were much improved over monolithic CA/FA fibers, which exhibited a significant burst release and also considerable tailing-off at the end of the release experiment. Here we thus demonstrate the concept of using modified tri-axial electrospinning to design and develop new types of heterogeneous nanoscale biomaterials.

  20. Pathophysiology of obesity on knee joint homeostasis: contributions of the infrapatellar fat pad.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Kelly S; Radakovich, Lauren B; Fouts, Josie; Foster, Michelle T

    2016-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating condition characterized by inflammation, breakdown, and consequent loss of cartilage of the joints. Epidemiological studies indicate obesity is an important risk factor involved in OA initiation and progression. Traditional views propose OA to be a biomechanical consequence of excess weight on weight-bearing joints; however, emerging data demonstrates that systemic and local factors released from white adipose depots play a role. Hence, current views characterize OA as a condition exacerbated by a metabolic link related to adipose tissue, and not solely related to redistributed/altered weight load. Factors demonstrated to influence cartilage and bone homeostasis include adipocyte-derived hormones ("adipokines") and adipose depot released cytokines. Epidemiological studies demonstrate a positive relation between systemic circulating cytokines, leptin, and resistin with OA types, while the association with adiponectin is controversial. Local factors in joints have also been shown to play a role in OA. In particular, this includes the knee, a weight-bearing joint that encloses a relatively large adipose depot, the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP), which serves as a source of local inflammatory factors. This review summarizes the relation of obesity and OA as it specifically relates to the IFP and other integral supporting structures. Overall, studies support the concept that metabolic effects associated with systemic obesity also extend to the IFP, which promotes inflammation, pain, and cartilage destruction within the local knee joint environment, thus contributing to development and progression of OA.

  1. Abdominal Adiposity Change in White and Black Midlife Women: the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Innola, Pilvi; Karavolos, Kelly; Dugan, Sheila A.; Avery, Elizabeth F.; Fattout, Yacob; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The principal objective of this investigation was to compare the naturalistic intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) change among black and white women during midlife. Methods A cohort of 222 (56%) white and 171 (44%) black midlife women were investigated in the Fat Patterning study at the Chicago site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. The subjects’ total body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and IAAT by a planimetric computed tomography (at the level of L4–L5) annually over up to 4 years. Results Total body fat at initial evaluation was higher in black women (45.1±8.2%) compared to white women (41.3±8.7%, p<0.001), and did not significantly change over the longitudinal follow up. No significant racial differences were found in the mean annualized gain of intra-abdominal adipose tissue (4.4±0.5%) in models adjusted for total body fat, initial IAAT, age, race, time and race interaction, physical activity, depressive symptoms, menopausal status, and menopausal hormone therapy. Conclusions During a naturalistic observation, black and white midlife women had similar abdominal fat gain adjusted for differences in baseline adiposity. This data informs future research aimed to prevent intra-abdominal adipose tissue gain during the critical midlife period of rising cardiovascular risk. PMID:26523609

  2. Effect of endurance and resistance training on regional fat mass and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Ara Royo, Ignacio; Martínez-Redondo, Diana; Puzo Foncillas, José; Moreno, Luis A; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Casajús, José A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 10-week of endurance training or resistance training on regional and abdominal fat, and in the lipid profile, examining the associations among the changes in body composition, weight, waist circumference and lipid profile. Body composition, waist circumference and lipid profile were analyzed in 26 volunteers healthy young men (age 22.5 ± 1.9 yr), randomly assigned to: endurance group (EG), resistance group (RG) or control group (CG). The EG significantly decreased after training the body weight, body mass index, total body fat and percentage of fat, fat and percentage of fat at the trunk and at the abdominal region and High-Density Lipoprotein. The RG significantly increased total lean mass and decreased total cholesterol, High-Density and Low- Density Lipoprotein. Close relationship were found among changes in weight, total lean mass, regional fat mass, waist circumference and changes in lipid profile (all p < 0.05). We concluded that 10-week of endurance training decreased abdominal and body fat in young men, while 10-week of resistance training increased total lean mass. These types of training had also effects on lipid profile that seem to be to some extent associated to changes in body composition; however it requires additional investigation.

  3. Heat shock proteins: in vivo heat treatments reveal adipose tissue depot-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Robert S; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Wheatley, Joshua L; Wright, David C; Geiger, Paige C

    2015-01-01

    Heat treatments (HT) and the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) improve whole body and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity while decreasing white adipose tissue (WAT) mass. However, HSPs in WAT have been understudied. The purpose of the present study was to examine patterns of HSP expression in WAT depots, and to examine the effects of a single in vivo HT on WAT metabolism. Male Wistar rats received HT (41°C, 20 min) or sham treatment (37°C), and 24 h later subcutaneous, epididymal, and retroperitoneal WAT depots (SCAT, eWAT, and rpWAT, respectively) were removed for ex vivo experiments and Western blotting. SCAT, eWAT, and rpWAT from a subset of rats were also cultured separately and received a single in vitro HT or sham treatment. HSP72 and HSP25 expression was greatest in more metabolically active WAT depots (i.e., eWAT and rpWAT) compared with the SCAT. Following HT, HSP72 increased in all depots with the greatest induction occurring in the SCAT. In addition, HSP25 increased in the rpWAT and eWAT, while HSP60 increased in the rpWAT only in vivo. Free fatty acid (FFA) release from WAT explants was increased following HT in the rpWAT only, and fatty acid reesterification was decreased in the rpWAT but increased in the SCAT following HT. HT increased insulin responsiveness in eWAT, but not in SCAT or rpWAT. Differences in HSP expression and induction patterns following HT further support the growing body of literature differentiating distinct WAT depots in health and disease.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Changes in Abdominal Compartments in Obese Diabetics during a Low-Calorie Weight-Loss Program

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Lena J.; Steveling, Antje; Meffert, Peter J.; Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Kessler, Rebecca; Hosten, Norbert; Krüger, Janine; Gärtner, Simone; Aghdassi, Ali A.; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Kühn, Jens-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate changes in the fat content of abdominal compartments and muscle area during weight loss using confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in overweight diabetics. Methods Twenty-nine obese diabetics (10/19 men/women, median age: 59.0 years, median body mass index (BMI): 34.0 kg/m2) prospectively joined a standardized 15-week weight-loss program (six weeks of formula diet exclusively, followed by reintroduction of regular food with gradually increasing energy content over nine weeks) over 15 weeks. All subjects underwent a standardized MRI protocol including a confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded MR sequence with water/fat separation before the program as well at the end of the six weeks of formula diet and at the end of the program at 15 weeks. Fat fractions of abdominal organs and vertebral bone marrow as well as volumes of visceral and subcutaneous fat were determined. Furthermore, muscle area was evaluated using the L4/L5 method. Data were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples. Results Median BMI decreased significantly from 34.0 kg/m2 to 29.9 kg/m2 (p < 0.001) at 15 weeks. Liver fat content was normalized (14.2% to 4.1%, p < 0.001) and vertebral bone marrow fat (57.5% to 53.6%, p = 0.018) decreased significantly throughout the program, while fat content of pancreas (9.0%), spleen (0.0%), and psoas muscle (0.0%) did not (p > 0.15). Visceral fat volume (3.2 L to 1.6 L, p < 0.001) and subcutaneous fat diameter (3.0 cm to 2.2 cm, p < 0.001) also decreased significantly. Muscle area declined by 6.8% from 243.9 cm2 to 226.8 cm2. Conclusion MRI allows noninvasive monitoring of changes in abdominal compartments during weight loss. In overweight diabetics, weight loss leads to fat reduction in abdominal compartments, such as visceral fat, as well as liver fat and vertebral bone marrow fat while pancreas fat remains unchanged. PMID:27110719

  5. [Abdominal pregnancy care. Case report].

    PubMed

    Morales Hernández, Sara; Díaz Velázquez, Mary Flor; Puello Tamara, Edgardo; Morales Hernández, Jorge; Basavilvazo Rodríguez, Maria Antonia; Cruz Cruz, Polita del Rocío; Hernández Valencia, Marcelino

    2008-10-01

    Abdominal pregnancies are the implantation of gestation in some of the abdominal structures. This kind of pregnancies represents sevenfold maternal death risk than tubarian ectopic pregnancies, and 90-fold death risk than normal ones. Previous cases have erroneously reported as abscess in Douglas punch, and frequently result in obitus or postnatal deaths. We report a case of a patient with 27 years old, and diagnosis of 25.2 weeks of pregnancy, prior placenta and anhidramnios, referred due to difficult in uterine contour delimitation, easy palpation of fetal parts, cephalic pole in left hypochondrious and presence of mass in hypogastria, no delimitations, pain with mobilization, no transvaginal bleed and fetal movements. Interruption of pregnancy is decided by virtue of severe oligohidramnios, retardation in fetal intrabdominal growth, and recurrent maternal abdominal pain. Surgical intervention was carried out for resolution of the obstetrical event, in which was found ectopic abdominal pregnancy with bed placental in right uterine horn that corresponded to a pregnancy of 30 weeks of gestation. Abdominal pregnancy is still a challenge for obstetrics due to its diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis is oriented to prevent an intrabdominal hemorrhage that is the main maternal cause of mortality.

  6. An adipose segmentation and quantification scheme for the intra abdominal region on minipigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engholm, Rasmus; Dubinskiy, Aleksandr; Larsen, Rasmus; Hanson, Lars G.; Christoffersen, Berit Østergaard

    2006-03-01

    This article describes a method for automatic segmentation of the abdomen into three anatomical regions: subcutaneous, retroperitoneal and visceral. For the last two regions the amount of adipose tissue (fat) is quantified. According to recent medical research, the distinction between retroperitoneal and visceral fat is important for studying metabolic syndrome, which is closely related to diabetes. However previous work has neglected to address this point, treating the two types of fat together. We use T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetic resonance data of the abdomen of obese minipigs. The pigs were manually dissected right after the scan, to produce the "ground truth" segmentation. We perform automatic segmentation on a representative slice, which on humans has been shown to correlate with the amount of adipose tissue in the abdomen. The process of automatic fat estimation consists of three steps. First, the subcutaneous fat is removed with a modified active contour approach. The energy formulation of the active contour exploits the homogeneous nature of the subcutaneous fat and the smoothness of the boundary. Subsequently the retroperitoneal fat located around the abdominal cavity is separated from the visceral fat. For this, we formulate a cost function on a contour, based on intensities, edges, distance to center and smoothness, so as to exploit the properties of the retroperitoneal fat. We then globally optimize this function using dynamic programming. Finally, the fat content of the retroperitoneal and visceral regions is quantified based on a fuzzy c-means clustering of the intensities within the segmented regions. The segmentation proved satisfactory by visual inspection, and closely correlated with the manual dissection data. The correlation was 0.89 for the retroperitoneal fat, and 0.74 for the visceral fat.

  7. Sonographic evaluation of visceral and subcutaneous fat in obese children*

    PubMed Central

    Sakuno, Telma; Tomita, Letícia Mary; Tomita, Carolina Mywa; Giuliano, Isabela de Carlos Back; Ibagy, Amanda; Perin, Nilza Maria Medeiros; Poeta, Lisiane Schilling

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate sonographic measurements of visceral and subcutaneous fat in children, and to investigate the usefulness of preperitoneal fat (PF) and the abdominal wall fat index (AFI) as parameters to determine visceral fat and presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. Materials and Methods A case-control study of a sample including 44 children (22 cases and 22 controls) matched by sex and age. The Student t test and the Fisher exact test were utilized in the descriptive and bivariate analysis. Results The sonographic parameters evaluated - subcutaneous cell tissue, PF and intraperitoneal fat, and NAFLD - presented high statistical association with body mass index. NAFLD was observed in eight obese patients (36.36%), and PF and AFI were the variables with highest statistical significance, with p < 0.0001. Conclusion Ultrasonography is useful tool in the differentiation and quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat in children. The measures of PF and AFI are useful in the assessment of visceral fat and NAFLD in obese children. PMID:25741071

  8. Retinol-binding protein 4 expression in visceral and subcutaneous fat in human obesity.

    PubMed

    Bajzová, M; Kováciková, M; Vítková, M; Klimcáková, E; Polák, J; Kovácová, Z; Viguerie, N; Vedral, T; Mikulásek, L; Srámková, P; Srp, A; Hejnová, J; Langin, D; Stich, V

    2008-01-01

    Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a novel adipokine which might be involved in the development of insulin resistance. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of RBP4 mRNA in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots and the relationship between RBP4 plasma and mRNA levels relative to indices of adiposity and insulin resistance. In 59 Caucasian women (BMI 20 to 49 kg/m(2)) paired samples of subcutaneous and visceral fat were obtained for RBP4, leptin and GLUT 4 mRNA analysis using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and computed tomography scans were performed. RBP4 mRNA levels as well as GLUT 4 mRNA and leptin mRNA levels were lower (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively) in visceral compared to subcutaneous fat. No differences were found in RBP4 mRNA expression in the two fat depots or in RBP4 plasma levels between subgroups of non-obese subjects (n=26), obese subjects without metabolic syndrome (n=17) and with metabolic syndrome (n=16). No correlations between RBP4 mRNA or plasma levels relative to adiposity, glucose disposal rate and GLUT 4 mRNA expression in adipose tissue were found. There was a weak positive correlation between plasma RBP4 and plasma triglycerides (r = 0.30, p<0.05) and between plasma RBP4 and blood glucose (r = 0.26, p<0.05). Regardless of the state of adiposity or insulin resistance, RBP4 expression in humans was lower in visceral than in subcutaneous fat. We found no direct relationship between either RBP4 mRNA or its plasma levels and the adiposity or insulin resistance.

  9. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-03-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study I was a systematic review of the existing standardized methods for assessing quality of life after incisional hernia repair. After a systematic search in the electronic databases Embase and PubMed, a total of 26 studies using standardized measures for assessment of quality of life after incisional hernia repair were found. The most commonly used questionnaire was the generic Short-Form 36, which assesses overall health-related quality of life, addressing both physical and mental health. The second-most common questionnaire was the Carolinas Comfort Scale, which is a disease specific questionnaire addressing pain, movement limitation and mesh sensation in relation to a current or previous hernia. In total, eight different questionnaires were used at varying time points in the 26 studies. In conclusion, standardization of timing and method of quality of life assessment after incisional hernia repair was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the

  10. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  11. Visceral fat estimation method by bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Tasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Naoki; Hamaguchi, Takehiro; Shiga, Toshikazu

    2011-06-01

    It has been clarified that abdominal visceral fat accumulation is closely associated to the lifestyle disease and metabolic syndrome. The gold standard in medical fields is visceral fat area measured by an X-ray computer tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging. However, their measurements are high invasive and high cost; especially a CT scan causes X-ray exposure. They are the reasons why medical fields need an instrument for viscera fat measurement with low invasive, ease of use, and low cost. The article proposes a simple and practical method of visceral fat estimation by employing bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis. In the method, abdominal shape and dual impedances of abdominal surface and body total are measured to estimate a visceral fat area based on the cause-effect structure. The structure is designed according to the nature of abdominal body composition to be fine-tuned by statistical analysis. The experiments were conducted to investigate the proposed model. 180 subjects were hired to be measured by both a CT scan and the proposed method. The acquired model explained the measurement principle well and the correlation coefficient is 0.88 with the CT scan measurements.

  12. Sedentary lifestyle related exosomal release of Hotair from gluteal-femoral fat promotes intestinal cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaozhao; Bai, Danna; Liu, Xiangwei; Zhou, Chen; Yang, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Pioneering epidemiological work has established strong association of sedentary lifestyle and obesity with the risk of colorectal cancer, while the detailed underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here we show that Hotair (HOX transcript antisense RNA) is a pro-adipogenic long non-coding RNA highly expressed in gluteal-femoral fat over other fat depots. Hotair knockout in adipose tissue results in gluteal-femoral fat defect. Squeeze of the gluteal-femoral fat induces intestinal proliferation in wildtype mice, while not in Hotair knockout mice. Mechanistically, squeeze of the gluteal-femoral fat induces exosomal Hotair secretion mainly by transcriptional upregulation of Hotair via NFκB. And increased exosomal Hotair in turn circulates in the blood and is partially endocytosed by the intestine, finally promoting the stemness and proliferation of intestinal stem/progenitor cells via Wnt activation. Clinically, obese subjects with sedentary lifestyle have much higher exosomal HOTAIR expression in the serum. These findings establish that sedentary lifestyle promotes exosomal Hotair release from the gluteal-femoral fat, which in turn facilitates intestinal stem and/or progenitor proliferation, raising a possible link between sedentary lifestyle with colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:28361920

  13. Abdominal Bloating: Pathophysiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seo, A Young; Oh, Dong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004

  14. [Gallstone ileus. Abdominal CT usefulness].

    PubMed

    Sukkarieh, F; Brasseur, P; Bissen, L

    2004-06-01

    The authors report the case of a 93-year old woman referred to the emergency department and presenting with an intestinal obstruction. Abdominal CT reveals a biliary ileus caused by the migration and the impaction of a 3 cm gallstone in the small bowel. Surgical treatment by enterolithotomy was successful. In over 90% of cases, gallstone ileus is a complication of cholelithiasis and accounts for 25% of intestinal obstruction in patients over 65 years. To reduce morbidity and mortality, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential. Abdominal CT-scan is the gold standard technique.

  15. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Lemieux, Isabelle

    2006-12-14

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Proposed criteria for identifying patients with metabolic syndrome have contributed greatly to preventive medicine, but the value of metabolic syndrome as a scientific concept remains controversial. The presence of metabolic syndrome alone cannot predict global cardiovascular disease risk. But abdominal obesity - the most prevalent manifestation of metabolic syndrome - is a marker of 'dysfunctional adipose tissue', and is of central importance in clinical diagnosis. Better risk assessment algorithms are needed to quantify diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk on a global scale.

  16. Abdominal surgery in neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Bryant, James E; Gaughan, Earl M

    2005-08-01

    Abdominal surgery in foals under 30 days old has become more common with improved neonatal care. Early recognition of a foal at risk and better nursing care have increased the survival rates of foals that require neonatal care. The success of improved neonatal care also has increased the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal, umbilical, and bladder disorders in these foals. This chapter focuses on the early and accurate diagnosis of specific disorders that require abdominal exploratory surgery and the specific treatment considerations and prognosis for these disorders.

  17. Pancreatic Fat Is Associated With Metabolic Syndrome and Visceral Fat but Not Beta-Cell Function or Body Mass Index in Pediatric Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Staaf, Johan; Labmayr, Viktor; Paulmichl, Katharina; Manell, Hannes; Cen, Jing; Ciba, Iris; Dahlbom, Marie; Roomp, Kirsten; Anderwald, Christian-Heinz; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Schneider, Reinhard; Forslund, Anders; Widhalm, Kurt; Bergquist, Jonas; Ahlström, Håkan; Bergsten, Peter; Weghuber, Daniel; Kullberg, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Adolescents with obesity have increased risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Pancreatic fat has been related to these conditions; however, little is known about associations in pediatric obesity. The present study was designed to explore these associations further. Methods We examined 116 subjects, 90 with obesity. Anthropometry, MetS, blood samples, and oral glucose tolerance tests were assessed using standard techniques. Pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) and other fat depots were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. Results The PFF was elevated in subjects with obesity. No association between PFF and body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) was found in the obesity subcohort. Pancreatic fat fraction correlated to Insulin Secretion Sensitivity Index-2 and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in simple regression; however, when using adjusted regression and correcting for BMI-SDS and other fat compartments, PFF correlated only to visceral adipose tissue and fasting glucose. Highest levels of PFF were found in subjects with obesity and MetS. Conclusions In adolescents with obesity, PFF is elevated and associated to MetS, fasting glucose, and visceral adipose tissue but not to beta-cell function, glucose tolerance, or BMI-SDS. This study demonstrates that conclusions regarding PFF and its associations depend on the body mass features of the cohort. PMID:27941426

  18. Health assessment for Anniston Army Depot, Bynum, Calhoun County, Alabama, Region 4. CERCLIS No. AL3210020027. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-29

    The Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) facility, which occupies 15,200 acres in northeast Alabama, was originally an ammunition storage depot. Contaminants of concern include trichloroethylene (TCE), cis- and trans-dichloroethylene, methylene chloride, metals, and phenol in groundwater. Based on the available information, the site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances.

  19. Face the Fats Quiz 2

    MedlinePlus

    Face the Fats Quiz II Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you eat? From ... some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the Fats Quiz II - and be sure to check out Face ...

  20. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... the child’s mood and emotions, and in turn cause depression and anxiety. Screening/Diagnosis Detailed information regarding the location of abdominal pain, the frequency (number of times per week) and ... about the cause, and will guide further testing. Other important pieces ...

  1. CDC recommendations for civilian communities near chemical weapons depots: guidelines for medical preparedness--CDC. Publication of final recommendations.

    PubMed

    1995-06-27

    On July 27, 1994, CDC published in the Federal Register, 59 FR 38191, "CDC Recommendations for Civilian Communities Near Chemical Weapons Depots: Guidelines for Medical Preparedness" and requested public comment. Seven people sent comments; many were responding on behalf of governments or other institutions in affected communities. These comments are available upon request. These recommendations incorporate changes made in response to the comments received and constitutes CDC's final recommendations for minimum standards for prehospital and hospital emergency medical services' readiness in communities near the eight locations where the U.S. stockpile of lethal chemical weapons is stored. The eight locations are: Umatilla Army Depot Activity, Oregon; Tooele Army Depot, Utah; Pueblo Army Depot Activity, Colorado; Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas; Newport Army Ammunition Plant, Indiana; Anniston Army Depot, Alabama; Lexington Bluegrass Depot Activity, Kentucky; and Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. These recommendations were prepared to assist emergency planners in determining emergency medical services' readiness in communities near the 8 locations where the U.S. stockpile of lethal chemical weapons is stored. These guidelines should not be used for any purpose other than planning for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program.

  2. Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... myhealthfinder Immunization Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-termJust about everyone has had a " ... time or another. But sudden severe abdominal pain (stomach pain), also called acute pain, shouldn't be ...

  3. Imaging of gastrointestinal and abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Vanhoenacker, F M; De Backer, A I; Op de, Beeck B; Maes, M; Van Altena, R; Van Beckevoort, D; Kersemans, P; De Schepper, A M

    2004-03-01

    This article discusses the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the abdomen, including involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, the peritoneum, mesentery, omentum, abdominal lymph nodes, solid abdominal organs, the genital system and the abdominal aorta. Abdominal TB is a diagnostic challenge, particularly when pulmonary TB is absent. It may mimic many other abdominal diseases, both clinically and radiologically. An early correct diagnosis, however, is important in order to ensure proper treatment and a favorable outcome. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of abdominal TB and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Generally, CT appears to be the imaging modality of choice in the detection and assessment of abdominal tuberculosis, other than gastrointestinal TB. Barium studies remain superior for demonstrating mucosal intestinal lesions. Ultrasound may be used for follow-up to monitor therapy response. The diagnosis of abdominal TB should be considered if suggestive imaging findings are found in patients with a high index of suspicion.

  4. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  5. Different adipose tissue depots: Metabolic implications and effects of surgical removal.

    PubMed

    Marcadenti, Aline; de Abreu-Silva, Erlon Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Increased adiposity has been associated to worse metabolic profile, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. There are two main adipose tissue depots in the body, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, which differ in anatomical location. A large body of evidence has shown the metabolic activity of adipose tissue; lipectomy and/or liposuction therefore appear to be alternatives for improving metabolic profile through rapid loss of adipose tissue. However, surgical removal of adipose tissue may be detrimental for metabolism, because subcutaneous adipose tissue has not been associated to metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, animal studies have shown a compensatory growth of adipose tissue in response to lipectomy. This review summarizes the implications of obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction, its relationship with the different adipose tissue depots, and the effects of lipectomy on cardiometabolic risk factors.

  6. Optimizing the Shunting Schedule of Electric Multiple Units Depot Using an Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Junchen

    2016-01-01

    The shunting schedule of electric multiple units depot (SSED) is one of the essential plans for high-speed train maintenance activities. This paper presents a 0-1 programming model to address the problem of determining an optimal SSED through automatic computing. The objective of the model is to minimize the number of shunting movements and the constraints include track occupation conflicts, shunting routes conflicts, time durations of maintenance processes, and shunting running time. An enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO) algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, an empirical study from Shanghai South EMU Depot is carried out to illustrate the model and EPSO algorithm. The optimization results indicate that the proposed method is valid for the SSED problem and that the EPSO algorithm outperforms the traditional PSO algorithm on the aspect of optimality. PMID:27436998

  7. Optimizing the Shunting Schedule of Electric Multiple Units Depot Using an Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaxi; Lin, Boliang; Jin, Junchen

    2016-01-01

    The shunting schedule of electric multiple units depot (SSED) is one of the essential plans for high-speed train maintenance activities. This paper presents a 0-1 programming model to address the problem of determining an optimal SSED through automatic computing. The objective of the model is to minimize the number of shunting movements and the constraints include track occupation conflicts, shunting routes conflicts, time durations of maintenance processes, and shunting running time. An enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO) algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, an empirical study from Shanghai South EMU Depot is carried out to illustrate the model and EPSO algorithm. The optimization results indicate that the proposed method is valid for the SSED problem and that the EPSO algorithm outperforms the traditional PSO algorithm on the aspect of optimality.

  8. Understanding of empty container movement: A study on a bottleneck at an off-dock depot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Rosmaizura Mohd; Rahman, Mohd Nizam Ab; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Saibani, Nizaroyani

    2014-09-01

    Port not only function as connections between marine and land transportation but also as core business areas. In a port terminal, available space is limited, but the influx of container is growing. The off-dock depot is one of the key supply chain players that hold empty containers in the inventory. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the main factors of bottlenecks or congestion that hinder the rapid movement of empty containers from the off-dock depot to the customers. Thirty interviews were conducted with individuals who are key players in the container supply chain. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software and the analytic hierarchy process to rank the priority factors of bottlenecks. Findings show that several pertinent factors act as barriers to the key players in the container movement in the day-to-day operations. In future studies, strategies to overcome fragmentation in the container supply chain and logistics must be determined.

  9. Blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruption with evisceration

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Ellen; Stawicki, Stanislaw PA; Bahner, David P

    2011-01-01

    Blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruptions associated with evisceration are very rare. The authors describe a case of traumatic abdominal wall disruption with bowel evisceration that occurred after a middle-aged woman sustained direct focal blunt force impact to the lower abdomen. Abdominal exploration and surgical repair of the abdominal wall defect were performed, with good clinical outcome. A brief overview of literature pertinent to this rare trauma scenario is presented. PMID:22229144

  10. Evidence for Environmental Contamination in Residential Neighborhoods Surrounding the Defense Depot of Memphis, Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Natasha A.; White, Jason D.; Morris, Vernon R.; Roberts, Stephanie; Jones, Kimberly L.; Warrick, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    An interdisciplinary environmental assessment team from the Howard University Environmental Justice Partnership (HUEJP) conducted a site visit and assessment of the Defense Depot of Memphis, Tennessee in February of 2000. This depot was built in the late 1940’s for storage of numerous chemicals and munitions. As the years progressed, many Memphis citizens have grown to believe that the activities and chemical stockpile located at this site have negatively affected the health environment of their residents. There is anecdotal evidence and documentation of numerous cancers and other illnesses in those local territories, and specifically, at the Memphis Depot site. Currently, this depot is closed and in remediation by the local government. Particularly, citizens of the Rozelle community have started a campaign to investigate any signs of exposure pathways to noted health risks. The HUEJP was contacted and asked to investigate the community concerns. Obliging to the request, we aimed to sample at three drainage sites and a residential site, talk to local citizens, and gain any additional information that would be helpful in relieving anxiety in the Rozelle community. Soil, sediment, and water samples were collected and analyzed for total organic carbon, inorganic anions, and heavy metals. These data show that for the four sites sampled, the highest concentrations of organic compounds and heavy metals were located either within a residential area or in an area with a direct transport pathway to the community. Atomic absorption analysis revealed detectable amounts of cadmium, lead and chromium metals at all sites with direct transport pathways into the residential community, with chromium concentrations being far in excess of the EPA standard limits. PMID:16968970

  11. Reducing Repair Turn Around Time of Depot Level Repairables at Naval Shipyards.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Naval Audit Service reviewed the repairables programs of several naval shipyazds. The following excerpts highlight some of the problems that have...depot maintenance activities for many non-aviation DLRs. 6 When a system is first put into service the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) is normally...cannibalized and retained by the shipyard for use in later repairs. For carcass with missing subassem- blies a Defective Material Report ( DMR ) is prepared

  12. Tooele Army Depot-North Area Suspected Releases SWMUs. Phase 1 RFI report. Volume 1. Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    location of the continental storm track , most of the precipitation in the Tooele Valley occurs as snow between the months of October and May. Summers are...of railroad tracks . Stormwater from the Administration Area drains via an underground concrete piping system to a depression in a dry wash, where it...Shank (JMM) with Ammunition survelliance Chief, Milo Serreyn, Tooele Army Depot, Utah, October 1992. Siniscalchi, 1991. Telephone interview conducted

  13. Depot Maintenance: Improvements to DODs Biennial Core Report Could Better Inform Oversight and Funding Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    Title 10 of the U.S. Code requires DOD to maintain a core maintenance capability—a government-owned and operated combination of personnel...of the United States Code and has been amended several times. Among other things, Section 2464 requires DOD to maintain a “core depot-level...the United Sates Code was amended many times between the late 1980s and the early 2000s; however, these amendments did not change the basic

  14. A Review of Reverse Logistics and Depot Level Repairable Tracking in the United States Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Repairable Tracking in the United States Navy By: Edward L. Stevenson, Cane A. Toussaint, and Mark A. Edwards June 2005 Advisors...Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: A Review of Reverse Logistics and Depot Level Repairable Tracking in the United States Navy 6. AUTHOR(S) Edward L...Stevenson, Cane A. Toussaint, and Mark A. Edwards 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School

  15. Using Depot Inventory Position to Determine Transportation Mode of Retrograde Reparable Assets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    could be used as a factor and shows the serviceable inventory could prove useful as well. 46 In his book The Goal, Eli Goldratt (1992) suggests...process, as this will just waste resources and not speed up the system ( Goldratt , 1992). If the depot is considered the bottleneck based on its... Goldratt , Eliyahu M. The Goa (Second Edition). Great Barrington MA. The North River Press, 1992. Hall, Patricia K. and Paul R. Murphy. “The

  16. Comparing Depot Maintenance Work Requirements (DNWR) and Commercial Overhaul Manuals for Ease of Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-12

    usability have been used in this study to try to answer this question. A large representative sample of manuals from both repair sectors were compared to...usability tests to compare a representative sample of overl iul manuals from the commercial and the Depot sectors. The findings of the tests indicated...115 G. Point Size Samples ....................... 117 H. F Distribution Table...................... 130 1. Sample Size Graph

  17. Low Volatile Organic Compound Containing Wash Primer for Letterkenny Army Depot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    contains non- chromate based corrosion inhibitors . Hentzen Coatings Inc’s product, coded 16708TEP/16709CEH, and Deft’s product, coded 02GN084, were...testing at Cape Canaveral and a demonstration at Letterkenny Army Depot in Chambersburg, PA. 15. SUBJECT TERMS CARC, corrosion , coating 16...industry standard for chemical agent resistant coatings (CARC) systems due to exceptional adhesion, substrate passivation, and corrosion inhibition

  18. Changes in the biochemical composition of fat body stores during adult development of female crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Matthias W; Anand, Anurag N

    2004-07-01

    Age-dependent changes in the fat body composition and aspects of lipogenesis in the free abdominal fat body of female crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus, were studied. Lipid, protein, glycogen, and free carbohydrate content of the fat body, and fat body wet weight increased simultaneously and sharply from day 0 onwards and were doubled/almost doubled by day 2 after adult emergence. Lipogenic activity of the fat body, fat body weight, and the energy stores in the fat body peaked on day 2, except for free carbohydrate, which peaked on day 3. On day 2, the fat body was mainly comprised of lipid (53.8%) and protein (6.6%), while glycogen and free carbohydrate together contributed less than 1% of the fat body wet weight. After peaking, both lipogenesis and energy stores decreased in a synchronous manner. The depletion of the fat body energy stores and the consequent decrease in the fat body weight were concomitant with a fast and massive gain in ovary weight (day 2: 19.5 +/- 1.5 mg; day 4: 332.8 +/- 31.5 mg) due to the vitellogenic oocyte growth that started on day 2. Our data clearly underline the importance of the free abdominal fat body as a source of energy for reproduction in the cricket. Fat body fatty acid synthase activity coincided with lipogenic activity. Adipokinetic hormone inhibits lipid synthesis in the fat body, but treatment of the fat body with adipokinetic hormone in vitro showed no consistent effect on fatty acid synthase activity.

  19. Differential Effects of Bariatric Surgery Versus Exercise on Excessive Visceral Fat Deposits.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fu-Zong; Huang, Yi-Luan; Wu, Carol C; Wang, Yen-Chi; Pan, Hsiang-Ju; Huang, Chin-Kun; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Wu, Ming-Ting

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare differential impacts of bariatric surgery and exercise-induced weight loss on excessive abdominal and cardiac fat deposition.Excessive fat accumulation around the heart may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Recent evidences have suggested that bariatric surgery results in relatively less decrease in epicardial fat compared with abdominal visceral fat and paracardial fat.Sixty-four consecutive overweight or obese subjects were enrolled in the study. Clinical characteristics and metabolic profiles were recorded. The volumes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (AVAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), epicardial (EAT), and paracardial adipose tissue (PAT) were measured by computed tomography in the bariatric surgery group (N = 25) and the exercise group (N = 39) at baseline and 3 months after intervention. Subjects in both the surgery and exercise groups showed significant reduction in body mass index (15.97%, 7.47%), AVAT (40.52%, 15.24%), ASAT (31.40, 17.34%), PAT (34.40%, 12.05%), and PAT + EAT (22.31%, 17.72%) (all P < 0.001) after intervention compared with baseline. In both the groups, the decrease in EAT was small compared with the other compartments (P < 0.01 in both groups). Compared with the exercise group, the surgery group had greater loss in abdominal and cardiac visceral adipose tissue (AVAT, ASAT, PAT, EAT+PAT) (P < 0.001), but lesser loss in EAT (P = 0.037).Compared with the exercise group, bariatric surgery results in significantly greater percentage loss of excessive fat deposits except for EAT. EAT, but not PAT, was relatively preserved despite weight reduction in both the groups. The physiological impact of persistent EAT deserves further investigation.

  20. A creatine-driven substrate cycle enhances energy expenditure and thermogenesis in beige fat.

    PubMed

    Kazak, Lawrence; Chouchani, Edward T; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Erickson, Brian K; Shinoda, Kosaku; Cohen, Paul; Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Lu, Gina Z; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Hasenfuss, Sebastian C; Kajimura, Shingo; Gygi, Steve P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2015-10-22

    Thermogenic brown and beige adipose tissues dissipate chemical energy as heat, and their thermogenic activities can combat obesity and diabetes. Herein the functional adaptations to cold of brown and beige adipose depots are examined using quantitative mitochondrial proteomics. We identify arginine/creatine metabolism as a beige adipose signature and demonstrate that creatine enhances respiration in beige-fat mitochondria when ADP is limiting. In murine beige fat, cold exposure stimulates mitochondrial creatine kinase activity and induces coordinated expression of genes associated with creatine metabolism. Pharmacological reduction of creatine levels decreases whole-body energy expenditure after administration of a β3-agonist and reduces beige and brown adipose metabolic rate. Genes of creatine metabolism are compensatorily induced when UCP1-dependent thermogenesis is ablated, and creatine reduction in Ucp1-deficient mice reduces core body temperature. These findings link a futile cycle of creatine metabolism to adipose tissue energy expenditure and thermal homeostasis. PAPERCLIP.

  1. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Thomas P J; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K; Gonzalez, Frank; Kirwan, John P

    2008-08-01

    Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max) were measured in 10 older (age, 60 +/- 4 years; mean +/- SEM) and 10 younger (age, 35 +/- 4 years) body mass index-matched, obese, normal glucose-tolerant individuals. Fasting blood samples were also collected. Older subjects had slightly elevated fat mass (32.2 +/- 7.1 vs 36.5 +/- 6.7 kg, P = .16); however, waist circumference was not different between groups (104.3 +/- 10.3 vs 102.1 +/- 12.6 cm, P = .65). Basal fat oxidation was 22% lower (1.42 +/- 0.14 vs 1.17 +/- 0.22 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03) in older subjects. The VO(2)max was also decreased in older individuals (44.6 +/- 7.1 vs 38.3 +/- 6.0 mL/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03); but insulin sensitivity, lipemia, and leptinemia were not different between groups (P > .05). Fat oxidation was most related to age (r = -0.61, P = .003) and VO(2)max (r = 0.52, P = .01). These data suggest that aging per se is responsible for reduced basal fat oxidation and maximal oxidative capacity in older obese individuals, independent of changes in insulin resistance, body mass, and abdominal fat. This indicates that age, in addition to obesity, is an independent risk factor for weight gain and for the metabolic complications of elevated body fat.

  2. Fat quantification and analysis of lung transplant patients on unenhanced chest CT images based on standardized anatomic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.; Wu, Caiyun; Christie, Jason; Lederer, David J.

    2016-03-01

    Chest fat estimation is important for identifying high-risk lung transplant candidates. In this paper, an approach to chest fat quantification based on a recently formulated concept of standardized anatomic space (SAS) is presented. The goal of this paper is to seek answers to the following questions related to chest fat quantification on single slice versus whole volume CT, which have not been addressed in the literature. What level of correlation exists between total chest fat volume and fat areas measured on single abdominal and thigh slices? What is the anatomic location in the chest where maximal correlation of fat area with fat volume can be expected? Do the components of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have the same area-to-volume correlative behavior or do they differ? The SAS approach includes two steps: calibration followed by transformation which will map the patient slice locations non-linearly to SAS. The optimal slice locations found for SAT and VAT based on SAS are different and at the mid-level of the T8 vertebral body for SAT and mid-level of the T7 vertebral body for VAT. Fat volume and area on optimal slices for SAT and VAT are correlated with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.86, respectively. The correlation of chest fat volume with abdominal and thigh fat areas is weak to modest.

  3. A Genetically Engineered Thermally Responsive Sustained Release Curcumin Depot to Treat Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, S. Michael; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta; McDaniel, Jonathan R.; Gooden, David M.; Gopalaswamy, Ramesh; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Setton, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Radiculopathy, a painful neuroinflammation that can accompany intervertebral disc herniation, is associated with locally increased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Systemic administration of TNF antagonists for radiculopathy in the clinic has shown mixed results, and there is growing interest in the local delivery of anti-inflammatory drugs to treat this pathology as well as similar inflammatory events of peripheral nerve injury. Curcumin, a known antagonist of TNFα in multiple cell types and tissues, was chemically modified and conjugated to a thermally responsive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) to create an injectable depot for sustained, local delivery of curcumin to treat neuroinflammation. ELPs are biopolymers capable of thermally-triggered in situ depot formation that have been successfully employed as drug carriers and biomaterials in several applications. ELP-curcumin conjugates were shown to display high drug loading, rapidly release curcumin in vitro via degradable carbamate bonds, and retain in vitro bioactivity against TNFα-induced cytotoxicity and monocyte activation with IC50 only two-fold higher than curcumin. When injected proximal to the sciatic nerve in mice via intramuscular (i.m.) injection, ELP-curcumin conjugates underwent a thermally triggered soluble-insoluble phase transition, leading to in situ formation of a depot that released curcumin over 4 days post-injection and decreased plasma AUC 7-fold. PMID:23830979

  4. Long-acting injectable risperidone: safety and efficacy in stable patients switched from conventional depot antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Turner, Martin; Eerdekens, Els; Jacko, Mary; Eerdekens, Mariëlle

    2004-07-01

    Long-acting injectable risperidone was assessed in schizophrenia patients who were symptomatically stable on conventional depot antipsychotics and who were then switched to long-acting risperidone. Participants in this open-label, multicentre, 12-week trial had received flupenthixol decanoate, fluphenazine decanoate, haloperidol decanoate, or zuclopenthixol decanoate for 4 months or longer. Each was considered symptomatically stable by investigators. After receiving two cycles of their conventional depot antipsychotic during the run-in period, patients were switched to receive long-acting risperidone every 2 weeks for 12 weeks at an initial dose of 25 mg. This dose could be increased in 12.5-mg increments at 4-week intervals. Ninety-two percent of the patients received all six injections; 62% received the 25-mg dose throughout the treatment period. Adverse events related to movement disorders were reported in 3%. Severity of movement disorders decreased during long-acting risperidone treatment. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total and factor scores and scores on the Clinical Global Impressions severity scale were significantly reduced during treatment; 48% of these stable patients showed further symptom improvement (> or =20% decrease in PANSS score at endpoint). The results indicate that patients with schizophrenia who are symptomatically stable during treatment with a conventional depot antipsychotic can be safely and effectively switched to long-acting injectable risperidone without a prior transition to oral risperidone.

  5. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-04-06

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation.

  6. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation. PMID:27058555

  7. Planned ventral hernia. Staged management for acute abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, T C; Croce, M A; Pritchard, F E; Minard, G; Hickerson, W L; Howell, R L; Schurr, M J; Kudsk, K A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Analysis of a staged management scheme for initial and definitive management of acute abdominal wall defects is provided. METHODS: A four-staged scheme for managing acute abdominal wall defects consists of the following stages: stage I--prosthetic insertion; stage II--2 to 3 weeks after prosthetic insertion and wound granulation, the prosthesis is removed; stage III--2 to 3 days later, planned ventral hernia (split thickness skin graft [STSG] or full-thickness skin and subcutaneous fat); stage IV--6 to 12 months later, definitive reconstruction. Cases were evaluated retrospectively for benefits and risks of the techniques employed. RESULTS: Eighty-eight cases (39 visceral edema, 27 abdominal sepsis, 22 abdominal wall resection) were managed during 8.5 years. Prostheses included polypropylene mesh in 45 cases, polyglactin 910 mesh in 27, polytetrafluorethylene in 10, and plastic in 6. Twenty-four patients died from their initial disease. The fistula rates associated with prosthetic management was 9%; no wound-related mortality occurred. Most wounds had split thickness skin graft applied after prosthetic removal. Definitive reconstruction was undertaken in 21 patients in the authors' institution (prosthetic mesh in 12 and modified components separation in 9). Recurrent hernias developed in 33% of mesh reconstructions and 11% of the components separation technique. CONCLUSIONS: The authors concluded that 1) this staged approach was associated with low morbidity and no technique-related mortality; 2) prostheses placed for edema were removed with fascial approximation accomplished in half of those cases; 3) absorbable mesh provided the advantages of reasonable durability, ease of removal, and relatively low cost--it has become the prosthesis of choice; and 4) the modified components separation technique of reconstruction provided good results in patients with moderate sized defects. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:8203973

  8. Intra-Abdominal Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Abdominal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oguejiofor, Njideka; Al-Abayechi, Sarah; Njoku, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease, caused by gram positive anaerobic bacteria, that may appear as an abdominal mass and/or abscess (Wagenlehner et al. 2003). This paper presents an unusual case of a hemodynamically stable 80-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with 4 weeks of worsening abdominal pain and swelling. He also complains of a 20-bound weight loss in 2 months. A large tender palpable mass in the right upper quadrant was noted on physical exam. Laboratory studies showed a normal white blood cell count, slightly decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, and mildly elevated total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase. A CT with contrast was done and showed a liver mass. Radiology and general surgery suspected malignancy and recommended CT guided biopsy. The sample revealed abundant neutrophils and gram positive rods. Cytology was negative for malignancy and cultures eventually grew actinomyces. High dose IV penicillin therapy was given for 4 weeks and with appropriate response transitioned to oral antibiotic for 9 months with complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:28299215

  9. Adipocyte Lineages: Tracing Back the Origins of Fat

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Gurmaches, Joan; Guertin, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The obesity epidemic has intensified efforts to understand the mechanisms controlling adipose tissue development. Adipose tissue is generally classified as white adipose tissue (WAT), the major energy storing tissue, or brown adipose tissue (BAT), which mediates non-shivering thermogenesis. It is hypothesized that brite adipocytes (brown in white) may represent a third adipocyte class. The recent realization that brown fat exist in adult humans suggests increasing brown fat energy expenditure could be a therapeutic strategy to combat obesity. To understand adipose tissue development, several groups are tracing the origins of mature adipocytes back to their adult precursor and embryonic ancestors. From these studies emerged a model that brown adipocytes originate from a precursor shared with skeletal muscle that expresses Myf5-Cre, while all white adipocytes originate from a Myf5-negative precursors. While this provided a rational explanation to why BAT is more metabolically favorable than WAT, recent work indicates the situation is more complex because subsets of white adipocytes also arise from Myf5-Cre expressing precursors. Lineage tracing studies further suggest that the vasculature may provide a niche supporting both brown and white adipocyte progenitors; however, the identity of the adipocyte progenitor cell is under debate. Differences in origin between adipocytes could explain metabolic heterogeneity between depots and/or influence body fat patterning particularly in lipodystrophy disorders. Here, we discuss recent insights into adipose tissue origins highlighting lineage-tracing studies in mice, how variations in metabolism or signaling between lineages could affect body fat distribution, and the questions that remain unresolved. PMID:23747579

  10. MR Fingerprinting for Rapid Quantitative Abdominal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Jiang, Yun; Pahwa, Shivani; Ma, Dan; Lu, Lan; Twieg, Michael D.; Wright, Katherine L.; Seiberlich, Nicole; Griswold, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) “fingerprinting” technique for quantitative abdominal imaging. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. To achieve accurate quantification in the presence of marked B0 and B1 field inhomogeneities, the MR fingerprinting framework was extended by using a two-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state free precession, or FISP, acquisition and a Bloch-Siegert B1 mapping method. The accuracy of the proposed technique was validated by using agarose phantoms. Quantitative measurements were performed in eight asymptomatic subjects and in six patients with 20 focal liver lesions. A two-tailed Student t test was used to compare the T1 and T2 results in metastatic adenocarcinoma with those in surrounding liver parenchyma and healthy subjects. Results Phantom experiments showed good agreement with standard methods in T1 and T2 after B1 correction. In vivo studies demonstrated that quantitative T1, T2, and B1 maps can be acquired within a breath hold of approximately 19 seconds. T1 and T2 measurements were compatible with those in the literature. Representative values included the following: liver, 745 msec ± 65 (standard deviation) and 31 msec ± 6; renal medulla, 1702 msec ± 205 and 60 msec ± 21; renal cortex, 1314 msec ± 77 and 47 msec ± 10; spleen, 1232 msec ± 92 and 60 msec ± 19; skeletal muscle, 1100 msec ± 59 and 44 msec ± 9; and fat, 253 msec ± 42 and 77 msec ± 16, respectively. T1 and T2 in metastatic adenocarcinoma were 1673 msec ± 331 and 43 msec ± 13, respectively, significantly different from surrounding liver parenchyma relaxation times of 840 msec ± 113 and 28 msec ± 3 (P < .0001 and P < .01) and those in hepatic parenchyma in healthy volunteers (745 msec ± 65 and 31 msec ± 6, P < .0001 and P = .021, respectively). Conclusion A rapid technique for quantitative abdominal imaging was developed that

  11. The role of transplanted visceral fat from the long-lived growth hormone receptor knockout mice on insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Bennis, Mohammed T; Schneider, Augusto; Victoria, Berta; Do, Andrew; Wiesenborn, Denise S; Spinel, Lina; Gesing, Adam; Kopchick, John J; Siddiqi, Shadab A; Masternak, Michal M

    2017-02-01

    Growth hormone receptor knockout mice (GHRKO) are characterized by high insulin sensitivity and extended lifespan. Interestingly, the secretory activity of visceral fat in GHRKO mice is altered, stimulating whole body insulin sensitivity. In this study, we transplanted normal (N) mice with visceral fat pads from GHRKO or N mice to determine the role of visceral fat on the insulin signaling. We found that the transplant of visceral fat from GHRKO mice to N mice (N-GHRKO) improved whole body insulin sensitivity when comparing with sham-operated mice (N-S) and with mice that received visceral fat from N mice (N-N). This was associated with increased hepatic insulin sensitivity as observed by the increased phosphorylated insulin receptor and increased hepatic expression of Pparα and Pparγ. In conclusion, we demonstrated that visceral fat transplant from GHRKO mice into normal mice enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. These results further confirm the differential physiological role played by visceral adipose tissue from GH receptor deficient mice, indicating that the increase of this fat depot can be associated with beneficial effects on insulin signaling and longevity.

  12. Carcass fat partitioning and meat quality of Alentejana and Barrosã young bulls fed high or low maize silage diets.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana S H; Costa, Paulo; Bessa, Rui J B; Lemos, José P C; Simões, Jorge A; Santos-Silva, José; Fontes, Carlos M G A; Prates, José A M

    2013-03-01

    This study assessed the effect of breed and diet on carcass composition, particularly fat partitioning, and meat quality in young bulls. An experiment with forty young bulls from two phylogenetically distant Portuguese bovine breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, fed two diets with different maize silage to concentrate ratios, but isoenergetic and isonitrogenous, was carried out until the animals reached 18 months of age. In the longissimus lumborum muscle, Barrosã bulls fed the low silage diet had the highest intramuscular fat (IMF) content. Bulls fed the low silage diet also had the highest IMF content in the semitendinosus muscle. Diet determined the proportions of total visceral fat and individual fat depots. Under these experimental conditions, it was shown that the genetic background is a major determinant of carcass composition and meat quality, and that the dietary differences studied had limited effect on carcass composition.

  13. Water-induced thermogenesis and fat oxidation: a reassessment

    PubMed Central

    Charrière, N; Miles-Chan, J L; Montani, J-P; Dulloo, A G

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Drinking large amounts of water is often recommended for weight control. Whether water intake stimulates energy and fat metabolism is, however, controversial with some studies reporting that drinking half a litre or more of water increases resting energy expenditure (REE) by 10–30% and decreases respiratory quotient (RQ), whereas others report no significant changes in REE or RQ. The aim here was to reassess the concept of water-induced thermogenesis and fat oxidation in humans, with particular focus on interindividual variability in REE and RQ responses, comparison with a time-control Sham drink, and on the potential impact of gender, body composition and abdominal adiposity. Subjects/Methods: REE and RQ were measured in healthy young adults (n=27; body mass index range: 18.5–33.9 kg m−2), by ventilated hood indirect calorimetry for at least 30 min before and 130 min after ingesting 500 ml of purified (distilled) water at 21–22 °C or after Sham drinking, in a randomized cross-over design. Body composition and abdominal fat were assessed by bioimpedance techniques. Results: Drinking 500 ml of distilled water led to marginal increases in REE (<3% above baseline), independently of gender, but which were not significantly different from Sham drinking. RQ was found to fall after the water drink, independently of gender, but it also diminished to a similar extent in response to sham drinking. Interindividual variability in REE and RQ responses was not associated with body fatness, central adiposity or fat-free mass. Conclusions: This study conducted in young men and women varying widely in adiposity, comparing the ingestion of distilled water to Sham drinking, suggests that ingestion of purified water per se does not result in the stimulation of thermogenesis or fat oxidation. PMID:26690288

  14. What Are Solid Fats?

    MedlinePlus

    ... stick margarine shortening hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated oils* coconut oil* palm and palm kernel oils* * The starred items are ... and from fish. A few plant oils, including coconut oil and palm oil, are high in saturated fats and for ...

  15. Fats and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in avocados and olive, peanut, and canola oils polyunsaturated , found in most vegetable oils omega-3 fatty acids , a type of polyunsaturated ... saturated fats are also in palm and coconut oils, which are often used in commercial baked goods. ...

  16. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-11-01

    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  17. Fecal Fat: The Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... ordered. This is a better evaluation of fat digestion and absorption. There are two reasons for this: ... normally and that the person may have impaired digestion or malabsorption . Malabsorption is seen with a wide ...

  18. Dietary fats explained

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk, ice cream, cream, and fatty meats. Some vegetable oils, such as coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil, ... fats can help lower your LDL cholesterol. Most vegetable oils that are liquid at room temperature have unsaturated ...

  19. Fats and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Reduce Your Intake Public Health Concerns Carbohydrates Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar Fiber Added Sugar in the Diet Low-Carbohydrate Diets Sustainability Healthy Weight Measuring Fat The Best ...

  20. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Sustained-Release Depot of Dexamethasone in Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Ankita; Driscoll, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To examine the pharmacokinetic characteristics of sustained-release dexamethasone depots in two separate canine studies. Methods: Dexamethasone depots loaded with a clinically representative (0.4 mg) dose (DEXTENZA™; Ocular Therapeutix) or an elevated (0.7 mg) dose were inserted into the canaliculi of beagle eyes (n = 37 and n = 34, respectively). Tear fluid was collected for pharmacokinetic analysis of dexamethasone in both studies at predetermined time points. Explanted 0.4 mg depots were collected weekly to measure remaining drug level. Clinical observations and ophthalmic examinations were performed in both studies at each visit. Results: The 0.4 mg depots released a median 308 μg by day 15 and tapered to complete drug release by day 28. Median dexamethasone tear fluid concentrations in the 0.4 mg study group decreased from 2,805 ng/mL at day 7 to 0 ng/mL on day 28. Median dexamethasone tear fluid concentrations in the 0.7 mg study group decreased from 4,370 ng/mL at 6 h post insertion to 830 ng/mL on day 35. Mean ± standard deviation intraocular pressures in the 0.4 and 0.7 mg study groups were 20.7 ± 2.8 and 19.0 ± 4.1 mmHg at baseline, respectively, and demonstrated no meaningful change (20.5 ± 3.0 and 20.6 ± 2.9 mmHg, respectively) over the studies' durations. No ocular toxicities were attributed to the dexamethasone depot. Conclusion: Sustained-release dexamethasone produced no identifiable ocular toxicity in this animal model, and pharmacokinetics demonstrated a sustained and tapered drug release over 28 days at a 0.4 mg dose and exceeded 35 days at a 0.7 mg dose. PMID:27483129

  1. Observation of a Flowing Duct in the Abdominal Wall by Using Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Kim, Min-Suk; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Young-Jae; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2016-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS) is being established as a circulatory system that corresponds to acupuncture meridians. There have been two critical questions in making the PVS accepted as a novel liquid flowing system. The first one was directly to show the flow of liquid in PVS and the second one was to explain why it was not observed in the conventional histological study of animal tissues. Flow in the PVS in the abdominal cavity was previously verified by injecting Alcian blue into a primo node. However, the tracing of the dye to other subsystems of the PVS has not been done. In the current work we injected fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) into a primo node and traced them along a primo vessel which was inside a fat tissue in the abdominal wall. Linea alba is a white middle line in the abdominal skin of a mammal and a band of fat tissue is located in parallel to the linea alba in the parietal side of the abdominal wall of a rat. In this fat band a primo vessel runs parallel to the prominent blood vessels in the fat band and is located just inside the parietal peritoneum. About the second question on the reason why the PVS was not in conventional histological study the current work provided the answer. Histological analysis with hematoxyline and eosine, Masson’s trichrome, and Toluidine blue could not discriminate the primo vessel even when we knew the location of the PVS by the trace of the FNPs. This clearly explains why the PVS is hard to observe in conventional histology: it is not a matter of resolution but the contrast. The PVS has very similar structure to the connective tissues that surround the PVS. In the current work we propose a method to find the PVS: Observation of mast cell distribution with toluidine blue staining and the PN has a high density of mast cells, while the lymph node has low density. PMID:26937963

  2. Observation of a Flowing Duct in the Abdominal Wall by Using Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jang, HyunSuk; Yoon, Joohwan; Gil, HyunJi; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Kim, Min-Suk; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Young-Jae; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2016-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS) is being established as a circulatory system that corresponds to acupuncture meridians. There have been two critical questions in making the PVS accepted as a novel liquid flowing system. The first one was directly to show the flow of liquid in PVS and the second one was to explain why it was not observed in the conventional histological study of animal tissues. Flow in the PVS in the abdominal cavity was previously verified by injecting Alcian blue into a primo node. However, the tracing of the dye to other subsystems of the PVS has not been done. In the current work we injected fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) into a primo node and traced them along a primo vessel which was inside a fat tissue in the abdominal wall. Linea alba is a white middle line in the abdominal skin of a mammal and a band of fat tissue is located in parallel to the linea alba in the parietal side of the abdominal wall of a rat. In this fat band a primo vessel runs parallel to the prominent blood vessels in the fat band and is located just inside the parietal peritoneum. About the second question on the reason why the PVS was not in conventional histological study the current work provided the answer. Histological analysis with hematoxyline and eosine, Masson's trichrome, and Toluidine blue could not discriminate the primo vessel even when we knew the location of the PVS by the trace of the FNPs. This clearly explains why the PVS is hard to observe in conventional histology: it is not a matter of resolution but the contrast. The PVS has very similar structure to the connective tissues that surround the PVS. In the current work we propose a method to find the PVS: Observation of mast cell distribution with toluidine blue staining and the PN has a high density of mast cells, while the lymph node has low density.

  3. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Robin R.

    1997-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome, an important contributor to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, has been associated with both traumatic and nontraumatic disorders. Fat embolization after long bone trauma is probably common as a subclinical event. Fat emboli can deform and pass through the lungs, resulting in systemic embolization, most commonly to the brain and kidneys. The diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome is based on the patient’s history, supported by clinical signs of pulmonary, cerebral and cutaneous dysfunction and confirmed by the demonstration of arterial hypoxemia in the absence of other disorders. Treatment of fat embolism syndrome consists of general supportive measures, including splinting, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and the administration of oxygen. Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilatory assistance can be indicated. The role of corticosteroids remains controversial. Early stabilization of long bone fractures has been shown to decrease the incidence of pulmonary complications. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that the exact method of fracture fixation plays a minor role in the development of pulmonary dysfunction. As more is learned about the specifics of the various triggers for the development of fat embolism syndrome, it is hoped that the prospect of more specific therapy for the prevention and treatment of this disorder will become a reality. PMID:9336522

  4. Employment-Based Reinforcement of Adherence to Depot Naltrexone in Unemployed Opioid-Dependent Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Everly, Jeffrey J.; DeFulio, Anthony; Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S.; Donlin, Wendy D.; Aklin, Will M.; Umbricht, Annie; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Aims Naltrexone can be used to treat opioid dependence, but patients refuse to take it. Extended-release depot formulations may improve adherence, but long-term adherence rates to depot naltrexone are not known. This study determined long-term rates of adherence to depot naltrexone and whether employment-based reinforcement can improve adherence. Design Participants who were inducted onto oral naltrexone were randomly assigned to Contingency (n=18) or Prescription (n=17) groups. Participants were offered six depot naltrexone injections and invited to work at the therapeutic workplace weekdays for 26 weeks where they earned stipends for participating in job skills training. Contingency participants were required to accept naltrexone injections to maintain workplace access and to maintain maximum pay. Prescription participants could work independent of whether they accepted injections. Setting The therapeutic workplace, a model employment-based intervention for drug addiction and unemployment. Participants Opioid-dependent unemployed adults. Measurements Depot naltrexone injections accepted and opiate-negative urine samples. Findings Contingency participants accepted significantly more naltrexone injections than Prescription participants (81% versus 42%), and were more likely to accept all injections (66% versus 35%). At monthly assessments (with missing urine samples imputed as positive), the groups provided similar percentages of samples negative for opiates (74% versus 62%) and for cocaine (56% versus 54%). Opiate positive samples were more likely when samples were also positive for cocaine. Conclusions Employment-based reinforcement can maintain adherence to depot naltrexone. Future research should determine whether persistent cocaine use compromises naltrexone's effect on opiate use. Workplaces may be useful for promoting sustained adherence to depot naltrexone. PMID:21320227

  5. ELBW survivors in early adulthood have higher hepatic, pancreatic and subcutaneous fat

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Justin D.; Yellin, Samuel A.; Ong, Frank J.; Singh, Nina P.; Konyer, Norman; Noseworthy, Michael D.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Premature birth in conjunction with extremely low birth weight (<1 kg, ELBW) is associated with insulin resistance and increased cardiometabolic health risk compared to birth at full term with normal birth weight (NBW). However, little is known regarding the biologic mediators of these effects. Abdominal and ectopic lipid accumulation is linked to insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction, yet whether ELBW survivors are predisposed to aberrant lipid deposition in adulthood is unknown. We used magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of 16 NBW and 29 ELBW participants to determine if ELBW survivors have differences in pancreatic, hepatic, subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution compared to NBW participants. ELBW individuals had a higher proportion of liver and pancreatic fat compared to NBW subjects (P < 0.05). Abdominal subcutaneous fat, but not visceral fat, area was higher in ELBW survivors compared to NBW individuals. In multivariate analyses, tissue fat measures were most highly related to BMI and sex, but not preterm birth. This work highlights that fat deposition is enhanced in adults born preterm and suggests that ectopic fat accretion driven by their relatively greater adiposity may contribute to the higher rates of metabolic dysfunction seen in ELBW survivors. PMID:27530702

  6. Development of a high-precision image-processing automatic measurement system for MRI visceral fat images acquired using a binomial RF-excitation pulse.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Ryusuke; Azuma, Takashi; Kishimoto, Taizou; Hirata, Tazuko; Takizawa, Osamu; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Tsutsumi, Sadami

    2010-05-01

    Development of a rapid and accurate method for visceral fat measurement is an important task, given the recent increase in the number of patients with metabolic syndrome. In this study, we optimized the Fast Low Angle Shot (FLASH) sequence using a binominal radiofrequency excitation pulse, in which the acquisition time is short, and measured changes in the amount of visceral fat in subjects after a period of wearing clothes with a fat-reducing effect during walking. We solved the reproducibility problem associated with the number of slices, and developed automatic measurement software for high-precision separation and extraction of abdominal visceral fat images. This software was developed using intensity correction with the coil position, derivation of a threshold by histogram analysis and fat separation by template matching for abdominal images. The cross-sectional area of a single slice varies for every acquisition due to visceral organ movement, but the relative error largely converged for seven slices. The measured amount of abdominal fat tended to be consistent with changes in the body fat and waist circumference of the subjects. The correlation coefficients between automatic extraction using the measurement software and manual extraction were 0.9978 for subcutaneous fat and 0.9972 for visceral fat, showing very strong positive correlations. The consistency rates were 0.9502+/-0.0167 for subcutaneous fat and 0.9395+/-0.0147 for visceral fat, and the shapes of the regions were also extracted very accurately. These results show that the magnetic resonance imaging acquisition method and image processing system developed in this study are beneficial for measurement of abdominal visceral fat. Therefore, this method may have a major role in future diagnosis of metabolic syndrome.

  7. Evaluating the Contribution of Gut Microbiota to the Variation of Porcine Fatness with the Cecum and Fecal Samples

    PubMed Central

    He, Maozhang; Fang, Shaoming; Huang, Xiaochang; Zhao, Yuanzhang; Ke, Shanlin; Yang, Hui; Li, Zhuojun; Gao, Jun; Chen, Congying; Huang, Lusheng

    2016-01-01

    Microbial community in gastrointestinal tract participates in the development of the obesity as well as quite a few metabolic diseases in human. However, there are few studies about the relationship between gut microbiota and porcine fatness. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to perform 16S rRNA gene analysis in 256 cecum luminal samples from Erhualian pigs and 244 stools from Bamaxiang pigs, and adopted a two-part model statistical method to evaluate the association of gut microbes with porcine fatness. As the results, we identified a total of 6 and 108 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and 9 and 10 bacterial taxa which showed significant associations with fatness traits in the stool and cecum samples, respectively. Cross-validation analysis indicated that gut microbiome showed the largest effect on abdominal adipose by explaining 2.73% phenotypic variance of abdominal fat weight. Significantly more fatness-associated OTUs were identified in the cecum samples than that in the stools, suggesting that cecum luminal samples were better used for identification of fatness-associated microbes than stools. The fatness-associated OTUs were mainly annotated to Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Prevotella, Treponema, and Bacteroides. These microbes have been reported to produce short-chain fatty acids by fermenting dietary indigested polysaccharide and pectin. The short-chain fatty acids can regulate host body energy homeostasis, protect host from inflammation and inhibit fat mass development. Our findings suggested that the gut microbiome may be an important factor modulating fatness in pigs. PMID:28066405

  8. Self-reported experiences of discrimination and visceral fat in middle-aged African-American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Tené T; Kravitz, Howard M; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H

    2011-06-01

    The authors examined the association between self-reported experiences of discrimination and subtypes of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in a population-based cohort of African-American and Caucasian women. Prior studies examining associations between discrimination and abdominal fat have yielded mixed results. A major limitation of this research has been the reliance on waist circumference, which may be a poor marker of visceral fat, particularly for African-American women. Participants were 402 (45% African-American, 55% Caucasian) middle-aged women from the Chicago, Illinois, site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were assessed via computed tomography scans between 2002 and 2005. Linear regression models were conducted to test associations among discrimination and visceral and subcutaneous fat. After adjustment for age and race, every one-point increase on the discrimination scale was associated with a 13.03-cm(2) higher amount of visceral fat (P = 0.04). This association remained significant after further adjustments for total body fat and relevant risk factors, including depressive symptoms. Discrimination was not associated with subcutaneous fat in minimally (P = 0.95) or fully adjusted models. Associations did not differ by race. Findings suggest that visceral fat may be one potential pathway through which experiences of discrimination increase cardiovascular risk.

  9. High LPL Activity and Adipocyte Hypertrophy Reduce Visceral Fat and Metabolic Risk in Obese, Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Monica C.; Ryan, Alice S.; Sorkin, John D.; Favors, Knachelle H.; Goldberg, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if higher subcutaneous adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity (AT-LPLA) is associated with greater triglyceride (TG) storage in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), thereby reducing visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation and metabolic dysfunction. Design and Method Obese postmenopausal women (60±1 yrs; mean±SEM; N=101) had body composition by DXA and CT, fat aspirations for fat-cell weight (FCW) and AT-LPLA. Women were ranked by visceral to total abdominal fat ratio (VAT/TAF), and the lowest and highest groups (n=24) matched for % fat and age. Results The prevalence of metabolic dysfunction was 7–10 fold higher in women with high VAT/TAF (P’s<0.01). Women with low VAT/TAF had 11% and 6% lower abdominal and gluteal FCWs, but 28% and 54% higher AT-LPLA/106 cells in abdominal and gluteal fat, respectively. Abdominal FCW correlated with AT-LPLA in women with low (r=0.63, P<0.01), but not high (r=0.14, P=0.52) VAT/TAF, and these lines differed in slope (P<0.05) and intercept (P<0.01), suggesting greater capacity for TG storage with low VAT/TAF. There were no relationships between gluteal FCW and AT-LPLA. The relationship between SAT and abdominal AT-LPLA (r=0.39, P<0.01) suggests that higher AT-LPLA promotes TG storage. Conclusions These results suggest that higher AT-LPLA is associated with SAT adipocyte hypertrophy, which reduces visceral adiposity and metabolic risk in obese, older women. PMID:25612068

  10. Fat distribution and insulin resistance in young adult nonobese Asian Indian women.

    PubMed

    Szuszkiewicz-Garcia, Magdalene; Li, Rong; Grundy, Scott M; Abate, Nicola; Chandalia, Manisha

    2012-10-01

    Although Asian Indian (people of Indian subcontinent descent) men are shown to have higher total and truncal body fat as well as greater insulin resistance compared to white men matched for total body fat and age, data in women are not conclusive. The objective of this study was to compare total and regional fat distribution and insulin sensitivity between healthy young premenopausal Asian Indian and white women of similar body mass index (BMI). Twenty Asian Indian women (65% immigrants and 35% first generation living in Dallas) and 31 white women of similar age and BMI [age 24±3 vs. 25±4; BMI 22±4 vs. 23±5; mean±standard deviation (SD) in Asian Indian and white, respectively] without diabetes were evaluated with anthropometric measurements, underwater weighing for percentage of total body fat mass, magnetic resonance imaging of whole abdomen for measurement of abdominal subcutaneous and intraperitoneal fat mass, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp study for measurement of insulin sensitivity. There were no differences in waist or hip circumference, total body subcutaneous abdominal or intraperitoneal fat mass, fasting plasma glucose, and insulin levels between Asian Indian women and white women. The peripheral glucose disposal rate (Rd) during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was found to be almost identical in the two study groups (median value of 6.9 and 6.8 mg/min per kg of body weight, for Asian Indians and whites, respectively). For similar total or regional fat content, the glucose disposal rate was comparable in the two study groups. In conclusion, we demonstrate that young Asian Indian women do not have excess abdominal or intraperitoneal fat or insulin resistance for similar BMI compared to white women of European descent.

  11. Arboreal adaptations of body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) and the evolution of adiposity in primates.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J

    2013-11-01

    There is a paucity of information on body composition and fat patterning in wild nonhuman primates. Dissected adipose tissue from wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) (WTM), feeding on a natural diet, accounted for 2.1% of body weight. This was far less than fatness reported for nonhuman primates raised in captivity or for contemporary humans. In WTM, fatness increased with age and diet richness, but did not differ by sex. In WTM (none of which were obese) intra-abdominal fat filled first, and "excess" fat was stored peripherally in a ratio of about 6:1. Intermuscular fat was minimal (0.1%). The superficial paunch held <15% of subcutaneous fat weight in contrast to its much larger proportions in obese humans and captive monkeys where most added fat accumulates subcutaneously. With increasing total adiposity, accumulating fat shifted in its distribution among eight different main internal and peripheral deposit areas-consistent with maintaining body balance and a low center of gravity. The available data suggest that, in arboreal primates, adaptations for agile locomotion and terminal branch feeding set constraints on the quantity and distribution of fat. The absence of a higher percentage of body fat in females and neonates (as are typical of humans) suggests that arboreal adaptations preclude the development of fat-dependent, large-brained infants and the adipose-rich mothers needed to sustain them. The lifestyle and body composition of wild primates represent a more appropriate model for early human foragers than well-fed captive monkeys do.

  12. Composition of Dietary Fat Source Shapes Gut Microbiota Architecture and Alters Host Inflammatory Mediators in Mouse Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Edmond; Leone, Vanessa; Devkota, Suzanne; Wang, Yunwei; Brady, Matthew; Chang, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Background Growing evidence shows that dietary factors can dramatically alter the gut microbiome in ways that contribute to metabolic disturbance and progression of obesity. In this regard, mesenteric adipose tissue has been implicated in mediating these processes through the elaboration of pro-inflammatory adipokines. In this study, we examined the relationship of these events by determining the effects of dietary fat content and source on gut microbiota, as well as the effects on adipokine profiles of mesenteric and peripheral adipocytes. Methods Adult male C57Bl/6 mice were fed milk fat-, lard-(SFA sources), or safflower oil (PUFA)- based high fat diets for four weeks. Body mass and food consumption were measured. Stool 16S rRNA was isolated and analyzed via T-RFLP as well as variable V3-4 sequence tags via next gen sequencing. Mesenteric and gonadal adipose samples were analyzed for both lipogenic and inflammatory mediators via qRT-PCR. Results High-fat feedings caused more weight gain with concomitant increases in caloric consumption relative to low-fat diets. Additionally, each of the high fat diets induced dramatic and specific 16S rRNA phylogenic profiles that were associated with different inflammatory and lipogenic mediator profile of mesenteric and gonadal fat depots. Conclusions Our findings support the notion that dietary fat composition can both reshape the gut microbiota as well as alter host adipose tissue inflammatory/lipogenic profiles. They also demonstrate the interdependency of dietary fat source, commensal gut microbiota, and inflammatory profile of mesenteric fat that can collectively impact the host metabolic state. PMID:23639897

  13. Operator Independent Focused High Frequency ISM Band for Fat Reduction: Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Robert; Weiss, Margaret; Beasley, Karen; Vrba, Jan; Bernardy, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background Selective fat reduction has been clearly shown for various methods and energy modalities including cryolipolysis and high intensity focused thermal ultrasound. Mathematical modeling of focused high frequency of the EM spectrum has indicated that selective heating of fat is possible using wavelengths not previous explored. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate in the porcine model that selective heating of fat is possible with a non-contact, operator independent device. Methods High frequencies of the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) RF band were utilized to reduce abdominal fat in a porcine model. Practical application of mathematical modeling allowed an auto-feedback loop to be developed to allow operator independent adjustment of energy to maintain subcutaneous fat at 45–46°C while overlying skin remained at 40–41°C. Results Treatments of three Vietnamese pigs were performed under anesthesia in a certified veterinary facility. Gross and microscopic histologic results demonstrated a marked reduction in adipocytes of the treated area after 4 treatments of a total of 30 minutes each, with incremental fat diminution after each treatment. A final 70% reduction of the abdominal fat layer was seen in the treated areas. Duplex ultrasound revealed a reduction of fat layer from 7.6 to 2.9 mm. Histologic evaluation revealed that epidermis, dermis, and adnexal structures such as hair follicles were unaffected by the treatment, while adipocytes were significantly affected. Conclusion A new model of fat reduction using high frequency RF has been successfully achieved in a porcine model. This has very positive implications in the development of an operator independent, contact free device for reduction of fat in clinical practice. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23619902

  14. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    SciTech Connect

    Pestana, Diogo; Faria, Gil; Sá, Carla; Fernandes, Virgínia C.; Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia; Faria, Ana; and others

    2014-08-15

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R{sub S}=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R{sub S}=0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R{sub S}=0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R{sub S}=0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their

  15. [Dirofilaria in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Révész, Erzsébet; Markovics, Gabriella; Darabos, Zoltán; Tóth, Ildikó; Fok, Eva

    2008-10-01

    Number of cases of filariasis have been recently reported in the Hungarian medical literature, most of them caused by Dirofilaria repens . Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted filarioid worm in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs and cats. Human infection manifests as either subcutaneous nodules or lung parenchymal disease, which may even be asymptomatic. The authors report a human Dirofilaria repens infection of the abdominal cavity in a 61-year-old man,who underwent laparotomy for acute abdomen. Intraoperatively, local peritonitis was detected caused by a white nemathhelminth, measured 8 cm in size. Histocytology confirmed that the infection was caused by Dirofilaria repens.

  16. Technical aspects of abdominal stomas.

    PubMed

    Link, Brian A; Kropp, Bradley; Frimberger, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    Continent urinary diversion has gained increasing popularity in the pediatric population during the last few decades. In adults, continent diversions are usually needed to replace a bladder after cystectomy for invasive carcinoma. Subsequently, the creation of functional and cosmetically hidden urinary and cecal abdominal stomas has become an integral part of many urinary reconstructive procedures. These techniques, originally developed for pediatric urinary reconstruction have gained increasing popularity for adult patients in need of a continence procedure. In the current manuscript, we review the technical aspects of site selection, mucocutaneous anastomosis, cosmetic appearance, and management of associated complications.

  17. Fat chance for longevity

    PubMed Central

    Kniazeva, Marina; Han, Min

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of specific fatty acids and physiological roles of fat metabolism are important subjects that are still poorly understood. In this issue of Genes & Development, O'Rourke and colleagues (pp. 429–440) uncovered a role for lipase-generated ω-6 fatty acids in promoting autophagy and, consequently, life span extension under both fed and fasting conditions. The impact of this finding is discussed with regard to the nutritional value of ω-6 fatty acids and regulatory functions of fat metabolism beyond its well-known role in energy storage. PMID:23431052

  18. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    K. Intra- abdominal compartment syndrome as a complication of ruptured abdomi- nal aortic aneurysm repair. Am Surg 1989;55:396-402. 6. Sugrue M...00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Author’s personal copy Case Report Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After

  19. Anaphylaxis Triggered by Benzyl Benzoate in a Preparation of Depot Testosterone Undecanoate

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Gregory S. Y.; Somerville, Colin P.; Jones, Timothy W.; Walsh, John P.

    2012-01-01

    We report the first case of an anaphylactic reaction to Reandron 1000 (depot testosterone undecanoate with a castor oil and benzyl benzoate vehicle). While considered to have a favourable safety profile, serious complications such as oil embolism and anaphylaxis can occur. In our patient, skin testing identified benzyl benzoate to be the trigger, with no reaction to castor oil or testosterone undecanoate components. As benzyl benzoate exists in multiple pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics, individual components of pharmaceuticals should be tested when investigating drug allergies. Doctors should be alert to the potential for serious reactions to any of the components of Reandron 1000. PMID:22272209

  20. Review and Evaluation of Army Aviation Depot NDI (Nondestructive Inspection) and Reliability Centered Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-31

    Visual, MT, and/or PT. CH-47 Fan Motor Visual only MT and/or PT; UT and ET 55-1520-210 for inspection of honey- UH- iH comb composite structures...CENrERED MAINTENANCE TO DEPOT MAINTENANCE WORK REQUIREMENTS FINAL DMWR REPORT DMIJR Number 55-1650-157 This Document Contains 9 Pages. Fan Motor NSN...impact design and ooeratoon-i oncepts; to identify tne gross -ogist-c resource requirements of alternative concepts; and to reate esign, operational