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Sample records for abdominal fat mass

  1. The use of body mass index for measurement of fat mass in children is highly dependant on abdominal fat.

    PubMed

    El Taguri, A; Dabbas-Tyan, M; Goulet, O; Ricour, C

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between body fat and body mass index (BMI) in a multiethnic population of obese children. BMI z-scores were compared to DEXA measures of whole body composition and regional fat distribution. Fat mass index (FMI) was best predicted by the equation: 1/[(0.159- 0.013 x percentile of total abdominal fat)- (0.01 x BMI z-score)], where percentile of abdominal fat ranges from 1 to 5. Predicted FMI had high agreement with FMI measured by DEXA. There were no detectable differences in this relation between different ethnic groups. Both BMI and abdominal fat should be used as a proxy to determine adiposity.

  2. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Abdominal Lipectomy on Weight and Fat Mass in Females: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Seretis, Konstantinos; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Koliakos, Georgios; Demiri, Efterpi

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue is considered as an endocrine organ, which is developed in specific depots, distinguished either as subcutaneous or visceral. Lipectomy, by means of liposuction or abdominoplasty, is a common plastic surgery procedure, which can remove substantial amounts of subcutaneous fat. This systematic review aims to evaluate the impact of surgical removal of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue on body weight and fat mass in females in the short- and long-term. A systematic review was conducted using a predetermined protocol established according to the Cochrane Handbook's recommendations. PubMed, Scopus, CENTRAL, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to December 2014. Eligible studies were prospective studies with ≥1 month of follow-up that included female only individuals who underwent lipectomy of the abdominal region and reported on body weight, body mass index (BMI), or fat mass. Ten studies were included in this systematic review with a total of 231 individuals. A significant weight loss and BMI improvement were reported in 4 out of 5 studies with a mean follow-up of 1-2 months, but in none of the 5 studies with a longer follow-up (3-20 months). Fat mass showed a similar to weight change. The risk of bias was low for the two clinical trials but high for the observational studies included in the review. This systematic review revealed only a transient effect of abdominal lipectomy in body fat and weight in women, which fades a few months after the operation. These results corroborate the evidence from experimental and clinical studies, which support fat redistribution and compensatory fat growth, as a result of feedback mechanisms, triggered by fat removal. Additional clinical studies, with adequate follow-up, may further elucidate the long-term effects of abdominal lipectomy in body weight and composition. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42015017564 ( www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO ).

  3. Inverse Relationship between the Inflammatory Marker Pentraxin-3, Fat Body Mass, and Abdominal Obesity in End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Tetsu; Rashid Qureshi, Abdul; Heimbürger, Olof; Bárány, Peter; Carrero, Karin; Sjöberg, Bodil; Lindholm, Bengt; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) belongs to the same pentraxin superfamily of acute-phase reactants as C-reactive protein (CRP). Abdominal fat accumulation in ESRD is considered a chronic inflammatory state, but the relationship of PTX3 to this phenomenon is unknown. This study assesses plausible associations between PTX3 and surrogates of fat mass deposits in dialysis patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Circulating levels of PTX3, CRP, and IL-6 were cross-sectionally analyzed in relation to anthropometric and nutritional surrogate markers of fat tissue in two cohorts comprising 156 prevalent hemodialysis (HD) and 216 incident dialysis patients. Results In both cohorts, PTX3 was negatively associated with body mass index (BMI) and fat body mass index (FBMI) derived from anthropometrics and leptin, whereas there was a positive association with adiponectin. In prevalent HD patients, those with larger waist circumference (above gender-specific median values) had lower PTX3, higher CRP, and higher IL-6 levels. This was also true in multivariate analyses. In both cohorts, multivariate regression analyses showed that PTX3 was negatively and CRP (or IL-6) was positively associated with FBMI. Conclusions Although CRP and IL-6 were directly associated with body fat, PTX3 levels showed negative correlations with surrogates of adipose tissue in two independent cohorts of ESRD patients. Understanding the underlying reasons behind these opposite associations may have clinical relevance given the survival advantage described for obese patients on dialysis. PMID:22157708

  4. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    Mass in the abdomen ... care provider make a diagnosis. For example, the abdomen can be divided into four areas: Right-upper ... pain or masses include: Epigastric -- center of the abdomen just below the rib cage Periumbilical -- area around ...

  5. Whole-body electromyostimulation as a means to impact muscle mass and abdominal body fat in lean, sedentary, older female adults: subanalysis of the TEST-III trial

    PubMed Central

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 months of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) exercise on appendicular muscle mass and abdominal fat mass in subjects specifically at risk for sarcopenia and abdominal obesity, but unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally. Methods Forty-six lean, nonsportive (<60 minutes of exercise per week), elderly women (aged 75 ± 4 years) with abdominal obesity according to International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n=23) which performed 18 minutes of intermittent, bipolar WB-EMS (85 Hz) three sessions in 14 days or an “active” control group (n=23). Whole-body and regional body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine appendicular muscle mass, upper leg muscle mass, abdominal fat mass, and upper leg fat mass. Maximum strength of the leg extensors was determined isometrically by force plates. Results After 12 months, significant intergroup differences were detected for the primary end-points of appendicular muscle mass (0.5% ± 2.0% for the WB-EMS group versus −0.8% ± 2.0% for the control group, P=0.025) and abdominal fat mass (−1.2% ± 5.9% for the WB-EMS group versus 2.4% ± 5.8% for the control group, P=0.038). Further, upper leg lean muscle mass changed favorably in the WB-EMS group (0.5% ± 2.5% versus −0.9% ± 1.9%, in the control group, P=0.033), while effects for upper leg fat mass were borderline nonsignificant (−0.8% ± 3.5% for the WB-EMS group versus 1.0% ± 2.6% for the control group, P=0.050). With respect to functional parameters, the effects for leg extensor strength were again significant, with more favorable changes in the WB-EMS group (9.1% ± 11.2% versus 1.0% ± 8.1% in the control group, P=0.010). Conclusion In summary, WB-EMS showed positive effects on the parameters of sarcopenia and regional fat accumulation. Further, considering the good acceptance of this technology by

  6. Use of prediction equations to determine the accuracy of whole-body fat and fat-free mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass measurements from a single abdominal image using computed tomography in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, Robert D; Cardiff, Katrina; Rosenthall, Leonard; Lucar, Enriqueta; Trutschnigg, Barbara; Vigano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single abdominal images from computed tomography (CT) in advanced cancer patients (ACP) have important diagnostic and prognostic value. The question arises as to whether CT scans can serve as surrogates for DXA in terms of whole-body fat-free mass (FFM), whole-body fat mass (FM), and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) mass. Predictive equations to estimate body composition for ACP from CT images have been proposed (Mourtzakis et al. 2008; Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metabol. 33(5): 997-1006); however, these equations have yet to be validated in an independent cohort of ACP. Thus, this study evaluated the accuracy of these equations in estimating FFM, FM, and ASM mass using CT images at the level of the third lumbar vertebrae and compared these values with DXA measurements. FFM, FM, and ASM mass were estimated from the prediction equations proposed by Mourtzakis and colleagues (2008) using single abdominal CT images from 43 ACP and were compared with whole-body DXA scans using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman analyses. Despite a moderate to high correlation between the actual (DXA) and predicted (CT) values for FM (rho = 0.93; p ≤ 0.001), FFM (rho = 0.78; p ≤ 0.001), and ASM mass (rho = 0.70; p ≤ 0.001), Bland-Altman analyses revealed large range-of-agreement differences between the 2 methods (29.39 kg for FFM, 15.47 kg for FM, and 3.99 kg for ASM mass). Based on the magnitude of these differences, we concluded that prediction equations using single abdominal CT images have poor accuracy, cannot be considered as surrogates for DXA, and may have limited clinical utility. PMID:26695688

  7. Abdominal wall fat index in neonates: correlation with birth size.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Silva, E; Didier, R; Bandeira, M; Bandeira, F

    2010-06-01

    Low birth weight is associated with obesity in later life and a more central fat distribution has a positive correlation with cardiovascular disease. However, the correlation between visceral adiposity in newborns and birth size is unknown. We measured the visceral adiposity in 118 newborns using the abdominal wall fat index (AFI), ratio between the maximum thickness of preperitoneal and the minimum thickness of subcutaneous fat evaluated by ultrasound. There was a weak negative correlation between AFI and birth weight (r = -0.197; P = 0.033) but not with birth length (r = -0.118; P = 0.201), body mass index (r = -0.138; P = 0.176) and abdominal circumference (r = 0.063; P = 0.497). In conclusion, we suggest that AFI is a useful parameter for evaluating the fat distribution in newborns and that visceral adiposity has a weak negative correlation with birth weight.

  8. A Comparison of the Abdominal Fat Distribution and Coronary Risk Markers in Body Mass Index-matched Subjects with and without Fatty Liver.

    PubMed

    Shiina, Yutaka; Homma, Koichiro; Ozawa, Hideki; Yoshizawa, Joe; Kobayashi, Takako; Igarashi, Mihoko; Aikawa, Minoru; Shibata, Takeo; Homma, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective The close relationship between fatty liver and metabolic syndrome suggests that individuals with fatty liver may have multiple coronary risk factors. In the present study, we investigated the relationships among fatty liver, abdominal fat distribution, and coronary risk markers. Methods and Results Eighty-seven pairs of men and 42 pairs of women who were matched for age and body mass index were enrolled in the present study. The obesity-related markers, abdominal fat distribution (examined by CT), and coronary risk markers were compared in subjects with and without fatty liver. The visceral fat area was significantly larger in the men with fatty liver than in the men without fatty liver. The plasma levels of triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), as well as the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance level, were higher in both males and females with fatty liver than in those without fatty liver, while the plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and adiponectin were lower in the males and females with fatty liver. The plasma levels of apolipoprotein B, remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C), and oxidized LDL were higher in men with fatty liver, but not in women with fatty liver. Conclusion Both males and females with fatty liver had lower insulin sensitivity, lower plasma levels of HDL-C and adiponectin, and higher triglyceride and LDL-C levels. However, the plasma levels of apolipoprotein B, RLP-C, and oxidized LDL were only higher and closely associated with fatty liver in men. Men with fatty liver had a higher risk of coronary disease than women with fatty liver. PMID:27629946

  9. Abdominal fat weight and thickness as predictors of total body fat in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sonaiya, E B

    1985-10-01

    In two experiments broilers of both sexes from two strains were reared to 16 weeks of age to determine how total body fat could be estimated and predicted from some carcase traits. In the first experiment, age, carcase weight and abdominal fat thickness were found to be significant factors in the prediction of total body fat weight estimated from abdominal fat weight. In the second experiment abdominal fat weight was the best predictor of total body fat weight, obtained by ether extraction of the minced whole carcase. Inclusion of abdominal fat weight in the prediction equation after carcase weight and abdominal fat thickness significantly improved the regression. If the carcase cannot be weighed and abdominal fat weight is not available, because of the more laborious nature of its determination, then the measurement of abdominal fat thickness can be useful in predicting the total body fat content.

  10. Abdominal fat and metabolic risk in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Revenga-Frauca, J; González-Gil, E M; Bueno-Lozano, G; De Miguel-Etayo, P; Velasco-Martínez, P; Rey-López, J P; Bueno-Lozano, O; Moreno, L A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fat distribution, mainly abdominal fat, and its relationship with metabolic risk variables in a group of 126 children and adolescents (60 males and 66 females) aged 5.0 to 14.9. According to IOTF criteria, 46 were classified as normal weight, 28 overweight and 52 obese. Weight, height, waist (WC) and hip circumferences were measured. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Total body fat, trunkal and abdominal fat were also assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Glucose, insulin, HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), ferritine, homocystein and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Obesity status was related with insulin concentrations, CRP, TG and HDL. Obese patients had higher abdominal fat and higher CRP values than overweight and normal subjects. All markers of central body adiposity were related with insulin and lipid metabolism; however, they were not related with homocystein or ferritin. A simple anthropometric measurement, like waist circumference, seems to be a good predictor of the majority of the obesity related metabolic risk variables. PMID:20358355

  11. Subcutaneous abdominal fat and thigh muscle composition predict insulin sensitivity independently of visceral fat.

    PubMed

    Goodpaster, B H; Thaete, F L; Simoneau, J A; Kelley, D E

    1997-10-01

    Whether visceral adipose tissue has a uniquely powerful association with insulin resistance or whether subcutaneous abdominal fat shares this link has generated controversy in the area of body composition and insulin sensitivity. An additional issue is the potential role of fat deposition within skeletal muscle and the relationship with insulin resistance. To address these matters, the current study was undertaken to measure body composition, aerobic fitness, and insulin sensitivity within a cohort of sedentary healthy men (n = 26) and women (n = 28). The subjects, who ranged from lean to obese (BMI 19.6-41.0 kg/m2), underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to measure fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM), computed tomography to measure cross-sectional abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, and computed tomography (CT) of mid-thigh to measure muscle cross-sectional area, muscle attenuation, and subcutaneous fat. Insulin sensitivity was measured using the glucose clamp technique (40 mU.m-2.min-1), in conjunction with [3-3H]glucose isotope dilution. Maximal aerobic power (VO2max) was determined using an incremental cycling test. Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) ranged from 3.03 to 16.83 mg.min-1.kg-1 FFM. Rd was negatively correlated with FM (r = -0.58), visceral fat (r = -0.52), subcutaneous abdominal fat (r = -0.61), and thigh fat (r = -0.38) and positively correlated with muscle attenuation (r = 0.48) and VO2max (r = 0.26, P < 0.05). In addition to manifesting the strongest simple correlation with insulin sensitivity, in stepwise multiple regression, subcutaneous abdominal fat retained significance after adjusting for visceral fat, while the converse was not found. Muscle attenuation contributed independent significance to multiple regression models of body composition and insulin sensitivity, and in analysis of obese subjects, muscle attenuation was the strongest single correlate of insulin resistance. In summary, as a component of

  12. Large posterior abdominal masses: computed tomographic localization.

    PubMed

    Engel, I A; Auh, Y H; Rubenstein, W A; Whalen, J P; Kazam, E

    1983-10-01

    Large posterior abdominal masses, particularly those in the right upper abdomen, may be difficult to localize correctly into the peritoneal or retroperitoneal compartments. The following signs were found to be reliable CT indicators of retroperitoneal location: obliteration of the perinephric fat outlining the psoas muscle; lateral displacement of the fat outlining the posterior right lobe of the liver; rotation of the intrahepatic portal veins to the left; anterior displacement of the inferior vena cava and renal veins; and anterior displacement of the ascending colon, descending duodenum, or pancreatic head.

  13. Segregation analysis of abdominal visceral fat: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    PubMed

    Rice, T; Després, J P; Pérusse, L; Gagnon, J; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Rao, D C; Bouchard, C

    1997-09-01

    A major gene hypothesis for abdominal visceral fat (AVF) level, both before and after adjustment for total body fat mass, was investigated in 86 white families who participated in the HERITAGE Family Study. In this study, sedentary families were tested for a battery of measures (baseline), endurance exercise trained for 20 weeks, and then remeasured again. The baseline measures reported here are unique in that the variance due to a potentially important environmental factor (activity level) was limited. AVF area was assessed at L4 to L5 by the use of computerized tomography scan, and total body fat mass was assessed with underwater weighing. For fat mass, a putative locus accounted for 64% of the variance, but there was no evidence of a multifactorial component (i.e., no polygenic and/or common familial environmental effects). For AVF area, both a major gene effect accounting for 54% of the variance and a multifactorial component accounting for 17% of the variance were significant. However, after AVF area was adjusted for the effects of total level of body fat, the support for a major gene was reduced. In particular, there was a major effect for fat mass-adjusted AVF area, but it was not transmitted from parents to offspring (i.e., the three transmission probabilities were equal). The importance of this study is twofold. First, these results confirm a previous study that suggested that there is a putative major locus for AVF and for total body fat mass. Second, the findings from the HERITAGE Family Study suggest that the factors underlying AVF area in sedentary families may be similar to those in the population at large, which includes both sedentary and active families. Whether the gene(s) responsible for the high levels of AVF area is the same as that which influences total body fat content remains to be further investigated. PMID:9385615

  14. Change in Intra-Abdominal Fat Predicts the Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Americans.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Catherine A; Kahn, Steven E; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas.

  15. Change in Intra-Abdominal Fat Predicts the Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Americans.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Catherine A; Kahn, Steven E; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas. PMID:26063668

  16. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  17. Abdominal obesity: a marker of ectopic fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    In the early 1980s, we analyzed the metabolic profile of 930 men and women and concluded that an abdominal distribution of fat for a given BMI is associated with increased insulin resistance and risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The correlation between abdominal fat and metabolic dysfunction has since been validated in many studies, and waist circumference is now a criterion for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Several mechanisms for this relationship have been postulated; however, we now know that visceral fat is only one of many ectopic fat depots used when the subcutaneous adipose tissue cannot accommodate excess fat because of its limited expandability.

  18. Ultrasonographic evaluation of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue before and after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Djurić-Stefanović, A; Vasin, D; Jovanović, S; Lazić, Lj; Kovac, J; Popović, I; Bajec, Dj; Saranović, Dj

    2013-01-01

    Visceral fat is considered a key factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and other pathological conditions and diseases associated with obesity. Therefore, analysis of the dynamics of reducing the amount of abdominal visceral fat is important for evaluating the therapeutic effects of different modalities of obesity treatment, including bariatric surgery. In 53 obese patients visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue was measured by ultrasonography (US) before and after bariatric surgery, in the period of 1, 3, 6 months. At the same time, standard anthropometric parameters were assessed: body mass (m), BMI, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC). Five diameters of the visceral abdominal fat (VAF) were measured: IAFT (Intraabdominal Fat Thickness), LV (Lienal Vein), VF (Visceral Fat), MES sum (Mesenterial leafs) and Max PFT (Maximal Preperitoneal Fat Thickness), and three diameters of the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAF): Min SFT (Minimal Subcutaneous Fat), and MaxSFTa and MaxSFTb (Maximal Subcutaneous Fat Thickness a and b). Statistically significant decrease in all anthropometric parameters, except HC was registered 1, 3 and 6 months after the surgery. We registered the decline of almost all US diameters of abdominal adipose tissue in the follow-up period, but statistically significant decrease were found only in the diameters of visceral adipose tissue: IAFT after 1 and 3 months (p = 0.031 and p = 0.027); VF after 1 month (p = 0.031), LV after 6 months (p = 0.011), and MESsum after 3 and 6 months (p = 0.001 and p = 0.028), as well as MaxSFTb, at 1 month follow-up (p = 0.015). In the short-term follow-up period after the bariatric surgery, there was a significant decrease in body mass, BMI and WC, and ultrasonography revealed a significant reduction in the diameters of the visceral abdominal fat.

  19. Nutritional Factors Affecting Abdominal Fat Deposition in Poultry: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, A. M.; El-Senousey, H. K.

    2014-01-01

    The major goals of the poultry industry are to increase the carcass yield and to reduce carcass fatness, mainly the abdominal fat pad. The increase in poultry meat consumption has guided the selection process toward fast-growing broilers with a reduced feed conversion ratio. Intensive selection has led to great improvements in economic traits such as body weight gain, feed efficiency, and breast yield to meet the demands of consumers, but modern commercial chickens exhibit excessive fat accumulation in the abdomen area. However, dietary composition and feeding strategies may offer practical and efficient solutions for reducing body fat deposition in modern poultry strains. Thus, the regulation of lipid metabolism to reduce the abdominal fat content based on dietary composition and feeding strategy, as well as elucidating their effects on the key enzymes associated with lipid metabolism, could facilitate the production of lean meat and help to understand the fat-lowering effects of diet and different feeding strategies. PMID:25050050

  20. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model.

  1. Gender differences of regional abdominal fat distribution and their relationships with insulin sensitivity in healthy and glucose-intolerant Thais.

    PubMed

    Rattarasarn, Chatchalit; Leelawattana, Rattana; Soonthornpun, Supamai; Setasuban, Worawong; Thamprasit, Atchara

    2004-12-01

    To determine gender differences of regional abdominal fat distribution and their relationships with insulin sensitivity in healthy and glucose-intolerant Thais, 44 subjects, 22 men and 22 body mass index-matched women, with normal and abnormal glucose tolerance, which included subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes, were studied. Total body fat and total abdominal fat (TAF) at L1-L4 were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Regional abdominal fat, which consists of sc abdominal fat and visceral abdominal fat, was determined by single-slice computerized tomography of the abdomen at L4-L5 disc space level. Insulin sensitivity was determined by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and expressed as glucose infusion rate (GIR). With comparable body mass index, visceral abdominal fat was most strongly correlated with GIR after adjustment with percent total body fat in both healthy (r = -0.8155; P = 0.007) and glucose-intolerant women (r = -0.7597; P = 0.011), whereas TAF was most strongly correlated with GIR in both healthy (r = -0.8114; P = 0.008) and glucose-intolerant men (r = -0.6194; P = 0.101). By linear regression analysis, visceral abdominal fat accounted for 35.0% (beta = -3.53 x 10(-2); P = 0.001) of GIR variance in women, whereas TAF accounted for 39.3% (beta = -1.28 x 10(-4); P < 0.0001) of GIR variance in men. We conclude that there are gender differences in the relationships of regional abdominal fat and insulin sensitivity in slightly obese healthy and glucose-intolerant Thais, the difference of which may possibly be in part due to the difference of abdominal fat patterning between genders.

  2. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-08-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

  3. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-08-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates. PMID:27656630

  4. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates. PMID:27656630

  5. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

  6. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-03-10

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner.

  7. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  8. Selection against abdominal fat percentage may increase intramuscular fat content in broilers.

    PubMed

    Leng, L; Zhang, H; Dong, J Q; Wang, Z P; Zhang, X Y; Wang, S Z; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Li, H

    2016-10-01

    Excessive abdominal fat content (AFC) has negative impacts on feed efficiency and carcass quality. Unlike AFC, intramuscular fat content (IMFC) could be a favourable trait, which has a positive impact on meat quality. To meet consumers' needs, a long-term goal of broiler breeders is to decrease AFC and improve the IMFC simultaneously. The current study was designed to investigate the relationship between AFC and IMFC and to compare IMFC, including the pectoral major muscle fat content (PIMFC) and intramuscular fat content of leg muscle (LIMFC), between two broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat percentage over 17 generations. The results showed that there was a significant difference in PIMFC and LIMFC between the two lines in all five generation populations used. The birds in the lean line had significantly lower AFC but higher PIMFC and LIMFC than the birds in the fat line. We also detected differences in the liver fat content (LFC) between the two lines and the results showed that birds in the fat line had significant higher LFC than birds in the lean line. Our results indicated that a desirable broiler line with higher IMFC but lower AFC could be obtained by genetic selection.

  9. Selection against abdominal fat percentage may increase intramuscular fat content in broilers.

    PubMed

    Leng, L; Zhang, H; Dong, J Q; Wang, Z P; Zhang, X Y; Wang, S Z; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Li, H

    2016-10-01

    Excessive abdominal fat content (AFC) has negative impacts on feed efficiency and carcass quality. Unlike AFC, intramuscular fat content (IMFC) could be a favourable trait, which has a positive impact on meat quality. To meet consumers' needs, a long-term goal of broiler breeders is to decrease AFC and improve the IMFC simultaneously. The current study was designed to investigate the relationship between AFC and IMFC and to compare IMFC, including the pectoral major muscle fat content (PIMFC) and intramuscular fat content of leg muscle (LIMFC), between two broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat percentage over 17 generations. The results showed that there was a significant difference in PIMFC and LIMFC between the two lines in all five generation populations used. The birds in the lean line had significantly lower AFC but higher PIMFC and LIMFC than the birds in the fat line. We also detected differences in the liver fat content (LFC) between the two lines and the results showed that birds in the fat line had significant higher LFC than birds in the lean line. Our results indicated that a desirable broiler line with higher IMFC but lower AFC could be obtained by genetic selection. PMID:26931078

  10. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  11. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Han, Juyoung; Kim, So Hun; Suh, Young Ju; Lim, Hyun Ae; Shin, Heekyoung; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Chei Won; Lee, Seung Youn; Lee, Dae Hyung; Hong, Seongbin; Kim, Yong Seong; Nam, Moon-Suk

    2016-06-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  12. Green tea catechin consumption enhances exercise-induced abdominal fat loss in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Reeves, Matthew S; Farmer, Mildred; Yasunaga, Koichi; Matsuo, Noboru; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Komikado, Masanori; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Wilder, Donna; Jones, Franz; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Cartwright, Yolanda

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercise-induced weight loss. Participants (n = 132 with 107 completers) were randomly assigned to receive a beverage containing approximately 625 mg of catechins with 39 mg caffeine or a control beverage (39 mg caffeine, no catechins) for 12 wk. Participants were asked to maintain constant energy intake and engage in >or=180 min/wk moderate intensity exercise, including >or=3 supervised sessions per week. Body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry), abdominal fat areas (computed tomography), and clinical laboratory tests were measured at baseline and wk 12. There was a trend (P = 0.079) toward greater loss of body weight in the catechin group compared with the control group; least squares mean (95% CI) changes, adjusted for baseline value, age, and sex, were -2.2 (-3.1, -1.3) and -1.0 (-1.9, -0.1) kg, respectively. Percentage changes in fat mass did not differ between the catechin [5.2 (-7.0, -3.4)] and control groups [-3.5 (-5.4, 1.6)] (P = 0.208). However, percentage changes in total abdominal fat area [-7.7 (-11.7, -3.8) vs. -0.3 (-4.4, 3.9); P = 0.013], subcutaneous abdominal fat area [-6.2 (-10.2, -2.2) vs. 0.8 (-3.3, 4.9); P = 0.019], and fasting serum triglycerides (TG) [-11.2 (-18.8, -3.6) vs. 1.9 (-5.9, 9.7); P = 0.023] were greater in the catechin group. These findings suggest that green tea catechin consumption enhances exercise-induced changes in abdominal fat and serum TG.

  13. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Resnyk, Christopher W.; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H.; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J.; Cogburn, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5–2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  14. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Resnyk, Christopher W; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J; Cogburn, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  15. Intra-abdominal fat is related to metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fat liver disease in obese youth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an association between adiposity, especially intra-abdominal adipose tissue, and hemodynamic/metabolic comorbidities in adults, however it is not clear in pediatric population. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) with values of intra-abdominal (IAAT) and subcutaneous (SCAT) adipose tissue in obese children and adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study. Subjects: 182 obese sedentary children and adolescents (aged 6 to 16 y), identified by the body mass index (BMI). Measurements: Body composition and trunk fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry- DXA; lipid profile, blood pressure and pubertal stage were also assessed. NAFLD was classified as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2) and severe (3), and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were identified by ultrasound. The MS was identified according to the cut offs proposed by World Health Organization adapted for children and adolescents. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables, and the binary logistic regression indicated the magnitude of the associations adjusted by potential cofounders (sex, age, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR). Results Higher quartile of SCAT was associated with elevated blood pressure (p = 0.015), but not associated with NAFLD (p = 0.665). Higher IAAT was positively associated with increased dyslipidemia (p = 0.001), MS (p = 0.013) and NAFLD (p = 0.005). Intermediate (p = 0.007) and highest (p = 0.001) quartile of IAAT were also associated with dyslipidemia, independently of age, sex, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance). Conclusion Obese children and adolescents, with higher IAAT are more prone to develop MS and NAFLD than those with higher values of SCAT, independent of possible confounding variables. PMID:23919592

  16. Mobile encapsulated bodies comprising fat necrosis and fibrous tissue in the abdominal cavity of cows.

    PubMed

    Herzog, K; Burgdorf, W; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    2010-11-01

    The microscopical features of 18 samples of fat necrosis and/or fibrous tissue removed from the abdominal cavity during laparotomy from 15 cows were studied. The nodular, ivory-coloured mobile structures were free-floating in the abdominal cavity, were not attached to any abdominal tissues or organs, and were completely surrounded by a fibrous capsule. Abdominal fat necrosis (bovine lipomatosis) was not observed in any animal. The structures comprised either necrotic fat, fibrous tissue or varying proportions of both. Focal calcification and mild inflammatory cell infiltration and accumulations of haemosiderin were also present. Microscopically, the lesions resembled encapsulated fat necrosis occurring in human subcutaneous tissue. The mechanisms of development of these mobile encapsulated bodies in cows is unknown and it is not clear how, in the absence of a blood supply, there can be inflammatory cell infiltration, calcification and proliferation of fibroblasts.

  17. Ultrasound evaluation of abdominal masses in Ethiopian child patients.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Assefa Getachew; Nigussie, Yared

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of abdominal masses and evaluate the value of ultrasound in paediatric abdominal masses. We used a cross-sectional study of abdominal masses in children attending a university teaching hospital. The common abdominal masses were: Wilms' tumour, 12 (14.8%); lymphoma, 11 (13.6%); appendiceal mass/abscess, 11 (13.6%); neuroblastoma, 7 (8.6%); TB, 6 (7.4%); hydronephrosis, 5 (6.2%); abdominal wall abscess, 6 (7.4%); hydatidcyst, 4 (4.9%); mesenteric cyst, 3 (3.7%); and intussusceptions, 3 (3.7%). Identification of a purely cystic mass was suggestive of benign lesion (odds ratio [OR] = 118, P = 0.0001) and masses found in the <5 years age group tend to be malignant (OR = 2.77). The most common sites of origin were kidneys, retroperitoneal extra renal and gastrointestinal tract. The overall diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound was 88.9%.

  18. Physical activity and reduced intra-abdominal fat in midlife African-American and white women.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Sheila A; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Karavolos, Kelly; Avery, Elizabeth F; Wesley, Deidre E; Powell, Lynda H

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine whether self-reported physical activity (PA), including recreational, household, and exercise activities, is associated with intra-abdominal fat (IAF) in community-dwelling white and black midlife women. We performed a cross-sectional study of 369 women from the Chicago site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) ancillary study, the SWAN Fat Patterning Study. PA level was the independent variable, and IAF, assessed by computerized tomography (CT) scan, was the dependent variable. Measures were obtained at SWAN Fat Patterning Baseline visit between August 2002 and December 2005. Linear regression models explored the association between PA and IAF. The first model included IAF as the outcome and total score PA as the main predictor, adjusting for total percent fat mass, age, and ethnicity. The second model included education, parity, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) level, and depressive symptoms, measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Each 1-point higher total PA score was associated with a 4.0 cm(2) lower amount of IAF (P = 0.004), independent of total percent fat mass, age, ethnicity, SHBG level, educational level, CES-D, and parity. Associations did not differ between white and black women. This study demonstrates a significant negative association between PA and IAF independent of multiple covariates in midlife women. Our findings suggest that motivating white and black women to increase PA during midlife may lessen IAF, which may have a positive impact on subsequent development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  19. In Subfertile Couple, Abdominal Fat Loss in Men Is Associated with Improvement of Sperm Quality and Pregnancy: A Case-Series

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Céline; Dupont, Charlotte; Baraibar, Martin A.; Ladouce, Romain; Cedrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Wolf, Jean Philippe; Lévy, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of overweight among men of reproductive-age may affect fertility. Abdominal fat, more than body mass index, is an indicator of higher metabolic risk, which seems to be involved in decreasing sperm quality. This study aims to assess the relationship between abdominal fat and sperm DNA fragmentation and the effect of abdominal fat loss, among 6 men in subfertile couples. Methods Sperm DNA fragmentation, abdominal fat and metabolic and hormonal profiles were measured in the 6 men before and after dietary advices. Seminal oxidative stress and antioxidant markers were determined. Results After several months of a lifestyle program, all 6 men lost abdominal fat (patient 1: loss of 3 points of abdominal fat, patient 2: loss of 3 points, patient 3: loss of 2 points, patient 4: loss of 1 point, patient 5: loss of 4 points and patient 6: loss of 13 points). At the same time, their rate of sperm DNA fragmentation decreased: 9.5% vs 31%, 24% vs 43%, 18% vs 47%, 26.3% vs 66%, 25.4% vs 35% and 1.7% vs 25%. Also, an improvement in both metabolic (significant decrease in triglycerides and total cholesterol; p = 0.0139) and hormonal (significant increase in testosterone/oestradiol ratio; p = 0.0139) blood profiles was observed after following the lifestyle program. In seminal plasma, the amount of SOD2 has significantly increased (p = 0.0139) while in parallel carbonylated proteins have decreased. Furthermore, all spouses got pregnant. All pregnancies were brought to term. Conclusion This study shows specifically that sperm DNA fragmentation among men in subfertile couples could be affected by abdominal fat, but improvement of lifestyle factor may correct this alteration. The effect of specific abdominal fat loss on sperm quality needs further investigation. The reduction of oxidative stress may be a contributing factor. PMID:24520319

  20. Changes in fat intake, body fat composition and intra-abdominal fat after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Heesook; Jeong, Gui Ae; Cho, Gyu Seok; Lee, Min Hee; Kim, Soonkyung

    2014-07-01

    Bariatric surgery is considered to be the effective treatment alternative conducted over the lifetime for reducing weight in patients with clinically morbid obesity. For many patients, the benefits of weight loss, including decreases in blood glucose, lipids, and blood pressure as well as increase in mobility, will outweigh the risks of surgical complications. But patients undergoing bariatric surgery have the least risk for long-term diet-related complications as reported in several studies. Thus, with an increasing number of severely obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, the multidisciplinary healthcare system will need to be managed continuously. Many nutrition support specialists will need to become familiar with the metabolic consequences for the frequent monitoring of nutrition status of the patients. South Korea has a very short history with bariatric surgery, and relatively few studies have been conducted on bariatric surgery. Therefore, the objective of this report was to compare the nutrient intake, weight loss, body fat composition, and visceral fat before and after the bariatric surgery.

  1. Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity in early pregnancy together predict impaired glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy.

    PubMed

    De Souza, L R; Berger, H; Retnakaran, R; Vlachou, P A; Maguire, J L; Nathens, A B; Connelly, P W; Ray, J G

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity individually reflect insulin resistance, but their combined effect on glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy is unknown. A cohort of 476 pregnant women prospectively underwent sonographic assessment of hepatic fat and visceral (VAT) and total (TAT) adipose tissue at 11-14 weeks' gestation. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation between the presence of maternal hepatic fat and/or the upper quartile (Q) of either VAT or TAT and the odds of developing the composite outcome of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks' gestation, based on a 75 g OGTT. Upon adjusting for maternal age, ethnicity, family history of DM and body mass index (BMI), the co-presence of hepatic fat and quartile 4 (Q4) of VAT (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.5, 95% CI: 2.3-18.5) or hepatic fat and Q4 of TAT (aOR 7.8 95% CI 2.8-21.7) were each associated with the composite outcome, relative to women with neither sonographic feature. First-trimester sonographic evidence of maternal hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity may independently predict the development of impaired glucose homeostasis and GDM in mid-pregnancy. PMID:27643724

  2. Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity in early pregnancy together predict impaired glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, L R; Berger, H; Retnakaran, R; Vlachou, P A; Maguire, J L; Nathens, A B; Connelly, P W; Ray, J G

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity individually reflect insulin resistance, but their combined effect on glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy is unknown. A cohort of 476 pregnant women prospectively underwent sonographic assessment of hepatic fat and visceral (VAT) and total (TAT) adipose tissue at 11–14 weeks' gestation. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation between the presence of maternal hepatic fat and/or the upper quartile (Q) of either VAT or TAT and the odds of developing the composite outcome of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or gestational diabetes mellitus at 24–28 weeks' gestation, based on a 75 g OGTT. Upon adjusting for maternal age, ethnicity, family history of DM and body mass index (BMI), the co-presence of hepatic fat and quartile 4 (Q4) of VAT (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.5, 95% CI: 2.3–18.5) or hepatic fat and Q4 of TAT (aOR 7.8 95% CI 2.8–21.7) were each associated with the composite outcome, relative to women with neither sonographic feature. First-trimester sonographic evidence of maternal hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity may independently predict the development of impaired glucose homeostasis and GDM in mid-pregnancy. PMID:27643724

  3. Smoking Is Associated with More Abdominal Fat in Morbidly Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Daniela; Wagner, Mario; Mottin, Cláudio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While the association between cigarette smoking and abdominal fat has been well studied in normal and overweight patients, data regarding the influence of tobacco use in patients with morbid obesity remain scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate body fat distribution in morbidly obese smokers. Methods We employed a cross-sectional study and grouped severely obese patients (body mass index [BMI] >40 kg/m2 or >35 kg/m2 with comorbidities) according to their smoking habits (smokers or non-smokers). We next compared the anthropometrical measurements and body composition data (measured by electric bioimpedance) of both groups. We analyzed the effect of smoking on body composition variables using univariate and multiple linear regression (MLR); differences are presented as regression coefficients (b) and their respective 95% confidence intervals. Results We included 536 morbidly obese individuals, 453 (84.5%) non-smokers and 83 (15.5%) smokers. Male smokers had a higher BMI (b=3.28 kg/m2, p=0.036), larger waist circumference (b=6.07 cm, p=0.041) and higher percentage of body fat (b=2.33%, p=0.050) than non-smokers. These differences remained significant even after controlling for confounding factors. For females, the only significant finding in MLR was a greater muscle mass among smokers (b=1.34kg, p=0.028). No associations were found between tobacco load measured in pack-years and anthropometric measures or body composition. Discussion Positive associations between smoking and BMI, and waist circumference and percentage of body fat, were found among male morbidly obese patients, but not among females. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first investigation of these aspects in morbidly obese subjects. We speculate that our findings may indicate that the coexistence of morbid obesity and smoking helps to explain the more serious medical conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, seen in these patients. PMID:25978682

  4. Effect of endurance and resistance training on regional fat mass and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Ara Royo, Ignacio; Martínez-Redondo, Diana; Puzo Foncillas, José; Moreno, Luis A; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Casajús, José A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 10-week of endurance training or resistance training on regional and abdominal fat, and in the lipid profile, examining the associations among the changes in body composition, weight, waist circumference and lipid profile. Body composition, waist circumference and lipid profile were analyzed in 26 volunteers healthy young men (age 22.5 ± 1.9 yr), randomly assigned to: endurance group (EG), resistance group (RG) or control group (CG). The EG significantly decreased after training the body weight, body mass index, total body fat and percentage of fat, fat and percentage of fat at the trunk and at the abdominal region and High-Density Lipoprotein. The RG significantly increased total lean mass and decreased total cholesterol, High-Density and Low- Density Lipoprotein. Close relationship were found among changes in weight, total lean mass, regional fat mass, waist circumference and changes in lipid profile (all p < 0.05). We concluded that 10-week of endurance training decreased abdominal and body fat in young men, while 10-week of resistance training increased total lean mass. These types of training had also effects on lipid profile that seem to be to some extent associated to changes in body composition; however it requires additional investigation.

  5. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  6. Computer-aided Assessment of Regional Abdominal Fat with Food Residue Removal in CT

    PubMed Central

    Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Caturegli, Giorgio; Davatzikos, Christos; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Separate quantification of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat regions is essential to understand the role of regional adiposity as risk factor in epidemiological studies. Fat quantification is often based on computed tomography (CT) because fat density is distinct from other tissue densities in the abdomen. However, the presence of intestinal food residues with densities similar to fat may reduce fat quantification accuracy. We introduce an abdominal fat quantification method in CT with interest in food residue removal. Materials and Methods Total fat was identified in the feature space of Hounsfield units and divided into subcutaneous and visceral components using model-based segmentation. Regions of food residues were identified and removed from visceral fat using a machine learning method integrating intensity, texture, and spatial information. Cost-weighting and bagging techniques were investigated to address class imbalance. Results We validated our automated food residue removal technique against semimanual quantifications. Our feature selection experiments indicated that joint intensity and texture features produce the highest classification accuracy at 95%. We explored generalization capability using k-fold cross-validation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with variable k. Losses in accuracy and area under ROC curve between maximum and minimum k were limited to 0.1% and 0.3%. We validated tissue segmentation against reference semimanual delineations. The Dice similarity scores were as high as 93.1 for subcutaneous fat and 85.6 for visceral fat. Conclusions Computer-aided regional abdominal fat quantification is a reliable computational tool for large-scale epidemiological studies. Our proposed intestinal food residue reduction scheme is an original contribution of this work. Validation experiments indicate very good accuracy and generalization capability. PMID:24119354

  7. Fat-plug myringoplasty of ear lobule vs abdominal donor sites.

    PubMed

    Acar, Mustafa; Yazıcı, Demet; San, Turhan; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the success rates of fat-graft myringoplasties harvesting adipose grafts from different donor sites (ear lobule vs abdomen). The clinical records of 61 patients (24 males and 37 females) who underwent fat-plug myringoplasty (FPM) were reviewed retrospectively. Fat from ear lobule (FEL) and abdominal fat were used as graft materials. The impact of age, gender, systemic diseases, topography of the perforation, utilization of fat graft materials of different origin on the tympanic membrane closure rate and the effect of FPM on hearing gain was analyzed. Our tympanic membrane (TM) closure rate was 82 %. No statistical significant difference was observed regarding age, gender, comorbidities (septal deviation, hypertension and diabetes mellitus) or habits (smoking). Posterior TM perforations had significantly lower healing rate. The change in TM closure rate considering different adipose tissue donor sites was not statistically significant. The hearing gain of the patients was mostly below 20 dB. Fat-plug myringoplasty (FPM) is a safe, cost-effective and easy operation for selected patients. Abdominal fat graft is as effective as ear lobe fat graft on tympanic membrane healing, has cosmetic advantages and should be taken into consideration when planning fat as the graft source. PMID:24469028

  8. Determinants of fat mass in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Müller, M J; Grund, A; Krause, H; Siewers, M; Bosy-Westphal, A; Rieckert, H

    2002-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare variables of metabolism, physical activity and fitness to body composition in normal and overweight children in a cross-sectional study design. Body composition was assessed by anthropometric measurements and bioelectrical impedance analysis in forty-eight prepubertal children (age 5-11 years, thirteen normal-weight, thirty-five overweight). Total energy expenditure (EE) was measured by combination of indirect calorimetry (for measurement of resting EE) and individually calibrated 24 h heart-rate (HR) monitoring. Activity-related EE and physical activity level (PAL) were calculated. Time spent with min-by-min HR>FLEX HR was also used as a marker of moderate habitual and vigorous activities. Aerobic fitness (O2 pulse (O2 consumption:HR at submaximal steady-state heart rate), submaximal O2 consumption (VO2submaximal), RER at a HR of 170 beats per min) was determined by bicycle ergometry. Muscle strength of the legs (maximal isometric strength of musculus quadriceps and of musculus ischiocruralis (Fa max and Fb max respectively)) was measured by computer tensiometry. When compared with normal children, overweight children had higher skinfold thicknesses (sum of skinfold thicknesses at four sites +160 %), fat mass (+142 %), waist (+24 %) and hip circumferences (+14 %), resting EE (+13 %) and RER (+5 %). No significant group differences were found for fat-free mass, muscle mass, total EE, activity-related EE, PAL, HR>FLEX HR, VO2submaximal, O2 pulse, Fa max and Fb max as well as the fat-free mass- or muscle mass-adjusted values for resting EE, aerobic fitness and muscle strength. When compared with normal children, overweight children had a lower measured v. estimated resting EE (Delta resting EE) and spent more time watching television. There were positive relationships between fat-free mass(x) and resting EE(x), total EE(y), aerobic fitness(y) and muscle strength(y), but only Delta resting EE(x) and HR>FLEX HR(x) correlated

  9. Ethnic Bias in Anthropometric Estimates of DXA Abdominal Fat: the TIGER Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Daniel P.; Bray, Molly S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine race/ethnicity bias of using waist circumference (WC) to estimate abdominal fat. Methods A total of 771 females and 484 males (17–35 y) were tested one to three times during a prescribed 30-week aerobic exercise program. The race/ethnicity distribution for women was: non-Hispanic white (NHW), 29%; Hispanic, 25%; African-American (AA), 35%; Asian-Indian, 3%; and Asian, 8%. The distribution for men was: NHW, 37%; Hispanic, 26%; AA 22%; Asian-Indian, 5%; and Asian, 10%. Abdominal fat (L1 to L5) was estimated from whole body scanning using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA Abd-Fat). Results DXA Abd-Fat varied by race/ethnicity after accounting for WC and height in both women and men. The increase in DXA Abd-Fat per increase in WC was lower in the Asian and Asian-Indian women than in the other women. The increase in DXA Abd-Fat per increase in WC was higher in the AA men and lower in the Asian-Indian men than in the other men. These differential race/ethnicity effects were most notable when WC exceeded 90 cm in the women and 100 cm in the men, values which are consistent with current definitions of abdominal obesity in the United States. Conclusions Prediction equations for abdominal fat using WC that do not account for race/ethnicity group provide biased estimates. These results may affect assessment of disease risk from abdominal obesity among racial/ethnic groups. PMID:21364481

  10. Validation of Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Measures of Abdominal Fat by Comparison with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Amy E.; Kuper, Hannah; Varma, Ravi D.; Wells, Jonathan C.; Bell, Jimmy D.; V.Radhakrishna, K.; Kulkarni, Bharati; Kinra, Sanjay; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Ebrahim, Shah; Smith, George Davey; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Objective Abdominal adiposity is an important risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Indians. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to determine abdominal fat depots, being more accessible and less costly than gold standard measures such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DXA has not been fully validated for use in South Asians. Here, we determined the accuracy of DXA for measurement of abdominal fat in an Indian population by comparison with MRI. Design 146 males and females (age range 18–74, BMI range 15–46 kg/m2) from Hyderabad, India underwent whole body DXA scans on a Hologic Discovery A scanner, from which fat mass in two abdominal regions was calculated, from the L1 to L4 vertebrae (L1L4) and from the L2 to L4 vertebrae (L2L4). Abdominal MRI scans (axial T1-weighted spin echo images) were taken, from which adipose tissue volumes were calculated for the same regions. Results Intra-class correlation coefficients between DXA and MRI measures of abdominal fat were high (0.98 for both regions). Although at the level of the individual, differences between DXA and MRI could be large (95% of DXA measures were between 0.8 and 1.4 times MRI measures), at the sample level, DXA only slightly overestimated MRI measures of abdominal fat mass (mean difference in L1L4 region: 2% (95% CI:0%, 5%), mean difference in L2L4 region:4% (95% CI: 1%, 7%)). There was evidence of a proportional bias in the association between DXA and MRI (correlation between difference and mean −0.3), with overestimation by DXA greater in individuals with less abdominal fat (mean bias in leaner half of sample was 6% for L1L4 (95%CI: 2, 11%) and 7% for L2L4 (95% CI:3,12%). Conclusions DXA measures of abdominal fat are suitable for use in Indian populations and provide a good indication of abdominal adiposity at the population level. PMID:23272086

  11. Daily intake of rosehip extract decreases abdominal visceral fat in preobese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Nagatomo, Akifumi; Nishida, Norihisa; Fukuhara, Ikuo; Noro, Akira; Kozai, Yoshimichi; Sato, Hisao; Matsuura, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity has become a great problem all over the world. We repeatedly screened to find an effective food to treat obesity and discovered that rosehip extract shows potent anti-obesity effects. Investigations in mice have demonstrated that rosehip extract inhibits body weight gain and decreases visceral fat. Thus, the present study examined the effect of rosehip extract on human body fat in preobese subjects. Methods We conducted a 12-week, single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 32 subjects who had a body mass index of ≥25 but <30. The subjects were assigned to two random groups, and they received one tablet of placebo or rosehip that contained 100 mg of rosehip extract once each day for 12 weeks with no dietary intervention. Abdominal fat area and body fat percent were measured as primary outcomes. The other outcomes were body weight and body mass index. Results Abdominal total fat area, abdominal visceral fat area, body weight, and body mass index decreased significantly in the rosehip group at week 12 compared with their baseline levels (P<0.01) after receiving the rosehip tablet intake, and the decreases in these parameters were significantly higher when compared with those in the placebo group. Additionally, body fat percent tended to decrease compared with the placebo group and their baseline level. Moreover, the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was significantly lower in the rosehip group than in the placebo group at week 12 after the initiation of intake (P<0.05). In addition, there were no abnormalities, subjective symptoms, and findings that may indicate clinical problems during the study period. Conclusion These results suggest that rosehip extract may be a good candidate food material for preventing obesity. PMID:25834460

  12. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of palpable abdominal masses in children.

    PubMed

    Annuar, Z; Sakijan, A S; Annuar, N; Kooi, G H

    1990-12-01

    Ultrasound examinations were done to evaluate clinically palpable abdominal masses in 125 children. The examinations were normal in 21 patients. In 15 patients, the clinically palpable masses were actually anterior abdominal wall abscesses or hematomas. Final diagnosis was available in 87 of 89 patients with intraabdominal masses detected on ultrasound. The majority (71%) were retroperitoneal masses where two-thirds were of renal origin. Ultrasound diagnosis was correct in 68 patients (78%). All cases of hydronephrosis were correctly diagnosed based on characteristic ultrasound appearances. Correct diagnoses of all cases of adrenal hematoma, psoas abscess, liver hematoma, liver abscess and one case of liver metastases were achieved with correlation of relevant clinical information.

  13. Intra-abdominal fat. Part III. Neoplasms lesions of the adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on various cancerous lesions that are found beyond organs in the intra-abdominal fat and can be visualized with ultrasonography. These lesions are divided into five groups. The first group includes primary benign tumors containing adipocytes, such as lipoma, lipoblastoma, hibernoma and other lesions with an adipose tissue component, such as myolipoma, angiomyolipoma, myelolipoma and teratoma. The second group comprises primary malignant adipocytecontaining tumors, including liposarcoma and immature teratoma. The third group contains primary benign tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. This is a numerous group of lesions represented by cystic and solid tumors. The fourth group encompasses primary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. These are rare lesions associated mainly with sarcomas: fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, hemangiopericytoma and leiomyosarcoma. An epithelioid tumor at this site is mesothelioma. The last but not least group includes secondary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component located in intra-abdominal fat. This is the most numerous group with prevailing carcinoma foci. For each of these groups, the authors present ultrasound features of individual lesions and discuss their differential diagnosis. In the vast majority of cases, the material for cytological and histological analysis can be obtained during ultrasound-guided procedures. This is the advantage of this imaging modality. PMID:27446599

  14. Effects of high-intensity exercise training on body composition, abdominal fat loss, and cardiorespiratory fitness in middle-aged Korean females.

    PubMed

    Lee, Man-Gyoon; Park, Kyung-Shin; Kim, Do-Ung; Choi, Soon-Mi; Kim, Hyoung-Jun

    2012-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity exercise training under relatively equal energy expenditure on whole body fat and abdominal fat loss, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty-two untrained middle-aged Korean females were randomized into one of the following groups: control, low-intensity training group (LI), and high-intensity training group (HI). Subjects completed 14 weeks of training at 50% maximal oxygen consumption (LI) or 70% maximal oxygen consumption (HI) with the volume of exercise equated relative to kilograms of body weight. Weekly exercise volumes were 13.5 METs⋅h/week for the first 4 weeks, 18 METs⋅h/week for next 5 weeks, and 22.5 METs⋅h/week for the final 5 weeks. Data were analyzed using 2-way repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc test, using Bonferroni's correction. HI showed significant reductions in fat mass (p < 0.05), total abdominal fat (p < 0.01), and subcutaneous abdominal fat (p < 0.01). LI reduced total abdominal fat (p < 0.05), but there were no other significant changes found in the control or LI groups. Maximal oxygen consumption was enhanced in both HI and LI with no significant group difference. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly in HI (p < 0.05). IL-6, C-reactive protein, TNF-α, and other blood lipids were unaltered following training. Results indicate that high-intensity exercise training is more beneficial in whole body and abdominal fat loss; however, cardiorespiratory enhancement shows a dose-response relationship with weekly exercise volume. It is suggested that 14 weeks of aerobic exercise training at either high- or low-intensity is not sufficient enough to induce changes in levels of inflammatory proteins.

  15. Insulin resistance as a predictor of gains in body fat, weight, and abdominal fat in nondiabetic women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Larry A; Tucker, Jared M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose was to determine the relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and risk of gaining body fat percentage (BF%), body weight, and abdominal fat over 18 months. A prospective cohort study was conducted using a sample of 226 women. IR was assessed using fasting blood insulin and glucose levels to calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Participants were divided into High (4th quartile) Moderate (2nd and 3rd quartiles), and Low (1st quartile) HOMA categories. BF% was estimated using plethysmography (Bod Pod), weight was measured in a standard swimsuit, and abdominal fat was indexed using the average of two circumferences taken at the umbilicus. Participants wore accelerometers and completed weighed food logs for 7 consecutive days to control for the effect of physical activity (PA) and energy intake, respectively. On average, women in the High HOMA group decreased in BF% (-0.48 ± 3.60), whereas those in the Moderate (0.40 ± 3.66) and Low HOMA (1.17 ± 3.15) groups gained BF% (F = 5.4, P = 0.0211). Changes in body weight showed a similar dose-response relationship (F = 4.7, P = 0.0317). However, baseline IR was not predictive of changes in abdominal fat (F = 0.8, P = 0.3635). Controlling for several covariates had little effect on gains in BF% and weight, but adjusting for initial BF% and/or initial weight nullified changes in BF% and weight across the IR groups. In conclusion, women with High HOMA tend to gain significantly less BF% and weight than women with low or moderate HOMA. The decreased risk appears unrelated to several covariates, except initial BF% and weight levels, which seem to play key roles in the relationships.

  16. Interrelationships between changes in anthropometric variables and computed tomography indices of abdominal fat distribution in response to a 1-year physical activity-healthy eating lifestyle modification program in abdominally obese men.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Nicole; Pelletier-Beaumont, Emilie; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Lemieux, Isabelle; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The objectives were to (i) measure the effects of a 1-year lifestyle modification program on body fat distribution/anthropometric variables; (ii) determine the interrelationships between changes in all these variables; and (iii) investigate whether there is a selective reduction in deep (DSAT) vs. superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SSAT) at the abdominal level following a 1-year lifestyle modification program. Anthropometric variables, body composition and abdominal and midthigh fat distribution were assessed at baseline and after 1 year in 109 sedentary, dyslipidemic and abdominally obese men. Reductions in anthropometric variables, skinfold thicknesses (except the trunk/extremity ratio) and fat mass as well as an increase in fat-free mass were observed after 1 year (p < 0.0001). Decreases in abdominal adipose tissue volumes were also noted (-23%, -26%, -18%, -19%, -17%, p < 0.0001 for total adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, DSAT and SSAT, respectively). Adipose tissue areas at midthigh also decreased (-18%, -18%, -17%, p < 0.0001 for total, deep, and subcutaneous adipose tissue, respectively). A reduction (-9%, p < 0.0001) in low-attenuation muscle area and an increase (+1%, p < 0.05) in normal-attenuation muscle area were also observed. There was a positive relationship between changes in visceral adipose tissue and changes in DSAT (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001) or SSAT (r = 0.63, p < 0.0001). Although absolute changes in DSAT were greater than changes in SSAT, relative changes in both depots were similar, independent of changes in visceral adipose tissue. The 1-year lifestyle modification program therefore improved the body fat distribution pattern and midthigh muscle quality in abdominally obese men.

  17. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  18. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  19. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  20. Effect of the inclusion time of dietary saturated and unsaturated fats before slaughter on the accumulation and composition of abdominal fat in female broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sanz, M; Lopez-Bote, C J; Flores, A; Carmona, J M

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this experiment was to assess the effects of four different feeding programs designed to include tallow, a saturated fat at 0, 8, 12, and 28 d prior to slaughter on female broiler performance and the deposition, fatty acid profile, and melting point of abdominal fat. The following treatment groups were established according to dietary inclusion--from 21 to 49 d of age--of: sunflower oil (SUN), sunflower oil followed by tallow during the last 8 d (SUN + 8TALL), sunflower oil followed by tallow during the last 12 d (SUN + 12TALL), and tallow (TALL). The diets were designed to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Abdominal fat deposition increased linearly with increasing number of days in which birds were fed the tallow-enriched diet. However, linear and quadratic response patterns were found between days before slaughter in which the birds were fed the tallow-enriched diet and abdominal fat melting points. This result suggested an exponential response in which 85% of the maximum level was already attained when the dietary fat type changed from an unsaturated to a saturated condition during the last 8 d of the feeding period. The use of an unsaturated fat source during the first stages of growth, and the substitution of a saturated fat for a few days before slaughter, may offer the advantage of lower abdominal fat deposition and an acceptable fat fluidity compared with the use of a saturated fat source during the whole growing and finishing period.

  1. Giant adrenal hemangioma: Unusual cause of huge abdominal mass

    PubMed Central

    Tarchouli, Mohamed; Boudhas, Adil; Ratbi, Moulay Brahim; Essarghini, Mohamed; Njoumi, Noureddine; Sair, Khalid; Zentar, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal hemangioma is an extremely rare benign and non-functioning neoplasm of the adrenal gland. We report a case of a 71-year-old woman admitted for intermittent abdominal pain and abdominal distension associated with vomiting and chronic constipation for 5 years. Physical examination revealed a large abdominal mass. Both computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging suggested hemangioma in the right lobe of the liver. Laboratory examinations and tumour markers were within normal limits, except for hypochromic microcytic anemia. The mass was removed intact by conventional surgery and histopathology revealed a cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland with no signs of malignancy. Surgical resection was curative, with no recurrence at the 2-year follow-up. PMID:26600897

  2. Chronic Stress Increases Vulnerability to Diet-Related Abdominal Fat, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; Kornfeld, Sarah; Picard, Martin; Puterman, Eli; Havel, Peter; Stanhope, Kimber; Lustig, Robert H.; Epel, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background In preclinical studies, the combination of chronic stress and a high sugar/fat diet is a more potent driver of visceral adiposity than diet alone, a process mediated by peripheral Neuropeptide Y (NPY). Methods In a human model of chronic stress, we investigated whether the synergistic combination of highly palatable foods (HPF; high sugar/fat) and stress was associated with elevated metabolic risk. Using a case-control design, we compared 33 post-menopausal caregivers (the chronic stress group) to 28 age-matched low-stress control women on reported HPF consumption (modified Block Food Frequency Questionnaire), waistline circumference, truncal fat ultrasound, and insulin sensitivity using a three-hour oral glucose tolerance test. A fasting blood draw was assayed for plasma NPY and oxidative stress markers (8-hydroxyguanosine and F2-Isoprostanes). Results Among chronically stressed women only, greater HPF consumption was associated with greater abdominal adiposity, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance at baseline (all p’s ≤.01). Furthermore, plasma NPY was significantly elevated in chronically stressed women (p<.01), and the association of HPF with abdominal adiposity was stronger among women with high versus low NPY. There were no significant predictions of change over one-year, likely due to high stability (little change) in the primary outcomes over this period. Discussion Chronic stress is associated with enhanced vulnerability to diet-related metabolic risk (abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress). Stress-induced peripheral NPY may play a mechanistic role. PMID:24882154

  3. Intra-abdominal pulmonary secuestration as an exceptional cause of abdominal mass in the adult☆

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Sanz, C.; Herrero Bogajo, M.L.; Picazo-Yeste, J.; Morandeira Rivas, A.; Manzanera-Diaz, M.; Sedano-Vizcaino, C.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pulmonary sequestration (PS) is an extremely rare malformation defined as a portion of lung tissue isolated from the pulmonary system. PSs are classified into intralobar type and intra-abdominal PS that represents only 2.5% of cases. There are 20 cases of PS reported in adults and only two were managed by laparoscopic approach. We report a case of intra-abdominal PS mimicking a gastroesophageal duplication cyst in an adult. Besides its rarity, this is the first intra-abdominal PS in an adult managed by an anterior laparoscopic approach. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 60-year-old female patient had had epigastric and left upper quadrant pain for several days. Physical examination was normal. Image test were consistent with a gastroesophageal duplication. The patient was taken to the operating room for laparoscopic exploration and resection. The pathological diagnosis was extralobar pulmonary sequestration. DISCUSSION Less than 20 cases of PS have been reported in adults and only two cases were managed by a lateral laparoscopic approach. In contrast to these reports, we used an anterior approach due to the GEJ suspected origin of the mass. CONCLUSION Extralobar intra-abdominal PS is an extremely rare condition during adulthood but this diagnosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a left-sided suprarenal mass. Due to the difficulty in achieving a definitive preoperative diagnosis, surgery is recommended. Laparoscopic resection is safe and effective but careful preoperative imaging studies are recommended in order to plan the most suitable approach. PMID:24091075

  4. Genome-wide association studies suggest sex-specific loci associated with abdominal and visceral fat

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yun Ju; Pérusse, Louis; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Fornage, Myriam; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rice, Treva; Terry, Gregg; Jacobs, David R.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Curran, Joanne E; Carr, John Jeffrey; Blangero, John; Ghosh, Sujoy; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D.C.; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify loci associated with abdominal fat and replicate prior findings, we performed genome-wide association (GWA) studies of abdominal fat traits: subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total adipose tissue (TAT) and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VSR). Subjects and Methods Sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses were performed on each trait with (TRAIT-BMI) or without (TRAIT) adjustment for BMI, and cohort-specific results were combined via a fixed effects meta-analysis. A total of 2,513 subjects of European descent were available for the discovery phase. For replication, 2,171 European Americans and 772 African Americans were available. Results A total of 52 SNPs encompassing 7 loci showed suggestive evidence of association (p < 1.0 × 10−6) with abdominal fat in the sex-combined analyses. The strongest evidence was found on chromosome 7p14.3 between a SNP near BBS9 gene and VAT (rs12374818; p= 1.10 × 10−7), an association that was replicated (p = 0.02). For the BMI-adjusted trait, the strongest evidence of association was found between a SNP near CYCSP30 and VAT-BMI (rs10506943; p= 2.42 × 10−7). Our sex-specific analyses identified one genome-wide significant (p < 5.0 × 10−8) locus for SAT in women with 11 SNPs encompassing the MLLT10, DNAJC1 and EBLN1 genes on chromosome 10p12.31 (p = 3.97 × 10−8 to 1.13 × 10−8). The THNSL2 gene previously associated with VAT in women was also replicated (p= 0.006). The six gene/loci showing the strongest evidence of association with VAT or VAT-BMI were interrogated for their functional links with obesity and inflammation using the Biograph knowledge-mining software. Genes showing the closest functional links with obesity and inflammation were ADCY8 and KCNK9, respectively. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for new loci influencing abdominal visceral (BBS9, ADCY8, KCNK9) and subcutaneous (MLLT10/DNAJC1/EBLN1) fat, and confirmed a locus (THNSL2

  5. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in genetically fat and lean chickens reveals adipokines, lipogenic genes and a link between hemostasis and leanness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This descriptive study of the abdominal fat transcriptome takes advantage of two experimental lines of meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus), which were selected over seven generations for a large difference in abdominal (visceral) fatness. At the age of selection (9 wk), the fat line (FL) and lean line (LL) chickens exhibit a 2.5-fold difference in abdominal fat weight, while their feed intake and body weight are similar. These unique avian models were originally created to unravel genetic and endocrine regulation of adiposity and lipogenesis in meat-type chickens. The Del-Mar 14K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray was used for a time-course analysis of gene expression in abdominal fat of FL and LL chickens during juvenile development (1–11 weeks of age). Results Microarray analysis of abdominal fat in FL and LL chickens revealed 131 differentially expressed (DE) genes (FDR≤0.05) as the main effect of genotype, 254 DE genes as an interaction of age and genotype and 3,195 DE genes (FDR≤0.01) as the main effect of age. The most notable discoveries in the abdominal fat transcriptome were higher expression of many genes involved in blood coagulation in the LL and up-regulation of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in FL chickens. Many of these DE genes belong to pathways controlling the synthesis, metabolism and transport of lipids or endocrine signaling pathways activated by adipokines, retinoid and thyroid hormones. Conclusions The present study provides a dynamic view of differential gene transcription in abdominal fat of chickens genetically selected for fatness (FL) or leanness (LL). Remarkably, the LL chickens over-express a large number of hemostatic genes that could be involved in proteolytic processing of adipokines and endocrine factors, which contribute to their higher lipolysis and export of stored lipids. Some of these changes are already present at 1 week of age before the divergence in fatness. In contrast, the FL chickens have

  6. Mildly compromised tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor biosynthesis due to Pts variants leads to unusual body fat distribution and abdominal obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Korner, Germaine; Scherer, Tanja; Adamsen, Dea; Rebuffat, Alexander; Crabtree, Mark; Rassi, Anahita; Scavelli, Rossana; Homma, Daigo; Ledermann, Birgit; Konrad, Daniel; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Wolfrum, Christian; Horsch, Marion; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klingenspor, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; Wolf, Eckhard; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Blau, Nenad; Rozman, Jan; Thöny, Beat

    2016-03-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, alkylglycerol monooxygenase, and nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Inborn errors of BH4 metabolism lead to severe insufficiency of brain monoamine neurotransmitters while augmentation of BH4 by supplementation or stimulation of its biosynthesis is thought to ameliorate endothelial NOS (eNOS) dysfunction, to protect from (cardio-) vascular disease and/or prevent obesity and development of the metabolic syndrome. We have previously reported that homozygous knock-out mice for the 6-pyruvolytetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS; Pts-ko/ko) mice with no BH4 biosynthesis die after birth. Here we generated a Pts-knock-in (Pts-ki) allele expressing the murine PTPS-p.Arg15Cys with low residual activity (15% of wild-type in vitro) and investigated homozygous (Pts-ki/ki) and compound heterozygous (Pts-ki/ko) mutants. All mice showed normal viability and depending on the severity of the Pts alleles exhibited up to 90% reduction of PTPS activity concomitant with neopterin elevation and mild reduction of total biopterin while blood L-phenylalanine and brain monoamine neurotransmitters were unaffected. Yet, adult mutant mice with compromised PTPS activity (i.e., Pts-ki/ko, Pts-ki/ki or Pts-ko/wt) had increased body weight and elevated intra-abdominal fat. Comprehensive phenotyping of Pts-ki/ki mice revealed alterations in energy metabolism with proportionally higher fat content but lower lean mass, and increased blood glucose and cholesterol. Transcriptome analysis indicated changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes associated with obesity, weight loss, hepatic steatosis, and insulin sensitivity were consistent with the observed phenotypic alterations. We conclude that reduced PTPS activity concomitant with mildly compromised BH4-biosynthesis leads to abnormal body fat distribution and abdominal obesity at least in mice. This study associates a novel

  7. The relationship between parental yolk cholesterol and yolk fat concentration to abdominal fat content and feed conversion ratio of their respective offspring.

    PubMed

    Suk, Y O; Washburn, K W

    1998-03-01

    The correlation of yolk cholesterol and yolk fat concentrations of egg from the pedigreed Athens-Canadian Randombred control population with the percentage of abdominal fat (AF) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of their progeny were studied. The average yolk cholesterol, yolk fat, and AF were 20.3 mg/g yolk, 244 mg/g yolk, and 1.64%, respectively. The phenotypic correlation of both yolk cholesterol and yolk fat content of eggs from the parental population with AF or FCR of their progeny were low and nonsignificant. PMID:9521446

  8. FDG PET/CT Findings in Abdominal Fat Necrosis After Treatment for Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, Julien; Moreau, Aurélie; Sarkozy, Clémentine; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Skanjeti, Andrea; Salles, Gilles; Giammarile, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    FDG PET/CT is now validated in non-Hodgkin lymphoma for response assessment in interim and posttreatment lymphoma. We report the case of a 62-year-old man followed by FDG PET/CT for a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with initial stage III. The interim FDG PET/CT examination concluded in complete metabolic and morphological response of subdiaphragmatic lymphadenopathy but a persistent abnormal subdiaphragmatic uptake (SUVmax at 9 and Deauville 5-point scale at 5). Therefore, an abdominal biopsy of the corresponding nodules was conducted with a final diagnosis of diffuse fat necrosis. PMID:26825213

  9. Abdominal mass lesions in the newborn: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hartman, G E; Shochat, S J

    1989-03-01

    Most neonatal abdominal masses will be due to benign retroperitoneal lesions such as hydronephrosis and multicystic dysplastic kidney. Although history and physical examination, plain radiographs and ultrasonography will confirm most diagnoses, severe unilateral hydronephrosis, hemorrhagic neuroblastoma, and intraperitoneal cysts may provide diagnostic difficulties. Masses identified by prenatal ultrasound need careful evaluation as they may represent normal structures, nonsignificant variants, or physiologically significant anomalies. Many lesions will require operative intervention, which can be safely performed in small infants by trained personnel at facilities with appropriate support services. Genuine controversy exists in the management of some of these lesions including MDK, renal vein thrombosis, and acalculous cholecystitis.

  10. Changes and tracking of fat mass in pubertal girls.

    PubMed

    Vink, Eva E; van Coeverden, Silvia C C M; van Mil, Edgar G; Felius, Bram A; van Leerdam, Frank J M; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriëtte A

    2010-06-01

    Puberty is a critical period in body composition development. The influence of puberty on the development of fat mass asks for further investigation. We investigated the development of fat mass during puberty in a longitudinal prospective study in 152 healthy nonobese white girls, initial ages between 9 to 12 years. The influence of menarcheal age and the existing of tracking of fat mass have been analyzed. In 10 years time, participants were measured on eight time points. Various anthropometric data were collected, breast development was staged according to Tanner and body composition was determined with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Calculations were made with the use of a linear mixed model. Fat mass increases from 7.9 kg (23.6%) at B1 to 18.5 kg (29.3%) at B5. Fat mass is higher in girls with an early menarche than in girls with a late menarche from B2. Girls in the quartile with initially the lowest fat mass have a chance of being in the same quartile after 10 years of 77% (P < 0.001). Girls in the quartile with initially the highest fat mass, have a risk of staying in the highest quartile of 55% (P < 0.001). Menarcheal age is of great influence on the development of fat mass. Girls with an early menarche, will have a bigger fat mass, especially at the end of puberty. Tracking of fat mass exists: a high amount of fat mass in early puberty will continue to exist at young adulthood. PMID:19875991

  11. Histological fate of abdominal dermis-fat grafts implanted in the temporomandibular joint of the rabbit following condylectomy.

    PubMed

    Dimitroulis, G; Slavin, J; Morrison, W

    2011-02-01

    The histological fate of abdominal dermis-fat grafts implanted into the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) following condylectomy was studied. 21 rabbits underwent left TMJ discectomies and condylectomies; 6 were controls (Group A; no graft used); 15 (Group B) had autogenous abdominal grafts transplanted into the left TMJ. Animals were killed after 4, 12 and 20 weeks. Specimens of the TMJ were histologically and histomorphometrically evaluated. At 4 weeks, fat necrosis was clear in all specimens. The dermis component survived and formed cysts with no necrosis. By 12 weeks, viable fat deposits appeared with no evidence of necrotic fat. At 20 weeks, large amounts of viable fat were present in Group B specimens. Group A had no fat, although the missing condyles regenerated. In the presence of viable fat, Group B showed little condyle regeneration 20 weeks after condylectomy. Non-vascularised fat grafts do not survive transplantation, but stimulate neoadipogenesis. The fate of the dermis component of the graft is independent of the fat component. Fat in the joint space disrupts the regeneration of a new condylar head. Neoadipogensis inhibits growth of new bone and cartilage. This has clinical implications for TMJ ankylosis management and preventing heterotopic bone formation around prosthetic joints. PMID:21050720

  12. Quantification of Abdominal Fat Depots in Rats and Mice during Obesity and Weight Loss Interventions

    PubMed Central

    KN, Bhanu Prakash; Gopalan, Venkatesh; Lee, Swee Shean; Velan, S. Sendhil

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Obesity is a leading healthcare issue contributing to metabolic diseases. There is a great interest in non-invasive approaches for quantitating abdominal fat in obese animals and humans. In this work, we propose an automated method to distinguish and quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues (SAT and VAT) in rodents during obesity and weight loss interventions. We have also investigated the influence of different magnetic resonance sequences and sources of variability in quantification of fat depots. Materials and Methods High-fat diet fed rodents were utilized for investigating the changes during obesity, exercise, and calorie restriction interventions (N = 7/cohort). Imaging was performed on a 7T Bruker ClinScan scanner using fast spin echo (FSE) and Dixon imaging methods to estimate the fat depots. Finally, we quantified the SAT and VAT volumes between the L1–L5 lumbar vertebrae using the proposed automatic hybrid geodesic region-based curve evolution algorithm. Results Significant changes in SAT and VAT volumes (p<0.01) were observed between the pre- and post-intervention measurements. The SAT and VAT were 44.22±9%, 21.06±1.35% for control, −17.33±3.07%, −15.09±1.11% for exercise, and 18.56±2.05%, −3.9±0.96% for calorie restriction cohorts, respectively. The fat quantification correlation between FSE (with and without water suppression) sequences and Dixon for SAT and VAT were 0.9709, 0.9803 and 0.9955, 0.9840 respectively. The algorithm significantly reduced the computation time from 100 sec/slice to 25 sec/slice. The pre-processing, data-derived contour placement and avoidance of strong background–image boundary improved the convergence accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Conclusions We developed a fully automatic segmentation algorithm to quantitate SAT and VAT from abdominal images of rodents, which can support large cohort studies. We additionally identified the influence of non-algorithmic variables including

  13. Effects of peroxidized corn oil on performance, AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ehr, I J; Kerr, B J; Persia, M E

    2015-07-01

    There is a trend to use more alternative lipids in poultry diets, either through animal-vegetable blends, distillers corn oil, or yellow grease. This has resulted in the use of lipids in poultry diets with a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, which have a greater potential for peroxidation. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of peroxidized corn oil on broiler performance, dietary AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight. The same refined corn oil sample was divided into 3 subsamples, 2 of which were exposed to different peroxidative processes. The 3 diets contained the unperoxidized corn oil (UO), a slowly peroxidized corn oil (SO; heated for 72 h at 95°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min), or a rapidly peroxidized corn oil (RO; heated for 12 h at 185°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min). Diets were fed from 0 to 14 d of age with each lipid fed at a 5% inclusion rate, continuing on from 15 to 27 d of age with each lipid fed at a 10% inclusion rate. There were 6 Ross 708 broiler chicks per cage with 10 replicates for each of the 3 dietary treatments. Abdominal fat pad and excreta collection was performed on d 27. Body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured for the 0 to 14 and 0 to 27 d periods. The increased level of peroxidation reduced AMEn in broiler diets (UO = 3,490 kcal/kg; SO = 3,402 kcal/kg; RO = 3,344 kcal/kg on an as-is basis; SEM = 12.9, P ≤ 0.01). No significant treatment differences were observed among oil supplemented birds for BW gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, or abdominal fat pad weight. In conclusion, corn oil peroxidation status resulted in a decrease in dietary AMEn, but had minimal effects on broiler performance or fat pad weights.

  14. Adrenal Mass in Patients who Underwent Abdominal Computed Tomography Examination

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Sulaiti, Marym; ElGohary, Hesham; Al-Malki, Ahmed; Asim, Mohammad; Tabeb, AbdelHakem

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adrenal masses are usually discovered incidentally (IAM) during abdominal computed tomography (CT). Aims: We aimed to describe the prevalence, management, and outcome of incidentally discovered adrenal mass on radiological investigation. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted to look for IAM identified by abdominal CT performed for other reasons between 2004 and 2008 and were followed for 4 years. IAM patients with known malignancy or clinically evident adrenal disease or overt disease originally missed due to insufficient clinical examination were excluded. Results: A total of 13,115 patients underwent abdominal CT, of which 136 were identified with adrenal mass (69 males and 67 females). Overall, 84 patients had benign IAM and six had primary adrenal carcinoma (all had tumor size ≥4 cm and five were males). Hormonal evaluation was performed in 80 cases, which revealed hypersecretion in 10 cases (six had Conn's syndrome and four had pheochromocytoma). Males had higher frequency of right-sided IAMs; whereas, left-sided IAM swere more common among females (P = 0.02). Seven patients underwent surgery and all were males (one Conn's syndrome, one pheochromocytoma, three primary adrenal adenocarcinoma, one benign nonfunctional adenoma, and one metastatic tumor). Only one patient died due to brain metastasis. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma is 1% in Qatar. Unfortunately, hormonal evaluation, surgical referral, and follow-up are not appropriate in this study. Moreover, screening of IAM warrants more attention to rule out malignancy. This work could be of value as a local auditing for the current management. PMID:26110133

  15. Congenital Anaplastic Rhabdomyosarcoma Presenting As Abdominal Wall Mass.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Krishnendu; Mandal, Rupali

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma encompasses a group of malignant myogenic neoplasms expressing a multitude of clinical and pathological diversities. It is the commonest soft tissue sarcoma of childhood but neonates are rarely affected. Embryonal subtype is the most frequent. Head-neck and genitourinary tracts are predominant sites, while trunk is considered among the unusual sites of rhabdomyosarcoma. Herein we report a case of anaplastic rhabdomyosarcoma in a newborn girl presenting, at the Pediatric Surgery Outpatient Department of North Bengal Medical College and Hospital, India in 2013 with a large tumor mass in the left flank region, arising from abdominal wall muscles. PMID:26870149

  16. Unsaturated Oral Fat Load Test Improves Glycemia, Insulinemia and Oxidative Stress Status in Nondiabetic Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Navarro, Inmaculada; Real, Jose T.; Artero, Ana; Peiro, Marta; Gonzalez-Navarro, Herminia; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative stress markers during an oral fat load test in nondiabetic subjects with abdominal obesity and to analyze the association between postprandial oxidative stress markers and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Methods We included 20 subjects with abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women) and 20 healthy lean controls (waist circumference < 102 cm for men and < 88 cm for women). After 12 hours of fasting we performed a standardized fat load test (0–8 hours) with supracal® (50 g/m2). We determined metabolic parameters, oxidized and reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde. Results In both groups, insulin, HOMA, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and malondialdehyde significantly decreased in the postprandial state after the OFLT. All these parameters were significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group at baseline and during all the postprandial points, but the reduction from the baseline levels was significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group. Conclusion Unsaturated fat improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress status. It is possible that a consumption of unsaturated fat could be beneficial even in subjects with abdominal obesity in postprandial state. PMID:27537847

  17. Changes in physiology with increasing fat mass.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Dara P

    2009-08-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the USA with a nearly fourfold rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity. There are many possible etiologies of obesity as the adipose tissue plays a significant, complex role in the physiology of fuel metabolism and hormone regulation. The development of obesity represents a pathophysiologic increase in fat mass in which multiple metabolic pathways are deranged. The consequences of these metabolic derangements, including insulin resistance and inflammation, are reflected in obesity-related comorbidities and can be seen in the setting of pediatric obesity. Obese adolescents demonstrate increased rates of early maturation, orthopedic growth abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, steatosis, and polycystic ovarian syndrome, placing this group of children at risk for long-term health problems and reduced quality of life. Given the negative short- and long-term impact of obesity on children, careful attention should be paid to the unique health issues of this "at-risk" population with both prevention and early intervention strategies.

  18. Changes in physiology with increasing fat mass.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Dara P

    2009-08-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the USA with a nearly fourfold rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity. There are many possible etiologies of obesity as the adipose tissue plays a significant, complex role in the physiology of fuel metabolism and hormone regulation. The development of obesity represents a pathophysiologic increase in fat mass in which multiple metabolic pathways are deranged. The consequences of these metabolic derangements, including insulin resistance and inflammation, are reflected in obesity-related comorbidities and can be seen in the setting of pediatric obesity. Obese adolescents demonstrate increased rates of early maturation, orthopedic growth abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, steatosis, and polycystic ovarian syndrome, placing this group of children at risk for long-term health problems and reduced quality of life. Given the negative short- and long-term impact of obesity on children, careful attention should be paid to the unique health issues of this "at-risk" population with both prevention and early intervention strategies. PMID:19573754

  19. Effect of Ramadan fasting on metabolic markers, dietary intake and abdominal fat distribution in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gur, EB; Turan, GA; Ince, O; Karadeniz, M; Tatar, S; Kasap, E; Sahin, N; Guclu, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on metabolic markers, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and abdominal visceral fat thickness (VFT) in pregnancy. Methods: Seventy-eight healthy pregnant subjects who had fasted for at least 15 days during the month of Ramadan in 2012 and 2013 and 78 controls were included in this study. Metabolic markers, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and ultrasonographic VFT were calculated for each subject before and after Ramadan fasting. Results: When before and after Ramadan values in the fasting group were compared, we found that daily protein intake was increased (p <0.001), but fat and carbohydrate intake remained unchanged. A significant reduction was observed in liquid consumption while the frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria was increased. High-density lipoprotein significantly increased, and glycated hemoglobin, insulin, and homeostasis model index significantly decreased (p =0.005, p =0.01, p <0.001, and p =0.03, respectively). A significant increase in ferritin was found (p =0.02). No change was observed in subcutaneous fat thickness, while VFT significantly decreased (p =0.08, p =0.005). However, in the control group, only ferritin level increased. Conclusion: A combined change in the number and timing of meals and the portioning of the entire daily intake into only two meals per day may have beneficial metabolic effects and reduction in VFT during pregnancy. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (4): 298-303. PMID:27688692

  20. Characterization of genetic and lifestyle factors for determining variation in body mass index, fat mass, percentage of fat mass, and lean mass.

    PubMed

    Deng, H W; Lai, D B; Conway, T; Li, J; Xu, F H; Davies, K M; Recker, R R

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we simultaneously characterized genetic and lifestyle factors (exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption) in determining variation in body mass index (BMI), fat mass, percentage of fat mass (PFM), and lean mass while adjusting for the effects of age and sex. Six hundred fifty-eight Caucasian individuals from 48 pedigrees were studied for BMI. Among these individuals, 289 from 38 pedigrees were studied for fat mass, PFM, and lean mass measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). After adjusting for age, sex, and lifestyle factors, the heritabilities (h(2)) of BMI, fat mass, PFM, and lean mass ranged from 0.52 to 0.57 with associated standard errors ranging from 0.09 to 0.14. After accounting for significant sex and age effects, exercise had significant effects for all the phenotypes studied, and the effects of smoking and alcohol consumption were not significant. Therefore, significant proportions of variation in BMI, fat mass, PFM, and lean mass were under genetic control, and exercise had a significant effect in reducing BMI, fat mass, and PFM and in increasing lean mass. This study warrants further genetic linkage analyses to search for genes for the obesity-related phenotypes measured by DXA in our population.

  1. ‘Lean’ Mass Predicts Asthma Better than Fat Mass among Women

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Akshay; Qualls, Clifford; Li, Rong; Schuyler, Mark; Beckett, William S.; Smith, Lewis J.; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Lewis, Cora E.; Jacobs, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The obesity phenotype associated with asthma is not known. Our objective was to define the relative contribution of various distributions of fat and lean mass to asthma prevalence. Data were obtained from 2,525 participants (including 1,422 women) who underwent Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) at the year 20 examination in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort. Total, truncal, arm, and leg distributions of fat and lean mass were adjusted to the person’s height. Self-reported asthma was the outcome. Asthma among women was associated with greater total fat mass, arm fat mass, and total lean mass, truncal lean mass, and arm lean mass. Among men, none of the above mass measures were significantly associated with asthma. Among women, the association with asthma was stronger for total lean mass than for total fat mass. Further, among various regional distributions of lean and fat mass in women, truncal lean mass was the strongest predictor. Total lean mass is more strongly associated than total fat mass with asthma among women. These findings are contrary to the popular perception that excess physiological fat drives the obesity-asthma association. Rather, we hypothesize that ectopic fat within the ‘lean’ tissues drives this association among women. PMID:20525713

  2. Epistatic effects on abdominal fat content in chickens: results from a genome-wide SNP-SNP interaction analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangge; Hu, Guo; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Shouzhi; Wang, Zhipeng; Li, Hui

    2013-01-01

    We performed a pairwise epistatic interaction test using the chicken 60 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip for the 11(th) generation of the Northeast Agricultural University broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content. A linear mixed model was used to test two dimensions of SNP interactions affecting abdominal fat weight. With a threshold of P<1.2×10(-11) by a Bonferroni 5% correction, 52 pairs of SNPs were detected, comprising 45 pairs showing an Additive×Additive and seven pairs showing an Additive×Dominance epistatic effect. The contribution rates of significant epistatic interactive SNPs ranged from 0.62% to 1.54%, with 47 pairs contributing more than 1%. The SNP-SNP network affecting abdominal fat weight constructed using the significant SNP pairs was analyzed, estimated and annotated. On the basis of the network's features, SNPs Gga_rs14303341 and Gga_rs14988623 at the center of the subnet should be important nodes, and an interaction between GGAZ and GGA8 was suggested. Twenty-two quantitative trait loci, 97 genes (including nine non-coding genes), and 50 pathways were annotated on the epistatic interactive SNP-SNP network. The results of the present study provide insights into the genetic architecture underlying broiler chicken abdominal fat weight.

  3. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J.; Lee, William R.; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences. PMID:26295149

  4. Role of Cell Block in Guided FNAC of Abdominal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Manoli, Nandini; Shivajirao, Prathima; Manjunath; Jothady, Sunila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) of space occupying lesions in superficial or deep anatomic sites is an increasingly common procedure, providing rapid and safe diagnosis. However, sometimes FNA does not yield sufficient information for a precise diagnosis and the risk of false negatives and indeterminate diagnosis is always present. Therefore, we attempted to obtain additional information via the preparation of Cell Block (CB) from the residual material of aspirates and thus enhance the diagnostic accuracy. Aim This study was carried out to evaluate the role of CB as a useful adjunct to smears for establishing a more definitive cytopathologic diagnosis and for its utility in special staining and Immuno-histochemistry (IHC). Materials and Methods A total of 66 cases of image-guided FNA of abdominal masses were studied. In addition to the routine smears, CBs were prepared from the residual tissues for all possible cases and its diagnostic efficacy was analysed. Further, the use of CBs for special staining and IHC was also established. Results This study included a total of 66 patients with abdominal masses who were referred for guided FNA cytology. Out of these cases, adequate material was obtained on FNAC in 64 cases (96.96%) and on CB in 45 cases (68.18%) and the diagnosis was provided. There was a good agreement between the FNA smear diagnosis and CB diagnosis. The histopathology of CB sections further helped in precise final cytopathological diagnosis. Two FNA smears were unsatisfactory for evaluation and hence the diagnosis was done on CB sections alone. With FNA cytology and CB in combination, a cytopathological diagnosis was given for all the 66 cases. The sensitivity of FNA in comparison to the histopathology of CB was 91.6% and specificity was 88.8%. The diagnostic accuracy was 62% and the discordance was 6%. Conclusions CB in addition to the routine FNA is a simple, reliable and cost-effective technique that further contributes to the final

  5. Large Gastric Teratoma: A Rare Intra-abdominal Mass of Infancy.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Roumina; Monappa, Vidya; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-05-01

    Amongst the varied, diverse causes of intraabdominal masses in infancy and early childhood, gastric teratomas (GTs) account for a very small proportion. A worldwide literature search reveals only around one hundred cases of GT and also supports the fact that its preoperative diagnosis remains elusive. Here we report the case of a two-month-old male who presented to the pediatric surgery outpatient department of Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Karnataka, India, with progressive distension of abdomen since birth. Clinically, a large firm, non-mobile and non-tender mass involving all four quadrants of the abdomen was seen. Ultrasound revealed a large solid-cystic mass with internal septations extending from the epigastrium up to the pelvis. Computed tomography revealed a large intraperitoneal fat containing solid-cystic mass lesion showing curvilinear and chunky areas of calcification, with the mass focally indenting the posterior gastric wall and showing focal polypoidal intragastric extension. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large cystic tumor with a solid component, arising from lesser curvature of the stomach, showing focal intraluminal extension across the posterior gastric wall, and occupying the whole lesser sac and abdominal cavity. The tumor was excised in toto along with the body of the stomach. Histopathological examination showed mature tissue derived from all three germ cell layers and confirmed the diagnosis of mature gastric teratoma. The patient was disease free at one-year follow-up.

  6. Effect of inulin supplementation and dietary fat source on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, abdominal fat deposition, and tissue fatty acid composition in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Velasco, S; Ortiz, L T; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J; Rodríguez, M L

    2010-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding inulin to diets containing 2 different types of fat as energy sources on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, and fatty acids of abdominal adipose tissue and breast and thigh meat. A total of 240 one-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 1 of 6 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 5 chicks per pen. The experiment consisted of a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 3 concentrations of inulin (0, 5, and 10 g/kg of diet) and 2 types of fat [palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO)] at an inclusion rate of 90 g/kg of diet. The experimental period lasted from 1 to 34 d. Dietary fat type did not affect BW gain but impaired feed conversion (P < 0.001) in birds fed the PO diets compared with birds fed the SO diets. The diets containing PO increased abdominal fat deposition and serum lipid and glucose concentrations. Triacylglycerol contents in liver were higher in the birds fed PO diets. Dietary fat type also modified fatty acids of abdominal and i.m. fat, resulting in a higher concentration of C16:0 and C18:1n-9 and a lower concentration of C18:2n-6 in the birds fed PO diets. The addition of inulin to diets modified (P = 0.017) BW gain quadratically without affecting feed conversion. Dietary inulin decreased the total lipid concentration in liver (P = 0.003) and that of triacylglycerols and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (up to 31%) in blood serum compared with the control groups. The polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio increased in abdominal and i.m. fat when inulin was included in the SO-containing diets. The results from the current study suggest that the addition of inulin to broiler diets has a beneficial effect on blood serum lipids by decreasing triacylglyceride concentrations The results also support the use of inulin to increase the capacity of SO for enhancing polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio of i.m. fat

  7. A giant gas-filled abdominal mass in an elderly female: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hoi Man Deon; Lee, Fung Yee Janet; Lo, Anthony; Li, Chak Man Jimmy

    2011-08-21

    We report an extremely rare case of gas-filled abdominal mass caused by an ovarian teratoma fistulating to the sigmoid colon. The patient was an 85-year-old female, who presented with severe abdominal distension. Urgent computed tomography scan showed a huge abdominal mass with air fluid level and fecal matter inside. Communication between the mass and the sigmoid colon was suspected. She underwent emergency laparotomy. The mass was resected with the involved segment of colon. Pathology confirmed squamous cell carcinoma arising from mature cystic teratoma of the ovary.

  8. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat. PMID:25715692

  9. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat.

  10. Visceral Fat Mass Has Stronger Associations with Diabetes and Prediabetes than Other Anthropometric Obesity Indicators among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Suk Hwa; Ha, Kyoung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study determined which obesity measurement correlates the best with diabetes and prediabetes. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 1603 subjects (611 men, 992 women; age 30–64 years) at the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-height ratio, waist-hip ratio, waist-thigh ratio, and visceral fat were used as measures of obesity. Visceral fat was acquired using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes were defined using the criteria in the American Diabetes Association 2015 guidelines. Results After adjusting for age and other potential confounding factors, participants with a visceral fat mass in the upper 10th percentile had a higher odds ratio (OR) for diabetes and prediabetes than the upper 10th percentile of other adiposity indices [men, OR=15.9, 95% confidence interval (CI)=6.4–39.2; women, OR=6.9, 95% CI=3.5–13.7]. Visceral fat mass also had the highest area under the curve with diabetes and prediabetes in both men (0.69, 95% CI=0.64–0.73) and women (0.70, 95% CI=0.67–0.74) compared to other anthropometric measurements of obesity. Conclusion Visceral fat mass measured using DXA is an indicator of diabetes or prediabetes, due to its ability to differentiate between abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat. PMID:26996568

  11. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  12. Contributions of fat mass and fat distribution to hip bone strength in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hong Da; Li, Guan Wu; Liu, Yong; Qiu, Yu You; Yao, Jian Hua; Tang, Guang Yu

    2015-09-01

    The fat and bone connection is complicated, and the effect of adipose tissue on hip bone strength remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the relative contribution of body fat accumulation and fat distribution to the determination of proximal femur strength in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women. This cross-sectional study enrolled 528 healthy postmenopausal women without medication history or known diseases. Total lean mass (LM), appendicular LM (ALM), percentage of lean mass (PLM), total fat mass (FM), appendicular FM (AFM), percentage of body fat (PBF), android and gynoid fat amount, android-to-gynoid fat ratio (AOI), bone mineral density (BMD), and proximal femur geometry were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hip structure analysis was used to compute some variables as geometric strength-related parameters by analyzing the images of the hip generated from DXA scans. Correlation analyses among anthropometrics, variables of body composition and bone mass, and geometric indices of hip bone strength were performed with stepwise linear regression analyses as well as Pearson's correlation analysis. In univariate analysis, there were significantly inverse correlations between age, years since menopause (YSM), hip BMD, and hip geometric parameters. Bone data were positively related to height, body weight, LM, ALM, FM, AFM, and PBF but negatively related to AOI and amount of android fat (all P < 0.05). AFM and AOI were significantly related to most anthropometric parameters. AFM was positively associated with height, body weight, and BMI. AFM was negatively associated with age and YSM. AOI was negatively associated with height, body weight, and BMI. AOI positively associated with age and YSM. LM, ALM, and FM had a positive relationship with anthropometric parameters (P < 0.05 for all). PLM had a negative relationship with those parameters. The correlation between LM, ALM, FM, PLM, ALM, age, and YSM was not significant. In multivariate

  13. Density of fat-free body mass: relationship with race, age, and level of body fatness.

    PubMed

    Visser, M; Gallagher, D; Deurenberg, P; Wang, J; Pierson, R N; Heymsfield, S B

    1997-05-01

    The two-compartment body composition method assumes that fat-free body mass (FFM) has a density of 1.100 kg/l. This study tested the hypothesis that FFM density is independent of race, age, and body fatness. Subjects were 703 black and white subjects, ages 20-94 yr, with body mass index (BMI) 17-35 kg/m2. Body composition was assessed using a four-compartment model based on tritium dilution volume, body density by underwater weighing, bone mineral by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body weight. No relationship was observed between FFM density and race or BMI. A tendency was observed for a lower FFM density only in older white women. The difference in percent body fat (delta fat) between the four-compartment model and underwater weighing was < 2% for all groups. Race, age, and BMI explained only 2.3 (women) and 1.4% (men) of the variance in delta fat, whereas the total body water fraction of FFM explained 77%. In contrast to current thinking, these results show that the assumption of constant FFM density is valid in black, elderly, and obese subjects.

  14. Association between fat mass index and fat-free mass index values and cardiovascular risk in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Patrícia Morais; da Silva, Fabiana Almeida; Oliveira, Renata Maria Souza; Mendes, Larissa Loures; Pereira, Michele; Cândido, Ana Paula Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe the association between fat mass index and fat-free mass index values and factors associated with cardiovascular risk in adolescents in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. Methods: Cross-sectional study was with 403 adolescents aged 10–14 years, from public and private schools. Anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical measurements were obtained, as well as self-reported time spent performing physical exercises, sedentary activities and sexual maturation stage. Results: Regarding the nutritional status, 66.5% of the adolescents had normal weight, 19.9% were overweight and 10.2% were obese. For both genders, the fat mass index was higher in adolescents who had high serum triglycerides, body mass index and waist circumference. Conclusions: Adolescents who had anthropometric, clinical and biochemical characteristics considered to be at risk for the development of cardiovascular disease had higher values of fat mass index. Different methodologies for the assessment of body composition make health promotion and disease prevention more effective. PMID:26542380

  15. Hadron Masses From Novel Fat-Link Fermion Actions

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Zanotti; S. Bilson-Thompson; F. D. R. Bonnet; P. D. Coddington; D. B. Leinweber; A. G. Williams; J. B. Zhang; W. Melnitchouk; F. X. Lee

    2001-11-01

    The hadron mass spectrum is calculated in lattice QCD using a novel fat-link clover fermion action in which only the irrelevant operators in the fermion action are constructed using smeared links. The simulations are performed on a 16{sup 3} x 32 lattice with a lattice spacing of a=0.125 fm. We compare actions with n=4 and 12 smearing sweeps with a smearing fraction of 0.7. The n=4 Fat-Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) action provides scaling which is superior to mean-field improvement, and offers advantages over nonperturbative 0(a) improvement, including a reduced exceptional configuration problem.

  16. Regular tart cherry intake alters abdominal adiposity, adipose gene transcription, and inflammation in obesity-prone rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Seymour, E M; Lewis, Sarah K; Urcuyo-Llanes, Daniel E; Tanone, Ignasia I; Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2009-10-01

    Obesity, systemic inflammation, and hyperlipidemia are among the components of metabolic syndrome, a spectrum of phenotypes that can precede the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Animal studies show that intake of anthocyanin-rich extracts can affect these phenotypes. Anthocyanins can alter the activity of tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which affect energy substrate metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown if physiologically relevant, anthocyanin-containing whole foods confer similar effects to concentrated, anthocyanin extracts. The effect of anthocyanin-rich tart cherries was tested in the Zucker fatty rat model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. For 90 days, rats were pair-fed a higher fat diet supplemented with either 1% (wt/wt) freeze-dried, whole tart cherry powder or with a calorie- and macronutrient-matched control diet. Tart cherry intake was associated with reduced hyperlipidemia, percentage fat mass, abdominal fat (retroperitoneal) weight, retroperitoneal interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, and plasma IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Tart cherry diet also increased retroperitoneal fat PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma mRNA (P = .12), decreased IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA, and decreased nuclear factor kappaB activity. In conclusion, in at-risk obese rats fed a high fat diet, physiologically relevant tart cherry consumption reduced several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and reduced both systemic and local inflammation. Tart cherries may reduce the degree or trajectory of metabolic syndrome, thereby reducing risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and heart disease. PMID:19857054

  17. Regular tart cherry intake alters abdominal adiposity, adipose gene transcription, and inflammation in obesity-prone rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Seymour, E M; Lewis, Sarah K; Urcuyo-Llanes, Daniel E; Tanone, Ignasia I; Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2009-10-01

    Obesity, systemic inflammation, and hyperlipidemia are among the components of metabolic syndrome, a spectrum of phenotypes that can precede the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Animal studies show that intake of anthocyanin-rich extracts can affect these phenotypes. Anthocyanins can alter the activity of tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which affect energy substrate metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown if physiologically relevant, anthocyanin-containing whole foods confer similar effects to concentrated, anthocyanin extracts. The effect of anthocyanin-rich tart cherries was tested in the Zucker fatty rat model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. For 90 days, rats were pair-fed a higher fat diet supplemented with either 1% (wt/wt) freeze-dried, whole tart cherry powder or with a calorie- and macronutrient-matched control diet. Tart cherry intake was associated with reduced hyperlipidemia, percentage fat mass, abdominal fat (retroperitoneal) weight, retroperitoneal interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, and plasma IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Tart cherry diet also increased retroperitoneal fat PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma mRNA (P = .12), decreased IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA, and decreased nuclear factor kappaB activity. In conclusion, in at-risk obese rats fed a high fat diet, physiologically relevant tart cherry consumption reduced several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and reduced both systemic and local inflammation. Tart cherries may reduce the degree or trajectory of metabolic syndrome, thereby reducing risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

  18. Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Leppänen, Marja H; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height² (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height² (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 ± 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized β = -0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (β = -0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (β = -0.21, p < 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (β = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (β = 0.39, p < 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) and motor fitness (β = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health. PMID:27483320

  19. Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Leppänen, Marja H; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Löf, Marie

    2016-07-30

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height² (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height² (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 ± 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized β = -0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (β = -0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (β = -0.21, p < 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (β = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (β = 0.39, p < 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) and motor fitness (β = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health.

  20. Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Leppänen, Marja H.; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Ortega, Francisco B.; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height2 (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height2 (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 ± 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized β = −0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (β = −0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (β = −0.21, p < 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (β = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (β = 0.39, p < 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) and motor fitness (β = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health. PMID:27483320

  1. Relation of fat-mass and obesity-associated gene polymorphism to fat mass content and body mass index in obese children.

    PubMed

    Pyrzak, Beata; Wisniewska, Alicja; Majcher, Anna; Tysarowski, Andrzej; Demkow, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Fat mass content, fat distribution, and fat-mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have been reported among a broad spectrum of genetic variation connected with body weight. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the T/A rs9939609 polymorphism of the FTO gene may influence obesity and metabolic indices in children. A 160 children were examined (136 obese and 24 non-obese). The anthropometric measurements and calculations included: height, weight, waist and hip circumference, sum of the thickness of 3 and 10 skin folds, % of fat content, % FAT- BIA , % LBM-BIA. BMI, SDS of BMI, WHR, and WHtR. Fasting plasma total cholesterol (TC), HDL and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and HOMA-IR were analyzed and the blood pressure were measured. The rs9939609 polymorphism of FTO gene was genotyped by allele-specific real-time polymerase chain- reaction (RT-PCR). We found that the mean concentrations of TC, TG, LDLC, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher, and HDL was lower in the obese than in non-obese children. The presence of TT, but not AA alleles, related to the percentage of fat content, BMI, and z-score of BMI. None of the other anthropometric indices did differ between the children with gene polymorphism and wild homozygous. In conclusion, rs9939609 polymorphism in the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene is associated with BMI and the percent of fat content in children.

  2. Abdominal body composition differences in NFL football players.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Weir, Nate L; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weston, Todd D; Dengel, Donald R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine visceral fat mass as well as other measures abdominal body composition in National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the season. Three hundred and seventy NFL football players were measured before the start of the season using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Regional fat and lean mass was measured for each player. Players were categorized into 3 groups based on positions that mirror each other: linemen; linebackers/tight ends/running backs and wide receivers/defensive backs. Significant differences were observed between the position groups for both lean and fat regional measurements. However, the magnitude of difference was much greater for fat measures than lean measures. Additionally, a threshold was observed (∼114 kg) at which there is a greater increase in fat accumulation than lean mass accumulation. The increase in fat accumulation is distributed to the abdominal region where thresholds were observed for subcutaneous abdominal fat accumulation (12.1% body fat) and visceral abdominal fat accumulation (20.1% body fat), which likely explains the regional fat differences between groups. The results of this study suggest that as players get larger, there is more total fat than total lean mass accumulation and more fat is distributed to the abdominal region. This is of importance as increased fat mass may be detrimental to performance at certain positions. The thresholds observed for increased abdominal fat accumulation should be monitored closely given recent research observed that abdominal obesity predicts lower extremity injury risk and visceral adipose tissue's established association with cardiometabolic risk.

  3. Effects of GH and/or sex steroid administration on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat in healthy aged women and men.

    PubMed

    Münzer, T; Harman, S M; Hees, P; Shapiro, E; Christmas, C; Bellantoni, M F; Stevens, T E; O'Connor, K G; Pabst, K M; St Clair, C; Sorkin, J D; Blackman, M R

    2001-08-01

    Aging is associated with reduced GH, IGF-I, and sex steroid axis activity and with increased abdominal fat. We employed a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, noncross-over design to study the effects of 6 months of administration of GH alone (20 microg/kg BW), sex hormone alone (hormone replacement therapy in women, testosterone enanthate in men), or GH + sex hormone on total abdominal area, abdominal sc fat, and visceral fat in 110 healthy women (n = 46) and men (n = 64), 65-88 yr old (mean, 72 yr). GH administration increased IGF-I levels in women (P = 0.05) and men (P = 0.0001), with the increment in IGF-I levels being higher in men (P = 0.05). Sex steroid administration increased levels of estrogen and testosterone in women and men, respectively (P = 0.05). In women, neither GH, hormone replacement therapy, nor GH + hormone replacement therapy altered total abdominal area, sc fat, or visceral fat significantly. In contrast, in men, administration of GH and GH + testosterone enanthate decreased total abdominal area by 3.9% and 3.8%, respectively, within group and vs. placebo (P = 0.05). Within-group comparisons revealed that sc fat decreased by 10% (P = 0.01) after GH, and by 14% (P = 0.0005) after GH + testosterone enanthate. Compared with placebo, sc fat decreased by 14% (P = 0.05) after GH, by 7% (P = 0.05) after testosterone enanthate, and by 16% (P = 0.0005) after GH + testosterone enanthate. Compared with placebo, visceral fat did not decrease significantly after administration of GH, testosterone enanthate, or GH + testosterone enanthate. These data suggest that in healthy older individuals, GH and/or sex hormone administration elicits a sexually dimorphic response on sc abdominal fat. The generally proportionate reductions we observed in sc and visceral fat, after 6 months of GH administration in healthy aged men, contrast with the disproportionate reduction of visceral fat reported after a similar period of GH treatment of nonelderly GH

  4. Tamoxifen reduces fat mass by boosting reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Zou, P; Zheng, L; Linarelli, L E; Amarell, S; Passaro, A; Liu, D; Cheng, Z

    2015-01-01

    As the pandemic of obesity is growing, a variety of animal models have been generated to study the mechanisms underlying the increased adiposity and development of metabolic disorders. Tamoxifen (Tam) is widely used to activate Cre recombinase that spatiotemporally controls target gene expression and regulates adiposity in laboratory animals. However, a critical question remains as to whether Tam itself affects adiposity and possibly confounds the functional study of target genes in adipose tissue. Here we administered Tam to Cre-absent forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) floxed mice (f-FoxO1) and insulin receptor substrate Irs1/Irs2 double floxed mice (df-Irs) and found that Tam induced approximately 30% reduction (P<0.05) in fat mass with insignificant change in body weight. Mechanistically, Tam promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, apoptosis and autophagy, which was associated with downregulation of adipogenic regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes. However, normalization of ROS potently suppressed Tam-induced apoptosis, autophagy and adipocyte dedifferentiation, suggesting that ROS may account, at least in part, for the changes. Importantly, Tam-induced ROS production and fat mass reduction lasted for 4-5 weeks in the f-FoxO1 and df-Irs mice. Our data suggest that Tam reduces fat mass via boosting ROS, thus making a recovery period crucial for posttreatment study. PMID:25569103

  5. Exercise associated hormonal signals as powerful determinants of an effective fat mass loss.

    PubMed

    Bajer, B; Vlcek, M; Galusova, A; Imrich, R; Penesova, A

    2015-07-01

    Obesity management for achieving an effective weight loss includes dietary modification and exercise [resistance (strength), endurance (cardiovascular) or intervals training (high-intensity intermittent exercise)]. Regular exercise acutely increases fat oxidation, which induces loss of fat mass and increases energy expenditure. Moreover, it has a positive effect on the physical (improved insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, etc.) and mental health (mood, cognition, memory, sleep, etc.). Endocrine responses to muscle actions are affected by many factors, including the exercise muscle groups (lower and upper body), load/volume, time-under tension, and rest-period intervals between sets, training status, gender, and age. The aim of this review is to summarize, evaluate, and clarify the literature data focusing on the endocrine responses to different types of exercise, including the frequency, intensity, and type of movement with regard to the fat loss strategies. Many studies have investigated anabolic [growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), testosterone] and gluco- and appetite- regulatory (insulin, cortisol, ghrelin) hormone responses and adaptations of skeletal muscles to exercise. Muscle tissue is a critical endocrine organ, playing important role in the regulation of several physiological and metabolic events. Moreover, we are also describing the response of some other substances to exercise, such as myokines [irisin, apelin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), myostatin, and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)]. It is proposed that reducing intra-abdominal fat mass and increasing cardiorespiratory fitness through improving nutritional quality, reducing sedentary behavior, and increase the participation in physical activity/exercise, might be associated with clinical benefits, sometimes even in the absence of weight loss.

  6. Optimization of abdominal fat quantification on CT imaging through use of standardized anatomic space: A novel approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The quantification of body fat plays an important role in the study of numerous diseases. It is common current practice to use the fat area at a single abdominal computed tomography (CT) slice as a marker of the body fat content in studying various disease processes. This paper sets out to answer three questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. At what single anatomic slice location do the areas of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) estimated from the slice correlate maximally with the corresponding fat volume measures? How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? Are there combinations of multiple slices (not necessarily contiguous) whose area sum correlates better with volume than does single slice area with volume? Methods: The authors propose a novel strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. The authors then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. To address the third issue, the authors carry out similar correlation studies by utilizing two and three slices for calculating area sum. Results: Based on 50 abdominal CT data sets, the proposed mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized currently for single slice area estimation as a marker. Conclusions: The maximum area-to-volume correlation achieved is quite high, suggesting that it may be reasonable to estimate body fat by measuring the area of fat from a single anatomic slice at the site of maximum correlation and use this as a marker. The site of maximum correlation is not at L4-L5 as commonly assumed

  7. Noncontrast computed tomography can predict the outcome of shockwave lithotripsy via accurate stone measurement and abdominal fat distribution determination.

    PubMed

    Geng, Jiun-Hung; Tu, Hung-Pin; Shih, Paul Ming-Chen; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Jang, Mei-Yu; Wu, Wen-Jen; Li, Ching-Chia; Chou, Yii-Her; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease of the urinary system. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) has become one of the standard treatments for renal and ureteral stones; however, the success rates range widely and failure of stone disintegration may cause additional outlay, alternative procedures, and even complications. We used the data available from noncontrast abdominal computed tomography (NCCT) to evaluate the impact of stone parameters and abdominal fat distribution on calculus-free rates following SWL. We retrospectively reviewed 328 patients who had urinary stones and had undergone SWL from August 2012 to August 2013. All of them received pre-SWL NCCT; 1 month after SWL, radiography was arranged to evaluate the condition of the fragments. These patients were classified into stone-free group and residual stone group. Unenhanced computed tomography variables, including stone attenuation, abdominal fat area, and skin-to-stone distance (SSD) were analyzed. In all, 197 (60%) were classified as stone-free and 132 (40%) as having residual stone. The mean ages were 49.35 ± 13.22 years and 55.32 ± 13.52 years, respectively. On univariate analysis, age, stone size, stone surface area, stone attenuation, SSD, total fat area (TFA), abdominal circumference, serum creatinine, and the severity of hydronephrosis revealed statistical significance between these two groups. From multivariate logistic regression analysis, the independent parameters impacting SWL outcomes were stone size, stone attenuation, TFA, and serum creatinine. [Adjusted odds ratios and (95% confidence intervals): 9.49 (3.72-24.20), 2.25 (1.22-4.14), 2.20 (1.10-4.40), and 2.89 (1.35-6.21) respectively, all p < 0.05]. In the present study, stone size, stone attenuation, TFA and serum creatinine were four independent predictors for stone-free rates after SWL. These findings suggest that pretreatment NCCT may predict the outcomes after SWL. Consequently, we can use these predictors for selecting

  8. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS. PMID:23411176

  9. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS.

  10. DXA estimates of fat in abdominal, trunk and hip regions varies by ethnicity in men

    PubMed Central

    Stults-Kolehmainen, M A; Stanforth, P R; Bartholomew, J B; Lu, T; Abolt, C J; Sinha, R

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether the quantity of fat is different across the central (that is, android, trunk) and peripheral (that is, arm, leg and gynoid) regions among young African-American (AA), Asian (AS), Hispanic (HI) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) men. Subjects and Methods: A cohort of 852 men (18–30 years; mean total body fat percent (TBF%)=18.8±7.9, range=3.7–45.4) were assessed for body composition in five body regions via dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results: HI men (21.8±8.3) had higher TBF% than AA (17.0±10.0), NHW (17.9±7.2) and AS (18.9±8.0) groups (P-values <0.0001). AS had a lower BMI (23.9±3.4) than all other groups, and NHW (24.7±3.2) had a lower BMI than HI (25.7±3.9) and AA (26.5±4.7; P-values<0.0001). A linear mixed model (LMM) revealed a significant ethnicity by region fat% interaction (P<0.0001). HI men had a greater fat% than NHW for every region (adjusted means (%); android: 29.6 vs 23.3; arm: 13.3 vs 10.6; gynoid: 27.2 vs 23.8; leg: 21.2 vs 18.3; trunk: 25.5 vs 20.6) and a greater fat% than AA for every region except the arm. In addition, in the android and trunk regions, HI had a greater fat% than AS, and AS had a higher fat% than AA. Finally, the android fat% for AS was higher than that of NHW. When comparing the region fat% within ethnicities, the android region was greater than the gynoid region for AS and HI, but did not differ for AA and NHW, and the arm region had the least fat% in all ethnicities. Conclusions: Fat deposition and body fat patterning varies by ethnicity. PMID:23507968

  11. Body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile in response to a novel hydroxycitric acid-based dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sashwati; Rink, Cameron; Khanna, Savita; Phillips, Christina; Bagchi, Debasis; Bagchi, Manashi; Sen, Chandan K

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is a global public health problem, with about 315 million people worldwide estimated to fall into the WHO-defined obesity categories. Traditional herbal medicines may have some potential in managing obesity. Botanical dietary supplements often contain complex mixtures of phytochemicals that have additive or synergistic interactions. The dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, also known as Malabar tamarind, is a unique source of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), which exhibits a distinct sour taste and has been safely used for centuries in Southeastern Asia to make meals more filling. Recently it has been demonstrated that HCA-SX or Super Citrimax, a novel derivative of HCA, is safe when taken orally and that HCA-SX is bioavailable in the human plasma as studied by GC-MS. Although HCA-SX has been observed to be conditionally effective in weight management in experimental animals as well as in humans, its mechanism of action remains to be understood. We sought to determine the effects of low-dose oral HCA-SX on the body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. We observed that at doses relevant for human consumption dietary HCA-SX significantly contained body weight growth. This response was associated with lowered abdominal fat leptin expression while plasma leptin levels remained unaffected. Repeated high-density microarray analysis of 9960 genes and ESTs present in the fat tissue identified a small set (approximately 1% of all genes screened) of specific genes sensitive to dietary HCA-SX. Other genes, including vital genes transcribing for mitochondrial/nuclear proteins and which are necessary for fundamental support of the tissue, were not affected by HCA-SX. Under the current experimental conditions, HCA-SX proved to be effective in restricting body weight gain in adult rats. Functional characterization of HCA-SX-sensitive genes revealed that upregulation of genes encoding serotonin receptors represent a distinct effect of

  12. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  13. Dietary long-chain inulin reduces abdominal fat but has no effect on bone density in growing female rats.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Jennifer A; Ryz, Natasha R; Taylor, Carla G; Weiler, Hope A

    2008-08-01

    New strategies to improve Ca absorption and bone health are needed to address the current state of osteoporosis prevention and management. Inulin-type fructans have shown great promise as a dietary intervention strategy, but have not yet been tested in a young female model. Our objective was to investigate the effect of long chain (LC) inulin on bone mineralization and density in growing, female rats, as well as the quality of growth. Weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to inulin or cellulose treatments for either 4 or 8 weeks. Growth was measured weekly and quality of growth assessed using fat pad weights and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Whole body (WB) and selected regions were analysed for bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition by DXA. Serum markers of bone turnover were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Ca and P concentrations were determined in excised femurs by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Feeding inulin resulted in 4 % higher femoral weight (adjusted for body weight) and 6 % less feed intake. Inulin did not affect WB or regional BMD, but was associated with a 28 % lower parametrial fat pad mass, 21 % less WB fat mass and 5 % less WB mass. In summary, LC-inulin lowered body fat mass, without consequence to bone density in growing female rats.

  14. Body fat and fat-free mass inter-relationships: Forbes's theory revisited.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kevin D

    2007-06-01

    A theoretical equation was developed by Forbes that quantifies the fat-free proportion of a weight change as a function of the initial body fat. However, Forbes's equation was strictly valid only for infinitesimal weight changes. Here, I extended Forbes's equation to account for the magnitude and direction of macroscopic body weight changes. The new equation was also re-expressed in terms of an alternative representation of body composition change defined by an energy partitioning parameter called the P-ratio. The predictions of the resulting equations compared favourably with data from human underfeeding and overfeeding experiments and accounted for previously unexplained trends in the data. The magnitude of the body weight change had a relatively weak effect on the predicted body composition changes and the results were very similar to Forbes's original equation for modest weight changes. However, for large weight changes, such as the massive weight losses found in patients following bariatric surgery, Forbes's original equation consistently underestimated the fat-free mass loss, as expected. The new equation that accounts for the magnitude of the weight loss provides better predictions of body composition changes in such patients.

  15. Spent turmeric reduces fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kinoshita, Mikio; Oh, Chan-Ho; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-04-01

    Indigestible carbohydrates may improve obesity. Spent turmeric contains high levels of dietary fibre and resistant starch (RS), which have fermentation potential in vitro. We hypothesised that indigestible carbohydrates in spent turmeric might prevent obesity development. In the first study, rats were administered 10% turmeric powder (TP) or spent turmeric powder (STP) in a high-fat (HF) diet for 28 d. In the second study, rats were fed 10% STP in a HF diet with or without antibiotics for 15 d. In the third study, rats were treated with a STP-containing suspension. In study 1, the TP and STP diet increased the caecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content compared to that of a control diet. The lower energy intake in the TP and STP group was strongly related to the decrease in visceral fat weight. In study 2, after caecal fermentation suppression with antibiotics, STP treatment decreased the visceral fat mass. In study 3, the plasma glucose levels and incremental area under the curve (AUC) after ingestion of a STP-containing suspension were lower than those after ingestion of suspension alone. These findings suggest the reduction of carbohydrate absorption during the gastrointestinal passage after TP and STP treatment. Our data indicate that the reduced obesity development in rats fed a HF diet may be attributed to the low metabolisable energy density of carbohydrates in the spent turmeric, independent of SCFA-mediated factors.

  16. Fat and Lean Masses in Youths with Down Syndrome: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Ara, Ignacio; Moreno, Luis A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Casajus, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at comparing fat and lean masses between children and adolescents with and without Down syndrome (DS) and evaluating the presence of sexual dimorphism. Total and regional fat and lean masses were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the percentage of body fat (%BF) by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP)…

  17. Preventive effect of a melon extract rich in superoxide scavenging activity on abdominal and liver fat and adipokine imbalance in high-fat-fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Décordé, Kelly; Agne, Anta; Lacan, Dominique; Ramos, Jeanne; Fouret, Gilles; Ventura, Emilie; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2009-07-22

    Studies showed that dietary antioxidants could be a therapy against obesity that is associated with a state of oxidative stress. Thus, this paper investigates whether a dietary ingredient, a melon juice extract rich in superoxide dismutase, would prevent the development of such obesity in hamsters. Five groups received a standard diet or a high-fat diet (HF) plus a daily gavage with water (control) or extract at 0.7, 2.8, or 5.6 mg/day. After 84 days, the higher dose lowered triglyceridemia (68%), production of liver superoxide anion (12%), mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity (40%), lipid and protein oxidation products (35 and 35%, respectively), and leptinemia (99%) and increased adiponectinemia (29%), leading to a concomitant reduction in insulinemia (39%), insulin resistance (41%), and abdominal lipids (25%). The extract triggered a remarkable decrease of liver lipids (73%) and fully prevented the steatohepatitis induced by the HF diet. Chronic consumption of this melon extract may represent a new alternative to reduce obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

  18. Higher muscle mass but lower gynoid fat mass in athletes using anabolic androgenic steroids.

    PubMed

    Nordström, Anna; Högström, Gabriel; Eriksson, Anders; Bonnerud, Patrik; Tegner, Yelverton; Malm, Christer

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and body constitution. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD, g·cm(-2)) of the total body, arms, and legs. Total gynoid and android fat mass (grams) and total lean mass (grams) were measured in 10 strength trained athletes (41.4 ± 7.9 years) who had used AASs for 5-15 years (Doped) and 7 strength trained athletes (29.4 ± 6.2 years) who had never used AASs (Clean). Seventeen sedentary men (30.3 ± 2.1 years) served as Controls. Doped athletes had significantly more lean body mass (85.5 ± 3.8 vs. 75.3 ± 2.5 vs. 60.7 ± 1.9, p < 0.001) and a greater index of fat-free/fat mass (5.8 vs. 2.6 vs. 2.5, p < 0.001) compared with Clean athletes and Controls. Doped athletes also had significantly less gynoid fat mass compared with that of Clean athletes (2.8 ± 0.4 vs. 4.8 ± 0.2 kg, p = 0.02). There were no differences in BMD between the athletes (p = 0.39-0.98), but both groups had significantly higher BMDs at all sites compared with that of Controls (p = 0.01 to <0.001). Thus, long-term AAS use seems to alter body constitution, favoring higher muscle mass and reduced gynoid fat mass without affecting BMD.

  19. Abdominal Lipomatosis with Secondary Self-Strangulation of Masses in an Adult Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque. PMID:25402181

  20. Abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in an adult rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-10-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque.

  1. Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercised-induced weight loss. Methods: Participants (N=132) were randomly assigned to receive a 500 mL beverage containing approximately 625 mg of...

  2. Body fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes in pregnant women are associated with gestational insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, H; Wetterling, L; Bosaeus, M; Odén, B; Odén, A; Jennische, E; Edén, S; Holmäng, A; Lönn, M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Pregnancy is accompanied by fat gain and insulin resistance. Changes in adipose tissue morphology and function during pregnancy and factors contributing to gestational insulin resistance are incompletely known. We sought to characterize adipose tissue in trimesters 1 and 3 (T1/T3) in normal weight (NW) and obese pregnant women, and identify adipose tissue-related factors associated with gestational insulin resistance. Subjects/Methods: Twenty-two NW and 11 obese women were recruited early in pregnancy for the Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study. Examinations and sampling of blood and abdominal adipose tissue were performed longitudinally in T1/T3 to determine fat mass (air-displacement plethysmography); insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR); size, number and lipolytic activity of adipocytes; and adipokine release and density of immune cells and blood vessels in adipose tissue. Results: Fat mass and HOMA-IR increased similarly between T1 and T3 in the groups; all remained normoglycemic. Adipocyte size increased in NW women. Adipocyte number was not influenced, but proportions of small and large adipocytes changed oppositely in the groups. Lipolytic activity and circulating adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein increased in both groups. Adiponectin release was reduced in NW women. Fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes were most strongly associated with T3 HOMA-IR by multivariable linear regression (R2=0.751, P<0.001). Conclusions: During pregnancy, adipose tissue morphology and function change comprehensively. NW women accumulated fat in existing adipocytes, accompanied by reduced adiponectin release. In comparison with the NW group, obese women had signs of adipocyte recruitment and maintained adiponectin levels. Body fat and large adipocytes may contribute significantly to gestational insulin resistance. PMID:26563815

  3. [A case of tuberculous lymphadenitis found as an abdominal mass penetrating the duodenum].

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Kayoko; Hozawa, Shigenari; Kojima, Seiichirou; Kobayashi, Keinji; Watanabe, Kenichi; Mine, Tetsuya; Kijima, Hiroshi; Imai, Yutaka; Miyachi, Hayato

    2006-08-01

    A 42-year-old woman who complained of epigastralgia was referred to our hospital because of an abdominal mass found by ultrasonography. CT and MRI scans revealed that the abdominal mass, 4 cm in diameter, located on the left side of the right kidney. Gastroduodenoscopy detected a deep ulcerative lesion covered with a yellowish coat in the second portion of duodenum. A sonolucent area at the bottom of the ulcerative lesion seemed to expand to the abdominal mass on ultrasonic endoscopy. Tuberculosis was one possible differential diagnosis. Pathological examination including Ziehl-Neelsen staining using biopsy specimens taken from the bottom of the ulcerative lesion did not show tuberculosis infection. However, polymerase chain reaction analysis using the biopsy specimens revealed that gene expression of tuberculosis was positive. We determined that tuberculous lymphadenitis penetrated the duodenum forming an ulcerative lesion in the duodenum. The administration of anti-tubercular medicine for 6 months male the abdominal mass disappeared and the duodenal ulcerative lesion formed an ulcer scar. We report here a case of tuberculous lymphadenitis penetrating the duodenum which was successfully treated by conservative therapy without surgical treatment.

  4. A genome-wide scan of selective sweeps in two broiler chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic regions controlling abdominal fatness (AF) were studied in the Northeast Agricultural University broiler line divergently selected for AF. In this study, the chicken 60KSNP chip and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) test were used to detect genome-wide signatures of AF. Results A total of 5357 and 5593 core regions were detected in the lean and fat lines, and 51 and 57 reached a significant level (P<0.01), respectively. A number of genes in the significant core regions, including RB1, BBS7, MAOA, MAOB, EHBP1, LRP2BP, LRP1B, MYO7A, MYO9A and PRPSAP1, were detected. These genes may be important for AF deposition in chickens. Conclusions We provide a genome-wide map of selection signatures in the chicken genome, and make a contribution to the better understanding the mechanisms of selection for AF content in chickens. The selection for low AF in commercial breeding using this information will accelerate the breeding progress. PMID:23241142

  5. Predictors of fat mass changes in response to aerobic exercise training in women.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Brandon J; Bhammar, Dharini M; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Ryan, Dana M; Ryder, Justin R; Sussman, Elizabeth J; Bertmann, Farryl M W; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2015-02-01

    Aerobic exercise training in women typically results in minimal fat loss, with considerable individual variability. We hypothesized that women with higher baseline body fat would lose more body fat in response to exercise training and that early fat loss would predict final fat loss. Eighty-one sedentary premenopausal women (age: 30.7 ± 7.8 years; height: 164.5 ± 7.4 cm; weight: 68.2 ± 16.4 kg; fat percent: 38.1 ± 8.8) underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry before and after 12 weeks of supervised treadmill walking 3 days per week for 30 minutes at 70% of (Equation is included in full-text article.). Overall, women did not lose body weight or fat mass. However, considerable individual variability was observed for changes in body weight (-11.7 to +4.8 kg) and fat mass (-11.8 to +3.7 kg). Fifty-five women were classified as compensators and, as a group, gained fat mass (25.6 ± 11.1 kg to 26.1 ± 11.3 kg; p < 0.001). The strongest correlates of change in body fat at 12 weeks were change in body weight (r = 0.52) and fat mass (r = 0.48) at 4 weeks. Stepwise regression analysis that included change in body weight and body fat at 4 weeks and submaximal exercise energy expenditure yielded a prediction model that explained 37% of the variance in fat mass change (R = 0.37, p < 0.001). Change in body weight and fat mass at 4 weeks were moderate predictors of fat loss and may potentially be useful for identification of individuals who achieve less than expected weight loss or experience unintended fat gain in response to exercise training.

  6. Measurements of body fat distribution: assessment of collinearity with body mass, adiposity and height in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and height, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. METHODS : A controlled cross-sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 with normal weight, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 with normal weight and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central (CS) and peripheral skinfolds (PS). The BF% was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. RESULTS : The increase in central fat, represented by WC, UC, WHtR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase in peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh circumference were proportional to the increase in BMI and BF%. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The height showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being fair or weak with waist measurements. CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, as it showed the highest capacity to predict adiposity in each group, and also showed fair or weak correlation with height. PMID:25623729

  7. The role of fat mass index in determining obesity

    PubMed Central

    Peltz, Gerson; Aguirre, Maria Teresa; Sanderson, Maureen; Fadden, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF), and fat mass index (FMI) and to investigate the accuracy of FMI as a convenient tool for assessing obesity. Design Anthropometric measurements and bioelectrical impedance analyses were performed on 538 Mexican Americans (373 women and 165 men). Correlations between BMI and PBF and between FMI and PBF were investigated. The percentage of persons misclassified as obese using different classifications was calculated. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to generate predictive models of FMI for males and females separately. Results BMI and PBF were correlated in men (rho = 0.877; p < 0.0001) and women (rho = 0.966; p < 0.0001); however, 20% and 67.2% of the men and 9.2% and 84.2% of women, classified as normal weight and overweight by BMI, respectively, were diagnosed as obese by PBF. FMI and PBF were also correlated in men (rho = 0.975; p < 0.0001) and women (rho = 0.992; p < 0.0001). Four percent of the men classified as normal weight and 65.5% classified as overweight by BMI were obese by FMI, while 71.3% of women classified as overweight by BMI were obese by FMI. Misclassification of obesity between FMI and PBF categories was observed in 5.4% of men and 7.8% and women. Conclusions The discrepancy observed between BMI and PBF reflects a limitation of BMI. Conversely, FMI accurately assessed obesity in our study of Mexican Americans, but further studies are necessary to confirm our findings in different ethnic groups. PMID:20737611

  8. Body fat mass, body fat distribution, and pubertal development: a longitudinal study of physical and hormonal sexual maturation of girls.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, C M; Thijssen, J H; Bruning, P F; Van den Brande, J L; Zonderland, M L; Erich, W B

    1992-08-01

    The rate at which girls progress through the stages of puberty in relation to body fat mass and body fat distribution and its relation to their hormonal profiles was studied. Sixty-eight schoolgirls participated in a longitudinal study during 3 yr. The girls were divided into subgroups with increasing skinfold thicknesses and waist-hip ratio. They were also grouped depending on Tanner's breast development classification (M2 and M3). The age at M2 was only marginally correlated with the menarcheal age, but the age at M2 and the time interval from that age to menarche was negatively correlated. Age at the onset of puberty was not related to body fat mass or distribution. The rate of pubertal development after pubertal stage M3 was negatively related to the body fat mass. Age at M2 was only correlated with estrone (E1), while the rate of pubertal development was associated with higher FSH, E1, estradiol (E2), the fraction of E2 that was not bound to sex-hormone-binding globulin (non-sex-hormone-binding globulin bound E2) and androstenedione plasma levels at the onset of puberty. Body fat distribution, rather than body fat mass was related to the total and the non-sex-hormone-binding globulin bound plasma levels of E2 and testosterone at the onset of puberty. Changes in body fat distribution in early female puberty were chiefly related to the waist circumferences. We found no evidence that body fat mass or body fat distribution triggers the onset of puberty. Body fat distribution was related to early pubertal endocrine activity. Body fat mass was negatively related to the rate of pubertal development toward menarche, but no clear indications for an endocrine-related process is found. We conclude that onset of puberty and menarche are not parallel pubertal events, and that early pubertal plasma E1, E2 and androstenedione levels are predictors for the rate of pubertal development toward menarche. We propose that the control of the onset of puberty and maturation of the

  9. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities.

  10. [Systolic pressure, abdominal obesity and body fat, metabolic syndrome predictors in Spanish preschoolers].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Hervás, Ana Isabel; Rizo Baeza, María Mercedes; Martínez Amorós, Natalia; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2015-05-01

    Se plantea como objetivo determinar la presencia de predictores de síndrome metabólico en niños de 2 a 7 años en relación a su estado nutricional. Método: Estudio descriptivo con análisis cuantitativo en 260 niños de 2-7 años (135 niñas y 125 niños), 66% del total censados. Se midieron parámetros antropométricos y tensión arterial y se calcularon IMC, grasa corporal según Hoffman e índice cintura-talla (ICT). Se realizaron subgrupos con Z-Score del IMC según edad y sexo (bajo peso, normopeso, sobrepeso y obesidad), según grasa corporal (normal y con exceso), ICT (normal y obesidad abdominal) y tensión sistólica (normotensos e hipertensos según edad y sexo). Se utilizó como variable principal la clasificación según Z-Score del IMC. Resultados: La prevalencia combinada de sobrepeso y obesidad fue del 27%, sin diferencias por sexo. El estado nutricional relacionó significativamente con tensión arterial, grasa corporal e índice cintura-talla. Mayor porcentaje de obesos con tensión arterial sistólica alta que de normonutridos (OR=4.1; IC95% 1.7-9.8; p.

  11. Intra-abdominal mass associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a new manifestation of bacillary angiomatosis.

    PubMed

    Koehler, J E; Cederberg, L

    1995-12-01

    Bacillary angiomatosis is a recently described vascular proliferative lesion that occurs most commonly in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Cutaneous lesions are the most frequently described manifestations of bacillary angiomatosis. However, as culture techniques and disease recognition have improved, additional manifestations have been identified in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, including bacillary peliosis hepatis and isolated bacteremia. Two species of the genus Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea), Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana, have been cultured from the cutaneous lesions of bacillary angiomatosis. A new manifestation of Bartonella infection is reported: an intra-abdominal mass presenting with massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection. B. quintana was cultured from a percutaneous needle-biopsy specimen obtained from the highly vascularized intra-abdominal mass. The bacillary angiomatosis lesion resolved after 3 months of tetracycline treatment. Recognition of Bartonella infection is extremely important because it is readily treatable with antibiotic therapy.

  12. Hydropic leiomyoma of the uterus presenting as a giant abdominal mass.

    PubMed

    Horta, Mariana; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Oliveira, Rita; Magro, Paula

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of a 35-year-old woman with a pedunculated uterine leiomyoma with diffuse hydropic degeneration presenting as a giant abdominal mass. The patient was admitted in the emergency department because of diffuse abdominal bloating and discomfort. Ultrasonography (US) showed a heterogeneous abdominopelvic mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to further characterise and revealed a myometrial pedunculated tumour. Despite its marked T2-signal heterogeneity and volume, there were no other suspicious findings to suggest a malignant nature; therefore, fertility-sparing myomectomy was performed. Leiomyomas frequently undergo degenerative changes altering their imaging appearances. Leiomyomas with uncommon degenerative changes may be difficult to differentiate from malignant myometrial tumours, based solely on imaging. To the best of our knowledge, a diffuse hydropic degeneration imaging appearance has only been described twice in the literature. We describe the imaging appearance of this rare form of leiomyoma drawing attention to its differential diagnosis.

  13. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI. PMID:26718229

  14. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI.

  15. Ramadan Fasting Decreases Body Fat but Not Protein Mass

    PubMed Central

    Fahrial Syam, Ari; Suryani Sobur, Cecep; Abdullah, Murdani; Makmun, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many studies have shown various results regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy individuals. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy Indonesian medical staff. Objectives: In this study, we examined the influence of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy medical staff. Patients and Methods: The longitudinal study was performed during and after Ramadan fasting in 2013 (August to October). Fourty-three medical staff members (physicians, nurses and nutritionists) at the Internal Medicine Ward of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital were measured to compare their calorie intake, weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body composition, including body fat, protein, minerals and water, on the first and 28th days of Ramadan and also 4-5 weeks after Ramadan fasting. Measurements were obtained for all 43 subjects on the 28th day of Ramadan, but they were obtained for only 25 subjects 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan. Results: By the 28th day of Ramadan, it was found that the body weight, BMI, body fat, water and mineral measures had decreased significantly (-0.874 ± 0.859 kg, P < 0.001; -0.36 ± 0.371 kg/m2, P < 0.001; -0.484 ± 0.597 kg, P < 0.001; -0.293 ± 0.486 kg, P = 0.001; -0.054 ± 0.059 kg, P < 0.001, respectively). Protein body mass and calorie intake did not significantly change (-0.049 ± 0.170 kg, P = 0.561; 12.94 ± 760.608 Kcal, P = 0.082 respectively). By 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan, body weight and composition had returned to the same levels as on the first day of Ramadan. Conclusions: Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss even it was only a temporary effect, as the weight was quickly regained within one month after fasting. The catabolism catabolic state, which is related to protein loss, was not triggered during Ramadan fasting. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of weight loss during Ramadan fasting

  16. Effects of Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-I/IGF-Binding Protein-3 Treatment on Glucose Metabolism and Fat Distribution in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients with Abdominal Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Madhu N.; Mulligan, Kathleen; Tai, Viva; Wen, Michael J.; Dyachenko, Artem; Weinberg, Melissa; Li, Xiaojuan; Lang, Thomas; Grunfeld, Carl; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Schambelan, Morris

    2010-01-01

    Context: HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for excess visceral adiposity and insulin resistance. Treatment with GH decreases visceral adiposity but worsens glucose metabolism. IGF-I, which mediates many of the effects of GH, improves insulin sensitivity in HIV-negative individuals. Objective: Our objective was to determine whether IGF-I, complexed to its major binding protein, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), improves glucose metabolism and alters body fat distribution in HIV-infected patients with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. Methods: We conducted a pilot, open-label study in 13 HIV-infected men with excess abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance to assess the effect of 3 months of treatment with IGF-I/IGFBP-3 on glucose metabolism and fat distribution. Glucose metabolism was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Endogenous glucose production (EGP), gluconeogenesis, whole-body lipolysis, and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were measured with stable isotope infusions. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scan. Results: Glucose tolerance improved and insulin-mediated glucose uptake increased significantly during treatment. EGP increased under fasting conditions, and suppression of EGP by insulin was blunted. Fasting triglycerides decreased significantly in association with a decrease in hepatic DNL. Lean body mass increased and total body fat decreased, whereas visceral adipose tissue did not change. Conclusions: Treatment with IGF-I/IGFBP-3 improved whole-body glucose uptake and glucose tolerance, while increasing hepatic glucose production. Fasting triglycerides improved, reflecting decreased DNL, and visceral adiposity was unchanged. PMID:20610601

  17. Changes in Vertebral Bone Marrow Fat and Bone Mass After Gastric Bypass Surgery: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, AL; Li, X; Schwartz, AV; Tufts, LS; Wheeler, AL; Grunfeld, C; Stewart, L; Rogers, SJ; Carter, JT; Posselt, AM; Black, DM; Shoback, DM

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow fat may serve a metabolic role distinct from other fat depots, and it may be altered by metabolic conditions including diabetes. Caloric restriction paradoxically increases marrow fat in mice, and women with anorexia nervosa have high marrow fat. The longitudinal effect of weight loss on marrow fat in humans is unknown. We hypothesized that marrow fat increases after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, as total body fat decreases. In a pilot study of 11 morbidly obese women (6 diabetic, 5 nondiabetic), we measured vertebral marrow fat content (percentage fat fraction) before and 6 months after RYGB using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Total body fat mass declined in all participants (mean ±SD decline 19.1 ±6.1 kg or 36.5 ±10.9%, p<0.001). Areal bone mineral density (BMD) decreased by 5.2 ±3.5% and 4.1 ±2.6% at the femoral neck and total hip, respectively, and volumetric BMD decreased at the spine by 7.4 ±2.8% (p<0.001 for all). Effects of RYGB on marrow fat differed by diabetes status (adjusted p=0.04). There was little mean change in marrow fat in nondiabetic women (mean +0.9%, 95% CI -10.0 to +11.7%, p=0.84). In contrast, marrow fat decreased in diabetic women (−7.5%, 95% CI -15.2 to +0.1%, p=0.05). Changes in total body fat mass and marrow fat were inversely correlated among nondiabetic (r=−0.96, p=0.01) but not diabetic (r=0.52, p=0.29) participants. In conclusion, among those without diabetes, marrow fat is maintained on average after RYGB, despite dramatic declines in overall fat mass. Among those with diabetes, RYGB may reduce marrow fat. Thus, future studies of marrow fat should take diabetes status into account. Marrow fat may have unique metabolic behavior compared with other fat depots. PMID:25603463

  18. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  19. The effect of reverse protein and low protein feeding regimens in the rearing period on pullet growth, subsequent performance, and liver and abdominal fat at end of lay.

    PubMed

    Maurice, D V; Hughes, B L; Jones, J E; Weber, J M

    1982-12-01

    Four brown egg strains were used to study the effect of rearing diets on growth and performance. The treatments were arranged in a 4 x 3 factorial with two replicates of 45 birds. The control diet was formulated and fed to National Research Council recommendations. Birds on reverse protein (RP) were fed diets with 13, 16, and 19% protein and those on low protein (LP) regimen received a 13.5% protein diet with amino acids adjusted on a megacalorie basis to approximate the control diet. At 20 weeks of age pullets were caged and fed a standard layer diet. Logistic curves were fitted to the growth data by a nonlinear least squares method and the parameters of each curve analyzed. No significant strain x diet interactions were observed. There were significant differences among strains in weight gain and feed intake. Dietary regimens had no significant effect on total gain and feed intake. However, diets significantly altered age at one-half maximum growth or inflection point (alpha) and mean growth rate (rho). Inflection point of the growth curve was significantly delayed in birds fed RP and LP diets. Although apparent conversion was not affected by diets, the partition coefficients at any time (t) for maintenance (beta mt) and gain (beta gt) were altered. Neither strain nor dietary regimens affected abdominal fat or organ weights at the end of the rearing period. No significant effect of rearing dietary regimens was detected in age at 50% production or peak production, feed conversion, feed intake, livability, liver fat, abdominal fat, or shell strength. The reverse-protein regimen significantly depressed egg weight. The results of the study indicate that 1) the rearing dietary regimens were adequate for strains of different body weight and egg output characteristics; 2) dietary alteration of growth curve parameters failed to influence production, feed intake, mortality, shell strength, livability, liver fat, or abdominal fat during the production period. PMID:6897679

  20. Effects of a high fat diet on bone of growing rats. Correlations between visceral fat, adiponectin and bone mass density

    PubMed Central

    Lac, Gerard; Cavalie, Helian; Ebal, Edmond; Michaux, Odile

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated some bone parameters (bone mineral content, bone mineral density, skeleton area) in growing rats fed with a high fat diet. Correlations between bone and body composition parameters are reported. Two groups of Wistar male rats (35 days old, body mass 80 ± 6 g) were used. Water and food were given "ad libitum" during 10 weeks. Sixteen rats (L) were given a lipid enriched diet and were compared to 16 rats (S) fed with a standard diet. Body composition and bone parameters were assessed using DXA. Results indicated that L rats had lower body mass, lean body mass; fat mass was not different between the two groups. Bone mineral content, bone mineral density, skeleton area of L rats were lower compared with S rats. Significant correlations were noted between body composition, adiponectin and bone parameters. High fat diet intake during the growing period has deleterious effects on bone parameters in rats. This study confirms in growing rats that a high fat diet is pathogenic, including bone metabolism. PMID:18442361

  1. The effects of exercise training on fat-mass loss in obese patients during energy intake restriction.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Dominique; Dendale, Paul; Berger, Jan; van Loon, Luc J C; Meeusen, Romain

    2007-01-01

    Dietary restriction combined with endurance exercise training represents an effective strategy to promote weight loss and reduce fat mass in obese patients. Exercise programmes without dietary restriction are less efficient. However, addition of exercise to a dietary restriction programme does not induce a greater fat-mass loss than dietary restriction alone. The latter is likely attributed to a compensatory reduction in daily physical activity following the implementation of exercise training. Nonetheless, inclusion of an exercise training programme is important to prevent a decrease in fat-free mass, increase relative visceral fat-mass loss, improve dietary compliance and eventually maintain long-term weight control. Obese male patients with the highest fat mass are most likely to lose the largest amount of fat mass in such lifestyle intervention programmes. Influences of training modalities during energy intake restriction on fat-mass loss are reviewed. The relationship between total energy expenditure during exercise training and overall fat-mass loss has been firmly established. The amount of training forms a more important predictor of fat-mass loss than training intensity. The sort of exercise (e.g. walking, cycling, swimming) plays another important predictor of fat-mass loss in intervention programmes. The implementation of resistance training in such programmes does not augment fat-mass loss but improves body composition by increasing fat-free mass. Further studies are needed to define the optimal interventional programme for obese patients. PMID:17190534

  2. The effects of exercise training on fat-mass loss in obese patients during energy intake restriction.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Dominique; Dendale, Paul; Berger, Jan; van Loon, Luc J C; Meeusen, Romain

    2007-01-01

    Dietary restriction combined with endurance exercise training represents an effective strategy to promote weight loss and reduce fat mass in obese patients. Exercise programmes without dietary restriction are less efficient. However, addition of exercise to a dietary restriction programme does not induce a greater fat-mass loss than dietary restriction alone. The latter is likely attributed to a compensatory reduction in daily physical activity following the implementation of exercise training. Nonetheless, inclusion of an exercise training programme is important to prevent a decrease in fat-free mass, increase relative visceral fat-mass loss, improve dietary compliance and eventually maintain long-term weight control. Obese male patients with the highest fat mass are most likely to lose the largest amount of fat mass in such lifestyle intervention programmes. Influences of training modalities during energy intake restriction on fat-mass loss are reviewed. The relationship between total energy expenditure during exercise training and overall fat-mass loss has been firmly established. The amount of training forms a more important predictor of fat-mass loss than training intensity. The sort of exercise (e.g. walking, cycling, swimming) plays another important predictor of fat-mass loss in intervention programmes. The implementation of resistance training in such programmes does not augment fat-mass loss but improves body composition by increasing fat-free mass. Further studies are needed to define the optimal interventional programme for obese patients.

  3. Primary omental gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) presenting with a large abdominal mass and spontaneous haemoperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Seow-En, Isaac; Seow-Choen, Francis; Lim, Tony Kiat Hon; Leow, Wei Qiang

    2014-01-01

    A 60-year-old Indonesian woman presented with a 9-day history of increasing abdominal distension, pain and tiredness. Physical examination revealed significant pallor with a palpable mass in the abdomen. CT of the abdomen reported a 22 cm complex mass in the peritoneal cavity with free intra-abdominal fluid. Laboratory results showed anaemia with a raised serum CA 125 level. At laparotomy a large haemorrhagic tumour with blood filled cystic cavities was found attached to both greater omentum and the transverse mesocolon with 2.2 L of blood in the peritoneal cavity. There was no invasion of any part of the stomach or intestines and there were no metastases seen. Histopathology of the resected specimen was consistent with that of a gastrointestinal stromal tumour arising from the omentum. Immunohistochemical studies revealed the tumour to be strongly positive for discovered on GIST-1 (DOG1) but negative for both CD117 and CD34. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) exon 18 mutation D842V was detected. PMID:25368123

  4. The role of antidepressants in the treatment of abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Rosmond, R; Björntorp, P

    2000-06-01

    The pathophysiology of abdominal obesity is unclear and controversial. Recent evidence now suggests that inadequate cortisol secretion is associated with abnormalities in glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, including hypertension, bringing the importance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the pathogenesis of abdominal obesity to the forefront. In addition, abnormal gonadal steroid concentrations and impaired plasma growth hormone levels accompany the abdominally obese state. Since the reproductive and growth axes are inhibited at many levels by various components of the HPA axis, increasing cortisol levels results in further depression of testosterone and growth hormone concentrations. Over the last decade, antidepressant (serotoninergic) drugs have proved useful as equalizers of HPA axis hyperactivity. Such therapy may interrupt the vicious circle of a hyperactive HPA axis leading to increasing abdominal obesity and endocrine perturbations that, in turn, leads to progressive accumulation of abdominal fat. Additionally, preliminary results indicate that serotoninergic agents decrease abdominal fat mass with improvements in related risk factors.

  5. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2) recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32]) and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86]) than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]). A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]). Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that contribute to metabolic status

  6. Effects of ID-alG™ on weight management and body fat mass in high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Terpend, Kathleen; Bisson, Jean-François; Le Gall, Claire; Linares, Elodie

    2012-05-01

    Seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum, ID-alG™, was evaluated for its chronic effects on weight management in high-fat-fed Sprague-Dawley rats. ID-alG™ was orally administered daily during 9 weeks at doses of 40 and 400 mg/kg/day with fat-enriched diet (FED) in comparison with two control groups consuming standard diet (negative control) or FED (positive control) and orally treated with vehicle. Body weight, percentage of body fat mass and lipid parameters were measured. After 9 weeks, the oral administration of ID-alG™ at both doses decreased significantly the mean body weight gains (MBWG) of rats submitted to the FED in comparison to the positive control (-6.8% and -11.8%). ID-alG™ at both doses improved significantly the MBWG of rats and decreased significantly the percentage of body fat mass of rats (-9.8% and -19.0%), in comparison to the positive control. In the same way, the triglyceride blood level was also significantly improved for the dose of 400 mg/kg/day (-30.6% vs. +49.9% for the positive control); and the dose of 40 mg/kg/day just lead to a trend. Moreover, in both controls and ID-alG™-treated groups, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL blood levels were not modified. The seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum, ID-alG™, demonstrated beneficial effects on weight management of rats submitted to a high-fat diet. PMID:22034228

  7. Impact of weight loss with or without exercise on abdominal fat and insulin resistance in obese individuals: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Trussardi Fayh, Ana Paula; Lopes, André Luiz; Fernandes, Pablo Rober; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Friedman, Rogério

    2013-08-28

    Evidence supports an important contribution of abdominal obesity and inflammation to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and CVD. Weight loss in obese individuals can reduce inflammation and, consequently, IR, but the role of training remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of body weight reduction with and without exercise over abdominal fat tissue (primary outcome) and IR. In this randomised clinical trial, forty-eight obese individuals (age 31·8 (SD 6·0) years, BMI 34·8 (SD 2·7) kg/m2) were randomised to either a diet-only group (DI) or a diet and exercise group (DI þ EXE). Treatment was maintained until 5% of the initial body weight was lost. At baseline and upon completion, the following parameters were analysed: biochemical parameters such as glycaemia and insulin for the determination of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and abdominal computed tomography for the determination of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. A total of thirteen individuals dropped out before completing the weight-loss intervention and did not repeat the tests. In both the DI (n 18) and DI þ EXE (n 17) groups, we observed significant and similar decreases of visceral adipose tissue (difference between means: 7·9 (95% CI 29·5, 25·2) cm2, P¼0·36), hs-CRP (difference between means: 20·06 (95% CI 20·19, 0·03) mg/l, P¼0·39) and HOMA (difference between means: 20·04 (95% CI 20·17, 0·08), P¼0·53). In the present study, 5% weight loss reduced abdominal fat and IR in obese individuals and exercise did not add to the effect of weight loss on the outcome variables.

  8. Associations of birth weight, linear growth and relative weight gain throughout life with abdominal fat depots in adulthood: the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Araújo de França, G V; Lucia Rolfe, E De; Horta, B L; Gigante, D P; Yudkin, J S; Ong, K K; Victora, C G

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported on associations of size at birth and early growth with general and central obesity; however, few have examined the potential effects of birth weight and postnatal growth on separate abdominal fat compartments. We investigated the effects of size at birth, linear growth and relative weight gain from birth to adulthood on visceral (VFT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAFT) fat thicknesses at age 30 years. Methods: A total of 2663 participants from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study had complete information on ultrasound measures of abdominal fat at age 30 years, and anthropometric measurements for at least five visits (0/2/4/23/30 years). We estimated weight and height Z-score changes, conditional relative weight gain and conditional height at several ages. Results: In both men and women, VFT and SAFT showed positive associations with conditional relative weight gain during all age periods beyond 2 years and birth, respectively (all P⩽0.01). Women born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) had greater VFT than other women (difference=0.15 s.d., 95% CI: 0.01–0.29), and they showed a stronger positive influence of infant weight gain 0–2 years on VFT (IUGR: β=0.17 s.d., 95% CI: 0.05–0.29; non-IUGR: β=0.01 s.d., 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.06; Pinteraction=0.02). Stunting at 2 years was associated with lower SAFT but not VFT, and it modified the influence of weight gain 2–4 years on SAFT in both sexes (both Pinteraction<0.05). Conclusions: Our findings reinforce the advantages of being born with an appropriate birth weight, and the hazards of rapid postnatal gains in weight relative to linear growth, particularly after the critical window of the first 1000 days. PMID:26395747

  9. Omental infarction and its mimics: imaging features of acute abdominal conditions presenting with fat stranding greater than the degree of bowel wall thickening.

    PubMed

    Tonerini, Michele; Calcagni, Francesca; Lorenzi, Silvia; Scalise, Paola; Grigolini, Alessandro; Bemi, Pietro

    2015-08-01

    The segmental omental infarction is a rare self-limited disorder presenting with aspecific clinical symptoms that may mimic several acute abdominal conditions. Therefore, a correct noninvasive diagnosis is important because treatment approaches range from monitoring to surgery. As omental infarction results in an important fat stranding that is much greater than the degree of bowel wall thickening, it suggests a narrower differential diagnosis: appendicitis, diverticulitis, epiploic appendagitis, and mesenteric panniculitis. In this pictorial essay, we point out the importance of imaging in identifying this typical sign allowing alternate diagnoses such as segmental omental infarction that can be conservatively managed.

  10. Development of Novel Methods to Define Deficits in Appendicular Lean Mass Relative to Fat Mass

    PubMed Central

    Weber, David; Long, Jin; Leonard, Mary B.; Zemel, Babette; Baker, Joshua F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that adjustment of measures of lean mass for adiposity improves associations with physical function. Our objective was to develop and test a method to adjust appendicular lean mass for adiposity. Methods Whole-body DXA data in 14,850 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to generate sex-, and race-specific standard deviation scores (Z-Scores relative to age and T-scores relative to 25 year-olds) for appendicular lean mass index (ALMI, kg/m2) and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2). Correlations between ALMI and FMI Z- and T-Scores were assessed within demographic categories. Fat-adjusted ALMI (ALMIFMI) scores were determined using residual methods. Sarcopenia was defined as a T-Score <-2.0 and low lean for age as a Z-Score <-1.0. Correlations with physical function were assessed in an at-risk population. Results Positive associations between ALMI and FMI Z- and T-Scores were significant (R >0.50; p<0.001) within all demographic categories. The impact of a unit greater FMI Z-score on ALMI Z-score was less in the elderly, men, white subjects, and among individuals with lower FMI (all tests for interaction p<0.001). There was fair agreement between ALMI and ALMIFMI estimates of sarcopenia and low lean for age [Kappa: 0.46, 0.52, respectively (p<0.0001)]. Elderly subjects were likely to be re-classified as sarcopenic while young subjects were likely to be re-classified as normal using ALMIFMI. ALMIFMI T-scores resulted in approximately twice the number of subjects defined as sarcopenic, compared with ALMI T-Scores. (1299 v. 534). Among rheumatoid arthritis patients, ALMIFMI Z-scores correlated with physical function (Health Assessment Questionnaire: rho = -0.22, p = 0.04; Short Physical Performance Battery: rho = 0.27, p = 0.01); however, the ALMI Z-Score did not. Conclusions Adjustment of ALMI for the confounding association with FMI impacts the definition of lean mass deficits. These methods provide a

  11. Actinomyces-induced inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the colon: A rare cause of an abdominal mass

    PubMed Central

    Akbulut, Sami; Yagmur, Yusuf; Gumus, Serdar; Sogutcu, Nilgun; Demircan, Firat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMFTs) are neoplastic lesions that are either benign or have low-grade malignancy potential. Although the etiopathogenesis is not entirely clear, many factors play a role in their development, including trauma, autoimmune disorders, and infectious and inflammatory processes. However, IMFTs caused by Actinomyces spp. infection are rare, with a limited number of cases reported in the literature. Presentation of case A 30-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with abdominal pain and a palpable abdominal mass. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a tumoral lesion (11 × 10 × 7 cm) in the right colon. A right hemicolectomy and ileocolic anastomosis were performed, during which almost complete obstruction of the lumen by the 7.5 × 7.0 × 5.0 cm tumor was observed. Histopathology and immunohistochemical findings revealed that the tumor was consistent with an IMFT that developed from an Actinomyces infection. The patient was then placed on amoxicillin and doxycycline therapy. Conclusion This case demonstrates that the development of IMFT secondary to actinomycosis is difficult to predict in the preoperative period. Once an exact diagnosis is confirmed by histopathologic examination, affected patients should receive prolonged antibiotherapy. PMID:25704558

  12. [Echography of palpable abdominal masses in adults. Apropos of 92 cases].

    PubMed

    Poncin, J; Bousquet, J C; Hassan, M

    1984-03-01

    A retrospective study was conducted of 92 cases of palpable abdominal masses in adults, lesions being of undetermined origin clinically but verified by ultrasound imaging. Final distribution of organs affected showed considerable divergence between the different intra- and retro-peritoneal organs and the various pathological conditions involved, with a predominance of malignant tumors. This dispersion means that a discriminating examination such as ultrasonography must be practised. Ultrasound imaging was able to identify the affected organ in 86 p. 100 cases using a precise semiological analysis (mass center, interface). Diagnostic difficulties (14 p. 100 cases) are due to restrictions in semiological factors, large masses, and certain topographic or morphologic clinical forms. Ultrasound regularly provides macroscopic data: shape of mass, and size reduced by approximately 15 p. 100 in all cases. Regional and metastatic extension is also underestimated in approximately 1/4 cases. If these limitations are accepted, the use of ultrasonography appears to be the primary procedure required, this determining the therapeutic decision.

  13. Classification of Body Fatness by Body Mass Index–for-Age Categories Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, David S.; Wang, Jack; Thornton, John C.; Mei, Zuguo; Sopher, Aviva B.; Pierson, Richard N.; Dietz, William H.; Horlick, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the ability of various body mass index (BMI)–for-age categories, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 85th to 94th percentiles, to correctly classify the body fatness of children and adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The New York Obesity Research Center at St Luke’s–Roosevelt Hospital from 1995 to 2000. Participants Healthy 5- to 18-year-old children and adolescents (N=1196) were recruited in the New York City area through newspaper notices, announcements at schools and activity centers, and word of mouth. Main Outcome Measures Percent body fat as determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fatness cutoffs were chosen so that the number of children in each category (normal, moderate, and elevated fatness) would equal the number of children in the corresponding BMI-for-age category (<85th percentile, 85th–94th percentile, and ≥95th percentile, respectively). Results About 77% of the children who had a BMI for age at or above the 95th percentile had an elevated body fatness, but levels of body fatness among children who had a BMI for age between the 85th and 94th percentiles (n=200) were more variable; about one-half of these children had a moderate level of body fatness, but 30% had a normal body fatness and 20% had an elevated body fatness. The prevalence of normal levels of body fatness among these 200 children was highest among black children (50%) and among those within the 85th to 89th percentiles of BMI for age (40%). Conclusion Body mass index is an appropriate screening test to identify children who should have further evaluation and follow-up, but it is not diagnostic of level of adiposity. PMID:19736333

  14. A Giant Intra Abdominal Mass Mimicking Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Rare Presentation of Renal Angiomyolipoma.

    PubMed

    Haque, M E; Rahman, M A; Kaisar, I; Islam, M F; Salam, M A

    2016-07-01

    Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign tumor commonly found in kidney than extra renal sites. Most of the small renal angiomyolipomas are diagnosed incidentally on ultrasound and other imaging studies. Some renal AMLs present clinically when become very big, giant renal angiomyolipoma. Although almost all cases are benign, a relatively rare variant of epitheloid angiomyolipoma has got malignant potential and can even metastasize. Ultrasonography, CT and MRI scan are usually used for diagnosis of angiomyolipoma with high level of accuracy; even though some lesions may be confused as renal cell carcinoma on imaging studies. Here, a 48 year old man presented with a large intra-abdominal mass preoperatively diagnosed as a case of right renal cell carcinoma and radical nephrectomy was performed. Histopathology revealed epitheloid angiomyolipoma (EAML). PMID:27612907

  15. Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma Presenting as Abdominal Pain with a Pulsatile Mass.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Arash; Afsharfard, Abolfazl; Atqiaee, Khashayar

    2016-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a rare tumor that mostly involves adults aged 50 to 70. The most common anatomic location is the lower extremities. MFH of the retroperitoneum usually manifests late in its course and may be initially mistaken with other more common diagnosis. Here, the authors describe a 60-year-old man that was brought to the emergency department with a chief complaint of periumbilical abdominal pain. Our patient presented with symptoms consistent with a symptomatic aortic aneurysm, but a mass was encountered during surgery. In such circumstances the diagnosis of malignant sarcoma must be kept in mind and attempts at full resection with tumor-free margins are necessary. PMID:27563479

  16. Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma Presenting as Abdominal Pain with a Pulsatile Mass

    PubMed Central

    Afsharfard, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a rare tumor that mostly involves adults aged 50 to 70. The most common anatomic location is the lower extremities. MFH of the retroperitoneum usually manifests late in its course and may be initially mistaken with other more common diagnosis. Here, the authors describe a 60-year-old man that was brought to the emergency department with a chief complaint of periumbilical abdominal pain. Our patient presented with symptoms consistent with a symptomatic aortic aneurysm, but a mass was encountered during surgery. In such circumstances the diagnosis of malignant sarcoma must be kept in mind and attempts at full resection with tumor-free margins are necessary. PMID:27563479

  17. Fat-Free Body Mass but not Fat Mass is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Volume of Cortical Brain Regions Implicated in Autonomic and Homeostatic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Christopher M; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Reiman, Eric M; Chen, Kewei; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with alterations of both functional and structural aspects of the human central nervous system. In obese individuals both fat mass (FM; primarily consisting of adipose tissue) and fat-free mass (FFM; all non-adipose tissues) are increased and it remains unknown whether these compartments have separate effects on human brain morphology. We used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the relationships between measures of body composition and regional gray matter volume (GMV) in 76 healthy adults with a wide range of adiposity (24F/52M; age 32.1±8.8y; percentage of body fat [PFAT%] 25.5±10.9%; BMI 29.8±8.9). Faf-free mass index (FFMI kg*m-2) showed negative associations in bilateral temporal regions, the bilateral medial and caudolateral OFC, and the left insula. Fat mass index (FMI kg*m-2) showed similar, but less extensive negative associations within temporal cortical regions and the left caudolateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In addition, negative associations were seen for FMI with GMV of the cerebellum. Associations of FFMI with temporal and medial orbitofrontal GMV appeared to be independent of adiposity. No associations were seen between measures of adiposity (i.e. FM and PFAT) and GMV when adjusted for FFM. The majority of regions that we find associated with FFM have been implicated in the regulation of eating behavior and show extensive projections to central autonomic and homeostatic core structures. These data indicate that not adipose tissue or relative adiposity itself, but obesity related increases in absolute tissue mass and particularly FFM may have a more predominant effect on the human brain. This might be explained by the high metabolic demand of FFM and related increases in total energy needs. PMID:22974975

  18. Fat-Free Mass Changes During Ketogenic Diets and the Potential Role of Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Tinsley, Grant M; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2016-02-01

    Low-carbohydrate and very-low-carbohydrate diets are often used as weight-loss strategies by exercising individuals and athletes. Very-low-carbohydrate diets can lead to a state of ketosis, in which the concentration of blood ketones (acetoacetate, 3-β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone) increases as a result of increased fatty acid breakdown and activity of ketogenic enzymes. A potential concern of these ketogenic diets, as with other weight-loss diets, is the potential loss of fat-free mass (e.g., skeletal muscle). On examination of the literature, the majority of studies report decreases in fat-free mass in individuals following a ketogenic diet. However, some confounding factors exist, such as the use of aggressive weight-loss diets and potential concerns with fat-free mass measurement. A limited number of studies have examined combining resistance training with ketogenic diets, and further research is needed to determine whether resistance training can effectively slow or stop the loss of fat-free mass typically seen in individuals following a ketogenic diet. Mechanisms underlying the effects of a ketogenic diet on fat-free mass and the results of implementing exercise interventions in combination with this diet should also be examined. PMID:26284291

  19. The utility of dual bioelectrical impedance analysis in detecting intra-abdominal fat area in obese patients during weight reduction therapy in comparison with waist circumference and abdominal CT.

    PubMed

    Yamakage, Hajime; Ito, Ryo; Tochiya, Mayu; Muranaka, Kazuya; Tanaka, Masashi; Matsuo, Yoshiyuki; Odori, Shinji; Kono, Shigeo; Shimatsu, Akira; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    An increase in intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) is an essential component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Waist circumference (WC) is not a precise measure of IAFA, and computed tomography (CT) is unsuitable for frequent monitoring. Here, we examined utility of a dual bioelectrical impedance analysis (Dual BIA) for measuring IAFA in obese patients during weight reduction. Fat distribution was measured by Dual BIA and CT in 100 obese outpatients. All fat areas including total, IAFA, and subcutaneous fat by Dual BIA were more closely correlated with those by CT than WC. Estimated IAFA by Dual BIA was significantly correlated with number of MetS components as well as CT, but WC was not. Furthermore, in 61 obese patients who received 6-month weight reduction therapy, estimated IAFA by Dual BIA showed an earlier and greater decrease as well as that by CT than WC and BMI. In addition, decrease in estimated IAFA by Dual BIA through weight reduction had a higher correlation with decrease in IAFA by CT, than WC. This study is the first to demonstrate that the change in estimated IAFA by Dual BIA was highly correlated with that in IAFA by CT during weight reduction therapy. Our findings also indicate that estimated IAFA by Dual BIA is, potentially, a better indicator of severity of MetS, cardiovascular risk factors, and effectiveness of weight reduction than WC, and equal to IAFA by CT. Estimated IAFA by Dual BIA may be useful for monitoring the effectiveness of weight reduction therapy in obese patients.

  20. EPA prevents fat mass expansion and metabolic disturbances in mice fed with a Western diet.

    PubMed

    Pinel, Alexandre; Pitois, Elodie; Rigaudiere, Jean-Paul; Jouve, Chrystele; De Saint-Vincent, Sarah; Laillet, Brigitte; Montaurier, Christophe; Huertas, Alain; Morio, Beatrice; Capel, Frederic

    2016-08-01

    The impact of alpha linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, and DHA on obesity and metabolic complications was studied in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HF) diet. HF diets were supplemented with ALA, EPA, or DHA (1% w/w) and given to C57BL/6J mice for 16 weeks and to Ob/Ob mice for 6 weeks. In C57BL/6J mice, EPA reduced plasma cholesterol (-20%), limited fat mass accumulation (-23%) and adipose cell hypertrophy (-50%), and reduced plasma leptin concentration (-60%) compared with HF-fed mice. Furthermore, mice supplemented with EPA exhibited a higher insulin sensitivity (+24%) and glucose tolerance (+20%) compared with HF-fed mice. Similar effects were observed in EPA-supplemented Ob/Ob mice, although fat mass accumulation was not prevented. By contrast, in comparison with HF-fed mice, DHA did not prevent fat mass accumulation, increased plasma leptin concentration (+128%) in C57BL/6J mice, and did not improve glucose homeostasis in C57BL/6J and Ob/Ob mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, DHA stimulated leptin expression whereas EPA induced adiponectin expression, suggesting that improved leptin/adiponectin balance may contribute to the protective effect of EPA. In conclusion, supplementation with EPA, but not ALA and DHA, could preserve glucose homeostasis in an obesogenic environment and limit fat mass accumulation in the early stage of weight gain.

  1. Predictors of Treatment Response to Tesamorelin, a Growth Hormone-Releasing Factor Analog, in HIV-Infected Patients with Excess Abdominal Fat

    PubMed Central

    Mangili, Alexandra; Falutz, Julian; Mamputu, Jean-Claude; Stepanians, Miganush; Hayward, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Background Tesamorelin, a synthetic analog of human growth hormone-releasing factor, decreases visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy. Objectives 1) To evaluate the utility of patient characteristics and validated disease-risk scores, namely indicator variables for the metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation (MetS-IDF) or the National Cholesterol Education Program (MetS-NCEP) and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), as predictors of VAT reduction during tesamorelin therapy at 3 and 6 months, and 2) To explore the characteristics of patients who reached a threshold of VAT <140 cm2, a level associated with lower risk of adverse health outcomes, after 6 months of treatment with tesamorelin. Methods Data were analyzed from two Phase 3 studies in which HIV-infected patients with excess abdominal fat were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive tesamorelin 2 mg (n = 543) or placebo (n = 263) subcutaneously daily for 6 months, using ANOVA and ANCOVA models. Results Metabolic syndrome (MetS-IDF or MetS-NCEP) and FRS were significantly associated with VAT at baseline. Presence of metabolic syndrome ([MetS-NCEP), triglyceride levels >1.7 mmol/L, and white race had a significant impact on likelihood of response to tesamorelin after 6 months of therapy (interaction p-values 0.054, 0.063, and 0.025, respectively). No predictive factors were identified at 3 months. The odds of a VAT reduction to <140 cm2 for subjects treated with tesamorelin was 3.9 times greater than that of subjects randomized to placebo after controlling for study, gender, baseline body mass index (BMI) and baseline VAT (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.03; 7.44). Conclusions Individuals with baseline MetS-NCEP, elevated triglyceride levels, or white race were most likely to experience reductions in VAT after 6 months of tesamorelin treatment. The odds of response of VAT <140 cm2 was 3.9 times greater for tesamorelin

  2. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  3. Association between Abdominal Fat (DXA) and Its Subcomponents (CT Scan) before and after Weight Loss in Obese Postmenopausal Women: A MONET Study.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Brochu, Martin; Messier, Virginie; Lavoie, Marie-Ève; Faraj, May; Doucet, Eric; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Subcutaneous fat (ScF) and visceral fat (VF) measurements using CT scan are expensive and may imply significant radiation doses. Cross-sectional studies using CT scan showed that ScF and VF are significantly correlated with abdominal fat measured by DXA (AF-DXA). The association has not been studied after a weight loss. Objective. To determine (1) the associations between AF-DXA and ScF and VF before and after weight loss and (2) the associations between their changes. Methods. 137 overweight/obese postmenopausal women were divided in two groups (1-caloric restriction or 2-caloric restriction + resistance training). AF was assessed using DXA and CT scan. Results. Correlations between AF-DXA and ScF (before: r = 0.87, after; r = 0.87; P < .01) and, AF-DXA and VF (before: r = 0.61, after; r = 0.69; P < .01) are not different before and after the weight loss. Correlations between delta AF-DXA and delta ScF (r = 0.72; P < .01) or delta VF (r = 0.51; P < .01) were found. Conclusion. The use of AF-DXA as a surrogate for VF after weight loss is questionable, but may be interesting for ScF.

  4. Body mass index, abdominal obesity, body fat and migraine features in women.

    PubMed

    Rossoni de Oliveira, Vanessa; Camboim Rockett, Fernanda; Castro, Kamila; da Silveira Perla, Alexandre; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes; Schweigert Perry, Ingrid D

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los estudios que tratan de establecer una asociación entre la migraña y los parámetros antropométricos hasta ahora han sido poco concluyentes. Además, los fármacos utilizados para la profilaxis de la migraña pueden estar asociados con cambios en el peso corporal. Objetivos: Investigar la posible asociación de los parámetros antropométricos y el porcentaje de grasa corporal con patrones de ataque y el uso de la profilaxis en los pacientes con migraña. Métodos: Estudio transversal que evaluó el índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de cintura, porcentaje de grasa corporal y las variables clínicas (características de los ataques y uso de medicación) en mujeres con migraña. Resultados: 166 mujeres con migraña ≥18 años (edad media, 45 ± 14 años) fueron incluidos en el estudio. Migraña sin aura era más frecuente (71,7%). La media del índice de masa corporal y porcentaje de grasa corporal fueron 27,8 ± 6,0 kg/m(2) y 36,4 ± 8,3%, respectivamente. Índice de masa corporal y la circunferencia de cintura se correlacionaron débilmente con la frecuencia de los ataques durante 6 meses (rs = 0,162, p < 0,05 y r = 0,187, p < 0,05, respectivamente). Estas correlaciones se mantiene débil considerando sólo las mujeres premenopáusicas, pero desaparecen en las mujeres mayores. La estratificación de los análisis por tipo migraña muestra una correlación moderada entre la migraña con aura y la frecuencia de los ataques de más de 6 meses y el índice de masa corporal (rs = 0,369, p < 0,05), así como la circunferencia de cintura (rs = 0,423, p < 0,01) . Los pacientes que estaban tomando medicamentos profilácticos tuvieron un mayor índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de la cintura, y los valores de porcentaje de grasa corporal (p < 0,01, prueba t de Student). Conclusiones: Este estudio reveló un potencial, aunque débil asociación entre la migraña y los parámetros antropométricos y la frecuencia de ataques, que no refleja la duración, la gravedad y la incapacidad de los ataques, que tienen diferentes modelos según el tipo de migraña, la edad reproductiva y la medicación profiláctica.

  5. Prenatal Phthalate Exposures and Childhood Fat Mass in a New York City Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Jessie P.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Mendez, Michelle A.; Richardson, David B.; Daniels, Julie L.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Wolff, Mary S.; Herring, Amy H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Experimental animal studies and limited epidemiologic evidence suggest that prenatal exposure to phthalates may be obesogenic, with potential sex-specific effects of phthalates having anti-androgenic activity. Objectives: We aimed to assess associations between prenatal phthalate exposures and childhood fat mass in a prospective cohort study. Methods: We measured phthalate metabolite concentrations in third-trimester maternal urine in a cohort of women enrolled in New York City between 1998 and 2002 (n = 404). Among 180 children (82 girls and 98 boys), we evaluated body composition using a Tanita scale at multiple follow-up visits between ages 4 and 9 years (363 total visits). We estimated associations of standard deviation differences or tertiles of natural log phthalate metabolite concentrations with percent fat mass using linear mixed-effects regression models with random intercepts for repeated outcome measurements. We assessed associations in multiple metabolite models and adjusted for covariates including prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and breastfeeding. Results: We did not observe associations between maternal urinary phthalate concentrations and percent body fat in models examining continuous exposures. Fat mass was 3.06% (95% CI: –5.99, –0.09%) lower among children in the highest tertile of maternal urinary concentrations of summed di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHP) metabolites than in children in the lowest tertile. Though estimates were imprecise, there was little evidence that associations between maternal urinary phthalate concentrations and percent fat mass were modified by child’s sex. Conclusions: Prenatal phthalate exposures were not associated with increased body fat among children 4–9 years of age, though high prenatal DEHP exposure may be associated with lower fat mass in childhood. Citation: Buckley JP, Engel SM, Mendez MA, Richardson DB, Daniels JL, Calafat AM

  6. Confined housing system increased abdominal and subcutaneous fat deposition and gene expressions of carbohydrate response element-binding protein and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 in chicken.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Zhao, X L; Gilbert, E R; Liu, Y P; Wang, Y; Qiu, M H; Zhu, Q

    2015-01-01

    Free-range production system is increasingly being used in poultry breeding and feed production in many countries. The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the effects of different raising systems on fat-related traits and mRNA levels of liver lipogenesis genes in Erlang Mountainous chicken. Each of 10 birds (91 day old) from caged, indoor-floor housed, and free-range housing systems was slaughtered, and fat-related traits, live body weight (BW), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), abdominal fat weight (AFW), abdominal fat percentage (AFP), and intramuscular fat content were determined. The mRNA levels of liver X receptor α, carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1), and fatty acid synthase were detected. The caged chicken exhibited significantly higher BW, SFT, and AFW than those of free-ranged chicken (P < 0.05). All the 4 genes had a similar expression pattern, and they showed the highest level in caged chicken, while the lowest level was found in free-ranged chicken. Association analysis indicated that there were significant (P < 0.05) or highly significant (P < 0.01) positive correlations between the mRNA levels of ChREBP, SREBP1, and fat traits of SFT, AFW, and AFP. Thus, we deduced that increased fat deposition in caged chicken was probably induced by increased gene expression of ChREBP and SREBP1 in the liver. PMID:25730060

  7. Confined housing system increased abdominal and subcutaneous fat deposition and gene expressions of carbohydrate response element-binding protein and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 in chicken.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Zhao, X L; Gilbert, E R; Liu, Y P; Wang, Y; Qiu, M H; Zhu, Q

    2015-02-06

    Free-range production system is increasingly being used in poultry breeding and feed production in many countries. The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the effects of different raising systems on fat-related traits and mRNA levels of liver lipogenesis genes in Erlang Mountainous chicken. Each of 10 birds (91 day old) from caged, indoor-floor housed, and free-range housing systems was slaughtered, and fat-related traits, live body weight (BW), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), abdominal fat weight (AFW), abdominal fat percentage (AFP), and intramuscular fat content were determined. The mRNA levels of liver X receptor α, carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1), and fatty acid synthase were detected. The caged chicken exhibited significantly higher BW, SFT, and AFW than those of free-ranged chicken (P < 0.05). All the 4 genes had a similar expression pattern, and they showed the highest level in caged chicken, while the lowest level was found in free-ranged chicken. Association analysis indicated that there were significant (P < 0.05) or highly significant (P < 0.01) positive correlations between the mRNA levels of ChREBP, SREBP1, and fat traits of SFT, AFW, and AFP. Thus, we deduced that increased fat deposition in caged chicken was probably induced by increased gene expression of ChREBP and SREBP1 in the liver.

  8. Effects of fat mass on motor development during the first two years of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: This study characterized total body fat mass and motor development during the first two years of life in healthy infants. Design: Participants (N=469) from the Beginnings’ cohort, a prospective, longitudinal study of early infant feeding, were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months of age...

  9. Evaluation of a noninvasive technique for measuring fat-free mass in poultry.

    PubMed

    Staudinger, F B; Rorie, R P; Anthony, N B

    1995-02-01

    Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) has been successfully used to predict fat-free mass and lipid content in various species of mammals and birds. In the current trial, TOBEC was used to predict fat-free mass in broiler chicks through 14d posthatch. To accomplish this, a calibration equation was developed and then tested for accuracy of prediction. It was determined that two calibration equations (hatch to 4 d and 6 to 14 d) were necessary to predict growth. Equations including only the TOBEC reading had R2 values of .92 (6 to 14 d) and .96 (hatch to 4 d). Equations including additional measures of length or weight had slightly improved R2 values. Through the verification of the calibration equations it was found that when the equations were used in the appropriate range, 95% of the variation in fat-free mass was explained. It was determined that TOBEC measures can be used to predict fat-free mass in live broiler chicks to 2 wk posthatch.

  10. Percutaneous fine-needle biopsy of deep thoracic and abdominal masses in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, U; Bussadori, C; Zatelli, A; De Lorenzi, D; Masserdotti, C; Bertazzolo, W; Faverzani, S; Ghisleni, G; Capobianco, R; Caniatti, M

    2004-04-01

    Percutaneous fine-needle biopsy was used to investigate thoracic and abdominal masses in the dog and cat. One hundred and thirty-two cases were included in the study; 20 cases were excluded from the comparative study due to poor cellularity or blood contamination (retrieval rate 86.8 per cent). One hundred samples (56 dogs and 44 cats) were classified by cytology as neoplastic. All the cytological diagnoses of neoplasia were confirmed by histological samples obtained either by non-surgical methods, at surgery or during postmortem examination. No false positive diagnoses of neoplasia were made. Thirty-two samples were cytologically classified as 'negative for neoplasia'. Subsequent histological examination revealed 18 true negative and 14 false negative results. The procedure had an overall 89.4 per cent (118 cases out of 132) agreement between the diagnosis of inflammatory disease versus neoplasia, with a sensitivity of 87.8 per cent, a specificity of 100 per cent, a predictive value of a positive test of 100 per cent and a predictive value of a negative test of 56.3 per cent.

  11. The association between body mass index and abdominal aortic aneurysm growth: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes, a state of relative insulin resistance, is negatively associated with both the presence and growth abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), which could suggest a protective role of obesity against AAA presence or growth. A recent meta-analysis demonstrated a trend toward a positive, though statistically non-significant, association between body mass index (BMI) and the presence of AAA. With respect to the association between obesity and AAA growth, however, the evidence had been very limited. To determine whether obesity (or BMI) is associated with AAA growth, we reviewed currently available studies with a systematic literature search. Our comprehensive search identified seven eligible studies reporting the association of BMI and AAA growth rates, which included data on a total of 3,768 AAA patients. All seven identified studies demonstrated no association between BMI and AAA growth. Despite a trend toward a positive association between BMI and AAA presence, the reason why BMI is not associated with AAA growth (suggested in the present review) is unclear. A discrepancy between associated comorbidities (coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and AAA presence and between the same comorbidities and AAA growth, however, could be identified. Further investigations are required to elucidate why BMI is not associated with AAA growth despite the trend for a positive association with AAA presence. PMID:27058797

  12. NOX1-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species in abdominal fat-derived mesenchymal stromal cells impinges on long-term proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sela, M; Tirza, G; Ravid, O; Volovitz, I; Solodeev, I; Friedman, O; Zipori, D; Gur, E; Krelin, Y; Shani, N

    2015-04-16

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent and can be derived from different adult tissues including fat. Our repeated attempts to produce long-term proliferative cultures of rat abdominal adipose stem cells (aASCs) under normal oxygen concentration (21%) were unsuccessful. We set to examine the events controlling this cytostasis of aASCs and found that it resulted from overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that led to apoptosis. ROS overproduction in aASCs was accompanied by increased expression of NOX1 but not of NOX2 or NOX4. NOX family members are an important source of intracellular ROS pointing to NOX1 involvement in ROS accumulation. This was verified when aASCs that were grown under 3% oxygen conditions expanded long term, displaying reduced NOX1 expression and decreased ROS accumulation. NOX1 involvement in aASC cytostasis was reaffirmed when cells that were expanded under normoxic conditions in the presence of a specific NOX1 inhibitor, ML171, demonstrated reduced ROS accumulation, reduced apoptosis and long-term expansion. aASC expansion arrest was accompanied also by a weak fat differentiation and migratory potential, which was enhanced by NOX1 inhibition. This suggests an inhibitory role for NOX1-induced ROS overproduction on aASCs, their fat differentiation and migratory potential. In contrast to aASCs, similar cells produced from subcutaneous fat were easily expanded in normoxic cultures, exhibiting low ROS concentrations, a low number of apoptotic cells and improved fat differentiation and migration. Taken together, our results show, for the first time, that NOX1-induced ROS accumulation halts ASC expansion and reduces their differentiation and migratory potential under normoxic conditions. Importantly, this phenotype comprises a tissue-specific signature as it was evident in aASCs but not in subcutaneous ASCs. NOX-induced ROS accumulation and cytokine production by fat are part of the metabolic syndrome. The similarity of this

  13. Percent fat mass is inversely associated with bone mass and hip geometry in rural Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiumei; Arguelles, Lester M; Liu, Xin; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Wang, Binyan; Zhang, Shanchun; Li, Zhiping; Tang, Gengfu; Liu, Xue; Yang, Jianhua; Xu, Xiping; Langman, Craig; Wang, Xiaobin

    2010-07-01

    This study was an attempt to examine the phenotypic, genetic, and environmental correlations between percent fat mass (PFM) and bone parameters, especially hip geometry, among 786 males and 618 females aged 13 to 21 years from a Chinese twin cohort. PFM, bone area (BA), bone mineral content (BMC), cross-sectional area (CSA), and section modulus (SM) were obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the PFM-bone relationships. A structural equation model for twin design was used to estimate genetic/environmental influences on individual phenotype and phenotypic correlations. After controlling for body weight and other pertinent covariates, we observed inverse associations between PFM and bone parameters: Compared with the lowest age- and gender-specific tertile of PFM, males in the highest tertile of PFM had lower measures of whole-body-less-head BA (WB-BA), lumbar spine BA (L(2)-L(4)-BA), total-hip BA (TH-BA), total-hip BMC, CSA, and SM (p < .005 for all, adjusted p < .05). Similar inverse associations were observed in females for all the preceding parameters except WB-BA and L2-L(4)-BA. These associations did not vary significantly by Tanner stages. In both genders, the estimated heritabilities were 80% to 86% for BMC, 67% to 80% for BA, 74% to 77% for CSA, and 64% for SM. Both shared genetics and environmental factors contributed to the inverse PFM-bone correlations. We conclude that in this sample of relatively lean Chinese adolescents, at a given body weight, PFM is inversely associated with BA, BMC, and hip geometry in both genders, and such associations are attributed to both shared genetic and environmental factors.

  14. Brain and high metabolic rate organ mass: contributions to resting energy expenditure beyond fat-free mass1234

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Fahad; He, Qing; Davidson, Lance E; Thornton, John C; Albu, Jeanine; Boxt, Lawrence; Krasnow, Norman; Elia, Marinos; Kang, Patrick; Heshka, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Background: The degree to which interindividual variation in the mass of select high metabolic rate organs (HMROs) mediates variability in resting energy expenditure (REE) is unknown. Objective: The objective was to investigate how much REE variability is explained by differences in HMRO mass in adults and whether age, sex, and race independently predict REE after adjustment for HMRO. Design: A cross-sectional evaluation of 55 women [30 African Americans aged 48.7 ± 22.2 y (mean ± SD) and 25 whites aged 46.4 ± 17.7 y] and 32 men (8 African Americans aged 34.3 ± 18.2 y and 24 whites aged 51.3 ± 20.6 y) was conducted. Liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and brain masses were measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and fat and fat-free mass (FFM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry. Results: REE estimated from age (P = 0.001), race (P = 0.006), sex (P = 0.31), fat (P = 0.001), and FFM (P < 0.001) accounted for 70% (adjusted 2) of the variability in REE. The addition of trunk HMRO (P = 0.001) and brain (P = 0.006) to the model increased the explained variance to 75% and rendered the contributions of age, sex, and race statistically nonsignificant, whereas fat and FFM continued to make significant contributions (both P < 0.05). The addition of brain to the model rendered the intercept (69 kcal · kg−1 · d−1) consistent with zero, which indicated zero REE for zero body mass. Conclusions: Relatively small interindividual variation in HMRO mass significantly affects REE and reduces the role of age, race, and sex in explaining REE. Decreases in REE with increasing age may be partly related to age-associated changes in the relative size of FFM components. PMID:20164308

  15. HPMC supplementation reduces abdominal fat content, intestinal permeability, inflammation, and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a highly viscous non-fermentable soluble dietary fiber, were evaluated on adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in diet induced obese (DIO) mice fed a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with either HPMC or insoluble fiber. DIO C57BL/6J m...

  16. Maternal but not paternal fat mass is positively associated with infant fat mass at age 2 weeks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal programming of fetal metabolism has been demonstrated in animal studies, while clinical studies have shown an association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures in infants. Here we report on the association between infant body composition at age 2 weeks and ...

  17. Daily leptin blunts marrow fat but does not impact bone mass in calorie-restricted mice.

    PubMed

    Devlin, M J; Brooks, D J; Conlon, C; Vliet, M van; Louis, L; Rosen, C J; Bouxsein, M L

    2016-06-01

    Starvation induces low bone mass and high bone marrow adiposity in humans, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The adipokine leptin falls in starvation, suggesting that hypoleptinemia may be a link between negative energy balance, bone marrow fat accumulation, and impaired skeletal acquisition. In that case, treating mice with leptin during caloric restriction (CR) should reduce marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and improve bone mass. To test this hypothesis, female C57Bl/6J mice were fed a 30% CR or normal (N) diet from 5 to 10 weeks of age, with daily injections of vehicle (VEH), 1mg/kg leptin (LEP1), or 2mg/kg leptin (LEP2) (N=6-8/group). Outcomes included body mass, body fat percentage, and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD) via peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, cortical and trabecular microarchitecture via microcomputed tomography (μCT), and MAT volume via μCT of osmium tetroxide-stained bones. Overall, CR mice had lower body mass, body fat percentage, BMD, and cortical bone area fraction, but more connected trabeculae, vs N mice (P<0.05 for all). Most significantly, although MAT was elevated in CR vs N overall, leptin treatment blunted MAT formation in CR mice by 50% vs VEH (P<0.05 for both leptin doses). CR LEP2 mice weighed less vs CR VEH mice at 9-10 weeks of age (P<0.05), but leptin treatment did not affect body fat percentage, BMD, or bone microarchitecture within either diet. These data demonstrate that once daily leptin bolus during CR inhibits bone marrow adipose expansion without affecting bone mass acquisition, suggesting that leptin has distinct effects on starvation-induced bone marrow fat formation and skeletal acquisition. PMID:27340200

  18. Fatness but Not Fitness Relative to the Fat-Free Mass Is Related to C-Reactive Protein in 18 Year-Old Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hinriksdóttir, Gunnhildur; Tryggvadóttir, Ágústa; Ólafsdóttir, Anna Sigríður; Arngrímsson, Sigurbjörn Árni

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The interaction between fatness, fitness, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adolescents is not well characterized but may be important to prevent low grade inflammation. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between adiposity, different expressions of fitness, and CRP in late adolescence using direct measures of fitness and fatness. Methods Anthropometric measurements were taken on 245 eighteen-year-old participants (116 girls). Fasting CRP, glucose, and insulin were measured and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) calculated. Body composition was estimated via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fitness was assessed with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during a treadmill test and also expressed relative to the fat-free mass (VO2maxFFM). Results Prevalence of overweight/obesity based on body mass index (BMI) was 20.7% and 25.6% among girls and boys, respectively (p = 0.407), but 42.5% and 58.1% when based on body fat percentage (%fat, p = 0.015). Higher proportion of boys (81.3%) than girls (54.5%) were highly fit (p<0.001), but the percentage of girls with high levels of CRP was greater (12.1% vs 6.2%, p = 0.028). Adiposity, indicated with BMI, waist circumference, fat mass, android fat mass (aFM), or %fat, was positively associated with CRP independent of VO2max (r = 0.13-0.18, p<0.05) and VO2maxFFM (r = 0.24-0.32, p<0.001). VO2max, was negatively associated with CRP independent only of BMI and waist circumference (r = -0.21, p = 0.001), but not %fat, fat mass or aFM (r = -0.08 to -0.12, p>0.05). VO2maxFFM was unrelated to CRP with (r = -0.07 to -0.11, p>0.05) or without (r = -0.10, p = 0.142) adjustment for adiposity. Additional adjustment for HOMA did not change any of the relationships, although the coefficients were attenuated. Conclusions Fatness has a greater association with CRP than fitness in late adolescence. However, VO2maxFFM, which is truly independent of adiposity, is unrelated to CRP, indicating that the effects of

  19. The utility of fat mass index vs. body mass index and percentage of body fat in the screening of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been well documented that obesity is closely associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Although body mass index (BMI) is the most frequently used method to assess overweightness and obesity, this method has been criticized because BMI does not always reflect true body fatness, which may be better evaluated by assessment of body fat and fat-free mass. The objective of this study was to investigate the best indicator to predict the presence of MetS among fat mass index, BMI and percentage of body fat (BF %) and determine its optimal cut-off value in the screening of MetS in practice. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1698 subjects (aged 20–79 years) who participated in the annual health check-ups was employed. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Fat mass index (FMI) was calculated. Sex-specific FMI quartiles were defined as follows: Q1: <4.39, Q2:4.39- < 5.65, Q3:5.65- < 7.03, Q4:≥7.03,in men; and Q1:<5.25, Q2:5.25- < 6.33, Q3:6.33- < 7.93,Q4:≥7.93, in women. MetS was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The association between FMI quartiles and MetS was assessed using Binary logistic regression. Receiver operating curve(ROC) analysis was used to determine optimal cutoff points for BMI,BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve(AUC),sensitivity and specificity in men and women. Results The adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for the presence of MetS in the highest FMI quartile versus lowest quartile were 79.143(21.243-294.852) for men( P < 0.01) and 52.039(4.144-653.436) for women( P < 0.01) after adjusting age, BMI, BF%, TC, LDL, CRP, smoking status and exercise status, and the odds ratios were 9.166(2.157-38.952) for men( P < 0.01) and 25.574(1.945-336.228) for women( P < 0.05) when WC was also added into the adjustment. It was determined that BMI values of 27.45 and 23.85 kg/m2, BF% of 23.95% and 31.35% and FMI of 7

  20. Myostatin Inhibition in Muscle, but Not Adipose Tissue, Decreases Fat Mass and Improves Insulin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tingqing; Jou, William; Chanturiya, Tatyana; Portas, Jennifer; Gavrilova, Oksana; McPherron, Alexandra C.

    2009-01-01

    Myostatin (Mstn) is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Mstn−/− mice have a dramatic increase in muscle mass, reduction in fat mass, and resistance to diet-induced and genetic obesity. To determine how Mstn deletion causes reduced adiposity and resistance to obesity, we analyzed substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity in Mstn−/− mice fed a standard chow. Despite reduced lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, Mstn−/− mice had no change in the rate of whole body lipid oxidation. In contrast, Mstn−/− mice had increased glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity as measured by indirect calorimetry, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. To determine whether these metabolic effects were due primarily to the loss of myostatin signaling in muscle or adipose tissue, we compared two transgenic mouse lines carrying a dominant negative activin IIB receptor expressed specifically in adipocytes or skeletal muscle. We found that inhibition of myostatin signaling in adipose tissue had no effect on body composition, weight gain, or glucose and insulin tolerance in mice fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet. In contrast, inhibition of myostatin signaling in skeletal muscle, like Mstn deletion, resulted in increased lean mass, decreased fat mass, improved glucose metabolism on standard and high-fat diets, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that Mstn−/− mice have an increase in insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, and that the reduction in adipose tissue mass in Mstn−/− mice is an indirect result of metabolic changes in skeletal muscle. These data suggest that increasing muscle mass by administration of myostatin antagonists may be a promising therapeutic target for treating patients with obesity or diabetes. PMID:19295913

  1. A giant subserosal uterine leiomyoma mimicking an abdominal mass: multimodal imaging data.

    PubMed

    Kalayci, Tugce Ozlem; Akatlı, Ayşe Nur; Sönmezgöz, Fitnet; Türkmen Şamdancı, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Giant uterine leiomyomas are extremely rare neoplasms and are challenging both diagnostically and therapeutically. A 49-year-old premenopausal female presented at our Department complaining of abdominal pain and distention for several years. Ultrasound (US), color Doppler US, abdominal computed tomography imaging after administration of contrast material, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging were performed. Histopathologic examination revealed a pedunculated subserosal uterine leiomyoma. In this case report, we present abdominopelvic multimodal radiologic imaging findings of our patient with a giant subserosal uterine leiomyoma, in conjunction with histopathological findings.

  2. How to Estimate Fat Mass in Overweight and Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; del Balzo, Valeria; Lubrano, Carla; Faliva, Milena; Opizzi, Annalisa; Perna, Simone; Pinto, Alessandro; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2013-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and represents a primary health concern. Body composition evaluation is rarely performed in overweight/obese subjects, and the diagnosis is almost always achieved just considering body mass index (BMI). In fact, whereas BMI can be considered an important tool in epidemiological surveys, different papers stated the limitations of the use of BMI in single individuals. Aim. To assess the determinants of body composition in overweight and obese subjects. Methods. In 103 overweight or obese subjects (74 women, aged 41.5 ± 10 years, and 29 men, aged 43.8 ± 8 years), a multidimensional evaluation was performed including the assessment of body composition using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA), anthropometry, bioimpedance analysis (BIA), and biochemical parameters (total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, free fatty acids and glycerol, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein, plasma acylated and unacylated ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin serum levels). Results. BMI does not represent the main predictor of FM estimated by DXA; FM from BIA and hip circumference showed a better association with FM from DXA. Moreover, models omitting BMI explained a greater part of variance. These data are confirmed by the predictive value analysis where BMI showed a performance similar to a “coin flip.” PMID:23662101

  3. Tall men with medium body fat mass percentage display more developmental stability.

    PubMed

    Özener, Bariş

    2010-12-01

    A symmetrical body may signal the ability of an individual to cope with developmental perturbations and may thus be considered a 'health certificate'. It is known that symmetrical men are considered more attractive by women and that their reproductive success is higher. This study examined the associations between measures of body structure and fluctuating asymmetry in young Turkish men. Weight, height, and bioelectrical impedance were measured in a sample of 250 men residing in Ankara (mean age=18.4, SD=0.6), and body mass index was calculated. Fluctuating asymmetry was measured using hand length, hand width, elbow width, wrist width, knee width, ankle width, foot length, foot width, ear length, and ear width. According to the obtained findings, there is a negative linear relationship between composite fluctuating asymmetry (CFA) and height, and a positive quadratic relationship between CFA and fat mass. These results might indicate that the tall Turkish men with medium body fat mass percentage display more developmental stability.

  4. Effect of licorice on the reduction of body fat mass in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Armanini, D; De Palo, C B; Mattarello, M J; Spinella, P; Zaccaria, M; Ermolao, A; Palermo, M; Fiore, C; Sartorato, P; Francini-Pesenti, F; Karbowiak, I

    2003-07-01

    The history of licorice, as a medicinal plant, is very old and has been used in many societies throughout the millennia. The active principle, glycyrrhetinic acid, is responsible for sodium retention and hypertension, which is the most common side-effect. We show an effect of licorice in reducing body fat mass. We studied 15 normal-weight subjects (7 males, age 22-26 yr, and 8 females, age 21-26 yr), who consumed for 2 months 3.5 g a day of a commercial preparation of licorice. Body fat mass (BFM, expressed as percentage of total body weight, by skinfold thickness and by bioelectrical impedance analysis, BIA) and extracellular water (ECW, percentage of total body water, by BIA) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) did not change. ECW increased (males: 41.8+/-2.0 before vs 47.0+/-2.3 after, p<0.001; females: 48.2+/-1.4 before vs 49.4+/-2.1 after, p<0.05). BFM was reduced by licorice: (male: before 12.0+/-2.1 vs after 10.8+/-2.9%, p<0.02; female: before 24.9+/-5.1 vs after 22.1+/-5.4, p<0.02); plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone were suppressed. Licorice was able to reduce body fat mass and to suppress aldosterone, without any change in BMI. Since the subjects were consuming the same amount of calories during the study, we suggest that licorice can reduce fat by inhibiting 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 at the level of fat cells. PMID:14594116

  5. Intratumoral Macroscopic Fat and Hemorrhage Combination Useful in the Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Solid Renal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jun; Xing, Zhaoyu; Xing, Wei; Zheng, Linfeng; Chen, Jie; Fan, Min; Chen, Tongbing; Zhang, Zhuoli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the value of combining the detection of intratumoral macroscopic fat and hemorrhage in the differentiation of the benign from malignant solid renal masses. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), chemical shift (CS)–MRI, and susceptibility-weighted imaging were performed in 152 patients with 152 solid renal masses, including 48 benign and 104 malignant masses all pathologically confirmed. The presence of macroscopic fat detected by CS-MRI and hemorrhage detected by susceptibility-weighted imaging were evaluated in all masses. The rates of macroscopic fat and hemorrhage observed between benign and malignant masses were compared by a χ2 test. All masses found to contain macroscopic fat with or without hemorrhage were considered to be benign. The remaining masses (without macroscopic fat) found not to contain hemorrhage were considered to be benign. Only those found to contain hemorrhage alone were considered to be malignant. The evaluation indexes for differentiating and forecasting the benign and malignant masses were calculated. Significant differences in the rate of macroscopic fat (observed in 85.42% of benign masses vs. 0% of malignant masses) and hemorrhage (observed in 4.17% of benign masses vs. 95.19% of malignant masses) were measured in the benign and malignant groups (P < 0.005, for both). The 41 masses containing macroscopic fat with or without hemorrhage and 11 masses containing neither macroscopic fat nor hemorrhage were considered to be benign. The 100 masses containing no macroscopic fat and only hemorrhage were considered to be malignant. By combining the results for the macroscopic fat and hemorrhage, the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in the differential diagnosis of the benign and malignant masses were 96.05%, 95.19%, and 97.92%, respectively, and the accuracy and error rate of forecasting the benign and malignant masses were 95.39% and 4.61%, respectively. Combining the detection intratumoral macroscopic

  6. Fat Mass Centile Charts for Brazilian Children and Adolescents and the Identification of the Roles of Socioeconomic Status and Physical Fitness on Fat Mass Development

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Simonete; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Maia, José

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents fat mass centile charts for Brazilian youth and investigates the roles of socioeconomic status and physical fitness (PF) on fat mass (FM) development. Two northeast Brazilian samples were used: a cross-sectional sample of 3659 (1921 girls) aged 8 to 16 years and a mixed-longitudinal series of cohorts (8–10, 10–12, 12–14, 14–16 years) with 250 boys and 250 girls. A measure of somatic maturity was used as a marker of biological maturation; PF comprised agility, explosive and static strength, and aerobic capacity. Socioeconomic status was based on school attended; public or private. Slaughter’s anthropometric equations were used to estimate FM. Percentile charts was constructed using the LMS method. HLM (Hierarchical Linear Model) 7 software modeled FM changes, identifying inter-individual differences and their covariates. Girls and boys had different FM percentile values at each age; FM increased nonlinearly in both girls and boys. Higher PF levels reduced FM changes across time in both sexes. Sex-specific non-linear FM references were provided representing important tools for nutritionists, pediatriciann and educators. Physical fitness levels were found to act as a protective factor in FM increases. As such, we emphasize PF importance as a putative health marker and highlight the need for its systematic development across the school years. PMID:26805867

  7. Fat Mass Centile Charts for Brazilian Children and Adolescents and the Identification of the Roles of Socioeconomic Status and Physical Fitness on Fat Mass Development.

    PubMed

    Silva, Simonete; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Maia, José

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents fat mass centile charts for Brazilian youth and investigates the roles of socioeconomic status and physical fitness (PF) on fat mass (FM) development. Two northeast Brazilian samples were used: a cross-sectional sample of 3659 (1921 girls) aged 8 to 16 years and a mixed-longitudinal series of cohorts (8-10, 10-12, 12-14, 14-16 years) with 250 boys and 250 girls. A measure of somatic maturity was used as a marker of biological maturation; PF comprised agility, explosive and static strength, and aerobic capacity. Socioeconomic status was based on school attended; public or private. Slaughter's anthropometric equations were used to estimate FM. Percentile charts was constructed using the LMS method. HLM (Hierarchical Linear Model) 7 software modeled FM changes, identifying inter-individual differences and their covariates. Girls and boys had different FM percentile values at each age; FM increased nonlinearly in both girls and boys. Higher PF levels reduced FM changes across time in both sexes. Sex-specific non-linear FM references were provided representing important tools for nutritionists, pediatriciann and educators. Physical fitness levels were found to act as a protective factor in FM increases. As such, we emphasize PF importance as a putative health marker and highlight the need for its systematic development across the school years. PMID:26805867

  8. Associations of glucocorticoid receptor and corticosteroid-binding globulin gene polymorphisms on fat mass and fat mass distribution in prepubertal obese children.

    PubMed

    Barat, Pascal; Corcuff, Jean-Benoît; Tauber, Maïté; Moisan, Marie-Pierre

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies conducted in adult obese patients have shown that glucocorticoid receptor and corticosteroid-binding globulin gene polymorphisms influence cortisol-driven obesity and metabolic parameters. We investigated the impact of these polymorphisms in prepubertal obese children that were thoroughly examined for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and for metabolic and obesity parameters. Obese children carrier of the allele G of the BclI polymorphism within glucocorticoid receptor gene tend to present a higher percentage of fat mass as well as a decreased cortisol suppression after low-dose dexamethasone as found in adult studies. Additionally, these allele G carriers show a strong correlation between truncal fat mass distribution and cortisol response to a standardized lunch, whereas this correlation is weak in allele C carriers. No differences were found for obesity or metabolic parameters between genotypes at the corticosteroid-binding globulin locus. However, allele 90 carriers present increased 24-h free urinary cortisol. Overall, this study provides new data showing the influence of glucocorticoid receptor and corticosteroid-binding globulin genes in obesity and/or cortisol action in prepubertal obese children.

  9. Length Normalized Indices for Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass in Preterm and Term Infants during the First Six Months of Life

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Ipsita; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Gerhard; Liu, Kai; Marrin, Michael L.; Heckmann, Matthias; Nelle, Mathias; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Postnatal tissue accretion in preterm infants differs from those in utero, affecting body composition (BC) and lifelong morbidity. Length normalized BC data allows infants with different body lengths to be compared and followed longitudinally. This study aims to analyze BC of preterm and term infants during the first six months of life. Methods: The BC data, measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, of 389 preterm and 132 term infants from four longitudinal studies were combined. Fat-mass/length2 (FMI) and fat-free mass/length2 (FFMI) for postmenstrual age were calculated after reaching full enteral feeding, at term and two further time points up to six months corrected age. Results: Median FMI (preterm) increased from 0.4 kg/m2 at 30 weeks to 2.5, 4.3, and 4.8 kg/m2 compared to 1.7, 4.7, and 6 kg/m2 in term infants at 40, 52, and 64 weeks, respectively. Median FFMI (preterm) increased from 8.5 kg/m2 (30 weeks) to 11.4 kg/m2 (45 weeks) and remained constant thereafter, whereas term FFMI remained constant at 11 kg/m2 throughout the tested time points. Conclusion: The study provides a large dataset of length normalized BC indices. Followed longitudinally, term and preterm infants differ considerably during early infancy in the pattern of change in FMI and FFMI for age. PMID:27399768

  10. Increased energy expenditure and leptin sensitivity account for low fat mass in myostatin-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Ju; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Schwartz, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Myostatin deficiency causes dramatically increased skeletal muscle mass and reduced fat mass. Previously, myostatin-deficient mice were reported to have unexpectedly low total energy expenditure (EE) after normalizing to body mass, and thus, a metabolic cause for low fat mass was discounted. To clarify how myostatin deficiency affects the control of body fat mass and energy balance, we compared rates of oxygen consumption, body composition, and food intake in young myostatin-deficient mice relative to wild-type (WT) and heterozygous (HET) controls. We report that after adjusting for total body mass using regression analysis, young myostatin-deficient mice display significantly increased EE relative to both WT (+0.81 ± 0.28 kcal/day, P = 0.004) and HET controls (+0.92 ± 0.31 kcal/day, P = 0.005). Since food intake was not different between groups, increased EE likely accounts for the reduced body fat mass (KO: 8.8 ± 1.1% vs. WT: 14.5 ± 1.3%, P = 0.003) and circulating leptin levels (KO: 0.7 ± 0.2 ng/ml vs. WT: 1.9 ± 0.3 ng/ml, P = 0.008). Interestingly, the observed increase in adjusted EE in myostatin-deficient mice occurred despite dramatically reduced ambulatory activity levels (−50% vs. WT, P < 0.05). The absence of hyperphagia together with increased EE in myostatin-deficient mice suggests that increased leptin sensitivity may contribute to their lean phenotype. Indeed, leptin-induced anorexia (KO: −17 ± 1.2% vs. WT: −5 ± 0.3%) and weight loss (KO: −2.2 ± 0.2 g vs. WT: −1.6 ± 0.1, P < 0.05) were increased in myostatin-deficient mice compared with WT controls. We conclude that increased EE, together with increased leptin sensitivity, contributes to low fat mass in mice lacking myostatin. PMID:21427410

  11. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P < .05), and so did body fat mass (placebo vs ASE; bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity.

  12. Body mass, fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors in a lean population of south China.

    PubMed

    Folsom, A R; Li, Y; Rao, X; Cen, R; Zhang, K; Liu, X; He, L; Irving, S; Dennis, B H

    1994-02-01

    The associations of body mass index and abdominal adiposity, represented by an elevated waist/hip circumference ratio, with cardiovascular risk factors were examined in men and women, aged 28-69 years, from urban and rural areas of Guangzhou, China. Mean body mass index ranged from 20.1 to 21.9 kg/m2 across the four sex- and area-groups. Mean waist/hip ratio was 0.84 in men and 0.80 in women. After accounting for age and body mass index, waist/hip ratio was associated negatively (p < 0.05) with fasting serum HDL cholesterol (both sexes), and positively with serum triglycerides (both sexes), total and LDL cholesterol (men only), uric acid (both sexes), glucose (women only), and mean systolic blood pressure (women only). Body mass index was associated in a similar direction with most of these risk factors. These data confirm that abdominal adiposity is independently associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors, even in a lean Asian population.

  13. NMR-based metabolic profiling in healthy individuals overfed different types of fat: links to changes in liver fat accumulation and lean tissue mass

    PubMed Central

    Elmsjö, A; Rosqvist, F; Engskog, M K R; Haglöf, J; Kullberg, J; Iggman, D; Johansson, L; Ahlström, H; Arvidsson, T; Risérus, U; Pettersson, C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overeating different dietary fatty acids influence the amount of liver fat stored during weight gain, however, the mechanisms responsible are unclear. We aimed to identify non-lipid metabolites that may differentiate between saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) overfeeding using a non-targeted metabolomic approach. We also investigated the possible relationships between plasma metabolites and body fat accumulation. Methods: In a randomized study (LIPOGAIN study), n=39 healthy individuals were overfed with muffins containing SFA or PUFA. Plasma samples were precipitated with cold acetonitrile and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Pattern recognition techniques were used to overview the data, identify variables contributing to group classification and to correlate metabolites with fat accumulation. Results: We previously reported that SFA causes a greater accumulation of liver fat, visceral fat and total body fat, whereas lean tissue levels increases less compared with PUFA, despite comparable weight gain. In this study, lactate and acetate were identified as important contributors to group classification between SFA and PUFA (P<0.05). Furthermore, the fat depots (total body fat, visceral adipose tissue and liver fat) and lean tissue correlated (P(corr)>0.5) all with two or more metabolites (for example, branched amino acids, alanine, acetate and lactate). The metabolite composition differed in a manner that may indicate higher insulin sensitivity after a diet with PUFA compared with SFA, but this needs to be confirmed in future studies. Conclusion: A non-lipid metabolic profiling approach only identified a few metabolites that differentiated between SFA and PUFA overfeeding. Whether these metabolite changes are involved in depot-specific fat storage and increased lean tissue mass during overeating needs further investigation. PMID:26479316

  14. Prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and childhood fat mass in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Jessie P; Herring, Amy H; Wolff, Mary S; Calafat, Antonia M; Engel, Stephanie M

    2016-05-01

    Early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals may alter adipogenesis and energy balance leading to changes in obesity risk. Several studies have evaluated the association of prenatal bisphenol A exposure with childhood body size but only one study of male infants has examined other environmental phenols. Therefore, we assessed associations between prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and fat mass in a prospective birth cohort. We quantified four phenol biomarkers in third trimester maternal spot urine samples in a cohort of women enrolled in New York City between 1998 and 2002 and evaluated fat mass in their children using a Tanita scale between ages 4 and 9years (173 children with 351 total observations). We estimated associations of standard deviation differences in natural log creatinine-standardized phenol biomarker concentrations with percent fat mass using linear mixed effects regression models. We did not observe associations of bisphenol A or triclosan with childhood percent fat mass. In unadjusted models, maternal urinary concentrations of 2,5-dichlorophenol were associated with greater percent fat mass and benzophenone-3 was associated with lower percent fat mass among children. After adjustment, phenol biomarkers were not associated with percent fat mass. However, the association between benzophenone-3 and percent fat mass was modified by child's sex: benzophenone-3 concentrations were inversely associated with percent fat mass in girls (beta=-1.51, 95% CI=-3.06, 0.01) but not boys (beta=-0.20, 95% CI=-1.69, 1.26). Although we did not observe strong evidence that prenatal environmental phenols exposures influence the development of childhood adiposity, the potential antiadipogenic effect of benzophenone-3 in girls may warrant further investigation. PMID:27037776

  15. Major gender differences in the lipolytic capacity of abdominal subcutaneous fat cells in obesity observed before and after long-term weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, Patrik; Hoffstedt, Johan; Rydén, Mikael; Thörne, Anders; Holm, Cecilia; Wahrenberg, Hans; Arner, Peter

    2002-02-01

    The influence of obesity on the lipolytic capacity of isolated sc fat cells was studied prospectively in 13 women and 10 men, all obese, but otherwise healthy, before and 2 and 3 yr after weight reduction by bariatric surgery. Nonobese subjects (25 women and 17 men) without a family history of obesity served as the control group. Lipolytic capacity was determined after stimulation at different steps of the lipolytic cascade with noradrenaline, isoprenaline, forskolin, and (Bu)(2)AMP. Bariatric surgery was followed by a marked and similar reduction of body mass index and fat cell volume (approximately 40%) in both genders. Before weight loss, lipolytic capacity per cell was elevated in obese women and decreased to normal levels after weight reduction at 2 and 3 yr. However, lipolytic capacity per fat cell surface area was not changed in obese women. In obese men, lipolytic capacity per cell was almost the same as in lean men and was not influenced by weight reduction. Lipolytic capacity was related to fat cell size in women (P = 0.0008; r = 0.58), but not in men (P = 0.67; r = 0.086). The protein content of hormone-sensitive lipase, which determines lipolytic capacity, was significantly lower in obese men and women and increased slightly after weight reduction in men only. Thus, in women, but not in men, the adipocyte lipolytic capacity is influenced by obesity and weight reduction, probably due to changes in fat cell size. These gender differences are not related to the amount of hormone-sensitive lipase protein in adipocytes. PMID:11836318

  16. Obesity-prone high-fat-fed rats reduce caloric intake and adiposity and gain more fat-free mass when allowed to self-select protein from carbohydrate:fat intake.

    PubMed

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Pimentel, Grégory; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire; Even, Patrick C

    2016-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, for rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a prioritization of maintaining protein intake may increase energy consumption and hence result in obesity, particularly for individuals prone to obesity ("fat sensitive," FS, vs. "fat resistant," FR). Male Wistar rats (n = 80) first received 3 wk of HFD (protein 15%, fat 42%, carbohydrate 42%), under which they were characterized as being FS (n = 18) or FR (n = 20) based on body weight gain. They then continued on the same HFD but in which protein (100%) was available separately from the carbohydrate:fat (50:50%) mixture. Under this second regimen, all rats maintained their previous protein intake, whereas intake of fat and carbohydrate was reduced by 50%. This increased protein intake to 26% and decreased fat intake to 37%. Adiposity gain was prevented in both FR and FS rats, and gain in fat-free mass was increased only in FS rats. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a protein meal, and their tissues and organs were collected for analysis of body composition and measurement of mRNA levels in the liver, adipose tissue, arcuate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens. FS rats had a higher expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in lipogenesis in the liver and white adipose tissue. These results show that FS rats strongly reduced food intake and adiposity gain through macronutrient selection, despite maintenance of a relatively high-fat intake and overexpression of genes favoring lipogenesis.

  17. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female. PMID:26633917

  18. Predicting total fat mass from skinfold thicknesses in Japanese prepubertal children: a cross-sectional and longitudinal validation.

    PubMed

    Midorikawa, Taishi; Ohta, Megumi; Hikihara, Yuki; Torii, Suguru; Bemben, Michael G; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2011-01-01

    The present study was performed to develop regression based prediction equations for fat mass from skinfold thickness in Japanese children, and to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal validity of these equations. A total of 127 healthy Japanese prepubertal children aged 6-12 years were randomly separated into two groups: the model development group (54 boys and 44 girls) and the cross-sectional validation group (18 boys and 11 girls). Fat mass was initially determined by using DXA (Hologic Delphi A-QDR whole-body scanner) to provide reference data. Then, fat thickness was measured at triceps and subscapular using an Eiken-type skinfold calipers. Multiple anthropometric and DXA measures were obtained one year later for 28 of the original 127 subjects (longitudinal validation group: 14 boys and 14 girls). Strong significant correlations were observed between total fat mass by DXA measurement and the skinfold thickness × height measures by caliper in the model development group of boys and girls (R2=0.91-0.92, p<0.01). When these fat mass prediction equations were applied to the cross-sectional and longitudinal validation groups, the measured total fat mass was also very similar to the predicted fat mass. In addition, there were significant correlations between the measured and predicted total fat mass for boys and girls, respectively, although Bland-Altman analysis indicated a bias in cross-sectional validation group. Skinfold-derived prediction equations underestimate for obese children but are generally useful for estimating total fat mass in field research.

  19. Estimated lean mass and fat mass differentially affect femoral bone density and strength index but are not FRAX independent risk factors for fracture.

    PubMed

    Leslie, William D; Orwoll, Eric S; Nielson, Carrie M; Morin, Suzanne N; Majumdar, Sumit R; Johansson, Helena; Odén, Anders; McCloskey, Eugene V; Kanis, John A

    2014-11-01

    Although increasing body weight has been regarded as protective against osteoporosis and fractures, there is accumulating evidence that fat mass adversely affects skeletal health compared with lean mass. We examined skeletal health as a function of estimated total body lean and fat mass in 40,050 women and 3600 men age ≥50 years at the time of baseline dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) testing from a clinical registry from Manitoba, Canada. Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), strength index (SI), cross-sectional area (CSA), and cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) were derived from DXA. Multivariable models showed that increasing lean mass was associated with near-linear increases in femoral BMD, CSA, and CSMI in both women and men, whereas increasing fat mass showed a small initial increase in these measurements followed by a plateau. In contrast, femoral SI was relatively unaffected by increasing lean mass but was associated with a continuous linear decline with increasing fat mass, which should predict higher fracture risk. During mean 5-year follow-up, incident major osteoporosis fractures and hip fractures were observed in 2505 women and 180 men (626 and 45 hip fractures, respectively). After adjustment for fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) scores (with or without BMD), we found no evidence that lean mass, fat mass, or femoral SI affected prediction of major osteoporosis fractures or hip fractures. Findings were similar in men and women, without significant interactions with sex or obesity. In conclusion, skeletal adaptation to increasing lean mass was positively associated with BMD but had no effect on femoral SI, whereas increasing fat mass had no effect on BMD but adversely affected femoral SI. Greater fat mass was not independently associated with a greater risk of fractures over 5-year follow-up. FRAX robustly predicts fractures and was not affected by variations in body composition. PMID:24825359

  20. Does the Amount of Fat Mass Predict Age-Related Loss of Lean Mass, Muscle Strength, and Muscle Quality in Older Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jingzhong; Stenholm, Sari; Caserotti, Paolo; Houston, Denise K.; Nicklas, Barbara J.; You, Tongjian; Lee, Jung Sun; Visser, Marjolein; Newman, Anne B.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Cauley, Jane A.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Harris, Tamara B.

    2011-01-01

    Background. An excessive amount of adipose tissue may contribute to sarcopenia and may be one mechanism underlying accelerated loss of muscle mass and strength with aging. We therefore examined the association of baseline total body fat with changes in leg lean mass, muscle strength, and muscle quality over 7 years of follow-up and whether this link was explained by adipocytokines and insulin resistance. Methods. Data were from 2,307 men and women, aged 70–79 years, participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Total fat mass was acquired from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Leg lean mass was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in Years 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8. Knee extension strength was measured by isokinetic dynamometer in Years 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8. Muscle quality was calculated as muscle strength divided by leg lean mass. Results. Every SD greater fat mass was related to 1.3 kg more leg lean mass at baseline in men and 1.5 kg in women (p < .01). Greater fat mass was also associated with a greater decline in leg lean mass in both men and women (0.02 kg/year, p < .01), which was not explained by higher levels of adipocytokines and insulin resistance. Larger fat mass was related to significantly greater muscle strength but significantly lower muscle quality at baseline (p < .01). No significant differences in decline of muscle strength and quality were found. Conclusions. High fatness was associated with lower muscle quality, and it predicts accelerated loss of lean mass. Prevention of greater fatness in old age may decrease the loss of lean mass and maintain muscle quality and thereby reducing disability and mobility impairments. PMID:21572082

  1. Peripheral oxytocin treatment ameliorates obesity by reducing food intake and visceral fat mass.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Yamahara, Yui; Kodaira, Misato; Sedbazar, Udval; Yada, Toshihiko

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxytocin (Oxt) is implicated in energy metabolism. We aimed to explore acute and sub-chronic effects of peripheral Oxt treatment via different routes on food intake and energy balance. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Oxt concentration-dependently decreased food intake in mice. Ip Oxt injection induced c-Fos expression in the hypothalamus and brain stem including arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Subcutaneous (sc) injection of Oxt suppressed food intake in normal and high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Daily sc injection of Oxt for 17 days in DIO mice reduced food intake for 6 days and body weight for the entire treatment period and additional 9 days after terminating Oxt. Oxt infusion by sc implanted osmotic minipumps for 13 days in DIO mice reduced food intake, body weight, and visceral fat mass and adipocyte size. Oxt infusion also decreased respiratory quotient specifically in light phase, ameliorated fatty liver and glucose intolerance, without affecting normal blood pressure in DIO mice. These results demonstrate that peripheral Oxt treatment reduces food intake and visceral fat mass, and ameliorates obesity, fatty liver and glucose intolerance. Peripheral Oxt treatment provides a new therapeutic avenue for treating obesity and hyperphagia.

  2. Abdominal Fat and Sarcopenia in Women Significantly Alter Osteoblasts Homeostasis In Vitro by a WNT/β-Catenin Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wannenes, Francesca; Papa, Vincenza; Greco, Emanuela A.; Fornari, Rachele; Marocco, Chiara; Di Luigi, Luigi; Donini, Lorenzo M.; Lenzi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and sarcopenia have been associated with mineral metabolism derangement and low bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated whether imbalance of serum factors in obese or obese sarcopenic patients could affect bone cell activity in vitro. To evaluate and characterize potential cellular and molecular changes of human osteoblasts, cells were exposed to sera of four groups of patients: (1) affected by obesity with normal BMD (O), (2) affected by obesity with low BMD (OO), (3) affected by obesity and sarcopenia (OS), and (4) affected by obesity, sarcopenia, and low BMD (OOS) as compared to subjects with normal body weight and normal BMD (CTL). Patients were previously investigated and characterized for body composition, biochemical and bone turnover markers. Then, sera of different groups of patients were used to incubate human osteoblasts and evaluate potential alterations in cell homeostasis. Exposure to OO, OS, and OOS sera significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and BMP4 expression compared to cells exposed to O and CTL, indicating a detrimental effect on osteoblast differentiation. Interestingly, sera of all groups of patients induced intracellular alteration in Wnt/β-catenin molecular pathway, as demonstrated by the significant alteration of specific target genes expression and by altered β-catenin cellular compartmentalization and GSK3β phosphorylation. In conclusion our results show for the first time that sera of obese subjects with low bone mineral density and sarcopenia significantly alter osteoblasts homeostasis in vitro, indicating potential detrimental effects of trunk fat on bone formation and skeletal homeostasis. PMID:24963291

  3. Abdominal Fat and Sarcopenia in Women Significantly Alter Osteoblasts Homeostasis In Vitro by a WNT/ β -Catenin Dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wannenes, Francesca; Papa, Vincenza; Greco, Emanuela A; Fornari, Rachele; Marocco, Chiara; Baldari, Carlo; Di Luigi, Luigi; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Guidetti, Laura; Donini, Lorenzo M; Lenzi, Andrea; Migliaccio, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and sarcopenia have been associated with mineral metabolism derangement and low bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated whether imbalance of serum factors in obese or obese sarcopenic patients could affect bone cell activity in vitro. To evaluate and characterize potential cellular and molecular changes of human osteoblasts, cells were exposed to sera of four groups of patients: (1) affected by obesity with normal BMD (O), (2) affected by obesity with low BMD (OO), (3) affected by obesity and sarcopenia (OS), and (4) affected by obesity, sarcopenia, and low BMD (OOS) as compared to subjects with normal body weight and normal BMD (CTL). Patients were previously investigated and characterized for body composition, biochemical and bone turnover markers. Then, sera of different groups of patients were used to incubate human osteoblasts and evaluate potential alterations in cell homeostasis. Exposure to OO, OS, and OOS sera significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and BMP4 expression compared to cells exposed to O and CTL, indicating a detrimental effect on osteoblast differentiation. Interestingly, sera of all groups of patients induced intracellular alteration in Wnt/ β -catenin molecular pathway, as demonstrated by the significant alteration of specific target genes expression and by altered β -catenin cellular compartmentalization and GSK3 β phosphorylation. In conclusion our results show for the first time that sera of obese subjects with low bone mineral density and sarcopenia significantly alter osteoblasts homeostasis in vitro, indicating potential detrimental effects of trunk fat on bone formation and skeletal homeostasis. PMID:24963291

  4. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW). Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  5. Body fat mass reduction and up-regulation of uncoupling protein by novel lipolysis-promoting plant extract.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shinobu; Satou, Mayumi; Kanazawa, Satoshi; Yoshizuka, Naonobu; Hase, Tadashi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Takema, Yoshinori; Nishizawa, Yoshinori; Yada, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    We have found natural products exhibiting lipolysis-promoting activity in subcutaneous adipocytes, which are less sensitive to hormones than visceral adipocytes. The activities and a action mechanisms of a novel plant extract of Cirsium oligophyllum (CE) were investigated in isolated adipocytes from rat subcutaneous fat, and its fat-reducing effects by peroral administration and topical application were evaluated in vivo. CE-induced lipolysis was synergistically enhanced by caffeine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and was reduced by propranolol, a beta adrenergic antagonist. The peroral administration of 10% CE solution to Wistar rats for 32 days reduced body weight gain, subcutaneous, and visceral fat weights by 6.6, 26.2, and 3.0%, respectively, as compared to the control group. By the topical application of 2% of this extract to rats for 7 days, weight of subcutaneous fat in the treated skin was reduced by 23.2%. This fat mass reduction was accompanied by the up-regulation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP), a principal thermogenic mitochondrial molecule related to energy dissipating, in subcutaneous fat and UCP3 in skin except for the fat layer. These results indicate that CE promotes lipolysis via a mechanism involving the beta adrenergic receptor, and affects the body fat mass. This fat reduction may be partially due to UCP up-regulation in the skin including subcutaneous fat. This is the first report showing that repeated lipolysis promotion through CE administration may be beneficial for the systematic suppression of body fat accumulation or the control of fat distribution in obesity.

  6. A study of acid phosphatase locus 1 in women with high fat content and normal body mass index.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, Antonino; Di Renzo, Laura; Puja, Alberto; Saccucci, Patrizia; Gloria-Bottini, Fulvia; Bottini, Egidio

    2009-03-01

    De Lorenzo and coworkers have recently described a class of women with normal body mass index (BMI) and high fat content (normal weight obese syndrome [NWO]). This observation prompted us to study the possible role of acid phosphatase locus 1 (ACP(1)) in the differentiation of this special class of obese subjects. Acid phosphatase locus 1 is a polymorphic gene associated with severe obesity and with total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. The enzyme is composed by 2 isoforms--F and S--that have different biochemical properties and probably different functions. The sample study was composed of 130 white women from the population of Rome. Total fat mass and percentage of fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Thirty-six women had a BMI less than 25 and percentage of fat mass greater than 30 (high fat, normal BMI [HFHB]), and 94 women showed a BMI greater than 25 and a percentage of fat mass greater than 30 (high fat, high BMI [HFHB]). In the whole sample, the proportion of low-activity ACP(1) genotypes (*A/*A and *B/*A) was higher than in controls. However, whereas HFNB showed a very high frequency of ACP(1) *A/*A genotype, high-fat, high-BMI women showed an increase of *B/*A genotype. These 2 genotypes differ in the concentration of F isoform and the F/S ratio, which are lower in ACP(1)*A/*A genotype than in ACP(1)*B/*A genotype. The genetic differentiation of the class of women with normal BMI and high fat content from the class showing a concordant level of the 2 parameters supports the hypothesis that HFNB class represents a special cluster of obese subjects not revealed by BMI evaluation. Because ACP(1) is present in adipocytes, the present observation suggests that F isoform may have a specific role in the regulation of quantity of adipose tissue.

  7. Lower hepatic iron storage associated with obesity in mice can be restored by decreasing body fat mass through feeding a low-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hak; Wu, Dayong; Smith, Donald; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-09-01

    High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has been reported to result in low hepatic iron storage. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that these obesity-related changes in hepatic iron status could be reversed by decreasing adiposity by feeding a low-fat diet. Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 3 groups: the LL group was fed a control diet for 31 weeks, the HH group was fed a HFD for 31 weeks, and the HL group was fed the HFD for 15 weeks and then switched to the control diet for 16 weeks. The fat mass of the HL group decreased by 3.2 g from the 14th to the 30th weeks. Fat mass was significantly different among the groups (11.4, 15.8, and 37.5 g in the LL, HH, and HL groups, respectively; P< .001). The liver iron concentration of the HL group was similar to that of the LL group, which was about 30% higher than that of the HH group (74.2, 72.7, and 55.7 μg/g in the LL, HL, and HH groups, respectively; P< .05). Duodenal cytochrome b messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were higher in the HL group than in the HH group. Although bone morphogenetic protein 6 (Bmp6) mRNA levels showed no significant differences in the liver, duodenal Bmp6 mRNA levels were significantly lower in the HH group compared with the LL and HL groups. Liver Smad1/5 proteins were differentially activated: the HH group had significantly less phosphorylated Smads than did the LL and HL groups. Our data demonstrate that hepatic iron storage levels are closely related to body adiposity, and reducing body fat mass through feeding a lower-fat diet to HFD-induced obese mice restores liver iron storage.

  8. Lower hepatic iron storage associated with obesity in mice can be restored by decreasing body fat mass through feeding a low-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hak; Wu, Dayong; Smith, Donald; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-09-01

    High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has been reported to result in low hepatic iron storage. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that these obesity-related changes in hepatic iron status could be reversed by decreasing adiposity by feeding a low-fat diet. Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 3 groups: the LL group was fed a control diet for 31 weeks, the HH group was fed a HFD for 31 weeks, and the HL group was fed the HFD for 15 weeks and then switched to the control diet for 16 weeks. The fat mass of the HL group decreased by 3.2 g from the 14th to the 30th weeks. Fat mass was significantly different among the groups (11.4, 15.8, and 37.5 g in the LL, HH, and HL groups, respectively; P< .001). The liver iron concentration of the HL group was similar to that of the LL group, which was about 30% higher than that of the HH group (74.2, 72.7, and 55.7 μg/g in the LL, HL, and HH groups, respectively; P< .05). Duodenal cytochrome b messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were higher in the HL group than in the HH group. Although bone morphogenetic protein 6 (Bmp6) mRNA levels showed no significant differences in the liver, duodenal Bmp6 mRNA levels were significantly lower in the HH group compared with the LL and HL groups. Liver Smad1/5 proteins were differentially activated: the HH group had significantly less phosphorylated Smads than did the LL and HL groups. Our data demonstrate that hepatic iron storage levels are closely related to body adiposity, and reducing body fat mass through feeding a lower-fat diet to HFD-induced obese mice restores liver iron storage. PMID:27632915

  9. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... abdominal cavity ( most often cancer of the ovaries ) Cirrhosis of the liver Damaged bowel Heart disease Infection ...

  10. Which Anthropometric Measure Best Correlates with Neonatal Fat Mass at Birth?

    PubMed

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Gal, Moran; Landau-Helman, Yeela; Biderman, Lihi; Nir, Romy; Maayan-Metzger, Ayala

    2016-07-01

    Objective Body composition provides additional information than weight alone. There is currently no accepted anthropometric measure of adiposity in infants, yet weight and length data allow calculations of a wide array of indices. The study objective was to identify the anthropometric index which best correlates with neonatal adiposity, by examining the associations between neonatal fat mass and several anthropometric indices of newborn infants. Study Design The sum of skinfolds (SSF), birth weight, and birth length were measured in 94 healthy infants (58% males) born at term to healthy mothers. Several anthropometric indices were calculated, and their relationship with SSF was assessed using linear regression adjusting for gestational age and sex. Results SSF at birth was significantly higher in females compared with males (20.7 ± 3.3 vs. 18.8 ± 4.1 mm, p = 0.019). Birth weight, birth weight-for-gestational-age percentile, birth weight percentile, and weight/length ratio had the highest associations with SSF, yet R (2) values were very low, ranging from 16 to 18%. Body mass index (BMI), BMI percentile, ponderal index, and the symmetry index had even lower associations. Conclusion No anthropometric measure can confidently assess fat mass in infants at birth, in accordance with previous research. When body composition data are needed, they should be directly measured.

  11. Mass transfer kinetics during deep fat frying of wheat starch and gluten based snacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobukola, O. P.; Bouchon, P.

    2014-06-01

    Mass transfer (moisture loss and oil uptake) kinetics during deep fat frying of wheat starch and gluten based snacks was investigated. Both followed a modified first order reaction. Activation energies, z-value, and highest values of D and k for moisture loss and oil uptake were 28.608 kJ/mol, 129.88 °C, 490 and 0.0080 s-1; and 60.398 kJ/mol, 61.79 °C, 1,354.71 and 0.0052 s-1, respectively.

  12. Somatotype is More Interactive with Strength than Fat Mass and Physical Activity in Peripubertal Children.

    PubMed

    Marta, Carlos; Marinho, Daniel A; Costa, Aldo M; Barbosa, Tiago M; Marques, Mário C

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the interaction between somatotype, body fat and physical activity in prepubescent children. This was a cross-sectional study design involving 312 children (160 girls, 152 boys) aged between 10 and 11.5 years old (10.8 ± 0.4 years old). Evaluation of body composition was done determining body mass index and body fat by means of skin-fold measurements, using the method described by Slaughter. Somatotype was computed according to the Carter's method. Physical activity was assessed with the Baecke questionnaire. The physical activity assessment employed sets of curl-ups, push-ups, standing broad jump, medicine ball throw, handgrip strength and Margaria-Kalamen power stair. There were negative associations for body fat, endomorphy and mesomorphy with curl-ups, push-ups and broad jump tests and positive associations with ball throw, handgrip strength and Margaria-Kalamen power tests. The associations for ectomorphy were the inverse of those for endomorphy and mesomorphy. Non obese children presented higher values for curl-ups, push-ups and standing broad jump. In medicine ball throw, handgrip strength and Margaria-Kalamen power test obese children presented higher scores, followed by children who were overweight. The mesoectomorphic boys and ectomesomorphic girls performed higher in all tests. The morphological typology presented more interactions with strength than % of body fat and physical activity. These data seem to suggest that the presence/absence of certain physical characteristics is crucial in the levels of motor provision in prepubescent children.

  13. [Above and beyond BMI : Alternative methods of measuring body fat and muscle mass in critically ill patients and their clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Weig, T; Irlbeck, T; Frey, L; Paprottka, P; Irlbeck, M

    2016-09-01

    Obesity leads to better survival in critically ill patients. Although there are several studies confirming this thesis, the "obesity paradox" is still surprising from the clinician's perspective. One explanation for the "obesity paradox" is the fact that the body mass index (BMI), which is used in almost all clinical evaluations to determine weight categories, is not an appropriate measure of fat and skeletal muscle mass and its distribution in critically ill patients. In addition, height and weight are frequently estimated rather than measured. Central obesity has been identified in many disorders as an independent risk factor for an unfavourable outcome. The first clues are to be found in intensive care. Along with obesity, an individual's entire muscle mass is a variable that has an influence on outcome. Central obesity can be measured relatively easily with an abdominal calliper, but the calculation of muscle mass is more complex. A valid and detailed measurement of this can be obtained using computed tomography (CT) images, acquired during routine care. For future clinical observation or interventional studies, single cross-sectional CT is a more sophisticated tool for measuring patients' anthropometry than a measuring tape and callipers. Patients with sarcopenic obesity, for example, who may be at a particular risk, can only be identified using imaging procedures such as single cross-sectional CT. Thus, BMI should take a back seat as an anthropometric tool, both in the clinic and in research. PMID:27411524

  14. Molecular correlates of fat mass expansion in C57BL/6J mice after short-term exposure to dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Anunciado-Koza, Rea P; Manuel, Justin; Koza, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneity of obesity within a population of inbred mice fed an obesogenic high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with changes of gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). One gene in particular with large variations among mice, mesoderm-specific transcript (Mest), has been shown to be highly inducible after being fed a short-term HFD, and its expression in WAT before HFD feeding is predictive for susceptibility to the development of obesity. To gain further insight into the association of Mest with rapid changes in body composition, 96 individually housed C57BL/6J mice were fed an HFD for only 2 weeks, resulting in a 12-fold and 90-fold variation in Mest mRNA in visceral epididymal and subcutaneous inguinal WAT, respectively. WAT Mest mRNA was positively associated with interindividual variation of fat mass. Surprisingly, there was only a slight association of WAT Mest with food intake when normalized by body weight or lean mass. In addition, WAT Mest expression coincided highly with the expression of the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 14 (Klf14), an imprinted gene that regulates lipid metabolism in WAT. Our data suggest that KLF14 transcriptional activity may partially mediate, or act in concert with, MEST as part of an epigenetic mechanism that promotes fat mass accumulation in mice fed an obesogenic diet. PMID:26647164

  15. The role of computed tomography in evaluating body composition and the influence of reduced muscle mass on clinical outcome in abdominal malignancy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gibson, D J; Burden, S T; Strauss, B J; Todd, C; Lal, S

    2015-10-01

    It is estimated that there were 3.45 million new cases and 1.75 million deaths from cancer in Europe in 2012. Colorectal cancer was one of the most common cancers, accounting for 13% of new cases and 12.2% of all deaths. Conditions causing reduced muscle mass, such as sarcopenia, can increase the morbidity and mortality of people with cancer. Computed tomography (CT) scans can provide accurate, high-quality information on body composition, including muscle mass. To date, there has been no systematic review on the role of CT scans in identifying sarcopenia in abdominal cancer. This review aimed to examine the role of CT scans in determining the influence of reduced muscle mass on clinical outcome in abdominal cancer. A systematic review of English-language articles published in 2000 or later was conducted. Articles included cohort, randomised controlled trials and validation studies. Participants were people diagnosed with abdominal cancer who had undergone a CT scan. Data extraction and critical appraisal were undertaken. Ten cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies demonstrated that low muscle mass was significantly associated with poor clinical outcome, with six specifically demonstrating reduced survival rates. Eight studies demonstrated that a greater number of patients (27.3-66.7%) were identified as sarcopenic using CT scans compared with numbers identified as malnourished using body mass index. CT scans can identify reduced muscle mass and predict negative cancer outcomes in people with abdominal malignancies, where traditional methods of assessment are less effective.

  16. An Unusual Case of Abdominal Leiomyoma Presenting as a Free Lying Intraperitoneal Mass in an Elderly Gentleman.

    PubMed

    Nasta, Amrit; Nandy, Kunal; Bansod, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Leiomyomas are common benign tumours of female reproductive tract and are rarely seen in extrauterine location. Case Report. We report an interesting case of a free lying abdominal leiomyoma presenting as a painless abdominal lump in an elderly gentleman. Discussion. Primary abdominal leiomyomas are uncommon and require surgical removal if symptomatic. PMID:27672473

  17. An Unusual Case of Abdominal Leiomyoma Presenting as a Free Lying Intraperitoneal Mass in an Elderly Gentleman

    PubMed Central

    Bansod, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Leiomyomas are common benign tumours of female reproductive tract and are rarely seen in extrauterine location. Case Report. We report an interesting case of a free lying abdominal leiomyoma presenting as a painless abdominal lump in an elderly gentleman. Discussion. Primary abdominal leiomyomas are uncommon and require surgical removal if symptomatic.

  18. An Unusual Case of Abdominal Leiomyoma Presenting as a Free Lying Intraperitoneal Mass in an Elderly Gentleman

    PubMed Central

    Bansod, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Leiomyomas are common benign tumours of female reproductive tract and are rarely seen in extrauterine location. Case Report. We report an interesting case of a free lying abdominal leiomyoma presenting as a painless abdominal lump in an elderly gentleman. Discussion. Primary abdominal leiomyomas are uncommon and require surgical removal if symptomatic. PMID:27672473

  19. Biochemical and high throughput microscopic assessment of fat mass in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Pino, Elizabeth C; Webster, Christopher M; Carr, Christopher E; Soukas, Alexander A

    2013-01-01

    The nematode C. elegans has emerged as an important model for the study of conserved genetic pathways regulating fat metabolism as it relates to human obesity and its associated pathologies. Several previous methodologies developed for the visualization of C. elegans triglyceride-rich fat stores have proven to be erroneous, highlighting cellular compartments other than lipid droplets. Other methods require specialized equipment, are time-consuming, or yield inconsistent results. We introduce a rapid, reproducible, fixative-based Nile red staining method for the accurate and rapid detection of neutral lipid droplets in C. elegans. A short fixation step in 40% isopropanol makes animals completely permeable to Nile red, which is then used to stain animals. Spectral properties of this lipophilic dye allow it to strongly and selectively fluoresce in the yellow-green spectrum only when in a lipid-rich environment, but not in more polar environments. Thus, lipid droplets can be visualized on a fluorescent microscope equipped with simple GFP imaging capability after only a brief Nile red staining step in isopropanol. The speed, affordability, and reproducibility of this protocol make it ideally suited for high throughput screens. We also demonstrate a paired method for the biochemical determination of triglycerides and phospholipids using gas chromatography mass-spectrometry. This more rigorous protocol should be used as confirmation of results obtained from the Nile red microscopic lipid determination. We anticipate that these techniques will become new standards in the field of C. elegans metabolic research. PMID:23568026

  20. Caucasian children's fat mass: routine anthropometry v. air-displacement plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Michels, Nathalie; Huybrechts, Inge; Bammann, Karin; Lissner, Lauren; Moreno, Luis; Peeters, Maarten; Sioen, Isabelle; Vanaelst, Barbara; Vyncke, Krishna; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2013-04-28

    The present paper will use fat mass percentage (FM%) obtained via BOD POD® air-displacement plethysmography (FMADP%) to examine the relative validity of (1) anthropometric measurements/indices and (2) of FM% assessed with equations (FMeq%) based on skinfold thickness and bioelectrical impedance (BIA). In 480 Belgian children (aged 5-11 years) weight, height, skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular), body circumferences (mid-upper arm, waist and hip), foot-to-foot BIA (Tanita®) and FMADP% were measured. Anthropometric measurements and calculated indices were compared with FMADP%. Next, published equations were used to calculate FMeq% using impedance (equations of Tanita®, Tyrrell, Shaefer and Deurenberg) or skinfold thickness (equations of Slaughter, Goran, Dezenberg and Deurenberg). Both indices and equations performed better in girls than in boys. For both sexes, the sum of skinfold thicknesses resulted in the highest correlation with FMADP%, followed by triceps skinfold, arm fat area and subscapular skinfold. In general, comparing FMeq% with FMADP% indicated mostly an age and sex effect, and an increasing underestimation but less dispersion with increasing FM%. The Tanita® impedance equation and the Deurenberg skinfold equation performed the best, although none of the used equations were interchangeable with FMADP%. In conclusion, the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness is recommended as marker of FM% in the absence of specialised technologies. Nevertheless, the higher workload, cost and survey management of an immobile device like the BOD POD® remains justified.

  1. Biochemical and High Throughput Microscopic Assessment of Fat Mass in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Pino, Elizabeth C.; Webster, Christopher M.; Carr, Christopher E.; Soukas, Alexander A.

    2013-01-01

    The nematode C. elegans has emerged as an important model for the study of conserved genetic pathways regulating fat metabolism as it relates to human obesity and its associated pathologies. Several previous methodologies developed for the visualization of C. elegans triglyceride-rich fat stores have proven to be erroneous, highlighting cellular compartments other than lipid droplets. Other methods require specialized equipment, are time-consuming, or yield inconsistent results. We introduce a rapid, reproducible, fixative-based Nile red staining method for the accurate and rapid detection of neutral lipid droplets in C. elegans. A short fixation step in 40% isopropanol makes animals completely permeable to Nile red, which is then used to stain animals. Spectral properties of this lipophilic dye allow it to strongly and selectively fluoresce in the yellow-green spectrum only when in a lipid-rich environment, but not in more polar environments. Thus, lipid droplets can be visualized on a fluorescent microscope equipped with simple GFP imaging capability after only a brief Nile red staining step in isopropanol. The speed, affordability, and reproducibility of this protocol make it ideally suited for high throughput screens. We also demonstrate a paired method for the biochemical determination of triglycerides and phospholipids using gas chromatography mass-spectrometry. This more rigorous protocol should be used as confirmation of results obtained from the Nile red microscopic lipid determination. We anticipate that these techniques will become new standards in the field of C. elegans metabolic research. PMID:23568026

  2. Fat mass- and obesity-associated gene Fto affects the dietary response in mouse white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Ronkainen, Justiina; Huusko, Tuija J; Soininen, Raija; Mondini, Eleonora; Cinti, Francesca; Mäkelä, Kari A; Kovalainen, Miia; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sebert, Sylvain; Savolainen, Markku J; Salonurmi, Tuire

    2015-03-18

    Common variants of human fat mass- and obesity-associated gene Fto have been linked with higher body mass index, but the biological explanation for the link has remained obscure. Recent findings suggest that these variants affect the homeobox protein IRX3. Here we report that FTO has a role in white adipose tissue which modifies its response to high-fat feeding. Wild type and Fto-deficient mice were exposed to standard or high-fat diet for 16 weeks after which metabolism, behavior and white adipose tissue morphology were analyzed together with adipokine levels and relative expression of genes regulating white adipose tissue adipogenesis and Irx3. Our results indicate that Fto deficiency increases the expression of genes related to adipogenesis preventing adipocytes from becoming hypertrophic after high-fat diet. In addition, we report a novel finding of increased Irx3 expression in Fto-deficient mice after high-fat feeding indicating a complex link between FTO, IRX3 and fat metabolism.

  3. Comparison of DEXA and QMR for Assessing Fat and Lean Body Mass in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Colette N.; Kauffman, Tricia G.; Cooney, Paula T.; Ramseur, Keshia R.; Brown, Lynda M.

    2011-01-01

    There are several techniques used to measure body composition in experimental models including dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR). DEXA/QMR data have been compared in mice, but have not been compared previously in rats. The goal of this study was to compare DEXA and QMR data in rats. We used rats that varied by sex, diet, and age, in addition we compared dissected samples containing subcutaneous (pelt) or visceral fat (carcass). The data means were compared by focusing on the differences between DEXA/QMR data using a series of scatter plots without assuming that either method is more accurate as suggested by Bland and Altman. DEXA/QMR data did not agree sufficiently in carcass or pelt FM or in pelt LBM. The variation observed within these groups suggests that DEXA and QMR measurements are not comparable. Carcass LBM in young rats did yield comparable data once the data for middle-aged rats was removed. The variation in our data may be a result of different direct and indirect measures that DEXA and QMR technologies use to quantify FM and LBM. DEXA measures FM and estimates fat-free mass. In contrast, QMR uses separate equations of magnetic resonance to measure FM, LBM, total body water and free water. We found that QMR overestimated body mass in our middle-aged rats, and this increased the variation between methods. Our goal was to evaluate the precision of DEXA/QMR data in rats to determine if they agree sufficiently to allow direct comparison of data between methods. However DEXA and QMR did not yield the same estimates of FM or LBM for the majority of our samples. PMID:21167190

  4. The prediction of lean body mass and fat mass from arm anthropometry at diagnosis in children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Webber, Colin; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Young, Andrea; Barr, Ronald D

    2013-10-01

    Maintenance of adequate nutrition is important in the care of children with cancer. In clinical practice, determination of nutritional status can be accomplished with measurement of body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, DXA is seldom available in low-income countries where most children with cancer live. This study sought to provide predictive equations for lean body mass and fat mass, measured by DXA, on the basis of simple arm anthropometry providing measures of mid-upper arm circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness in a population (N=99) of children diagnosed with cancer. Such equations were derived successfully with the inclusion of absolute body weight, the body weight Z-score, and the predicted whole-body bone mineral content on the basis of age and sex. Attempted validation in a small sample (N=7) of children who completed therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed disparities reflective of the prevalence of obesity in such survivors. Further validation must be undertaken in large samples of children with a variety of malignant diseases to assess the robustness of the equations predictive of body composition.

  5. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Tepaamorndech, Surapun; Kirschke, Catherine P; Huang, Liping

    2014-08-01

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and body fat accumulation is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight and fat deposit and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that link zinc metabolism to growth and adiposity, we conducted a genome-wide mapping study using male F2 Znt7 KO mice and wild-type (WT) littermates with a mixed 129P1/ReJ and C57BL/6J genetic background. The mice were fed a semi-purified diet containing 30-mg Zn/kg diet at weaning. Body weights and fat pad weights including epididymal, retroperitoneal, and femoral subcutaneous fat pads were measured at 16 weeks of age. We detected two significant QTLs (p < 0.05) for body weight and fat deposit. One was in the F2 Znt7 KO population and the other in the F2 WT population. In Znt7 KO mice, the body weight and fat deposit was significantly linked to a locus on chromosome 7 ranging from 64.3 to 78.3 Mb. In WT mice, a significant linkage of retroperitoneal fat mass was found on chromosome 8 between 14.5 and 63.5 Mb. In addition, several other suggestive QTLs (p < 0.63) for body weight and fat accumulation were detected in Znt7 KO and WT mice. In conclusion, the QTLs identified in this study may provide new hints to uncover the genes linking cellular zinc status to growth and body fat accumulation.

  6. Effects of growth hormone administration for 6 months on bone turnover and bone marrow fat in obese premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Gerweck, Anu V.; Barber, Lauren A.; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford J.; Torriani, Martin; Miller, Karen K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Abdominal adiposity is associated with low BMD and decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion, an important regulator of bone homeostasis. The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of a short course of GH on markers of bone turnover and bone marrow fat in premenopausal women with abdominal adiposity. Materials and Methods In a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we studied 79 abdominally obese premenopausal women (21–45y) who underwent daily sc injections of GH vs. placebo. Main outcome measures were body composition by DXA and CT, bone marrow fat by proton MR spectroscopy, P1NP, CTX, 25(OH)D, hsCRP, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref 1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and IGF-1. Results GH increased IGF-1, P1NP, 25(OH)D, ucOC, bone marrow fat and lean mass, and decreased abdominal fat, hsCRP, and ApoB compared with placebo (p<0.05). There was a trend toward an increase in CTX and Pref-1. Among all participants, 6-month increase in IGF-1 correlated with 6-month increase in P1NP (p=0.0005), suggesting that subjects with the greatest increases in IGF-1 experienced the greatest increases in bone formation. Six-month decrease in abdominal fat, hsCRP, and ApoB inversely predicted 6-month change in P1NP, and 6-month increase in lean mass and 25(OH)D positively predicted 6-month change in P1NP (p≤0.05), suggesting that subjects with greatest decreases in abdominal fat, inflammation and ApoB, and the greatest increases in lean mass and 25(OH)D experienced the greatest increases in bone formation. Six-month increase in bone marrow fat correlated with 6-month increase in P1NP (trend), suggesting that subjects with the greatest increases in bone formation experienced the greatest increases in bone marrow fat. Forward stepwise regression analysis indicated that increase in lean mass and decrease in abdominal fat were positive predictors of P1NP. When IGF-1 was added to the model, it became the only predictor

  7. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  8. Physical Training of School Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: Effects on Daily Activity, Fat Mass and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Den Berg-Emons, R. J.; Van Baak, M. A.; Speth, L.; Saris, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of two 9-month sports programs (four or two sessions per week) on daily physical activity (PA), fat mass (FM), and physical fitness were assessed in 20 Dutch children (ages 7-13) with spastic cerebral palsy. Four sessions per week tended to increase PA ratio and held FM constant. (Author/CR)

  9. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  10. The Demethylase Activity of FTO (Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Protein) Is Required for Preadipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meizi; Zhang, Ying; Ma, Jun; Guo, Feima; Cao, Qian; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Bin; Chai, Jijie; Zhao, Wenqing; Zhao, Renbin

    2015-01-01

    FTO (fat mass and obesity associated gene) was genetically identified to be associated with body mass index (BMI), presumably through functional regulation of energy homeostasis. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which FTO functions remain largely unknown. Using 3T3-L1 preadipocyte as a model to study the role of FTO in adipogenesis, we demonstrated that FTO is functionally required for 3T3-L1 differentiation. FTO knock-down with siRNA inhibited preadipocyte differentiation, whereas ectopic over-expression of FTO enhanced the process. The demethylase activity of FTO is required for differentiation. Level of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is decreased in cells over-expressing FTO. In contrast, overexpression of R96Q, a FTO missense mutant lack of demethylase activity, had no effect on cellular m6A level and impeded differentiation. Treatment with Rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, could overcome the differentiation inhibition imposed by R96Q mutant, suggesting the effect of FTO is mediated through PPARγ. PMID:26218273

  11. The Demethylase Activity of FTO (Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Protein) Is Required for Preadipocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meizi; Zhang, Ying; Ma, Jun; Guo, Feima; Cao, Qian; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Bin; Chai, Jijie; Zhao, Wenqing; Zhao, Renbin

    2015-01-01

    FTO (fat mass and obesity associated gene) was genetically identified to be associated with body mass index (BMI), presumably through functional regulation of energy homeostasis. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which FTO functions remain largely unknown. Using 3T3-L1 preadipocyte as a model to study the role of FTO in adipogenesis, we demonstrated that FTO is functionally required for 3T3-L1 differentiation. FTO knock-down with siRNA inhibited preadipocyte differentiation, whereas ectopic over-expression of FTO enhanced the process. The demethylase activity of FTO is required for differentiation. Level of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is decreased in cells over-expressing FTO. In contrast, overexpression of R96Q, a FTO missense mutant lack of demethylase activity, had no effect on cellular m6A level and impeded differentiation. Treatment with Rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, could overcome the differentiation inhibition imposed by R96Q mutant, suggesting the effect of FTO is mediated through PPARγ. PMID:26218273

  12. Sex-Specific Control of Fat Mass and Counterregulation by Hypothalamic Glucokinase.

    PubMed

    Steinbusch, Laura K M; Picard, Alexandre; Bonnet, Marion S; Basco, Davide; Labouèbe, Gwenaël; Thorens, Bernard

    2016-10-01

    Glucokinase (Gck) is a critical regulator of glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells. It has been suggested to also play an important role in glucose signaling in neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN), a brain nucleus involved in the control of glucose homeostasis and feeding. To test the role of Gck in VMN glucose sensing and physiological regulation, we studied mice with genetic inactivation of the Gck gene in Sf1 neurons of the VMN (Sf1Gck(-/-) mice). Compared with control littermates, Sf1Gck(-/-) mice displayed increased white fat mass and adipocyte size, reduced lean mass, impaired hypoglycemia-induced glucagon secretion, and a lack of parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activation by neuroglucopenia. However, these phenotypes were observed only in female mice. To determine whether Gck was required for glucose sensing by Sf1 neurons, we performed whole-cell patch clamp analysis of brain slices from control and Sf1Gck(-/-) mice. Absence of Gck expression did not prevent the glucose responsiveness of glucose-excited or glucose-inhibited Sf1 neurons in either sex. Thus Gck in the VMN plays a sex-specific role in the glucose-dependent control of autonomic nervous activity; this is, however, unrelated to the control of the firing activity of classical glucose-responsive neurons.

  13. Physical activity, and not fat mass is a primary predictor of circadian parameters in young men

    PubMed Central

    Tranel, Hannah R.; Schroder, Elizabeth A.; England, Jonathan; Black, W. Scott; Bush, Heather; Hughes, Michael E.; Esser, Karyn A.; Clasey, Jody L.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ≈ 24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) would significantly differ among groups of healthy young men of varying adiposities, and that we could identify physiological and behavioral measures that were significantly associated with these temperature parameters. Wrist skin temperatures taken at 10 min intervals for 7 consecutive days were determined in 18 optimal (OGroup), 20 fair (FGroup) and 21 poor (PGroup) %Fat grouped young men and subsequently analyzed using available validated software. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, actigraphy, daily nutritional and sleep data, and fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentration measures were also determined. Significant changes in TempAmp and TempStab parameters in subjects with a single metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factor compared to those with no MetS factors was observed. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that 50% of the variance in TempAmp was explained by actigraphy (mean steps taken per day; MSTPD), cardiorespiratory fitness, and late night eating per week (#LNE); and 57% in TempStab by MSTPD, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity per day, fat mass, and #LNE. Overwhelmingly, physical activity was the most important measure associated with the differences in circadian rhythm parameters. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of increasing the amount and timing of physical activity on the status of the circadian system in a variety of populations. PMID:26101893

  14. The Relationship of Fat Distribution and Insulin Resistance with Lumbar Spine Bone Mass in Women

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Francisco J. A.; de Araújo, Iana M.; Carvalho, Adriana L.; Elias, Jorge; Salmon, Carlos E. G.; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H.

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow harbors a significant amount of body adipose tissue (BMAT). While BMAT might be a source of energy for bone modeling and remodeling, its increment can also represent impairment of osteoblast differentiation. The relationship between BMAT, bone mass and insulin sensitivity is only partially understood and seems to depend on the circumstances. The present study was designed to assess the association of BMAT with bone mineral density in the lumbar spine as well as with visceral adipose tissue, intrahepatic lipids, HOMA-IR, and serum levels of insulin and glucose. This cross-sectional clinical investigation included 31 non-diabetic women, but 11 had a pre-diabetes status. Dual X-ray energy absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density and magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess fat deposition in BMAT, visceral adipose tissue and liver. Our results suggest that in non-diabetic, there is an inverse relationship between bone mineral density in lumbar spine and BMAT and a trend persists after adjustment for weight, age, BMI and height. While there is a positive association between visceral adipose tissue and intrahepatic lipids with serum insulin levels, there is no association between BMAT and serum levels of insulin. Conversely, a positive relationship was observed between BMAT and serum glucose levels, whereas this association was not observed with other fat deposits. These relationships did not apply after adjustment for body weight, BMI, height and age. The present study shows that in a group of predominantly non-obese women the association between insulin resistance and BMAT is not an early event, as occurs with visceral adipose tissue and intrahepatic lipids. On the other hand, BMAT has a negative relationship with bone mineral density. Taken together, the results support the view that bone has a complex and non-linear relationship with energy metabolism. PMID:26067489

  15. The Relationship of Fat Distribution and Insulin Resistance with Lumbar Spine Bone Mass in Women.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Francisco J A; de Araújo, Iana M; Carvalho, Adriana L; Elias, Jorge; Salmon, Carlos E G; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow harbors a significant amount of body adipose tissue (BMAT). While BMAT might be a source of energy for bone modeling and remodeling, its increment can also represent impairment of osteoblast differentiation. The relationship between BMAT, bone mass and insulin sensitivity is only partially understood and seems to depend on the circumstances. The present study was designed to assess the association of BMAT with bone mineral density in the lumbar spine as well as with visceral adipose tissue, intrahepatic lipids, HOMA-IR, and serum levels of insulin and glucose. This cross-sectional clinical investigation included 31 non-diabetic women, but 11 had a pre-diabetes status. Dual X-ray energy absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density and magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess fat deposition in BMAT, visceral adipose tissue and liver. Our results suggest that in non-diabetic, there is an inverse relationship between bone mineral density in lumbar spine and BMAT and a trend persists after adjustment for weight, age, BMI and height. While there is a positive association between visceral adipose tissue and intrahepatic lipids with serum insulin levels, there is no association between BMAT and serum levels of insulin. Conversely, a positive relationship was observed between BMAT and serum glucose levels, whereas this association was not observed with other fat deposits. These relationships did not apply after adjustment for body weight, BMI, height and age. The present study shows that in a group of predominantly non-obese women the association between insulin resistance and BMAT is not an early event, as occurs with visceral adipose tissue and intrahepatic lipids. On the other hand, BMAT has a negative relationship with bone mineral density. Taken together, the results support the view that bone has a complex and non-linear relationship with energy metabolism.

  16. Physical activity, and not fat mass is a primary predictor of circadian parameters in young men.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Hannah R; Schroder, Elizabeth A; England, Jonathan; Black, W Scott; Bush, Heather; Hughes, Michael E; Esser, Karyn A; Clasey, Jody L

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ≈24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) would significantly differ among groups of healthy young men of varying adiposities, and that we could identify physiological and behavioral measures that were significantly associated with these temperature parameters. Wrist skin temperatures taken at 10 min intervals for 7 consecutive days were determined in 18 optimal (OGroup), 20 fair (FGroup) and 21 poor (PGroup) %Fat grouped young men and subsequently analyzed using available validated software. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, actigraphy, daily nutritional and sleep data, and fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentration measures were also determined. Significant changes in TempAmp and TempStab parameters in subjects with a single metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factor compared to those with no MetS factors was observed. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that 50% of the variance in TempAmp was explained by actigraphy (mean steps taken per day; MSTPD), cardiorespiratory fitness, and late night eating per week (#LNE); and 57% in TempStab by MSTPD, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity per day, fat mass, and #LNE. Overwhelmingly, physical activity was the most important measure associated with the differences in circadian rhythm parameters. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of increasing the amount and timing of physical activity on the status of the circadian system in a variety of populations.

  17. Distribution of fat, non-osseous lean and bone mineral mass in international Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens players.

    PubMed

    Higham, D G; Pyne, D B; Anson, J M; Dziedzic, C E; Slater, G J

    2014-06-01

    Differences in the body composition of international Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens players, and between players of different positions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the quantity and regional distribution of fat, non-osseous lean and bone mineral mass between playing units in Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens. Male Rugby Union (n=21 forwards, 17 backs) and Rugby Sevens (n=11 forwards, 16 backs) players from the Australian national squads were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The digital image of each player was partitioned into anatomical regions including the arms, legs, trunk, and android and gynoid regions. Compared with backs, forwards in each squad were heavier and exhibited higher absolute regional fat (Union 43-67%; ±~17%, range of % differences; ±~95% confidence limits (CL); Sevens 20-26%; ±~29%), non-osseous lean (Union 14-22%; ±~5.8%; Sevens 6.9-8.4%; ±~6.6%) and bone mineral (Union 12-26%; ±~7.2%; Sevens 5.0-11%; ±~7.2%) mass. When tissue mass was expressed relative to regional mass, differences between Rugby Sevens forwards and backs were mostly unclear. Rugby Union forwards had higher relative fat mass (1.7-4.7%; ±~1.9%, range of differences; ±~95% CL) and lower relative non-osseous lean mass (-4.2 to -1.8%; ±~1.8%) than backs in all body regions. Competing in Rugby Union or Rugby Sevens characterized the distribution of fat and non-osseous lean mass to a greater extent than a player's positional group, whereas the distribution of bone mineral mass was associated more with a player's position. Differences in the quantity and distribution of tissues appear to be related to positional roles and specific demands of competition in Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens.

  18. Exercise is required for visceral fat loss in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, I; Ploutz-Snyder, L L; Carhart, R; Weinstock, R S; Fernhall, B; Goulopoulou, S; Kanaley, J A

    2005-03-01

    This study examined the effects of aerobic exercise without weight loss, a hypocaloric high monounsaturated fat diet, and diet plus exercise (D+E) on total abdominal and visceral fat loss in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-three postmenopausal women (body mass index, 34.6 +/- 1.9 kg/m(2)) were assigned to one of three interventions: a hypocaloric high monounsaturated fat diet alone, exercise alone (EX), and D+E for 14 wk. Aerobic capacity, body composition, abdominal fat distribution (magnetic resonance imaging), glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity were measured pre- and postintervention. Body weight ( approximately 4.5 kg) and percent body fat ( approximately 5%) were decreased (P < 0.05) with the D and D+E intervention, whereas only percent body fat ( approximately 2.3%) decreased with EX. Total abdominal fat and sc adipose tissue (SAT) were reduced with the D and D+E interventions (P < 0.05), whereas visceral adipose tissue (VAT) decreased with the D+E and EX intervention, but not with the D intervention. EX resulted in a reduction in total abdominal fat, VAT, and SAT (P < 0.05) despite the lack of weight loss. The reductions in total abdominal fat and SAT explained 32.7% and 9.7%, respectively, of the variability in the changes in fasting glucose levels, whereas the reductions in VAT explained 15.9% of the changes in fasting insulin levels (P < 0.05). In conclusion, modest weight loss, through either D or D+E, resulted in similar improvements in total abdominal fat, SAT, and glycemic status in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes; however, the addition of exercise to diet is necessary for VAT loss. These data demonstrate the importance of exercise in the treatment of women with type 2 diabetes.

  19. The challenging image-guided abdominal mass biopsy: established and emerging techniques 'if you can see it, you can biopsy it'.

    PubMed

    Sainani, Nisha I; Arellano, Ronald S; Shyn, Paul B; Gervais, Debra A; Mueller, Peter R; Silverman, Stuart G

    2013-08-01

    Image-guided percutaneous biopsy of abdominal masses is among the most commonly performed procedures in interventional radiology. While most abdominal masses are readily amenable to percutaneous biopsy, some may be technically challenging for a number of reasons. Low lesion conspicuity, small size, overlying or intervening structures, motion, such as that due to respiration, are some of the factors that can influence the ability and ultimately the success of an abdominal biopsy. Various techniques or technologies, such as choice of imaging modality, use of intravenous contrast and anatomic landmarks, patient positioning, organ displacement or trans-organ approach, angling CT gantry, triangulation method, real-time guidance with CT fluoroscopy or ultrasound, sedation or breath-hold, pre-procedural image fusion, electromagnetic tracking, and others, when used singularly or in combination, can overcome these challenges to facilitate needle placement in abdominal masses that otherwise would be considered not amenable to percutaneous biopsy. Familiarity and awareness of these techniques allows the interventional radiologist to expand the use of percutaneous biopsy in clinical practice, and help choose the most appropriate technique for a particular patient.

  20. IL6 and IL1B polymorphisms are associated with fat mass in older men: the MrOS Study Sweden.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Louise; Mellström, Dan; Ljunggren, Osten; Grundberg, Elin; Karlsson, Magnus K; Holmberg, Anna H; Orwoll, Eric S; Eriksson, Anna L; Svedberg, Johan; Bengtsson, Magnus; Ohlsson, Claes; Jansson, John-Olov

    2008-03-01

    There is growing evidence that immune functions are linked to the regulation of body fat. Our studies of knockout mice indicate that both endogenous interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 can suppress mature-onset obesity. We now investigated whether four common polymorphisms of the IL6 and IL1 systems are associated with the fat mass measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in elderly men (n = 3,014). The study subjects were from the Swedish part of the MrOS multicenter population study and 69-81 years of age. The IL6 -174 G>C (Minor allele frequency (MAF) = 48%) gene promoter polymorphism was associated with the primary outcome total fat mass (P = 0.006) and regional fat masses, but not with lean body mass. The IL1B -31T>C (MAF = 34%) polymorphism was also associated with total fat (P = 0.007) and regional fat masses, but not lean body mass. The IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) gene (IL1RN) +2018 T>C (MAF = 27%) polymorphism (in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with a well-studied variable number tandem repeat of 86 base pair (bp)) and IL1B +3953 C>T (MAF = 26%) polymorphism were not associated with total fat mass. In conclusion, the IL-1 and IL-6 systems, shown to suppress mature-onset obesity in experimental animals, contain gene polymorphisms that are associated with fat, but not lean, mass in elderly men.

  1. Low Relative Lean Mass is Associated with Increased Likelihood of Abdominal Aortic Calcification in Community-Dwelling Older Australians.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alexander J; Scott, David; Khan, Belal; Khan, Nayab; Hodge, Allison; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G; Ebeling, Peter R

    2016-10-01

    Age-related loss of skeletal muscle is associated with increased risk of functional limitation and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. In the elderly abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) can increase CV risk by altering aortic properties which may raise blood pressure and increase cardiac workload. This study investigated the association between low muscle mass and AAC in community-dwelling older Australians. Data for this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from a 2010 sub-study of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study in the setting of community-dwelling older adults. Three hundred and twenty-seven participants [mean age = 71 ± 6 years; mean BMI = 28 ± 5 kg/m(2); females n = 199 (62 %)] had body composition determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and AAC determined by radiography. Participants were stratified into tertiles of sex-specific BMI-normalised appendicular lean mass (ALM). Those in the lowest tertile were considered to have low relative muscle mass. Aortic calcification score (ACS) was determined visually as the extent of calcification on the aortic walls between L1 and L4 vertebrae (range: 0-24). Severe AAC was defined as ACS ≥ 6. Prevalence of any AAC was highest in participants with low relative muscle mass (74 %) compared to the middle (65 %) and upper (53 %) tertiles (p trend = 0.006). The lower ALM/BMI tertile had increased odds (Odds ratio = 2.3; 95 % confidence interval: 1.1-4.6; p = 0.021) of having any AAC; and having more severe AAC (2.2; 1.2-4.0; p = 0.009) independent of CV risk factors, serum calcium and physical activity. AAC is more prevalent and severe in community-dwelling older adults with low relative muscle mass. Maintaining muscle mass could form part of a broader primary prevention strategy in reducing AAC. PMID:27272030

  2. Prediction of fat-free mass and percentage of body fat in neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometric measures: validation against the PEA POD.

    PubMed

    Lingwood, Barbara E; Storm van Leeuwen, Anne-Martine; Carberry, Angela E; Fitzgerald, Erin C; Callaway, Leonie K; Colditz, Paul B; Ward, Leigh C

    2012-05-01

    Accurate assessment of neonatal body composition is essential to studies investigating neonatal nutrition or developmental origins of obesity. Bioelectrical impedance analysis or bioimpedance analysis is inexpensive, non-invasive and portable, and is widely used in adults for the assessment of body composition. There are currently no prediction algorithms using bioimpedance analysis in neonates that have been directly validated against measurements of fat-free mass (FFM). The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of bioimpedance analysis for the estimation of FFM and percentage of body fat over the first 4 months of life in healthy infants born at term, and to compare these with estimations based on anthropometric measurements (weight and length) and with skinfolds. The present study was an observational study in seventy-seven infants. Body fat content of infants was assessed at birth, 6 weeks, 3 and 4·5 months of age by air displacement plethysmography, using the PEA POD body composition system. Bioimpedance analysis was performed at the same time and the data were used to develop and test prediction equations for FFM. The combination of weight+sex+length predicted FFM, with a bias of < 100 g and limits of agreement of 6-13 %. Before 3 months of age, bioimpedance analysis did not improve the prediction of FFM or body fat. At 3 and 4·5 months, the inclusion of impedance in prediction algorithms resulted in small improvements in prediction of FFM, reducing the bias to < 50 g and limits of agreement to < 9 %. Skinfold measurements performed poorly at all ages.

  3. Body Fat Mass Assessment: A Comparison between an Ultrasound-Based Device and a Discovery A Model of DXA

    PubMed Central

    Pineau, Jean-Claude; Lalys, Loïc; Pellegrini, Massimo; Battistini, Nino Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine measurement of body composition by ultrasound compared with a reference technique:dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We evaluated the accuracy of a portable ultrasound-based device in estimating total body fat mass with those assessed by DXA in adult. Methods. Body fat mass has been estimated using a portable ultrasound-based device in comparison with a contemporary reference DXA apparatus: the Hologic Discovery A. Anthropometric data has been assessed in order to maximize the output of the software associated with the ultrasound-based device. A cross-validation between ultrasound technique (US) and DXA was developed in this study. Total body fat mass estimated by ultrasound was compared with this DXA model in a sample of 83 women and 41 men. Results. Ultrasound technique (US) of body fat (BF) was better correlated with DXA in both women (r2 = 0.97, P < 0.01) and men (r2 = 0.92, P < 0.01) with standard errors of estimates (SEE) being 2.1 kg and 2.2 kg, respectively. Conclusion. The use of a portable device based on a US produced a very accurate BF estimate in relation to DXA reference technique. As DXA absorptiometry techniques are not interchangeable, the use of our ultrasound-based device needs to be recalibrated on a more contemporary DXA. PMID:24575315

  4. Resistance training in overweight women on a ketogenic diet conserved lean body mass while reducing body fat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of 10 weeks resistance training in combination with either a regular diet (Ex) or a low carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (Lc+Ex) in overweight women on body weight and body composition. Methods 18 untrained women between 20 and 40 years with BMI ≥ 25 kg*m-2 were randomly assigned into the Ex or Lc+Ex group. Both groups performed 60-100 min of varied resistance exercise twice weekly. Dietary estimates were based on two 4-day weighed records. Body composition was estimated using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for total-, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and glucose. Results 16 subjects were included in the analyses. Percentage of energy (En%) from carbohydrates, fat and protein was 6, 66, and 22 respectively in the (Lc+Ex) group and 41, 34, 17 in the Ex group. Mean weight change (pre-post) was -5.6 ± 2.6 kg in Lc+Ex; (p < 0.001) and 0.8 ± 1.5 kg in Ex; (p = 0.175). The Lc+Ex group lost 5.6 ± 2.9 kg of fat mass (p = 0.001) with no significant change in lean body mass (LBM), while the Ex group gained 1.6 ± 1.8 kg of LBM (p = 0.045) with no significant change in fat mass (p = 0.059). Fasting blood lipids and blood glucose were not significantly affected by the interventions. Conclusion Resistance exercise in combination with a ketogenic diet may reduce body fat without significantly changing LBM, while resistance exercise on a regular diet may increase LBM in without significantly affecting fat mass. Fasting blood lipids do not seem to be negatively influenced by the combination of resistance exercise and a low carbohydrate diet. PMID:20196854

  5. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimation Fat-Free Mass in the Army Cadets

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Raquel D.; Borges, Juliano H.; Pascoa, Mauro A.; Cirolini, Vagner X.; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Gonçalves, Ezequiel M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is a fast, practical, non-invasive, and frequently used method for fat-free mass (FFM) estimation. The aims of this study were to validate predictive equations of BIA to FFM estimation in Army cadets and to develop and validate a specific BIA equation for this population. Methods: A total of 396 males, Brazilian Army cadets, aged 17–24 years were included. The study used eight published predictive BIA equations, a specific equation in FFM estimation, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method. Student’s t-test (for paired sample), linear regression analysis, and Bland–Altman method were used to test the validity of the BIA equations. Results: Predictive BIA equations showed significant differences in FFM compared to DXA (p < 0.05) and large limits of agreement by Bland–Altman. Predictive BIA equations explained 68% to 88% of FFM variance. Specific BIA equations showed no significant differences in FFM, compared to DXA values. Conclusion: Published BIA predictive equations showed poor accuracy in this sample. The specific BIA equations, developed in this study, demonstrated validity for this sample, although should be used with caution in samples with a large range of FFM. PMID:26978397

  6. Fat Mass Reduction With Adipocyte Hypertrophy and Insulin Resistance in Heterozygous PPARγ Mutant Rats.

    PubMed

    Gumbilai, Valentino; Ebihara, Ken; Aizawa-Abe, Megumi; Ebihara, Chihiro; Zhao, Mingming; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mashimo, Tomoji; Hosoda, Kiminori; Serikawa, Tadao; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2016-10-01

    Agonist-induced activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) stimulates adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. Patients with heterozygous PPARγ dominant-negative mutation develop partial lipodystrophy and insulin resistance. Inconsistent with this evidence in humans, it was reported that heterozygous PPARγ knockout mice have increased insulin sensitivity and that mice with heterozygous PPARγ dominant-negative mutation have normal insulin sensitivity and improved glucose tolerance. In the context of the interspecies intranslatability of PPARγ-related findings, we generated a PPARγ mutant rat with a loss-of-function mutation (Pparg(mkyo)) without dominant-negative activity by using the ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) mutagenesis method. Heterozygous Pparg(mkyo/+) rats showed reduced fat mass with adipocyte hypertrophy and insulin resistance, which were highly predictable from known actions of PPARγ agonists and phenotypes of patients with the PPARγ mutation. This report is the first in our knowledge to clearly demonstrate that both alleles of PPARγ are required for normal adipocyte development and insulin sensitivity in vivo. Furthermore, the study indicates that PPARγ regulates mainly adipocyte number rather than adipocyte size in vivo. The choice of appropriate species as experimental models is critical, especially for the study of PPARγ.

  7. Accuracy of plantar electrodes compared with hand and foot electrodes in fat-free-mass measurement.

    PubMed

    Jaffrin, Michel Y; Bousbiat, Sana

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the measurement of fat-free mass (FFM) by bioimpedance using foot-to-foot impedancemeters (FFI) with plantar electrodes measuring the foot-to-foot resistance R34 and hand-to-foot medical impedancemeters. FFM measurements were compared with corresponding data using Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Equations giving FFM were established using linear multiple regression on DXA data in a first group of 170 subjects. For validation, these equations were used on a second group of 86 subjects, and FFM were compared with DXA data; no significant difference was observed. The same protocol was repeated, but using electrodes on the right hand and foot in standing position to measure the hand to-foot resistance R13. Mean differences with DXA were higher for R13 than for R34. Effect of electrode size and feet position on resistance was also investigated. R34 decreased when electrode area increased or if feet were moved forward. It decreased if feet were moved backward. A proper configuration of contact electrodes can improve measurement accuracy and reproducibility of FFI.

  8. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for the prediction of fat-free mass in buffalo calf.

    PubMed

    Sarubbi, F; Bàculo, R; Balzarano, D

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study has been to develop a prediction equation of fat-free mass (FFM) from buffalo calves. Twenty buffaloes were fed ad libitum access at unifeed, with vitamin-mineral integration, for 14 months. Seven days before slaughtering, the animals were weighed and bioelectrical impedance measurements were collected. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regressions to evaluate the relationship between FFM and various predictor variables. Stepwise regression was used to eliminate variables that did not influence variation in the model. The value of resistance collected showed a decrease when the electrical frequency increases, while the values of reactance (Xc) increase. When using live weight (LW) and reactance at 500 and at 1000 kHz as independent variables, we obtained the best R2 Adj (0.967) and Durbin Watson statistic (2.596) that explain the prediction model (FFM = - 30.59 + 0.993LW + 0.150Xc500 - 0.123Xc1000 + 9.11). These results indicate that the use of bioelectrical impedance analysis has excellent potential as a rapid method, with minimal perturbation for the animal, to predict FFM in buffalo. PMID:22443823

  9. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein: an adipokine modulator of body fat mass?

    PubMed

    Bing, C; Mracek, T; Gao, D; Trayhurn, P

    2010-11-01

    The importance of white adipose tissue in the control of energy balance is now firmly recognized. In addition to fuel storage, adipocytes secrete an array of proteins factors (adipokines), which regulate multiple physiological and metabolic processes as well as influence body fat accumulation. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a lipid mobilizing factor initially characterized as a tumor product associated with cachexia, has recently been identified as a novel adipokine. Although the exact role of ZAG in adipose tissue remains to be clarified, there is evidence that ZAG expression appears to be inversely related to adiposity, being upregulated in cachexia whereas reduced in obesity. Investigations on the regulation of ZAG give insights into its potential function in adipose tissue with a link to lipid mobilization and an anti-inflammatory action. Recent work shows that ZAG stimulates adiponectin secretion by human adipocytes. Data from genetic studies suggest that ZAG may be a candidate gene for body weight regulation; this is supported by the demonstration that ZAG-knockout mice are susceptible to weight gain, whereas transgenic mice overexpressing ZAG exhibit weight loss. The present review summarizes these new perspectives of ZAG and the potential mechanisms by which it might modulate adipose tissue mass and function.

  10. Partial Inhibition of Adipose Tissue Lipolysis Improves Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity Without Alteration of Fat Mass

    PubMed Central

    Girousse, Amandine; Tavernier, Geneviève; Valle, Carine; Moro, Cedric; Mejhert, Niklas; Dinel, Anne-Laure; Houssier, Marianne; Roussel, Balbine; Besse-Patin, Aurèle; Combes, Marion; Mir, Lucile; Monbrun, Laurent; Bézaire, Véronic; Prunet-Marcassus, Bénédicte; Waget, Aurélie; Vila, Isabelle; Caspar-Bauguil, Sylvie; Louche, Katie; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Mairal, Aline; Renoud, Marie-Laure; Galitzky, Jean; Holm, Cecilia; Mouisel, Etienne; Thalamas, Claire; Viguerie, Nathalie; Sulpice, Thierry; Burcelin, Rémy; Arner, Peter; Langin, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    When energy is needed, white adipose tissue (WAT) provides fatty acids (FAs) for use in peripheral tissues via stimulation of fat cell lipolysis. FAs have been postulated to play a critical role in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance, a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, whether and how chronic inhibition of fat mobilization from WAT modulates insulin sensitivity remains elusive. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) participates in the breakdown of WAT triacylglycerol into FAs. HSL haploinsufficiency and treatment with a HSL inhibitor resulted in improvement of insulin tolerance without impact on body weight, fat mass, and WAT inflammation in high-fat-diet–fed mice. In vivo palmitate turnover analysis revealed that blunted lipolytic capacity is associated with diminution in FA uptake and storage in peripheral tissues of obese HSL haploinsufficient mice. The reduction in FA turnover was accompanied by an improvement of glucose metabolism with a shift in respiratory quotient, increase of glucose uptake in WAT and skeletal muscle, and enhancement of de novo lipogenesis and insulin signalling in liver. In human adipocytes, HSL gene silencing led to improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, resulting in increased de novo lipogenesis and activation of cognate gene expression. In clinical studies, WAT lipolytic rate was positively and negatively correlated with indexes of insulin resistance and WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression, respectively. In obese individuals, chronic inhibition of lipolysis resulted in induction of WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression. Thus, reduction in WAT lipolysis reshapes FA fluxes without increase of fat mass and improves glucose metabolism through cell-autonomous induction of fat cell de novo lipogenesis, which contributes to improved insulin sensitivity. PMID:23431266

  11. Partial inhibition of adipose tissue lipolysis improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity without alteration of fat mass.

    PubMed

    Girousse, Amandine; Tavernier, Geneviève; Valle, Carine; Moro, Cedric; Mejhert, Niklas; Dinel, Anne-Laure; Houssier, Marianne; Roussel, Balbine; Besse-Patin, Aurèle; Combes, Marion; Mir, Lucile; Monbrun, Laurent; Bézaire, Véronic; Prunet-Marcassus, Bénédicte; Waget, Aurélie; Vila, Isabelle; Caspar-Bauguil, Sylvie; Louche, Katie; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Mairal, Aline; Renoud, Marie-Laure; Galitzky, Jean; Holm, Cecilia; Mouisel, Etienne; Thalamas, Claire; Viguerie, Nathalie; Sulpice, Thierry; Burcelin, Rémy; Arner, Peter; Langin, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    When energy is needed, white adipose tissue (WAT) provides fatty acids (FAs) for use in peripheral tissues via stimulation of fat cell lipolysis. FAs have been postulated to play a critical role in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance, a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, whether and how chronic inhibition of fat mobilization from WAT modulates insulin sensitivity remains elusive. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) participates in the breakdown of WAT triacylglycerol into FAs. HSL haploinsufficiency and treatment with a HSL inhibitor resulted in improvement of insulin tolerance without impact on body weight, fat mass, and WAT inflammation in high-fat-diet-fed mice. In vivo palmitate turnover analysis revealed that blunted lipolytic capacity is associated with diminution in FA uptake and storage in peripheral tissues of obese HSL haploinsufficient mice. The reduction in FA turnover was accompanied by an improvement of glucose metabolism with a shift in respiratory quotient, increase of glucose uptake in WAT and skeletal muscle, and enhancement of de novo lipogenesis and insulin signalling in liver. In human adipocytes, HSL gene silencing led to improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, resulting in increased de novo lipogenesis and activation of cognate gene expression. In clinical studies, WAT lipolytic rate was positively and negatively correlated with indexes of insulin resistance and WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression, respectively. In obese individuals, chronic inhibition of lipolysis resulted in induction of WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression. Thus, reduction in WAT lipolysis reshapes FA fluxes without increase of fat mass and improves glucose metabolism through cell-autonomous induction of fat cell de novo lipogenesis, which contributes to improved insulin sensitivity. PMID:23431266

  12. Drinking water boosts food intake rate, body mass increase and fat accumulation in migratory blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla).

    PubMed

    Tsurim, Ido; Sapir, Nir; Belmaker, Jonathan; Shanni, Itai; Izhaki, Ido; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Karasov, William H; Pinshow, Berry

    2008-05-01

    Fat accumulation by blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) is a prerequisite for successful migratory flight in the autumn and has recently been determined to be constrained by availability of drinking water. Birds staging in a fruit-rich Pistacia atlantica plantation that had access to water increased their body mass and fat reserves both faster and to a greater extent than birds deprived of water. We conducted a series of laboratory experiments on birds captured during the autumn migration period in which we tested the hypotheses that drinking water increases food use by easing limitations on the birds' dietary choices and, consequently, feeding and food processing rates, and that the availability of drinking water leads to improved digestion and, therefore, to higher apparent metabolizable energy. Blackcaps were trapped in autumn in the Northern Negev Desert, Israel and transferred to individual cages in the laboratory. Birds were provided with P. atlantica fruit and mealworms, and had either free access to water (controls) or were water-deprived. In experiment 1, in which mealworm availability was restricted, water-deprived birds had a fourfold lower fruit and energy intake rates and, consequently, gained less fat and total mass than control birds. Water availability did not affect food metabolizability. In experiment 2, in which mealworms were provided ad libitum, water availability influenced the birds' diet: water-restricted birds ate more mealworms, while control birds consumed mainly P. atlantica fruit. Further, in experiment 2, fat and mass gain did not differ between the two treatment groups. We conclude that water availability may have important consequences for fat accumulation in migrating birds while they fatten at stopover sites, especially when water-rich food is scarce. Restricted water availability may also impede the blackcap's dietary shift from insectivory to frugivory, a shift probably necessary for successful pre-migratory fattening.

  13. Trans fatty acids adversely affect blood lipids but not intra-abdominal and liver fat deposition - a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFA) is, according to observational studies, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the causal mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Besides inducing dyslipidemia, TFA intake is suspected of promoting abdominal and liv...

  14. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Measurement in Predicting Fat-Free Mass of Chinese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen; Wong, Stephen Heung-sang

    2014-01-01

    Background The current study aimed to examine the validity of various published bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations in estimating FFM among Chinese children and adolescents and to develop BIA equations for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) appropriate for Chinese children and adolescents. Material/Methods A total of 255 healthy Chinese children and adolescents aged 9 to 19 years old (127 males and 128 females) from Tianjin, China, participated in the BIA measurement at 50 kHz between the hand and the foot. The criterion measure of FFM was also employed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). FFM estimated from 24 published BIA equations was cross-validated against the criterion measure from DEXA. Multiple linear regression was conducted to examine alternative BIA equation for the studied population. Results FFM estimated from the 24 published BIA equations yielded high correlations with the directly measured FFM from DEXA. However, none of the 24 equations was statistically equivalent with the DEXA-measured FFM. Using multiple linear regression and cross-validation against DEXA measurement, an alternative prediction equation was determined as follows: FFM (kg)=1.613+0.742×height (cm)2/impedance (Ω)+0.151×body weight (kg); R2=0.95; SEE=2.45kg; CV=6.5, 93.7% of the residuals of all the participants fell within the 95% limits of agreement. Conclusions BIA was highly correlated with FFM in Chinese children and adolescents. When the new developed BIA equations are applied, BIA can provide a practical and valid measurement of body composition in Chinese children and adolescents. PMID:25398209

  15. Estimation of fat-free mass in Asian neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Tint, Mya-Thway; Ward, Leigh C; Soh, Shu E; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kramer, Michael S; Yap, Fabian; Lingwood, Barbara; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-03-28

    The aims of this study were to develop and validate a prediction equation of fat-free mass (FFM) based on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry using air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) as a reference in Asian neonates and to test the applicability of the prediction equations in an independent Western cohort. A total of 173 neonates at birth and 140 at two weeks of age were included. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to develop the prediction equations in a two-third randomly selected subset and validated on the remaining one-third subset at each time point and in an independent Queensland cohort. FFM measured by ADP was the dependent variable, and anthropometric measures, sex and impedance quotient (L2/R50) were independent variables in the model. Accuracy of prediction equations was assessed using intra-class correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. L2/R50 was the significant predictor of FFM at week two but not at birth. Compared with the model using weight, sex and length, including L2/R50 slightly improved the prediction with a bias of 0·01 kg with 2 sd limits of agreement (LOA) (0·18, -0·20). Prediction explained 88·9 % of variation but not beyond that of anthropometry. Applying these equations to the Queensland cohort provided similar performance at the appropriate age. However, when the Queensland equations were applied to our cohort, the bias increased slightly but with similar LOA. BIA appears to have limited use in predicting FFM in the first few weeks of life compared with simple anthropometry in Asian populations. There is a need for population- and age-appropriate FFM prediction equations.

  16. Water balance, hydration status, and fat-free mass hydration in younger and older adults2

    PubMed Central

    Bossingham, Mandi J; Carnell, Nadine S; Campbell, Wayne W

    2008-01-01

    Background Older adults are at increased risk of dehydration, yet water balance is understudied in this population. Objective This controlled diet study assessed the effect of age on water input, output, and balance in healthy adults. Hydration status (plasma osmolality and urine specific gravity) and body composition were also measured. Design Eleven men and 14 women aged 23–46 y and 10 men and 11 women aged 63–81 y were subjects. Water balance was assessed during days 7–10 of three 18-d controlled feeding trials with protein intakes of 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 g · kg−1 · d−1. Total water input included water from the provided foods and beverages, ad libitum intake, and metabolic production. Water output included the losses in urine and stool and the insensible losses from respiration and nonsweating perspiration. Results Ad libitum water consumption, total water intake, water output through urine, total water output, and net water balance were not different in the older subjects than in the younger subjects. Markers of hydration status were within the range of clinical normalcy for all groups. Total body water (TBW) was not significantly different, fat-free mass (FFM) was significantly lower (P < 0.05), and FFM hydration (TBW:FFM) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the older subjects than in the younger subjects. Dietary protein intake did not influence any of these results. Conclusions These results show that healthy older adults maintain water input, output, and balance comparable to those of younger adults and have no apparent changes in hydration status. The results support that the hydration of FFM is increased in older men and women. PMID:15941885

  17. Estimation of fat-free mass in Asian neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Tint, Mya-Thway; Ward, Leigh C; Soh, Shu E; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kramer, Michael S; Yap, Fabian; Lingwood, Barbara; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-03-28

    The aims of this study were to develop and validate a prediction equation of fat-free mass (FFM) based on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry using air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) as a reference in Asian neonates and to test the applicability of the prediction equations in an independent Western cohort. A total of 173 neonates at birth and 140 at two weeks of age were included. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to develop the prediction equations in a two-third randomly selected subset and validated on the remaining one-third subset at each time point and in an independent Queensland cohort. FFM measured by ADP was the dependent variable, and anthropometric measures, sex and impedance quotient (L2/R50) were independent variables in the model. Accuracy of prediction equations was assessed using intra-class correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. L2/R50 was the significant predictor of FFM at week two but not at birth. Compared with the model using weight, sex and length, including L2/R50 slightly improved the prediction with a bias of 0·01 kg with 2 sd limits of agreement (LOA) (0·18, -0·20). Prediction explained 88·9 % of variation but not beyond that of anthropometry. Applying these equations to the Queensland cohort provided similar performance at the appropriate age. However, when the Queensland equations were applied to our cohort, the bias increased slightly but with similar LOA. BIA appears to have limited use in predicting FFM in the first few weeks of life compared with simple anthropometry in Asian populations. There is a need for population- and age-appropriate FFM prediction equations. PMID:26856420

  18. Estimation of fat-free mass in Asian neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tint, Mya-Thway; Ward, Leigh C; Soh, Shu E; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kramer, Michael S; Yap, Fabian; Lingwood, Barbara; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop and validate a prediction equation of fat-free mass (FFM) based on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as a reference in Asian neonates and to test the applicability of the prediction equations in independent Western cohort. A total of 173 neonates at birth and 140 at week-2 of age were included. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to develop the prediction equations in a two-third randomly selected subset and validated on the remaining one-third subset at each time point and in an independent Queensland cohort. FFM measured by ADP was the dependent variable and anthropometric measures, sex and impedance quotient (L2/R50) were independent variables in the model. Accuracy of prediction equations were assessed using intra-class correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. L2/R50 was the significant predictor of FFM at week-2 but not at birth. Compared to the model using weight, sex and length, including L2/R50 slightly improved the prediction with a bias of 0.01kg with 2SD limits of agreement (LOA) (0.18, −0.20). Prediction explained 88.9% of variation but not beyond that of anthropometry. Applying these equations to Queensland cohort provided similar performance at the appropriate age. However, when the Queensland equations were applied to our cohort, the bias increased slightly but with similar LOA. BIA appears to have limited use in predicting FFM in the first few weeks of life compared to simple anthropometry in Asian populations. There is a need for population and age appropriate FFM prediction equations. PMID:26856420

  19. Soluble leptin receptor in serum of subjects with complete resistance to leptin: relation to fat mass.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, N; Clement, K; Carel, J C; Vaisse, C; Lotton, C; Le Bihan, Y; Basdevant, A; Lebouc, Y; Froguel, P; Roger, M; Guy-Grand, B

    2000-08-01

    Leptin resistance and obesity have been related to mutations of the leptin receptor gene in rodents and, recently, in a consanguineous family. The latter mutation results in a receptor lacking transmembrane and intracellular domains. Homozygous and heterozygous individuals with this mutation had serum leptin levels higher than expected, given their BMIs: 600, 670, and 526 ng/ml and 145, 362, 294, 240, and 212 ng/ml, respectively. Their serum leptin was fractionated by gel filtration: >80% was present as a high-molecular size complex vs. 7.5% in the nonmutated sister. Western blot analysis showed a band at 146 kDa reacting specifically with an antibody directed against the leptin receptor ectodomain. In 10 obese control subjects, as in the mutated patients, free leptin levels correlated with BMI (r = 0.70, P = 0.0011) and reflected fat mass, regardless of leptin receptor functioning. In the patients, bound leptin levels correlated with BMI (r = 0.99, P = 0.0002) and were related to the number of mutated alleles. These data demonstrate that the truncated receptor is secreted into blood and binds the majority of serum leptin, markedly increasing bound and total leptin. Free serum leptin was similarly correlated with BMI in the mutated and nonmutated obese individuals, providing evidence that the relationship between BMI and circulating free leptin is preserved in this family. This finding suggests that the leptin receptor itself may not be specifically involved in the control of leptin secretion, and it supports the concept of relative resistance to leptin in common obesity. PMID:10923636

  20. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-01-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population. PMID:26797054

  1. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-01-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population.

  2. 22-gauge core vs 22-gauge aspiration needle for endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling of abdominal masses

    PubMed Central

    Sterlacci, William; Sioulas, Athanasios D; Veits, Lothar; Gönüllü, Pervin; Schachschal, Guido; Groth, Stefan; Anders, Mario; Kontos, Christos K; Topalidis, Theodoros; Hinsch, Andrea; Vieth, Michael; Rösch, Thomas; Denzer, Ulrike W

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the aspiration needle (AN) and core biopsy needle (PC) in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of abdominal masses. METHODS Consecutive patients referred for EUS-FNA were included in this prospective single-center trial. Each patient underwent a puncture of the lesion with both standard 22-gauge (G) AN (Echo Tip Ultra; Cook Medical, Bloomington, Indiana, United States) and the novel 22G PC (EchoTip ProCore; Cook Medical, Bloomington, Indiana, United States) in a randomized fashion; histology was attempted in the PC group only. The main study endpoint was the overall diagnostic accuracy, including the contribution of histology to the final diagnosis. Secondary outcome measures included material adequacy, number of needle passes, and complications. RESULTS Fifty six consecutive patients (29 men; mean age 68 years) with pancreatic lesions (n = 38), lymphadenopathy (n = 13), submucosal tumors (n = 4), or others lesions (n = 1) underwent EUS-FNA using both of the needles in a randomized order. AN and PC reached similar overall results for diagnostic accuracy (AN: 88.9 vs PC: 96.1, P = 0.25), specimen adequacy (AN: 96.4% vs PC: 91.1%, P = 0.38), mean number of passes (AN: 1.5 vs PC: 1.7, P = 0.14), mean cellularity score (AN: 1.7 vs PC: 1.1, P = 0.058), and complications (none). A diagnosis on the basis of histology was achieved in the PC group in 36 (64.3%) patients, and in 2 of those as the sole modality. In patients with available histology the mean cellularity score was higher for AN (AN: 1.7 vs PC: 1.0, P = 0.034); no other differences were of statistical significance. CONCLUSION Both needles achieved high overall diagnostic yields and similar performance characteristics for cytological diagnosis; histological analysis was only possible in 2/3 of cases with the new needle.

  3. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students) daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity. PMID:22894563

  4. Physical activity and dietary fat as determinants of body mass index in a cross-sectional corelational design.

    PubMed

    Okeyo, Omondi D; Ayado, Othuon L O; Mbagaya, Grace M

    2009-04-01

    Overweight/obesity and related disease conditions will constitute a major threat to the economically productive adults and subsequently, will present a huge health-care burden on developing countries in the near future. Suspected determinants include physical activity and dietary fat. The main indicator of overweight/obesity is Body Mass Index (BMI . The purpose of this article is to present the prediction power of physical activity and dietary fat intake on BMI of lecturers within a higher learning institutionalized setting. The studyadopted a cross-sectional correlational design. Proportionate and simple random sampling techniques were used to select a sample of 120 lecturers who participated in the study. Data collection was conducted through questionnaires, which had sections including physical activity checklist, 24-hour food recall, anthropometrics measurements mainly weight and height. Analysis of data involved the use of bivariate correlation and linear regression. A significant inverse association occurred between BMI and minutes spent in moderate intense physical activity per day (r=-0322, p<0.01). Physical activity also predicted BMI (R2=0.096, F=13.616, beta=-3.22, t=-3.69, N=120, P<0.01). However, the association between Body Mass Index and dietary fat was not significant (r=0.038, p>0.05). In conclusion, physical activity was a significant predictor to BMI and on the contrary no significant impact was caused by dietary fat intake. Therefore, we still need further investigations on the effect of physical activity and dietary fat on BMI and risk factors associated poor diet should take priority.

  5. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Keisler, Brian; Carter, Chuck

    2015-04-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm refers to abdominal aortic dilation of 3.0 cm or greater. The main risk factors are age older than 65 years, male sex, and smoking history. Other risk factors include a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery disease, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, and previous myocardial infarction. Diagnosis may be made by physical examination, an incidental finding on imaging, or ultrasonography. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released updated recommendations for abdominal aortic aneurysm screening in 2014. Men 65 to 75 years of age with a history of smoking should undergo one-time screening with ultrasonography based on evidence that screening will improve abdominal aortic aneurysm-related mortality in this population. Men in this age group without a history of smoking may benefit if they have other risk factors (e.g., family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, other vascular aneurysms, coronary artery disease). There is inconclusive evidence to recommend screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in women 65 to 75 years of age with a smoking history. Women without a smoking history should not undergo screening because the harms likely outweigh the benefits. Persons who have a stable abdominal aortic aneurysm should undergo regular surveillance or operative intervention depending on aneurysm size. Surgical intervention by open or endovascular repair is the primary option and is typically reserved for aneurysms 5.5 cm in diameter or greater. There are limited options for medical treatment beyond risk factor modification. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is a medical emergency presenting with hypotension, shooting abdominal or back pain, and a pulsatile abdominal mass. It is associated with high prehospitalization mortality. Emergent surgical intervention is indicated for a rupture but has a high operative mortality rate. PMID:25884861

  6. Fat-cell mass, serum leptin and adiponectin changes during weight gain and loss in yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris).

    PubMed

    Florant, Gregory L; Porst, Heather; Peiffer, Aubrey; Hudachek, Susan F; Pittman, Chris; Summers, Scott A; Rajala, Michael W; Scherer, Philipp E

    2004-11-01

    Leptin and adiponectin are proteins produced and secreted from white adipose tissue and are important regulators of energy balance and insulin sensitivity. Seasonal changes in leptin and adiponectin have not been investigated in mammalian hibernators in relationship to changes in fat cell and fat mass. We sought to determine the relationship between serum leptin and adiponectin levels with seasonal changes in lipid mass. We collected serum and tissue samples from marmots (Marmota flaviventris) in different seasons while measuring changes in fat mass, including fat-cell size. We found that leptin is positively associated with increasing fat mass and fat-cell size, while adiponectin is negatively associated with increasing lipid mass. These findings are consistent with the putative roles of these adipokines: leptin increases with fat mass and is involved in enhancing lipid oxidation while adiponectin appears to be higher in summer when hepatic insulin sensitivity should be maintained since the animals are eating. Our data suggest that during autumn/winter animals have switched from a lipogenic condition to a lipolytic state, which may include leptin resistance.

  7. Bovine serum albumin as the dominant form of dietary protein reduces subcutaneous fat mass, plasma leptin and plasma corticosterone in high fat-fed C57/BL6J mice.

    PubMed

    McManus, Bettina L; Korpela, Riitta; Speakman, John R; Cryan, John F; Cotter, Paul D; Nilaweera, Kanishka N

    2015-08-28

    Increasing evidence suggests that the source of dietary protein can have an impact on weight gain and fat mass during high-fat feeding in both humans and rodents. The present study examined whether dietary bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the dominant source of protein alters energy balance and adiposity associated with high-fat feeding. C57/BL6J mice were given a diet with 10 % of energy from fat and 20 % of energy from casein or a diet with 45 % of energy from fat and either 20 % of energy from casein (HFD) or BSA (HFD+BSA) for 13 weeks. The HFD+BSA diet did not significantly alter daily energy expenditure, locomotor activity and RER, but did increase cumulative energy intake and percentage of lean mass while reducing feed efficiency and percentage of fat mass when compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). In subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), the HFD+BSA diet increased the mRNA levels of PPARα (PPARA), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), but reduced the mRNA level of leptin when compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). The SAT mRNA levels of PPARA, CPT1b and UCP3 were negatively correlated (P< 0·05) with SAT mass, which was reduced in HFD+BSA mice compared with HFD controls (P< 0·01). No differences in epididymal fat mass existed between the groups. The HFD+BSA diet normalised plasma leptin and corticosterone levels compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). While differences in leptin levels were associated with the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·01), changes in corticosterone concentrations were independent of the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·05). The data suggest that the HFD+BSA diet influences plasma leptin levels via SAT mass reduction where mRNA levels of genes linked to β-oxidation were increased, whereas differences in plasma corticosterone levels were not related to fat mass reduction. PMID:26189974

  8. Genetic determinants for intramuscular fat content and water-holding capacity in mice selected for high muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Kärst, Stefan; Cheng, Riyan; Schmitt, Armin O; Yang, Hyuna; de Villena, Fernando Pardo Manuel; Palmer, Abraham A; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2011-10-01

    Intramuscular fat content and water-holding capacity are important traits in livestock as they influence meat quality, nutritive value of the muscle, and animal health. As a model for livestock, two inbred lines of the Berlin Muscle Mouse population, which had been long-term selected for high muscle mass, were used to identify genomic regions affecting intramuscular fat content and water-holding capacity. The intramuscular fat content of the Musculus longissimus was on average 1.4 times higher in BMMI806 than in BMMI816 mice. This was accompanied by a 1.5 times lower water-holding capacity of the Musculus quadriceps in BMMI816 mice. Linkage analyses with 332 G(3) animals of reciprocal crosses between these two lines revealed quantitative trait loci for intramuscular fat content on chromosome 7 and for water-holding capacity on chromosome 2. In part, the identified loci coincide with syntenic regions in pigs in which genetic effects for the same traits were found. Therefore, these muscle-weight-selected mouse lines and the produced intercross populations are valuable genetic resources to identify genes that could also contribute to meat quality in other species. PMID:21732194

  9. Sweetening yoghurt with glucose, but not with saccharin, promotes weight gain and increased fat pad mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Boakes, Robert A; Kendig, Michael D; Martire, Sarah I; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-10-01

    The claim that non-nutritive sweeteners accelerate body weight gain by disrupting sweet-calorie associations was tested in two experiments using rats. The experiments were modelled on a key study from a series of experiments reporting greater body weight gain in rats fed yoghurt sweetened with saccharin than with glucose (Swithers & Davidson, 2008). Both of the current experiments likewise compared groups fed saccharin- or glucose-sweetened yoghurt in addition to chow and water, while Experiment 1 included a third group (Control) given unsweetened yoghurt. In Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2, rats were initially exposed to both saccharin- and glucose-sweetened yoghurts to assess their relative palatability. We also tested whether the provision of an energy-dense sweet biscuit would augment any effects of saccharin on food intake and weight gain, as seemingly predicted by Swithers and Davidson (2008). In Experiment 1 there were no differences in body weight gain or fat pad mass between the Saccharin and Control group, whereas the Glucose group was the heaviest by the final 5 weeks and at cull had the largest fat pads. Greater acceptance of saccharin predicted more weight gain over the whole experiment. Consistent with past reports, fasting blood glucose and insulin measures did not differ between the Saccharin and Control groups, but suggested some impairment of insulin sensitivity in the Glucose group. Experiment 2 found similar effects of glucose on fat mass, but not on body weight gain. In summary, adding saccharin had no detectable effects on body-weight regulation, whereas the effects of glucose on fat pad mass were consistent with previous studies reporting more harmful effects of sugars compared to non-nutritive sweeteners. PMID:27189382

  10. Agreement between bioelectrical impedance and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in assessing fat, lean and bone mass changes in adults after a lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Duncan J; Chan, Natalie T-Y; Tse, Michael A; Joe, Glen M

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the agreement of a commercially available bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) device in measuring changes in fat, lean and bone mass over a 10-week lifestyle intervention, with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference. A sample of 136 volunteers (18-66 years) underwent a physical activity intervention to enhance lean mass and reduce fat mass. BIA (Tanita BC545) and DXA (Hologic Explorer) measures of whole-body composition were taken at baseline and at the end of the intervention. After an average of 74 ± 18 days intervention, DXA showed significant changes in 2 of 3 outcome variables: reduced fat mass of 0.802 ± 1.092 kg (P < 0.001), increased lean mass of 0.477 ± 0.966 kg (P < 0.001); minor non-significant increase of 0.007 ± 0.041 kg of bone mass (P = 0.052). The respective changes in BIA measures were a significant reduction of 0.486 ± 1.539 kg fat (P < 0.001), but non-significant increases of 0.084 ± 1.201 kg lean mass (P = 0.425), and 0.014 ± 0.091 kg bone (P = 0.074). Significant, but moderately weak, correlations were seen in absolute mass changes between DXA and BIA: 0.511 (fat), 0.362 (lean) and 0.172 (bone). Compared to DXA, BIA demonstrated mediocre agreement to changes in fat mass, but poor agreement to lean mass changes. BIA significantly underestimated the magnitude of changes in fat and lean mass compared to DXA.

  11. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.

  12. Interleukin-6 (IL6) genotype is associated with fat-free mass in men but not women.

    PubMed

    Roth, Stephen M; Schrager, Matthew A; Lee, Mechele R; Metter, E Jeffrey; Hurley, Ben F; Ferrell, Robert E

    2003-12-01

    We studied the association of the G-174C promoter polymorphism in the interleukin-6 gene (IL6) with total body fat and fat-free mass (FFM) in 242 men and women (IL6 genotypes: G/G, n = 87; G/C, n = 100; C/C, n = 55) across the adult age span (21-92 years). In men, but not women (significant genotype by sex interactions; p =.023-.048), the C/C group exhibited significantly lower total FFM than the G/G group (54.7 +/- 0.8 kg vs 57.2 +/- 0.7 kg, respectively, p =.020), as well as significantly lower FFM of the lower limbs compared with the G/G group (18.4 +/- 0.3 kg vs 19.8 +/- 0.3 kg, respectively, p =.004). No significant genotype differences were observed in total body fat mass in either men or women. The results indicate that the IL6 G-174C polymorphism is significantly associated with FFM in men but not women.

  13. Il6 gene promoter polymorphism (-174G/C) influences the association between fat mass and cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Moleres, A; Rendo-Urteaga, T; Azcona, C; Martínez, J A; Gómez-Martínez, S; Ruiz, J R; Moreno, L A; Marcos, A; Marti, A

    2009-12-01

    During the last decades, the prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly among young people. A polymorphism in the promoter region of the IL6 gene (-174G/C), has been previously reported to be involved in obesity and metabolic syndrome development. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine whether the IL6-174G/C polymorphism influence the association of body fat with low-grade inflammatory markers and blood lipids and lipoproteins in Spanish adolescents. 504 Spanish adolescents participating in the AVENA study were genotyped for the-174G/C polymorphism of the IL6 gene. Anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken and blood samples were collected for plasma molecules determinations. No differences between genotypes were observed in anthropometric values, body composition measurements and plasma markers concentration. Physical activity level differ between genotypes with subjects carrying the C allele of the polymorphism being significantly (p<0.05) more active than GG subjects. The association between body fat mass and plasma glucose was influenced by the -174G/C polymorphism of the IL6 gene. Subjects carrying the C allele of the mutation seem to have higher values of lipoprotein (a) and C-reactive protein as their percentage of body fat mass increase. Our results suggest that this promoter polymorphism influences the association between adiposity and some plasma markers.

  14. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children. PMID:21736824

  15. The Mechanism by Which Safflower Yellow Decreases Body Fat Mass and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in HFD-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huijuan; Wang, Xiangqing; Pan, Hui; Dai, Yufei; Li, Naishi; Wang, Linjie; Yang, Hongbo; Gong, Fengying

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Safflower yellow (SY) is the main effective ingredient of Carthamus tinctorius L. It has been reported that SY plays an important role in anti-inflammation, anti-platelet aggregation, and inhibiting thrombus formation. In present study, we try to investigate the effects of SY on body weight, body fat mass, insulin sensitivity in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Methods: HFD-induced obese male ICR mice were intraperitoneally injected with SY (120 mg kg−1) daily. Eight weeks later, intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (IPITT), and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) were performed, and body weight, body fat mass, serum insulin levels were measured. The expression of glucose and lipid metabolic related genes in white adipose tissue (WAT) were determined by RT-qPCR and western blot technologies. Results: The administration obese mice with SY significantly reduced the body fat mass of HFD-induced obese mice (P < 0.05). IPITT test showed that the insulin sensitivity of SY treated obese mice were evidently improved. The mRNA levels of insulin signaling pathway related genes including insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS1), PKB protein kinase (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and forkhead box protein O1(FOXO1) in mesenteric WAT of SY treated mice were significantly increased to 1.9- , 2.8- , 3.3- , and 5.9-folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice, respectively (P < 0.05). The protein levels of AKT and GSK3β were also significantly increased to 3.0 and 5.2-folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice, respectively (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, both the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorgamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α) in inguinal subcutaneous WAT of SY group were notably increased to 2.5 and 3.0-folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice (P < 0.05). Conclusions: SY significantly reduce the body fat mass, fasting blood glucose and increase insulin sensitivity of HFD-induced obese mice. The

  16. Lipidomic and Spatio-Temporal Imaging of Fat by Mass Spectrometry in Mice Duodenum during Lipid Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Seyer, Alexandre; Cantiello, Michela; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Roques, Véronique; Nauze, Michel; Bézirard, Valérie; Touboul, David; Coméra, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of dietary fat is a complex process mediated by enterocytes leading to lipid assembly and secretion of circulating lipoproteins as chylomicrons, vLDL and intestinal HDL (iHDL). Understanding lipid digestion is of importance knowing the correlation between excessive fat absorption and atherosclerosis. By using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), we illustrated a spatio-temporal localization of fat in mice duodenum, at different times of digestion after a lipid gavage, for the first time. Fatty acids progressively increased in enterocytes as well as taurocholic acid, secreted by bile and engaged in the entero-hepatic re-absorption cycle. Cytosolic lipid droplets (CLD) from enterocytes were originally purified separating chylomicron-like, intermediate droplets and smaller HDL-like. A lipidomic quantification revealed their contents in triglycerides, free and esterified cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and ceramides but also in free fatty acids, mono- and di-acylglycerols. An acyl-transferase activity was identified and the enzyme monoacylglycerol acyl transferase 2 (MGAT2) was immunodetected in all CLD. The largest droplets was also shown to contain the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), the acyl-coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferases (ACAT) 1 and 2, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). This highlights the fact that during the digestion of fats, enterocyte CLD contain some enzymes involved in the different stages of the metabolism of diet fatty acids and cholesterol, in anticipation of the crucial work of endoplasmic reticulum in the process. The data further underlines the dual role of chylomicrons and iHDL in fat digestion which should help to efficiently complement lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:23560035

  17. Determination of doxycycline in chicken fat by liquid chromatography with UV detection and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Anna; Posyniak, Andrzej; Zmudzki, Jan; Tomczyk, Grzegorz

    2013-06-01

    A sensitive analytical method for determination of doxycycline (DC) residues in chicken fat/fat and skin was developed. The extraction, in the presence of the internal standard (IS) minocycline (MINO), was carried out using solution of oxalic acid (pH 4.0) and ethyl acetate. The samples were cleaned up by solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure using, at first carboxylic acid and then polymeric Strata X cartridges. Chromatographic separation of DC by LC-UV was achieved on a Luna C8 analytical column and for LC-MS/MS analysis Luna C18 column was used. The presented procedures were evaluated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Specificity, decision limit (CCα), detection capacity (CCβ), recovery (absolute and relative), precision (repeatability and reproducibility) were determined during validation process. The limit of detection (LOD) was 10μg/kg for LC-UV and 1μg/kg for LC-MS/MS method. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 15 and 2μg/kg for LC-UV and LC-MS/MS, respectively. The absolute recovery for the LC-UV and relative recovery for the LC-MS/MS method at 300μg/kg concentration level were 79%; 101% for fat and 82%; 99% for fat and skin, respectively. The developed liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods have been applied to quantitative determination of doxycycline (DC) in samples of chicken fat tissue obtained from animals treated with DC.

  18. Changes in fat free mass in overweight patients with rheumatoid arthritis on a weight reducing regimen. A comparison of eight different body composition methods.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, B L; Kondrup, J; Engelhart, M; Kristensen, J H; Pødenphant, J; Høie, H; Andersen, V

    1994-12-01

    The aim of this work was to compare and validate seven different methods for estimating changes in fat free mass, in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Measurements were made of fat and fat free mass before and after 12 weeks on an energy restricted, protein rich diet and physical training. The subjects were sixteen female and three male overweight out-patients (mean body mass index at baseline: 30 kg/m2) suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, according to the criteria of the American Rheumatism Association. Fat free mass was estimated by eight different body composition methods (a four-compartment model, total body water, total body potassium, impedance, near infrared interactance, creatinine excretion, body mass index and skinfold measurements). Mean weight loss was 2.7 kg fat and 1.7 kg fat free mass. There was no difference between measurements of mean change in fat free mass by the four-compartment model and the other methods, except for the creatinine method (P = 0.03). Compared to the four-compartment method, the total body water method gave the most accurate estimate of individual fat free mass changes (residual Mean Square: 0.4 kg), second to this method, the impedance method, seemed most valid (residual Mean Square: 0.8 kg). Accuracies of the other methods were lower (residual Mean Square between 4.2 and 8.2 kg [corrected]). Of eight methods for estimating changes in FFM, the TBW method gave the most accurate estimate of individual FFM changes, compared to a four-compartment model used as reference.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Analysis of phospholipids in bio-oils and fats by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Viidanoja, Jyrki

    2015-09-15

    A new, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of Phospholipids (PLs) in bio-oils and fats. This analysis employs hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (HILIC-sMRM) with a ZIC-cHILIC column. Eight PL class selective internal standards (homologs) were used for the semi-quantification of 14 PL classes for the first time. More than 400 scheduled MRMs were used for the measurement of PLs with a run time of 34min. The method's performance was evaluated for vegetable oil, animal fat and algae oil. The averaged within-run precision and between-run precision were ≤10% for all of the PL classes that had a direct homologue as an internal standard. The method accuracy was generally within 80-120% for the tested PL analytes in all three sample matrices.

  20. Changes in Skinfold Thicknesses and Body Fat in Ultra-endurance Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Bischof, Martin; Knechtle, Beat; A.Rüst, Christoph; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The present study investigated the changes in single skinfold thicknesses and body fat during an ultra-endurance cycling race. Methods One hundred and nineteen ultra-endurance cyclists in the ‘Swiss Cycling Marathon’ covering a distance of 600 km were included. Changes in skinfold thickness, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass and total body water were estimated using anthropometric methods. Results The subjects were riding at a mean speed of 23.5±4.0 km/h and finished the race within 1,580±296 min. During the race, body mass decreased by 1.5±1.2 kg (P<0.001), and fat mass decreased by 1.5±1.1 kg (P<0.001). Skeletal muscle mass and total body water remained unchanged (P>0.05). The decrease in body mass correlated to the decrease in fat mass (r = 0.20, P=0.03). The skinfold thicknesses at pectoral (-14.7%), abdominal (-14.9%), and thigh (-10.2%) site showed the largest decrease. The decrease in abdominal skinfold was significantly and negatively related to cycling speed during the race (r = -0.31, P<0.001). Conclusion Cycling 600 km at ∼23 km/h led to a decrease in fat mass and in all skinfold thicknesses. The largest decrease in skinfold thickness was recorded for pectoral, abdominal, and thigh site. The decrease in abdominal skinfold thickness was negatively related to cycling speed. The body seems to reduce adipose subcutaneous fat during an ultra-endurance performance at the site of the thickest skinfold. PMID:23785571

  1. Long-Term Changes of Subcutaneous Fat Mass in HIV-Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Retrospective Analysis of Longitudinal Data from Two Pediatric HIV-Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sophie; Innes, Steve; Geelen, Sibyl P. M.; Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Smit, Colette; Wolfs, Tom F. W.; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Reiss, Peter; Scherpbier, Henriette J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Longitudinal studies objectively evaluating changes in regional fat distribution of HIV-infected children assessed by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) are scarce, whilst this long-term effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (cART) is an important issue in infected children in need for lifelong treatment. Methods We assessed regional fat distribution over time, measured with sequential DEXA-scans in HIV-infected children on cART in cohorts from South Africa (SA) and the Netherlands (NL), and in healthy controls (SA). Limb and trunk fat Z-scores were calculated with the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method. Multivariable linear regression models with mixed effects were used to investigate the effect of cART compounds on body fat distribution over time. Results In total, 218 children underwent 445 DEXA assessments with a median follow-up of 3.5 years. Fat mass in all limbs was decreased in HIV-infected children compared to controls (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.4813; P = 0.006, leg fat Z-score: coefficient -0.4345; P = 0.013). In the HIV-infected group, stavudine treatment was associated with lower subcutaneous fat mass (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.5838; P = 0.001), with an additional cumulative exposure effect (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.0867; P = 0.003). Conclusions Our study shows that subcutaneous fat loss is still prevalent in HIV-infected children on cART, and is strongly associated with cumulative stavudine exposure. These results underline the need for early detection of subcutaneous fat loss and alternative treatment options for HIV-infected children globally. PMID:26148119

  2. IQP-GC-101 Reduces Body Weight and Body Fat Mass: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-01-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24797657

  3. IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-10-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU  = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability.

  4. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Guilherme L; Crisp, Alex H; de Oliveira, Maria R M; da Silva, Carlos A; Silva, Jadson O; Duarte, Ana C G O; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Verlengia, Rozangela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8): control standard diet (CS), control high-fat diet (CH), continuous training standard diet (CTS), continuous training high-fat diet (CTH), interval training standard diet (ITS), and interval training high-fat diet (ITH). The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH) on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats. PMID:26904718

  5. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Guilherme L.; Crisp, Alex H.; de Oliveira, Maria R. M.; da Silva, Carlos A.; Silva, Jadson O.; Duarte, Ana C. G. O.; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Verlengia, Rozangela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8): control standard diet (CS), control high-fat diet (CH), continuous training standard diet (CTS), continuous training high-fat diet (CTH), interval training standard diet (ITS), and interval training high-fat diet (ITH). The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH) on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats. PMID:26904718

  6. Lean mass and fat mass have differing associations with bone microarchitecture assessed by high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography in men and women from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mark H; Ward, Kate A; Ntani, Georgia; Parsons, Camille; Thompson, Jennifer; Sayer, Avan A; Dennison, Elaine M; Cooper, Cyrus

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the effects of muscle and fat on bone is increasingly important in the optimisation of bone health. We explored relationships between bone microarchitecture and body composition in older men and women from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study. 175 men and 167 women aged 72-81 years were studied. High resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) images (voxel size 82 μm) were acquired from the non-dominant distal radius and tibia with a Scanco XtremeCT scanner. Standard morphological analysis was performed for assessment of macrostructure, densitometry, cortical porosity and trabecular microarchitecture. Body composition was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Lunar Prodigy Advanced). Lean mass index (LMI) was calculated as lean mass divided by height squared and fat mass index (FMI) as fat mass divided by height squared. The mean (standard deviation) age in men and women was 76 (3) years. In univariate analyses, tibial cortical area (p<0.01), cortical thickness (p<0.05) and trabecular number (p<0.01) were positively associated with LMI and FMI in both men and women. After mutual adjustment, relationships between cortical area and thickness were only maintained with LMI [tibial cortical area, β (95% confidence interval (CI)): men 6.99 (3.97,10.01), women 3.59 (1.81,5.38)] whereas trabecular number and density were associated with FMI. Interactions by sex were found, including for the relationships of LMI with cortical area and FMI with trabecular area in both the radius and tibia (p<0.05). In conclusion, LMI and FMI appeared to show independent relationships with bone microarchitecture. Further studies are required to confirm the direction of causality and explore the mechanisms underlying these tissue-specific associations. PMID:26187195

  7. Liver fat is not a marker of metabolic risk in lean premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Nichaman, Milton Z; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N; Ross, Robert

    2004-08-01

    We examined the independent associations among abdominal adipose tissue (AT) depots, liver fat, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and metabolic risk factors in 86 lean premenopausal women. We measured abdominal AT and liver fat by computed tomography (CT), and CRF by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Liver fat was not related to any abdominal AT depot, metabolic risk factor, or CRF (P > .10). Visceral AT mass (kilograms) remained a significant (P < .05) predictor of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and LDL-C/HDL-C after statistical adjustment for CRF. Abdominal subcutaneous AT mass was also a significant (P < .05) correlate of TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C after control for CRF. Visceral AT remained a significant predictor (P < .05) of TC and LDL-C after control for abdominal subcutaneous AT. Conversely, subcutaneous AT did not remain a significant correlate after control for visceral AT. However, the deep subcutaneous AT depot remained significantly associated with LDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C after control for visceral AT. In contrast, visceral AT remained correlated with triglycerides (TG) alone, after control for the deep subcutaneous AT. These observations suggest that liver fat is not a determinant of metabolic risk in lean women. Conversely, both visceral and the deep subcutaneous depot are determinants of metabolic risk in premenopausal woman despite the absence of obesity.

  8. Maternal Omega-3 Supplementation Increases Fat Mass in Male and Female Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Muhlhausler, Beverly Sara; Miljkovic, Dijana; Fong, Laura; Xian, Cory J.; Duthoit, Emmanuelle; Gibson, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Adipogenesis and lipogenesis are highly sensitive to the nutritional environment in utero and in early postnatal life. Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adult rats, however it is not known whether supplementing the maternal diet with omega-3 LCPUFA results in reduced fat deposition in the offspring. Female Albino Wistar rats were fed either a standard chow (Control, n = 10) or chow designed to provide ∼15 mg/kg/day of omega-3 LCPUFA, chiefly as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), throughout pregnancy and lactation (Omega-3, n = 11) and all pups were weaned onto a commercial rat chow. Blood and tissues were collected from pups at 3 and 6 weeks of age and weights of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots recorded. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the subcutaneous and visceral fat depots were determined using quantitative real time reverse transcription-PCR. Birth weight and postnatal growth were not different between groups. At 6 weeks of age, total percentage body fat was significantly increased in both male (5.09 ± 0.32% vs. 4.56 ± 0.2%, P < 0.04) and female (5.15 ± 0.37% vs. 3.89 ± 0.36%, P < 0.04) offspring of omega-3 dams compared to controls. The omega-3 LCPUFA content of erythrocyte phospholipids (as a% of total fatty acids) was higher in omega-3 offspring (6.7 ± 0.2% vs. 5.6 ± 0.2%, P < 0.001). There was no effect of maternal omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation on the expression of adipogenic or lipogenic genes in the offspring in either the visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. We have therefore established that an omega-3 rich environment during pregnancy and lactation in a rodent model increases fat accumulation in both male and female offspring, particularly in subcutaneous depots, but that this effect is not mediated via upregulation adipogenic/lipogenic gene transcription. These data suggest that maternal n−3 LCPUFA

  9. Associations between pQCT-based fat and muscle area and density and DXA-based total and leg soft tissue mass in healthy women and men

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Thiebaud, Robert S; Chen, Zhaojing; Karabulut, Murat; Kim, So Jung; Bemben, Debra A

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) can be used for muscle and fat area and density assessments. These may independently influence muscle and fat mass measurements from Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Objective To determine associations between pQCT-derived soft tissue density and area measures and DXA-derived soft tissue mass. Methods Linear regression models were developed based on BMI and calf fat and muscle cross-sectional area (FCSA and MCSA) and density measured by pQCT in healthy women (n=76) and men (n=82) aged 20–59 years. Independent variables for these models were leg and total bone-free lean mass (BFLM) and fat mass (FM) measured by DXA. Results Sex differences (p<0.01) were found in both muscle (Mean±SE: Women: 78.6±0.4; Men: 79.9 ± 0.2 mg/cm3) and fat (Women: 0.8±0.4 Men: 9.1±0.6 mg/cm3) density. BMI, fat density, and age (R2=0.86, p<0.01) best accounted for the variability in total FM. FCSA, BMI, and fat density explained the variance in leg FM (R2=0.87, p<0.01). MCSA and muscle density explained the variance in total (R2=0.65, p<0.01) and leg BFLM (R2=0.70, p<0.01). Conclusion Calf muscle and fat area and density independently predict lean and fat tissue mass. PMID:25524966

  10. Iron excess disturbs metabolic status and relative gonad mass in rats on high fat, fructose, and salt diets.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Szulińska, Monika

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic and physiological changes in rats fed a diet high in fat, fructose, and salt, and with excess iron level. Mineral status was also estimated. Wistar rats were assigned to groups fed either a standard control diet (C) or a diet high in fat, fructose, and salt. The noncontrol diets contained either normal (M) or high level (MFe) of iron. After 6 weeks, the length and weight of the rats were measured, and the animals were euthanized. The kidneys and gonads were collected, and blood samples were taken. Serum levels of insulin, nitric oxide, and iron were measured. The iron, zinc, copper, and calcium concentrations of tissues were determined. It was found that the M diet led to a significant increase in the relative kidney mass of the rats compared with the control group. Among the rats fed the M diet, markedly higher serum level of iron and lower levels of zinc and copper were observed in tissues, while significantly higher calcium levels were found in the gonads. The MFe diet resulted in decreased obesity index, insulin level, and nitric oxide serum concentration in the rats, when compared with both the M and C diets. The high iron level in the modified diet increased the relative mass of the gonads. The excess iron level in the diet disturbed the zinc, copper, and calcium status of tissues. The decrease in insulin and nitric oxide in rats fed the diet high in iron, fat, fructose, and salt was associated with disorders of zinc, copper, and calcium status, as well as with an increase in the relative mass of the gonads.

  11. DXA, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography and biometry for the estimation of fat and lean mass in cats during weight loss

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few equations have been developed in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine to predict body composition. The present study was done to evaluate the influence of weight loss on biometry (BIO), bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and ultrasonography (US) in cats, proposing equations to estimate fat (FM) and lean (LM) body mass, as compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the referenced method. For this were used 16 gonadectomized obese cats (8 males and 8 females) in a weight loss program. DXA, BIO, BIA and US were performed in the obese state (T0; obese animals), after 10% of weight loss (T1) and after 20% of weight loss (T2). Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (FM, LM) determined by DXA and the independent variables obtained by BIO, BIA and US. The better models chosen were evaluated by a simple regression analysis and means predicted vs. determined by DXA were compared to verify the accuracy of the equations. Results The independent variables determined by BIO, BIA and US that best correlated (p < 0.005) with the dependent variables (FM and LM) were BW (body weight), TC (thoracic circumference), PC (pelvic circumference), R (resistance) and SFLT (subcutaneous fat layer thickness). Using Mallows’Cp statistics, p value and r2, 19 equations were selected (12 for FM, 7 for LM); however, only 7 equations accurately predicted FM and one LM of cats. Conclusions The equations with two variables are better to use because they are effective and will be an alternative method to estimate body composition in the clinical routine. For estimated lean mass the equations using body weight associated with biometrics measures can be proposed. For estimated fat mass the equations using body weight associated with bioimpedance analysis can be proposed. PMID:22781317

  12. Associations Between Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measures of Total Body, Android, and Gynoid Fat Mass in Children.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey; Meendering, Jessica; Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Negative health outcomes are associated with excess body fat, low levels of physical activity (PA), and high sedentary time (ST). Relationships between PA, ST, and body fat distribution, including android and gynoid fat, assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have not been measured in children. The purpose of this study was to test associations between levels of activity and body composition in children and to evaluate if levels of activity predict body composition by DXA and by body mass index percentile in a similar manner. PA, ST, and body composition from 87 children (8.8-11.8 yr, grades 3-5, 44 boys) were used to test the association among study variables. Accelerometers measured PA and ST. Body composition measured by DXA included bone mineral content (BMC) and fat and lean mass of the total body (TB, less head), android, and gynoid regions. ST (range: 409-685 min/wk) was positively associated with TB percent fat (0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00-0.05) and android fat mass (1.5 g, 95% CI: 0.4-3.0), and inversely associated with the lean mass of the TB (-10.7 g, 95% CI: -20.8 to -0.63) and gynoid regions (-2.2 g, 95% CI: -4.3 to -0.2), and with BMC (-0.43 g, 95% CI: 0.77-0.09). Moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with lower TB (-53 g, 95% CI: -87 to -18), android (-5 g, 95% CI: -8 to -2]), and gynoid fat (-6 g, 95% CI: -11 to -0.5). Vigorous activity results were similar. Light PA was associated with increased TB (17.1 g, 95% CI: 3.0-31.3) and gynoid lean mass (3.9 g, 95% CI: 1.0-6.8) and BMC (0.59 g, 95% CI: 0.10-1.07). In boys, there were significant associations between activity and DXA percent body fat measures that were not found with the body mass index percentile. Objective measures of PA were inversely associated with TB, android, and gynoid fat, whereas ST was directly associated with TB percent fat and, in particular, android fat. Activity levels predict body composition measures by DXA and, in

  13. Derivation and validation of simple anthropometric equations to predict adipose tissue mass and total fat mass with MRI as the reference method.

    PubMed

    Al-Gindan, Yasmin Y; Hankey, Catherine R; Govan, Lindsay; Gallagher, Dympna; Heymsfield, Steven B; Lean, Michael E J

    2015-12-14

    The reference organ-level body composition measurement method is MRI. Practical estimations of total adipose tissue mass (TATM), total adipose tissue fat mass (TATFM) and total body fat are valuable for epidemiology, but validated prediction equations based on MRI are not currently available. We aimed to derive and validate new anthropometric equations to estimate MRI-measured TATM/TATFM/total body fat and compare them with existing prediction equations using older methods. The derivation sample included 416 participants (222 women), aged between 18 and 88 years with BMI between 15·9 and 40·8 (kg/m2). The validation sample included 204 participants (110 women), aged between 18 and 86 years with BMI between 15·7 and 36·4 (kg/m2). Both samples included mixed ethnic/racial groups. All the participants underwent whole-body MRI to quantify TATM (dependent variable) and anthropometry (independent variables). Prediction equations developed using stepwise multiple regression were further investigated for agreement and bias before validation in separate data sets. Simplest equations with optimal R (2) and Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement without bias in the validation analyses: men: TATM (kg)=0·198 weight (kg)+0·478 waist (cm)-0·147 height (cm)-12·8 (validation: R 2 0·79, CV=20 %, standard error of the estimate (SEE)=3·8 kg) and women: TATM (kg)=0·789 weight (kg)+0·0786 age (years)-0·342 height (cm)+24·5 (validation: R (2) 0·84, CV=13 %, SEE=3·0 kg). Published anthropometric prediction equations, based on MRI and computed tomographic scans, correlated strongly with MRI-measured TATM: (R (2) 0·70-0·82). Estimated TATFM correlated well with published prediction equations for total body fat based on underwater weighing (R (2) 0·70-0·80), with mean bias of 2·5-4·9 kg, correctable with log-transformation in most equations. In conclusion, new equations, using simple anthropometric measurements, estimated MRI-measured TATM with correlations and

  14. Derivation and validation of simple anthropometric equations to predict adipose tissue mass and total fat mass with MRI as the reference method.

    PubMed

    Al-Gindan, Yasmin Y; Hankey, Catherine R; Govan, Lindsay; Gallagher, Dympna; Heymsfield, Steven B; Lean, Michael E J

    2015-12-14

    The reference organ-level body composition measurement method is MRI. Practical estimations of total adipose tissue mass (TATM), total adipose tissue fat mass (TATFM) and total body fat are valuable for epidemiology, but validated prediction equations based on MRI are not currently available. We aimed to derive and validate new anthropometric equations to estimate MRI-measured TATM/TATFM/total body fat and compare them with existing prediction equations using older methods. The derivation sample included 416 participants (222 women), aged between 18 and 88 years with BMI between 15·9 and 40·8 (kg/m2). The validation sample included 204 participants (110 women), aged between 18 and 86 years with BMI between 15·7 and 36·4 (kg/m2). Both samples included mixed ethnic/racial groups. All the participants underwent whole-body MRI to quantify TATM (dependent variable) and anthropometry (independent variables). Prediction equations developed using stepwise multiple regression were further investigated for agreement and bias before validation in separate data sets. Simplest equations with optimal R (2) and Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement without bias in the validation analyses: men: TATM (kg)=0·198 weight (kg)+0·478 waist (cm)-0·147 height (cm)-12·8 (validation: R 2 0·79, CV=20 %, standard error of the estimate (SEE)=3·8 kg) and women: TATM (kg)=0·789 weight (kg)+0·0786 age (years)-0·342 height (cm)+24·5 (validation: R (2) 0·84, CV=13 %, SEE=3·0 kg). Published anthropometric prediction equations, based on MRI and computed tomographic scans, correlated strongly with MRI-measured TATM: (R (2) 0·70-0·82). Estimated TATFM correlated well with published prediction equations for total body fat based on underwater weighing (R (2) 0·70-0·80), with mean bias of 2·5-4·9 kg, correctable with log-transformation in most equations. In conclusion, new equations, using simple anthropometric measurements, estimated MRI-measured TATM with correlations and

  15. Effects of lorcaserin on fat and lean mass loss in obese and overweight patients without and with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the BLOSSOM and BLOOM-DM studies.

    PubMed

    Apovian, C; Palmer, K; Fain, R; Perdomo, C; Rubino, D

    2016-09-01

    Body composition was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a subset of patients without (BLOSSOM) and with (BLOOM-DM) type 2 diabetes who received diet and exercise counselling along with either lorcaserin 10 mg twice daily or placebo. DXA scans were performed on study day 1 (baseline), week 24 and week 52. Baseline demographics of the subpopulations (without diabetes, n = 189; with diabetes, n = 63) were similar between studies and representative of their study populations. At week 52, patients without diabetes on lorcaserin lost significantly more fat mass relative to those on placebo (-12.06% vs -5.93%; p = 0.008). In patients with diabetes, fat mass was also decreased with lorcaserin relative to placebo (-9.87% vs -1.65%; p < 0.05). More fat mass was lost in the trunk region with lorcaserin compared with placebo (without diabetes: -3.31% vs -2.05%; with diabetes: -3.65% vs -0.36%). Weight loss with lorcaserin was associated with a greater degree of fat mass loss than lean mass loss, and most of the fat mass lost for patients without and with diabetes was from the central region of the body. PMID:27173586

  16. No association of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs8044769 in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene with knee osteoarthritis risk and body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Chu, M.; Rong, J.; Xing, B.; Zhu, L.; Zhao, Y.; Zhuang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have reported significant association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs8044769 in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) with osteoarthritis (OA) risk in European populations. However, these findings have not been confirmed in Chinese populations. Methods We systematically genotyped rs8044769 and evaluated the association between the genetic variants and OA risk in a case-controlled study including 196 OA cases and 442 controls in a northern Chinese population. Genotyping was performed using the Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX platform. Results We found that the variant T allele of rs8044769 showed no significant association of OA risk (p = 0.791), or association with body mass index (BMI) (pmeta = 0.786) in an additive genetic model. However, we detected a significant interaction between rs8044769 genotypes and BMI on OA risk (p = 0.037), as well as a borderline interaction between rs8044769 genotypes and age on OA risk (p = 0.062). Conclusions Our findings indicate that rs8044769 in the FTO gene may not modify individual susceptibility to OA or increased BMI in the Chinese population. Further studies are warranted to validate and extend our findings. Cite this article: Prof L. Jiang. No association of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs8044769 in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene with knee osteoarthritis risk and body mass index: A population-based study in China. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:169–174. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.55.2000589. PMID:27166265

  17. The biology of appetite control: Do resting metabolic rate and fat-free mass drive energy intake?

    PubMed

    Blundell, J E; Finlayson, G; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Hopkins, M

    2015-12-01

    The prevailing model of homeostatic appetite control envisages two major inputs; signals from adipose tissue and from peptide hormones in the gastrointestinal tract. This model is based on the presumed major influence of adipose tissue on food intake. However, recent studies have indicated that in obese people fat-free mass (FFM) is strongly positively associated with daily energy intake and with meal size. This effect has been replicated in several independent groups varying in cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and appears to be a robust phenomenon. In contrast fat mass (FM) is weakly, or mildly negatively associated with food intake in obese people. In addition resting metabolic rate (RMR), a major component of total daily energy expenditure, is also associated with food intake. This effect has been replicated in different groups and is robust. This action is consistent with the proposal that energy requirements — reflected in RMR (and other aspects of energy expenditure) constitute a biological drive to eat. Consistent with its storage function, FM has a strong inhibitory effect on food intake in lean subjects, but this effect appears to weaken dramatically as adipose tissue increases. This formulation can account for several features of the development and maintenance of obesity and provides an alternative, and transparent, approach to the biology of appetite control.

  18. The effects of two modes of exercise on aerobic fitness and fat mass in an overweight population.

    PubMed

    Wallman, Karen; Plant, Lauren A; Rakimov, Bronwyn; Maiorana, Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of an 8-week exercise intervention on aerobic fitness, android and gynoid fat mass, and blood lipids in overweight and obese participants. Twenty-four sedentary participants (average BMI = 30 +/- 2 kg/m(2); 18 females, 6 males) were randomized into either interval training and diet education (INT group), continuous aerobic exercise and diet education (CON group), or diet education only (DIET group). Durations of exercise sessions were similar ( approximately 30 minutes), with both exercise groups completing the same amount of work. The INT and CON groups demonstrated significant improvements over time for VO(2 peak) (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, ES = 1.1 and 1.2, respectively) and time to exhaustion on a graded exercise test (p < 0.01 and ES = 0.8 for both groups). Further, a large effect size (0.7) was recorded for the loss in android fat mass over time in the INT group only.

  19. Duration of sleep at 3 years of age is associated with fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age: the Southampton Women's Survey.

    PubMed

    Baird, Janis; Hill, Catherine M; Harvey, Nicholas C; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Sian M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have shown that shorter sleep duration in childhood is associated with higher body mass index (BMI), and have proposed that it is due to an effect of sleep on adiposity. There is little evidence about the association of sleep with fat-free mass. This study examined the association between child's sleep duration at age 3 years and fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age in a prospective cohort study of 302 boys and 285 girls. Study participants were taking part in the Southampton Women's Survey, a longitudinal study of mothers and children from preconception onwards. Total sleep duration at age 3 years was derived from parental report of night sleep and nap duration. Body composition was assessed by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at 4 years. Mean total sleep duration was 11.5 hours. In linear regression analyses, adjusted for potentially confounding factors (maternal educational attainment, prepregnancy BMI, smoking during pregnancy, child's gestational age at birth, age at DXA, sex, age last breastfed, dietary quality at 3 years, TV watching and hours actively on the move and parental social class), shorter sleep in hours was associated with higher BMI (kg/m(2) ) [β: -0.2340, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.373 to -0.096], a greater fat mass index (kg) (β: -0.1182, 95% CI: -0.218 to -0.018) and a greater fat-free mass index (kg) (β: -0.100, 95% CI: -0.185 to -0.015). Previous research suggested that the association between shorter sleep and higher body mass index is due to an effect on adiposity. Our findings are novel, suggesting that the relationship between sleep and BMI is also determined by an effect on muscle. PMID:26909889

  20. Duration of sleep at 3 years of age is associated with fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age: the Southampton Women's Survey.

    PubMed

    Baird, Janis; Hill, Catherine M; Harvey, Nicholas C; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Sian M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have shown that shorter sleep duration in childhood is associated with higher body mass index (BMI), and have proposed that it is due to an effect of sleep on adiposity. There is little evidence about the association of sleep with fat-free mass. This study examined the association between child's sleep duration at age 3 years and fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age in a prospective cohort study of 302 boys and 285 girls. Study participants were taking part in the Southampton Women's Survey, a longitudinal study of mothers and children from preconception onwards. Total sleep duration at age 3 years was derived from parental report of night sleep and nap duration. Body composition was assessed by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at 4 years. Mean total sleep duration was 11.5 hours. In linear regression analyses, adjusted for potentially confounding factors (maternal educational attainment, prepregnancy BMI, smoking during pregnancy, child's gestational age at birth, age at DXA, sex, age last breastfed, dietary quality at 3 years, TV watching and hours actively on the move and parental social class), shorter sleep in hours was associated with higher BMI (kg/m(2) ) [β: -0.2340, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.373 to -0.096], a greater fat mass index (kg) (β: -0.1182, 95% CI: -0.218 to -0.018) and a greater fat-free mass index (kg) (β: -0.100, 95% CI: -0.185 to -0.015). Previous research suggested that the association between shorter sleep and higher body mass index is due to an effect on adiposity. Our findings are novel, suggesting that the relationship between sleep and BMI is also determined by an effect on muscle.

  1. Change in Body Fat Mass Is Independently Associated with Executive Functions in Older Women: A Secondary Analysis of a 12-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Elizabeth; Davis, Jennifer C.; Sharma, Devika; Chan, Alison; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the independent contribution of change in sub-total body fat and lean mass to cognitive performance, specifically the executive processes of selective attention and conflict resolution, in community-dwelling older women. Methods This secondary analysis included 114 women aged 65 to 75 years old. Participants were randomly allocated to once-weekly resistance training, twice-weekly resistance training, or twice-weekly balance and tone training. The primary outcome measure was the executive processes of selective attention and conflict resolution as assessed by the Stroop Test. Sub-total body fat and lean mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to determine the independent association of change in both sub-total body fat and sub-total body lean mass with Stroop Test performance at trial completion. Results A multiple linear regression model showed reductions in sub-total body fat mass to be independently associated with better performance on the Stroop Test at trial completion after accounting for baseline Stroop performance, age, baseline global cognitive state, baseline number of comorbidities, baseline depression, and experimental group. The total variance explained was 39.5%; change in sub-total body fat mass explained 3.9% of the variance. Change in sub-total body lean mass was not independently associated with Stroop Test performance (P>0.05). Conclusion Our findings suggest that reductions in sub-total body fat mass – not sub-total lean mass – is associated with better performance of selective attention and conflict resolution. PMID:23308123

  2. Anthropometry of height, weight, arm, wrist, abdominal circumference and body mass index, for Bolivian adolescents 12 to 18 years: Bolivian adolescent percentile values from the MESA study.

    PubMed

    Baya Botti, A; Pérez-Cueto, F J A; Vasquez Monllor, P A; Kolsteren, P W

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometry is important as clinical tool for individual follow-up as well as for planning and health policy-making at population level. Recent references of Bolivian Adolescents are not available. The aim of this cross sectional study was to provide age and sex specific centile values and charts of Body Mass Index, height, weight, arm, wrist and abdominal circumference from Bolivian Adolescents. Data from the MEtabolic Syndrome in Adolescents (MESA) study was used. Thirty-two Bolivian clusters from urban and rural areas were selected randomly considering population proportions, 3445 school going adolescents, 12 to 18 y, 45% males; 55% females underwent anthropometric evaluation by trained personnel using standardized protocols for all interviews and examinations. Weight, height, wrist, arm and abdominal circumference data were collected. Body Mass Index was calculated. Smoothed age- and gender specific 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th Bolivian adolescent percentiles(BAP) and Charts(BAC) where derived using LMS regression. Percentile-based reference data for the antropometrics of for Bolivian Adolescents are presented for the first time. PMID:19721903

  3. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... can help the overall situation for the child. Teaching kids self-hypnosis [8] or guided imagery [8a] ... related topics? Functional Abdominal Pain (English, French or Spanish)—from The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, ...

  4. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is ...

  5. Leaking mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sing, T M; Young, N; O'Rourke, I C; Tomlinson, P

    1994-11-01

    A case of leaking mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm is reported, with a brief review of the literature. A 58 year old female presented with shoulder and abdominal pain associated with diarrhoea, vomiting and fever with leucocytosis. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed pooling of contrast in the retroperitoneum anterior to a non-dilated abdominal aorta. There was considerable retroperitoneal blood accumulating in a mass-like lesion in the right lower abdomen and pelvis obstructing the right renal collecting system. Laparotomy revealed a 4 cm diameter saccular aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, with a 1 cm diameter neck. Culture of the thrombus grew Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:7993259

  6. Early loss of bone mineral density is correlated with a gain of fat mass in patients starting a protease inhibitor containing regimen: the prospective Lipotrip study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) experience deep and early disorders in fat and bone metabolism, leading to concomitant changes in fat mass and bone mineral density. Methods We conducted a prospective study in treatment-naive HIV-infected patients randomized to receive two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in combination with either a protease inhibitor (PI) or a non-nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), to evaluate early changes in body composition, bone mineral density and metabolic markers as differentially induced by antiretroviral therapies. We measured changes in markers of carbohydrate, of fat and bone metabolism, and, using dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), body composition and bone mineral density (BMD). Complete data on changes between baseline and after 21 months treatment were available for 35 patients (16 in the PI group and 19 in the NNRTI group). Results A significant gain in BMI and in total and lower limb fat mass was recorded only in patients receiving PI. A loss of lumbar BMD was observed in both groups, being higher with PI. Plasma markers of bone metabolism (alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, collagen crosslaps) and levels of parathormone and of 1,25diOH-vitamin D3 significantly increased in both groups, concomitant with a decline in 25OH-vitamin D3. Lipids and glucose levels increased in both groups but rise in triglyceride was more pronounced with PI. A correlation between loss of BMD and gain of fat mass is observed in patients starting PI. Conclusions We evidenced an early effect of ART on lipid and bone metabolisms. PI lead to a significant gain in fat mass correlated with a sharp drop in BMD but active bone remodelling is evident with all antiretroviral treatments, associated with low vitamin D levels and hyperparathyroidism. In parallel, signs of metabolic restoration are evident. However, early increases in lean and fat mass, triglycerides, waist circumference and

  7. Relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic control, and fat distribution in type 2 diabetes subjects.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Elisabetta; Negri, Carlo; Tarperi, Cantor; Baraldo, Anna; Faccioli, Niccolò; Milanese, Chiara; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta; Lanza, Massimo; Cevese, Antonio; Bonora, Enzo; Schena, Federico; Moghetti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Factors contributing to the reduced cardiorespiratory fitness typical of sedentary subjects with type 2 diabetes are still largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal and skeletal muscle fat content in 39 untrained type 2 diabetes subjects, 27 males and 12 females (mean ± SD age 56.5 ± 7.3 year, BMI 29.4 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and ventilatory threshold (VO2VT) were assessed by maximal cycle ergometer exercise test, insulin sensitivity by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate visceral, total subcutaneous (SAT), superficial (SSAT) and deep sub-depots of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), as well as femoral quadriceps skeletal muscle fat content. In univariate analysis, both VO2peak and VO2VT were inversely associated with BMI, total fat mass, SAT, SSAT, and sagittal abdominal diameter. VO2peak was also inversely associated with skeletal muscle fat content. A significant direct association was observed between VO2VT and insulin sensitivity. No associations between cardiorespiratory fitness parameters and metabolic profile data were found. In multivariable regression analysis, after adjusting for age and gender, VO2peak was independently predicted by higher HDL cholesterol, and lower SAD and skeletal muscle fat content (R (2) = 0.64, p < 0.001), whereas VO2VT was predicted only by sagittal abdominal diameter (R (2) = 0.48, p = 0.025). In conclusion, in untrained type 2 diabetes subjects, peak oxygen uptake is associated with sagittal abdominal diameter, skeletal muscle fat content, and HDL cholesterol levels. Future research should target these features in prospective intervention studies.

  8. Lean Mass and Body Fat Percentage Are Contradictory Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in Pre-Menopausal Pacific Island Women

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Maria; von Hurst, Pamela R.; Beck, Kathryn L.; Shultz, Sarah; Kruger, Marlena C.; O’Brien, Wendy; Conlon, Cathryn A.; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotally, it is suggested that Pacific Island women have good bone mineral density (BMD) compared to other ethnicities; however, little evidence for this or for associated factors exists. This study aimed to explore associations between predictors of bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2), in pre-menopausal Pacific Island women. Healthy pre-menopausal Pacific Island women (age 16–45 years) were recruited as part of the larger EXPLORE Study. Total body BMD and body composition were assessed using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and air-displacement plethysmography (n = 83). A food frequency questionnaire (n = 56) and current bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (n = 59) were completed. Variables expected to be associated with BMD were applied to a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Due to missing data, physical activity and dietary intake factors were considered only in simple correlations. Mean BMD was 1.1 ± 0.08 g/cm2. Bone-free, fat-free lean mass (LMO, 52.4 ± 6.9 kg) and age were positively associated with BMD, and percent body fat (38.4 ± 7.6) was inversely associated with BMD, explaining 37.7% of total variance. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of BMD, while many established contributors to bone health (calcium, physical activity, protein, and vitamin C) were not associated with BMD in this population, partly due to difficulty retrieving dietary data. This highlights the importance of physical activity and protein intake during any weight loss interventions to in order to minimise the loss of muscle mass, whilst maximizing loss of adipose tissue. PMID:27483314

  9. Photoperiod Regulates Lean Mass Accretion, but Not Adiposity, in Growing F344 Rats Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Helfer, Gisela; Thomson, Lynn M.; Dalby, Matthew J.; Morgan, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the effects of photoperiod and diet, and their interaction, were examined for their effects on growth and body composition in juvenile F344 rats over a 4-week period. On long (16L:8D), relative to short (8L:16D), photoperiod food intake and growth rate were increased, but percentage adiposity remained constant (ca 3-4%). On a high fat diet (HFD), containing 22.8% fat (45% energy as fat), food intake was reduced, but energy intake increased on both photoperiods. This led to a small increase in adiposity (up to 10%) without overt change in body weight. These changes were also reflected in plasma leptin and lipid levels. Importantly while both lean and adipose tissue were strongly regulated by photoperiod on a chow diet, this regulation was lost for adipose, but not lean tissue, on HFD. This implies that a primary effect of photoperiod is the regulation of growth and lean mass accretion. Consistent with this both hypothalamic GHRH gene expression and serum IGF-1 levels were photoperiod dependent. As for other animals and humans, there was evidence of central hyposomatotropism in response to obesity, as GHRH gene expression was suppressed by the HFD. Gene expression of hypothalamic AgRP and CRH, but not NPY nor POMC, accorded with the energy balance status on long and short photoperiod. However, there was a general dissociation between plasma leptin levels and expression of these hypothalamic energy balance genes. Similarly there was no interaction between the HFD and photoperiod at the level of the genes involved in thyroid hormone metabolism (Dio2, Dio3, TSHβ or NMU), which are important mediators of the photoperiodic response. These data suggest that photoperiod and HFD influence body weight and body composition through independent mechanisms but in each case the role of the hypothalamic energy balance genes is not predictable based on their known function. PMID:25789758

  10. Photoperiod regulates lean mass accretion, but not adiposity, in growing F344 rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alexander W; Russell, Laura; Helfer, Gisela; Thomson, Lynn M; Dalby, Matthew J; Morgan, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    In this study the effects of photoperiod and diet, and their interaction, were examined for their effects on growth and body composition in juvenile F344 rats over a 4-week period. On long (16L:8D), relative to short (8L:16D), photoperiod food intake and growth rate were increased, but percentage adiposity remained constant (ca 3-4%). On a high fat diet (HFD), containing 22.8% fat (45% energy as fat), food intake was reduced, but energy intake increased on both photoperiods. This led to a small increase in adiposity (up to 10%) without overt change in body weight. These changes were also reflected in plasma leptin and lipid levels. Importantly while both lean and adipose tissue were strongly regulated by photoperiod on a chow diet, this regulation was lost for adipose, but not lean tissue, on HFD. This implies that a primary effect of photoperiod is the regulation of growth and lean mass accretion. Consistent with this both hypothalamic GHRH gene expression and serum IGF-1 levels were photoperiod dependent. As for other animals and humans, there was evidence of central hyposomatotropism in response to obesity, as GHRH gene expression was suppressed by the HFD. Gene expression of hypothalamic AgRP and CRH, but not NPY nor POMC, accorded with the energy balance status on long and short photoperiod. However, there was a general dissociation between plasma leptin levels and expression of these hypothalamic energy balance genes. Similarly there was no interaction between the HFD and photoperiod at the level of the genes involved in thyroid hormone metabolism (Dio2, Dio3, TSHβ or NMU), which are important mediators of the photoperiodic response. These data suggest that photoperiod and HFD influence body weight and body composition through independent mechanisms but in each case the role of the hypothalamic energy balance genes is not predictable based on their known function.

  11. Dietary thylakoids reduce visceral fat mass and increase expression of genes involved in intestinal fatty acid oxidation in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Montelius, Caroline; Ramachandran, Deepti; Bonn, Britta; Weström, Björn; Mansouri, Abdelhak; Langhans, Wolfgang; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Thylakoids reduce body weight gain and body fat accumulation in rodents. This study investigated whether an enhanced oxidation of dietary fat-derived fatty acids in the intestine contributes to the thylakoid effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with (n = 8) or without thylakoids (n = 8) for 2 wk. Body weight, food intake, and body fat were measured, and intestinal mucosa was collected and analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression levels of key enzymes involved in fatty acid transport, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis. Another set of thylakoid-treated (n = 10) and control rats (n = 10) went through indirect calorimetry. In the first experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 8) accumulated 25% less visceral fat than controls. Furthermore, fatty acid translocase (Fat/Cd36), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a), and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2) genes were upregulated in the jejunum of the thylakoid-treated group. In the second experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 10) gained 17.5% less weight compared with controls and their respiratory quotient was lower, 0.86 compared with 0.91. Thylakoid-intake resulted in decreased food intake and did not cause steatorrhea. These results suggest that thylakoids stimulated intestinal fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, resulting in an increased ability of the intestine to handle dietary fat. The increased fatty acid oxidation and the resulting reduction in food intake may contribute to the reduced fat accumulation in thylakoid-treated animals.

  12. Dietary thylakoids reduce visceral fat mass and increase expression of genes involved in intestinal fatty acid oxidation in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Montelius, Caroline; Ramachandran, Deepti; Bonn, Britta; Weström, Björn; Mansouri, Abdelhak; Langhans, Wolfgang; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Thylakoids reduce body weight gain and body fat accumulation in rodents. This study investigated whether an enhanced oxidation of dietary fat-derived fatty acids in the intestine contributes to the thylakoid effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with (n = 8) or without thylakoids (n = 8) for 2 wk. Body weight, food intake, and body fat were measured, and intestinal mucosa was collected and analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression levels of key enzymes involved in fatty acid transport, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis. Another set of thylakoid-treated (n = 10) and control rats (n = 10) went through indirect calorimetry. In the first experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 8) accumulated 25% less visceral fat than controls. Furthermore, fatty acid translocase (Fat/Cd36), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a), and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2) genes were upregulated in the jejunum of the thylakoid-treated group. In the second experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 10) gained 17.5% less weight compared with controls and their respiratory quotient was lower, 0.86 compared with 0.91. Thylakoid-intake resulted in decreased food intake and did not cause steatorrhea. These results suggest that thylakoids stimulated intestinal fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, resulting in an increased ability of the intestine to handle dietary fat. The increased fatty acid oxidation and the resulting reduction in food intake may contribute to the reduced fat accumulation in thylakoid-treated animals. PMID:27488889

  13. Recombinant Human Growth Hormone and Rosiglitazone for Abdominal Fat Accumulation in HIV-Infected Patients with Insulin Resistance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Factorial Trial

    PubMed Central

    Glesby, Marshall J.; Albu, Jeanine; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Ham, Kirsis; Engelson, Ellen; He, Qing; Muthukrishnan, Varalakshmi; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Donovan, Daniel; Ernst, Jerry; Lesser, Martin; Kotler, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume in HIV-infected patients but can worsen glucose homeostasis and lipoatrophy. We aimed to determine if adding rosiglitazone to rhGH would abrogate the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity (SI) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume. Methodology/Principal Findings Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial using a 2×2 factorial design in which HIV-infected subjects with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were randomized to rhGH 3 mg daily, rosiglitazone 4 mg twice daily, combination rhGH + rosiglitazone, or double placebo (control) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in SI by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test from entry to week 12. Body composition was assessed by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual Xray absorptiometry (DEXA). Seventy-seven subjects were randomized of whom 72 initiated study drugs. Change in SI from entry to week 12 differed across the 4 arms by 1-way ANCOVA (P = 0.02); by pair-wise comparisons, only rhGH (decreasing SI; P = 0.03) differed significantly from control. Changes from entry to week 12 in fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve on 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test differed across arms (1-way ANCOVA P = 0.004), increasing in the rhGH arm relative to control. VAT decreased significantly in the rhGH arms (−17.5% in rhGH/rosiglitazone and −22.7% in rhGH) but not in the rosiglitazone alone (−2.5%) or control arms (−1.9%). SAT did not change significantly in any arm. DEXA results were consistent with the MRI data. There was no significant rhGH x rosiglitazone interaction for any body composition parameter. Conclusions/Significance The addition of rosiglitazone abrogated the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance while not significantly modifying the lowering effect of rhGH on VAT. Trial Registration

  14. Laparoscopic excision of intra-abdominal paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Young; Kang, Chang-Moo; Choi, Gi-Hong; Yang, Woo-Ick; Sim, Seo-Bo; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Sik; Choi, Jin-Sub; Lee, Woo-Jung; Kim, Byong-Ro

    2007-12-01

    Lung fluke, Paragonimus westermani of Paragonimus species usually are accompanied by a persistent cough, hemoptysis, and chest pain. Extrapulmonary paragonimiasis caused by ectopic parasites in aberrant locations such as the abdominal wall, abdominal organs, and brain has been reported and the most commonly involved extrapulmonary organ is the brain. We present a case of 56-year-old male patient with intra-abdominal paragonimiasis who underwent laparoscopic excision of abdominal granuloma caused by parasite infection. An intra-abdominal mass associated with eosinophilia might be related to parasite infection. A laparoscopic approach is the most appropriate treatment modality in such benign abdominal pathology.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Changes in Abdominal Compartments in Obese Diabetics during a Low-Calorie Weight-Loss Program

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Lena J.; Steveling, Antje; Meffert, Peter J.; Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Kessler, Rebecca; Hosten, Norbert; Krüger, Janine; Gärtner, Simone; Aghdassi, Ali A.; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Kühn, Jens-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate changes in the fat content of abdominal compartments and muscle area during weight loss using confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in overweight diabetics. Methods Twenty-nine obese diabetics (10/19 men/women, median age: 59.0 years, median body mass index (BMI): 34.0 kg/m2) prospectively joined a standardized 15-week weight-loss program (six weeks of formula diet exclusively, followed by reintroduction of regular food with gradually increasing energy content over nine weeks) over 15 weeks. All subjects underwent a standardized MRI protocol including a confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded MR sequence with water/fat separation before the program as well at the end of the six weeks of formula diet and at the end of the program at 15 weeks. Fat fractions of abdominal organs and vertebral bone marrow as well as volumes of visceral and subcutaneous fat were determined. Furthermore, muscle area was evaluated using the L4/L5 method. Data were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples. Results Median BMI decreased significantly from 34.0 kg/m2 to 29.9 kg/m2 (p < 0.001) at 15 weeks. Liver fat content was normalized (14.2% to 4.1%, p < 0.001) and vertebral bone marrow fat (57.5% to 53.6%, p = 0.018) decreased significantly throughout the program, while fat content of pancreas (9.0%), spleen (0.0%), and psoas muscle (0.0%) did not (p > 0.15). Visceral fat volume (3.2 L to 1.6 L, p < 0.001) and subcutaneous fat diameter (3.0 cm to 2.2 cm, p < 0.001) also decreased significantly. Muscle area declined by 6.8% from 243.9 cm2 to 226.8 cm2. Conclusion MRI allows noninvasive monitoring of changes in abdominal compartments during weight loss. In overweight diabetics, weight loss leads to fat reduction in abdominal compartments, such as visceral fat, as well as liver fat and vertebral bone marrow fat while pancreas fat remains unchanged. PMID:27110719

  16. Effect of 29 days of simulated microgravity on maximal oxygen consumption and fat-free mass of rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, Christopher R.; Stump, Craig S.; Stump, Jane A.; Rahman, Zia; Tipton, Charles M.

    1991-01-01

    Effects of a 29-days exposure to simulated microgravity on the values of maximal oxygen consumption and fat-free mass (FFM) and on the mechanical efficiency of running were investigated in rats randomly assigned to one of three regimens: head-down suspension (HDS) at 45 deg, horizontal suspension (HS), or cage control (CC). Before suspension and on days 7, 14, 21, and 28, five exercise performance tests were carried out, with measurements related to maximal oxygen consumption, treadmill run time, and mechanical efficiency. It was found that maximal oxygen consumption of both HDS and HS groups decreased significantly at day 7, after which the HDS rats remained decreased while the HS rats returned to presuspension values. Apparent mechanical efficiency in the HDS and HS groups decreased by 22-35 percent during the experimental period, and FFM decreased significantly.

  17. Immune Priming, Fat Reserves, Muscle Mass and Body Weight of the House Cricket is Affected by Diet Composition.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Nava-Sánchez, A; González-Tokman, D M; Munguía-Steyer, R; Gutiérrez-Cabrera, A E

    2016-08-01

    Some insect species are capable of producing an enhanced immune response after a first pathogenic encounter, a process called immune priming. However, whether and how such ability is driven by particular diet components (protein/carbohydrate) have not been explored. Such questions are sound given that, in general, immune response is dietary dependent. We have used adults of the house cricket Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) and exposed them to the bacteria Serratia marcescens. We first addressed whether survival rate after priming and nonpriming treatments is dietary dependent based on access/no access to proteins and carbohydrates. Second, we investigated how these dietary components affected fat reserves, muscle mass, and body weight, three key traits in insect fitness. Thus, we exposed adult house crickets to either a protein or a carbohydrate diet and measured the three traits. After being provided with protein, primed animals survived longer compared to the other diet treatments. Interestingly, this effect was also sex dependent with primed males having a higher survival than primed females when protein was supplemented. For the second experiment, protein-fed animals had more fat, muscle mass, and body weight than carbohydrate-fed animals. Although we are not aware of the immune component underlying immune priming, our results suggest that its energetic demand for its functioning and/or consequent survival requires a higher demand of protein with respect to carbohydrate. Thus, protein shortage can impair key survival-related traits related to immune and energetic condition. Further studies varying nutrient ratios should verify our results.

  18. Immune Priming, Fat Reserves, Muscle Mass and Body Weight of the House Cricket is Affected by Diet Composition.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Nava-Sánchez, A; González-Tokman, D M; Munguía-Steyer, R; Gutiérrez-Cabrera, A E

    2016-08-01

    Some insect species are capable of producing an enhanced immune response after a first pathogenic encounter, a process called immune priming. However, whether and how such ability is driven by particular diet components (protein/carbohydrate) have not been explored. Such questions are sound given that, in general, immune response is dietary dependent. We have used adults of the house cricket Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) and exposed them to the bacteria Serratia marcescens. We first addressed whether survival rate after priming and nonpriming treatments is dietary dependent based on access/no access to proteins and carbohydrates. Second, we investigated how these dietary components affected fat reserves, muscle mass, and body weight, three key traits in insect fitness. Thus, we exposed adult house crickets to either a protein or a carbohydrate diet and measured the three traits. After being provided with protein, primed animals survived longer compared to the other diet treatments. Interestingly, this effect was also sex dependent with primed males having a higher survival than primed females when protein was supplemented. For the second experiment, protein-fed animals had more fat, muscle mass, and body weight than carbohydrate-fed animals. Although we are not aware of the immune component underlying immune priming, our results suggest that its energetic demand for its functioning and/or consequent survival requires a higher demand of protein with respect to carbohydrate. Thus, protein shortage can impair key survival-related traits related to immune and energetic condition. Further studies varying nutrient ratios should verify our results. PMID:27037705

  19. Associations of body mass and body fat distribution with parity among African-American and Caucasian women: The CARDIA Study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C E; Smith, D E; Caveny, J L; Perkins, L L; Burke, G L; Bild, D E

    1994-11-01

    Associations of parity with body fat and its distribution are poorly understood; therefore, we examined the relationships between parity and obesity in young adult women. Body mass index (BMI), skin-folds, and waist-hip ratio were compared in 1452 African-American and 1268 Caucasian nonpregnant women aged 18 to 30, adjusting for age (where no age-parity interactions were present), education, physical activity (assessed by questionnaire) and fitness (assessed by graded exercise test), dietary fat intake, alcohol and smoking. Adjusted mean BMI was significantly higher in African-American women aged 25-30 years with three or more children (28.5 kg/m2) than in those with two (27.0 kg/m2), one (26.2 kg/m2), or no children (26.3 kg/m2). Similar trends were found in Caucasians (BMI = 23.3, 23.4, 23.7, 25.0 kg/m2 for parity = 0, 1, 2, > or = 3, respectively), but the mean BMI was significantly higher in African Americans in each parity group. The association between BMI and parity was not present among women 18-24 years of age. Skinfolds were directly associated with parity in African Americans only. Waist-hip ratios were generally lower among nulliparous than parous women in both ethnic groups; race differences were present only among nulliparas. In conclusion, parity was associated with BMI in women aged 25 to 30 years but did not explain ethnicity-related differences in body mass.

  20. Ectopic fat and cardiometabolic and vascular risk.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo; Meigs, James B

    2013-11-01

    Given that the variation in how regional adipose tissue handles and stores excess dietary energy has substantial cardiometabolic implications, ectopic fat distribution might be an important predictor of cardiometabolic and vascular risk, in addition to overall obesity itself. Conceptually, ectopic fat depots may be divided into systemically acting fat depots and locally acting fat depots. Systemically acting fat depots include visceral fat, fat in the liver, muscle, or neck, and subcutaneous fat. Accumulation in the abdominal visceral area, compared with overall obesity, has an equally or more important role in the development of cardiometabolic risk. Fat depots in liver/muscle tissue cause adverse cardiometabolic effects by affecting energy metabolism. Fat depots in lower-body subcutaneous areas may be protective regarding cardiometabolic risk, by trapping remnant energy. Fat accumulation in the neck is a unique type of fat depot that may increase cardiovascular risk by increasing insulin resistance. Locally acting fat depots include pericardial fat, perivascular fat, and renal sinus fat. These fat depots have effects primarily on adjacent anatomic organs, directly via lipotoxicity and indirectly via cytokine secretion. Pericardial fat is associated with coronary atherosclerosis. Perivascular fat may play an independent role in adverse vascular biology, including arterial stiffness. Renal sinus fat is a unique fat depot that may confer additional cardiometabolic risk. Thus, ectopic fat depots may contribute to the understanding of the link between body composition and cardiometabolic risk. In this review, we focus on the role and clinical implications of ectopic fat depots in cardiometabolic and vascular risk. PMID:24063931

  1. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy. PMID:27363829

  2. Analysis of lasalocid residues in grease and fat using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Clark, Susan B; Storey, Joseph M; Carr, Justin R; Madson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A method for the determination of lasalocid, an antibiotic and coccidiostat, in grease and fat is described. The manufacture of lasalocid produces a grease-like residue as a waste byproduct. Recently this byproduct has been shown to have been illegally introduced into the animal feed chain. Therefore, a quantitative and confirmatory procedure to analyse for lasalocid in this matrix is needed. A portion of grease/oil sample was extracted into hexane-washed acetonitrile, and a portion of the extract was then applied to a carboxylic acid solid-phase extraction (SPE) column for concentration and clean-up. The SPE column was washed with additional hexane-washed acetonitrile and ethyl acetate/methanol, after which lasalocid was eluted with 10% ammoniated methanol. The eluate was evaporated to dryness, redissolved in (1:1) acetonitrile-water and filtered through a PTFE syringe filter. Confirmation and quantitation of lasalocid in the final extract employed a triple quadrupole LC-MS/MS. The method was applied to grease and oil samples containing from 0.02 to 34,000 mg kg(-1) of lasalocid.

  3. Multicollinearity in associations between multiple environmental features and body weight and abdominal fat: using matching techniques to assess whether the associations are separable.

    PubMed

    Leal, Cinira; Bean, Kathy; Thomas, Frédérique; Chaix, Basile

    2012-06-01

    Because of the strong correlations among neighborhoods' characteristics, it is not clear whether the associations of specific environmental exposures (e.g., densities of physical features and services) with obesity can be disentangled. Using data from the RECORD (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) Cohort Study (Paris, France, 2007-2008), the authors investigated whether neighborhood characteristics related to the sociodemographic, physical, service-related, and social-interactional environments were associated with body mass index and waist circumference. The authors developed an original neighborhood characteristic-matching technique (analyses within pairs of participants similarly exposed to an environmental variable) to assess whether or not these associations could be disentangled. After adjustment for individual/neighborhood socioeconomic variables, body mass index/waist circumference was negatively associated with characteristics of the physical/service environments reflecting higher densities (e.g., proportion of built surface, densities of shops selling fruits/vegetables, and restaurants). Multiple adjustment models and the neighborhood characteristic-matching technique were unable to identify which of these neighborhood variables were driving the associations because of high correlations between the environmental variables. Overall, beyond the socioeconomic environment, the physical and service environments may be associated with weight status, but it is difficult to disentangle the effects of strongly correlated environmental dimensions, even if they imply different causal mechanisms and interventions.

  4. A 12-week randomized double-blind parallel pilot trial of Sinetrol XPur on body weight, abdominal fat, waist circumference, and muscle metabolism in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Cases, Julien; Romain, Cindy; Dallas, Constantin; Gerbi, Alain; Rouanet, Jean Max

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated to increased risk of developing non-communicable diseases that might dramatically affect life expectancy according World Health Organization. Overweight, obesity, and decline in physical activity are correlated to a significant propensity to lose skeletal muscle mass as a result of prolonged inflammation and oxidative stress whereas cohort surveys and clinical investigations have demonstrated health benefits of Citrus-based polyphenols to reverse such regression. Overweight men were included in a double-blind, randomized, parallel pilot trial where they received daily for a 12-week period 900 mg of a Citrus-based polyphenol extract, Sinetrol® XPur. Body composition, anthropometric, and blood parameters were assessed before and at the end of the intervention period. After 12 weeks, while the silhouette slimmed down, metabolic parameters were significantly improved and skeletal muscle catabolism held back. These data suggest that over a 12-week period, the efficacy of the supplement improve both overweight process and correlated skeletal muscle mass metabolism. PMID:26037199

  5. Pre-pregnancy BMI and body fat mass of 2 weeks old infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal programming of fetal metabolism has been previously demonstrated in animal studies. Clinical studies have also shown an association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures in infants. This study reports for the first time infant body composition at 2 weeks us...

  6. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePlus

    ... call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing abdominal thrusts, ... American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ... Red Cross; 2014. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, et al. Part 5: ...

  7. Identification of an interactive effect of beta3- and alpha2b-adrenoceptor gene polymorphisms on fat mass in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Dionne, I J; Turner, A N; Tchernof, A; Pollin, T I; Avrithi, D; Gray, D; Shuldiner, A R; Poehlman, E T

    2001-01-01

    Several adrenoceptor subtypes are expressed in adipocytes, which together exert their influence on adipocyte metabolism. Therefore, we specifically examined the interactive effect of Trp64Arg (beta3) and Glu12/Glu9 (alpha2b) adrenoceptor (AR) polymorphisms on energy metabolism and body composition in healthy women with a wide range of body habitus. We genotyped 909 unrelated women (age 55 +/- 12 [mean +/- SD] years, range 19-87; body weight 88 +/- 22 kg, range 40-167; and BMI 33 +/- 8 kg/m2, range 16-64) for Trp64Arg beta3AR and Glu12/Glu9 alpha2bAR variants. We examined the independent effect of the Glu12/Glu9 alpha2bAR variant on body composition and energy balance, in a large cohort of Caucasian women (n = 909). A second goal was to examine the interaction effect of Glu12/Glu9 alpha2bAR and Trp64Arg beta3AR on the same phenotypes. The obesity-related phenotypes studied were as follows: body weight, BMI, fat mass, visceral fat, fat-free mass, resting metabolic rate (RMR), VO2max, leisure time physical activity, and daily energy intake. Body composition and body fat distribution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and radiographic imagery, VO2max by a treadmill test to exhaustion, and RMR by indirect calorimetry. An analysis of covariance indicated that in the entire cohort, there was no significant difference between Glu12/Glu9 alpha2bAR carriers and control subjects for any of the obesity-related phenotypes that were examined. However, we observed a significant interaction effect of the Trp64Arg and Glu12/Glu9 variants on fat mass (P = 0.009) and percent fat (P = 0.016). Age, height, body weight, BMI, fat-free mass, visceral fat, energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, physical fitness, and energy intake were not different among groups. Collectively, these findings support an interaction effect of the two adrenoceptor variants on body fatness in Caucasian women, although the physiological mechanism by which they exert this effect remains to be

  8. Kinetics of mass transfer during deep fat frying of yellow fleshed cassava root slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyedeji, A. B.; Sobukola, O. P.; Henshaw, F. O.; Adegunwa, M. O.; Sanni, L. O.; Tomlins, K. I.

    2016-05-01

    Kinetics of mass transfer [moisture content, oil uptake, total carotenoid (TC) and shrinkage] during frying of yellow fleshed cassava roots (TMS 01/1371) was investigated. Slices were divided into (i) fresh and (ii) pre-dried to 75 % moisture content before atmospheric frying and (iii) vacuum fried. Percentage TC and activation energies of vacuum, fresh and pre-dried fried samples were 76, 63 and 61 %; and 82, 469.7, 213.7 kJ/mol, respectively.

  9. Higher Daily Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient, Rather Than Fat-Free Mass, Independently Determine Greater ad Libitum Overeating

    PubMed Central

    Thearle, Marie S.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Body fat-free mass (FFM), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) are known predictors of daily food intake. Because FFM largely determines EE, it is unclear whether body composition per se or the underlying metabolism drives dietary intake. Objective: The objective of the study was to test whether 24-hour measures of EE and RQ and their components influence ad libitum food intake independently of FFM. Design and Participants: One hundred seven healthy individuals (62 males/45 females, 84 Native Americans/23 whites; age 33 ± 8 y; body mass index 33 ± 8 kg/m2; body fat 31% ± 8%) had 24-hour measures of EE in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance, followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake using computerized vending machine systems. Body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Main Outcome Measures: FFM, 24-hour EE, RQ, spontaneous physical activity, sleeping EE (sleeping metabolic rate), awake and fed thermogenesis, and ad libitum food intake (INTAKE) were measured. Results: Higher 24-hour RQ (P < .001, partial R2 = 16%) and EE (P = .01, partial R2 = 7%), but not FFM (P = .65), were independent predictors of INTAKE. Mediation analysis demonstrated that 24-hour EE is responsible for 80% of the FFM effect on INTAKE (44.5 ± 16.9 kcal ingested per kilogram of FFM, P= .01), whereas the unique effect due to solely FFM was negligible (10.6 ± 23.2, P = .65). Spontaneous physical activity (r = 0.33, P = .001), but not sleeping metabolic rate (P = .71), positively predicted INTAKE, whereas higher awake and fed thermogenesis determined greater INTAKE only in subjects with a body mass index of 29 kg/m2 or less (r = 0.44, P = .01). Conclusions: EE and RQ, rather than FFM, independently determine INTAKE, suggesting that competitive energy-sensing mechanisms driven by the preferential macronutrient oxidation and total energy demands may regulate food intake. PMID:26086330

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF VARIABLE ELIMINATION RATE AND BODY FAT MASS IN A PBPK MODEL FOR TCDD IN PREDICTING THE SERUM TCDD CONCENTRATIONS FROM VETERANS OF OPERATION RANCH HAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Influence of Variable Elimination Rate and Body Fat Mass in a PBPK Model for TCDD in Predicting the Serum TCDD Concentrations from Veterans of Operation Ranch Hand.
    C Emond1,2, LS Birnbaum2, JE Michalek3, MJ DeVito2
    1 National Research Council, National Academy of Scien...

  11. Assessment of the Body Composition and the Loss of Fat-Free Mass through Bioelectric Impedance Analysis in Patients Who Underwent Open Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas Junior, Wilson Rodrigues; Ilias, Elias Jirjoss; Kassab, Paulo; Cordts, Roberto; Porto, Paulo Gustavo; Martins Rodrigues, Francisco Cesar; Ali Taha, Mohamed Ibrahim; Carrara, Paulo; de Carvalho Aguiar, Isabella; de Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco; Malheiros, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bariatric surgery is considered an effective option for the management of morbid obesity. The incidence of obesity has been gradually increasing all over the world reaching epidemic proportions in some regions of the world. Obesity can cause a reduction of up to 22% in the life expectancy of morbidly obese patients. Objective. The objective of this paper is to assess the weight loss associated with the first 6 months after bariatric surgery using bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) for the evaluation of fat mass and fat-free mass. Method. A total of 36 morbidly obese patients were subjected to open gastric bypass surgery. The patients weight was monitored before and after the procedure using the bioelectric impedance analysis. Results. Bariatric surgery resulted in an average percentage of weight loss of 28.6% (40 kg) as determined 6 months after the procedure was performed. Analysis of the different components of body weight indicated an undesirable loss of fat-free mass along with the reduction of total body weight. Conclusion. Open gastric bypass induced a significant loss of total weight and loss of fat-free mass in patients six months after the surgery. The use of bioelectric impedance analysis resulted in an appropriate estimation of the total weight components in individuals subjected to bariatric surgery allowing a more real analysis of the variation of weight after the surgery. PMID:24523649

  12. Weight loss composition is one-fourth fat-free mass: a critical review and critique of this widely cited rule.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, S B; Gonzalez, M C C; Shen, W; Redman, L; Thomas, D

    2014-04-01

    Maximizing fat loss while preserving lean tissue mass and function is a central goal of modern obesity treatments. A widely cited rule guiding expected loss of lean tissue as fat-free mass (FFM) states that approximately one-fourth of weight loss will be FFM (i.e. ΔFFM/ΔWeight = ∼0.25), with the remaining three-fourths being fat mass. This review examines the dynamic relationships between FFM, fat mass and weight changes that follow induction of negative energy balance with hypocaloric dieting and/or exercise. Historical developments in the field are traced with the 'Quarter FFM Rule' used as a framework to examine evolving concepts on obesity tissue, excess weight and what is often cited as 'Forbes' Rule'. Temporal effects in the fractional contribution of FFM to changes in body weight are examined as are lean tissue moderating effects such as ageing, inactivity and exercise that frequently accompany structured low-calorie diet weight loss protocols. Losses of lean tissue with dieting typically tend to be small, raising questions about study design, power and applied measurement method reliability. Our review elicits important questions related to the fractional loss of lean tissues with dieting and provides a foundation for future research on this topic.

  13. Weight Loss Composition is One-Fourth Fat-Free Mass: A Critical Review and Critique of This Widely Cited Rule

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, Steven B.; Cristina Gonzalez, M. C.; Shen, Wei; Redman, Leanne; Thomas, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing fat loss while preserving lean tissue mass and function is a central goal of modern obesity treatments. A widely cited rule guiding expected loss of lean tissue as fat-free mass (FFM) states that approximately one-fourth of weight loss will be FFM (i.e., ΔFFM/ΔWeight = ~0.25) with the remaining three-fourths fat mass. This review examines the dynamic relations between FFM, fat mass, and weight changes that follow induction of negative energy balance with hypocaloric dieting and/or exercise. Historical developments in the field are traced with the “Quarter FFM Rule” used as a framework to examine evolving concepts on obesity tissue, excess weight, and what is often cited as “Forbes’ Rule”. Temporal effects in the fractional contribution of FFM to changes in body weight are examined as are lean tissue moderating effects such as aging, inactivity, and exercise that frequently accompany structured low-calorie diet weight loss protocols. Losses of lean tissue with dieting typically tend to be small, raising questions about study design, power, and applied measurement method reliability. Our review elicits important questions related to the fractional loss of lean tissues with dieting and provides a foundation for future research on this topic. PMID:24447775

  14. Determination of short chain carboxylic acids in vegetable oils and fats using ion exclusion chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Viidanoja, Jyrki

    2015-02-27

    A new method for quantification of short chain C1-C6 carboxylic acids in vegetable oils and fats by employing Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) has been developed. The method requires minor sample preparation and applies non-conventional Electrospray Ionization (ESI) liquid phase chemistry. Samples are first dissolved in chloroform and then extracted using water that has been spiked with stable isotope labeled internal standards that are used for signal normalization and absolute quantification of selected acids. The analytes are separated using Ion Exclusion Chromatography (IEC) and detected with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) as deprotonated molecules. Prior to ionization the eluent that contains hydrochloric acid is modified post-column to ensure good ionization efficiency of the analytes. The averaged within run precision and between run precision were generally lower than 8%. The accuracy was between 85 and 115% for most of the analytes. The Lower Limit of Quantification (LLOQ) ranged from 0.006 to 7mg/kg. It is shown that this method offers good selectivity in cases where UV detection fails to produce reliable results.

  15. Contrast in adaptive mass gains: Eurasian golden plovers store fat before midwinter and protein before prebreeding flight.

    PubMed

    Piersma, Theunis; Jukema, Joop

    2002-06-01

    Before predictable periods of high nutritional demand and little or no intake, vertebrates store fuel mainly composed of energy-dense lipids or energy-poor but protein-rich muscle tissue. Documenting contrasts in fuel composition and storage patterns within species, or even within individuals, would greatly help to elucidate the functional significance of the variety of storage strategies demonstrated in birds. We show here that the 40-50 g mass gain of 200 g in Eurasian golden plovers (Pluvialis apricaria) in autumn in The Netherlands consists of fat only, but that the similar gain in body mass in spring consists of proteinaceous tissue (pectoral and other skeletal muscle and possibly skin tissue). That the same golden plovers store energy in autumn and store protein in spring suggests that they face energy deficits in early winter and risk protein deficits in spring, especially perhaps after arrival on the breeding grounds in late April and early May. In autumn and winter their diet consists largely of protein-rich earthworms, but upon arrival on Low Arctic and montane tundras, golden plovers tend to eat berries which are rich in sugars but notably poor in proteins. We therefore propose that the build-up of proteinaceous tissue in spring reflects a strategic storage of a nutritional resource that is likely to be in short supply somewhat later in the year. PMID:12061951

  16. Measurement of boar taint in porcine fat using a high-throughput gas chromatography-mass spectrometry protocol.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Klavs M; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2014-10-01

    This work outlines an optimized gas chromatrography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based protocol for screening of the presence of the three boar-taint-producing compounds indole, skatole (3-methylindole), and androstenone (5α-androst-16-en-3-one) in porcine fat. The study shows that an accuracy suitable for sample screening can be achieved even when speed and ease of sample handling is prioritized and without the use of internal standards. The method provides levels of detection of 82 ng/g for indole, 97 ng/g for skatole, and 623 ng/g for androstenone (in a 2 g natural backfat matrix). A least-squares approach of predicting the sample analyte mass from instrument response is shown to have prediction errors (root-mean-square error) of 96 ng/g for indole, 94 ng/g for skatole, and 331.3 ng/g for androstenone. The method is intended for discrimination of samples in risk groups, and a scheme is proposed to turn the GC-MS response of the boar-taint analytes into risk classes. PMID:25230360

  17. Rs9939609 variant of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene and trunk obesity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mangge, Harald; Renner, Wilfried; Almer, Gunter; Weghuber, Daniel; Möller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate

    2011-01-01

    A common T/A polymorphism (rs9939609) in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene was found associated with early-onset and severe obesity in both adults and children. However, recent observations failed to find associations of FTO with obesity. To investigate the genetic background of early obesity, we analysed the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 of FTO in 371 styrian adolescents towards degree of obesity, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT)-distribution determined by lipometry, early metabolic and preatherosclerotic symptoms. The percentage of AA homozygotes for the rs9939609 SNP of FTO was significantly increased in the obese adolescents. Compared to the TT wildtype, AA homozygotes showed significantly elevated values of SAT thickness at the trunk-located lipometer measure points neck and frontal chest, body weight, body mass index, waist, and hip circumference. No associations were found with carotis communis intima media thickness, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (US-CRP), homocystein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, fasted glucose, insulin, HOMA-index, liver transaminases, uric acid, and adipokines like resistin, leptin, and adiponectin. Taken together, to the best of our knowledge we are the first to report that the rs9939609 FTO SNP is associated with trunk weighted obesity as early as in adolescence. PMID:21318054

  18. Rs9939609 Variant of the Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated Gene and Trunk Obesity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mangge, Harald; Renner, Wilfried; Almer, Gunter; Weghuber, Daniel; Möller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate

    2011-01-01

    A common T/A polymorphism (rs9939609) in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene was found associated with early-onset and severe obesity in both adults and children. However, recent observations failed to find associations of FTO with obesity. To investigate the genetic background of early obesity, we analysed the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 of FTO in 371 styrian adolescents towards degree of obesity, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT)-distribution determined by lipometry, early metabolic and preatherosclerotic symptoms. The percentage of AA homozygotes for the rs9939609 SNP of FTO was significantly increased in the obese adolescents. Compared to the TT wildtype, AA homozygotes showed significantly elevated values of SAT thickness at the trunk-located lipometer measure points neck and frontal chest, body weight, body mass index, waist, and hip circumference. No associations were found with carotis communis intima media thickness, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (US-CRP), homocystein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, fasted glucose, insulin, HOMA-index, liver transaminases, uric acid, and adipokines like resistin, leptin, and adiponectin. Taken together, to the best of our knowledge we are the first to report that the rs9939609 FTO SNP is associated with trunk weighted obesity as early as in adolescence. PMID:21318054

  19. Effects of Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percent on Default Mode, Executive Control, and Salience Network Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Figley, Chase R; Asem, Judith S A; Levenbaum, Erica L; Courtney, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that obesity decreases overall life expectancy and increases the risk of several adverse health conditions. Mounting evidence indicates that body fat is likely also associated with structural and functional brain changes, reduced cognitive function, and greater impulsivity. However, previously reported differences in brain structure and function have been variable across studies and difficult to reconcile due to sample population and methodological differences. To clarify these issues, we correlated two independent measures of body composition-i.e., body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BFP)-with structural and functional neuroimaging data obtained from a cohort of 32 neurologically healthy adults. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses indicated that higher BMI and BFP were associated with widespread decreases in gray matter volume, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure (including several regions, such as the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, which may influence value assessment, habit formation, and decision-making). Moreover, closer examination of resting state functional connectivity, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure throughout the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN) revealed that higher BMI and BFP were associated with increased SN functional connectivity and decreased white matter volumes throughout all three networks (i.e., the DMN, ECN, and SN). Taken together, these findings: (1) offer a biologically plausible explanation for reduced cognitive performance, greater impulsivity, and altered reward processing among overweight individuals, and (2) suggest neurobiological mechanisms (i.e., altered functional and structural brain connectivity) that may affect overweight individuals' ability to establish and maintain healthy lifestyle choices.

  20. Effects of Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percent on Default Mode, Executive Control, and Salience Network Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Figley, Chase R.; Asem, Judith S. A.; Levenbaum, Erica L.; Courtney, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that obesity decreases overall life expectancy and increases the risk of several adverse health conditions. Mounting evidence indicates that body fat is likely also associated with structural and functional brain changes, reduced cognitive function, and greater impulsivity. However, previously reported differences in brain structure and function have been variable across studies and difficult to reconcile due to sample population and methodological differences. To clarify these issues, we correlated two independent measures of body composition—i.e., body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BFP)—with structural and functional neuroimaging data obtained from a cohort of 32 neurologically healthy adults. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses indicated that higher BMI and BFP were associated with widespread decreases in gray matter volume, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure (including several regions, such as the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, which may influence value assessment, habit formation, and decision-making). Moreover, closer examination of resting state functional connectivity, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure throughout the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN) revealed that higher BMI and BFP were associated with increased SN functional connectivity and decreased white matter volumes throughout all three networks (i.e., the DMN, ECN, and SN). Taken together, these findings: (1) offer a biologically plausible explanation for reduced cognitive performance, greater impulsivity, and altered reward processing among overweight individuals, and (2) suggest neurobiological mechanisms (i.e., altered functional and structural brain connectivity) that may affect overweight individuals' ability to establish and maintain healthy lifestyle choices. PMID:27378831

  1. "Gas and fat embolic syndrome" involving a mass stranding of beaked whales (family Ziphiidae) exposed to anthropogenic sonar signals.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A; Edwards, J F; Rodríguez, F; Espinosa de los Monteros, A; Herráez, P; Castro, P; Jaber, J R; Martín, V; Arbelo, M

    2005-07-01

    A study of the lesions of beaked whales (BWs) in a recent mass stranding in the Canary Islands following naval exercises provides a possible explanation of the relationship between anthropogenic, acoustic (sonar) activities and the stranding and death of marine mammals. Fourteen BWs were stranded in the Canary Islands close to the site of an international naval exercise (Neo-Tapon 2002) held on 24 September 2002. Strandings began about 4 hours after the onset of midfrequency sonar activity. Eight Cuvier's BWs (Ziphius cavirostris), one Blainville's BW (Mesoplodon densirostris), and one Gervais' BW (Mesoplodon europaeus) were examined postmortem and studied histopathologically. No inflammatory or neoplastic processes were noted, and no pathogens were identified. Macroscopically, whales had severe, diffuse congestion and hemorrhage, especially around the acoustic jaw fat, ears, brain, and kidneys. Gas bubble-associated lesions and fat embolism were observed in the vessels and parenchyma of vital organs. In vivo bubble formation associated with sonar exposure that may have been exacerbated by modified diving behavior caused nitrogen supersaturation above a threshold value normally tolerated by the tissues (as occurs in decompression sickness). Alternatively, the effect that sonar has on tissues that have been supersaturated with nitrogen gas could be such that it lowers the threshold for the expansion of in vivo bubble precursors (gas nuclei). Exclusively or in combination, these mechanisms may enhance and maintain bubble growth or initiate embolism. Severely injured whales died or became stranded and died due to cardiovascular collapse during beaching. The present study demonstrates a new pathologic entity in cetaceans. The syndrome is apparently induced by exposure to mid-frequency sonar signals and particularly affects deep, long-duration, repetitive-diving species like BWs.

  2. Fat tissue and inflammation in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Rincón Bello, Abraham; Bucalo, Laura; Abad Estébanez, Soraya; Vega Martínez, Almudena; Barraca Núñez, Daniel; Yuste Lozano, Claudia; Pérez de José, Ana; López-Gómez, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Body weight has been increasing in the general population and is an established risk factor for hypertension, diabetes, and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) gain weight, mainly during the first months of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between body composition and metabolic and inflammatory status in patients undergoing PD. Methods This was a prospective, non-interventional study of prevalent patients receiving PD. Body composition was studied every 3 months using bioelectrical impedance (BCM®). We performed linear regression for each patient, including all BCM® measurements, to calculate annual changes in body composition. Thirty-one patients in our PD unit met the inclusion criteria. Results Median follow-up was 26 (range 17–27) months. Mean increase in weight was 1.8 ± 2.8 kg/year. However, BCM® analysis revealed a mean increase in fat mass of 3.0 ± 3.2 kg/year with a loss of lean mass of 2.3 ± 4.1 kg/year during follow-up. The increase in fat mass was associated with the conicity index, suggesting that increases in fat mass are based mainly on abdominal adipose tissue. Changes in fat mass were directly associated with inflammation parameters such as C-reactive protein (r = 0.382, P = 0.045) and inversely associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=−0.50, P = 0.008). Conclusions Follow-up of weight and body mass index can underestimate the fat mass increase and miss lean mass loss. The increase in fat mass is associated with proinflammatory state and alteration in lipid profile. PMID:27274820

  3. Differential Effects of Bariatric Surgery Versus Exercise on Excessive Visceral Fat Deposits.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fu-Zong; Huang, Yi-Luan; Wu, Carol C; Wang, Yen-Chi; Pan, Hsiang-Ju; Huang, Chin-Kun; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Wu, Ming-Ting

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare differential impacts of bariatric surgery and exercise-induced weight loss on excessive abdominal and cardiac fat deposition.Excessive fat accumulation around the heart may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Recent evidences have suggested that bariatric surgery results in relatively less decrease in epicardial fat compared with abdominal visceral fat and paracardial fat.Sixty-four consecutive overweight or obese subjects were enrolled in the study. Clinical characteristics and metabolic profiles were recorded. The volumes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (AVAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), epicardial (EAT), and paracardial adipose tissue (PAT) were measured by computed tomography in the bariatric surgery group (N = 25) and the exercise group (N = 39) at baseline and 3 months after intervention. Subjects in both the surgery and exercise groups showed significant reduction in body mass index (15.97%, 7.47%), AVAT (40.52%, 15.24%), ASAT (31.40, 17.34%), PAT (34.40%, 12.05%), and PAT + EAT (22.31%, 17.72%) (all P < 0.001) after intervention compared with baseline. In both the groups, the decrease in EAT was small compared with the other compartments (P < 0.01 in both groups). Compared with the exercise group, the surgery group had greater loss in abdominal and cardiac visceral adipose tissue (AVAT, ASAT, PAT, EAT+PAT) (P < 0.001), but lesser loss in EAT (P = 0.037).Compared with the exercise group, bariatric surgery results in significantly greater percentage loss of excessive fat deposits except for EAT. EAT, but not PAT, was relatively preserved despite weight reduction in both the groups. The physiological impact of persistent EAT deserves further investigation.

  4. The relationships between breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density with body mass index, body fat mass and ethnicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariyah, N.; Pathy, N. B.; Taib, N. A. M.; Rahmat, K.; Judy, C. W.; Fadzil, F.; Lau, S.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that breast density and obesity are related to breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships of breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density (VBD) with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass (BFM) for the three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian) in Malaysia. We collected raw digital mammograms from 2450 women acquired on three digital mammography systems. The mammograms were analysed using Volpara software to obtain breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Body weight, BMI and BFM of the women were measured using a body composition analyser. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of increased overall breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Indians have highest breast volume and breast dense volume followed by Malays and Chinese. While Chinese are highest in VBD, followed by Malay and Indian. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing BMI and BFM were independent predictors of increased overall breast volume and dense volume. Moreover, BMI and BFM were independently and inversely related to VBD.

  5. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  6. Effect of a hypocaloric diet, increased protein intake and resistance training on lean mass gains and fat mass loss in overweight police officers.

    PubMed

    Demling, R H; DeSanti, L

    2000-01-01

    We compare the effects of a moderate hypocaloric, high-protein diet and resistance training, using two different protein supplements, versus hypocaloric diet alone on body compositional changes in overweight police officers. A randomized, prospective 12-week study was performed comparing the changes in body composition produced by three different treatment modalities in three study groups. One group (n = 10) was placed on a nonlipogenic, hypocaloric diet alone (80% of predicted needs). A second group (n = 14) was placed on the hypocaloric diet plus resistance exercise plus a high-protein intake (1.5 g/kg/day) using a casein protein hydrolysate. In the third group (n = 14) treatment was identical to the second, except for the use of a whey protein hydrolysate. We found that weight loss was approximately 2.5 kg in all three groups. Mean percent body fat with diet alone decreased from a baseline of 27 +/- 1.8 to 25 +/- 1.3% at 12 weeks. With diet, exercise and casein the decrease was from 26 +/- 1.7 to 18 +/- 1.1% and with diet, exercise and whey protein the decrease was from 27 +/- 1.6 to 23 +/- 1.3%. The mean fat loss was 2. 5 +/- 0.6, 7.0 +/- 2.1 and 4.2 +/- 0.9 kg in the three groups, respectively. Lean mass gains in the three groups did not change for diet alone, versus gains of 4 +/- 1.4 and 2 +/- 0.7 kg in the casein and whey groups, respectively. Mean increase in strength for chest, shoulder and legs was 59 +/- 9% for casein and 29 +/- 9% for whey, a significant group difference. This significant difference in body composition and strength is likely due to improved nitrogen retention and overall anticatabolic effects caused by the peptide components of the casein hydrolysate. PMID:10838463

  7. Catch-up growth and catch-up fat in children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won Kyoung; Suh, Byung-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of perinatal morbidity, persistent short stature, and metabolic alterations in later life. Recent studies have focused on the association between birth weight (BW) and later body composition. Some reports suggest that fetal nutrition, as reflected by BW, may have an inverse programing effect on abdominal adiposity later in life. This inverse association between BW and abdominal adiposity in adults may contribute to insulin resistance. Rapid weight gain during infancy in SGA children seemed to be associated with increased fat mass rather than lean mass. Early catch-up growth after SGA birth rather than SGA itself has been noted as a cardiovascular risk factor in later life. Children who are born SGA also have a predisposition to accumulation of fat mass, particularly intra-abdominal fat. It is not yet clear whether this predisposition is due to low BW itself, rapid postnatal catch-up growth, or a combination of both. In this report, we review the published literature on central fat accumulation and metabolic consequences of being SGA, as well as the currently popular research area of SGA, including growth aspects. PMID:26893597

  8. Sequential resection of residual abdominal and thoracic masses after chemotherapy for metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Gerl, A.; Clemm, C.; Schmeller, N.; Dienemann, H.; Weiss, M.; Kriegmair, M.; Löhrs, U.; Wilmanns, W.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-eight patients with advanced non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCTs) underwent multiple surgical interventions (two in 33 patients, three in four patients, four in one patient) after cisplatin-based chemotherapy. All patients had normal serum tumour markers but persistent radiographic masses. The larger mass was routinely resected first. Fifteen patients (39%) had dissimilar histological findings at sequential surgical procedures, 12 of whom demonstrated less favourable pathological features during the first operation and three at the second. Patients who underwent both retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) and lung resection showed less favourable histological features in the retroperitoneum in nine cases and in the lung in three cases. Eight of 16 patients (50%) without mature teratoma in their primary tumours showed complete necrosis/fibrosis at all surgical interventions, whereas all patients whose primary tumour was classified as malignant teratoma intermediate demonstrated mature teratoma at least at one anatomical site. As histology of post-chemotherapy residual masses cannot be extrapolated from one anatomical site to another, patients usually are properly managed by excision of all residual masses. In particular, in patients with necrosis/fibrosis at lung resection omission of RPLND is not advised. PMID:7524606

  9. Dysregulation of the Peripheral and Adipose Tissue Endocannabinoid System in Human Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Blüher, Matthias; Engeli, Stefan; Klöting, Nora; Berndt, Janin; Fasshauer, Mathias; Bátkai, Sádor; Pacher, Pál; Schön, Michael R.; Jordan, Jens; Stumvoll, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been suspected to contribute to the association of visceral fat accumulation with metabolic diseases. We determined whether circulating endocannabinoids are related to visceral adipose tissue mass in lean, subcutaneous obese, and visceral obese subjects (10 men and 10 women in each group). We further measured expression of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes in paired samples of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in all 60 subjects. Circulating 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) was significantly correlated with body fat (r = 0.45, P = 0.03), visceral fat mass (r = 0.44, P = 0.003), and fasting plasma insulin concentrations (r = 0.41, P = 0.001) but negatively correlated to glucose infusion rate during clamp (r = 0.39, P = 0.009). In visceral adipose tissue, CB1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), fasting insulin (r = 0.48, P < 0.001), and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.5, P < 0.001), whereas FAAH gene expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.39, P = 0.01) and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that abdominal fat accumulation is a critical correlate of the dysregulation of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity. Thus, the endocannabinoid system may represent a primary target for the treatment of abdominal obesity and associated metabolic changes. PMID:17065342

  10. Maternal high-fat diet inversely affects insulin sensitivity in dams and young adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Sadeghimahalli, Forouzan; Zardooz, Homeira

    2016-09-01

    This study attempts to further clarify the potential effects of maternal high-fat (HF) diet on glucose homeostasis in dams and young adult male rat offspring. Female rats were divided into control (CON dams) and HF (HF dams) diet groups, which received the diet 4 weeks prior to and through pregnancy and lactation periods. Blood samples were taken to determine metabolic parameters, then an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed. Maternal HF diet increased intra-abdominal fat mass and plasma corticosterone level, but decreased leptin concentration in dams. In HF offspring intra-abdominal fat mass, plasma leptin, and corticosterone levels decreased. Following IPGTT, the plasma insulin level of HF dams was higher than the controls. In HF offspring plasma insulin level was not significantly different from the controls, but a steeper decrease of their plasma glucose concentration was observed. PMID:27604865

  11. Signatures of Natural Selection at the FTO (Fat Mass and Obesity Associated) Locus in Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuanshi; Weidle, Kerstin; Schröck, Kristin; Tönjes, Anke; Schleinitz, Dorit; Breitfeld, Jana; Stumvoll, Michael; Böttcher, Yvonne; Schöneberg, Torsten; Kovacs, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Polymorphisms in the first intron of FTO have been robustly replicated for associations with obesity. In the Sorbs, a Slavic population resident in Germany, the strongest effect on body mass index (BMI) was found for a variant in the third intron of FTO (rs17818902). Since this may indicate population specific effects of FTO variants, we initiated studies testing FTO for signatures of selection in vertebrate species and human populations. Methods First, we analyzed the coding region of 35 vertebrate FTO orthologs with Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML, ω = dN/dS) to screen for signatures of selection among species. Second, we investigated human population (Europeans/CEU, Yoruba/YRI, Chinese/CHB, Japanese/JPT, Sorbs) SNP data for footprints of selection using DnaSP version 4.5 and the Haplotter/PhaseII. Finally, using ConSite we compared transcription factor (TF) binding sites at sequences harbouring FTO SNPs in intron three. Results PAML analyses revealed strong conservation in coding region of FTO (ω<1). Sliding-window results from population genetic analyses provided highly significant (p<0.001) signatures for balancing selection specifically in the third intron (e.g. Tajima’s D in Sorbs = 2.77). We observed several alterations in TF binding sites, e.g. TCF3 binding site introduced by the rs17818902 minor allele. Conclusion Population genetic analysis revealed signatures of balancing selection at the FTO locus with a prominent signal in intron three, a genomic region with strong association with BMI in the Sorbs. Our data support the hypothesis that genes associated with obesity may have been under evolutionary selective pressure. PMID:25647475

  12. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA.

    PubMed

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Jensen, Signe M; Christensen, Line B; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-27

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height(2)/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross-validation approach. Prediction error of FFM was 3.0% for both equations (root mean square error: 360 and 356 g, respectively). The derived equations produced BIA-based prediction of FFM and FM near DXA scan results. We suggest that the predictive equations can be applied in similar population samples aged 2-4 years. The derived equations may prove useful for studies linking body composition to early risk factors and early onset of obesity.

  13. The FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene codes for a novel member of the non-heme dioxygenase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A

    2007-01-01

    Background Genetic variants in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene have been associated with an increased risk of obesity. However, the function of its protein product has not been experimentally studied and previously reported sequence similarity analyses suggested the absence of homologs in existing protein databases. Here, we present the first detailed computational analysis of the sequence and predicted structure of the protein encoded by FTO. Results We performed a sequence similarity search using the human FTO protein as query and then generated a profile using the multiple sequence alignment of the homologous sequences. Profile-to-sequence and profile-to-profile based comparisons identified remote homologs of the non-heme dioxygenase family. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that human FTO is a member of the non-heme dioxygenase (Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases) superfamily. Amino acid conservation patterns support this hypothesis and indicate that both 2-oxoglutarate and iron should be important for FTO function. This computational prediction of the function of FTO should suggest further steps for its experimental characterization and help to formulate hypothesis about the mechanisms by which it relates to obesity in humans. PMID:17996046

  14. Energy absorption, lean body mass, and total body fat changes during 5 weeks of continuous bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, Jean M.; Evans, Harlan; Kuo, Mike C.; Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the body composition changes due to inactivity was examined together with the question of whether these changes are secondary to changes in energy absorption. Volunteers were 15 healthy males who lived on a metabolic research ward under close staff supervision for 11 weeks. Subjects were ambulatory during the first six weeks and remained in continuous bed rest for the last five weeks of the study. Six male volunteers (age 24-61 years) were selected for body composition measurements. Nine different male volunteers (age 21-50 years) were selected for energy absorption measurements. The volunteers were fed weighed conventional foods on a constant 7-d rotation menu. The average daily caloric content was 2,592 kcal. Comparing the five weeks of continuous bed rest with the previous six weeks of ambulation, it was observed that there was no change in energy absorption or total body weight during bed rest, but a significant decrease in lean body mass and a significant increase in total body fat (p less than 0.05).

  15. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA

    PubMed Central

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T.; Jensen, Signe M.; Christensen, Line B.; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height2/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross-validation approach. Prediction error of FFM was 3.0% for both equations (root mean square error: 360 and 356 g, respectively). The derived equations produced BIA-based prediction of FFM and FM near DXA scan results. We suggest that the predictive equations can be applied in similar population samples aged 2–4 years. The derived equations may prove useful for studies linking body composition to early risk factors and early onset of obesity. PMID:24463487

  16. Fat mass- and obesity-associated genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometric measures in European adults: the Food4Me study.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Forster, Hannah; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; Kolossa, Silvia; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Moschonis, George; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne C; Lovegrove, Julie A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C

    2016-02-14

    The interplay between the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and diet has been implicated in the development of obesity. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate associations between FTO genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometrics among European adults. Participants in the Food4Me randomised controlled trial were genotyped for FTO genotype (rs9939609) and their dietary intakes, and diet quality scores (Healthy Eating Index and PREDIMED-based Mediterranean diet score) were estimated from FFQ. Relationships between FTO genotype, diet and anthropometrics (weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI) were evaluated at baseline. European adults with the FTO risk genotype had greater WC (AA v. TT: +1·4 cm; P=0·003) and BMI (+0·9 kg/m2; P=0·001) than individuals with no risk alleles. Subjects with the lowest fried food consumption and two copies of the FTO risk variant had on average 1·4 kg/m2 greater BMI (Ptrend=0·028) and 3·1 cm greater WC (Ptrend=0·045) compared with individuals with no copies of the risk allele and with the lowest fried food consumption. However, there was no evidence of interactions between FTO genotype and dietary intakes on BMI and WC, and thus further research is required to confirm or refute these findings.

  17. Potassium per kilogram fat-free mass and total body potassium: predictions from sex, age, and anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Ingrid; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Peltonen, Markku; Sjöström, Lars

    2003-02-01

    Total body potassium (TBK) is located mainly intracellularly and constitutes an index of fat-free mass (FFM). The aim was to examine whether TBK and the TBK-to-FFM ratio (TBK/FFM) can be estimated from sex, age, weight, and height. A primary study group (164 males, 205 females) and a validation group (161 and 206), aged 37-61 yr, were randomly selected from the general population. TBK was determined by whole body counting, and FFM was obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; FFM(DEXA)). The primary study group was used to construct sex-specific equations predicting TBK and TBK/FFM from age, weight, and height. The equations were used to estimate TBK and TBK/FFM in the validation group. The estimates were compared with measured values. TBK in different age ranges was predicted, with errors ranging from 5.0 to 6.8%; errors for TBK/FFM ranged from 2.7 to 4.8%, respectively. By adding FFM(DEXA) as a fourth predictor, the error of the TBK prediction decreased by approximately two percentage units. In conclusion, TBK and TBK/FFM can be meaningfully estimated from sex, age, weight, and height.

  18. Tissue- and breed-specific expression of the chicken fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO).

    PubMed

    Song, C; Song, W T; Shu, J T; Tao, Z Y; Zhu, W Q; Di, C; Li, H F

    2015-01-01

    The fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is involved in energy metabolism, but little is known about the chicken FTO gene. The objective of the current study was to detect chicken FTO expression patterns in the hypothalamus, liver, and skeletal muscle during development, and analyze the effects of age and breed on FTO expression. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results revealed that chicken FTO mRNA was expressed in all of the tissues tested. Chicken FTO exhibited tissue- and breed-specific patterns in the recessive White Plymouth Rock chicken and the Qingyuan partridge chicken. The highest FTO expression level was in the hypothalami of 1-week-old chicks. FTO mRNA was expressed more in the breast muscles and livers of recessive White Plymouth Rock chickens than those of Qingyuan partridge chickens at 1 and 8 weeks of age. These results indicate that FTO probably plays a significant role in energy metabolism at 1 week old, when chicks have undergone metabolic adaptations from yolk dependence to the utilization of exogenous feed.

  19. [Regional distribution of the body fat: use of image techniques as tools for nutritional diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Pérez Miguelsanz, M J; Cabrera Parra, W; Varela Moreiras, G; Garaulet, M

    2010-01-01

    Fat mass is the most variable component in the human body, both when comparing several individuals and when considering changes in the same person throughout life. Obesity is characterized by an excess of body fat that affects health and well-being of individuals. Risk associated with excess body fat is due, in part, to location of fat rather than to total amount. Today is stated that causes and metabolic consequences of regional distribution of fat are of particular clinical importance. To identify a compartment of morbid adipose tissue and to be able to act on it is one of the main aims of the present research. In this review, we have revised the existing literature on location and characteristics of total body fat in human adult. We have focused on abdominal region, basing this review on the use of modern imaging techniques available nowadays, such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, with their advantages and limitations. The purpose of this review is to assess whether it is possible to know the body composition and fat distribution on the basis of image methods. Computed tomography technique was first applied in studies of obesity, but today, due to the inconvenience of irradiating the patient, this technique is being replaced by magnetic resonance that, in addition to avoid radiation, provides images of extraordinary quality. Both methods allow to subdivide the classic general fat depots in others more specific. Subcutaneous fat depot can be superficial or deep, while visceral can be divided in mesenteric, omental or epiploic, retroperitoneal and perirrenal fat. In addition, these modern techniques of imaging permit to study muscular fat, considered by some authors as the new fat compartment. Muscular fat includes fat located between skeletal muscle fibers, called extramyocellular fat, as well as lipids located within skeletal muscle fibers (intramyocellular fat). Its importance lies not only in size, similar to visceral fat, but on its

  20. Association of gene polymorphism of the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene with insulin resistance in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Shimaoka, Izumi; Kamide, Kei; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Sugimoto, Ken; Oguro, Ryousuke; Congrains, Ada; Fujisawa, Tomomi; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Ogihara, Toshio; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2010-03-01

    It was reported that gene polymorphisms in the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) were associated with obesity and diabetes in several genome-wide association studies. A recent report indicated that FTO-knockout mice exhibited phenotypes of skinny body shape and normal metabolic profiles. Thus, FTO could be important in metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FTO in metabolic disorders such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in the Japanese general population using data from a cohort study in Hokkaido, namely the Tanno-Sobetsu study. Written informed consent for the genetic analysis was obtained from each subject participating in the study. A total of 1514 subjects were genotyped by TaqMan PCR methods for three SNPs, rs9939609, rs1121980 and rs1558902, in FTO. Association analyses between the SNPs and metabolic parameters were performed. Although two SNPs, rs9939609 and rs1558902, were not significantly associated with hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome or any metabolic parameters, additive and recessive models of rs1121980 were strongly associated with plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) level and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), even after adjusting for confounding factors such as age, gender and body mass index. A haplotype of three SNPs was also significantly associated with IRI and HOMA-IR. One SNP, rs1121980, and a haplotype of three SNPs in FTO that contains this SNP, might be important in the progression of insulin resistance in Japanese subjects.

  1. Increasing body fat mass reverses bone loss in osteopenia as detected by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans

    PubMed Central

    Hedges, William P.; Bukhari, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Low body mass index (BMI) is a known risk factor for osteoporosis and is part of the FRAX™ 10-year fracture risk stratification tool for predicting fragility fractures. Little is known regarding the effects of changing body composition on bone mineral density (BMD). However, increasing fat mass (FM) improves BMD in young women with anorexia nervosa. This study aimed to assess whether changes in FM over time affected BMD in the general population. Material and Methods Data was collected from patients who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) assessment between 2004 and 2011. Patients were included if they had multiple scans, including FM measurements. Our scanners limited these to scans of the lumbar spine. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify the relationship between changes in FM and BMD. Backwards stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to identify confounding factors, including sex, risk factors, previous fractures, and baseline BMI. Results In this study, 23,239 patients were included, of which 702 met the inclusion criteria. There were 609 (86%) females and 93 (13%) males with a mean age of 64.5 (SD 11.2) years at first scan. We identified a strong positive correlation between increasing FM and BMD between scans (coefficient 28.4; p<0.01; 95% CI, 26.6–30.1). Previous pelvic and femur fractures and a history of inflammatory diseases were also associated with increasing FM (p<0.05). This relationship was true regardless of patients BMI at their first scan. Conclusion These findings suggest that patients at high risk of fragility fractures should be encouraged to increase their FM as long as they are at a low risk for disease states related to high FM. PMID:27708960

  2. Fecal fat

    MedlinePlus

    Quantitative stool fat determination; Fat absorption ... This test evaluates fat absorption to tell how well the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and intestines are working. Fat malabsorption can cause a change in your ...

  3. Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Attenuates Body Fat Mass, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance through the Interplay between the Liver and Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye Jin; Choi, Ji-Young; Ryu, Ri; Lee, Jeonghyeon; Cho, Su-Jung; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Rina, Yu; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-08-30

    The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE), which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males) were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat), and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w) PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1), that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and energy expenditure. In addition, PGE improved insulin sensitivity through activation of the PPARγ expression, which upregulates adiponectin while decreasing leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGE improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis while increasing expression of FAO-associated genes such as PGC1α. PGE normalized body fat and body weight, which is likely associated with the increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene expression. PGE can protect from HFD-induced insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis by controlling lipid and glucose metabolism.

  4. Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Attenuates Body Fat Mass, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance through the Interplay between the Liver and Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ye Jin; Choi, Ji-Young; Ryu, Ri; Lee, Jeonghyeon; Cho, Su-Jung; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Rina, Yu; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE), which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males) were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat), and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w) PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1), that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and energy expenditure. In addition, PGE improved insulin sensitivity through activation of the PPARγ expression, which upregulates adiponectin while decreasing leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGE improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis while increasing expression of FAO-associated genes such as PGC1α. PGE normalized body fat and body weight, which is likely associated with the increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene expression. PGE can protect from HFD-induced insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis by controlling lipid and glucose metabolism. PMID:27589792

  5. Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Attenuates Body Fat Mass, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance through the Interplay between the Liver and Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye Jin; Choi, Ji-Young; Ryu, Ri; Lee, Jeonghyeon; Cho, Su-Jung; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Rina, Yu; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE), which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males) were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat), and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w) PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1), that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and energy expenditure. In addition, PGE improved insulin sensitivity through activation of the PPARγ expression, which upregulates adiponectin while decreasing leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGE improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis while increasing expression of FAO-associated genes such as PGC1α. PGE normalized body fat and body weight, which is likely associated with the increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene expression. PGE can protect from HFD-induced insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis by controlling lipid and glucose metabolism. PMID:27589792

  6. Patterns of subcutaneous fat deposition and the relationship between body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio: implications for models of physical attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Piers L; Toveé, Martin J; Bateson, Melissa

    2009-02-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are two widely used anthropometric indices of body shape argued to convey different information about health and fertility. Both indices have also been shown to affect attractiveness ratings of female bodies. However, BMI and WHR are naturally positively correlated, complicating studies designed to identify their relative importance in predicting health and attractiveness outcomes. We show that the correlation between BMI and WHR depends on the assumed model of subcutaneous fat deposition. An additive model, whereby fat is added to the waist and hips at a constant rate, predicts a correlation between BMI and WHR because with increasing fat, the difference between the waist and hips becomes smaller relative to total width. This model is supported by longitudinal and cross-sectional data. We parameterized the function relating WHR to BMI for white UK females of reproductive age, and used this function to statistically decompose body shape into two independent components. We show that judgements of the attractiveness of female bodies are well explained by the component of curvaceousness related to BMI but not by residual curvaceousness. Our findings resolve a long-standing dispute in the attractiveness literature by confirming that although WHR appears to be an important predictor of attractiveness, this is largely explained by the direct effect of total body fat on WHR, thus reinforcing the conclusion that total body fat is the primary determinant of female body shape attractiveness. PMID:19013182

  7. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and fatness is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight gain and fat deposit a...

  8. Effect of the myostatin locus on muscle mass and intramuscular fat content in a cross between mouse lines selected for hypermuscularity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study is aimed at the analysis of genetic and physiological effects of myostatin on economically relevant meat quality traits in a genetic background of high muscularity. For this purpose, we generated G3 populations of reciprocal crosses between the two hypermuscular mouse lines BMMI866, which carries a myostatin mutation and is lean, and BMMI806, which has high intramuscular and body fat content. To assess the relationship between muscle mass, body composition and muscle quality traits, we also analysed intramuscular fat content (IMF), water holding capacity (WHC), and additional physiological parameters in M. quadriceps and M. longissimus in 308 G3-animals. Results We found that individuals with larger muscles have significantly lower total body fat (r = −0.28) and IMF (r = −0.64), and in females, a lower WHC (r = −0.35). In males, higher muscle mass was also significantly correlated with higher glycogen contents (r = 0.2) and lower carcass pH-values 24 hours after dissection (r = −0.19). Linkage analyses confirmed the influence of the myostatin mutation on higher lean mass (1.35 g), reduced body fat content (−1.15%), and lower IMF in M. longissimus (−0.13%) and M. quadriceps (−0.07%). No effect was found for WHC. A large proportion of variation of intramuscular fat content of the M. longissimus at the myostatin locus could be explained by sex (23%) and direction-of-cross effects (26%). The effects were higher in males (+0.41%). An additional locus with negative over-dominance effects on total fat mass (−0.55 g) was identified on chromosome 16 at 94 Mb (86–94 Mb) which concurs with fat related QTL in syntenic regions on SSC13 in pigs and BTA1 in cattle. Conclusion The data shows QTL effects on mouse muscle that are similar to those previously observed in livestock, supporting the mouse model. New information from the mouse model helps to describe variation in meat quantity and quality, and thus contribute to

  9. Prognostic Value of Fat Mass and Skeletal Muscle Mass Determined by Computed Tomography in Patients Who Underwent Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Mok, Michael; Allende, Ricardo; Leipsic, Jonathon; Altisent, Omar Abdul-Jawad; Del Trigo, Maria; Campelo-Parada, Francisco; DeLarochellière, Robert; Dumont, Eric; Doyle, Daniel; Côté, Mélanie; Freeman, Melanie; Webb, John; Rodés-Cabau, Josep

    2016-03-01

    Body composition (fat mass [FM] and skeletal muscle mass [SMM]) predicts clinical outcomes. In particular, loss of SMM (sarcopenia) is associated with frailty and mortality. There are no data on the prevalence and impact of FM and SMM in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The objective of this study is to determine body composition from pre-TAVI computed tomography (CT) and evaluate its association with clinical outcomes in patients who underwent TAVI. A total of 460 patients (mean age 81 ± 8 years, men: 51%) were included. Pre-TAVI CTs of the aorto-ilio-femoral axis were analyzed for FM and SMM cross-sectional area at the level of the third lumbar vertebrae (L3). Regression equations correlating cross-sectional area at L3 to total body FM and SMM were used to determine prevalence of sarcopenia, obesity, and sarcopenic obesity in patients (64%, 65%, and 46%, respectively). Most TAVI procedures were performed through a transfemoral approach (59%) using a balloon-expandable valve (94%). The 30-day and mid-term (median 12 months [interquartile range 6 to 27]) mortality rates were 6.1% and 29.6%, respectively. FM had no association with clinical outcomes, but sarcopenia predicted cumulative mortality (hazard ratio 1.55, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 2.36, p = 0.04). In conclusion, body composition analysis from pre-TAVI CT is feasible. Sarcopenia, obesity, and sarcopenic obesity are prevalent in the TAVI population, with sarcopenia predictive of cumulative mortality. PMID:26754122

  10. Effects of day-length and food availability on food caching, mass and fat reserves in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus).

    PubMed

    Karpouzos, Helen; Hernandez, Alexandra M; MacDougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2005-03-16

    Many animals seasonally change energy stores such as food caches and fat deposits. Two factors that potentially influence energy stores are changes in day-length and food availability. We investigated food storing and fat levels in black-capped chickadees to determine how they are affected by changes in duration of light period and duration of food availability. Because previous studies have confounded the effects of photoperiod and the effects of duration of access to food we manipulated these variables independently. Birds were exposed to either long days (15 h light with 15 h of food availability), long day light exposure with short day food availability (15 h light, 9 h food), or short days (9 h light, 9 h food). We measured mass, body fat and the number of sunflower seeds stored in 1-h test sessions for 2 weeks prior and 3 weeks following this manipulation. Neither photoperiod nor food availability had an effect on food storing behavior. Fat and body mass transiently increased in both groups exposed to short duration of food availability, regardless of photoperiod, but did not increase in birds exposed to long days with long duration food availability. These results indicate that duration of time to feed may affect seasonal changes in energy reserves in addition to any effects of photoperiod.

  11. Chylous Ascites after Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Ohki, Shinichi; Kurumisawa, Soki; Misawa, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was transferred for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. He had no history of abdominal surgeries. Grafting between the infra-renal abdominal aorta and the bilateral common iliac arteries was performed. Proximal and distal cross clamps were applied for grafting. He developed chylous ascites on the 5th post-operative day, 2 days after initiation of oral intake. Fortunately, he responded to treatment with total parenteral hyper-alimentation for 10 days, followed by a low-fat diet. There was no recurrence of ascites. PMID:27087873

  12. Relationship of total body fat mass to weight-bearing bone volumetric density, geometry, and strength in young girls

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Joshua N.; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the influence of total body fat mass (TBFM) on bone during the peri-pubertal years is critical for the development of future interventions aimed at improving bone strength and reducing fracture risk. Thus, we evaluated the relationship of TBFM to volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and strength at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia of young girls. Data from 396 girls aged 8–13 years from the “Jump-In: Building Better Bones” study were analyzed. Bone parameters were assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the 4% and 20% distal femur and 4% and 66% distal tibia of the non-dominant leg. Bone parameters at the 4% sites included trabecular vBMD, periosteal circumference, and bone strength index (BSI), while at the 20% femur and 66% tibia, parameters included cortical vBMD, periosteal circumference, and strength-strain index (SSI). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between bone parameters and TBFM, controlling for muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA). Regression analyses were then repeated with maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity as additional covariates. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare bone parameters among tertiles of TBFM. In regression models with TBFM and MCSA, associations between TBFM and bone parameters at all sites were not significant. TBFM explained very little variance in all bone parameters (0.2–2.3%). In contrast, MCSA was strongly related (p < 0.001) to all bone parameters, except cortical vBMD. The addition of maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity did not alter the relationship between TBFM and bone parameters. With bone parameters expressed relative to total body mass, ANCOVA showed that all outcomes were significantly (p < 0.001) greater in the lowest compared to the middle and highest tertiles of TBFM. Although TBFM is correlated with femur and tibia vBMD, periosteal

  13. Comparative evaluation of body composition methods and predictions, and calculation of density and hydration fraction of fat-free mass, in obese women.

    PubMed

    Fuller, N J; Sawyer, M B; Elia, M

    1994-07-01

    The objective of this study was to apply a three-component model of body composition to a group of obese women in order to (a) establish the relative value of a number of readily available prediction equations by comparison of the extent of agreement between these predictions and body composition estimated by the model and other reference methods and (b) evaluate density and hydration of fat-free mass. Estimation of body composition was carried out by reference methods and prediction equations and the usefulness of these prediction equations for application specifically to obese women was evaluated. The subjects were 15 obese, otherwise healthy, Caucasian women (body mass index > 30kg/m2 and body fat > 40% of body weight, as originally determined using densitometry). Body composition was estimated using three established reference methods (deuterium dilution which primarily measures total body water, densitometry for body fat and fat-free mass and total body potassium) and the three component model constructed from deuterium dilution and densitometry. Density and hydration fraction of the fat-free mass were calculated from appropriate values obtained as integral parts of the three-component model. In addition, body composition was predicted from various prediction equations incorporating weight and height (some of which include a factor for age), from a number of prediction equations utilizing different terms involving the same whole-body bio-electrical impedance measurement and from measurements of skinfold thickness and near infrared interactance. The extent of agreement between methods was assessed using bias and 95% limits of agreement. Mean density of fat-free mass was found to be 1.104 kg/l (s.d. 0.006kg/l) with a range of 1.093 to 1.117 kg/l, and mean hydration fraction was 0.712 (s.d. 0.016) with a range of hydration from 68.2% to 75.1% (all values were calculated from the three-component model). In general, the reference methods (densitometry, deuterium

  14. Water-induced thermogenesis and fat oxidation: a reassessment

    PubMed Central

    Charrière, N; Miles-Chan, J L; Montani, J-P; Dulloo, A G

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Drinking large amounts of water is often recommended for weight control. Whether water intake stimulates energy and fat metabolism is, however, controversial with some studies reporting that drinking half a litre or more of water increases resting energy expenditure (REE) by 10–30% and decreases respiratory quotient (RQ), whereas others report no significant changes in REE or RQ. The aim here was to reassess the concept of water-induced thermogenesis and fat oxidation in humans, with particular focus on interindividual variability in REE and RQ responses, comparison with a time-control Sham drink, and on the potential impact of gender, body composition and abdominal adiposity. Subjects/Methods: REE and RQ were measured in healthy young adults (n=27; body mass index range: 18.5–33.9 kg m−2), by ventilated hood indirect calorimetry for at least 30 min before and 130 min after ingesting 500 ml of purified (distilled) water at 21–22 °C or after Sham drinking, in a randomized cross-over design. Body composition and abdominal fat were assessed by bioimpedance techniques. Results: Drinking 500 ml of distilled water led to marginal increases in REE (<3% above baseline), independently of gender, but which were not significantly different from Sham drinking. RQ was found to fall after the water drink, independently of gender, but it also diminished to a similar extent in response to sham drinking. Interindividual variability in REE and RQ responses was not associated with body fatness, central adiposity or fat-free mass. Conclusions: This study conducted in young men and women varying widely in adiposity, comparing the ingestion of distilled water to Sham drinking, suggests that ingestion of purified water per se does not result in the stimulation of thermogenesis or fat oxidation. PMID:26690288

  15. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  16. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Vertical Banded Gastroplasty Induce Long-Term Changes on the Human Gut Microbiome Contributing to Fat Mass Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tremaroli, Valentina; Karlsson, Fredrik; Werling, Malin; Ståhlman, Marcus; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Olbers, Torsten; Fändriks, Lars; le Roux, Carel W.; Nielsen, Jens; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective procedure for the treatment of obesity. Given the role of the gut microbiota in regulating host metabolism and adiposity, we investigated the long-term effects of bariatric surgery on the microbiome of patients randomized to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or vertical banded gastroplasty and matched for weight and fat mass loss. The two surgical procedures induced similar and durable changes on the gut microbiome that were not dependent on body mass index and resulted in altered levels of fecal and circulating metabolites compared with obese controls. By colonizing germ-free mice with stools from the patients, we demonstrated that the surgically altered microbiota promoted reduced fat deposition in recipient mice. These mice also had a lower respiratory quotient, indicating decreased utilization of carbohydrates as fuel. Our results suggest that the gut microbiota may play a direct role in the reduction of adiposity observed after bariatric surgery. PMID:26244932

  17. Interrelationships of spontaneous growth hormone axis activity, body fat, and serum lipids in healthy elderly women and men.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, K G; Harman, S M; Stevens, T E; Jayme, J J; Bellantoni, M F; Busby-Whitehead, M J; Christmas, C; Münzer, T; Tobin, J D; Roy, T A; Cottrell, E; St Clair, C; Pabst, K M; Blackman, M R

    1999-11-01

    Aging is associated with decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels, increased total and abdominal fat, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Similar changes in lipids and body composition occur in nonelderly GH-deficient adults and are reversed with GH administration. To examine whether GH/IGF-I axis function in the elderly is related to the lipid profile independently of body fat, we evaluated GH secretion, serum IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels, adiposity via the body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and circulating lipids in 101 healthy subjects older than 65 years. Integrated nocturnal GH secretion (log IAUPGH) was inversely related (P < .005) to DEXA total and abdominal fat and MRI visceral fat in both genders. Log IAUPGH was inversely related to visceral fat in women (P < .005) and men (P < .0001), but was not significantly related to total fat in either gender. In women, log IAUPGH was related inversely to total and LDL cholesterol and positively to HDL cholesterol (P < .008). In men, log IAUPGH was inversely related to total cholesterol and triglycerides (P < .005). In women, HDL cholesterol was inversely related to the WHR (P < .005). In men, triglycerides were positively related (P < .001) to the WHR and DEXA abdominal and MRI visceral fat. Multivariate regression revealed log IAUPGH, but not DEXA total body fat, to be an independent determinant of total (P < .001 for women and P = .01 for men) and LDL (P < .007 and P = .05) cholesterol in both sexes and of HDL cholesterol (P < .005) and triglycerides (P < .03) in women. Log IAUPGH, but not DEXA abdominal fat, was related to total (P < .005 and P < .03) and LDL (P < .03 and P = .05) cholesterol in both genders and to HDL in women (P < .05). Log IAUPGH, but not

  18. Evaluation of body weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage changes in early stages of fixed orthodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, K. Sai; Singaraju, Gowri Sankar; Reddy, V. Karunakar; Mandava, Prasad; Bhavikati, Venkata N.; Reddy, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage (BFP) during the initial stages of fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample for this observational prospective study included 68 individuals with fixed orthodontic appliance in the age group of 18–25 years of both the sexes (25 males and 43 females). The control group consisted of 60 individuals (24 males and 36 females). The weight, BMI, and BFP were measured using a Body Composition Monitor at three points of time “T1” initial; “T2” after 1 month; and “T2” after 3 months. The results were tabulated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The mean changes between different parameters in both the study and control groups and between males and females in the study group was compared by using two-tailed unpaired student's t-test. The statistical significance is set atP ≤ 0.05. Results: There was an overall decrease in the body weight, BMI, and BFP after 1 month in the study cohort, which was statistically significant compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). This was followed by an increase in the parameters after the end of the 3rd month. Comparison of the parameters between the study and control group at the start of the treatment and at the end of the 3rd month had no statistical significance. There was a marked variation in the changes of these parameters between males and females of the study group, which is statistically significant (<0.0001). Conclusion: There is a definite reduction in the weight, BMP, and BMI at the end of the first month followed by a gain of weight, but not at the initial point by the end of the 3rd month. PMID:27583224

  19. Impact of Body Mass Index on Vascular Calcification and Pericardial Fat Volume Among Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nafakhi, Hussein; Al-Mosawi, Abdulameer; Elwali, Hayder; Al-Nafakh, Hasan; Tawfeq, Raad; Nafakhi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI) on the relationship between pericardial fat volume (PFV), aortic root calcification (ARC) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) among patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between January and December 2014 at the Kufa University Teaching Hospital, Najaf, Iraq. A total of 130 consecutive patients with an intermediate pretest probability of ischaemic heart disease who underwent 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (CT) angiography during the study period were recruited. Of these, 111 were included in the study and divided into groups according to BMI. Imaging markers were measured on CT angiography. Results: A total of 28 patients were obese, while 42 and 41 were overweight and normal weight, respectively. The median PFV, CAC and ARC was 109 cm3 (interquartile range [IQR]: 52–176 cm3), 0 Agatston score (IQR: 0–52 Agatston score) and 0 Agatston score (IQR: 0–15 Agatston score), respectively, in the normal weight group in comparison to 79 cm3 (IQR: 43–138 cm3), 0 Agatston score (IQR: 0–54 Agatston score) and 0 Agatston score (IQR: 0–0 Agatston score), respectively, in the obese group. Significant correlations were observed between PFV and CAC (r2 = 0.22; P = 0.002) and ARC and CAC (r2 = 0.37; P <0.001) in the normal weight group. However, no significant correlations were observed for obese and overweight patients. Conclusion: These findings indicate that BMI may not be an accurate tool for measuring adiposity or assessing subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in patients with suspected CAD.

  20. Impact of Body Mass Index on Vascular Calcification and Pericardial Fat Volume Among Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nafakhi, Hussein; Al-Mosawi, Abdulameer; Elwali, Hayder; Al-Nafakh, Hasan; Tawfeq, Raad; Nafakhi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI) on the relationship between pericardial fat volume (PFV), aortic root calcification (ARC) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) among patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between January and December 2014 at the Kufa University Teaching Hospital, Najaf, Iraq. A total of 130 consecutive patients with an intermediate pretest probability of ischaemic heart disease who underwent 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (CT) angiography during the study period were recruited. Of these, 111 were included in the study and divided into groups according to BMI. Imaging markers were measured on CT angiography. Results: A total of 28 patients were obese, while 42 and 41 were overweight and normal weight, respectively. The median PFV, CAC and ARC was 109 cm3 (interquartile range [IQR]: 52–176 cm3), 0 Agatston score (IQR: 0–52 Agatston score) and 0 Agatston score (IQR: 0–15 Agatston score), respectively, in the normal weight group in comparison to 79 cm3 (IQR: 43–138 cm3), 0 Agatston score (IQR: 0–54 Agatston score) and 0 Agatston score (IQR: 0–0 Agatston score), respectively, in the obese group. Significant correlations were observed between PFV and CAC (r2 = 0.22; P = 0.002) and ARC and CAC (r2 = 0.37; P <0.001) in the normal weight group. However, no significant correlations were observed for obese and overweight patients. Conclusion: These findings indicate that BMI may not be an accurate tool for measuring adiposity or assessing subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in patients with suspected CAD. PMID:27606110

  1. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities in obstructive sleep apnea and associations with subcutaneous fat distributions.

    PubMed

    Ucok, Kagan; Aycicek, Abdullah; Sezer, Murat; Genc, Abdurrahman; Akkaya, Muzaffer; Caglar, Veli; Fidan, Fatma; Unlu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for the development and progression of sleep apnea. Responses to exercise by patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are clinically relevant to reducing body weight and cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to clarify the aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities and their possible relationships with other findings in patients with OSAS. Forty patients (30 males, 10 females) and 40 controls (30 males, 10 females) were enrolled in this study. Questionnaires (excessive daytime sleepiness, daytime tiredness, morning headache, waking unrefreshed, and imbalance), overnight polysomnography, indirect laryngoscopy, and aerobic and anaerobic exercise tests were performed. Triceps, subscapular, abdomen, and thigh skinfold thicknesses were measured. Subcutaneous abdominal fat (abdomen skinfold) was significantly higher in OSAS patients than in controls. Maximal anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity were not different significantly between the patients and controls. We found that aerobic capacity was significantly lower in OSAS patients than in controls. Aerobic capacity was negatively correlated with upper-body subcutaneous fat (triceps and subscapular skinfolds) but not correlated with subcutaneous abdominal fat in OSAS patients. In multivariate analyses using all patients, the apnea-hypopnea index remained a significant independent predictor of aerobic capacity after controlling for a variety of potential confounders including body mass index. Our data confirm that central obesity (subcutaneous abdominal fat) is prominent in patients with OSAS. Our results suggest that lower aerobic exercise capacity in patients with OSAS might be due to daily physical activity that is restricted by OSA itself. This study also suggests that the degree of subcutaneous abdominal fat cannot be used for predicting aerobic capacity level. We think that upper-body subcutaneous fat might be suitable for determining the physical fitness of

  2. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  3. Trunk Fat is Associated with Increased Serum Levels of Alanine Aminotransferase in the US

    PubMed Central

    Ruhl, Constance E.; Everhart, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Liver injury is associated with obesity and related measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. The relationship between liver injury and body composition has not been evaluated in a population-based study. Methods Using data from a US population-based survey, we examined the contributions of body composition, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity among 11,821 adults without viral hepatitis. Trunk fat, extremity fat, trunk lean, and extremity lean mass were divided by height squared and used to categorize subjects into quintiles; logistic regression odds ratios (OR) were calculated for increased ALT. Results Increased ALT was associated with higher measures of fat and lean mass (p<0.001) after adjustment for alcohol consumption and other liver injury risk factors in separate models for each DXA measure. Trunk fat was associated with increased ALT (p≤0.001) in models also including any 1 of the other 3 measures. Extremity fat was independently inversely associated among women (p<0.001). Trunk and extremity lean mass were not independently related to increased ALT. In models that contained all 4 DXA measures, the OR (95% confidence interval) for increased ALT for the highest, relative to lowest, quintile of trunk fat/height squared was 13.8 (5.4-35.3) for men and 7.8 (3.9-15.8) for women. When BMI, waist circumference, and trunk fat were considered together, only trunk fat remained independently associated with increased ALT. Conclusions Trunk fat is a major body composition determinant of increased ALT, supporting the hypothesis that liver injury can be induced by metabolically active intra-abdominal fat. PMID:20060831

  4. Ultrasonography for the evaluation of visceral fat and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Filho, F F; Faria, A N; Kohlmann, O; Ajzen, S; Ribeiro, A B; Zanella, M T; Ferreira, S R

    2001-09-01

    Visceral fat accumulation is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Clinical evaluation of visceral fat is limited because of the lack of reliable and low-cost methods. To assess the correlation between ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of visceral fat, 101 obese women, age 50.5+/-7.7 years with a body mass index of 39.2+/-5.4 kg/m(2), were submitted to ultrasonograph and CT scans. Visceral fat measured by ultrasonography, 1 cm above the umbilical knot, showed a high correlation with CT-determined visceral fat (r=0.67, P<0.0001). The ultrasonograph method showed good reproducibility with an intra-observer variation coefficient of <2%. Both ultrasonograph and CT visceral fat values were correlated with fasting insulin (r=0.29 and r=0.27, P<0.01) and plasma glucose 2 hours after oral glucose load (r=0.22 and r=0.34, P<0.05), indicating that ultrasonography is a useful method to evaluate cardiovascular risk. A significant correlation was also found between visceral fat by CT and serum sodium (r=0.18, P<0.05). A ultrasonograph-determined visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio of 2.50 was established as a cutoff value to define patients with abdominal visceral obesity. This value also identified patients with higher levels of plasma glucose, serum insulin and triglycerides and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol, which are metabolic abnormalities characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. Our data demonstrate that ultrasonography is a precise and reliable method for evaluation of visceral fat and identification of patients with adverse metabolic profile. PMID:11566963

  5. Increased consumption of dairy foods and protein during diet- and exercise-induced weight loss promotes fat mass loss and lean mass gain in overweight and obese premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Josse, Andrea R; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Phillips, Stuart M

    2011-09-01

    Weight loss can have substantial health benefits for overweight or obese persons; however, the ratio of fat:lean tissue loss may be more important. We aimed to determine how daily exercise (resistance and/or aerobic) and a hypoenergetic diet varying in protein and calcium content from dairy foods would affect the composition of weight lost in otherwise healthy, premenopausal, overweight, and obese women. Ninety participants were randomized to 3 groups (n = 30/group): high protein, high dairy (HPHD), adequate protein, medium dairy (APMD), and adequate protein, low dairy (APLD) differing in the quantity of total dietary protein and dairy food-source protein consumed: 30 and 15%, 15 and 7.5%, or 15 and <2% of energy, respectively. Body composition was measured by DXA at 0, 8, and 16 wk and MRI (n = 39) to assess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume at 0 and 16 wk. All groups lost body weight (P < 0.05) and fat (P < 0.01); however, fat loss during wk 8-16 was greater in the HPHD group than in the APMD and APLD groups (P < 0.05). The HPHD group gained lean tissue with a greater increase during 8-16 wk than the APMD group, which maintained lean mass and the APLD group, which lost lean mass (P < 0.05). The HPHD group also lost more VAT as assessed by MRI (P < 0.05) and trunk fat as assessed by DXA (P < 0.005) than the APLD group. The reduction in VAT in all groups was correlated with intakes of calcium (r = 0.40; P < 0.05) and protein (r = 0.32; P < 0.05). Therefore, diet- and exercise-induced weight loss with higher protein and increased dairy product intakes promotes more favorable body composition changes in women characterized by greater total and visceral fat loss and lean mass gain.

  6. Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight & intra-abdominal adipose tissue loss or reduce adipocyte size & inflammatory markers in overweight & obese adults; Controlled feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Research on the role of dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective: A 15 week controlled feeding study to answer the question: do dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a mode...

  7. Effect of Resistance Training and Various Sources of Protein Supplementation on Body Fat Mass and Metabolic Profile in Sarcopenic Overweight Older Adult Men: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Maltais, Mathieu L; Perreault, Karine; Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre; Lagacé, Jean Christophe; Barsalani, Razieh; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2016-02-01

    The decrease in resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat oxidation with aging is associated with an increase in fat mass (FM), and both could be prevented by exercise such as resistance training. Dairy consumption has also been shown to promote FM loss in different subpopulations and to be positively associated with fat oxidation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether resistance exercise combined with dairy supplementation could have an additive impact on FM and energy metabolism, especially in individuals with a deficit in muscle mass. Twenty-six older overweight sarcopenic men (65 ± 5 years old) were recruited for the study. They participated in 4 months of resistance exercise and were randomized into three groups for postexercise shakes (control, dairy, and nondairy isocaloric and isoprotein supplement with 375 ml and ~280 calories per shake). Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry and REE by indirect calorimetry. Fasting glucose, insulin, leptin, inflammatory profile, and blood lipid profile were also measured. Significant decreases were observed with FM only in the dairy supplement group; no changes were observed for any other variables. To conclude, FM may decrease without changes in metabolic parameters during resistance training and dairy supplementation with no caloric restriction without having any impact on metabolic properties. More studies are warranted to explain this significant decrease in FM. PMID:26894503

  8. Hand-to-Hand Model for Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimate Fat Free Mass in a Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Chiang, Li-Ming; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Dwyer, Gregory B.; Hsu, Ying-Lin; Chen, Chun-Hao; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a hand-to-hand (HH) model for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) fat free mass (FFM) estimation by comparing with a standing position hand-to-foot (HF) BIA model and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); we also verified the reliability of the newly developed model. A total of 704 healthy Chinese individuals (403 men and 301 women) participated. FFM (FFMDXA) reference variables were measured using DXA and segmental BIA. Further, regression analysis, Bland–Altman plots, and cross-validation (2/3 participants as the modeling group, 1/3 as the validation group; three turns were repeated for validation grouping) were conducted to compare tests of agreement with FFMDXA reference variables. In male participants, the hand-to-hand BIA model estimation equation was calculated as follows: FFMmHH = 0.537 h2/ZHH − 0.126 year + 0.217 weight + 18.235 (r2 = 0.919, standard estimate of error (SEE) = 2.164 kg, n = 269). The mean validated correlation coefficients and limits of agreement (LOAs) of the Bland–Altman analysis of the calculated values for FFMmHH and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.369–4.343 kg, respectively, for hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for men; the FFM (FFMmHF) and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.356–4.375 kg, respectively. The hand-to-hand BIA model estimating equation for female participants was FFMFHH = 0.615 h2/ZHH − 0.144 year + 0.132 weight + 16.507 (r2 = 0.870, SEE = 1.884 kg, n = 201); the three mean validated correlation coefficient and LOA for the hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for female participants (FFMFHH and FFMDXA) were 0.929 and −3.880–3.886 kg, respectively. The FFMHF and FFMDXA were 0.942 and −3.511–3.489 kg, respectively. The results of both hand-to-hand and hand-to-foot BIA models demonstrated similar reliability, and the hand-to-hand BIA models are practical for assessing FFM. PMID:27775642

  9. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy. PMID:26653760

  10. Dietary L-arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Xinguo; Xu, Haijun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Huang, Ruilin; Tang, Wenjie; Shinzato, Izuru; Smith, Stephen B; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Obesity in humans is a major public health crisis worldwide. In addition, livestock species exhibit excessive subcutaneous fat at market weight. However, there are currently few means of reducing adiposity in mammals. This study was conducted with a swine model to test the hypothesis that dietary L-arginine supplementation may increase muscle gain and decrease fat deposition. Twenty-four 110-day-old barrows were assigned randomly into two treatments, representing supplementation with 1.0% L-arginine or 2.05% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet. Growth performance was measured based on weight gain and food intake. After a 60-day period of supplementation, carcass and muscle composition were measured. Serum triglyceride concentration was 20% lower (P < 0.01) but glucagon level was 36% greater (P < 0.05) in arginine-supplemented than in control pigs. Compared with the control, arginine supplementation increased (P < 0.05) body weight gain by 6.5% and carcass skeletal-muscle content by 5.5%, while decreasing (P < 0.01) carcass fat content by 11%. The arginine treatment enhanced (P < 0.05) longissimus dorsi muscle protein, glycogen, and fat contents by 4.8, 42, and 70%, respectively, as well as muscle pH at 45 min post-mortem by 0.32, while reducing muscle lactate content by 37%. These results support our hypothesis that dietary arginine supplementation beneficially promotes muscle gain and reduces body fat accretion in growing-finishing pigs. The findings have a positive impact on development of novel therapeutics to treat human obesity and enhance swine lean-tissue growth.

  11. Body fat standards and individual physical readiness in a randomized Army sample: screening weights, methods of fat assessment, and linkage to physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E; Leu, John R

    2002-12-01

    Body fat standards have been used by the military services since the early 1980s to prevent obesity and motivate good fitness habits. The Army Weight Control Program has continued to undergo evaluation and incorporate improvements based on emerging scientific findings. Recently drafted revisions of Department of Defense-wide procedures address issues of consistency and validity raised by external oversight groups. This study evaluated the impact of three proposed refinements of the Army Weight Control Program. Anthropometric measurements and fitness test performance were obtained in a randomized sample of 1,038 male and 347 nonpregnant female soldiers at three Army posts. Of this sample, 11% of men and 17% of women were overweight and overfat; 6.3 and 9.8%, respectively, were currently on the Army Weight Control Program. Screening weight tables that ensure women are not inappropriately striving to meet weights more stringent than "healthy" weight (i.e., body mass index < 25 kg/m2) still correctly identified all women for evaluation for the age-specific body fat standards. Body fat estimation using more valid DoD body fat equations that include an abdominal circumference for women reduced the number of female soldiers currently classified as exceeding fat standards, coincidentally resulting in a comparable prevalence of male and female soldiers over the fat standards (12%). A body fat allowance for young soldiers who scored very well on the physical fitness test could have benefited one-fourth of the soldiers exceeding fat standards and acknowledges biological variability in body fat thresholds. Whereas this linkage may motivate fitness habits, it complicates enforcement of reasonably achievable body fat standards. The proposed changes in fat screening and measurement methods are appropriate, but the impact to health and physical readiness of the Force cannot be accurately predicted or measured because of the absence of comprehensive baseline data and tracking

  12. A PRISMA-Driven Systematic Review of Predictive Equations for Assessing Fat and Fat-Free Mass in Healthy Children and Adolescents Using Multicomponent Molecular Models as the Reference Method

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Analiza M.; Fields, David A.; Sardinha, Luís B.

    2013-01-01

    Simple methods to assess both fat (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) are required in paediatric populations. Several bioelectrical impedance instruments (BIAs) and anthropometric equations have been developed using different criterion methods (multicomponent models) for assessing FM and FFM. Through childhood, FFM density increases while FFM hydration decreases until reaching adult values. Therefore, multicomponent models should be used as the gold standard method for developing simple techniques because two-compartment models (2C model) rely on the assumed adult values of FFM density and hydration (1.1 g/cm3 and 73.2%, respectively). This study will review BIA and/or anthropometric-based equations for assessing body composition in paediatric populations. We reviewed English language articles from MEDLINE (1985–2012) with the selection of predictive equations developed for assessing FM and FFM using three-compartment (3C) and 4C models as criterion. Search terms included children, adolescent, childhood, adolescence, 4C model, 3C model, multicomponent model, equation, prediction, DXA, BIA, resistance, anthropometry, skinfold, FM, and FFM. A total of 14 studies (33 equations) were selected with the majority developed using DXA as the criterion method with a limited number of studies providing cross-validation results. Overall, the selected equations are useful for epidemiological studies, but some concerns still arise on an individual basis. PMID:23844282

  13. Extrahepatic, nonneoplastic, fat-containing lesions of the abdominopelvic cavity: spectrum of lesions, significance, and typical appearance on multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kani, Kimia Khalatbari; Moshiri, Mariam; Bhargava, Puneet; Kolokythas, Orpheus

    2012-01-01

    Fat may be noted in a diffuse or focal manner in a variety of nonneoplastic abdominopelvic conditions. The specific signature of macroscopic fat on computed tomography along with the usually characteristic findings of these entities makes the diagnosis of most of these conditions relatively straightforward. In the intestinal tract, the "fat halo sign" usually arises in the context of subacute to chronic bowel wall inflammation. Excess fat in the renal sinus may occur with renal sinus lipomatosis or "replacement lipomatosis of the kidney." Some cases of "pancreatic lipomatosis" may culminate in steatopancreatitis and ultimately neoplastic transformations. "Fibrofatty mesenteric proliferation" is a characteristic feature of Crohn disease. In the setting of the acute abdomen, accurate diagnosis of fat-containing lesions (epiploic appendagitis or omental infarction) from other causes of the acute abdomen is critical. Mesenteric panniculitis is 1 of the causes of the "misty mesentery." Juxtacaval fat deposition is a benign process that has the potential to be confused with more serious conditions. More diffuse fat deposition (abdominal or pelvic lipomatosis) has the potential to become symptomatic by causing mass effect upon the adjacent structures. Fat can also be seen in a variety of postoperative/iatrogenic conditions or abdominal wall/diaphragmatic hernias. PMID:22285003

  14. Dietary calcium intake is associated with less gain in intra-abdominal adipose tissue over 1 yr

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Nikki C.; Alvarez, Jessica A.; Choquette, Suzanne S.; Hunter, Gary R.; Oster, Robert A.; Darnell, Betty E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Calcium intake is reported to enhance weight loss with a preferential loss in trunk fat. Discrepant findings exist as to the effects of calcium intake on longitudinal changes in total fat mass and central fat deposition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine associations between dietary calcium intake and 1-yr change in body composition and fat distribution, specifically intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT). 119 healthy, premenopausal women were evaluated at baseline and 1 yr later. Average dietary calcium was determined via 4-day food records. Total fat was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) and IAAT by computed tomography. Over the study period, participants’ reported daily calcium and energy intakes were 610.0 ± 229.9 mg and 1623.1 ± 348.5 kcals, respectively. The mean change in weight, total fat, IAAT, and SAAT were +4.9 ± 4.4 kg, +5.3 ± 4.0 kg, +7.7 ± 19.5 cm2, and +49.3 ± 81.1 cm2, respectively. Average calcium intake was significantly, inversely associated with 1-yr change in IAAT (standardized β: −0.23, P<0.05) after adjusting for confounding variables. For every 100 mg/day of calcium consumed, gain in IAAT was reduced by 2.7 cm2. No significant associations were observed for average calcium intake with change in weight, total fat, or SAAT. In conclusion, dietary calcium intake was significantly associated with less gain in IAAT over 1 yr in premenopausal women. Further investigation is needed to verify these findings and determine the calcium intake needed to exert beneficial effects on fat distribution. PMID:20203630

  15. Effect of BMI and fat mass on HIV disease progression in HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment-naïve adults in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Martinez, S S; Campa, A; Bussmann, H; Moyo, S; Makhema, J; Huffman, F G; Williams, O D; Essex, M; Marlink, R; Baum, M K

    2016-06-01

    An obesity paradox has been proposed in many conditions including HIV. Studies conducted to investigate obesity and its effect on HIV disease progression have been inconclusive and are lacking for African settings. This study investigated the relationship between overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and HIV disease progression in HIV+ asymptomatic adults not on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Botswana over 18 months. A cohort study in asymptomatic, ART-naïve, HIV+ adults included 217 participants, 139 with BMI of 18·0-24·9 kg/m2 and seventy-eight participants with BMI≥25 kg/m2. The primary outcome was time to event (≥25 % decrease in cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count) during 18 months of follow-up; secondary outcomes were time to event of CD4 cell count<250 cells/µl and AIDS-defining conditions. Proportional survival hazard models were used to compare hazard ratios (HR) on time to events of HIV disease progression over 18 months. Higher baseline BMI was associated with significantly lower risk of an AIDS-defining condition during the follow-up (HR 0·218; 95 % CI 0·068, 0·701; P=0·011). Higher fat mass at baseline was also significantly associated with decreased risk of AIDS-defining conditions during the follow-up (HR 0·855; 95 % CI 0·741, 0·987; P=0·033) and the combined outcome of having CD4 cell count≤250/µl and AIDS-defining conditions, whichever occurred earlier (HR 0·918; 95 % CI 0·847, 0·994; P=0·036). All models were adjusted for covariates. Higher BMI and fat mass among the HIV-infected, ART-naïve participants were associated with slower disease progression. Mechanistic research is needed to evaluate the association between BMI, fat mass and HIV disease progression. PMID:27087233

  16. Effect of BMI and fat mass on HIV disease progression in HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment-naïve adults in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Martinez, S S; Campa, A; Bussmann, H; Moyo, S; Makhema, J; Huffman, F G; Williams, O D; Essex, M; Marlink, R; Baum, M K

    2016-06-01

    An obesity paradox has been proposed in many conditions including HIV. Studies conducted to investigate obesity and its effect on HIV disease progression have been inconclusive and are lacking for African settings. This study investigated the relationship between overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and HIV disease progression in HIV+ asymptomatic adults not on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Botswana over 18 months. A cohort study in asymptomatic, ART-naïve, HIV+ adults included 217 participants, 139 with BMI of 18·0-24·9 kg/m2 and seventy-eight participants with BMI≥25 kg/m2. The primary outcome was time to event (≥25 % decrease in cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count) during 18 months of follow-up; secondary outcomes were time to event of CD4 cell count<250 cells/µl and AIDS-defining conditions. Proportional survival hazard models were used to compare hazard ratios (HR) on time to events of HIV disease progression over 18 months. Higher baseline BMI was associated with significantly lower risk of an AIDS-defining condition during the follow-up (HR 0·218; 95 % CI 0·068, 0·701; P=0·011). Higher fat mass at baseline was also significantly associated with decreased risk of AIDS-defining conditions during the follow-up (HR 0·855; 95 % CI 0·741, 0·987; P=0·033) and the combined outcome of having CD4 cell count≤250/µl and AIDS-defining conditions, whichever occurred earlier (HR 0·918; 95 % CI 0·847, 0·994; P=0·036). All models were adjusted for covariates. Higher BMI and fat mass among the HIV-infected, ART-naïve participants were associated with slower disease progression. Mechanistic research is needed to evaluate the association between BMI, fat mass and HIV disease progression.

  17. [Study on association of FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism with risk of obesity, body fat mass and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Nasibulina, É S; Borisova, A V; Akhmetov, I I

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease which depends on the interaction between genome and environment. Fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) regulates lipid transport, intestinal absorption and metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the interrelation between the FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism, body mass index and body fat mass and to study distribution of genotypes and alleles frequencies of FABP2 gene in athletes and individuals who are not involved in sports. 315 athletes of different sport disciplines and levels and 612 controls (predominantly students) participated in the study. Genotyping for the FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism was performed by PCR. Body composition was analyzed by bioimpedance method. The study did not confirm the association of FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism with the risk of obesity and body fat mass. However, the frequency of the Thr54 allele was significantly higher in elite stayers (50.0%, p = 0.025) and combat athletes (46.2%, p = 0.013) in comparison with controls (32.2%). Thus, FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism is associated with the predisposition to endurance athletic performance.

  18. Overweight in trained subjects - are we looking at wrong numbers? (Body mass index compared with body fat percentage in estimating overweight in athletes.).

    PubMed

    Mazic, Sanja; Djelic, Marina; Suzic, Jelena; Suzic, Slavica; Dekleva, Milica; Radovanovic, Dragan; Scepanovic, Ljiljana; Starcevic, Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is widely used as an index of obesity in adults. In trained population, individual with low body fat could be classified as overweight by BMI. To evaluate this problem, the purposes of this study were to determine the BMI and body fat percentage (BF%) of trained and untrained subjects and to evaluate the accuracy of BMI classification (> or =25 kg.m(-2)) as a prediction of overweight/obesity in trained subjects. The total number of 299 trained (basketball players) and 179 untrained male subjects participated in this study. Body height and body mass were measured; BMI was calculated for all subjects. BF% was determined via Tanita bioimpedance body composition analyzer. BMI >or = 25 kg.m(-2) and BF% > 20% were used to define overweight. There was no significant age differences. Body mass, height (p < 0.01) and BMI (p < 0.05) were significantly higher, although BF% was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in trained group when compared to untrained. Eighty-five trained subjects had a BMI of 25 or higher, indicating overweight. Of these, only three individuls had excess BF%. The results of the present study suggest that a BMI > or = 25 kg.m(-2) is not an accurate predictor of overweight in trained subjects.

  19. Association between body mass index and body fat in 9–11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development

    PubMed Central

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9–11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of −1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models. Correlations between BMI and TBF were >0.90 in all countries, and correlations between BMI and PBF ranged from 0.76 to 0.96. Boys from India had higher PBF than boys from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Kenyan girls had lower levels of PBF than girls from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Boys and girls from Colombia had higher values of PBF at BMIz=−1, whereas Colombian boys at BMIz 0 and +1 also had higher values of PBF than boys in other countries. Our results show a consistently high correlation between BMI and adiposity in children from countries representing a wide range of human development. PMID:27152184

  20. Association between body mass index and body fat in 9-11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development.

    PubMed

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9-11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of -1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models. Correlations between BMI and TBF were >0.90 in all countries, and correlations between BMI and PBF ranged from 0.76 to 0.96. Boys from India had higher PBF than boys from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Kenyan girls had lower levels of PBF than girls from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Boys and girls from Colombia had higher values of PBF at BMIz=-1, whereas Colombian boys at BMIz 0 and +1 also had higher values of PBF than boys in other countries. Our results show a consistently high correlation between BMI and adiposity in children from countries representing a wide range of human development. PMID:27152184

  1. A well-balanced diet combined or not with exercise induces fat mass loss without any decrease of bone mass despite bone micro-architecture alterations in obese rat.

    PubMed

    Gerbaix, Maude; Metz, Lore; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Lavet, Cédric; Guillet, Christelle; Walrand, Stéphane; Masgrau, Aurélie; Vico, Laurence; Courteix, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The association of a well-balanced diet with exercise is a key strategy to treat obesity. However, weight loss is linked to an accelerated bone loss. Furthermore, exercise is known to induce beneficial effects on bone. We investigated the impact of a well-balanced isoenergetic reducing diet (WBR) and exercise on bone tissue in obese rats. Sixty male rats had previously been fed with a high fat/high sucrose diet (HF/HS) for 4months to induce obesity. Then, 4 regimens were initiated for 2months: HF/HS diet plus exercise (treadmill: 50min/day, 5days/week), WBR diet plus exercise, HF/HS diet plus inactivity and WBR diet plus inactivity. Body composition and total BMD were assessed using DXA and visceral fat mass was weighed. Tibia densitometry was assessed by Piximus. Bone histomorphometry was performed on the proximal metaphysis of tibia and on L2 vertebrae (L2). Trabecular micro-architectural parameters were measured on tibia and L2 by 3D microtomography. Plasma concentration of osteocalcin and CTX were measured. Both WBR diet and exercise had decreased global weight, global fat and visceral fat mass (p<0.05). The WBR diet alone failed to alter total and tibia bone mass and BMD. However, Tb.Th, bone volume density and degree of anisotropy of tibia were decreased by the WBR diet (p<0.05). Moreover, the WBR diet had involved a significant lower MS/BS and BFR/BS in L2 (p<0.05). Exercise had significantly improved BMD of the tibia possibly by inhibiting the bone resorption, as evidenced by no change in plasma osteocalcin levels, a decrease of CTX levels (p<0.005) and trabecular osteoclast number (p<0.05). In the present study a diet inducing weight and fat mass losses did not affected bone mass and BMD of obese rats despite alterations of their bone micro-architecture. The moderate intensity exercise performed had improved the tibia BMD of obese rats without any trabecular and cortical adaptation.

  2. Circulating Sclerostin Associated With Vertebral Bone Marrow Fat in Older Men But Not Women

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yu-Heng Vivian; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hue, Trisha F.; Lang, Thomas F.; Harris, Tamara B.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Hauksdottir, Alda M.; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Oskarsdottir, Diana; Napoli, Nicola; Palermo, Lisa; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Li, Xiaojuan

    2014-01-01

    Context: Osteocyte activity is crucial to the maintenance of bone quality. Sclerostin, an osteocyte product, inhibits bone formation, yet higher circulating sclerostin is associated with higher bone density. Bone marrow fat (MF) is associated with osteoporosis, but little is known about the relationship between osteocyte activity and MF. Objective: Our objective was to assess the relationships between circulating sclerostin, vertebral MF, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and other fat depots in older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik cohort. Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures included vertebral MF (L1-L4) measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and vBMD (spine and hip) and abdominal fat measured with quantitative computed tomography. Results: After excluding subjects with bone-active medication use (n = 50), inadequate serum (n = 2), or inadequate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (n = 1), analyses included 115 men and 134 women (mean age 79 y, mean body mass index 27.7 kg/m2). In men, but not women, vertebral MF was greater in those with higher serum sclerostin levels. MF was 52.2 % in the lowest tertile of serum sclerostin and 56.3% in the highest tertile in men (P for trend <.01) in models adjusted for age, body mass index, and diabetes. Sclerostin was positively associated with cortical and trabecular total hip vBMD, weight in men and women, and total fat mass in men but was not associated with total lean mass or abdominal fat depots. Conclusion: Circulating sclerostin levels are associated with higher vertebral marrow fat in men, suggesting a relationship between osteocyte function and marrow adipogenesis. PMID:25144629

  3. The role of diet and exercise for the maintenance of fat-free mass and resting metabolic rate during weight loss.

    PubMed

    Stiegler, Petra; Cunliffe, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of obesity is increasing rapidly. Research efforts for effective treatment strategies still focus on diet and exercise programmes, the individual components of which have been investigated in intervention trials in order to determine the most effective recommendations for sustained changes in bodyweight. The foremost objective of a weight-loss trial has to be the reduction in body fat leading to a decrease in risk factors for metabolic syndrome. However, a concomitant decline in lean tissue can frequently be observed. Given that fat-free mass (FFM) represents a key determinant of the magnitude of resting metabolic rate (RMR), it follows that a decrease in lean tissue could hinder the progress of weight loss. Therefore, with respect to long-term effectiveness of weight-loss programmes, the loss of fat mass while maintaining FFM and RMR seems desirable. Diet intervention studies suggest spontaneous losses in bodyweight following low-fat diets, and current data on a reduction of the carbohydrate-to-protein ratio of the diet show promising outcomes. Exercise training is associated with an increase in energy expenditure, thus promoting changes in body composition and bodyweight while keeping dietary intake constant. The advantages of strength training may have greater implications than initially proposed with respect to decreasing percentage body fat and sustaining FFM. Research to date suggests that the addition of exercise programmes to dietary restriction can promote more favourable changes in body composition than diet or physical activity on its own. Moreover, recent research indicates that the macronutrient content of the energy-restricted diet may influence body compositional alterations following exercise regimens. Protein emerges as an important factor for the maintenance of or increase in FFM induced by exercise training. Changes in RMR can only partly be accounted for by alterations in respiring tissues, and other yet-undefined mechanisms have

  4. Can release of urinary retention trigger abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture?

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Andreas; Powell-Bowns, Matilda; Elseedawy, Emad

    2013-04-04

    Only 50% of abdominal aortic aneurysms present with the classic triad of hypotension, back pain and a pulsatile abdominal mass. This variability in symptoms can delay diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of a patient presenting with a unique combination of symptoms suggesting that decompression of urinary retention can lead to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture.

  5. The association between abdominal body composition and vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Jensky, Nicole E; Criqui, Michael H; Wright, C Michael; Wassel, Christina L; Alcaraz, John E; Allison, Matthew A

    2011-12-01

    Subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be associated with both adipose and skeletal muscle tissues in the abdomen. Accordingly, we examined whether subcutaneous, intermuscular, and visceral adipose tissue, as well as abdominal lean muscle, were associated with the presence and extent of vascular calcification in multiple vascular beds. Three hundred and ninety four patients (58.1% men) underwent electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) scans as part of routine health maintenance screening. The coronary and carotid calcium scores were analyzed at the time of the scan, whereas the other calcium scores, as well as the body composition analyses, were analyzed retrospectively. Mean age was 55.2 ± 11.1 years and BMI was 26.9 ± 4.2. The prevalence of any calcification in the carotids, coronaries, thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, and iliacs was 30.1, 60.1, 39.8, 55.7, and 56.8%, respectively. Compared to those with calcification in different vascular beds, those without vascular calcification generally had significantly more lean muscle and less adipose tissue. In separate multivariable logistic models, a 1 s.d. increment in the ratio of abdominal and visceral fat to total area of each corresponding compartments was significantly associated with an increased odds for the presence of thoracic aortic calcium (odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 1.5, respectively; P = 0.01 for both). Conversely, increases in abdominal lean muscle were associated with significantly decreased odds of thoracic aortic calcification (OR = 0.34; P ≤ 0.01). A similar pattern of associations existed among the other vascular beds. Also, the association between lean muscle and vascular calcification was independent of visceral adipose tissue. In conclusion, adipose tissue was positively and lean body mass inversely associated with prevalent aortic calcification. PMID:21475146

  6. Excess weight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal Brazilian women: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The menopause is associated with a tendency to gain weight. Several alterations in fat deposits occur, leading to changes in the distribution of body fat. There are strong indications that, in middle age, obesity is associated with increased mortality. This study set out to determine the factors associated with the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women in a population-based study in Brazil. Methods The sample included 456 women, aged 45–69 years, residing in the urban area of Maringa, Parana. Systematic sampling, with a probability proportional to the size of the census sector, was performed. Behavioral, economic, and sociodemographic data were collected, and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were determined. Results According to BMI criteria (≥25.0 kg/m2), 72.6% of the women were overweight, and according to WC (≥88 cm), 63.6% had abdominal obesity. Based on logistic regression analysis, the factors that were most closely associated with overweight were: having three or more children (odds ratio (OR): 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–3.00); and not taking hormone replacement therapy (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.06–2.63). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was positively associated with greater parity (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05–1.72) and age older than 65 years (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.03–2.19). Conclusions This study found that the prevalences of overweight and abdominal obesity were higher for postmenopausal women who had three or more children. Age over 65 years was also a risk factor for abdominal obesity and no use of hormonal replacement therapy was a risk factor for overweight. PMID:24228934

  7. Abdominal actinomycosis mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Robert Joseph; Riela, Steven; Patel, Ravi; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old Hispanic woman presented to the emergency department, reporting worsening sharp lower right quadrant abdominal pain for 3 days. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed evidence of inflammation in the peritoneal soft tissues adjacent to an enlarged and thick-walled appendix, an appendicolith, no abscess formation and a slightly thickened caecum consistent with acute appendicitis. During laparoscopic appendectomy, the caecum was noted to be firm, raising suspicion of malignancy. Surgical oncology team was consulted and open laparotomy with right hemicolectomy was performed. Pathology reported that the ileocaecal mass was not a malignancy but was, rather, actinomycosis. The patient was discharged after 10 days of intravenous antibiotics in the hospital, with the diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis. Although the original clinical and radiological findings in this case were highly suggestive of acute appendicitis, abdominal actinomycosis should be in the differential for right lower quadrant pain as it may be treated non-operatively.

  8. Internal Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Following a Meal-Replacement Regimen vs. Comprehensive Lifestyle Changes in Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    König, Daniel; Zdzieblik, Denise; Deibert, Peter; Berg, Aloys; Gollhofer, Albert; Büchert, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a meal-replacement regimen vs. comprehensive lifestyle changes in overweight or obese subjects on intra-abdominal fat stores (Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurements) and cardiometabolic risk factors. Forty-two obese men (n = 18) and women (n = 24) (age 49 ± 8 years; weight 96.3 ± 12.1 kg; BMI 32.7 ± 2.3 kg/m2) were selected for this randomized parallel-group design investigation. Subjects in the lifestyle group (LS-G; n = 22) received dietary counselling sessions and instructions how to increase physical activity. In the meal replacement group (MR-G; n = 20) meals were replaced by a low-calorie drink high in soy protein. After six months, subjects in the LS-G lost 8.88 ± 6.24 kg and subjects in the MR-G lost 7.1 ± 2.33 kg; p < 0.01 for changes within groups; no significant differences were found between the groups. Lean body mass remained constant in both intervention groups. MRI analyses showed that internal fat was significantly reduced in both groups to a comparable amount; the higher fat loss in the LS-G in the abdominal area was due to a higher reduction in subcutaneous fat. Both interventions significantly reduced components of the cardiometabolic risk profile and leptin levels. The decrease in the adipokines fetuin A and resistin was more pronounced in the MR-G. In conclusion, both interventions significantly reduced body weight, total fat mass and internal abdominal fat while preserving lean body mass. The reduction in the adipokines fetuin A and resistin was more pronounced in the meal replacement group suggesting an additional effect of soy protein components. PMID:26633473

  9. Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Marina, Anna; von Frankenberg, Anize Delfino; Suvag, Seda; Callahan, Holly S.; Kratz, Mario; Richards, Todd L.; Utzschneider, Kristina M.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate) or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10): 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate). Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNFα, IFN-γ) and oxidative stress (urinary F2-α isoprostanes) were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI): change −2.13% (−3.74%, −0.52%)), but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-α isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:25353663

  10. A potential role for the midbrain in integrating fat-free mass determined energy needs: An H2 (15) O PET study.

    PubMed

    Weise, Christopher M; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Reiman, Eric M; Chen, Kewei; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Little is known on how sensing of energy needs is centrally represented, integrated, and translated into the behavioral aspects of energy homeostasis. Fat free mass (FFM) is the major determinant of energy expenditure. We investigated how interindividual variances in FFM relate to neuronal activity in humans. Healthy adults (n = 64, 21F/43M; age 31.3 ± 9.1y; percentage of body fat [PFAT] 25.6 ± 10.7%; BMI 30.4 ± 9) underwent a 36h fast and subsequent H(2) (15) O positron emission tomographic (PET) measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Multiple variable regression analysis revealed significant associations of FFM with rCBF within the midbrain [including parts of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), ventral tegmental area (VTA), thalamic and hypothalamic regions], the bilateral parahippocampal region, left anterior cingulate, left insular cortex, right cerebellum, and distinct regions within the temporal and occipital cortex. In contrast, no significant associations were found for fat mass (FM). We investigated the potential functional-anatomical link between FFM and central regulation of food intake by performing a conjunction analysis of FFM and the perceived hunger feelings. This showed a significant overlap within the midbrain PAG. Mediation analysis demonstrated a significant indirect effect of FFM on hunger with PAG rCBF as mediator. Most regions we found to be associated with FFM form part in ascending homeostatic pathways and cortical circuitries implicated in the regulation of basic bodily functions indicating a potential role of these central networks in the integration of FFM determined energy needs. PMID:25766283

  11. A potential role for the midbrain in integrating fat-free mass determined energy needs: An H2 (15) O PET study.

    PubMed

    Weise, Christopher M; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Reiman, Eric M; Chen, Kewei; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Little is known on how sensing of energy needs is centrally represented, integrated, and translated into the behavioral aspects of energy homeostasis. Fat free mass (FFM) is the major determinant of energy expenditure. We investigated how interindividual variances in FFM relate to neuronal activity in humans. Healthy adults (n = 64, 21F/43M; age 31.3 ± 9.1y; percentage of body fat [PFAT] 25.6 ± 10.7%; BMI 30.4 ± 9) underwent a 36h fast and subsequent H(2) (15) O positron emission tomographic (PET) measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Multiple variable regression analysis revealed significant associations of FFM with rCBF within the midbrain [including parts of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), ventral tegmental area (VTA), thalamic and hypothalamic regions], the bilateral parahippocampal region, left anterior cingulate, left insular cortex, right cerebellum, and distinct regions within the temporal and occipital cortex. In contrast, no significant associations were found for fat mass (FM). We investigated the potential functional-anatomical link between FFM and central regulation of food intake by performing a conjunction analysis of FFM and the perceived hunger feelings. This showed a significant overlap within the midbrain PAG. Mediation analysis demonstrated a significant indirect effect of FFM on hunger with PAG rCBF as mediator. Most regions we found to be associated with FFM form part in ascending homeostatic pathways and cortical circuitries implicated in the regulation of basic bodily functions indicating a potential role of these central networks in the integration of FFM determined energy needs.

  12. Second Trimester Fetal and Maternal Epicardial Fat Thickness in Gestational Diabetic Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, A; Akkurt, M O; Yalcin, S; Karakoc, G; Varol, E; Sezik, M

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the association between gestational diabetes mellitus and sonographically measured fetal epicardial fat thickness between 24-28 weeks' gestation. This was a cross-sectional study that included 40 pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus, matched with 40 normal pregnancies with similar maternal age, body-mass index, gestational age, fetal gender, and fetal abdominal circumference on ultrasound. Fetal epicardial fat thickness was measured and recorded during ultrasonography at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Maternal evaluation included measurement of maternal epicardial fat thickness, using echocardiography. Fetal and maternal epicardial fat thickness values were compared across the groups. Ultrasound views of fetal epicardial fat thickness were evaluated independently by 3 perinatology fellows to determine inter- and intra-observer variability. Partial and intraclass correlation analyses were used. Fetal and maternal epicardial fat thickness measurements were moderately correlated (r=0.63). Mean fetal and maternal epicardial fat thickness values were higher in gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancies (p=0.004 and p<0.0001, respectively) compared to controls. Fetal epicardial fat thickness was positively correlated (r=0.43) with postchallenge 2-h glucose values. Inter- and intra-observer agreement was high, demonstrated by strong correlations (r=0.99 and r=0.99, respectively) across fetal epicardial fat thickness measurements of the examiners. Fetuses from gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancies have significantly higher fetal and maternal epicardial fat thickness values compared to nongestational diabetes mellitus pregnancies. Fetal epicardial fat thickness obtained during second trimester fetal anatomy ultrasound may potentially be a reliable indicator for gestational diabetes mellitus. However, clinical validation studies are needed.

  13. Comparison of visceral fat mass measurement by dual-X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging in a multiethnic cohort: the Dallas Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Neeland, I J; Grundy, S M; Li, X; Adams-Huet, B; Vega, G L

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass, a risk factor for cardiometabolic complications of obesity, is usually measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but this method is not practical in a clinical setting. In contrast, measurement of VAT by dual-x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) appears to circumvent the limitations of MRI. In this study, we compared measurements of VAT mass by MRI and DXA in the large, multiethnic cohort of the Dallas Heart Study (DHS). Subjects/Methods: About 2689 DHS participants underwent paired measurement of VAT by MRI and DXA. Sex-stratified analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation and agreement between DXA and MRI. Model validation was performed using bootstrapping and inter-reader variability was assessed. Results: Mean age of the cohort was 44 years, with 55% female, 48% Black and 75% overweight/obese participants. Regression analysis showed a linear relationship between DXA and MRI with R2=0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81–0.84) for females and R2=0.86 (95% CI 0.85–0.88) for males. Mean difference between methods was 0.01 kg for females and 0.09 kg for males. Bland–Altman analysis showed that DXA tended to modestly underestimate VAT compared with MRI at lower VAT levels and overestimate it compared with MRI at higher VAT levels. Results were consistent in analyses stratified by race, body mass index status, waist girth and body fat. Inter-individual reader correlation among 50 randomly selected scans was excellent (inter-class correlation coefficient=0.997). Conclusions: VAT mass quantification by DXA was both accurate and valid among a large, multiethnic cohort within a wide range of body fatness. Further studies including repeat assessments over time will help determine its long-term applicability. PMID:27428873

  14. A comparison between handgrip strength, upper limb fat free mass by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (SBIA) and anthropometric measurements in young males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Varon-Serna, D. R.

    2013-04-01

    The mechanical function and size of a muscle may be closely linked. Handgrip strength (HGS) has been used as a predictor of functional performing. Anthropometric measurements have been made to estimate arm muscle area (AMA) and physical muscle mass volume of upper limb (ULMMV). Electrical volume estimation is possible by segmental BIA measurements of fat free mass (SBIA-FFM), mainly muscle-mass. Relationship among these variables is not well established. We aimed to determine if physical and electrical muscle mass estimations relate to each other and to what extent HGS is to be related to its size measured by both methods in normal or overweight young males. Regression analysis was used to determine association between these variables. Subjects showed a decreased HGS (65.5%), FFM, (85.5%) and AMA (74.5%). It was found an acceptable association between SBIA-FFM and AMA (r2 = 0.60) and poorer between physical and electrical volume (r2 = 0.55). However, a paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman plot showed that physical and electrical models were not interchangeable (pt<0.0001). HGS showed a very weak association with anthropometric (r2 = 0.07) and electrical (r2 = 0.192) ULMMV showing that muscle mass quantity does not mean muscle strength. Other factors influencing HGS like physical training or nutrition require more research.

  15. Body fatness and its social and lifestyle determinants in young working males from Cracow, Poland.

    PubMed

    Suder, Agnieszka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the degree to which general body fatness variation, presented by body mass index (BMI), the sum of the three skinfold thicknesses (TST) (triceps, subscapular, abdominal) and percentage of body fat (%FAT), can be explained by socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle. The cross-sectional, population-based survey was of 259 healthy working males aged 20-30 from the city of Cracow, Poland. Objective anthropometric measurements, bioelectrical impedance analysis, the results of motor fitness tests and social and lifestyle data from a questionnaire were analysed. The independent variables were: age, socioeconomic status (birthplace, place of residence until the age of 14, social class, educational level and the type of work done) and lifestyle elements (smoking habits, dietary habits, family obesity resemblance, sport activity in the past, leisure time physical activity and level of motor fitness). Three separate full models were created using stepwise straightforward regression with BMI, TST and %FAT as dependent variables. The highest autonomous influence on BMI and %FAT was ascribed to age and family obesity resemblance, whereas variation in TST was explained by level of motor fitness, age, city as a place of residence until the age of 14 and family obesity resemblance. Although the analysed variables explained only from 8% (BMI) to 13% (TST) of body fatness variation, indicating at the same time that most variations are explained by other variables, the impact of lifestyle family-shared factors on body fatness seems to be significant.

  16. Coconut fats.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  17. Diet and diet combined with chronic aerobic exercise decreases body fat mass and alters plasma and adipose tissue inflammatory markers in obese women.

    PubMed

    Lakhdar, Nadia; Denguezli, Myriam; Zaouali, Monia; Zbidi, Abdelkrim; Tabka, Zouhair; Bouassida, Anissa

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 months aerobic exercise and diet alone or in combination on markers of inflammation (MOI) in circulation and in adipose abdominal tissue (AT) in obese women. Thirty obese subjects were randomized into a 24-week intervention: (1) exercise (EX), (2) diet (DI), and (3) exercise and diet (EXD). Blood samples were collected at baseline, after 12 and 24 weeks. AT biopsies were obtained only at baseline and after 24 weeks. In the EXD and DI groups, the fat loss was after 12 weeks was -13.74 and -7.8 % (P < 0.01) and after 24 weeks was -21.82 and -17 % (P < 0.01) with no changes in the EX group. After 12 and 24 weeks, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was increased by 21.81-39.54 % (P < 0.05) in the EXD group and 18.09-40.95 % in the EX group with no changes in the DI group. In the EXD and DI groups, circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 were decreased after 24 weeks for both groups (P < 0.01). No changes in the EX group. Homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance decreased (P < 0.05) only after 24 weeks in the EXD group. In AT biopsies, subjects in the EXD and DI groups exhibited a significant decrease in MO (P < 0.01 for all). No changes in AT biopsies were found in the EX group. In conclusion, chronic aerobic exercise was found to have no effects on circulating and AT MOI despite an increased VO2max. Rather important body composition modifications were found to have beneficial effects on circulating and AT MOI in these obese women.

  18. Facial lipohypertrophy in HIV-infected subjects who underwent autologous fat tissue transplantation.

    PubMed

    Guaraldi, Giovanni; De Fazio, Domenico; Orlando, Gabriella; Murri, Rita; Wu, Albert; Guaraldi, Pietro; Esposito, Roberto

    2005-01-15

    Of 41 HIV-infected patients with facial lipoatrophy who underwent autologous fat transplantation, disfiguring facial lipohypertrophy at the graft site occurred at the same time as recurrent fat accumulation at the tissue harvest site in 4 patients who had had fat transferred from the dorsocervical fat pad or from subcutaneous abdominal tissue.

  19. Gas chromatography/electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry for the quantitative determination of 2- and 3-hydroxy fatty acids in bovine milk fat.

    PubMed

    Jenske, Ramona; Vetter, Walter

    2008-07-23

    2- and 3-hydroxy fatty acids (2- and 3-OH-FAs) are bioactive substances reported in sphingolipids and bacteria. Little is known of their occurrence in food. For this reason, a method suitable for the determination of OH-FAs at trace levels in bovine milk fat was developed. OH-FAs (and conventional fatty acids in samples) were converted into methyl esters and the hydroxyl group was derivatized with pentafluorobenzoyl (PFBO) chloride to give PFBO- O-FA methyl esters. These derivatives with strong electron affinity were determined by gas chromatography interfaced to mass spectrometry using electron-capture negative ion in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC/ECNI-MS-SIM). This method proved to be highly sensitive and selective for PFBO-O-FA methyl esters. For the analysis of samples, two internal standards were used. For this purpose, 9,10-dideutero-2-OH-18:0 methyl ester (ISTD-1) from 2-OH-18:1(9 c) methyl ester as well as the ethyl ester of 3-PFBO-O-12:0 (ISTD-2) was synthesized. ISTD-1 served as a recovery standard whereas ISTD-2 was used for GC/MS measurements. The whole-sample cleanup consisted of accelerated solvent extraction of dry bovine milk, addition of ISTD 1, saponification, conversion of fatty acids into methyl esters by use of boron trifluoride, separation of the methyl esters of OH-FAs from nonsubstituted FAs on activated silica, conversion of OH-FAs methyl esters into PFBO-O-FA methyl esters, addition of ISTD-2, and measurement by GC/ECNI-MS-SIM. By this method, ten OH-FAs were quantified in bovine milk fat with high precision in the range from 0.02 +/- 0.00 to 4.49 +/- 0.29 mg/100 g of milk fat.

  20. Dietary DHA reduces downstream endocannabinoid and inflammatory gene expression and epididymal fat mass while improving aspects of glucose use in muscle in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J; Carlson, M E; Kuchel, G A; Newman, J W; Watkins, B A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Endocannabinoid system (ECS) overactivation is associated with increased adiposity and likely contributes to type 2 diabetes risk. Elevated tissue cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and circulating endocannabinoids (ECs) derived from the n-6 polyunsaturated acid (PUFA) arachidonic acid (AA) occur in obese and diabetic patients. Here we investigate whether the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the diet can reduce ECS overactivation (that is, action of ligands, receptors and enzymes of EC synthesis and degradation) to influence glycemic control. This study targets the ECS tonal regulation of circulating glucose uptake by skeletal muscle as its primary end point. Design: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a semipurified diet containing DHA or the control lipid. Serum, skeletal muscle, epididymal fat pads and liver were collected after 62 and 118 days of feeding. Metabolites, genes and gene products associated with the ECS, glucose uptake and metabolism and inflammatory status were measured. Results: Dietary DHA enrichment reduced epididymal fat pad mass and increased ECS-related genes, whereas it reduced downstream ECS activation markers, indicating that ECS activation was diminished. The mRNA of glucose-related genes and proteins elevated in mice fed the DHA diet with increases in DHA-derived and reductions in AA-derived EC and EC-like compounds. In addition, DHA feeding reduced plasma levels of various inflammatory cytokines, 5-lipoxygenase-dependent inflammatory mediators and the vasoconstrictive 20-HETE. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that DHA feeding altered ECS gene expression to reduce CB1 activation and reduce fat accretion. Furthermore, the DHA diet led to higher expression of genes associated with glucose use by muscle in mice, and reduced those associated with systemic inflammatory status. PMID:26219414

  1. Sequential determination of fat- and water-soluble vitamins in Rhodiola imbricata root from trans-Himalaya with rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tayade, Amol B; Dhar, Priyanka; Kumar, Jatinder; Sharma, Manu; Chaurasia, Om P; Srivastava, Ravi B

    2013-07-30

    A rapid method was developed to determine both types of vitamins in Rhodiola imbricata root for the accurate quantification of free vitamin forms. Rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) source operating in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was optimized for the sequential analysis of nine water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, two B3 vitamins, B5, B6, B7, B9, and B12) and six fat-soluble vitamins (A, E, D2, D3, K1, and K2). Both types of vitamins were separated by ion-suppression reversed-phase liquid chromatography with gradient elution within 30 min and detected in positive ion mode. Deviations in the intra- and inter-day precision were always below 0.6% and 0.3% for recoveries and retention time. Intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) values of retention time for water- and fat-soluble vitamin were ranged between 0.02-0.20% and 0.01-0.15%, respectively. The mean recoveries were ranged between 88.95 and 107.07%. Sensitivity and specificity of this method allowed the limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) of the analytes at ppb levels. The linear range was achieved for fat- and water-soluble vitamins at 100-1000 ppb and 10-100 ppb. Vitamin B-complex and vitamin E were detected as the principle vitamins in the root of this adaptogen which would be of great interest to develop novel foods from the Indian trans-Himalaya.

  2. Combined proteomic and metabolomic profiling of serum reveals association of the complement system with obesity and identifies novel markers of body fat mass changes.

    PubMed

    Oberbach, Andreas; Blüher, Matthias; Wirth, Henry; Till, Holger; Kovacs, Peter; Kullnick, Yvonne; Schlichting, Nadine; Tomm, Janina M; Rolle-Kampczyk, Ulrike; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Binder, Hans; Dietrich, Arne; von Bergen, Martin

    2011-10-01

    Obesity is associated with multiple adverse health effects and a high risk of developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, there is a great need to identify circulating parameters that link changes in body fat mass with obesity. This study combines proteomic and metabolomic approaches to identify circulating molecules that discriminate healthy lean from healthy obese individuals in an exploratory study design. To correct for variations in physical activity, study participants performed a one hour exercise bout to exhaustion. Subsequently, circulating factors differing between lean and obese individuals, independent of physical activity, were identified. The DIGE approach yielded 126 differentially abundant spots representing 39 unique proteins. Differential abundance of proteins was confirmed by ELISA for antithrombin-III, clusterin, complement C3 and complement C3b, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), serum amyloid P (SAP), and vitamin-D binding protein (VDBP). Targeted serum metabolomics of 163 metabolites identified 12 metabolites significantly related to obesity. Among those, glycine (GLY), glutamine (GLN), and glycero-phosphatidylcholine 42:0 (PCaa 42:0) serum concentrations were higher, whereas PCaa 32:0, PCaa 32:1, and PCaa 40:5 were decreased in obese compared to lean individuals. The integrated bioinformatic evaluation of proteome and metabolome data yielded an improved group separation score of 2.65 in contrast to 2.02 and 2.16 for the single-type use of proteomic or metabolomics data, respectively. The identified circulating parameters were further investigated in an extended set of 30 volunteers and in the context of two intervention studies. Those included 14 obese patients who had undergone sleeve gastrectomy and 12 patients on a hypocaloric diet. For determining the long-term adaptation process the samples were taken six months after the treatment. In multivariate regression analyses, SAP, CLU

  3. Chronologically scheduled snacking with high-protein products within the habitual diet in type-2 diabetes patients leads to a fat mass loss: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is the most relevant overnutrition disease worldwide and is associated to different metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. Low glycemic load foods and diets and moderately high protein intake have been shown to reduce body weight and fat mass, exerting also beneficial effects on LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride concentrations, postprandial glucose curve and HDL-cholesterol levels. The present study aimed at studying the potential functionality of a series of low glycemic index products with moderately high protein content, as possible coadjuvants in the control of type-2 diabetes and weight management following a chronologically planned snacking offer (morning and afternoon). Methods The current trial followed a single group, sequential, longitudinal design, with two consecutive periods of 4 weeks each. A total of 17 volunteers participated in the study. The first period was a free living period, with volunteers' habitual ad libitum dietary pattern, while the second period was a free-living period with structured meal replacements at breakfast, morning snack and afternoon snack, which were exchanged by specific products with moderately high protein content and controlled low glycemic index, following a scheduled temporal consumption. Blood extractions were performed at the beginning and at the end of each period (free-living and intervention). Parameters analysed were: fasting glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, total-, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, C - reactive protein and Homocysteine concentrations. Postprandial glucose and insulin were also measured. Anthropometrical parameters were monitored each 2 weeks during the whole study. Results A modest but significant (p = 0.002) reduction on body weight (1 kg) was observed during the intervention period, mainly due to the fat mass loss (0.8 kg, p = 0.02). This weight reduction was observed without apparently associated changes in total energy intake. None

  4. Spring-harvested game birds in the Western James Bay region of Northern Ontario, Canada: the amount of organochlorines in matched samples of breast muscle, skin, and abdominal fat.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Martin, Emily S; LeBlanc, Alain; Dumas, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    We examined matched-tissue samples (the right pectoral muscle plus the associated skin and fat was considered a breast portion) of 81 spring-harvested waterfowl and 19 summer-harvested godwits (Limosa spp.) to assess the potential of these water birds contributing to the body burden of PCBs and DDT noted in First Nation people of the western James Bay region, northern Ontario, Canada. In general, the dabbling ducks (mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos; and northern pintail, A. acuta) had significantly lower percent lipid (gravimetrically determined) values in skin tissue, fat tissue, and breast muscle compared to the goose species (Canada goose, Branta canadensis; lesser snow goose, Chen caerulescens); godwits had percent lipid values not significantly different than ducks and geese. Also, the percent lipid values in skin for all species of birds examined approached those found in fat tissue. Organochlorine data were expressed as the amount (microg) of each contaminant per breast portion to show contaminant consumption in terms of typical and easily recognizable dietary portions; direct comparisons were made to acceptable daily intake (ADI) or tolerable daily intake (TDI) values as recommended by Health Canada. Significant differences in the amount of organochlorines between bird species for skin, fat tissue, and breast muscle samples were found. In general, breast portions from snow geese contained the least amount of organochlorines, followed by godwits (except for mirex) and then Canada geese; the dabbling ducks had the greatest amount of organochlorines on a breast portion basis. However, on average, no 60 kg person would exceed the calculated organochlorine ADI/TDI values consuming one breast portion (i.e., breast + associated skin and fat), but the maximum value of SigmaPCBs for skin tissue alone in male mallards (47 microg) was more than twice the ADI/TDI (18 microg/day); while, that in fat tissue alone (17 microg) approached the ADI/TDI. Thus, the consumption

  5. [Abdominal cystic tumor revealing lymphangioleiomyomatosis].

    PubMed

    Barbier, L; Ebbo, M; Andrac-Meyer, L; Schneilitz, N; Le Treut, Y-P; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Hardwigsen, J

    2009-02-01

    We report the case of a 39 year-old woman with many years of intermittent abdominal pain who was found to have cystic masses evocative of cystic lymphangioma involving the posterior mediastinal and retroperitoneum. Worsening abdominal pain led to a recommendation for laparoscopic unroofing and decompression of the cysts. During the postoperative period, hemorrhagic shock required reintervention with excision of the tumoral mass. Pathologic examination revealed lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). On the 15th postoperative day, the patient developed a chylopneumothorax which required prolonged chest tube drainage. The presence of multiple polycystic lesions in the pulmonary parenchyma supported the diagnosis of diffuse LAM with primary extrapulmonary presentation. This diagnosis should be considered preoperatively since it modifies the treatment: a complete excision of the cystic lesions seems to be necessary in order to prevent bleeding and lymphatic extravasation.

  6. Effects of testosterone administration on fat distribution, insulin sensitivity, and atherosclerosis progression.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Shalender

    2003-01-01

    In spite of the widespread belief that testosterone supplementation increases the risk of atherosclerotic heart disease, evidence to support this premise is lacking. Although supraphysiological doses of testosterone, such as those used by athletes and recreational body builders, decrease plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations, replacement doses of testosterone have had only a modest or no effect on plasma HDL in placebo-controlled trials. In epidemiological studies, serum total and free testosterone concentrations have been inversely correlated with intra-abdominal fat mass, risk of coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Testosterone administration to middle-aged men is associated with decreased visceral fat and glucose concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity. Testosterone infusion increases coronary blood flow. Similarly, testosterone replacement retards atherogenesis in experimental models of atherosclerosis. However, the long-term risks and benefits of testosterone administration in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men with fat redistribution syndrome have not been studied in randomized clinical trials.

  7. Identification of compounds from high-fat and extra virgin olive oil-supplemented diets in whole mouse liver extracts and isolated mitochondria using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Gustavo Aparecido; Ferreira, Mônica Siqueira; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; de Oliveira, Vanessa; Siqueira-Santos, Edilene S; Cintra, Dennys Esper Corrêa; Castilho, Roger Frigério; Velloso, Lício Augusto; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2015-07-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a fatty liver disorder that could be improved with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) supplementation in diet. We propose the monitoring, in whole mouse liver extracts and in isolated mitochondria, of the absorption of compounds from three different diets: standard (CT), high-fat (HFD) and high-fat supplemented with EVOO (HFSO). Male mice were submitted to one of the following three diets: CT or HFD for 16 weeks or HFD for 8 weeks followed by additional 8 weeks with HFSO. Following this period, liver was extracted for histological evaluation, mitochondria isolation and mass spectrometry analyses. Diets, liver extracts and Percoll-purified mitochondria were analyzed using ESI-MS and the lipidomics approach. Morphological, histological and spectrometric results indicated a decrease in NASH severity with EVOO supplementation in comparison with animals maintained with HFD. Spectrometric data also demonstrated that some compounds presented on the diets are absorbed by the mitochondria. EVOO was shown to be a potential therapeutic alternative in food for NASH. Our results are in accordance with the proposition that the major factor that influences different responses to diets is their composition - and not only calories - especially when it comes to studies on obesity.

  8. Neonatal dietary supplementation of arachidonic acid increases prostaglandin levels in adipose tissue but does not promote fat mass development in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Aprikian, Olivier; Reynaud, Denis; Pace-Asciak, Cecil; Leone, Patricia; Blancher, Florence; Monnard, Irina; Darimont, Christian; Macé, Katherine

    2007-11-01

    The role of arachidonic acid (AA) on the development of adipose tissue is still controversial since its metabolites, i.e., prostaglandins, can either stimulate or inhibit preadipocyte differentiation in vitro. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of early postnatal supplementation of AA on body weight and adipose tissue development in guinea pigs. Male newborn guinea pigs were fed for 21 days (day 21) with diets (milk and pellet) supplemented (+AA) or not (-AA) with 1.2% (total fatty acids) AA. From day 21 to day 105 both groups were fed a chow diet. The 21-days-old +AA pups showed a twofold higher AA accretion in phospholipids associated with a two- to sixfold increase in several prostaglandins, such as 6-keto PGF(1alpha) (the stable hydrolysis product of PGI(2)), PGF(2alpha), PGE(2), and PGD(2) in adipose tissue, compared with the -AA group. No difference in fat pad and body weight, aP2, and leptin gene expression in adipose tissue, fasting plasma glucose, free-fatty acids, and triglyceride concentration was observed between groups at day 21 or day 105. These results show that dietary supplementation of AA during the suckling/weaning period increases prostaglandin levels in adipose tissue but does not influence early fat mass development in the guinea pig.

  9. Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocysts.

    PubMed

    Erşahin, Y; Mutluer, S; Tekeli, G

    1996-12-01

    Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst in an infrequent complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. We reviewed ten patients with abdominal pseudocyst. There were five girls and five boys, aged between 4 months and 14 years. The number of shunt procedures prior to the presentation varied between one and five. Only one patient had had a previous shunt infection. No patients had undergone prior abdominal surgery other than VP shunting. The time from the last shunting procedure to the development of abdominal pseudocyst ranged from 3 weeks to 5 years. Presenting symptoms and signs were mainly related to abdominal complaints in all patients. Three patients also had signs of shunt malfunction. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound in all patients. Shunt infection was determined in six patients. Repositioning if the peritoneal catheter seemed to have a higher rate of recurrence. The diagnosis of abdominal pseudocyst should be considered in VP-shunted patients presenting with abdominal complaints.

  10. Abdominal Circulatory Interactions.

    PubMed

    Dagar, Gaurav; Taneja, Amit; Nanchal, Rahul S

    2016-04-01

    The abdominal compartment is separated from the thoracic compartment by the diaphragm. Under normal circumstances, a large portion of the venous return crosses the splanchnic and nonsplanchnic abdominal regions before entering the thorax and the right side of the heart. Mechanical ventilation may affect abdominal venous return independent of its interactions at the thoracic level. Changes in pressure in the intra-abdominal compartment may have important implications for organ function within the thorax, particularly if there is a sustained rise in intra-abdominal pressure. It is important to understand the consequences of abdominal pressure changes on respiratory and circulatory physiology. This article elucidates important abdominal-respiratory-circulatory interactions and their clinical effects. PMID:27016167

  11. LRP5 Regulates Human Body Fat Distribution by Modulating Adipose Progenitor Biology in a Dose- and Depot-Specific Fashion

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Nellie Y.; Neville, Matt J.; Marinou, Kyriakoula; Hardcastle, Sarah A.; Fielding, Barbara A.; Duncan, Emma L.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Tobias, Jonathan H.; Gregson, Celia L.; Karpe, Fredrik; Christodoulides, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    Summary Common variants in WNT pathway genes have been associated with bone mass and fat distribution, the latter predicting diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. Rare mutations in the WNT co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 are similarly associated with bone and cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated the role of LRP5 in human adipose tissue. Subjects with gain-of-function LRP5 mutations and high bone mass had enhanced lower-body fat accumulation. Reciprocally, a low bone mineral density-associated common LRP5 allele correlated with increased abdominal adiposity. Ex vivo LRP5 expression was higher in abdominal versus gluteal adipocyte progenitors. Equivalent knockdown of LRP5 in both progenitor types dose-dependently impaired β-catenin signaling and led to distinct biological outcomes: diminished gluteal and enhanced abdominal adipogenesis. These data highlight how depot differences in WNT/β-catenin pathway activity modulate human fat distribution via effects on adipocyte progenitor biology. They also identify LRP5 as a potential pharmacologic target for the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders. PMID:25651180

  12. LRP5 regulates human body fat distribution by modulating adipose progenitor biology in a dose- and depot-specific fashion.

    PubMed

    Loh, Nellie Y; Neville, Matt J; Marinou, Kyriakoula; Hardcastle, Sarah A; Fielding, Barbara A; Duncan, Emma L; McCarthy, Mark I; Tobias, Jonathan H; Gregson, Celia L; Karpe, Fredrik; Christodoulides, Constantinos

    2015-02-01

    Common variants in WNT pathway genes have been associated with bone mass and fat distribution, the latter predicting diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. Rare mutations in the WNT co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 are similarly associated with bone and cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated the role of LRP5 in human adipose tissue. Subjects with gain-of-function LRP5 mutations and high bone mass had enhanced lower-body fat accumulation. Reciprocally, a low bone mineral density-associated common LRP5 allele correlated with increased abdominal adiposity. Ex vivo LRP5 expression was higher in abdominal versus gluteal adipocyte progenitors. Equivalent knockdown of LRP5 in both progenitor types dose-dependently impaired β-catenin signaling and led to distinct biological outcomes: diminished gluteal and enhanced abdominal adipogenesis. These data highlight how depot differences in WNT/β-catenin pathway activity modulate human fat distribution via effects on adipocyte progenitor biology. They also identify LRP5 as a potential pharmacologic target for the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders.

  13. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  14. Isolate abdominal bronchogenic cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cetinkurşun, S; Oztürk, H; Celasun, B; Sakarya, M T; Sürer, I

    1997-04-01

    Isolated abdominal bronchogenic cysts are rare abnormalities. They are usually asymptomatic unless secondarily infected or large enough to cause compression of other vital structures. The authors report on a 20-month-old girl who had an abdominal bronchogenic cyst and presented with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. The evaluation and treatment of this patient is presented as well as a review of the ten previously reported cases. A literature review showed only four cases in the pediatric age group. Excision is recommended to establish diagnosis and alleviate any symptoms. Abdominal bronchogenic cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses.

  15. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: pulmonary and abdominal findings with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Pallisa, Esther; Sanz, Pilar; Roman, Antonio; Majó, Joaquim; Andreu, Jordi; Cáceres, José

    2002-10-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease characterized by pulmonary cysts at computed tomography (CT) and proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells at lung biopsy. Almost all patients are female, and all have pulmonary cysts at high-resolution CT. Although the presence of cysts may be suggested at conventional CT or chest radiography, high-resolution CT is superior for cyst detection and is essential for diagnosis. The cysts are typically round; in most cases, the cyst wall is barely seen at thin-section CT. They are typically diffusely distributed throughout the central and peripheral lung parenchyma. The lung bases are affected in all patients. Some patients also have increased lung attenuation or a reticular pattern. Expiratory CT shows no air trapping between the cysts, and most of the cysts decrease in size. Pneumothorax, pleural effusion, and chylothorax are complications of LAM. Certain abdominal findings may provide additional corroborative evidence of the diagnosis. Renal angiomyolipomas, the most frequent abdominal lesions, usually manifest as asymptomatic, small, bilateral tumors of fat attenuation in the renal cortex. Lymphangiomas are cystic retroperitoneal masses that occur in up to 20% of patients. Other CT findings are hypo- or hyperattenuating lymph nodes, a dilated thoracic duct, and ascites.

  16. Comparison of percentage body fat and body mass index for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid risk profiles in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; de Oliveira Silva, Alessandro; de Sousa, Nuno Manuel Frade; Stival, Marina Morato; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Pereira, Leonardo Costa; Antunes, Marja Letícia Chaves; de Lima, Luciano Ramos; Prestes, Jonato; Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Dutra, Maurílio Tiradentes; Souza, Vinícius Carolino; da Cunha Nascimento, Dahan; de Oliveira Karnikowski, Margô Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical classification of the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid profile risk in older women. Method Cross-sectional analytical study with 277 elderly women from a local community in the Federal District, Brazil. PBF and fat-free mass (FFM) were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The investigated inflammatory parameters were interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein. Results Twenty-five percent of the elderly women were classified as normal weight, 50% overweight, and 25% obese by the BMI. The obese group had higher levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins than did the normal weight group (P≤0.05) and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) than did the overweight group (P≤0.05). According to the PBF, 49% of the elderly women were classified as eutrophic, 28% overweight, and 23% obese. In the binomial logistic regression analyses including age, FFM, and lipid profile, only FFM (odds ratio [OR]=0.809, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.739–0.886; P<0.0005) proved to be a predictor of reaching the eutrophic state by the BMI. When the cutoff points of PBF were used for the classif