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Sample records for abdominal fat mass

  1. The relationship of abdominal fat mass assessed by helical or conventional computed tomography to serum leptin concentration.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Junji; Sasaki, Takeyoshi; Watanabe, Mitsuyo

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we focused on the relationship of intra-abdominal visceral fat (VF) or subcutaneous fat (SF) mass to serum leptin levels, and also on the relationship of leptin to serum lipid and lipoprotein concentration. Subjects with obesity (26 men, 26 women) were recruited for this study. We obtained helical CT scans with a tube current of 150 mA, voltage of 120 kV and 2:1 pitch (table speed in relation to slice thickness), starting at the upper edge of the liver and continuing to the pelvis. The intra-abdominal visceral fat (VF) volume was measured by drawing a line within the muscle wall surrounding the abdominal cavity. The abdominal SF volume was calculated by subtracting the VF volume from the total abdominal fat volume. By comparison, the abdominal VF and SF areas were determined at the umbilical level by the established slice-by-slice CT scanning technique. We found: 1) abdominal SF mass, either as volume or area, was a more important determinant of serum leptin than was VF mass; 2) among TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C, only TG had a positive correlation to serum leptin levels in men, whereas in women no lipid parameters had any relationship with leptin; and 3) VF mass had a positive correlation to serum TC and TG in men, whereas SF did not. The present study provides considerable evidence on the relationship between abdominal fat mass and serum leptin, and shows that the relationships between serum leptin and serum lipids and lipoproteins are not straightforward. We also suggest that fat area measured by conventional CT is a better indicator than its corresponding volume assessed by helical CT, based on the present results showing its closer association to serum lipids.

  2. Body mass index, abdominal fatness and the risk of gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Aune, Dagfinn; Norat, Teresa; Vatten, Lars J

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated a positive association between adiposity and gallbladder disease risk, however, the shape of the dose-response relationship and differences between overall and abdominal adiposity remains to be clarified. We conducted a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio and risk of gallbladder disease. PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to January 9th 2015. Summary relative risks were calculated using a random effects model. Seventeen prospective studies of BMI and gallbladder disease risk with 55,670 cases among 1,921,103 participants were included. The summary relative risk (RR) for a 5 unit increment in BMI was 1.63 (95 % CI 1.49-1.78, I(2) = 98 %). There was evidence of a nonlinear association overall and among women, p(nonlinearity) < 0.0001, but not among men, p(nonlinearity) = 0.99, with a slight flattening of the curve at very high BMI levels (BMI 40-45), however, the risk of gallbladder disease increased almost twofold even within the "normal" BMI range. The summary RR for a 10 cm increase in waist circumference was 1.46 (95 % CI 1.24-1.72, I(2) = 98 %, n = 5) and for a 0.1 unit increment in waist-to-hip ratio was 1.44 (95 % CI 1.26-1.64, I(2) = 92 %, n = 4). Associations were attenuated, but still significant, when BMI and abdominal adiposity measures were mutually adjusted. Our results confirm a positive association between both general and abdominal fatness and the risk of gallbladder disease. There is an almost twofold increase in the risk even within the "normal" BMI range, suggesting that even moderate increases in BMI may increase risk.

  3. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    ... lumpy mass in the right upper quadrant. Liver enlargement (hepatomegaly) can cause a firm, irregular mass below ... the kidney (usually only affects one kidney). Spleen enlargement (splenomegaly) can sometimes be felt in the left- ...

  4. Whole-body electromyostimulation as a means to impact muscle mass and abdominal body fat in lean, sedentary, older female adults: subanalysis of the TEST-III trial

    PubMed Central

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 months of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) exercise on appendicular muscle mass and abdominal fat mass in subjects specifically at risk for sarcopenia and abdominal obesity, but unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally. Methods Forty-six lean, nonsportive (<60 minutes of exercise per week), elderly women (aged 75 ± 4 years) with abdominal obesity according to International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n=23) which performed 18 minutes of intermittent, bipolar WB-EMS (85 Hz) three sessions in 14 days or an “active” control group (n=23). Whole-body and regional body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine appendicular muscle mass, upper leg muscle mass, abdominal fat mass, and upper leg fat mass. Maximum strength of the leg extensors was determined isometrically by force plates. Results After 12 months, significant intergroup differences were detected for the primary end-points of appendicular muscle mass (0.5% ± 2.0% for the WB-EMS group versus −0.8% ± 2.0% for the control group, P=0.025) and abdominal fat mass (−1.2% ± 5.9% for the WB-EMS group versus 2.4% ± 5.8% for the control group, P=0.038). Further, upper leg lean muscle mass changed favorably in the WB-EMS group (0.5% ± 2.5% versus −0.9% ± 1.9%, in the control group, P=0.033), while effects for upper leg fat mass were borderline nonsignificant (−0.8% ± 3.5% for the WB-EMS group versus 1.0% ± 2.6% for the control group, P=0.050). With respect to functional parameters, the effects for leg extensor strength were again significant, with more favorable changes in the WB-EMS group (9.1% ± 11.2% versus 1.0% ± 8.1% in the control group, P=0.010). Conclusion In summary, WB-EMS showed positive effects on the parameters of sarcopenia and regional fat accumulation. Further, considering the good acceptance of this technology by

  5. Use of prediction equations to determine the accuracy of whole-body fat and fat-free mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass measurements from a single abdominal image using computed tomography in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, Robert D; Cardiff, Katrina; Rosenthall, Leonard; Lucar, Enriqueta; Trutschnigg, Barbara; Vigano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single abdominal images from computed tomography (CT) in advanced cancer patients (ACP) have important diagnostic and prognostic value. The question arises as to whether CT scans can serve as surrogates for DXA in terms of whole-body fat-free mass (FFM), whole-body fat mass (FM), and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) mass. Predictive equations to estimate body composition for ACP from CT images have been proposed (Mourtzakis et al. 2008; Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metabol. 33(5): 997-1006); however, these equations have yet to be validated in an independent cohort of ACP. Thus, this study evaluated the accuracy of these equations in estimating FFM, FM, and ASM mass using CT images at the level of the third lumbar vertebrae and compared these values with DXA measurements. FFM, FM, and ASM mass were estimated from the prediction equations proposed by Mourtzakis and colleagues (2008) using single abdominal CT images from 43 ACP and were compared with whole-body DXA scans using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman analyses. Despite a moderate to high correlation between the actual (DXA) and predicted (CT) values for FM (rho = 0.93; p ≤ 0.001), FFM (rho = 0.78; p ≤ 0.001), and ASM mass (rho = 0.70; p ≤ 0.001), Bland-Altman analyses revealed large range-of-agreement differences between the 2 methods (29.39 kg for FFM, 15.47 kg for FM, and 3.99 kg for ASM mass). Based on the magnitude of these differences, we concluded that prediction equations using single abdominal CT images have poor accuracy, cannot be considered as surrogates for DXA, and may have limited clinical utility.

  6. Diagnostic ultrasonography in cattle with abdominal fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the ultrasonographic findings in 14 cows with abdominal fat necrosis. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed the presence of heterogeneous hyperechoic masses and hyperechoic omentum with localized masses floating in a hypoechoic peritoneal fluid. A hyperechogenic rim was imaged around both kidneys. The intestines were coated with hyperechoic capsules and the intestinal lumens were constricted. Ultrasonographic examination of the pancreatic parenchyma showed an overall increased echogenicity which was homogenously distributed in 3 cases. A diagnosis of abdominal fat necrosis was made with ultrasound-guided biopsy of the echogenic masses, and thereafter at postmortem examination. Results from this study demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasonography as an imaging modality for antemortem diagnosis of abdominal lipomatosis in cattle. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first that illustrates ultrasonographic findings in cattle affected with abdominal lipomatosis.

  7. Change in Intra-Abdominal Fat Predicts the Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Americans.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Catherine A; Kahn, Steven E; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas.

  8. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  9. Lipoprotein alterations, abdominal fat distribution and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Schreier, L E; Berg, G A; Basilio, F M; Lopez, G I; Etkin, A E; Wikinski, R L

    1999-04-01

    Plasma lipid profile and abdominal obesity have been associated with breast cancer risk, however published results have been inconsistent. To clarify these associations we studied lipid and lipoprotein alterations, obesity degree and body fat distribution, in 30 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients without treatment and 30 controls matched by age and menopausal status. Both pre and postmenopausal breast cancer patients presented higher body mass index, waist/hip ratio and insulin levels than their matched controls. An increase in triglycerides and a decrease in HDL-cholesterol, especially in the HDL2 subfraction, were observed in patients with breast cancer. Besides, HDL particle from these patients showed increased apo A1/HDL-cholesterol ratio. These alterations were correlated with waist/hip ratio. The association between lipoprotein alterations and abdominal obesity independent of menopausal status, in untreated newly diagnosed breast cancer patients is reported for the first time in this study.

  10. Abdominal obesity: a marker of ectopic fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    In the early 1980s, we analyzed the metabolic profile of 930 men and women and concluded that an abdominal distribution of fat for a given BMI is associated with increased insulin resistance and risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The correlation between abdominal fat and metabolic dysfunction has since been validated in many studies, and waist circumference is now a criterion for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Several mechanisms for this relationship have been postulated; however, we now know that visceral fat is only one of many ectopic fat depots used when the subcutaneous adipose tissue cannot accommodate excess fat because of its limited expandability.

  11. KNEE-JOINT LOADING IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: INFLUENCE OF ABDOMINAL AND THIGH FAT

    PubMed Central

    Messier, Stephen P.; Beavers, Daniel P.; Loeser, Richard F.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Khajanchi, Shubham; Legault, Claudine; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Hunter, David J.; DeVita, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Using three separate models that included total body mass, total lean and total fat mass, and abdominal and thigh fat as independent measures, we determined their association with knee-joint loads in older overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Fat depots were quantified using computed tomography and total lean and fat mass determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 176 adults (age = 66.3 yr., BMI = 33.5 kg·m−2) with radiographic knee OA. Knee moments and joint bone-on-bone forces were calculated using gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. Results Higher total body mass was significantly associated (p ≤ 0.0001) with greater knee compressive and shear forces, compressive and shear impulses (p < 0.0001), patellofemoral forces (p< 0.006), and knee extensor moments (p = 0.003). Regression analysis with total lean and total fat mass as independent variables revealed significant positive associations of total fat mass with knee compressive (p = 0.0001), shear (p < 0.001), and patellofemoral forces (p = 0.01) and knee extension moment (p = 0.008). Gastrocnemius and quadriceps forces were positively associated with total fat mass. Total lean mass was associated with knee compressive force (p = 0.002). A regression model that included total thigh and total abdominal fat found both were significantly associated with knee compressive and shear forces (p ≤ 0.04). Thigh fat was associated with the knee abduction (p = 0.03) and knee extension moment (p = 0.02). Conclusions Thigh fat, consisting predominately of subcutaneous fat, had similar significant associations with knee joint forces as abdominal fat despite its much smaller volume and could be an important therapeutic target for people with knee OA. PMID:25133996

  12. Abdominal Mass Secondary to Human Toxocariasis

    PubMed Central

    Ghoroobi, Javad; Khoddami, Maliheh; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Sadeghian, Naser; Mahdavi, Alireza; Hatefi, Sayeh

    2017-01-01

    Toxocariasis is an extensive helminthic infection that leads to visceral larva migrans in humans. A 2.5-year-old girl referred for abdominal mass. She had history of pharyngitis for two weeks. There were no other symptoms. Abdominal examination revealed an irregular solid mass in right lower quadrant (RLQ). Abdominal ultrasonography revealed an echohetrogenic large mass in RLQ, liver, and retroperitoneal area. Abdominal CT scan showed a huge mass. At laparotomy a large retroperitoneal mass that involved right liver lobe, bladder, ileocecal valve, small and large intestines was found. At histopathology diagnosis of toxocariasis was made. PMID:28164001

  13. Arnebia euchroma ointment can reduce abdominal fat thickness and abdominal circumference of overweight women: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Siavash, Mansour; Naseri, Mohsen; Rahimi, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a worldwide health problem which is associated with a lot of complications. One of these comorbidities is the metabolic syndrome that is in correlation with abdominal fat thickness and waist circumference. Various methods were used to reduce abdominal fat thickness such as liposuction. A noninvasive method is the topical agent. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Arnebia euchroma (AE) ointment on the abdominal fat thickness. Materials and Methods: This study was a double-blind clinical trial which was done at the endocrinology clinic in Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2014. After explaining the procedure and obtaining informed consent, the candidates were randomly divided into the case and control groups. The participants of the case and control groups applied AE ointment or placebo for 6 weeks on their abdominal area. Body mass index, waist and buttock circumference, and abdominal fat thickness were measured in both case and control groups at their first visit and then at the next 2, 4, and 6 weeks. We used t-test for comparing parametric variables between groups, paired t-test for changes from baseline to final, and repeated measure ANOVA for changes at different steps. Results: Sixty female candidates participated in this study (thirty in each group). Ten patients left the study and fifty participants finished the trial. At the end of the study, participants had a significant weight loss (2.96 ± 1.6 kg, P < 0.001) that was slightly more in the case group (3.15 ± 1.5 kg vs. 2.75 ± 1.7, P = 0.375). Abdominal circumference also decreased significantly in the participants (11.3 ± 6.7 cm, P < 0.001), but the changes were more significant in the case group (13.9 vs. 6.5 cm, P = 0.004). Similarly, abdominal fat thickness decreased significantly in the participants (2.3 ± 1.1 cm, P < 0.001), although changes were not significantly different between two groups (2.53 vs. 2.04 cm, P = 0.139). Conclusion: Topical AE ointment

  14. Histopathological changes in the pancreas of cattle with abdominal fat necrosis

    PubMed Central

    TANI, Chikako; PRATAKPIRIYA, Watanyoo; TANI, Mineto; YAMAUCHI, Takenori; HIRAI, Takuya; YAMAGUCHI, Ryoji; ANO, Hitoshi; KATAMOTO, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    The association between pancreatic disorder and abdominal fat necrosis in cattle remains unclear. The pancreases of 29 slaughtered cattle with or without fat necrosis were collected to investigate pathological changes. Japanese Black (JB) cattle were classified into the FN group (with abdominal fat necrosis; n=9) and N group (without fat necrosis; n=5). The pancreases were also collected from 15 Holstein Friesian (HF) cows. All JB cattle showed high body condition scores. Regarding the pathological findings, fatty pancreas which involves adipocyte infiltration into the pancreas and fat necrosis (saponification) were observed in 25 and 27 cases, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-Iba-1 antibody showed large numbers of macrophages surrounding the saponified fat in the pancreas. CD3-positive T cells were significantly more common in the pancreas of both the FN and N groups compared with the HF group (P<0.05). Furthermore, fibrosis in the pancreas exhibited a correlative tendency with the formation of necrotic fat mass in the peritoneal cavity (P<0.1). These results indicate that obesity leads to increased severity of pancreatic disorder, including fatty pancreas and pancreatitis. The pathological lesions in the pancreas may play a key role in abdominal fat necrosis through the inflammatory process. PMID:27795463

  15. Opa3, a novel regulator of mitochondrial function, controls thermogenesis and abdominal fat mass in a mouse model for Costeff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wells, Timothy; Davies, Jennifer R; Guschina, Irina A; Ball, Daniel J; Davies, Jeffrey S; Davies, Vanessa J; Evans, Bronwen A J; Votruba, Marcela

    2012-11-15

    The interrelationship between brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) is emerging as an important factor in obesity, but the effect of impairing non-shivering thermogenesis in BAT on lipid storage in WAT remains unclear. To address this, we have characterized the metabolic phenotype of a mouse model for Costeff syndrome, in which a point mutation in the mitochondrial membrane protein Opa3 impairs mitochondrial activity. Opa3(L122P) mice displayed an 80% reduction in insulin-like growth factor 1, postnatal growth retardation and hepatic steatosis. A 90% reduction in uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in interscapular BAT was accompanied by a marked reduction in surface body temperature, with a 2.5-fold elevation in interscapular BAT mass and lipid storage. The sequestration of circulating lipid into BAT resulted in profound reductions in epididymal and retroperitoneal WAT mass, without affecting subcutaneous WAT. The histological appearance and intense mitochondrial staining in intra-abdominal WAT suggest significant 'browning', but with UCP1 expression in WAT of Opa3(L122P) mice only 62% of that in wild-type littermates, any precursor differentiation does not appear to result in thermogenically active beige adipocytes. Thus, we have identified Opa3 as a novel regulator of lipid metabolism, coupling lipid uptake with lipid processing in liver and with thermogenesis in BAT. These findings indicate that skeletal and metabolic impairment in Costeff syndrome may be more significant than previously thought and that uncoupling lipid uptake from lipid metabolism in BAT may represent a novel approach to controlling WAT mass in obesity.

  16. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates. PMID:27656630

  17. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-08-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

  18. [Evaluation of Intra-abdominal fat distribution using X-ray CT data for detection of rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Ogura, Toshihiro; Takatsu, Kazuaki; Negishi, Ryoichi; Koizumi, Kouichi; Satou, Masanori; Yanai, Kazuya; Sasaki, Isamu; Fukuda, Kazuya; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Kouno, Atsushi; Shimomura, Younosuke

    2005-06-20

    To develop a novel method of detecting rectal cancer, we assessed relationships between intra-abdominal fat distribution and rectal cancer in Japanese patients. Subjects comprised 38 patients with rectal cancer apparent on CT-colonography and 110 other cases. The intra-abdominal fat area was determined by calculating pixel distribution with attenuation values from -140 HU to -40 HU. The area of intra-abdominal fat was measured on axial images using an interslice gap of 10 mm. Profile curves of intra-abdominal fat were in the plane direction from diaphragm to anus. Of note is the fact that Ogura's peak, a secondary small peak around the rectal cancer, was apparent on the profile of intra-abdominal fat, with 73.7% of rectal cancers displaying Ogura's peak. In comparison, only 19.1% of other cases displayed Ogura's peak on this profile. The relationship between fat and rectal cancer is difficult to explain. However, making good use of these results showing intra-abdominal fat distribution, a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for detecting rectal cancer according to the presence of Ogura's peak has potential as a method of mass screening. As only 148 cases were investigated in the present study, the accumulation of additional data is needed. More detailed studies with larger patient populations are warranted.

  19. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  20. Selection against abdominal fat percentage may increase intramuscular fat content in broilers.

    PubMed

    Leng, L; Zhang, H; Dong, J Q; Wang, Z P; Zhang, X Y; Wang, S Z; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Li, H

    2016-10-01

    Excessive abdominal fat content (AFC) has negative impacts on feed efficiency and carcass quality. Unlike AFC, intramuscular fat content (IMFC) could be a favourable trait, which has a positive impact on meat quality. To meet consumers' needs, a long-term goal of broiler breeders is to decrease AFC and improve the IMFC simultaneously. The current study was designed to investigate the relationship between AFC and IMFC and to compare IMFC, including the pectoral major muscle fat content (PIMFC) and intramuscular fat content of leg muscle (LIMFC), between two broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat percentage over 17 generations. The results showed that there was a significant difference in PIMFC and LIMFC between the two lines in all five generation populations used. The birds in the lean line had significantly lower AFC but higher PIMFC and LIMFC than the birds in the fat line. We also detected differences in the liver fat content (LFC) between the two lines and the results showed that birds in the fat line had significant higher LFC than birds in the lean line. Our results indicated that a desirable broiler line with higher IMFC but lower AFC could be obtained by genetic selection.

  1. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  2. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Resnyk, Christopher W.; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H.; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J.; Cogburn, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5–2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  3. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Resnyk, Christopher W; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J; Cogburn, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  4. Abdominal fat ratio - a novel parameter for predicting conversion in laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Scott, S I; Farid, S; Mann, C; Jones, R; Kang, P; Evans, J

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Laparoscopic surgery has become the standard for colorectal cancer resection in the UK but it can be technically challenging in patients who are obese. Patients whose body fat is mainly inside the abdominal cavity are more challenging than those whose fat is mainly outside the abdominal cavity. Abdominal fat ratio (AFR) is a simple parameter proposed by the authors to aid identification of this subgroup. MATERIALS AND METHODS All 195 patients who underwent elective, laparoscopic colorectal cancer resections from March 2010 to November 2013 were included in the study. For patients who were obese (body mass index greater than 30), preoperative staging computed tomography was used to determine AFR. This was assessed by two different, blinded observers and compared with conversion rate. RESULTS Of the 195 patients, 58 (29.7%) fell into the obese group and 137 (70.3%) into the non-obese group. The median AFR of the obese group that were converted to open surgery was significantly higher at 5.9 compared with those completed laparoscopically (3.3, P = 0.0001, Mann-Whitney). There was no significant difference in conversion rate when looking at body mass index, tumour site or size. DISCUSSION Previous studies have found body mass index, age, gender, previous abdominal surgery, site and locally advanced tumours to be associated with an increased risk of conversion. This study adds AFR to the list of risk factors. CONCLUSION AFR is a simple, reproducible parameter which can help to predict conversion risk in obese patients undergoing colorectal cancer resection.

  5. Intra-abdominal fat is related to metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fat liver disease in obese youth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an association between adiposity, especially intra-abdominal adipose tissue, and hemodynamic/metabolic comorbidities in adults, however it is not clear in pediatric population. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) with values of intra-abdominal (IAAT) and subcutaneous (SCAT) adipose tissue in obese children and adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study. Subjects: 182 obese sedentary children and adolescents (aged 6 to 16 y), identified by the body mass index (BMI). Measurements: Body composition and trunk fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry- DXA; lipid profile, blood pressure and pubertal stage were also assessed. NAFLD was classified as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2) and severe (3), and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were identified by ultrasound. The MS was identified according to the cut offs proposed by World Health Organization adapted for children and adolescents. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables, and the binary logistic regression indicated the magnitude of the associations adjusted by potential cofounders (sex, age, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR). Results Higher quartile of SCAT was associated with elevated blood pressure (p = 0.015), but not associated with NAFLD (p = 0.665). Higher IAAT was positively associated with increased dyslipidemia (p = 0.001), MS (p = 0.013) and NAFLD (p = 0.005). Intermediate (p = 0.007) and highest (p = 0.001) quartile of IAAT were also associated with dyslipidemia, independently of age, sex, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance). Conclusion Obese children and adolescents, with higher IAAT are more prone to develop MS and NAFLD than those with higher values of SCAT, independent of possible confounding variables. PMID:23919592

  6. Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is a hypertension risk factor in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Takeoka, Atsushi; Tayama, Jun; Yamasaki, Hironori; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ogawa, Sayaka; Saigo, Tatsuo; Kawano, Hiroaki; Abiru, Norio; Hayashida, Masaki; Maeda, Takahiro; Shirabe, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Accumulation of intra-abdominal fat is related to hypertension. Despite this, a relationship between hypertension and intra-abdominal fat in young adulthood is not clear. In this study, we verify whether intra-abdominal fat accumulation increases a hypertension risk in young adult subjects. In a cross-sectional study, intra-abdominal fat area was measured using a dual bioelectrical impedance analysis instrument in 697 university students (20.3 ± 0.7 years, 425 men). Blood pressure and anthropometric factors were measured. Lifestyle variables including smoking, drinking, physical activity, and eating behavior were assessed with questionnaire. High blood pressure risk (systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg) with increasing intra-abdominal fat area was evaluated. Participants were divided into 5 groups according to their intra-abdominal fat area (≤24.9, 25–49.9, 50–74.9, 75–99.9, and ≥100 cm2). As compared with the values of the smallest intra-abdominal fat area group, the crude and lifestyle-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were elevated in larger intra-abdominal fat area groups [OR 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66–2.80; OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.60–7.57; OR 7.71, 95% CI 2.75–22.22; OR 18.74, 95% CI 3.93–105.64, respectively). The risk increase was observed only in men. Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is related to high blood pressure in men around 20 years of age. These results indicate the importance of evaluation and reduction of intra-abdominal fat to prevent hypertension. PMID:27828861

  7. Mobile encapsulated bodies comprising fat necrosis and fibrous tissue in the abdominal cavity of cows.

    PubMed

    Herzog, K; Burgdorf, W; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    2010-11-01

    The microscopical features of 18 samples of fat necrosis and/or fibrous tissue removed from the abdominal cavity during laparotomy from 15 cows were studied. The nodular, ivory-coloured mobile structures were free-floating in the abdominal cavity, were not attached to any abdominal tissues or organs, and were completely surrounded by a fibrous capsule. Abdominal fat necrosis (bovine lipomatosis) was not observed in any animal. The structures comprised either necrotic fat, fibrous tissue or varying proportions of both. Focal calcification and mild inflammatory cell infiltration and accumulations of haemosiderin were also present. Microscopically, the lesions resembled encapsulated fat necrosis occurring in human subcutaneous tissue. The mechanisms of development of these mobile encapsulated bodies in cows is unknown and it is not clear how, in the absence of a blood supply, there can be inflammatory cell infiltration, calcification and proliferation of fibroblasts.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study for Muscle Fat Content and Abdominal Fat Traits in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xianhu; Kuang, Youyi; Lv, Weihua; Cao, Dingchen; Sun, Zhipeng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2016-01-01

    Muscle fat content is an important phenotypic trait in fish, as it affects the nutritional, technical and sensory qualities of flesh. To identify loci and candidate genes associated with muscle fat content and abdominal fat traits, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the common carp 250 K SNP assay in a common carp F2 resource population. A total of 18 loci surpassing the genome-wide suggestive significance level were detected for 4 traits: fat content in dorsal muscle (MFdo), fat content in abdominal muscle (MFab), abdominal fat weight (AbFW), and AbFW as a percentage of eviscerated weight (AbFP). Among them, one SNP (carp089419) affecting both AbFW and AbFP reached the genome-wide significance level. Ten of those loci were harbored in or near known genes. Furthermore, relative expressions of 5 genes related to MFdo were compared using dorsal muscle samples with high and low phenotypic values. The results showed that 4 genes were differentially expressed between the high and low phenotypic groups. These genes are, therefore, prospective candidate genes for muscle fat content: ankyrin repeat domain 10a (ankrd10a), tetratricopeptide repeat, ankyrin repeat and coiled-coil containing 2 (tanc2), and four jointed box 1 (fjx1) and choline kinase alpha (chka). These results offer valuable insights into the complex genetic basis of fat metabolism and deposition. PMID:28030623

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study for Muscle Fat Content and Abdominal Fat Traits in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xianhu; Kuang, Youyi; Lv, Weihua; Cao, Dingchen; Sun, Zhipeng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2016-01-01

    Muscle fat content is an important phenotypic trait in fish, as it affects the nutritional, technical and sensory qualities of flesh. To identify loci and candidate genes associated with muscle fat content and abdominal fat traits, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the common carp 250 K SNP assay in a common carp F2 resource population. A total of 18 loci surpassing the genome-wide suggestive significance level were detected for 4 traits: fat content in dorsal muscle (MFdo), fat content in abdominal muscle (MFab), abdominal fat weight (AbFW), and AbFW as a percentage of eviscerated weight (AbFP). Among them, one SNP (carp089419) affecting both AbFW and AbFP reached the genome-wide significance level. Ten of those loci were harbored in or near known genes. Furthermore, relative expressions of 5 genes related to MFdo were compared using dorsal muscle samples with high and low phenotypic values. The results showed that 4 genes were differentially expressed between the high and low phenotypic groups. These genes are, therefore, prospective candidate genes for muscle fat content: ankyrin repeat domain 10a (ankrd10a), tetratricopeptide repeat, ankyrin repeat and coiled-coil containing 2 (tanc2), and four jointed box 1 (fjx1) and choline kinase alpha (chka). These results offer valuable insights into the complex genetic basis of fat metabolism and deposition.

  10. Physical Activity and Reduced Intra-abdominal Fat in Midlife African-American and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Sheila A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Avery, Elizabeth F.; Wesley, Deidre E.; Powell, Lynda H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine whether self-reported physical activity (PA), including recreational, household, and exercise activities, is associated with intra-abdominal fat (IAF) in community-dwelling white and black midlife women. We performed a cross-sectional study of 369 women from the Chicago site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) ancillary study, the SWAN Fat Patterning Study. PA level was the independent variable, and IAF, assessed by computerized tomography (CT) scan, was the dependent variable. Measures were obtained at SWAN Fat Patterning Baseline visit between August 2002 and December 2005. Linear regression models explored the association between PA and IAF. The first model included IAF as the outcome and total score PA as the main predictor, adjusting for total percent fat mass, age, and ethnicity. The second model included education, parity, sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) level, and depressive symptoms, measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Each 1-point higher total PA score was associated with a 4.0 cm2 lower amount of IAF (P = 0.004), independent of total percent fat mass, age, ethnicity, SHBG level, educational level, CES-D, and parity. Associations did not differ between white and black women. This study demonstrates a significant negative association between PA and IAF independent of multiple covariates in midlife women. Our findings suggest that motivating white and black women to increase PA during midlife may lessen IAF, which may have a positive impact on subsequent development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19876007

  11. Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity in early pregnancy together predict impaired glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, L R; Berger, H; Retnakaran, R; Vlachou, P A; Maguire, J L; Nathens, A B; Connelly, P W; Ray, J G

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity individually reflect insulin resistance, but their combined effect on glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy is unknown. A cohort of 476 pregnant women prospectively underwent sonographic assessment of hepatic fat and visceral (VAT) and total (TAT) adipose tissue at 11–14 weeks' gestation. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation between the presence of maternal hepatic fat and/or the upper quartile (Q) of either VAT or TAT and the odds of developing the composite outcome of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or gestational diabetes mellitus at 24–28 weeks' gestation, based on a 75 g OGTT. Upon adjusting for maternal age, ethnicity, family history of DM and body mass index (BMI), the co-presence of hepatic fat and quartile 4 (Q4) of VAT (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.5, 95% CI: 2.3–18.5) or hepatic fat and Q4 of TAT (aOR 7.8 95% CI 2.8–21.7) were each associated with the composite outcome, relative to women with neither sonographic feature. First-trimester sonographic evidence of maternal hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity may independently predict the development of impaired glucose homeostasis and GDM in mid-pregnancy. PMID:27643724

  12. Effect of endurance and resistance training on regional fat mass and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Ara Royo, Ignacio; Martínez-Redondo, Diana; Puzo Foncillas, José; Moreno, Luis A; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Casajús, José A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 10-week of endurance training or resistance training on regional and abdominal fat, and in the lipid profile, examining the associations among the changes in body composition, weight, waist circumference and lipid profile. Body composition, waist circumference and lipid profile were analyzed in 26 volunteers healthy young men (age 22.5 ± 1.9 yr), randomly assigned to: endurance group (EG), resistance group (RG) or control group (CG). The EG significantly decreased after training the body weight, body mass index, total body fat and percentage of fat, fat and percentage of fat at the trunk and at the abdominal region and High-Density Lipoprotein. The RG significantly increased total lean mass and decreased total cholesterol, High-Density and Low- Density Lipoprotein. Close relationship were found among changes in weight, total lean mass, regional fat mass, waist circumference and changes in lipid profile (all p < 0.05). We concluded that 10-week of endurance training decreased abdominal and body fat in young men, while 10-week of resistance training increased total lean mass. These types of training had also effects on lipid profile that seem to be to some extent associated to changes in body composition; however it requires additional investigation.

  13. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  14. Effects of balanced selection for intramuscular fat and abdominal fat percentage and estimates of genetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Jiang, M; Fan, W L; Xing, S Y; Wang, J; Li, P; Liu, R R; Li, Q H; Zheng, M Q; Cui, H X; Wen, J; Zhao, G P

    2017-02-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content contributes to meat flavor and improves meat quality. Excessive abdominal fat, however, leads to a waste of feed resources. Here, an independent up-selection for IMF was used as a control (Line C), and a balanced selection program, with up-selection for IMF and down-selection AFP (Line B), was studied in JingXing yellow chickens. The mean of IMF and AFP within a family was the phenotypic value upon which selection was based. The selective pressures of IMF in line B and line C were the same in each generation. At G5, the IMF was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that at G0 in both lines. For AFP, Line C was significantly higher at G5 (P < 0.05) than at G0, but the difference in Line B was not significant (P > 0.05). IMF increased by 11.4% and AFP decreased by 1.5% in Line B compared with the G0 generation. In contrast, the IMF increased by 17.6%, but was accompanied by an 18.7% increase in AFP, in control Line C. Of 10 other traits measured, body weight at 56 d age (BW56) and the percentages of eviscerated weight (EWP) showed a significant difference between the 2 lines (P < 0.05). The heritabilities for IMF and AFP, estimated by the DMU package, were 0.16 and 0.32, respectively. A moderate positive correlation existed between IMF and AFP (0.35). A balanced selection program for increasing IMF while controlling AFP (Line B) is shown here to be effective in practical chicken breeding.

  15. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haifeng; Tong, Tom K.; Qiu, Weifeng; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Shi

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session) high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n = 15), MICT (n = 15), or no training (CON, n = 13) for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA) and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA) of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2), ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2), and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p > 0.05) were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%), total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg), and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg), gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg), and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p > 0.05) regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency. PMID:28116314

  16. The Associations of Multiple Dimensions of Discrimination and Abdominal Fat in African American Adults: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Tené T.; Liu, Jiankang; Mount, David L.; Younge, Sinead N.; Jenkins, William C.; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Discrimination may be adversely associated with abdominal obesity, but few studies have examined associations with abdominal fat. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine whether discrimination was independently associated with visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) fat and whether these associations differed by sex and age. Methods Participants self-reported experiences of everyday and lifetime discrimination. The main reason for and the coping response to these experiences were also reported. VAT and SAT were quantified by computed tomography. Results In fully adjusted models, higher reports of everyday discrimination were associated with greater SAT, but not VAT, volumes in men only: SAT increased by 3.6 (standard error = 1.8)cm3 for each unit increase in the everyday discrimination score. In women, higher reports of lifetime non-racial discrimination were associated with greater VAT (71.6±32.0, P<0.05) and SAT (212.6±83.6, P<0.05), but these relationships were attenuated after controlling for body mass index. Conclusions These cross-sectional findings do not fully support the independent hypothesis of discrimination and abdominal fat. Additional investigations involving longitudinal designs are warranted. PMID:22278393

  17. Jejunal perforation after abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting

    PubMed Central

    Coronado-Malagón, Martin; Tauffer-Carrion, Luis Tomas

    2012-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented to the emergency department 24 h after undergoing abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting at a private plastic surgery clinic. She presented with the classic evolution of a bowel perforation secondary to abdominal liposuction. A computed tomography (CT) scan found free air in her abdominal cavity. Based on the CT scan and the persistent pain experienced by the patient, an abdominal laparatomy was urgently performed. A jejunum perforation was found and was treated with a resection of the affected segment followed by intestinal anastomosis. The patient had a successful recovery and was discharged seven days later. The present article also reviews the classical presentation of a bowel perforation following abdominal liposuction. PMID:23997589

  18. Jejunal perforation after abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Coronado-Malagón, Martin; Tauffer-Carrion, Luis Tomas

    2012-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented to the emergency department 24 h after undergoing abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting at a private plastic surgery clinic. She presented with the classic evolution of a bowel perforation secondary to abdominal liposuction. A computed tomography (CT) scan found free air in her abdominal cavity. Based on the CT scan and the persistent pain experienced by the patient, an abdominal laparatomy was urgently performed. A jejunum perforation was found and was treated with a resection of the affected segment followed by intestinal anastomosis. The patient had a successful recovery and was discharged seven days later. The present article also reviews the classical presentation of a bowel perforation following abdominal liposuction.

  19. Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is a hypertension risk factor in young adulthood: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Takeoka, Atsushi; Tayama, Jun; Yamasaki, Hironori; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ogawa, Sayaka; Saigo, Tatsuo; Kawano, Hiroaki; Abiru, Norio; Hayashida, Masaki; Maeda, Takahiro; Shirabe, Susumu

    2016-11-01

    Accumulation of intra-abdominal fat is related to hypertension. Despite this, a relationship between hypertension and intra-abdominal fat in young adulthood is not clear. In this study, we verify whether intra-abdominal fat accumulation increases a hypertension risk in young adult subjects.In a cross-sectional study, intra-abdominal fat area was measured using a dual bioelectrical impedance analysis instrument in 697 university students (20.3 ± 0.7 years, 425 men). Blood pressure and anthropometric factors were measured. Lifestyle variables including smoking, drinking, physical activity, and eating behavior were assessed with questionnaire. High blood pressure risk (systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg) with increasing intra-abdominal fat area was evaluated.Participants were divided into 5 groups according to their intra-abdominal fat area (≤24.9, 25-49.9, 50-74.9, 75-99.9, and ≥100 cm). As compared with the values of the smallest intra-abdominal fat area group, the crude and lifestyle-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were elevated in larger intra-abdominal fat area groups [OR 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66-2.80; OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.60-7.57; OR 7.71, 95% CI 2.75-22.22; OR 18.74, 95% CI 3.93-105.64, respectively). The risk increase was observed only in men.Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is related to high blood pressure in men around 20 years of age. These results indicate the importance of evaluation and reduction of intra-abdominal fat to prevent hypertension.

  20. Equations of prediction for abdominal fat in brown egg-laying hens fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Souza, C; Jaimes, J J B; Gewehr, C E

    2016-12-03

    The objective was to use noninvasive measurements to formulate equations for predicting the abdominal fat weight of laying hens in a noninvasive manner. Hens were fed with different diets; the external body measurements of birds were used as regressors. We used 288 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement, submitted for 16 wk to 2 metabolizable energy levels (2,550 and 2,800 kcal/kg) and 3 levels of crude protein in the diet (150, 160, and 170 g/kg), totaling 6 treatments, with 48 hens each. Sixteen hens per treatment of 92 wk age were utilized to evaluate body weight, bird length, tarsus and sternum, greater and lesser diameter of the tarsus, and abdominal fat weight, after slaughter. The equations were obtained by using measures evaluated with regressors through simple and multiple linear regression with the stepwise method of indirect elimination (backward), with P < 0.10 for all variables remaining in the model. The weight of abdominal fat as predicted by the equations and observed values for each bird were subjected to Pearson's correlation analysis. The equations generated by energy levels showed coefficients of determination of 0.50 and 0.74 for 2,800 and 2,550 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy, respectively, with correlation coefficients of 0.71 and 0.84, with a highly significant correlation between the calculated and observed values of abdominal fat. For protein levels of 150, 160, and 170 g/kg in the diet, it was possible to obtain coefficients of determination of 0.75, 0.57, and 0.61, with correlation coefficients of 0.86, 0.75, and 0.78, respectively. Regarding the general equation for predicting abdominal fat weight, the coefficient of determination was 0.62; the correlation coefficient was 0.79. The equations for predicting abdominal fat weight in laying hens, based on external measurements of the birds, showed positive coefficients of determination and correlation coefficients, thus

  1. Influence of amount and type of dietary fat on deposition, adipocyte count and iodine number of abdominal fat in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wongsuthavas, S; Terapuntuwat, S; Wongsrikeaw, W; Katawatin, S; Yuangklang, C; Beynen, A C

    2008-02-01

    This study described the relation between the type and amount of dietary fat on the deposition of abdominal fat by broiler chickens. It was hypothesized that at higher fat intakes, the well-known lowering effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the deposition of abdominal fat would be diminished. Experimental diets were formulated to contain three levels of added fat (3%, 6% and 9%). Each level had different proportions of the saturated fatty acids (SFA) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) by installing the ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 with the use of tallow and soybean oil. Arbor Acres chicks, aged 7 days, were fed one of the 15 experimental diets until they were aged 42 days. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. There was no systematic effect of the dietary fat type and the amount on the weight gain and the feed intake. The lowest SFA:UFA ratio of 1:5 produced the lowest feed conversion rates, irrespective of the amount of the fat in the diet. The abdominal fat deposition was similar in the birds fed on diets containing either 3% or 6% added fat, but deposition was lower than in those fed 9% fat. A decrease in the SFA:UFA ratio of the diet was associated with a dose-dependent decrease in abdominal fat, irrespective of the amount of fat in the diet. This observation leads to the rejection of the hypothesis stated above. A decrease in the dietary SFA:UFA from 1:1 to 1:4 caused a decrease in the number of the fat cells per surface unit of breast meat. It is concluded that an increased intake of soybean oil at the expense of tallow reduced the abdominal fat deposition and the number of fat cells in the breast meat of broiler chickens.

  2. Castleman's Disease Presenting as Localized Abdominal Mass and Paraneoplastic Pemphigus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Bishnoi, Kshitij; Murugavaithianathan, Pragatheeswarane; Panwar, Vikas Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Castleman's disease is a rare, benign lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown origin. Paraneoplastic pemphigus is a common association which presents as oral mucosal ulcerations. Abdominal and retroperitoneal Castleman's disease present either as a localized disease or as a systemic disease. We hereby present a 15-year-old male patient with oral mucosal lesions with localized vague right lower abdominal mass who was diagnosed to have Castleman's disease with paraneoplastic pemphigus which was surgically excised. PMID:27014502

  3. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  4. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  5. Effect of the inclusion time of dietary saturated and unsaturated fats before slaughter on the accumulation and composition of abdominal fat in female broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sanz, M; Lopez-Bote, C J; Flores, A; Carmona, J M

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this experiment was to assess the effects of four different feeding programs designed to include tallow, a saturated fat at 0, 8, 12, and 28 d prior to slaughter on female broiler performance and the deposition, fatty acid profile, and melting point of abdominal fat. The following treatment groups were established according to dietary inclusion--from 21 to 49 d of age--of: sunflower oil (SUN), sunflower oil followed by tallow during the last 8 d (SUN + 8TALL), sunflower oil followed by tallow during the last 12 d (SUN + 12TALL), and tallow (TALL). The diets were designed to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Abdominal fat deposition increased linearly with increasing number of days in which birds were fed the tallow-enriched diet. However, linear and quadratic response patterns were found between days before slaughter in which the birds were fed the tallow-enriched diet and abdominal fat melting points. This result suggested an exponential response in which 85% of the maximum level was already attained when the dietary fat type changed from an unsaturated to a saturated condition during the last 8 d of the feeding period. The use of an unsaturated fat source during the first stages of growth, and the substitution of a saturated fat for a few days before slaughter, may offer the advantage of lower abdominal fat deposition and an acceptable fat fluidity compared with the use of a saturated fat source during the whole growing and finishing period.

  6. Interrelationships between changes in anthropometric variables and computed tomography indices of abdominal fat distribution in response to a 1-year physical activity-healthy eating lifestyle modification program in abdominally obese men.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Nicole; Pelletier-Beaumont, Emilie; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Lemieux, Isabelle; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The objectives were to (i) measure the effects of a 1-year lifestyle modification program on body fat distribution/anthropometric variables; (ii) determine the interrelationships between changes in all these variables; and (iii) investigate whether there is a selective reduction in deep (DSAT) vs. superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SSAT) at the abdominal level following a 1-year lifestyle modification program. Anthropometric variables, body composition and abdominal and midthigh fat distribution were assessed at baseline and after 1 year in 109 sedentary, dyslipidemic and abdominally obese men. Reductions in anthropometric variables, skinfold thicknesses (except the trunk/extremity ratio) and fat mass as well as an increase in fat-free mass were observed after 1 year (p < 0.0001). Decreases in abdominal adipose tissue volumes were also noted (-23%, -26%, -18%, -19%, -17%, p < 0.0001 for total adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, DSAT and SSAT, respectively). Adipose tissue areas at midthigh also decreased (-18%, -18%, -17%, p < 0.0001 for total, deep, and subcutaneous adipose tissue, respectively). A reduction (-9%, p < 0.0001) in low-attenuation muscle area and an increase (+1%, p < 0.05) in normal-attenuation muscle area were also observed. There was a positive relationship between changes in visceral adipose tissue and changes in DSAT (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001) or SSAT (r = 0.63, p < 0.0001). Although absolute changes in DSAT were greater than changes in SSAT, relative changes in both depots were similar, independent of changes in visceral adipose tissue. The 1-year lifestyle modification program therefore improved the body fat distribution pattern and midthigh muscle quality in abdominally obese men.

  7. Unexpectedly ease surgery for a worrisome abdominal mass: Pedunculated GISTs☆

    PubMed Central

    Baskiran, Adil; Otan, Emrah; Aydin, Cemalettin; Kayaalp, Cuneyt

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Discovery of abdominal masses often poses significant diagnostic difficulties. GISTs are mesenchymal masses, with specific histological features. Dimensions may vary from millimeters to giant tumours. We would like to present our case, which had an unexpectedly easy operative course which was easily handled with a simple surgical excision with a short operative duration. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 38 years old female patient was diagnosed to have an abdominal heterogen mass of 15 cm × 12 cm × 10 cm in dimension. Abdominal computed tomography revealed the solid mass between the stomach and pancreas corpus and tail, possibly orginating from the pancreas. With the preoperative diagnosis of locally invasive distal pancreas cancer the patient underwent laparotomy, following the dissection, the mass was observed to be originating from the posterior gastric Wall, extending exophytically with a peduncle of 5 cm in width, without any visual evidence for peritoneal invasion and metastasis. The tumour and the peduncle was resected with stapler device. Total operation time was 30 min. Postoperative course was uneventful. Pathologic diagnosis was gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). DISCUSSION Pedunculated large GISTs are not frequent and they can enlarge as 15 cm in diameter and compress the neighbouring organs. When they were huge, it is difficult to differentiate the origin of the masses. GISTs should be considered in differential diagnosis of giant abdominal masses. CONCLUSION When GISTs are huge and pedunculated, it can be difficult to differentiate the origin of the masses. This case report presents unexpectedly ease surgery for a worrysome abdominal mass. PMID:23999120

  8. Comparison of serum biochemical parameters between two broiler chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content.

    PubMed

    Dong, J-Q; Zhang, H; Jiang, X-F; Wang, S-Z; Du, Z-Q; Wang, Z-P; Leng, L; Cao, Z-P; Li, Y-M; Luan, P; Li, H

    2015-07-01

    In humans, obesity is associated with increased or decreased levels of serum biochemical indicators. However, the relationship is not as well understood in chickens. Due to long-term intense selection for fast growth rate, modern broilers have the problem of excessive fat deposition, exhibiting biochemical or metabolic changes. In the current study, the Northeast Agricultural University broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content (NEAUHLF) were used to identify differences in serum biochemical parameters between the 2 lines. A total of 18 serum biochemical indicators were investigated in the 16th, 17th, and 18th generation populations of NEAUHLF, and the genetic parameters of these serum biochemical indicators were estimated. After analyzing the data from these 3 generations together, the results showed that the levels of 16 of the tested serum biochemical parameters were significantly different between the lean and fat birds. In the fat birds, serum concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL-C:low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total bile acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate transaminase (AST):alanine transaminase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), uric acid, and creatinine were very significantly higher (P < 0.01), whereas LDL-C, albumin:globulin, glucose, AST, ALT, and free fatty acids concentrations in serum were very significantly lower than those in the lean birds (P < 0.01). Of these 16 serum biochemical parameters, 5 (LDL-C, HDL-C:LDL-C, total bile acid, albumin, and albumin:globulin) had high heritabilities (0.58 ≤ h2 ≤ 0.89), 6 (HDL-C, total protein, globulin, AST:ALT, GGT, and creatinine) had moderate heritabilities (0.29 ≤ h2 ≤ 0.48), and the remaining 5 had low heritabilities (h2 < 0.20). Serum HDL-C, HDL-C:LDL-C, and glucose had higher positive genetic correlation coefficients (rg) with abdominal fat traits (0.30 ≤ rg ≤ 0.80), whereas serum globulin, AST, and uric acid

  9. Association of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass with serum concentrations of adipokines in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomoyuki; Murata, Miho; Otani, Taeko; Tamemoto, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Masanobu; Ishikawa, San-E

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the association of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass with serum concentrations of adipokines in 130 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The levels of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, interleukin-18, and retinol-binding protein 4 were measured. Percentage body fat was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and subcutaneous and visceral fat areas were measured by abdominal CT. HS-CRP had significant positive correlations with percentage body fat and subcutaneous fat area, and a particularly significant positive correlation with visceral fat area. Serum adiponectin had a negative correlation with the subcutaneous and visceral fat areas, with the strongest correlation with the visceral fat area. Similar results were obtained for HMW adiponectin. Serum adiponectin had a negative correlation with visceral fat area in subjects with a visceral fat area < 100 cm², but not in those with a visceral fat area ≥ 100 cm². In contrast, serum HS-CRP showed a positive correlation with visceral fat area in subjects with visceral fat area ≥ 100 cm², but not in those with a visceral fat area < 100 cm². These findings indicate that an increased visceral fat area is associated with inflammatory changes, and that inflammatory reactions may alter the functional properties of visceral fat in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Intra-abdominal pulmonary secuestration as an exceptional cause of abdominal mass in the adult☆

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Sanz, C.; Herrero Bogajo, M.L.; Picazo-Yeste, J.; Morandeira Rivas, A.; Manzanera-Diaz, M.; Sedano-Vizcaino, C.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pulmonary sequestration (PS) is an extremely rare malformation defined as a portion of lung tissue isolated from the pulmonary system. PSs are classified into intralobar type and intra-abdominal PS that represents only 2.5% of cases. There are 20 cases of PS reported in adults and only two were managed by laparoscopic approach. We report a case of intra-abdominal PS mimicking a gastroesophageal duplication cyst in an adult. Besides its rarity, this is the first intra-abdominal PS in an adult managed by an anterior laparoscopic approach. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 60-year-old female patient had had epigastric and left upper quadrant pain for several days. Physical examination was normal. Image test were consistent with a gastroesophageal duplication. The patient was taken to the operating room for laparoscopic exploration and resection. The pathological diagnosis was extralobar pulmonary sequestration. DISCUSSION Less than 20 cases of PS have been reported in adults and only two cases were managed by a lateral laparoscopic approach. In contrast to these reports, we used an anterior approach due to the GEJ suspected origin of the mass. CONCLUSION Extralobar intra-abdominal PS is an extremely rare condition during adulthood but this diagnosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a left-sided suprarenal mass. Due to the difficulty in achieving a definitive preoperative diagnosis, surgery is recommended. Laparoscopic resection is safe and effective but careful preoperative imaging studies are recommended in order to plan the most suitable approach. PMID:24091075

  11. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® pulsatile abdominal mass, suspected abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Benoit; Dill, Karin E; Flamm, Scott D; Francois, Christopher J; Gerhard-Herman, Marie D; Kalva, Sanjeeva P; Mansour, M Ashraf; Mohler, Emile R; Oliva, Isabel B; Schenker, Matthew P; Weiss, Clifford; Rybicki, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    Clinical palpation of a pulsating abdominal mass alerts the clinician to the presence of a possible abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Generally an arterial aneurysm is defined as a localized arterial dilatation ≥50% greater than the normal diameter. Imaging studies are important in diagnosing the cause of a pulsatile abdominal mass and, if an AAA is found, in determining its size and involvement of abdominal branches. Ultrasound (US) is the initial imaging modality of choice when a pulsatile abdominal mass is present. Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) may be substituted in patients for whom US is not suitable. When aneurysms have reached the size threshold for intervention or are clinically symptomatic, contrast-enhanced multidetector CT angiography (CTA) is the best diagnostic and preintervention planning study, accurately delineating the location, size, and extent of aneurysm and the involvement of branch vessels. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) may be substituted if CT cannot be performed. Catheter arteriography has some utility in patients with significant contraindications to both CTA and MRA. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria(®) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  12. Genome-wide association studies suggest sex-specific loci associated with abdominal and visceral fat

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yun Ju; Pérusse, Louis; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Fornage, Myriam; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rice, Treva; Terry, Gregg; Jacobs, David R.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Curran, Joanne E; Carr, John Jeffrey; Blangero, John; Ghosh, Sujoy; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D.C.; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify loci associated with abdominal fat and replicate prior findings, we performed genome-wide association (GWA) studies of abdominal fat traits: subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total adipose tissue (TAT) and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VSR). Subjects and Methods Sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses were performed on each trait with (TRAIT-BMI) or without (TRAIT) adjustment for BMI, and cohort-specific results were combined via a fixed effects meta-analysis. A total of 2,513 subjects of European descent were available for the discovery phase. For replication, 2,171 European Americans and 772 African Americans were available. Results A total of 52 SNPs encompassing 7 loci showed suggestive evidence of association (p < 1.0 × 10−6) with abdominal fat in the sex-combined analyses. The strongest evidence was found on chromosome 7p14.3 between a SNP near BBS9 gene and VAT (rs12374818; p= 1.10 × 10−7), an association that was replicated (p = 0.02). For the BMI-adjusted trait, the strongest evidence of association was found between a SNP near CYCSP30 and VAT-BMI (rs10506943; p= 2.42 × 10−7). Our sex-specific analyses identified one genome-wide significant (p < 5.0 × 10−8) locus for SAT in women with 11 SNPs encompassing the MLLT10, DNAJC1 and EBLN1 genes on chromosome 10p12.31 (p = 3.97 × 10−8 to 1.13 × 10−8). The THNSL2 gene previously associated with VAT in women was also replicated (p= 0.006). The six gene/loci showing the strongest evidence of association with VAT or VAT-BMI were interrogated for their functional links with obesity and inflammation using the Biograph knowledge-mining software. Genes showing the closest functional links with obesity and inflammation were ADCY8 and KCNK9, respectively. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for new loci influencing abdominal visceral (BBS9, ADCY8, KCNK9) and subcutaneous (MLLT10/DNAJC1/EBLN1) fat, and confirmed a locus (THNSL2

  13. Comparison of CT and dual-energy DEXA using a modified trunk compartment in the measurement of abdominal fat.

    PubMed

    Lane, James T; Mack-Shipman, Lynn R; Anderson, Joseph C; Moore, Timothy E; Erickson, Judi M; Ford, Timothy C; Stoner, Julie A; Larsen, Jennifer L

    2005-08-01

    The quantification of abdominal fat is a marker of health risk. While dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is easily applied, it measures overall fat, although abdominal fat may be a better indicator of health risk from obesity. We have evaluated whether a subcomponent of DEXA measurements correlates better with computed tomography (CT) for body fat than those traditionally used. Forty-seven healthy adults (22 M/25 F), aged 54.5+/-15.8 yr (mean+/-SD), with BMI of 27.1+/-4.6 kg/m2 participated in a cross-sectional study. Body fat was measured using abdominal CT and DEXA for total fat, trunk fat, and a modified trunk measurement that excludes the chest, termed "lower trunk," and compared. The coefficient of variation for DEXA measurements for trunk, lower trunk, and total body were 1.98, 3.12, and 0.85%, respectively. Mean DEXA for percentage fat ranged from 31.7% to 34.1% for trunk, lower trunk, and total body, compared to 54.2% for abdominal CT (p<0.003 for each pairwise comparison). Lower trunk, whole trunk, and total body DEXA measurements were not different. Measurement of subcomponents of fat content by DEXA is not superior to whole body measurements and remains consistently lower than measurements by CT.

  14. Effect of Tesamorelin on Liver Fat and Visceral Fat in HIV-Infected Patients With Abdominal Fat Accumulation: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Takara L.; Feldpausch, Meghan N.; Oh, Jinhee; Branch, Karen L.; Lee, Hang; Torriani, Martin; Grinspoon, Steven K.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Among HIV-infected patients, visceral adiposity is associated with metabolic dysregulation and ectopic fat accumulation. Tesamorelin, a growth hormone-releasing hormone analogue, specifically targets visceral fat reduction, but its effects on liver fat are unknown. Objective To investigate the effect of tesamorelin on visceral and liver fat. Design, Setting, and Participants Fifty antiretroviral-treated HIV-infected men and women with abdominal fat accumulation were recruited for this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial at Massachusetts General Hospital. The first patient was enrolled on 1/10/2011; the final patient completed his 6 month study visit on 9/6/2013. Intervention Tesamorelin 2mg vs. placebo SC daily for 6 months Main Outcomes Primary endpoints were changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver fat. Secondary endpoints included glucose and other metabolic endpoints. Results 76 patients were screened and 54 randomized. 50 presented for baseline assessment and 48 received treatment with study drug. Tesamorelin significantly reduced VAT (Δ −34 [−53, −15] vs. 8 [−14, 30] cm2, mean [95% CI], tesamorelin vs. placebo, treatment effect −42cm2 [95% CI −71, −14], P = 0.005) and liver fat (Δ −2.0 [−6.4, 0.1] vs. 0.9 [−0.6, 3.7] lipid-to-water %, median [IQR], tesamorelin vs. placebo, P=0.003) over 6 months, for a net treatment effect of −2.9 lipid-to-water %. Fasting glucose increased in the tesamorelin group at 2 weeks (Δ 9 [5, 13] vs. 2 [−3, 8] mg/dL, mean [95% CI], treatment effect 7mg/dL [95% CI 1, 14], P=0.03), but overall changes over 6 months in fasting glucose (Δ 4 [−2, 10] vs. 2 [−4, 7] mg/dL, mean [95% CI], treatment effect 2mg/dL [95% CI −6, 10], P=0.72) and 2 hour glucose (Δ −1 [−18, 15] vs. −8 [−24, 8] mg/dL, mean [95% CI], treatment effect 7mg/dL [95% CI −16, 29], P=0.53) were not significant. Conclusions and Relevance In this preliminary study of HIV-infected patients with

  15. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in genetically fat and lean chickens reveals adipokines, lipogenic genes and a link between hemostasis and leanness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This descriptive study of the abdominal fat transcriptome takes advantage of two experimental lines of meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus), which were selected over seven generations for a large difference in abdominal (visceral) fatness. At the age of selection (9 wk), the fat line (FL) and lean line (LL) chickens exhibit a 2.5-fold difference in abdominal fat weight, while their feed intake and body weight are similar. These unique avian models were originally created to unravel genetic and endocrine regulation of adiposity and lipogenesis in meat-type chickens. The Del-Mar 14K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray was used for a time-course analysis of gene expression in abdominal fat of FL and LL chickens during juvenile development (1–11 weeks of age). Results Microarray analysis of abdominal fat in FL and LL chickens revealed 131 differentially expressed (DE) genes (FDR≤0.05) as the main effect of genotype, 254 DE genes as an interaction of age and genotype and 3,195 DE genes (FDR≤0.01) as the main effect of age. The most notable discoveries in the abdominal fat transcriptome were higher expression of many genes involved in blood coagulation in the LL and up-regulation of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in FL chickens. Many of these DE genes belong to pathways controlling the synthesis, metabolism and transport of lipids or endocrine signaling pathways activated by adipokines, retinoid and thyroid hormones. Conclusions The present study provides a dynamic view of differential gene transcription in abdominal fat of chickens genetically selected for fatness (FL) or leanness (LL). Remarkably, the LL chickens over-express a large number of hemostatic genes that could be involved in proteolytic processing of adipokines and endocrine factors, which contribute to their higher lipolysis and export of stored lipids. Some of these changes are already present at 1 week of age before the divergence in fatness. In contrast, the FL chickens have

  16. [Fat mass and fat free mass on ventilatory function in adults].

    PubMed

    Feng, Kui; Chen, Li; Zu, Shu-Yu; Han, Shao-Mei; Zhu, Guang-Jin

    2010-04-25

    This study is designed to probe for the effects of fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) on ventilatory function in adults. 1 307 healthy adults (372 males and 935 females) were selected from some localities of Heilongjiang province through random sampling by means of questionnaire and physical examination and measured for height, weight, waist to hip ratio (WHR), FM, FFM and ventilatory function. The data were analyzed by means of Pearson correlation analysis, independent-samples t test and multi-factors regression analysis. Regardless of sex, an independent positive correlation was found (P<0.001) between age and fat mass index (FMI). Regardless of sex, fat free mass index (FFMI) was found to be positively associated with forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory flow at 25% of forced vital capacity (FEF25%) (P<0.01), and FMI was significantly and negatively related to FVC, FEV1, FEF75% (P<0.05). In males FMI was significantly and negatively related to maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) (P<0.05). Regardless of sex, the effect of FFMI on FVC was higher than that of FMI. For the males, the effect of FFMI on FVC was smaller than that of FMI, while the opposite was found in the females. Regardless of sex, FEF75% tended to decrease with increasing FMI, while FFMI was found to have no effects on FEF75%. MMEF tended to decrease with increasing FMI in the males, but no marked change was found in the females. The above results suggest that FM and FFM are independent factors influencing ventilatory function in adults. FM is negatively correlated with ventilatory function, but as a reflection of muscle mass, FFM is positively correlated with ventilatory function in adults. There is quantitative difference between the effects of FFM and FM on ventilatory function.

  17. A Lower-Carbohydrate, Higher-Fat Diet Reduces Abdominal and Intermuscular Fat and Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes123

    PubMed Central

    Gower, Barbara A; Goss, Amy M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity, particularly visceral and ectopic adiposity, increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if restriction of dietary carbohydrate is beneficial for body composition and metabolic health. Methods: Two studies were conducted. In the first, 69 overweight/obese men and women, 53% of whom were European American (EA) and 47% of whom were African American (AA), were provided with 1 of 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 43%, 18%, and 39%, respectively) for 8 wk at a eucaloric level and 8 wk at a hypocaloric level. In the second study, 30 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were provided with 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 41%, 19%, and 40%, respectively) at a eucaloric level for 8 wk in a random-order crossover design. Results: As previously reported, among overweight/obese adults, after the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the lower-carbohydrate vs. the lower-fat diet lost more intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) (11 ± 3% vs. 1 ± 3%; P < 0.05). After weight loss, participants who consumed the lower-carbohydrate diet had 4.4% less total fat mass. Original to this report, across the entire 16-wk study, AAs lost more fat mass with a lower-carbohydrate diet (6.2 vs. 2.9 kg; P < 0.01), whereas EAs showed no difference between diets. As previously reported, among women with PCOS, the lower-carbohydrate arm showed decreased fasting insulin (−2.8 μIU/mL; P < 0.001) and fasting glucose (−4.7 mg/dL; P < 0.01) and increased insulin sensitivity (1.06 arbitrary units; P < 0.05) and “dynamic” β-cell response (96.1 · 109; P < 0.001). In the lower-carbohydrate arm, women lost both IAAT (−4.8 cm2; P < 0.01) and intermuscular fat (−1.2 cm2; P < 0.01). In the lower-fat arm, women lost lean mass (−0

  18. Abdominal fat analyzed by DEXA scan reflects visceral body fat and improves the phenotype description and the assessment of metabolic risk in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiyi; Wilson, Jenny L; Khaksari, Mohammad; Cowley, Michael A; Enriori, Pablo J

    2012-09-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between visceral fat content and metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and liver steatosis. Obese mouse models are an excellent tool to study metabolic diseases; however, there are limited methods for the noninvasive measurement of fat distribution in mice. Although micromagnetic resonance imaging and microcomputed tomography are the "gold standards" in the measurement of fat distribution, more economical and accessible methods are required. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is an effective method in characterizing fat content; however, it cannot discriminate between visceral and subcutaneous fat depots. We demonstrate that an evaluation of abdominal fat content measured by DEXA through the selection of one localized abdominal area strongly correlates with visceral fat content in C57BL/6J mice. We found that DEXA is able to measure fat pad volume ex vivo with high accuracy; however, the measurement of visceral fat in vivo shows an overestimation caused by subcutaneous tissue interference. The overestimation is almost constant for a wide range of values, and thus it is possible to correct the data for a more accurate estimation of visceral fat content. We demonstrate the utility of this technique in characterizing phenotypes of several obese mouse models (ob/ob, db/db, MC4R-KO, and DIO) and evaluating the effect of treatments on visceral fat content in longitudinal studies. Additionally, we also establish abdominal obesity as a potential biomarker for metabolic abnormalities (liver fat accumulation, insulin resistance/diabetes) in mice, similar to that described in humans.

  19. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women.

    PubMed

    Fox, Caroline S; Liu, Yongmei; White, Charles C; Feitosa, Mary; Smith, Albert V; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Lohman, Kurt; Johnson, Andrew D; Foster, Meredith C; Greenawalt, Danielle M; Griffin, Paula; Ding, Jinghong; Newman, Anne B; Tylavsky, Fran; Miljkovic, Iva; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Launer, Lenore; Garcia, Melissa; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Carr, J Jeffrey; Gudnason, Vilmunder; Harris, Tamara B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Borecki, Ingrid B

    2012-01-01

    Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT) to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio, our most significant p-value was rs11118316 at LYPLAL1 gene (p = 3.1 × 10E-09), previously identified in association with waist-hip ratio. For SAT, the most significant SNP was in the FTO gene (p = 5.9 × 10E-08). Given the known gender differences in body fat distribution, we performed sex-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p = 1.6 × 10-08), but not men (p = 0.75). Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p = 0.006) but not men (p = 0.24) for BMI and waist circumference (p = 0.04 [women], p = 0.49 [men]). Finally, we interrogated our data for the 14 recently published loci for body fat distribution (measured by waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI); associations were observed at 7 of these loci. In contrast, we observed associations at only 7/32 loci previously identified in association with BMI; the majority of overlap was observed with SAT. Genome-wide association for visceral and subcutaneous fat revealed a SNP for

  20. Estimating Negative Effect of Abdominal Obesity on Mildly Decreased Kidney Function Using a Novel Index of Body-Fat Distribution

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Conventional obesity-related indicators, included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and conicity index (C-index), have some limitations. We examined the usefulness of trunk/body fat mass ratio (T/Br) to predict negative effect of abnormal fat distribution on excretory kidney function. We analyzed anthropometric, biochemical and densitometric data from a nation-wide, population-based, case-control study (the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [KNHANES] IV and V). A total of 11,319 participants were divided into 2 groups according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL·min-1·1.73 m-2) as follows: Group I (n = 7,980), eGFR ≥ 90 and ≤ 120; and group II (n = 3,339), eGFR ≥ 60 and < 90. Linear regression analysis revealed that T/Br was closely related to eGFR (β = −0.3173, P < 0.001), and the correlation remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, BMI, WC, C-index, systolic blood pressure (BP), hemoglobin, and smoking amount (β = −0.0987, P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that T/Br (odds ratio [OR] = 1.046; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.039–1.054) was significantly associated with early decline of kidney function, and adjustment for age, gender, BMI, C-index, systolic BP, hemoglobin, serum glucose level, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and smoking amount did not reduce the association (OR = 1.020; 95% CI = 1.007–1.033). T/Br is useful in estimating the negative impact of abdominal obesity on the kidney function. PMID:28244287

  1. Left Ventricular Mass: Correlation with Fatness, Hemodynamics and Renal Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Wykrętowicz, Mariusz; Katulska, Katarzyna; Milewska, Agata; Krauze, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Left ventricular mass (LVM) is correlated with body composition and central hemodynamics as well as kidney function. Recently, fat-free mass has been considered to be more strongly correlated with LVM in comparison to other descriptors of fatness. We therefore address the question of whether comprehensive descriptors of fatness, central hemodynamics and renal characteristics demonstrate the association with left ventricular mass in healthy non-obese population. Material/Methods 119 healthy non-obese subjects (53 females, 66 males, mean age 50 yrs) were evaluated. Central hemodynamics was measured by Pulse Wave Analysis, left ventricular mass was assessed by echocardiography, fatness was evaluated by anthropometry, bioimpedance, and ultrasound. Results Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) correlated to the same extent with central and peripheral blood pressure but not with descriptors of wave reflection. Fat-free mass as well as intraabdominal fat correlated to a similar extent with LVMI. Kidney morphological characteristics indexed to body surface area were associated inversely and independently with LVMI. Conclusions Comprehensive assessment of fatness reinforced the concept that intraabdominal fat compartment is strongly correlated with left ventricular mass. Descriptors of wave reflection are not associated with left ventricular mass. The interrelationsh between kidney morphology and LVMI indicates that such associations may be a biologically plausible phenomenon. PMID:25436020

  2. Genetics of fat intake in the determination of body mass.

    PubMed

    Chmurzynska, Agata; Mlodzik, Monika A

    2017-03-15

    Body mass and fat intake are multifactorial traits that have genetic and environmental components. The gene with the greatest effect on body mass is FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated), but several studies have shown that the effect of FTO (and of other genes) on body mass can be modified by the intake of nutrients. The so-called gene-environment interactions may also be important for the effectiveness of weight-loss strategies. Food choices, and thus fat intake, depend to some extent on individual preferences. The most important biological component of food preference is taste, and the role of fat sensitivity in fat intake has recently been pointed out. Relatively few studies have analysed the genetic components of fat intake or fatty acid sensitivity in terms of their relation to obesity. It has been proposed that decreased oral fatty acid sensitivity leads to increased fat intake and thus increased body mass. One of the genes that affect fatty acid sensitivity is CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36). However, little is known so far about the genetic component of fat sensing. We performed a literature review to identify the state of knowledge regarding the genetics of fat intake and its relation to body-mass determination, and to identify the priorities for further investigations.

  3. Abdominal adiposity, insulin and bone quality in young male rats fed a high-fat diet containing soybean or canola oil

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Carlos, Aluana Santana; de Sousa dos Santos, Aline; Monteiro, Alexandra Maria Vieira; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Nascimento-Saba, Celly Cristina Alves

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with healthy bone properties. However, fatty diets can induce obesity. Our objective was to evaluate intra-abdominal adiposity, insulin, and bone growth in rats fed a high-fat diet containing low ratios of omega-6/omega-3 provided in canola oil. METHODS: After weaning, rats were grouped and fed either a control diet (7S), a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S) or a high-fat diet of canola oil (19C) until they were 60 days old. Differences were considered to be significant if p<0.05. RESULTS: After 60 days, the 19S and 19C groups showed more energy intake, body density growth and intra-abdominal fat mass. However, the 19S group had a higher area (200%) and a lower number (44%) of adipocytes, while the 7S and 19C groups did not differ. The serum concentrations of glucose and insulin and the insulin resistance index were significantly increased in the 19C group (15%, 56%, and 78%, respectively) compared to the 7S group. Bone measurements of the 19S and 19C groups showed a higher femur mass (25%) and a higher lumbar vertebrae mass (11%) and length (5%). Computed tomography analysis revealed more radiodensity in the proximal femoral epiphysis and lumbar vertebrae of 19C group compared to the 7S and 19S groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the amount and source of fat used in the diet after weaning increase body growth and fat depots and affect insulin resistance and, consequently, bone health. PMID:22012056

  4. Effects of peroxidized corn oil on performance, AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ehr, I J; Kerr, B J; Persia, M E

    2015-07-01

    There is a trend to use more alternative lipids in poultry diets, either through animal-vegetable blends, distillers corn oil, or yellow grease. This has resulted in the use of lipids in poultry diets with a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, which have a greater potential for peroxidation. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of peroxidized corn oil on broiler performance, dietary AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight. The same refined corn oil sample was divided into 3 subsamples, 2 of which were exposed to different peroxidative processes. The 3 diets contained the unperoxidized corn oil (UO), a slowly peroxidized corn oil (SO; heated for 72 h at 95°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min), or a rapidly peroxidized corn oil (RO; heated for 12 h at 185°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min). Diets were fed from 0 to 14 d of age with each lipid fed at a 5% inclusion rate, continuing on from 15 to 27 d of age with each lipid fed at a 10% inclusion rate. There were 6 Ross 708 broiler chicks per cage with 10 replicates for each of the 3 dietary treatments. Abdominal fat pad and excreta collection was performed on d 27. Body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured for the 0 to 14 and 0 to 27 d periods. The increased level of peroxidation reduced AMEn in broiler diets (UO = 3,490 kcal/kg; SO = 3,402 kcal/kg; RO = 3,344 kcal/kg on an as-is basis; SEM = 12.9, P ≤ 0.01). No significant treatment differences were observed among oil supplemented birds for BW gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, or abdominal fat pad weight. In conclusion, corn oil peroxidation status resulted in a decrease in dietary AMEn, but had minimal effects on broiler performance or fat pad weights.

  5. Effect of walking exercise on abdominal fat, insulin resistance and serum cytokines in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hye-Ryun; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Kong, Ji-Young; Lee, Sang-Hee; Yang, Seung-Hun; Ha, Chang-Duk; Kang, Hyun-Sik

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of 12-week walking exercise on abdominal fat, insulin resistance and serum cytokines in obese women. [Methods] Following baseline measurements, obese women (N = 20) who met obesity criterion of BMI at 25 kg/m2 or greater were randomly assigned to the control (n = 10) or exercise groups (n = 10). Women assigned to the exercise group participated in a walking exercise (with an intensity of 50-60% of predetermined VO2max, a frequency of 3 days per week and duration of 50-70 minutes targeting 400 kcal of energy expenditure per session) for 12 weeks, while women assigned to the control group maintained their sedentary lifestyle. After the 12-week walking intervention, post-test measurements were conducted using the same procedure as the baseline measurement. Analyses of variance with repeated measures were used to evaluate any significant time by group interactions for the measured variables. [Results] With respect to body fat parameters, significant time-by-group interactions were found in the abdominal subcutaneous (p = < 0.001) and visceral adipose tissues (p = 0.011). The exercise group had significant reductions in both subcutaneous and visceral adiposity, and the control group had no significant changes in those parameters. Similarly, there were significant time by group interactions in fasting glucose (p = 0.008), HOMA-IR (p = 0.029), serum TNF-α (p = 0.027), and IL-6 (p = 0.048) such that the exercise group had significant reductions in those parameters, with no such significant changes found in the control group. The exercise group also had a significant increase in serum adiponectin (p = 0.002), whereas the control group had no significant change in the parameter. [Conclusion] In summary, the current findings suggest that walking exercise can provide a safe and effective lifestyle strategy against abdominal obesity and serum insulin resistance markers in obese women. PMID:25566464

  6. Color and fatty acid profile of abdominal fat pads from broiler chickens fed lobster meal.

    PubMed

    Rathgeber, B M; Anderson, D M; Thompson, K L; Macisaac, J L; Budge, S

    2011-06-01

    Consumer demands for food products enriched with healthful n-3 fatty acids are steadily increasing. Feeding marine byproducts may provide an economical means of increasing the long-chain n-3 content of broiler tissues. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary lobster meal (LM) on the color and fatty acid profile of broiler chicken fatty tissue. Broilers were fed increasing levels (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%) of LM for 35 d. Fat pad samples were collected at slaughter and color and fatty acid concentrations were determined. A linear effect was found of LM on red coloration (P < 0.05) as dietary LM increased. Fat pad eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels also increased (P < 0.0001) in a linear fashion. The essential long-chain fatty acids were lower for the 10% LM diet (0.37 mg of EPA/g; 0.16 mg of DHA/g) compared with the 8% LM diet (0.51 mg of EPA/g; 0.27 mg of DHA/g). Using lobster meal as a feed ingredient resulted in broiler abdominal fat pads with a favorable increase in n-3 fatty acids.

  7. Disproportionate fat stranding: a helpful CT sign in patients with acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Jose M; Sirlin, Claude B; Pinto, Pedro S; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Stella, Damien L; Casola, Giovanna

    2004-01-01

    Fat stranding adjacent to thickened bowel wall seen at computed tomography (CT) in patients with acute abdominal pain suggests an acute process of the gastrointestinal tract, but the differential diagnosis is wide. The authors observed "disproportionate" fat stranding (ie, stranding more severe than expected for the degree of bowel wall thickening present) and explored how this finding suggests a narrower differential diagnosis, one that is centered in the mesentery: diverticulitis, epiploic appendagitis, omental infarction, and appendicitis. The characteristic CT findings (in addition to fat stranding) of each of these entities often lead to a final diagnosis. Diverticulitis manifests with mild, smooth bowel wall thickening and no lymphadenopathy. Epiploic appendagitis manifests with central areas of high attenuation and a hyperattenuated rim, in addition to its characteristic location adjacent to the colon. In contrast, omental infarction is always centered in the omentum. The most specific finding of appendicitis is a dilated, fluid-filled appendix. Correct noninvasive diagnosis is important because treatment approaches for these conditions range from monitoring to surgery.

  8. Fat: friend or foe? A review of fat-containing masses within the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Kale, Hrishikesh A; Prabhu, Arpan V; Sinelnikov, Andrey; Branstetter, Barton

    2016-11-01

    Fat-containing lesions of the head and neck are commonly encountered in day-to-day practice. Our aim was to review the various imaging presentations of common and some uncommon fat-containing lesions within the head and neck with potential pitfalls and mimics. While most soft-tissue masses have a fairly similar density, the presence of fat in a mass lesion is easy to identify on both CT/MRI and can help narrow the differential. Case-based examples of lipomas, liposarcomas, lipoblastomas, dermoids, teratomas and other fatty lesions will be used to describe imaging features. While fat density can be helpful, differentiating benign from malignant fat-containing lesions can still pose a challenge. Lesions simulating pathology such as brown fat, fatty changes within organs and post-operative flaps are presented. Finally, examples of fatty lesions in atypical locations are shown to illustrate examples that should be kept in mind in any differential. The presence of fat in head and neck masses can aid radiologists in arriving at an accurate diagnosis. Knowledge of the imaging appearance of these fat-containing lesions and their mimics can help avoid unnecessary biopsy or surgery.

  9. Higher Fat Mass Is Associated With a History of Knee Injury in Youth Sport.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Clodagh M; Whittaker, Jackie L; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Reimer, Raylene A; Woodhouse, Linda J; Ghali, Brianna; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K; Emery, Carolyn A

    2017-02-01

    Study Design Historical cohort study. Background History of a knee joint injury and increased fat mass are risk factors for joint disease. Objective The objective of this study was to examine differences in adiposity, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness between youths with a 3- to 10-year history of sport-related intra-articular knee injury and uninjured controls. Methods One hundred young adults (aged 15-26 years; 55% female) with a sport-related intra-articular knee injury sustained 3 to 10 years previously and 100 controls matched for age, sex, and sport, who had no history of intra-articular knee injury, were recruited. Fat mass index (FMI) and abdominal fat (fat mass at the L1 to L4 vertebral levels) were derived using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness were measured using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire and the multistage 20-meter shuttle run test for aerobic fitness, respectively. Results Previously injured participants demonstrated higher FMI (within-pair difference, 1.05 kg/m(2); 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.53, 1.57) and abdominal fat (461 g; 95% CI: 228, 694) than uninjured controls. In multivariable linear regression analysis, previous injury was significantly associated with increased FMI. This increase was attenuated in those who participated in higher levels of physical activity or had higher estimated maximum volume of oxygen. Conclusion As a risk factor for osteoarthritis in an already susceptible group, excess adiposity is an undesirable trait in the potential pathway to joint disease. Increasing physical activity in this population may be a potential intervention to reduce adiposity thus impede disease initiation and/or progression. Level of Evidence Level 2b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(2):80-87. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7101.

  10. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Abdominal Fat Partitioning in Healthy Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiantao; Sloan, Matthew; Fox, Caroline S.; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E.; Saltzman, Edward; Rogers, Gail T.; Jacques, Paul F.; McKeown, Nicola M.

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal adiposity, particularly visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is independently linked to the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may be associated with abnormal fat accumulation in VAT. We examined whether habitual SSB consumption and diet soda intakes are differentially associated with deposition of body fat. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using previously collected data in 2596 middle-aged adults (1306 men and 1290 women) from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. VAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured using multidetector computed tomography. Habitual intake of SSBs and diet soda was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. We observed that SSB consumption was positively associated with VAT after adjustment for SAT and other potential confounders (P-trend < 0.001). We observed an inverse association between SSB consumption and SAT (P-trend = 0.04) that persisted after additional adjustment for VAT (P-trend < 0.001). Higher SSB consumption was positively associated with the VAT-to-SAT ratio (P-trend < 0.001). No significant association was found between diet soda consumption and either VAT or the VAT-to-SAT ratio, but diet soda was positively associated with SAT (P-trend < 0.001). Daily consumers of SSBs had a 10% higher absolute VAT volume and a 15% greater VAT-to-SAT ratio compared with nonconsumers, whereas consumption of diet soda was not associated with either volume or distribution of VAT. PMID:24944282

  11. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with abdominal fat partitioning in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiantao; Sloan, Matthew; Fox, Caroline S; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E; Saltzman, Edward; Rogers, Gail T; Jacques, Paul F; McKeown, Nicola M

    2014-08-01

    Abdominal adiposity, particularly visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is independently linked to the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may be associated with abnormal fat accumulation in VAT. We examined whether habitual SSB consumption and diet soda intakes are differentially associated with deposition of body fat. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using previously collected data in 2596 middle-aged adults (1306 men and 1290 women) from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. VAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured using multidetector computed tomography. Habitual intake of SSBs and diet soda was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. We observed that SSB consumption was positively associated with VAT after adjustment for SAT and other potential confounders (P-trend < 0.001). We observed an inverse association between SSB consumption and SAT (P-trend = 0.04) that persisted after additional adjustment for VAT (P-trend < 0.001). Higher SSB consumption was positively associated with the VAT-to-SAT ratio (P-trend < 0.001). No significant association was found between diet soda consumption and either VAT or the VAT-to-SAT ratio, but diet soda was positively associated with SAT (P-trend < 0.001). Daily consumers of SSBs had a 10% higher absolute VAT volume and a 15% greater VAT-to-SAT ratio compared with nonconsumers, whereas consumption of diet soda was not associated with either volume or distribution of VAT.

  12. Effectiveness of thigh-to-thigh current path for the measurement of abdominal fat in bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki Hwan; Lim, Yong Gyu; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-12-01

    We present a new method measuring body impedance using a thigh-to-thigh current path, which can reflect the abdominal fat portion more sensitively and can be conveniently applied during the daily use on a toilet seat. Two pairs of electrodes were installed on a toilet seat to provide current and to permit voltage measurement through a thigh-to-thigh current path. The effectiveness of the method was compared with conventional foot-to-foot and hand-to-foot current paths by simulation and by experiments referenced to computed tomography (CT) image analysis. Body impedance using three different current paths was measured, and abdominal CT images were acquired for eight subjects. Measured body impedances were compared with the visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (VF/SF) calculated from the CT-determined abdominal fat volume. The thigh-to-thigh current path was about 75% more sensitive in abdominal fat measurement than the conventional current paths in simulation experiments and displayed a higher VF/SF correlation (r = 0.768) than the foot-to-foot (r = 0.425) and hand-to-foot (r = 0.497) current paths.

  13. Relationship between body fat mass and free fatty acid kinetics in men and women.

    PubMed

    Mittendorfer, Bettina; Magkos, Faidon; Fabbrini, Elisa; Mohammed, B Selma; Klein, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    An increased release of free fatty acids (FFAs) into plasma likely contributes to the metabolic complications associated with obesity. However, the relationship between body fat and FFA metabolism is unclear because of conflicting results from different studies. The goal of our study was to determine the inter-relationships between body fat, sex, and plasma FFA kinetics. We determined FFA rate of appearance (Ra) in plasma, by using stable isotopically labeled tracer techniques, during basal conditions in 106 lean, overweight, and obese, nondiabetic subjects (43 men and 63 women who had 7.0-56.0% body fat). Correlation analyses demonstrated: (i) no differences between men and women in the relationship between fat mass (FM) and total FFA Ra (micromol/min); (ii) total FFA Ra increased linearly with increasing FM (r=0.652, P<0.001); (iii) FFA Ra per kg FM decreased in a curvilinear fashion with increasing FM (r=-0.806; P<0.001); (iv) FFA Ra in relationship to fat-free mass (FFM) was greater in obese than lean subjects and greater in women than in men; and (v) abdominal fat itself was not an important determinant of total FFA Ra. We conclude that total body fat, not regional fat distribution or sex, is an important modulator of the rate of FFA release into plasma. Although increased adiposity is associated with a decrease in fatty acid release in relationship to FM, this downregulation is unable to completely compensate for the increase in FM, so total FFA Ra and FFA Ra with respect to FFM are greater in women than in men and in obese than in lean subjects.

  14. Fat accumulation, fatty acids and melting point changes in broiler chick abdominal fat as affected by time of dietary fat feeding and slaughter age.

    PubMed

    Carmona, J M; Lopez-Bote, C J; Daza, A; Rey, A I

    2017-03-23

    1. This work aims to quantify changes in fatty acid profile, melting point, abdominal fat accumulation and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production depending on dietary fat source and age at slaughter, and to estimate the optimal date for the change from an unsaturated fat to a saturated fat diet or vice versa. 2. Treatments established were (1) birds fed 8% tallow from 21 to 49 d (TTT); (2) birds fed 8% tallow from 21 to 37 d and 8% sunflower oil from d 38 to 49 (TSS); (3) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 37 d and 8% tallow from d 38 to 49 (STT); (4) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 41 d and 8% tallow from d 42 to 49 (SST); (5) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 49 d (SSS). Birds from each group were slaughtered on d 21, 29, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46 and 49. 3. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) proportion in the SSS group reached maximum values at d 40 and fitted a quadratic response. This group also showed a decrease in saturated fatty acids (SATs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) of lower intensity than the PUFA increase. The highest synthesis of SAT + MUFA was found in the SSS and TSS groups, whereas these had the lowest body-to-dietary PUFA ratio. 4. A high and quadratic increase in the MUFA proportion was observed during the first 10 d of feeding with the tallow-enriched diet at the expenses of the proportion of PUFA that quadratically decreased (minimum values at d 38). 5. Lipogenic and desaturation capacity decreased with age. 6. The TSS group increased tissue PUFA content faster that the SST group decreased PUFA content after the change in diet which indicates that the earlier feeding has to be taken into consideration for obtaining higher or lower changes in quality parameters. 7. The melting point of the SSS group showed a lower response to the dietary treatment in the initial period when compared to the TTT treatment. 8. The TTT, STT, SST and TSS groups showed similar fat accumulation, and changes in lipid

  15. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J.; Lee, William R.; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences. PMID:26295149

  16. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J; Lee, William R; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences.

  17. Swimming eliminates the weight gain and abdominal fat associated with ovariectomy in the retired breeder rat despite high-fat diet selection.

    PubMed

    Melton, S A; Hegsted, M; Keenan, M J; Zhang, Y; Morris, S; Potter Bulot, L; O'Neil, C E; Morris, G S

    2000-08-01

    The effects of swim-training on choice of dietary fat, carbohydrate or protein, weight gain, energy intake, and energy efficiency were examined in ovariectomized and sham-operated retired breeder rats. After a 3 week training period of increased duration, rats swam for 75 min per session (5 days per week) for 4 weeks. Ovariectomized rats gained more weight than sham rats, while swimming reduced weight gain and abdominal fat. As a percentage of total intake, macronutrient choices (weight and energy) were similar for all groups, ovariectomized animals consumed more food and more energy, compared with sham animals. All rats freely chose the majority of their food (g) as carbohydrate and the majority of energy (kJ) as fat. Results indicate that a moderate intensity training program of swimming prevented the weight gain following ovariectomy in older rats despite their excessive caloric intake of fat.

  18. Large Gastric Teratoma: A Rare Intra-abdominal Mass of Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Roumina; Monappa, Vidya; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Amongst the varied, diverse causes of intraabdominal masses in infancy and early childhood, gastric teratomas (GTs) account for a very small proportion. A worldwide literature search reveals only around one hundred cases of GT and also supports the fact that its preoperative diagnosis remains elusive. Here we report the case of a two-month-old male who presented to the pediatric surgery outpatient department of Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Karnataka, India, with progressive distension of abdomen since birth. Clinically, a large firm, non-mobile and non-tender mass involving all four quadrants of the abdomen was seen. Ultrasound revealed a large solid-cystic mass with internal septations extending from the epigastrium up to the pelvis. Computed tomography revealed a large intraperitoneal fat containing solid-cystic mass lesion showing curvilinear and chunky areas of calcification, with the mass focally indenting the posterior gastric wall and showing focal polypoidal intragastric extension. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large cystic tumor with a solid component, arising from lesser curvature of the stomach, showing focal intraluminal extension across the posterior gastric wall, and occupying the whole lesser sac and abdominal cavity. The tumor was excised in toto along with the body of the stomach. Histopathological examination showed mature tissue derived from all three germ cell layers and confirmed the diagnosis of mature gastric teratoma. The patient was disease free at one-year follow-up. PMID:27162596

  19. Estrogen improved metabolic syndrome through down-regulation of VEGF and HIF-1α to inhibit hypoxia of periaortic and intra-abdominal fat in ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinwen; Xiang, Qiuling; Lin, Guiping; Fu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Kewen; Jiang, Ping; Zheng, Shuhui; Wang, Tinghuai

    2012-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MBS), a cluster of metabolic abnormalities and visceral fat accumulation, increases cardiovascular risks in postmenopausal women. In addition to visceral fat, perivascular adipose tissue has been recently found to play an important role in vascular pathophysiology. Hence, the present study investigates the effects of estrogen on both intra-abdominal fat (visceral fat) and periaortic fat (perivascular fat) accumulation as well as hypoxia in ovariectomized female rats. Female rats were divided into sham operation, ovariectomy and ovariectomy with 17β-estradiol supplementation groups. Twelve weeks later, we found that estrogen improved MBS via reducing body weight gain, the weight of periaortic and intra-abdominal fat, hepatic triglyceride, and total serum cholesterol levels. Estrogen also increased insulin sensitivity through restoring glucose and serum leptin levels. For periaortic fat, western blot showed estrogen inhibited hypoxia by reducing the levels of VEGF and HIF-1α, which is consistent with the results from immunohistochemical staining. The correlation analysis indicated that perivascular fat had a positive correlation with body weight, intra-abdominal fat or serum total cholesterol, but a negative correlation with insulin sensitivity index. For intra-abdominal fat, real-time fluorescent RT-PCR showed estrogen improved fat dysfunction via reducing the levels of relative leptin, MCP-1 but increasing adiponectin mRNA. Estrogen reduced the levels of VEGF and HIF-1α to inhibit hypoxia but restored the levels of PPARγ and Srebp-1c, which are important for lipid capacity function of intra-abdominal fat. These results demonstrated estrogen improved MBS through down-regulating VEGF and HIF-1α to inhibit hypoxia of periaortic and intra-abdominal fat in ovariectomized female rats.

  20. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat.

  1. Visceral Fat Mass Has Stronger Associations with Diabetes and Prediabetes than Other Anthropometric Obesity Indicators among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Suk Hwa; Ha, Kyoung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study determined which obesity measurement correlates the best with diabetes and prediabetes. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 1603 subjects (611 men, 992 women; age 30–64 years) at the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-height ratio, waist-hip ratio, waist-thigh ratio, and visceral fat were used as measures of obesity. Visceral fat was acquired using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes were defined using the criteria in the American Diabetes Association 2015 guidelines. Results After adjusting for age and other potential confounding factors, participants with a visceral fat mass in the upper 10th percentile had a higher odds ratio (OR) for diabetes and prediabetes than the upper 10th percentile of other adiposity indices [men, OR=15.9, 95% confidence interval (CI)=6.4–39.2; women, OR=6.9, 95% CI=3.5–13.7]. Visceral fat mass also had the highest area under the curve with diabetes and prediabetes in both men (0.69, 95% CI=0.64–0.73) and women (0.70, 95% CI=0.67–0.74) compared to other anthropometric measurements of obesity. Conclusion Visceral fat mass measured using DXA is an indicator of diabetes or prediabetes, due to its ability to differentiate between abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat. PMID:26996568

  2. Single injection of clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks decreases abdominal fat pad weight in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ijiri, Daichi; Ishitani, Kanae; El-Deep, Mahmoud Mohamed Hamza; Kawaguchi, Mana; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of clenbuterol injection into newly hatched chicks on both the abdominal fat pad tissue weight and the skeletal muscle weight during subsequent growth. Twenty-seven 1-day-old chicks were divided into two groups, receiving either a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clenbuterol (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not affected by clenbuterol injection during the 5-week experimental period, while the abdominal fat pad tissue weight of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was lower than that of the control chicks at 5 weeks post-injection. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were significantly increased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, while plasma triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of fatty acid synthase was lower in the liver of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Conversely, the skeletal muscle weights were not affected by clenbuterol injection. These results suggest that a single clenbuterol injection into 1-day-old chicks decreases the abdominal fat pad tissue weight, but may not affect skeletal muscle weights during growth. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Association between fat mass index and fat-free mass index values and cardiovascular risk in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Patrícia Morais; da Silva, Fabiana Almeida; Oliveira, Renata Maria Souza; Mendes, Larissa Loures; Pereira, Michele; Cândido, Ana Paula Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe the association between fat mass index and fat-free mass index values and factors associated with cardiovascular risk in adolescents in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. Methods: Cross-sectional study was with 403 adolescents aged 10–14 years, from public and private schools. Anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical measurements were obtained, as well as self-reported time spent performing physical exercises, sedentary activities and sexual maturation stage. Results: Regarding the nutritional status, 66.5% of the adolescents had normal weight, 19.9% were overweight and 10.2% were obese. For both genders, the fat mass index was higher in adolescents who had high serum triglycerides, body mass index and waist circumference. Conclusions: Adolescents who had anthropometric, clinical and biochemical characteristics considered to be at risk for the development of cardiovascular disease had higher values of fat mass index. Different methodologies for the assessment of body composition make health promotion and disease prevention more effective. PMID:26542380

  4. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  5. Effect of body composition methodology on estimates of fat mass heritability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Body fatness is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have produced a wide range of estimates for the heritability of body fatness, ranging from 0.34-0.90 for body mass index (BMI), 0.59-0.83 for percent body fat, and 0.45-0.71 for fat mass. Little atte...

  6. Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Leppänen, Marja H; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Löf, Marie

    2016-07-30

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height² (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height² (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 ± 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized β = -0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (β = -0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (β = -0.21, p < 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (β = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (β = 0.39, p < 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) and motor fitness (β = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health.

  7. Relation of fat-mass and obesity-associated gene polymorphism to fat mass content and body mass index in obese children.

    PubMed

    Pyrzak, Beata; Wisniewska, Alicja; Majcher, Anna; Tysarowski, Andrzej; Demkow, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Fat mass content, fat distribution, and fat-mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have been reported among a broad spectrum of genetic variation connected with body weight. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the T/A rs9939609 polymorphism of the FTO gene may influence obesity and metabolic indices in children. A 160 children were examined (136 obese and 24 non-obese). The anthropometric measurements and calculations included: height, weight, waist and hip circumference, sum of the thickness of 3 and 10 skin folds, % of fat content, % FAT- BIA , % LBM-BIA. BMI, SDS of BMI, WHR, and WHtR. Fasting plasma total cholesterol (TC), HDL and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and HOMA-IR were analyzed and the blood pressure were measured. The rs9939609 polymorphism of FTO gene was genotyped by allele-specific real-time polymerase chain- reaction (RT-PCR). We found that the mean concentrations of TC, TG, LDLC, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher, and HDL was lower in the obese than in non-obese children. The presence of TT, but not AA alleles, related to the percentage of fat content, BMI, and z-score of BMI. None of the other anthropometric indices did differ between the children with gene polymorphism and wild homozygous. In conclusion, rs9939609 polymorphism in the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene is associated with BMI and the percent of fat content in children.

  8. Regular tart cherry intake alters abdominal adiposity, adipose gene transcription, and inflammation in obesity-prone rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Seymour, E M; Lewis, Sarah K; Urcuyo-Llanes, Daniel E; Tanone, Ignasia I; Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2009-10-01

    Obesity, systemic inflammation, and hyperlipidemia are among the components of metabolic syndrome, a spectrum of phenotypes that can precede the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Animal studies show that intake of anthocyanin-rich extracts can affect these phenotypes. Anthocyanins can alter the activity of tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which affect energy substrate metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown if physiologically relevant, anthocyanin-containing whole foods confer similar effects to concentrated, anthocyanin extracts. The effect of anthocyanin-rich tart cherries was tested in the Zucker fatty rat model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. For 90 days, rats were pair-fed a higher fat diet supplemented with either 1% (wt/wt) freeze-dried, whole tart cherry powder or with a calorie- and macronutrient-matched control diet. Tart cherry intake was associated with reduced hyperlipidemia, percentage fat mass, abdominal fat (retroperitoneal) weight, retroperitoneal interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, and plasma IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Tart cherry diet also increased retroperitoneal fat PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma mRNA (P = .12), decreased IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA, and decreased nuclear factor kappaB activity. In conclusion, in at-risk obese rats fed a high fat diet, physiologically relevant tart cherry consumption reduced several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and reduced both systemic and local inflammation. Tart cherries may reduce the degree or trajectory of metabolic syndrome, thereby reducing risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

  9. Abdominal cavity myolipoma presenting as an enlarging incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Mark O; Richardson, Michael L; Rubin, Brian P; Baird, Geoffrey S

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of an abdominal cavity myolipoma which herniated through a low transverse abdominal (Pfannenstiel) incision, and presented as an enlarging abdominal wall mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to surgery demonstrated an encapsulated solid tumor mass demonstrating fat signal and and increased T2-weighted signal. Postsurgical histological tissue diagnosis was myolipoma. Recognition of the intra- and extraperitoneal location of this abdominal tumor was essential for accurate surgical planning.

  10. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on abdominal and liver fat deposition and blood lipids: a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Bendsen, N T; Chabanova, E; Thomsen, H S; Larsen, T M; Newman, J W; Stender, S; Dyerberg, J; Haugaard, S B; Astrup, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) is, according to observational studies, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the causal mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Besides inducing dyslipidemia, TFA intake is suspected to promote abdominal and liver fat deposition. Objective: We examined the effect of a high intake of TFA as part of an isocaloric diet on whole-body, abdominal and hepatic fat deposition, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women. Methods: In a 16-week double-blind parallel intervention study, 52 healthy overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil providing 15.7 g day−1 of TFA or a control oil with mainly oleic and palmitic acid. Before and after the intervention, body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, abdominal fat by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and liver fat by 1H MR spectroscopy. Results: Compared with the control fat, TFA intake decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol by 10%, increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol by 18% and resulted in an increased LDL/HDL-cholesterol ratio (baseline adjusted mean (95% CI) difference between diet groups 0.41 (0.22; 0.60); P<0.001). TFA tended to increase the body fat (0.46 (−0.20; 1.17) kg; P=0.16) and waist circumference (1.1 (−0.1; 2.4) cm; P=0.08) more than the control fat, whereas neither abdominal nor liver fat deposition was affected by TFA. Conclusion: The adverse effect of dietary TFA on cardiovascular disease risk involves induction of dyslipidemia, and perhaps body fat, whereas weight gain-independent accumulation of ectopic fat could not be identified as a contributory factor during short-term intake. PMID:23154296

  11. Optimization of abdominal fat quantification on CT imaging through use of standardized anatomic space: A novel approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The quantification of body fat plays an important role in the study of numerous diseases. It is common current practice to use the fat area at a single abdominal computed tomography (CT) slice as a marker of the body fat content in studying various disease processes. This paper sets out to answer three questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. At what single anatomic slice location do the areas of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) estimated from the slice correlate maximally with the corresponding fat volume measures? How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? Are there combinations of multiple slices (not necessarily contiguous) whose area sum correlates better with volume than does single slice area with volume? Methods: The authors propose a novel strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. The authors then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. To address the third issue, the authors carry out similar correlation studies by utilizing two and three slices for calculating area sum. Results: Based on 50 abdominal CT data sets, the proposed mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized currently for single slice area estimation as a marker. Conclusions: The maximum area-to-volume correlation achieved is quite high, suggesting that it may be reasonable to estimate body fat by measuring the area of fat from a single anatomic slice at the site of maximum correlation and use this as a marker. The site of maximum correlation is not at L4-L5 as commonly assumed

  12. Noncontrast computed tomography can predict the outcome of shockwave lithotripsy via accurate stone measurement and abdominal fat distribution determination.

    PubMed

    Geng, Jiun-Hung; Tu, Hung-Pin; Shih, Paul Ming-Chen; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Jang, Mei-Yu; Wu, Wen-Jen; Li, Ching-Chia; Chou, Yii-Her; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease of the urinary system. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) has become one of the standard treatments for renal and ureteral stones; however, the success rates range widely and failure of stone disintegration may cause additional outlay, alternative procedures, and even complications. We used the data available from noncontrast abdominal computed tomography (NCCT) to evaluate the impact of stone parameters and abdominal fat distribution on calculus-free rates following SWL. We retrospectively reviewed 328 patients who had urinary stones and had undergone SWL from August 2012 to August 2013. All of them received pre-SWL NCCT; 1 month after SWL, radiography was arranged to evaluate the condition of the fragments. These patients were classified into stone-free group and residual stone group. Unenhanced computed tomography variables, including stone attenuation, abdominal fat area, and skin-to-stone distance (SSD) were analyzed. In all, 197 (60%) were classified as stone-free and 132 (40%) as having residual stone. The mean ages were 49.35 ± 13.22 years and 55.32 ± 13.52 years, respectively. On univariate analysis, age, stone size, stone surface area, stone attenuation, SSD, total fat area (TFA), abdominal circumference, serum creatinine, and the severity of hydronephrosis revealed statistical significance between these two groups. From multivariate logistic regression analysis, the independent parameters impacting SWL outcomes were stone size, stone attenuation, TFA, and serum creatinine. [Adjusted odds ratios and (95% confidence intervals): 9.49 (3.72-24.20), 2.25 (1.22-4.14), 2.20 (1.10-4.40), and 2.89 (1.35-6.21) respectively, all p < 0.05]. In the present study, stone size, stone attenuation, TFA and serum creatinine were four independent predictors for stone-free rates after SWL. These findings suggest that pretreatment NCCT may predict the outcomes after SWL. Consequently, we can use these predictors for selecting

  13. The social patterning of fat and lean mass in a contemporary cohort of children.

    PubMed

    Ness, Andy R; Leary, Sam; Reilly, John; Wells, Jonathan; Tobias, Jon; Clark, Emma; Smith, George Davey

    2006-01-01

    Studies of the social patterning of obesity in children using body mass index have reported inconsistent results. We explored the association of social class with fat mass and lean mass in a contemporary cohort of children measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. We observed a clear social gradient of fat mass (with children of higher social class having a lower fat mass), but no gradient in lean mass or trunk fat mass. Our data show that inequalities in adiposity are present in primary school children and suggest that social inequalities in childhood obesity may have been underestimated in previous studies.

  14. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  15. Body fat and fat-free mass inter-relationships: Forbes's theory revisited.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kevin D

    2007-06-01

    A theoretical equation was developed by Forbes that quantifies the fat-free proportion of a weight change as a function of the initial body fat. However, Forbes's equation was strictly valid only for infinitesimal weight changes. Here, I extended Forbes's equation to account for the magnitude and direction of macroscopic body weight changes. The new equation was also re-expressed in terms of an alternative representation of body composition change defined by an energy partitioning parameter called the P-ratio. The predictions of the resulting equations compared favourably with data from human underfeeding and overfeeding experiments and accounted for previously unexplained trends in the data. The magnitude of the body weight change had a relatively weak effect on the predicted body composition changes and the results were very similar to Forbes's original equation for modest weight changes. However, for large weight changes, such as the massive weight losses found in patients following bariatric surgery, Forbes's original equation consistently underestimated the fat-free mass loss, as expected. The new equation that accounts for the magnitude of the weight loss provides better predictions of body composition changes in such patients.

  16. Spent turmeric reduces fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kinoshita, Mikio; Oh, Chan-Ho; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-04-01

    Indigestible carbohydrates may improve obesity. Spent turmeric contains high levels of dietary fibre and resistant starch (RS), which have fermentation potential in vitro. We hypothesised that indigestible carbohydrates in spent turmeric might prevent obesity development. In the first study, rats were administered 10% turmeric powder (TP) or spent turmeric powder (STP) in a high-fat (HF) diet for 28 d. In the second study, rats were fed 10% STP in a HF diet with or without antibiotics for 15 d. In the third study, rats were treated with a STP-containing suspension. In study 1, the TP and STP diet increased the caecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content compared to that of a control diet. The lower energy intake in the TP and STP group was strongly related to the decrease in visceral fat weight. In study 2, after caecal fermentation suppression with antibiotics, STP treatment decreased the visceral fat mass. In study 3, the plasma glucose levels and incremental area under the curve (AUC) after ingestion of a STP-containing suspension were lower than those after ingestion of suspension alone. These findings suggest the reduction of carbohydrate absorption during the gastrointestinal passage after TP and STP treatment. Our data indicate that the reduced obesity development in rats fed a HF diet may be attributed to the low metabolisable energy density of carbohydrates in the spent turmeric, independent of SCFA-mediated factors.

  17. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS.

  18. Fat and Lean Masses in Youths with Down Syndrome: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Ara, Ignacio; Moreno, Luis A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Casajus, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at comparing fat and lean masses between children and adolescents with and without Down syndrome (DS) and evaluating the presence of sexual dimorphism. Total and regional fat and lean masses were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the percentage of body fat (%BF) by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP)…

  19. Body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile in response to a novel hydroxycitric acid-based dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sashwati; Rink, Cameron; Khanna, Savita; Phillips, Christina; Bagchi, Debasis; Bagchi, Manashi; Sen, Chandan K

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is a global public health problem, with about 315 million people worldwide estimated to fall into the WHO-defined obesity categories. Traditional herbal medicines may have some potential in managing obesity. Botanical dietary supplements often contain complex mixtures of phytochemicals that have additive or synergistic interactions. The dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, also known as Malabar tamarind, is a unique source of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), which exhibits a distinct sour taste and has been safely used for centuries in Southeastern Asia to make meals more filling. Recently it has been demonstrated that HCA-SX or Super Citrimax, a novel derivative of HCA, is safe when taken orally and that HCA-SX is bioavailable in the human plasma as studied by GC-MS. Although HCA-SX has been observed to be conditionally effective in weight management in experimental animals as well as in humans, its mechanism of action remains to be understood. We sought to determine the effects of low-dose oral HCA-SX on the body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. We observed that at doses relevant for human consumption dietary HCA-SX significantly contained body weight growth. This response was associated with lowered abdominal fat leptin expression while plasma leptin levels remained unaffected. Repeated high-density microarray analysis of 9960 genes and ESTs present in the fat tissue identified a small set (approximately 1% of all genes screened) of specific genes sensitive to dietary HCA-SX. Other genes, including vital genes transcribing for mitochondrial/nuclear proteins and which are necessary for fundamental support of the tissue, were not affected by HCA-SX. Under the current experimental conditions, HCA-SX proved to be effective in restricting body weight gain in adult rats. Functional characterization of HCA-SX-sensitive genes revealed that upregulation of genes encoding serotonin receptors represent a distinct effect of

  20. The safety of corticosteroid therapy in Crohn's disease with an abdominal mass.

    PubMed

    Felder, J B; Adler, D J; Korelitz, B I

    1991-10-01

    Steroid therapy is often avoided in the Crohn's disease patient with a palpable abdominal mass, for fear of dissemination of infection, should the mass prove to contain an abscess. In the present study, 24 patients with Crohn's disease and a palpable abdominal mass were treated with high dose steroids. In 15, the mass resolved completely and, in another nine, it decreased in size by at least 50%. Fourteen of 24 patients eventually required resection for persistence or recurrence of Crohn's disease activity with or without the abdominal mass, but in all the operation was performed electively. At least eight patients never required resection during a mean follow-up period of 40 months. In 13 patients, the mass was later proved to actually contain an abscess cavity. No complications attributable to steroid therapy were seen in either the operative or nonoperative group. Clinicians should not fear using high dose ACTH/corticosteroids to treat severe Crohn's disease with an abdominal mass, if indicated, as it is both safe and effective whether an abscess cavity is present or not.

  1. CT of benign cystic abdominal masses in children

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, P.J.; Whitley, N.O.

    1984-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) correctly portrayed the gross anatomic features of six mesenteric, omental, and ovarian cysts and diagnosed two pancreatic pseudocysts in children. Large, well defined, low-density masses were found, often containing septa and filling most of the abdomen and pelvis. CT displayed the size and extent of the mass and showed extrinsic compression of displacement of surrounding structures. Different pathologic entities may have similar CT appearances, particularly with very large cystic masses.

  2. Quantification of Abdominal Fat in Obese and Healthy Adolescents Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Free Software for Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eloi, Juliana Cristina; Epifanio, Matias; de Gonçalves, Marília Maia; Pellicioli, Augusto; Vieira, Patricia Froelich Giora; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Bruscato, Neide; Soder, Ricardo Bernardi; Santana, João Carlos Batista; Mouzaki, Marialena; Baldisserotto, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Computed tomography, which uses ionizing radiation and expensive software packages for analysis of scans, can be used to quantify abdominal fat. The objective of this study is to measure abdominal fat with 3T MRI using free software for image analysis and to correlate these findings with anthropometric and laboratory parameters in adolescents. Methods This prospective observational study included 24 overweight/obese and 33 healthy adolescents (mean age 16.55 years). All participants underwent abdominal MRI exams. Visceral and subcutaneous fat area and percentage were correlated with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and insulin resistance. Student’s t test and Mann-Whitney’s test was applied. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to compare proportions. To determine associations Pearson’s linear correlation or Spearman’s correlation were used. Results In both groups, waist circumference (WC) was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001 and P = 0.01 respectively), and triglycerides were associated with fat percentage (P = 0.046 and P = 0.071 respectively). In obese individuals, total cholesterol/HDL ratio was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.03) and percentage (P = 0.09), and insulin and HOMA-IR were associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001) and percentage (P = 0.005). Conclusions 3T MRI can provide reliable and good quality images for quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat by using a free software package. The results demonstrate that WC is a good predictor of visceral fat in obese adolescents and visceral fat area is associated with total cholesterol/HDL ratio, insulin and HOMA-IR. PMID:28129354

  3. Preventive effect of a melon extract rich in superoxide scavenging activity on abdominal and liver fat and adipokine imbalance in high-fat-fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Décordé, Kelly; Agne, Anta; Lacan, Dominique; Ramos, Jeanne; Fouret, Gilles; Ventura, Emilie; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2009-07-22

    Studies showed that dietary antioxidants could be a therapy against obesity that is associated with a state of oxidative stress. Thus, this paper investigates whether a dietary ingredient, a melon juice extract rich in superoxide dismutase, would prevent the development of such obesity in hamsters. Five groups received a standard diet or a high-fat diet (HF) plus a daily gavage with water (control) or extract at 0.7, 2.8, or 5.6 mg/day. After 84 days, the higher dose lowered triglyceridemia (68%), production of liver superoxide anion (12%), mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity (40%), lipid and protein oxidation products (35 and 35%, respectively), and leptinemia (99%) and increased adiponectinemia (29%), leading to a concomitant reduction in insulinemia (39%), insulin resistance (41%), and abdominal lipids (25%). The extract triggered a remarkable decrease of liver lipids (73%) and fully prevented the steatohepatitis induced by the HF diet. Chronic consumption of this melon extract may represent a new alternative to reduce obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

  4. Body fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes in pregnant women are associated with gestational insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, H; Wetterling, L; Bosaeus, M; Odén, B; Odén, A; Jennische, E; Edén, S; Holmäng, A; Lönn, M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Pregnancy is accompanied by fat gain and insulin resistance. Changes in adipose tissue morphology and function during pregnancy and factors contributing to gestational insulin resistance are incompletely known. We sought to characterize adipose tissue in trimesters 1 and 3 (T1/T3) in normal weight (NW) and obese pregnant women, and identify adipose tissue-related factors associated with gestational insulin resistance. Subjects/Methods: Twenty-two NW and 11 obese women were recruited early in pregnancy for the Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study. Examinations and sampling of blood and abdominal adipose tissue were performed longitudinally in T1/T3 to determine fat mass (air-displacement plethysmography); insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR); size, number and lipolytic activity of adipocytes; and adipokine release and density of immune cells and blood vessels in adipose tissue. Results: Fat mass and HOMA-IR increased similarly between T1 and T3 in the groups; all remained normoglycemic. Adipocyte size increased in NW women. Adipocyte number was not influenced, but proportions of small and large adipocytes changed oppositely in the groups. Lipolytic activity and circulating adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein increased in both groups. Adiponectin release was reduced in NW women. Fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes were most strongly associated with T3 HOMA-IR by multivariable linear regression (R2=0.751, P<0.001). Conclusions: During pregnancy, adipose tissue morphology and function change comprehensively. NW women accumulated fat in existing adipocytes, accompanied by reduced adiponectin release. In comparison with the NW group, obese women had signs of adipocyte recruitment and maintained adiponectin levels. Body fat and large adipocytes may contribute significantly to gestational insulin resistance. PMID:26563815

  5. Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercised-induced weight loss. Methods: Participants (N=132) were randomly assigned to receive a 500 mL beverage containing approximately 625 mg of...

  6. Standards for total body fat and fat-free mass in infants.

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, N C; van Velthoven, K A; de Ridder, M; Stijnen, T; Juttmann, R E; Degenhart, H J; Visser, H K

    1996-01-01

    Data on body composition in conjunction with reference centiles are helpful in identifying the severity of growth and nutritional disorders in infancy and for evaluating the adequacy of treatment given during this important period of rapid growth. Total body fat (TBF) and fat-free mass (FFM) were estimated from total body electrical conductivity (TBEC) measurements in 423 healthy term Caucasian infants, aged 14-379 days. Cross sectional age, weight, and length related centile standards are presented for TBF and FFM. Centiles were calculated using Altman's method, based on polynomial regression and modelling of the residual variation. The TBF percentage steeply increased during the first half year of life, and slowly declined beyond this age. Various simple TBEC derived anthropometric prediction equations for TBF and FFM are available to be used in conjunction with these standards. Regression equations for the P50 and the residual SD, depending on age, weight, or length, are provided for constructing centile charts and calculating standard deviation scores. PMID:8669953

  7. Abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in an adult rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-10-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque.

  8. Abdominal Lipomatosis with Secondary Self-Strangulation of Masses in an Adult Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque. PMID:25402181

  9. Calcium intake and reduction in weight or fat mass.

    PubMed

    Teegarden, Dorothy

    2003-01-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic with subsequent health consequences leading not only to reduced quality of life but also to increased medical costs. Growing evidence supports a relationship between increased calcium intakes and reductions in body weight specific to fat mass. Since the first observations in rats >10 y ago, several recently published clinical studies support this relationship as well. The impact of calcium intake on weight loss or prevention of weight gain has been demonstrated in a wide age range of Caucasian and African-Americans of both genders. This review focuses on the results of clinical trials that have investigated the impact of calcium and dairy products on prevention of weight gain, weight loss or development of the insulin resistance syndrome. The implications of these results are that calcium may play a substantial contributing role in reducing the incidence of obesity and prevalence of the insulin resistance syndrome.

  10. Measurements of body fat distribution: assessment of collinearity with body mass, adiposity and height in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and height, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. METHODS : A controlled cross-sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 with normal weight, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 with normal weight and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central (CS) and peripheral skinfolds (PS). The BF% was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. RESULTS : The increase in central fat, represented by WC, UC, WHtR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase in peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh circumference were proportional to the increase in BMI and BF%. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The height showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being fair or weak with waist measurements. CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, as it showed the highest capacity to predict adiposity in each group, and also showed fair or weak correlation with height. PMID:25623729

  11. Pulsatile Mass Sensation with Intense Abdominal Pain; Atypical Presentation of the Nutcracker Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Ahmet; Barutca, Hakan; Kocaaslan, Cemal; Orman, Süleyman; Şahin, Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Patients with Nutcracker syndrome generally present with nonspecific abdominal pain, with the left renal vein (LRV) lodged between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. In rare cases this can result in atypical gastrointestinal symptoms, making the diagnosis of Nutcracker syndrome challenging. Case Report A 28-year-old female patient presented with complaints of severe abdominal pain and palpable pulsatile abdominal mass located in the left epigastric area. Computed tomography angiography revealed that the LRV was lodged in the aortomesenteric region with a dilated left ovarian vein and pelvic varicose veins. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy were normal. The patient was diagnosed as Nutcracker syndrome and discharged to be treated with analgesics. Conclusions Nutcracker syndrome can be seen with atypical gastrointestinal and vascular symptoms. Computed tomography angiography is a reliable and robust technique to prove the diagnosis of nutcracker syndrome. PMID:28058069

  12. T2-based temperature monitoring in abdominal fat during HIFU treatment of patients with uterine fibroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozhinsky, Eugene; Kohi, Maureen; Ghanouni, Pejman; Rieke, Viola

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we have implemented T2-based monitoring of near-field heating in patients undergoing HIFU ablation of uterine fibroids using Insightec ExAblate system. In certain areas, near-field heating can reach 18°C and the tissue may experience sustained heating of more than 10°C for the period of 2 hours or more. This indicates a cumulative thermal dose that may cause necrosis. Our results show the feasibility and importance of measuring near-field heating in subcutaneous fat.

  13. Effects of BMI, Fat Mass, and Lean Mass on Asthma in Childhood: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    PubMed Central

    Granell, Raquel; Henderson, A. John; Evans, David M.; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andrew R.; Lewis, Sarah; Palmer, Tom M.; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Observational studies have reported associations between body mass index (BMI) and asthma, but confounding and reverse causality remain plausible explanations. We aim to investigate evidence for a causal effect of BMI on asthma using a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We used Mendelian randomization to investigate causal effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on current asthma at age 7½ y in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A weighted allele score based on 32 independent BMI-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was derived from external data, and associations with BMI, fat mass, lean mass, and asthma were estimated. We derived instrumental variable (IV) estimates of causal risk ratios (RRs). 4,835 children had available data on BMI-associated SNPs, asthma, and BMI. The weighted allele score was strongly associated with BMI, fat mass, and lean mass (all p-values<0.001) and with childhood asthma (RR 2.56, 95% CI 1.38–4.76 per unit score, p = 0.003). The estimated causal RR for the effect of BMI on asthma was 1.55 (95% CI 1.16–2.07) per kg/m2, p = 0.003. This effect appeared stronger for non-atopic (1.90, 95% CI 1.19–3.03) than for atopic asthma (1.37, 95% CI 0.89–2.11) though there was little evidence of heterogeneity (p = 0.31). The estimated causal RRs for the effects of fat mass and lean mass on asthma were 1.41 (95% CI 1.11–1.79) per 0.5 kg and 2.25 (95% CI 1.23–4.11) per kg, respectively. The possibility of genetic pleiotropy could not be discounted completely; however, additional IV analyses using FTO variant rs1558902 and the other BMI-related SNPs separately provided similar causal effects with wider confidence intervals. Loss of follow-up was unlikely to bias the estimated effects. Conclusions Higher BMI increases the risk of asthma in mid-childhood. Higher BMI may have contributed to the increase in asthma risk toward the end of the 20th century. Please see

  14. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI.

  15. Body mass, fat percentage, and fat free mass as reference variables for lung function: effects on terms for age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Cotes, J; Chinn, D; Reed, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Sex specific cross sectional reference values for lung function indices usually employ a linear model with terms for age and stature. The effects of also matching for body mass index (BMI= mass/stature2) or its components, fat percentage of body mass (fat%) and fat free mass index (FFMI = fat free mass/stature2) were studied.
METHODS—The subjects were 458 asymptomatic male and female non-smokers (383 men) and 22 female ex-smokers. Measurements were made of ventilatory capacity, lung volumes, transfer factor (diffusing capacity, single breath CO method), and body composition (skinfold method). Linear and proportional regression models were used.
RESULTS—Terms for fat% and FFMI significantly improved the accuracy of reference values for all the primary lung function indices. The improvements in subjects with atypical physiques (fat% and FFMI at the ends of the distributions for the subjects) were in the range 0.3-2.3 SD compared with conventional regression equations. The new partial regression coefficients on age were independent of age related changes in body fat. The coefficient for total lung capacity (TLC) on age in men was now positive. Most differences between the sexes were eliminated. A term for BMI improved the descriptions of subdivisions of TLC but lacked the other advantages.
CONCLUSION—Allowance for fat% and FFMI increases the accuracy of reference equations for lung function, particularly for subjects with a lot of fat and little muscle or vice versa. Allowance for BMI is less informative.

 PMID:11641507

  16. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities.

  17. [Systolic pressure, abdominal obesity and body fat, metabolic syndrome predictors in Spanish preschoolers].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Hervás, Ana Isabel; Rizo Baeza, María Mercedes; Martínez Amorós, Natalia; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2015-05-01

    Se plantea como objetivo determinar la presencia de predictores de síndrome metabólico en niños de 2 a 7 años en relación a su estado nutricional. Método: Estudio descriptivo con análisis cuantitativo en 260 niños de 2-7 años (135 niñas y 125 niños), 66% del total censados. Se midieron parámetros antropométricos y tensión arterial y se calcularon IMC, grasa corporal según Hoffman e índice cintura-talla (ICT). Se realizaron subgrupos con Z-Score del IMC según edad y sexo (bajo peso, normopeso, sobrepeso y obesidad), según grasa corporal (normal y con exceso), ICT (normal y obesidad abdominal) y tensión sistólica (normotensos e hipertensos según edad y sexo). Se utilizó como variable principal la clasificación según Z-Score del IMC. Resultados: La prevalencia combinada de sobrepeso y obesidad fue del 27%, sin diferencias por sexo. El estado nutricional relacionó significativamente con tensión arterial, grasa corporal e índice cintura-talla. Mayor porcentaje de obesos con tensión arterial sistólica alta que de normonutridos (OR=4.1; IC95% 1.7-9.8; p.

  18. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  19. The association between physiologic testosterone levels, lean mass, and fat mass in a nationally representative sample of men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mouser, J Grant; Loprinzi, Paul D; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2016-11-01

    Testosterone deficiency leads to increased muscle loss with aging and increased fat mass. Supraphysiologic levels cause an increase in muscle mass and decrease in fat mass. The difference in lean and fat mass across physiologic levels of testosterone has been under examined in men.

  20. Association between sleep duration, fat mass, lean mass and obesity in Korean adults: the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyuwoong; Shin, Doosup; Jung, Go-Un; Lee, Donghoon; Park, Sang Min

    2017-02-21

    This study investigated the association between sleep duration, fat mass, lean mass and obesity. Participants of this cross-sectional study were 16 905 adults included into the 4th and 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Sleep duration was assessed by self-reported survey and categorized into ≤ 5, 6, 7, 8 and ≥ 9 h per day. The group reporting 7 h of sleep per day (comprised of those sleeping 7-8 h per day) was used as the reference group. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Obesity was defined based on the criteria from the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity. Least-squares means of fat mass index (FMI) and lean mass index (LMI) adjusted for age, employment status, comorbidities and physical activity were used to assess the relation between sleep duration and body composition. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of obesity according to sleep duration after adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related factors. After adjustment, FMI increased with fewer hours of sleep (P for trend: < 0.001) and LMI decreased with more hours of sleep (P for trend: 0.011). Compared to the reference group, sleep-deprived individuals were 1.22 times more likely to have general obesity (aOR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03-1.45) and 1.32 times more likely to have abdominal obesity (aOR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.10-1.58). Our findings suggest that sleep deprivation might be related to an increase of fat mass and obesity, while oversleeping could be linked to a reduction of lean mass.

  1. Effects of ID-alG™ on weight management and body fat mass in high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Terpend, Kathleen; Bisson, Jean-François; Le Gall, Claire; Linares, Elodie

    2012-05-01

    Seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum, ID-alG™, was evaluated for its chronic effects on weight management in high-fat-fed Sprague-Dawley rats. ID-alG™ was orally administered daily during 9 weeks at doses of 40 and 400 mg/kg/day with fat-enriched diet (FED) in comparison with two control groups consuming standard diet (negative control) or FED (positive control) and orally treated with vehicle. Body weight, percentage of body fat mass and lipid parameters were measured. After 9 weeks, the oral administration of ID-alG™ at both doses decreased significantly the mean body weight gains (MBWG) of rats submitted to the FED in comparison to the positive control (-6.8% and -11.8%). ID-alG™ at both doses improved significantly the MBWG of rats and decreased significantly the percentage of body fat mass of rats (-9.8% and -19.0%), in comparison to the positive control. In the same way, the triglyceride blood level was also significantly improved for the dose of 400 mg/kg/day (-30.6% vs. +49.9% for the positive control); and the dose of 40 mg/kg/day just lead to a trend. Moreover, in both controls and ID-alG™-treated groups, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL blood levels were not modified. The seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum, ID-alG™, demonstrated beneficial effects on weight management of rats submitted to a high-fat diet.

  2. Rapid loss of bone mass and strength in mice after abdominal irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dan; Gaddy, Dana; Suva, Larry J; Corry, Peter M

    2011-11-01

    Localized irradiation is a common treatment modality for malignancies in the pelvic-abdominal cavity. We report here on the changes in bone mass and strength in mice 7-14 days after abdominal irradiation. Male C57BL/6 mice of 10-12 weeks of age were given a single-dose (0, 5, 10, 15 or 20 Gy) or fractionated (3 Gy × 2 per day × 7.5 days) X rays to the abdomen and monitored daily for up to 14 days. A decrease in the serum bone formation marker and ex vivo osteoblast differentiation was detected 7 days after a single dose of radiation, with little change in the serum bone resorption marker and ex vivo osteoclast formation. A single dose of radiation elicited a loss of bone mineral density (BMD) within 14 days of irradiation. The BMD loss was up to 4.1% in the whole skeleton, 7.3% in tibia, and 7.7% in the femur. Fractionated abdominal irradiation induced similar extents of BMD loss 10 days after the last fraction: 6.2% in the whole skeleton, 5.1% in tibia, and 13.8% in the femur. The loss of BMD was dependent on radiation dose and was more profound in the trabecula-rich regions of the long bones. Moreover, BMD loss in the total skeleton and the femurs progressed with time. Peak load and stiffness in the mid-shaft tibia from irradiated mice were 11.2-14.2% and 11.5-25.0% lower, respectively, than sham controls tested 7 days after a single-dose abdominal irradiation. Our data demonstrate that abdominal irradiation induces a rapid loss of BMD in the mouse skeleton. These effects are bone type- and region-specific but are independent of radiation fractionation. The radiation-induced abscopal damage to the skeleton is manifested by the deterioration of biomechanical properties of the affected bone.

  3. Discordance between fat mass index and body mass index is associated with reduced bone mineral density in women but not in men: the Busselton Healthy Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, K; Hunter, M; James, A; Lim, E M; Cooke, B R; Walsh, J P

    2017-01-01

    The obesity-BMD relationship is complex. In 3045 middle-aged adults, we found that in women (but not men) with discordant fat mass index (FMI)/BMI categories, higher body fat for BMI was associated with lower BMD, suggesting that increased fat mass without an accompanying increase in lean mass may be deleterious to bone.

  4. The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous and abdominal fat in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum.

    PubMed

    Hostens, M; Fievez, V; Leroy, J L M R; Van Ranst, J; Vlaeminck, B; Opsomer, G

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fatty acid (FA) profile and assess desaturase indices of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the blood, as well as in the abdominal (ABD) and subcutaneous (SUBC) fat stores, in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Blood, ABD, and SUBC samples were taken from 50 Holstein cows offered for surgery to correct LDA. The FA profile of the 3 compartments was determined by gas chromatography after lipid extraction, methylation, and, in the case of blood plasma, separation of lipid classes. The most abundant FA in all 3 compartments were 16:0, 18:0, and 18:1 cis-9, with a total proportion of 82.5, 68.0, and 74.1g/100 g of FA in ABD, NEFA, and SUBC, respectively. A principal component analysis was performed on the entire FA profile as well as on the Δ(9)-desaturase indices (14:1 cis-9/14:0, 16:1 cis-9/16:0, 18:1 cis-9/18:0). The principal component analysis extracted 2 principal components (PC), representing 51.6% (PC1) and 21.1% (PC2) of the total variance in FA composition of the 3 compartments. The loading plot for the regression factors revealed a strong positive correlation between PC1 with the Δ(9)-desaturase indices and the proportions of 14:1 cis-9 and 16:1 cis-9, and revealed a negative correlation with the proportion of 18:0 and saturated FA. The correlation with PC2 was positive for the proportion of unsaturated FA, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3, and negative for the proportion of 14:0, 16:0, and saturated FA. The SUBC could be distinguished from the NEFA and ABD by a positive score for PC1, whereas differentiation among the latter 2 compartments could be made by a positive (NEFA) or negative (ABD) score for PC2. The Δ(9)-desaturase indices for C14 and C16 differed between all compartments but were numerically closer for NEFA and ABD versus NEFA and SUBC. The desaturase indices of the main FA (18:1 cis-9 and 18:0) did not differ between NEFA and ABD. These results support the existence of a different FA

  5. Physical activity across adulthood in relation to fat and lean body mass in early old age: findings from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, 1946-2010.

    PubMed

    Bann, David; Kuh, Diana; Wills, Andrew K; Adams, Judith; Brage, Soren; Cooper, Rachel

    2014-05-15

    Fat and lean body mass have important implications for health and physical functioning in older age, and physical activity is purported to be an important modifiable determinant. However, our evidence-based understanding of its role is limited. We examined the associations of physical activity, assessed both by self-report (using data on leisure time physical activity (LTPA) collected on 4 occasions over a 28-year period) and objectively (using 5-day heart rate and movement monitoring), with fat and lean mass at ages 60-64 years in 1,162 British participants from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development in 1946-2010. Higher objectively assessed physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) at ages 60-64 years was associated with lower fat mass and android (abdominal):gynoid (hip) fat ratio (mean differences in fat mass per 1-standard deviation increase in PAEE were -0.79 kg/m(1.2) in men (95% confidence interval: -1.08, -0.50) and -1.79 kg/m(1.2) (95% confidence interval: -2.15, -1.42) in women). After adjustment for fat mass, higher PAEE was associated with higher appendicular lean mass. Both light and moderate-to-vigorous intensities of activity were associated with fat mass, and the latter was associated with lean mass. More frequent LTPA across adulthood was associated with lower fat mass (in women only) and higher appendicular lean mass (in both sexes, after adjustment for fat mass). These results support the promotion of LTPA across adulthood, as well as both light and moderate-to-vigorous intensities of activity among older adults.

  6. THE 24-MONTH CHANGES IN BODY FAT MASS AND ADIPOKINES IN PATIENTS STARTING PERITONEAL DIALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo Jeong; Park, Moo Yong; Kim, Jin Kuk; Hwang, Seung Duk

    2017-01-17

    ♦ Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is characterized by a gain in fat mass. The fat tissue is a complex endocrine organ that releases various adipokines. In this study, we prospectively examined serial changes of fat composition and adipokines in patients undergoing PD. ♦ Methods: Body composition was assessed by computed tomography (CT). Nutrition status and adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, interleukin [IL]-6, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) were assessed on the 7th day and 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after the start of PD. ♦ Results: Fifty-four patients (28 men), with a mean age of 53.2 ± 13.2 years, were enrolled. Baseline fat mass, especially subcutaneous fat mass, was correlated with baseline leptin (ρ= 0.612), adiponetin (ρ= -0.477), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (ρ= 0.391). Visceral fat mass was correlated with leptin (ρ= 0.545) and adiponectin (ρ= -0.514). Baseline adiponectin was negatively correlated with baseline leptin (ρ= -0.363). While body weight and leptin increased during the 24 months, serum adiponectin decreased in that period. The changes in visceral and subcutaneous fat mass were greater in the first 12 months and 6 months, respectively. There was no difference in IL-6 and TNF-α. Eight patients died during the follow-up period (mean 47.4 months). Twenty-seven patients continued PD. Increased baseline and serial change of IL-6 level were risk factors for mortality. After adjusting for age, sex, diabetes mellitus (DM), and coronary vascular disease (CVD), the significance of the IL-6 level disappeared. ♦ Conclusions: Baseline subcutaneous fat in patients starting PD is correlated with baseline adipokine levels rather than visceral fat. The increase in subcutaneous fat was greatest in the first 6 months. While leptin and adiponectin increased and decreased respectively, IL-6 did not change in the first 24 months.

  7. Sporadic Intra-Abdominal Desmoid: A Rare Presentation as a Hepatic Mass

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shahana; Ray, Udipta; Chatterjee, Souvik; Kumar, Sanjeev; Satapathy, Ayusman; Chatterjee, Shamita; Choudhury, Tamal Kanti

    2012-01-01

    We report an unusual presentation of a sporadic intra-abdominal desmoid tumour, possibly arising from the diaphragm, masquerading as a hepatic mass in a young female without any history of surgery or trauma. Histopathology ruled out a hepatic origin of the tumour as was inferred from pre- and intraoperative evaluation. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity of lesional fibroblastic cells for β-catenin and negativity for CD34, CD117, EMA, SMA, desmin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and ALK1 thereby confirming the diagnosis of a desmoid tumour. There exist only a few reports in the literature on desmoids related to the diaphragm, but only one on a diaphragmatic desmoid that is possibly primary. PMID:23091764

  8. BET 2: Is prehospital focused abdominal ultrasound useful during triage at mass casualty incidents?

    PubMed

    2013-07-01

    A short-cut review was carried out to determined whether the addition of prehospital focused abdominal ultrasound to triage protocols might reduce time to necessary surgery and reduce overall mortality. Thirty-five papers were found using the reported searches, of which three presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of those best papers are shown in table 2. It is concluded that although the feasibility of prehospital ultrasound in mass casualty incidents has been demonstrated, there is, as yet, no clear evidence of benefit as part of a triage protocol.

  9. Fat mass is an important predictor of parathyroid hormone levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew B; Ames, Ruth W; Horne, Anne M; Gamble, Greg D; Reid, Ian R

    2006-03-01

    Previously, we reported that people with elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels due to primary hyperparathyroidism have increased body weight compared to eucalcemic controls. We sought to determine whether the same relationship between PTH and body weight exists in eucalcemic healthy postmenopausal women, and to investigate the relationships between components of body weight, PTH, vitamin D metabolites, and metabolic indices. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 116 healthy community-dwelling postmenopausal women. Pearson correlation analysis was used to test for univariate linear relationships between variables, and stepwise multiple regression analysis to assess for multivariate relationships. We found that PTH was significantly positively correlated with body weight, regional and total fat mass, and percent body fat, and negatively correlated with activity levels, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), dietary calcium intake, and serum phosphate. On multivariate analysis, PTH was positively related to percent body fat (P = 0.020; partial r2 = 0.10) and negatively related to dietary calcium intake (P = 0.041; partial r2 = 0.03) and serum phosphate (P = 0.026; partial r2 = 0.04). Adjusting for vitamin D insufficiency or 25OHD levels did not affect the relationship between PTH and fat mass. For 25OHD, there were significant positive correlations with lumbar spine BMD and serum albumin, and significant negative correlations with PTH, total fat mass, trunk fat, and pelvic fat. On multivariate analysis, 25OHD was positively related to serum albumin (P = 0.008; partial r2 = 0.07) and negatively related to pelvic fat mass (P = 0.014; partial r2 = 0.05). Adjusting for PTH levels did not change the relationship between 25OHD and pelvic fat mass. We conclude that fat mass is a significant independent determinant of serum PTH levels, and that this relationship is independent of the inverse relationship between 25OHD and fat mass. This association between fat mass and PTH

  10. Influence of different fat emulsions with 10 or 20% MCT/LCT or LCT on lipoproteins in plasma of patients after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Hailer, S; Jauch, K W; Wolfram, G

    1998-01-01

    In patients after elective abdominal surgery, different fat emulsions were used to compare their efficacy in total parenteral nutrition and in normalizing plasma lipoprotein levels. In five different groups with 5 patients each, half of the nonprotein calories were given as medium-chain triglycerides/long-chain triglycerides (1:1) or as long-chain triglycerides alone in 10 or 20% fat emulsions or as glucose alone in a control group for 7 days. After surgery, an initial decrease of all plasma lipoprotein components was followed by a different behavior of glyceride-glycerol, cholesterol, phospholipids, and apolipoproteins. Glyceride-glycerol in very-low-density lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins is increasing during infusion of fat emulsions and decreasing during overnight interruption of infusions. After the 7-day infusion period, there was no significant difference in very-low-density lipoprotein glyceride-glycerol as compared with the values before different infusions. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is reaching and exceeding preoperative concentrations between the 4th and the 7th day, most during infusion of 10% fat emulsion and especially due to an increase of free cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I reach preoperative levels during infusion of fat emulsions but not with glucose alone. Higher than preoperative values are reached in phospholipids with all fat infusions already on day 4. Abnormal lipoprotein X occurred least with the medium-chain/long-chain triglyceride 20% fat-infusion. This fat emulsion is suggested as having the best normalizing effect on plasma lipoproteins and best tolerance in patients after surgery.

  11. Abdominal visceral adiposity influences CD4+ T cell cytokine production in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ozias, Marlies K; Li, Shengqi; Hull, Holly R; Brooks, William M; Petroff, Margaret G; Carlson, Susan E

    2015-02-01

    Women with pre-gravid obesity are at risk for pregnancy complications. While the macrophage response of obese pregnant women categorized by body mass index (BMI) has been documented, the relationship between the peripheral CD4(+) T cell cytokine profile and body fat compartments during pregnancy is unknown. In this study, third trimester peripheral CD4(+) T cell cytokine profiles were measured in healthy pregnant women [n=35; pre-pregnancy BMI: 18.5-40]. CD4(+) T cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated to examine their capacity to generate cytokines. Between 1 and 3weeks postpartum, total body fat was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat masses were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Pearson's correlation was performed to assess relationships between cytokines and fat mass. Results showed that greater abdominal visceral fat mass was associated with a decrease in stimulated CD4(+) T cell cytokine expression. IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-12p70, IL-10 and IL-17A were inversely related to visceral fat mass. Chemokines CCL3 and IL-8 and growth factors G-CSF and FLT-3L were also inversely correlated. Additionally, total body fat mass was inversely correlated with FGF-2 while abdominal subcutaneous fat mass and BMI were unrelated to any CD4(+) T cell cytokine. In conclusion, lower responsiveness of CD4(+) T cell cytokines associated with abdominal visceral fat mass is a novel finding late in gestation.

  12. Metabolic adaptations in the adipose tissue that underlie the body fat mass gain in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sertié, Rogério Antonio Laurato; Caminhotto, Rennan de Oliveira; Andreotti, Sandra; Campaña, Amanda Baron; de Proença, André Ricardo Gomes; de Castro, Natalie Carolina; Lima, Fábio Bessa

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about adipocyte metabolism during aging process and whether this can influence body fat redistribution and systemic metabolism. To better understand this phenomenon, two animal groups were studied: young-14 weeks old-and middle-aged-16 months old. Periepididymal (PE) and subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes were isolated and tested for their capacities to perform lipolysis and to incorporate D-[U-(14)C]-glucose, D-[U-(14)C]-lactate, and [9,10(n)-(3)H]-oleic acid into lipids. Additionally, the morphometric characteristics of the adipose tissues, glucose tolerance tests, and biochemical determinations (fasting glucose, triglycerides, insulin) in blood were performed. The middle-aged rats showed adipocyte (PE and SC) hypertrophy and glucose intolerance, although there were no significant changes in fasting glycemia and insulin. Furthermore, PE tissue revealed elevated rates (+50 %) of lipolysis during beta-adrenergic-stimulation. There was also an increase (+62 %) in the baseline rate of glucose incorporation into lipids in the PE adipocytes, while these PE cells were almost unresponsive to insulin stimulation and less responsive (a 34 % decrease) in the SC tissue. Also, the capacity of oleic acid esterification was elevated in baseline state and with insulin stimulus in the PE tissue (+90 and 82 %, respectively). Likewise, spontaneous incorporation of lactate into lipids in the PE and SC tissues was higher (+100 and 11 %, respectively) in middle-aged rats. We concluded that adipocyte metabolism of middle-aged animals seems to strongly favor cellular hypertrophy and increased adipose mass, particularly the intra-abdominal PE fat pad. In discussion, we have interpreted all these results as a metabolic adaptations to avoid the spreading of fat that can reach tissues beyond adipose protecting them against ectopic fat accumulation. However, these adaptations may have the potential to lead to future metabolic dysfunctions seen in the senescence.

  13. Endotoxins are associated with visceral fat mass in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lassenius, Mariann I.; Ahola, Aila J.; Harjutsalo, Valma; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; Lehto, Markku

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), potent inducers of inflammation, have been associated with chronic metabolic disturbances. Obesity is linked to dyslipidemia, increased body adiposity, and endotoxemia. We investigated the cross-sectional relationships between serum LPS activity and body adiposity as well as inflammation in 242 subjects with type 1 diabetes. Body fat distribution was measured by DXA and serum LPS activity by the limulus amebocyte lysate end-point assay. Since no interaction between visceral fat mass and sex was observed, data were pooled for the subsequent analyses. LPS was independently associated with visceral fat mass, when adjusted for traditional risk factors (age, sex, kidney status, hsCRP, insulin sensitivity). In the multivariate analysis, serum LPS activity and triglyceride concentrations had a joint effect on visceral fat mass, independent of these factors alone. A combination of high LPS and high hsCRP concentrations was also observed in those with the largest visceral fat mass. In conclusion, high serum LPS activity levels were associated with visceral fat mass in subjects with type 1 diabetes strengthening its role in the development of central obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:27958332

  14. Oral fat perception is related with body mass index, preference and consumption of high-fat foods.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Nina R; López-Díaz, José A; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge A; Angulo, Ofelia

    2014-04-22

    Oral sensory perception may play an important role in food preferences, driving food intake and energy balance. Fat perceived in oral cavity has been associated with satiety and homeostatic signals. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that fat oral-intensity perception may be associated with BMI, food preferences and consumption of fat-rich foods. The ability to perceive linoleic acid at different concentrations by intensity scaling was measured in young adults (n=121), characterized by anthropometric measurements such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and total body fat (TBF) percentage. Additionally, dietary habits were recorded online during 35days using a questionnaire designed according to the 24-hour recall and the food diary methods. Finally, food preferences were evaluated online using a nine-point hedonic scale. Taste sensitivity (intensity scaling with suprathreshold concentrations) was estimated with different linoleic acid concentrations using a linear scale of 150mm labeled at the ends. Four groups were established after the ratings for oral-intensity perception of linoleic acid: quartile high ratings (QH), quartile medium-high ratings (QMH), quartile medium-low ratings (QML) and quartile low ratings (QL). Participants with high-intensity ratings for linoleic acid (QH) had lower BMI (p=0.04) and waist circumference (WC) (p=0.03) values than participants in the QL group. High-fat foods (foods with more than 20% of energy from lipids such as fast foods and Mexican street foods) were less preferred by participants with high-intensity ratings for linoleic acid (QH) than by participants with medium- (QMH, QML) and low-(QL) intensity ratings (p<0.01). Also, participants with high-intensity ratings for linoleic acid (QH) presented lower consumption of high-fat foods like fast foods (p=0.04) and Mexican street foods (p=0.03) than subjects with medium- (QMH, QML) and low-(QL) intensity ratings. Overall, these data suggest that

  15. Development of Novel Methods to Define Deficits in Appendicular Lean Mass Relative to Fat Mass

    PubMed Central

    Weber, David; Long, Jin; Leonard, Mary B.; Zemel, Babette; Baker, Joshua F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that adjustment of measures of lean mass for adiposity improves associations with physical function. Our objective was to develop and test a method to adjust appendicular lean mass for adiposity. Methods Whole-body DXA data in 14,850 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to generate sex-, and race-specific standard deviation scores (Z-Scores relative to age and T-scores relative to 25 year-olds) for appendicular lean mass index (ALMI, kg/m2) and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2). Correlations between ALMI and FMI Z- and T-Scores were assessed within demographic categories. Fat-adjusted ALMI (ALMIFMI) scores were determined using residual methods. Sarcopenia was defined as a T-Score <-2.0 and low lean for age as a Z-Score <-1.0. Correlations with physical function were assessed in an at-risk population. Results Positive associations between ALMI and FMI Z- and T-Scores were significant (R >0.50; p<0.001) within all demographic categories. The impact of a unit greater FMI Z-score on ALMI Z-score was less in the elderly, men, white subjects, and among individuals with lower FMI (all tests for interaction p<0.001). There was fair agreement between ALMI and ALMIFMI estimates of sarcopenia and low lean for age [Kappa: 0.46, 0.52, respectively (p<0.0001)]. Elderly subjects were likely to be re-classified as sarcopenic while young subjects were likely to be re-classified as normal using ALMIFMI. ALMIFMI T-scores resulted in approximately twice the number of subjects defined as sarcopenic, compared with ALMI T-Scores. (1299 v. 534). Among rheumatoid arthritis patients, ALMIFMI Z-scores correlated with physical function (Health Assessment Questionnaire: rho = -0.22, p = 0.04; Short Physical Performance Battery: rho = 0.27, p = 0.01); however, the ALMI Z-Score did not. Conclusions Adjustment of ALMI for the confounding association with FMI impacts the definition of lean mass deficits. These methods provide a

  16. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry of Pacific White Shrimp L. vannamei and identification of abdominal muscle proteins.

    PubMed

    Schey, Kevin L; Hachey, Amanda J; Rose, Kristie L; Grey, Angus C

    2016-06-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has been applied to whole animal tissue sections of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in an effort to identify and spatially localize proteins in specific organ systems. Frozen shrimp were sectioned along the ventral-dorsal axis and methods were optimized for matrix application. In addition, tissue microextraction and homogenization was conducted followed by top-down LC-MS/MS analysis of intact proteins and searches of shrimp EST databases to identify imaged proteins. IMS images revealed organ system specific protein signals that highlighted the hepatopancreas, heart, nervous system, musculature, and cuticle. Top-down proteomics identification of abdominal muscle proteins revealed the sequence of the most abundant muscle protein that has no sequence homology to known proteins. Additional identifications of abdominal muscle proteins included titin, troponin-I, ubiquitin, as well as intact and multiple truncated forms of flightin; a protein known to function in high frequency contraction of insect wing muscles. The combined use of imaging mass spectrometry and top-down proteomics allowed for identification of novel proteins from the sparsely populated shrimp protein databases.

  17. A Wandering Abdominal Mass in a Neonate: An Enteric Duplication Cyst Mimicking an Ovarian Cyst

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Enteric duplication cysts are rare congenital anomalies that are prenatally diagnosed through antenatal ultrasonography (US). In female patients, however, attention must be paid since these formations might be confused with ovarian cysts. Herein, we present a case of a low birth weight female infant with an enteric duplication cyst. A cystic lesion was detected in the right abdomen of the fetus on antenatal US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Serial US and MRI examinations performed after birth showed a single cyst that wandered from side to side in the abdomen; the initial diagnosis was thought to be an ovarian cyst. During laparotomy, however, it was found to be an enteric duplication cyst with volvulus. To our knowledge, there has been no report of an enteric duplication cyst presenting as a wandering abdominal mass. Our experience indicates that early intervention is necessary for patients who have a wandering abdominal mass to avoid complications and urgent surgery, whether it is an ovarian cyst or an enteric duplication cyst. PMID:28348910

  18. Primary omental gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) presenting with a large abdominal mass and spontaneous haemoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Seow-En, Isaac; Seow-Choen, Francis; Lim, Tony Kiat Hon; Leow, Wei Qiang

    2014-11-03

    A 60-year-old Indonesian woman presented with a 9-day history of increasing abdominal distension, pain and tiredness. Physical examination revealed significant pallor with a palpable mass in the abdomen. CT of the abdomen reported a 22 cm complex mass in the peritoneal cavity with free intra-abdominal fluid. Laboratory results showed anaemia with a raised serum CA 125 level. At laparotomy a large haemorrhagic tumour with blood filled cystic cavities was found attached to both greater omentum and the transverse mesocolon with 2.2 L of blood in the peritoneal cavity. There was no invasion of any part of the stomach or intestines and there were no metastases seen. Histopathology of the resected specimen was consistent with that of a gastrointestinal stromal tumour arising from the omentum. Immunohistochemical studies revealed the tumour to be strongly positive for discovered on GIST-1 (DOG1) but negative for both CD117 and CD34. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) exon 18 mutation D842V was detected.

  19. Muscle Mass and Body Fat in Relation to Cardiovascular Risk Estimation and Lipid-Lowering Eligibility.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kayoung

    2016-12-06

    This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to evaluate the relationships of muscle-mass and body-fat phenotypes to 10-yr risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and eligibility for lipid management. Participants were Korean adults (N = 7315; 3163 men, 4152 women) aged 40-79 yr, free from stroke and coronary heart disease, who provided complete data for estimating 10-yr CVD risk and body composition during the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-2010). Four levels of combined muscle mass and body fat were determined using sex-specific quintiles of appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height squared, and sex-specific quintiles of total body fat percentage. Ten-year CVD risk was calculated using Pooled Cohort Equations and Framingham risk scores. Lipid-lowering medication eligibility was determined using American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III guidelines. Compared with the reference group, the risk of CVD events was higher in men with low muscle mass, high body fat, or the 2 factors combined. CVD risk was lower in women with low muscle mass, higher in women with high body fat, and nonsignificant in women with the 2 factors. Participants with low muscle mass and high body fat had higher odds for medication eligibility using the ACC/AHA guidelines but not the ATP III guidelines. Higher estimated 10-yr CVD risk was associated with combined phenotypes of low muscle mass and high fat in men but not in women. Also, the relationship of these phenotypes to lipid-lowering medication eligibility was guideline-specific.

  20. Impact of weight loss with or without exercise on abdominal fat and insulin resistance in obese individuals: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Trussardi Fayh, Ana Paula; Lopes, André Luiz; Fernandes, Pablo Rober; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Friedman, Rogério

    2013-08-28

    Evidence supports an important contribution of abdominal obesity and inflammation to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and CVD. Weight loss in obese individuals can reduce inflammation and, consequently, IR, but the role of training remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of body weight reduction with and without exercise over abdominal fat tissue (primary outcome) and IR. In this randomised clinical trial, forty-eight obese individuals (age 31·8 (SD 6·0) years, BMI 34·8 (SD 2·7) kg/m2) were randomised to either a diet-only group (DI) or a diet and exercise group (DI þ EXE). Treatment was maintained until 5% of the initial body weight was lost. At baseline and upon completion, the following parameters were analysed: biochemical parameters such as glycaemia and insulin for the determination of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and abdominal computed tomography for the determination of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. A total of thirteen individuals dropped out before completing the weight-loss intervention and did not repeat the tests. In both the DI (n 18) and DI þ EXE (n 17) groups, we observed significant and similar decreases of visceral adipose tissue (difference between means: 7·9 (95% CI 29·5, 25·2) cm2, P¼0·36), hs-CRP (difference between means: 20·06 (95% CI 20·19, 0·03) mg/l, P¼0·39) and HOMA (difference between means: 20·04 (95% CI 20·17, 0·08), P¼0·53). In the present study, 5% weight loss reduced abdominal fat and IR in obese individuals and exercise did not add to the effect of weight loss on the outcome variables.

  1. Omental infarction and its mimics: imaging features of acute abdominal conditions presenting with fat stranding greater than the degree of bowel wall thickening.

    PubMed

    Tonerini, Michele; Calcagni, Francesca; Lorenzi, Silvia; Scalise, Paola; Grigolini, Alessandro; Bemi, Pietro

    2015-08-01

    The segmental omental infarction is a rare self-limited disorder presenting with aspecific clinical symptoms that may mimic several acute abdominal conditions. Therefore, a correct noninvasive diagnosis is important because treatment approaches range from monitoring to surgery. As omental infarction results in an important fat stranding that is much greater than the degree of bowel wall thickening, it suggests a narrower differential diagnosis: appendicitis, diverticulitis, epiploic appendagitis, and mesenteric panniculitis. In this pictorial essay, we point out the importance of imaging in identifying this typical sign allowing alternate diagnoses such as segmental omental infarction that can be conservatively managed.

  2. Classification of Body Fatness by Body Mass Index–for-Age Categories Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, David S.; Wang, Jack; Thornton, John C.; Mei, Zuguo; Sopher, Aviva B.; Pierson, Richard N.; Dietz, William H.; Horlick, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the ability of various body mass index (BMI)–for-age categories, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 85th to 94th percentiles, to correctly classify the body fatness of children and adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The New York Obesity Research Center at St Luke’s–Roosevelt Hospital from 1995 to 2000. Participants Healthy 5- to 18-year-old children and adolescents (N=1196) were recruited in the New York City area through newspaper notices, announcements at schools and activity centers, and word of mouth. Main Outcome Measures Percent body fat as determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fatness cutoffs were chosen so that the number of children in each category (normal, moderate, and elevated fatness) would equal the number of children in the corresponding BMI-for-age category (<85th percentile, 85th–94th percentile, and ≥95th percentile, respectively). Results About 77% of the children who had a BMI for age at or above the 95th percentile had an elevated body fatness, but levels of body fatness among children who had a BMI for age between the 85th and 94th percentiles (n=200) were more variable; about one-half of these children had a moderate level of body fatness, but 30% had a normal body fatness and 20% had an elevated body fatness. The prevalence of normal levels of body fatness among these 200 children was highest among black children (50%) and among those within the 85th to 89th percentiles of BMI for age (40%). Conclusion Body mass index is an appropriate screening test to identify children who should have further evaluation and follow-up, but it is not diagnostic of level of adiposity. PMID:19736333

  3. The effect of aqueous extract of gross and commercial yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) on intra-abdominal and epididymal fat and glucose levels in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Raquel D'Agostini; Bueno, Audrin Loss Scopel; Gallon, Carin Weirich; Gomes, Luana Ferreira; Kaiser, Samuel; Pavei, Cabral; Ortega, George González; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos; Jahn, Matheus Parmegiani

    2011-09-01

    This study analyzed the plasma lipid profile, glucose levels and fat deposits in male rats treated with aqueous extract of gross yerba mate, commercial yerba mate or water. Yerba mate treatment did not change body weight gain and lipid profile. The consumption of gross yerba mate significantly increased blood glucose (6.6 mmol/L) as compared to the water (4.8 mmol/L) and commercial group (5.2 mmol/L) and decreased epididymal and intra-abdominal deposits (10.1mg/g and 23.7 mg/g of weight) as compared to the water (15.4 mg/g and 36.9 mg/g of weight) and commercial group (12.5mg/g and 28 mg/g of weight). The results suggest that gross yerba mate reduces fat more efficiently but produces a greater increase in blood glucose when compared to commercial yerba mate and water groups.

  4. Fat-Free Mass Changes During Ketogenic Diets and the Potential Role of Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Tinsley, Grant M; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2016-02-01

    Low-carbohydrate and very-low-carbohydrate diets are often used as weight-loss strategies by exercising individuals and athletes. Very-low-carbohydrate diets can lead to a state of ketosis, in which the concentration of blood ketones (acetoacetate, 3-β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone) increases as a result of increased fatty acid breakdown and activity of ketogenic enzymes. A potential concern of these ketogenic diets, as with other weight-loss diets, is the potential loss of fat-free mass (e.g., skeletal muscle). On examination of the literature, the majority of studies report decreases in fat-free mass in individuals following a ketogenic diet. However, some confounding factors exist, such as the use of aggressive weight-loss diets and potential concerns with fat-free mass measurement. A limited number of studies have examined combining resistance training with ketogenic diets, and further research is needed to determine whether resistance training can effectively slow or stop the loss of fat-free mass typically seen in individuals following a ketogenic diet. Mechanisms underlying the effects of a ketogenic diet on fat-free mass and the results of implementing exercise interventions in combination with this diet should also be examined.

  5. Correlation of Obesity and Osteoporosis: Effect of Fat Mass on the Determination of Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lan-Juan; Jiang, Hui; Papasian, Christopher J; Maulik, Dev; Drees, Betty; Hamilton, James; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2008-01-01

    It was previously believed that obesity and osteoporosis were two unrelated diseases, but recent studies have shown that both diseases share several common genetic and environmental factors. Body fat mass, a component of body weight, is one of the most important indices of obesity, and a substantial body of evidence indicates that fat mass may have beneficial effects on bone. Contrasting studies, however, suggest that excessive fat mass may not protect against osteoporosis or osteoporotic fracture. Differences in experimental design, sample structure, and even the selection of covariates may account for some of these inconsistent or contradictory results. Despite the lack of a clear consensus regarding the impact of effects of fat on bone, a number of mechanistic explanations have been proposed to support the observed epidemiologic and physiologic associations between fat and bone. The common precursor stem cell that leads to the differentiation of both adipocytes and osteoblasts, as well the secretion of adipocyte-derived hormones that affect bone development, may partially explain these associations. Based on our current state of knowledge, it is unclear whether fat has beneficial effects on bone. We anticipate that this will be an active and fruitful focus of research in the coming years. PMID:17784844

  6. Ketogenic diet-fed rats have increased fat mass and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Letícia C; Chittó, Ana L; Müller, Alexandre P; Rocha, Juliana K; Castro da Silva, Mariane; Quincozes-Santos, André; Nardin, Patrícia; Rotta, Liane N; Ziegler, Denize R; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto; Da Silva, Roselis S M; Perry, Marcos L S; Gottfried, Carmem

    2008-11-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD), characterized by high fat and low carbohydrate and protein contents, has been proposed to be beneficial in children with epilepsy disorders not helped by conventional anti-epileptic drug treatment. Weight loss and inadequate growth is an important drawback of this diet and metabolic causes are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to examine body weight variation during KD feeding for 6 wk of Wistar rats; fat mass and adipocyte cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity were also observed. PEPCK activity was determined based on the [H(14)CO(3) (-)]-oxaloacetate exchange reaction. KD-fed rats gained weight at a less rapid rate than normal-fed rats, but with a significant increment in fat mass. The fat mass/body weight ratio already differed between ketogenic and control rats after the first week of treatment, and was 2.4 x higher in ketogenic rats. The visceral lipogenesis was supported by an increment in adipocyte PEPCK, aiming to provide glycerol 3-phosphate to triacylglycerol synthesis and this fat accumulation was accompanied by glucose intolerance. These data contribute to our understanding of the metabolic effects of the KD in adipose tissue and liver and suggest some potential risks of this diet, particularly visceral fat accumulation.

  7. Measures of abdominal obesity within body mass index categories, 1981 and 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Shields, Margot; Tremblay, Mark S; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Janssen, Ian

    2012-06-01

    This article describes measures of abdominal obesity--waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio--within body mass index (BMI) categories, using data from two population-based health surveys. Among normal-weight men, the percentages at increased/high health risk based on these three measures were not statistically different in 2007-2009 than in 1981. By contrast, among normal-weight women, increases were observed in the percentage at increased/high health risk based on each of the three measures. The percentage of overweight men at increased/high risk based on waist circumference rose from 49% in 1981 to 62% in 2007-2009, and among overweight women, the percentage at increased/high risk rose for each of the three measures (64% to 93% for waist circumference, 22% to 51% for waist-to-hip ratio, and 68% to 87% for waist-to-height ratio). Although substantial percentages of men and women in obese class I were at increased/high health risk based on abdominal obesity measures in 1981, by 2007-2009, almost everyone in this BMI category was at increased/high risk.

  8. Selected CNR1 polymorphisms and hyperandrogenemia as well as fat mass and fat distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jędrzejuk, Diana; Laczmański, Lukasz; Kuliczkowska, Justyna; Lenarcik, Agnieszka; Trzmiel-Bira, Anna; Hirnle, Lidia; Dorobisz, Urszula; Milewicz, Andrzej; Lwow, Felicja; Urbanovych, A; Słoka, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is postulated to play an important role in the etiology of obesity, insulin resistance, fat distribution and metabolic disorders. Insulin resistance associated with abdominal obesity plays a leading role in the etiology of hyperandrogenism and other clinical features of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 174 women 16-38 years old, diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria are recruited. Control group consisted of 125 healthy women 18-45 years old. Medical history, physical examination, anthropometric parameters and metabolic parameters were carried out. Six CNR1 gene polymorphisms were diagnosed. We observed a significantly three times higher risk of GG genotype in the polymorphism rs12720071 in women with PCOS versus the control group (p = 0.0344, OR = 3.01). A similar, significant 8-fold higher risk (p = 0.0176, OR = 8.81) was demonstrated for genotype CC polymorphism rs806368 associated with PCOS. We observed a 3.6-fold increased risk of hyperandrogenemia (free androgen index - FAI > 7) in patients with GG genotype in the rs12720071 polymorphism and AA genotype in the polymorphism rs1049353 (OR = 2.7). Our study may indicate a role of the endocannabinoid system in the occurrence of a specific hyperandrogenemia phenotype of PCOS.

  9. Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma Presenting as Abdominal Pain with a Pulsatile Mass

    PubMed Central

    Afsharfard, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a rare tumor that mostly involves adults aged 50 to 70. The most common anatomic location is the lower extremities. MFH of the retroperitoneum usually manifests late in its course and may be initially mistaken with other more common diagnosis. Here, the authors describe a 60-year-old man that was brought to the emergency department with a chief complaint of periumbilical abdominal pain. Our patient presented with symptoms consistent with a symptomatic aortic aneurysm, but a mass was encountered during surgery. In such circumstances the diagnosis of malignant sarcoma must be kept in mind and attempts at full resection with tumor-free margins are necessary. PMID:27563479

  10. Abdominal masses in children: multiorgan imaging with /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.R.; Cohen, M.; Moran, D.P.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate (/sup 99m/Tc MDP) imaging was performed in 29 consecutive children with abdominal masses. Dynamic images of the inferior vena cava were obtained by injecting the radiotracer in the feet. Serial renal images were obtained for the next 30 min. Routine bone imaging was performed at about 3 hr. The radionuclide studies of the inferior vena cava accurately diagnosed total obstruction and displacement to the left but not partial obstruction and displacement to the right. The abnormalities on early renal imaging included displacement (14), distortion (seven), obstruction (eight), and nonvisualization (one). All patients with Wilms tumor (eight) had either nonvisualized or distorted renal parenchyma. Patients with neuroblastoma (17) and other tumors (four) had displacement and obstruction. Soft-tissue accumulation of /sup 99m/Tc MDP was noted in two Wilms tumors and 12 neuroblastomas.

  11. EPA prevents fat mass expansion and metabolic disturbances in mice fed with a Western diet.

    PubMed

    Pinel, Alexandre; Pitois, Elodie; Rigaudiere, Jean-Paul; Jouve, Chrystele; De Saint-Vincent, Sarah; Laillet, Brigitte; Montaurier, Christophe; Huertas, Alain; Morio, Beatrice; Capel, Frederic

    2016-08-01

    The impact of alpha linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, and DHA on obesity and metabolic complications was studied in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HF) diet. HF diets were supplemented with ALA, EPA, or DHA (1% w/w) and given to C57BL/6J mice for 16 weeks and to Ob/Ob mice for 6 weeks. In C57BL/6J mice, EPA reduced plasma cholesterol (-20%), limited fat mass accumulation (-23%) and adipose cell hypertrophy (-50%), and reduced plasma leptin concentration (-60%) compared with HF-fed mice. Furthermore, mice supplemented with EPA exhibited a higher insulin sensitivity (+24%) and glucose tolerance (+20%) compared with HF-fed mice. Similar effects were observed in EPA-supplemented Ob/Ob mice, although fat mass accumulation was not prevented. By contrast, in comparison with HF-fed mice, DHA did not prevent fat mass accumulation, increased plasma leptin concentration (+128%) in C57BL/6J mice, and did not improve glucose homeostasis in C57BL/6J and Ob/Ob mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, DHA stimulated leptin expression whereas EPA induced adiponectin expression, suggesting that improved leptin/adiponectin balance may contribute to the protective effect of EPA. In conclusion, supplementation with EPA, but not ALA and DHA, could preserve glucose homeostasis in an obesogenic environment and limit fat mass accumulation in the early stage of weight gain.

  12. Increased lean mass with reduced fat mass in an elite female cyclist returning to competition: case study.

    PubMed

    Haakonssen, Eric C; Martin, David T; Burke, Louise M; Jenkins, David G

    2013-11-01

    Body composition in a female road cyclist was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (5 occasions) and anthropometry (10 occasions) at the start of the season (Dec to Mar), during a period of chronic fatigue associated with poor weight management (Jun to Aug), and in the following months of recovery and retraining (Aug to Nov). Dietary manipulation involved a modest reduction in energy availability to 30-40 kcal · kg fat-free mass(-1) · d(-1) and an increased intake of high-quality protein, particularly after training (20 g). Through the retraining period, total body mass decreased (-2.82 kg), lean mass increased (+0.88 kg), and fat mass decreased (-3.47 kg). Hemoglobin mass increased by 58.7 g (8.4%). Maximal aerobic- and anaerobic-power outputs were returned to within 2% of preseason values. The presented case shows that through a subtle energy restriction associated with increased protein intake and sufficient energy intake during training, fat mass can be reduced with simultaneous increases in lean mass, performance gains, and improved health.

  13. Influence of lean and fat mass on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Dytfeld, Joanna; Ignaszak-Szczepaniak, Magdalena; Gowin, Ewelina; Michalak, Michał; Horst-Sikorska, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Despite known positive association between body mass and bone mineral density (BMD), relative contribution of fat and lean tissue to BMD remains under debate. We aimed at investigating the effect of selected anthropometric parameters, including fat content and lean body mass (LBM) on BMD in postmenopausal, osteoporotic women with body mass index (BMI) > 20 kg/m(2). The study involved 92 never-treated women (mean age 69.5 ± 7.3). L1-L4 and femoral neck (FN) BMD were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Absolute (kg) and relative (%) fat and LBM were assessed by means of electric bioimpedance method. We showed both FN and L1-L4 BMD were positively correlated with body mass, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and LBM (kg). Fat content correlated with FN BMD (r = 0.36, p < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed the only predictor of L1-L4 BMD was LBM (R(2) = 0.18, p < 0.05), for FN--both LBM and fat (R(2) = 0.18, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Of the women, 44.5% were overweight, 18.4% obese. Obese women displayed the highest BMD. Both L1-L4 and FN BMD were higher in women with WC > 80 cm. In postmenopausal osteoporotic women with BMI > 20 kg/m(2) both fat and lean tissue might contribute to BMD. Positive association between body mass and BMD does not make obesity and osteoporosis mutually exclusive.

  14. Predictors of Treatment Response to Tesamorelin, a Growth Hormone-Releasing Factor Analog, in HIV-Infected Patients with Excess Abdominal Fat

    PubMed Central

    Mangili, Alexandra; Falutz, Julian; Mamputu, Jean-Claude; Stepanians, Miganush; Hayward, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Background Tesamorelin, a synthetic analog of human growth hormone-releasing factor, decreases visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy. Objectives 1) To evaluate the utility of patient characteristics and validated disease-risk scores, namely indicator variables for the metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation (MetS-IDF) or the National Cholesterol Education Program (MetS-NCEP) and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), as predictors of VAT reduction during tesamorelin therapy at 3 and 6 months, and 2) To explore the characteristics of patients who reached a threshold of VAT <140 cm2, a level associated with lower risk of adverse health outcomes, after 6 months of treatment with tesamorelin. Methods Data were analyzed from two Phase 3 studies in which HIV-infected patients with excess abdominal fat were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive tesamorelin 2 mg (n = 543) or placebo (n = 263) subcutaneously daily for 6 months, using ANOVA and ANCOVA models. Results Metabolic syndrome (MetS-IDF or MetS-NCEP) and FRS were significantly associated with VAT at baseline. Presence of metabolic syndrome ([MetS-NCEP), triglyceride levels >1.7 mmol/L, and white race had a significant impact on likelihood of response to tesamorelin after 6 months of therapy (interaction p-values 0.054, 0.063, and 0.025, respectively). No predictive factors were identified at 3 months. The odds of a VAT reduction to <140 cm2 for subjects treated with tesamorelin was 3.9 times greater than that of subjects randomized to placebo after controlling for study, gender, baseline body mass index (BMI) and baseline VAT (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.03; 7.44). Conclusions Individuals with baseline MetS-NCEP, elevated triglyceride levels, or white race were most likely to experience reductions in VAT after 6 months of tesamorelin treatment. The odds of response of VAT <140 cm2 was 3.9 times greater for tesamorelin

  15. Prenatal Phthalate Exposures and Childhood Fat Mass in a New York City Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Jessie P.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Mendez, Michelle A.; Richardson, David B.; Daniels, Julie L.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Wolff, Mary S.; Herring, Amy H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Experimental animal studies and limited epidemiologic evidence suggest that prenatal exposure to phthalates may be obesogenic, with potential sex-specific effects of phthalates having anti-androgenic activity. Objectives: We aimed to assess associations between prenatal phthalate exposures and childhood fat mass in a prospective cohort study. Methods: We measured phthalate metabolite concentrations in third-trimester maternal urine in a cohort of women enrolled in New York City between 1998 and 2002 (n = 404). Among 180 children (82 girls and 98 boys), we evaluated body composition using a Tanita scale at multiple follow-up visits between ages 4 and 9 years (363 total visits). We estimated associations of standard deviation differences or tertiles of natural log phthalate metabolite concentrations with percent fat mass using linear mixed-effects regression models with random intercepts for repeated outcome measurements. We assessed associations in multiple metabolite models and adjusted for covariates including prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and breastfeeding. Results: We did not observe associations between maternal urinary phthalate concentrations and percent body fat in models examining continuous exposures. Fat mass was 3.06% (95% CI: –5.99, –0.09%) lower among children in the highest tertile of maternal urinary concentrations of summed di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHP) metabolites than in children in the lowest tertile. Though estimates were imprecise, there was little evidence that associations between maternal urinary phthalate concentrations and percent fat mass were modified by child’s sex. Conclusions: Prenatal phthalate exposures were not associated with increased body fat among children 4–9 years of age, though high prenatal DEHP exposure may be associated with lower fat mass in childhood. Citation: Buckley JP, Engel SM, Mendez MA, Richardson DB, Daniels JL, Calafat AM

  16. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  17. Dietary Intervention with Vitamin D, Calcium and Whey Protein Reduced Fat Mass and Increased Lean Mass in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, S.M.K.; Chang, E.; Li, J.; Burlage, C.; Zou, M.; Buhman, K. K.; Koser, S.; Donkin, S.S.; Teegarden, D.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to determine the effects and the mechanisms of inclusion of dietary whey protein, high calcium and high vitamin D intake with either a high sucrose or high fat base diets on body composition of rodents. Male Wistar rats were assigned to either no whey protein, suboptimal calcium (0.25%) and vitamin D (400 IU/kg) diet (LD) or a diet containing whey protein, high calcium (1.5%) and vitamin D (10,000 IU/kg) diet (HD) and either high fat (40% of energy) or high sucrose (60%) base diets for 13 weeks. Liver tissue homogenates were used to determine [14C]glucose and [14C]palmitate oxidation. mRNA expression of enzymes related to energy metabolism in liver, adipose and muscle as well as regulators of muscle mass and insulin receptor were assessed. The results demonstrated that there was reduced accumulation of body fat mass (P = 0.01) and greater lean mass (P = 0.03) for the HD compared to LD fed group regardless of the background diet. There were no consistent differences between the LD and HD groups across background diets in substrate oxidation and mRNA expression for enzymes measured that regulate energy metabolism, myostatin or muscle VEGF. However, there was an increase in insulin receptor mRNA expression in muscle in the HD compared to the LD groups. In conclusion, elevated whey protein, calcium and vitamin D intake resulted in reduced accumulation of body fat mass and increased lean mass, with a commensurate increase in insulin receptor expression, regardless of the level of calories from fat or sucrose. PMID:19083488

  18. Dietary intervention with vitamin D, calcium, and whey protein reduced fat mass and increased lean mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Shamim M K; Chang, Eugene; Li, Jia; Burlage, Catherine; Zou, Mi; Buhman, Kimberly K; Koser, Stephanie; Donkin, Shawn S; Teegarden, Dorothy

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the effects and the mechanisms of inclusion of dietary whey protein, high calcium, and high vitamin D intake with either a high-sucrose or high-fat base diets on body composition of rodents. Male Wistar rats were assigned to either no whey protein, suboptimal calcium (0.25%), and vitamin D (400 IU/kg) diet (LD), or a diet containing whey protein, high calcium (1.5%), and vitamin D (10 000 IU/kg) diet (HD), and either high-fat (40% of energy) or high-sucrose (60%) base diets for 13 weeks. Liver tissue homogenates were used to determine [(14)C]glucose and [(14)C]palmitate oxidation. mRNA expression of enzymes related to energy metabolism in liver, adipose, and muscle, as well as regulators of muscle mass and insulin receptor was assessed. The results demonstrated that there was reduced accumulation of body fat mass (P = .01) and greater lean mass (P = .03) for the HD- compared to LD-fed group regardless of the background diet. There were no consistent differences between the LD and HD groups across background diets in substrate oxidation and mRNA expression for enzymes measured that regulate energy metabolism, myostatin, or muscle vascular endothelial growth factor. However, there was an increase in insulin receptor mRNA expression in muscle in the HD compared to the LD groups. In conclusion, elevated whey protein, calcium, and vitamin D intake resulted in reduced accumulation of body fat mass and increased lean mass, with a commensurate increase in insulin receptor expression, regardless of the level of calories from fat or sucrose.

  19. Body mass index, abdominal obesity, body fat and migraine features in women.

    PubMed

    Rossoni de Oliveira, Vanessa; Camboim Rockett, Fernanda; Castro, Kamila; da Silveira Perla, Alexandre; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes; Schweigert Perry, Ingrid D

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los estudios que tratan de establecer una asociación entre la migraña y los parámetros antropométricos hasta ahora han sido poco concluyentes. Además, los fármacos utilizados para la profilaxis de la migraña pueden estar asociados con cambios en el peso corporal. Objetivos: Investigar la posible asociación de los parámetros antropométricos y el porcentaje de grasa corporal con patrones de ataque y el uso de la profilaxis en los pacientes con migraña. Métodos: Estudio transversal que evaluó el índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de cintura, porcentaje de grasa corporal y las variables clínicas (características de los ataques y uso de medicación) en mujeres con migraña. Resultados: 166 mujeres con migraña ≥18 años (edad media, 45 ± 14 años) fueron incluidos en el estudio. Migraña sin aura era más frecuente (71,7%). La media del índice de masa corporal y porcentaje de grasa corporal fueron 27,8 ± 6,0 kg/m(2) y 36,4 ± 8,3%, respectivamente. Índice de masa corporal y la circunferencia de cintura se correlacionaron débilmente con la frecuencia de los ataques durante 6 meses (rs = 0,162, p < 0,05 y r = 0,187, p < 0,05, respectivamente). Estas correlaciones se mantiene débil considerando sólo las mujeres premenopáusicas, pero desaparecen en las mujeres mayores. La estratificación de los análisis por tipo migraña muestra una correlación moderada entre la migraña con aura y la frecuencia de los ataques de más de 6 meses y el índice de masa corporal (rs = 0,369, p < 0,05), así como la circunferencia de cintura (rs = 0,423, p < 0,01) . Los pacientes que estaban tomando medicamentos profilácticos tuvieron un mayor índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de la cintura, y los valores de porcentaje de grasa corporal (p < 0,01, prueba t de Student). Conclusiones: Este estudio reveló un potencial, aunque débil asociación entre la migraña y los parámetros antropométricos y la frecuencia de ataques, que no refleja la duración, la gravedad y la incapacidad de los ataques, que tienen diferentes modelos según el tipo de migraña, la edad reproductiva y la medicación profiláctica.

  20. The function of myostatin in the regulation of fat mass in mammals.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bing; Zhang, Feng; Wen, Jianghui; Ye, Shengqiang; Wang, Lixia; Yang, Yu; Gong, Ping; Jiang, Siwen

    2017-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN), also referred to as growth and differentiation factor-8, is a protein secreted in muscle tissues. Researchers believe that its primary function is in negatively regulating muscle because a mutation in its coding region can lead to the famous double muscle trait in cattle. Muscle and adipose tissue develop from the same mesenchymal stem cells, and researchers have found that MSTN is expressed in fat tissues and plays a key role in adipogenesis. Interestingly, MSTN can exert a dual function, either inhibiting or promoting adipogenesis, according to the situation. Due to its potential function in controlling body fat mass, MSTN has attracted the interest of researchers. In this review, we explore its function in regulating adipogenesis in mammals, including preadipocytes, multipotent stem cells and fat mass.

  1. Mass spectrometric methods prove the use of beeswax and ruminant fat in late Roman cooking pots.

    PubMed

    Kimpe, K; Jacobs, P A; Waelkens, M

    2002-08-30

    Lipid extracts of sherds of archaeological late Roman cooking pots were analysed using high temperature-gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer and liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer detection (LC-APCI-MS). With these advanced techniques the use of beeswax was shown through identification of the constituting alkanes, mono and diesters. The detection of high amounts of saturated triacylglycerols (TAGs) further indicated that animal fat was processed in these pots. Part of the animal fat was characterised as originating from ruminants due to the presence of trans-fatty acids. The distribution of saturated TAGs and the higher concentration of stearic acid compared to palmitic acid in the transesterified lipid extract indicated that this was sheep fat. The results illustrate how complex mixtures can be unravelled and original contents of ancient ceramic vessels can be determined using specialised analytical equipment.

  2. Sedentary Behavior Is Independently Related to Fat Mass among Children and Adolescents in South China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hongmei; Tian, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Quan, Liming; Zhao, Li; Yang, Min; Libuda, Lars; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Cheng, Guo

    2016-10-25

    We aim to explore the independent associations of sedentary behaviors (SB) with body mass distribution among Chinese children. Data on the screen-based sedentary time (television viewing and computer use) and doing homework, physical activities and dietary intake of 1586 Chinese children (50.3% girls) aged 7-15 years were obtained through validated questionnaires. Skin-fold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI). Parental characteristics were collected by questionnaires. Among girls, time of SB (screen time or doing homework) was positively related to %BF, FMI, and FFMI (p < 0.03) after adjusting for maternal overweight, the average annual income of family, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity energy expenditure, and energy intake: Girls in the highest tertile of screen time/homework had 16.7%/23.3% higher relative FMI and 2.9%/2.9% higher relative FFMI than girls in the lowest tertile. Among boys, screen time was positively associated with FFMI (p < 0.003), but not related to %BF and FMI (p > 0.09), while time of doing homework was positively related to %BF and FMI (p = 0.03). Sedentary behaviors might be positively and independently related to fat mass among Chinese children, and were more pronounced in girls.

  3. Sedentary Behavior Is Independently Related to Fat Mass among Children and Adolescents in South China

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hongmei; Tian, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Quan, Liming; Zhao, Li; Yang, Min; Libuda, Lars; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Cheng, Guo

    2016-01-01

    We aim to explore the independent associations of sedentary behaviors (SB) with body mass distribution among Chinese children. Data on the screen-based sedentary time (television viewing and computer use) and doing homework, physical activities and dietary intake of 1586 Chinese children (50.3% girls) aged 7–15 years were obtained through validated questionnaires. Skin-fold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI). Parental characteristics were collected by questionnaires. Among girls, time of SB (screen time or doing homework) was positively related to %BF, FMI, and FFMI (p < 0.03) after adjusting for maternal overweight, the average annual income of family, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity energy expenditure, and energy intake: Girls in the highest tertile of screen time/homework had 16.7%/23.3% higher relative FMI and 2.9%/2.9% higher relative FFMI than girls in the lowest tertile. Among boys, screen time was positively associated with FFMI (p < 0.003), but not related to %BF and FMI (p > 0.09), while time of doing homework was positively related to %BF and FMI (p = 0.03). Sedentary behaviors might be positively and independently related to fat mass among Chinese children, and were more pronounced in girls. PMID:27792134

  4. Effects of fat mass on motor development during the first two years of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: This study characterized total body fat mass and motor development during the first two years of life in healthy infants. Design: Participants (N=469) from the Beginnings’ cohort, a prospective, longitudinal study of early infant feeding, were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months of age...

  5. Relative Importance of Lean and Fat Mass on Bone Mineral Density in Iranian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Marjan; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Ranjbar Omrani, Gholamhossein; Ayatollahi, Sayed Mohammad Taghi; Bagheri, Zahra; Bakhshayeshkaram, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Body weight is made up of lean and fat mass and both are involved in growth and development. Impression of these two components in bone density accrual has been controversial. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fat and lean mass and bone density in Iranian children and adolescents. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 472 subjects (235 girls, 237 boys) aged 9-18 years old in Fars Province. The participants' weight, height, waist circumference, stage of puberty, and level of physical activity were recorded. Bone Mineral Content (BMC), Bone Mineral Density (BMD), total body fat and lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Results showed that 12.2% of boys and 12.3% of girls were overweight and 5.5% of boys and 4.7% of girls were obese. Obese individuals had greater total body BMD (0.96 ± 0.11) than normal-weight ones (0.86 ± 0.11) (P < 0.001). We found the greatest correlation between total body BMD and total body lean mass (R = 0.78. P < 0.001) and the least correlation with total body fat percentage (R = 0.03, P = 0.44). Total lean mass in more active boys was 38.1 ± 10.9 and in less active boys was 32.3 ± 11.0 (P < 0.001). The results of multiple regression analysis showed that age and total body lean mass were independent factors of BMD in growing children and adolescents. Conclusions: These findings suggest that lean mass was the most important predictor of BMD in both genders. Physical activity appears to positively impact on lean mass and needs to be considered in physical education and health-enhancing programs in Iranian school children. PMID:26401143

  6. Maternal but not paternal fat mass is positively associated with infant fat mass at age 2 weeks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal programming of fetal metabolism has been demonstrated in animal studies, while clinical studies have shown an association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures in infants. Here we report on the association between infant body composition at age 2 weeks and ...

  7. Myocyte androgen receptors increase metabolic rate and improve body composition by reducing fat mass.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Shannon M; Rao, Pengcheng; Niel, Lee; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Stagljar, Marijana; Monks, D Ashley

    2010-07-01

    Testosterone and other androgens are thought to increase lean body mass and reduce fat body mass in men by activating the androgen receptor. However, the clinical potential of androgens for improving body composition is hampered by our limited understanding of the tissues and cells that promote such changes. Here we show that selective overexpression of androgen receptor in muscle cells (myocytes) of transgenic male rats both increases lean mass percentage and reduces fat mass. Similar changes in body composition are observed in human skeletal actin promoter driving expression of androgen receptor (HSA-AR) transgenic mice and result from acute testosterone treatment of transgenic female HSA-AR rats. These shifts in body composition in HSA-AR transgenic male rats are associated with hypertrophy of type IIb myofibers and decreased size of adipocytes. Metabolic analyses of transgenic males show higher activity of mitochondrial enzymes in skeletal muscle and increased O(2) consumption by the rats. These results indicate that androgen signaling in myocytes not only increases muscle mass but also reduces fat body mass, likely via increases in oxidative metabolism.

  8. Myostatin inhibition in muscle, but not adipose tissue, decreases fat mass and improves insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tingqing; Jou, William; Chanturiya, Tatyana; Portas, Jennifer; Gavrilova, Oksana; McPherron, Alexandra C

    2009-01-01

    Myostatin (Mstn) is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Mstn(-/-) mice have a dramatic increase in muscle mass, reduction in fat mass, and resistance to diet-induced and genetic obesity. To determine how Mstn deletion causes reduced adiposity and resistance to obesity, we analyzed substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity in Mstn(-/-) mice fed a standard chow. Despite reduced lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, Mstn(-/-) mice had no change in the rate of whole body lipid oxidation. In contrast, Mstn(-/-) mice had increased glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity as measured by indirect calorimetry, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. To determine whether these metabolic effects were due primarily to the loss of myostatin signaling in muscle or adipose tissue, we compared two transgenic mouse lines carrying a dominant negative activin IIB receptor expressed specifically in adipocytes or skeletal muscle. We found that inhibition of myostatin signaling in adipose tissue had no effect on body composition, weight gain, or glucose and insulin tolerance in mice fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet. In contrast, inhibition of myostatin signaling in skeletal muscle, like Mstn deletion, resulted in increased lean mass, decreased fat mass, improved glucose metabolism on standard and high-fat diets, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that Mstn(-/-) mice have an increase in insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, and that the reduction in adipose tissue mass in Mstn(-/-) mice is an indirect result of metabolic changes in skeletal muscle. These data suggest that increasing muscle mass by administration of myostatin antagonists may be a promising therapeutic target for treating patients with obesity or diabetes.

  9. Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-seop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n1 = 10) or a control group (n2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition data (abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage). [Results] Significant main effects of time in the waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage were found. Significant time-by-group interactions were found for waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage. [Conclusion] The use of the high-frequency current therapy may be beneficial for reducing the levels of abdominal obesity in young women. PMID:25642031

  10. HPMC supplementation reduces abdominal fat content, intestinal permeability, inflammation, and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a highly viscous non-fermentable soluble dietary fiber, were evaluated on adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in diet induced obese (DIO) mice fed a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with either HPMC or insoluble fiber. DIO C57BL/6J m...

  11. [Relationship among prop phenotype, body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and food intake].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Nina Del Rocío; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge Alfonso; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Angulo-Guerrero, Ofelia

    2014-01-01

    The PROP phenotype (6-n-propylthiouracil) has been proposed as indicator of body mass index, adiposity and food intake. This relationship among variables is contradictory. No correlation has been found among the PROP phenotype, body indicators and energy consumption in some studies. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship among PROP taster status, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total body fat (TBF) and food intake. The PROP taster status was established using two scales: the nine-point scale and the general labeled magnitude scale. Dietary habits of participants were recorded online during 35 days. The classification by PROP phenotype varied according to the scale. No significant differences were observed between PROP tasters and PROP non-tasters, with both scales, in body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and energy and macronutrient intake. The PROP phenotype was not an indicator factor of body weight, adiposity and energy and macronutrients consumption in young adults.

  12. A rare cause of lower abdominal and pelvic mass, primary tuberculous psoas abscess: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculous psoas abscess was usually associated to complicate Pott's disease, but it can also be secondary to direct extension from other adjacent structures or haematogenous spread from an occult source. However, the occurrence of this entity as the presenting manifestation of tuberculosis, without evidence of active infection elsewhere, has been seldom reported. Case Presentation We report a clinical case of a 64-year-old immunocompetent female that presented with left lower abdominal pain and a soft tissue mass over the left iliac fossa and inguinal regions due to a primary tuberculous psoas abscess. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with percutaneous drainage guided by ultrasound along with antituberculous drugs, lead to a satisfactory outcome. Conclusion The purpose of this case report is to point out attention to the diagnostic challenge of tuberculous psoas abscess in the absence of tuberculosis in other organs or a predisposing condition. A brief review of the literature about its epidemiology, etiology, clinical features and management is discussed over the text. PMID:19946492

  13. Percutaneous fine-needle biopsy of deep thoracic and abdominal masses in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, U; Bussadori, C; Zatelli, A; De Lorenzi, D; Masserdotti, C; Bertazzolo, W; Faverzani, S; Ghisleni, G; Capobianco, R; Caniatti, M

    2004-04-01

    Percutaneous fine-needle biopsy was used to investigate thoracic and abdominal masses in the dog and cat. One hundred and thirty-two cases were included in the study; 20 cases were excluded from the comparative study due to poor cellularity or blood contamination (retrieval rate 86.8 per cent). One hundred samples (56 dogs and 44 cats) were classified by cytology as neoplastic. All the cytological diagnoses of neoplasia were confirmed by histological samples obtained either by non-surgical methods, at surgery or during postmortem examination. No false positive diagnoses of neoplasia were made. Thirty-two samples were cytologically classified as 'negative for neoplasia'. Subsequent histological examination revealed 18 true negative and 14 false negative results. The procedure had an overall 89.4 per cent (118 cases out of 132) agreement between the diagnosis of inflammatory disease versus neoplasia, with a sensitivity of 87.8 per cent, a specificity of 100 per cent, a predictive value of a positive test of 100 per cent and a predictive value of a negative test of 56.3 per cent.

  14. Ghrelin secretion is not reduced by increased fat mass during diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiang; Reed, Jason T; Wang, Guiyun; Han, Song; Englander, Ella W; Greeley, George H

    2008-08-01

    Ghrelin is a stomach hormone that stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion, adiposity, and food intake. Gastric ghrelin production and secretion are regulated by caloric intake; ghrelin secretion increases during fasting, decreases with refeeding, and is reduced by diet-induced obesity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypotheses that 1) an increase in body adiposity will play an inhibitory role in the reduction of gastric ghrelin synthesis and secretion during chronic ingestion of a high-fat (HF) diet and 2) chronic ingestion of an HF diet will suppress the rise in circulating ghrelin levels in response to acute fasting. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard AIN-76A (approximately 5-12% of calories from fat) or an HF (approximately 45% of calories from fat) diet. The effect of increased adiposity on gastric ghrelin homeostasis was assessed by comparison of stomach ghrelin production and plasma ghrelin levels in obese and nonobese rats fed the HF diet. HF diet-fed, nonobese rats were generated by administration of triiodothyronine to lower body fat accumulation. Our findings indicate that an increased fat mass per se does not exert an inhibitory effect on ghrelin homeostasis during ingestion of the HF diet. Additionally, the magnitude of change in plasma ghrelin in response to fasting was not blunted, indicating that a presumed, endogenous signal for activation of ingestive behavior remains intact, despite excess stored calories in HF-fed rats.

  15. Length Normalized Indices for Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass in Preterm and Term Infants during the First Six Months of Life

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Ipsita; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Gerhard; Liu, Kai; Marrin, Michael L.; Heckmann, Matthias; Nelle, Mathias; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Postnatal tissue accretion in preterm infants differs from those in utero, affecting body composition (BC) and lifelong morbidity. Length normalized BC data allows infants with different body lengths to be compared and followed longitudinally. This study aims to analyze BC of preterm and term infants during the first six months of life. Methods: The BC data, measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, of 389 preterm and 132 term infants from four longitudinal studies were combined. Fat-mass/length2 (FMI) and fat-free mass/length2 (FFMI) for postmenstrual age were calculated after reaching full enteral feeding, at term and two further time points up to six months corrected age. Results: Median FMI (preterm) increased from 0.4 kg/m2 at 30 weeks to 2.5, 4.3, and 4.8 kg/m2 compared to 1.7, 4.7, and 6 kg/m2 in term infants at 40, 52, and 64 weeks, respectively. Median FFMI (preterm) increased from 8.5 kg/m2 (30 weeks) to 11.4 kg/m2 (45 weeks) and remained constant thereafter, whereas term FFMI remained constant at 11 kg/m2 throughout the tested time points. Conclusion: The study provides a large dataset of length normalized BC indices. Followed longitudinally, term and preterm infants differ considerably during early infancy in the pattern of change in FMI and FFMI for age. PMID:27399768

  16. Fat Mass Centile Charts for Brazilian Children and Adolescents and the Identification of the Roles of Socioeconomic Status and Physical Fitness on Fat Mass Development.

    PubMed

    Silva, Simonete; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Maia, José

    2016-01-22

    This paper presents fat mass centile charts for Brazilian youth and investigates the roles of socioeconomic status and physical fitness (PF) on fat mass (FM) development. Two northeast Brazilian samples were used: a cross-sectional sample of 3659 (1921 girls) aged 8 to 16 years and a mixed-longitudinal series of cohorts (8-10, 10-12, 12-14, 14-16 years) with 250 boys and 250 girls. A measure of somatic maturity was used as a marker of biological maturation; PF comprised agility, explosive and static strength, and aerobic capacity. Socioeconomic status was based on school attended; public or private. Slaughter's anthropometric equations were used to estimate FM. Percentile charts was constructed using the LMS method. HLM (Hierarchical Linear Model) 7 software modeled FM changes, identifying inter-individual differences and their covariates. Girls and boys had different FM percentile values at each age; FM increased nonlinearly in both girls and boys. Higher PF levels reduced FM changes across time in both sexes. Sex-specific non-linear FM references were provided representing important tools for nutritionists, pediatriciann and educators. Physical fitness levels were found to act as a protective factor in FM increases. As such, we emphasize PF importance as a putative health marker and highlight the need for its systematic development across the school years.

  17. Fat Mass Centile Charts for Brazilian Children and Adolescents and the Identification of the Roles of Socioeconomic Status and Physical Fitness on Fat Mass Development

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Simonete; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Maia, José

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents fat mass centile charts for Brazilian youth and investigates the roles of socioeconomic status and physical fitness (PF) on fat mass (FM) development. Two northeast Brazilian samples were used: a cross-sectional sample of 3659 (1921 girls) aged 8 to 16 years and a mixed-longitudinal series of cohorts (8–10, 10–12, 12–14, 14–16 years) with 250 boys and 250 girls. A measure of somatic maturity was used as a marker of biological maturation; PF comprised agility, explosive and static strength, and aerobic capacity. Socioeconomic status was based on school attended; public or private. Slaughter’s anthropometric equations were used to estimate FM. Percentile charts was constructed using the LMS method. HLM (Hierarchical Linear Model) 7 software modeled FM changes, identifying inter-individual differences and their covariates. Girls and boys had different FM percentile values at each age; FM increased nonlinearly in both girls and boys. Higher PF levels reduced FM changes across time in both sexes. Sex-specific non-linear FM references were provided representing important tools for nutritionists, pediatriciann and educators. Physical fitness levels were found to act as a protective factor in FM increases. As such, we emphasize PF importance as a putative health marker and highlight the need for its systematic development across the school years. PMID:26805867

  18. Association of irisin with fat mass, resting energy expenditure, and daily activity in conditions of extreme body mass index.

    PubMed

    Pardo, María; Crujeiras, Ana B; Amil, María; Aguera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; de la Torre, Rafael; Estivill, Xavier; Fagundo, Ana B; Fernández-Real, Jose M; Fernández-García, José C; Fruhbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Roser; Tinahones, Francisco J; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2014-01-01

    FNDC5/irisin has been recently postulated as beneficial in the treatment of obesity and diabetes because it is induced in muscle by exercise, increasing energy expenditure. However, recent reports have shown that WAT also secretes irisin and that circulating irisin is elevated in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate irisin levels in conditions of extreme BMI and its correlation with basal metabolism and daily activity. The study involved 145 female patients, including 96 with extreme BMIs (30 anorexic (AN) and 66 obese (OB)) and 49 healthy normal weight (NW). The plasma irisin levels were significantly elevated in the OB patients compared with the AN and NW patients. Irisin also correlated positively with body weight, BMI, and fat mass. The OB patients exhibited the highest REE and higher daily physical activity compared with the AN patients but lower activity compared with the NW patients. The irisin levels were inversely correlated with daily physical activity and directly correlated with REE. Fat mass contributed to most of the variability of the irisin plasma levels independently of the other studied parameters. Conclusion. Irisin levels are influenced by energy expenditure independently of daily physical activity but fat mass is the main contributing factor.

  19. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P < .05), and so did body fat mass (placebo vs ASE; bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity.

  20. [The study of the relationship between rates of carnitine exchange and fat mass in young swimmers].

    PubMed

    Ryloval, N v; Biktimiroval, A a; Sereda, A p; SamOylOv, A s

    2016-01-01

    The study of the state of carnitine metabolism is an actual problem for the specialists who are interested in the investigating of children's health, involved in sport. Indicators of carnitine metabolism reflect mitochondrial capacity and the state of energy of the cell, which in it's turn effect on the level of physical performance of athletes and their health status. The aim of our study was to identify the characteristics of carnitine metabolism in young athletes, as well as the establishment of correlation between carnitine metabolism and body fat mass. The study included 46 young athletes 12-17 years old involved in swimming. The average age of the athletes was 15.9 ± 0.2 years. Carnitine metabolism has been studied by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, the content of body fat mass has been established by bioimpedance. The free carnitine didn't significantly differ in males (36.3 ± 1.1 mmol/l) and females (36.3 ± 1.3 mmol/l). Content of related carnitine was higher in boys--17.4 ± 0.8 mmol/l (vs 14.0 ± 0.9 mmol/l in girls, p < 0.05). Value of related carnitine/free carnitine (AC/C0) was significantly 22.5% higher in boys (0.49 ± 0.03), because of higher content of related carnitine. The content of body fat mass in boys was 9.6 ± 0.87%, and in girls--22.24 ± 1.0%. There was found a significant correlation between indicators of carnitine metabolism and fat body mass. The findings may suggest a higher mitochondrial potential of girls engaged in swimming.

  1. NMR-based metabolic profiling in healthy individuals overfed different types of fat: links to changes in liver fat accumulation and lean tissue mass

    PubMed Central

    Elmsjö, A; Rosqvist, F; Engskog, M K R; Haglöf, J; Kullberg, J; Iggman, D; Johansson, L; Ahlström, H; Arvidsson, T; Risérus, U; Pettersson, C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overeating different dietary fatty acids influence the amount of liver fat stored during weight gain, however, the mechanisms responsible are unclear. We aimed to identify non-lipid metabolites that may differentiate between saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) overfeeding using a non-targeted metabolomic approach. We also investigated the possible relationships between plasma metabolites and body fat accumulation. Methods: In a randomized study (LIPOGAIN study), n=39 healthy individuals were overfed with muffins containing SFA or PUFA. Plasma samples were precipitated with cold acetonitrile and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Pattern recognition techniques were used to overview the data, identify variables contributing to group classification and to correlate metabolites with fat accumulation. Results: We previously reported that SFA causes a greater accumulation of liver fat, visceral fat and total body fat, whereas lean tissue levels increases less compared with PUFA, despite comparable weight gain. In this study, lactate and acetate were identified as important contributors to group classification between SFA and PUFA (P<0.05). Furthermore, the fat depots (total body fat, visceral adipose tissue and liver fat) and lean tissue correlated (P(corr)>0.5) all with two or more metabolites (for example, branched amino acids, alanine, acetate and lactate). The metabolite composition differed in a manner that may indicate higher insulin sensitivity after a diet with PUFA compared with SFA, but this needs to be confirmed in future studies. Conclusion: A non-lipid metabolic profiling approach only identified a few metabolites that differentiated between SFA and PUFA overfeeding. Whether these metabolite changes are involved in depot-specific fat storage and increased lean tissue mass during overeating needs further investigation. PMID:26479316

  2. Prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and childhood fat mass in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Jessie P; Herring, Amy H; Wolff, Mary S; Calafat, Antonia M; Engel, Stephanie M

    2016-05-01

    Early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals may alter adipogenesis and energy balance leading to changes in obesity risk. Several studies have evaluated the association of prenatal bisphenol A exposure with childhood body size but only one study of male infants has examined other environmental phenols. Therefore, we assessed associations between prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and fat mass in a prospective birth cohort. We quantified four phenol biomarkers in third trimester maternal spot urine samples in a cohort of women enrolled in New York City between 1998 and 2002 and evaluated fat mass in their children using a Tanita scale between ages 4 and 9years (173 children with 351 total observations). We estimated associations of standard deviation differences in natural log creatinine-standardized phenol biomarker concentrations with percent fat mass using linear mixed effects regression models. We did not observe associations of bisphenol A or triclosan with childhood percent fat mass. In unadjusted models, maternal urinary concentrations of 2,5-dichlorophenol were associated with greater percent fat mass and benzophenone-3 was associated with lower percent fat mass among children. After adjustment, phenol biomarkers were not associated with percent fat mass. However, the association between benzophenone-3 and percent fat mass was modified by child's sex: benzophenone-3 concentrations were inversely associated with percent fat mass in girls (beta=-1.51, 95% CI=-3.06, 0.01) but not boys (beta=-0.20, 95% CI=-1.69, 1.26). Although we did not observe strong evidence that prenatal environmental phenols exposures influence the development of childhood adiposity, the potential antiadipogenic effect of benzophenone-3 in girls may warrant further investigation.

  3. Combined intervention of medium-chain triacylglycerol diet and exercise reduces body fat mass and enhances energy expenditure in rats.

    PubMed

    Ooyama, Katsuhiko; Wu, Jian; Nosaka, Naohisa; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Kasai, Michio

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies indicated that a medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) diet could inhibit body fat accumulation. It is also well established that exercise can reduce fat mass. However, the effects of a combination of MCT diet and exercise on reduction of fat mass have not been studied. Here we examined whether MCT diet and exercise intervention exert cooperative effects on body composition. Rats were assigned to 4 groups: 1. LCT diet, control (LCT-C); 2. MCT diet, control (MCT-C); 3. LCT diet, exercise (LCT-E); 4. MCT diet, exercise (MCT-E). After the 6-wk intervention, visceral fat mass was measured by CT scan and dissection, and energy expenditure was estimated for 24 h. The value of the visceral fat mass showed a significant correlation between CT scan and dissection (r=0.995, p<0.001). Visceral fat mass in the MCT-C group was lower than that in the LCT-C group. Furthermore, the fat-lowering effects were greater in the MCT-E group than that in either intervention alone. Thus significant effects of the MCT diet and exercise on the reduction of visceral fat mass were observed. Energy expenditure was significantly higher in the MCT-E group than in the other groups. Our present findings suggest that combined intervention of MCT diet and exercise has an additive effect on reduction of visceral and subcutaneous fat accumulation, and that this effect may be partially related to increased energy expenditure. However, future studies are necessary to define the relationship between energy expenditure and fat mass accumulation.

  4. Abdominal Fat Is Associated With Lower Bone Formation and Inferior Bone Quality in Healthy Premenopausal Women: A Transiliac Bone Biopsy Study

    PubMed Central

    Dempster, David W.; Recker, Robert R.; Lappe, Joan M.; Zhou, Hua; Zwahlen, Alexander; Müller, Ralph; Zhao, Binsheng; Guo, Xiaotao; Lang, Thomas; Saeed, Isra; Liu, X. Sherry; Guo, X. Edward; Cremers, Serge; Rosen, Clifford J.; Stein, Emily M.; Nickolas, Thomas L.; McMahon, Donald J.; Young, Polly; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Context: The conventional view that obesity is beneficial for bone strength has recently been challenged by studies that link obesity, particularly visceral obesity, to low bone mass and fractures. It is controversial whether effects of obesity on bone are mediated by increased bone resorption or decreased bone formation. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate bone microarchitecture and remodeling in healthy premenopausal women of varying weights. Design: We measured bone density and trunk fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 40 women and by computed tomography in a subset. Bone microarchitecture, stiffness, remodeling, and marrow fat were assessed in labeled transiliac bone biopsies. Results: Body mass index (BMI) ranged from 20.1 to 39.2 kg/m2. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-trunk fat was directly associated with BMI (r = 0.78, P < .001) and visceral fat by computed tomography (r = 0.79, P < .001). Compared with women in the lowest tertile of trunk fat, those in the highest tertile had inferior bone quality: lower trabecular bone volume (20.4 ± 5.8 vs 29.1 ± 6.1%; P = .001) and stiffness (433 ± 264 vs 782 ± 349 MPa; P = .01) and higher cortical porosity (8.8 ± 3.5 vs 6.3 ± 2.4%; P = .049). Bone formation rate (0.004 ± 0.002 vs 0.011 ± 0.008 mm2/mm · year; P = .006) was 64% lower in the highest tertile. Trunk fat was inversely associated with trabecular bone volume (r = −0.50; P < .01) and bone formation rate (r = −0.50; P < .001). The relationship between trunk fat and bone volume remained significant after controlling for age and BMI. Conclusions: At the tissue level, premenopausal women with more central adiposity had inferior bone quality and stiffness and markedly lower bone formation. Given the rising levels of obesity, these observations require further investigation. PMID:23515452

  5. Body mass index, muscle and fat in chronic kidney disease: questions about survival.

    PubMed

    Mafra, D; Guebre-Egziabher, F; Fouque, D

    2008-08-01

    The human body can be roughly divided into two major compartments, fat mass and lean body mass. Adipose tissue is now considered to be a highly active tissue and, in addition to storing calories as triglycerides, it also secretes a large variety of compounds, including cytokines, chemokines and hormone-like factors such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin. On the other hand, muscle plays a central role in whole-body protein metabolism by serving as the principal provider for amino acids to maintain protein synthesis in vital tissues and organs and by providing hepatic gluconeogenic precursors. Although not a good indicator of body composition, the Quetelet index, also called body mass index (BMI), is often used for practical reasons. It is well known that high BMI predicts mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. However, observational reports in the dialysis population have suggested that obesity is associated with improved survival, a phenomenon that is not well understood and subject to controversies. This review describes the characteristics of BMI in the general population and in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, as well as the respective role of muscle, whole body fat and fat distribution towards mortality, with particular emphasis on patients with CKD.

  6. Associations Between Fat Mass, Lean Mass, and Knee Osteoarthritis: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V).

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Rae; Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Jung, Go-Un; Shin, Doosup; Kim, Kyuwoong; Park, Sang Min

    2016-12-01

    As little is known about the associations between body composition (fat mass and lean mass) and knee OA, especially regarding body parts (upper body and lower limbs), the purpose of this study was to identify the association between the former and the prevalence of the latter according to body parts. This study was designed as a cross-sectional analysis, with 4194 people (1801 men and 2393 women) from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, 2010-2011) included. Body composition (fat mass and lean mass) was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and knee OA was diagnosed based on the level of Kellgren-Lawrence grade. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, upper body composition was not significantly correlated with radiographic knee OA (P > 0.05), while participants with higher lean mass of lower limbs were less likely to have radiographic knee OA (aOR 0.57; 95 % CI 0.32-0.99). In stratified analysis, participants with higher lean mass of lower limbs were less likely to have a radiographic knee OA in 40-54 kg (P for trend = 0.05) and 55-70 kg stratum (P for trend = 0.03), while this trend slightly attenuated in 70-85 kg stratum (P for trend = 0.15). In conclusion, the increase in lean mass of lower limbs is inversely related to the prevalence of knee OA while upper body composition is not. This study suggests that the lean mass of lower limbs might be associated with reduction in the risk of knee OA.

  7. Dietary supplementation of chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsook; Bartley, Glenn E; Arvik, Torey; Lipson, Rebecca; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Seo, Kunho; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2014-02-26

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated using male Golden Syrian hamsters fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd), or Syrah (SyrSd) pomace as compared to a HF control diet for 3 weeks. Hamsters fed the ChrSd diet had significantly lowered plasma total-, VLDL-, and LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the CabSd, SyrSd, and control diets. The improved plasma cholesterol after ChrSd was correlated with the up-regulation of hepatic genes related to cholesterol (CYP51) and bile acid (CYP7A1) synthesis as well as LDL-cholesterol uptake (LDLR). A reduction of hepatic lipid content was associated with altered expression of the genes related to lipid metabolism. However, fecal total lipid content was not changed. Expression of ileal apical sodium bile acid transporter (ASBT) was not affected by ChrSd, indicating unchanged ileal bile acid reabsorption. The antiobesity effect of the ChrSd diet appears to be related to expression of adipogenesis- and inflammation-related genes in adipose tissue. These findings suggest that flavonoid-rich Chardonnay grape seed flour induced cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, and anti-inflammatory health benefits and attenuation of hepatic steatosis via regulation of gene expression related to cholesterol, bile acid, and lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue.

  8. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female. PMID:26633917

  9. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female.

  10. Metabolic Slowing with Massive Weight Loss despite Preservation of Fat-Free Mass

    PubMed Central

    Johannsen, Darcy L.; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Huizenga, Robert; Rood, Jennifer C.; Ravussin, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Context: An important goal during weight loss is to maximize fat loss while preserving metabolically active fat-free mass (FFM). Massive weight loss typically results in substantial loss of FFM potentially slowing metabolic rate. Objective: Our objective was to determine whether a weight loss program consisting of diet restriction and vigorous exercise helped to preserve FFM and maintain resting metabolic rate (RMR). Participants and Intervention: We measured body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, RMR by indirect calorimetry, and total energy expenditure by doubly labeled water at baseline (n = 16), wk 6 (n = 11), and wk 30 (n = 16). Results: At baseline, participants were severely obese (×± sd; body mass index 49.4 ± 9.4 kg/m2) with 49 ± 5% body fat. At wk 30, more than one third of initial body weight was lost (−38 ± 9%) and consisted of 17 ± 8% from FFM and 83 ± 8% from fat. RMR declined out of proportion to the decrease in body mass, demonstrating a substantial metabolic adaptation (−244 ± 231 and −504 ± 171 kcal/d at wk 6 and 30, respectively, P < 0.01). Energy expenditure attributed to physical activity increased by 10.2 ± 5.1 kcal/kg·d at wk 6 and 6.0 ± 4.1 kcal/kg·d at wk 30 (P < 0.001 vs. zero). Conclusions: Despite relative preservation of FFM, exercise did not prevent dramatic slowing of resting metabolism out of proportion to weight loss. This metabolic adaptation may persist during weight maintenance and predispose to weight regain unless high levels of physical activity or caloric restriction are maintained. PMID:22535969

  11. Sitting height, fat-free mass and body fat as reference variables for lung function in healthy British children: comparison with stature.

    PubMed

    Cotes, J E; Dabbs, J M; Hall, A M; Heywood, C; Laurence, K M

    1979-01-01

    The ventilatory capacity, total lung capacity and transfer factor with their respective subdivisions have been measured on 254 healthy British boy and girl twins aged 8-16 yrs. The logarithmic regression relationships of lung function on stature have been compared with those on sitting height and on stature plus indices of body muscle and fat. The regressions on stature and on sitting height describe the results with similar precision, but stature is marginally better; either index may be used as the reference variable. For the description of inspiratory capacity and of all indices which include this volume (e.g. vital capacity, total lung capacity and transfer factor), additional precision is secured by adding to the regression equation on stature a term for fat-free mass or body mass divided by the square of the stature; for the description of functional residual capacity, the inclusion of a term for % body fat similarly reduces the variance about the regression equation. The difference in lung function between boys and girls is smaller when the function is related to stature than to sitting height. It is further reduced when fat-free mass/sature and % body fat are also included in the prediction equations. The equations may be used to obtain reference values for indices of lung function in similar subjects.

  12. Fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Canteli, B; Saez, F; de los Ríos, A; Alvarez, C

    1996-04-01

    We report the MR appearance of a case of subcutaneous fat necrosis, which is a previously unreported etiology for knee mass. The role of MR imaging in differentiating fat necrosis from other causes of soft tissue masses is discussed. We conclude that MR characteristics of subcutaneous fat necrosis are typical and allow its differentiation from other types of soft tissue lesions.

  13. Duration of sleep at 3 years of age is associated with fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age: the Southampton Women’s Survey

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Janis; Hill, Catherine; Harvey, Nicholas C.; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Sian; Godfrey, Keith; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Many studies have shown that shorter sleep duration in childhood is associated with higher body mass index and proposed that it is due to an effect of sleep on adiposity. There is little evidence about the association of sleep with fat-free mass. This study examined the association between child’s sleep duration at age 3 years and fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age in a prospective cohort study of 302boys and 285 girls. Study participants were taking part in the Southampton Women’s Survey, a longitudinal study of mothers and children from preconception onwards. Total sleep duration at age 3 years was derived from parental report of night sleep and nap duration. Body composition was assessed by DXA at 4 years. Mean total sleep duration was 11.5 hours. In linear regression analyses, adjusted for potentially confounding factors (maternal educational attainment, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking during pregnancy, child’s gestational age at birth, age at DXA, sex, age last breastfed, dietary quality at 3 years, TV watching and hours actively on the move and parental social class) shorter sleep in hours was associated with higher BMI (kg/m2) (β=-0.2340, 95% CI -0.373, -0.096), a greater fat mass index (kg) (β=-0.1182 (-0.218, -0.018)) and a greater fat-free mass index (kg) (β=-0.100 (-0.185, -0.015)). Previous research suggested that the association between shorter sleep and higher body mass index is due to an effect on adiposity. Our findings are novel suggesting that the relationship between sleep and BMI is also determined by an effect on muscle. PMID:26909889

  14. Normative data of body fat mass and its distribution as assessed by DXA in Indian adult population.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Raman K; Tandon, Nikhil; Garg, M K; Narang, Archna; Mehan, Neena; Bhadra, Kuntal

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment of body fat mass is precise and highly correlated with under water weighing. In view of ethnic differences, we undertook this study to prepare normative data for body fat mass in apparently healthy adult Indians and correlate it with body mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional population-based study included 2347 subjects (male: 924; female: 1423) aged >20 yr who participated in a general health examination. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body fat mass by DXA. All subjects were categorized as overweight and obese based on standard BMI criteria. Mean age and BMI were 49.1 ± 18.2yr and 25.0 ± 4.7kg/m(2), respectively. Mean percent total and regional fat (trunk, arm, and leg) reached maximum in the age group of 30-40yr in males and 50-60yr in females. Females had significantly higher total and regional fat mass compared with males. Fat mass was positively correlated with age (r = 0.224; p < 0.00001) and BMI (r = 0.668; p < 0.00001). Prevalence of overweight and obesity was seen in 2119 (46.1%) and 536 (13.8%), respectively, according to World Health Organization definition and 64.0% and 31.1%, respectively, as per Indian guidelines. Percent total body fat mass (PTBFM) of 25% in males and 30% in females corresponds to BMI of 22.0kg/m(2) with sensitivity of >80% and specificity of >70% in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Body fat mass in Indians is higher than that in Western populations for a given age and BMI. PTBFM of 25% in males and 30% in females corresponds to BMI of 22kg/m(2) in Indians.

  15. Body mass index centile charts to assess fatness of British children.

    PubMed Central

    White, E M; Wilson, A C; Greene, S A; McCowan, C; Thomas, G E; Cairns, A Y; Ricketts, I W

    1995-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) relates weight to height and reflects the shape of a child, but because of age dependency it has not been used conventionally for the estimation of fatness in children. From measurements of Tayside children (n = 34,533) centile charts were constructed for BMI (wt/ht2) from the raw data of height and weight, using Cole's LMS method for normalised growth standards. These data were compared with the only available European BMI charts published from data of French children obtained over a period of 24 years from 1956-79. British children appear to be 'fatter'. Within a subgroup (n = 445) the BMI values were correlated with estimations of body fat, for boys and girls, from skinfold thickness (r = 0.8 and 0.81) and bioelectrical impedance (r = 0.65 and 0.7). The limits of acceptable BMI have yet to be defined. PMID:7717735

  16. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW). Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  17. Ultrasonography Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology with Preparation of Cell Blocks in the Diagnosis of Intra- Abdominal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Muniyappa, Bharathi

    2015-01-01

    Background Ultrasonography guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is currently the most favoured and increasingly used pre-operative diagnostic procedure in various deep seated neoplastic and non-neoplastic mass lesions. Cell blocks prepared from residual fine needle aspiration (FNA) material can aid in better morphologic assessment and contribute to establish a more definitive cytopathologic diagnosis. Aim To assess the value of ultrasonography guided FNAC in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal (non-pelvic) masses. Objectives To determine the reliability of ultrasonography guided FNAC in distinguishing neoplastic from non-neoplastic intra-abdominal mass lesions. To assess the usefulness of cell block as a complimentary diagnostic material in the morphologic evaluation of the lesions. Materials and Methods Aspirate material was collected from 62 patients with clinically and/or radiologically detected abdominal mass under ultrasonographic (USG) guidance. Pelvic masses were excluded from the study. In every case an attempt was made to prepare cell block (CB) from any residual material after preparation of routine smears. The final cytomorphologic diagnosis was correlated with clinical and radiologic findings, histopathologic diagnosis, follow up and response to therapy information. Results The diagnostic yield of USG guided FNAC was 96.77%. The cases included 42 malignant (67.74%), two (3.23%) benign, and 16 (25.8%) non-neoplastic lesions. Two (3.23%) smears were unsatisfactory for evaluation. In 45 out of 62 cases (72.58%) CB preparations were available. There was a good agreement between smear diagnosis and that observed on CB section. Additionally CB yielded better diagnostic material in 15.55% of cases and aided in establishing a more precise final cytopathologic diagnosis. Confirmation of diagnosis in the form of biopsy and/or surgically resected specimen and follow up was available in 56 cases. The overall diagnostic accuracy of USG guided FNAC was 96

  18. Adipocyte ATP-binding cassette G1 promotes triglyceride storage, fat mass growth, and human obesity.

    PubMed

    Frisdal, Eric; Le Lay, Soazig; Hooton, Henri; Poupel, Lucie; Olivier, Maryline; Alili, Rohia; Plengpanich, Wanee; Villard, Elise F; Gilibert, Sophie; Lhomme, Marie; Superville, Alexandre; Miftah-Alkhair, Lobna; Chapman, M John; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Venteclef, Nicolas; Poitou, Christine; Tordjman, Joan; Lesnik, Philippe; Kontush, Anatol; Huby, Thierry; Dugail, Isabelle; Clement, Karine; Guerin, Maryse; Le Goff, Wilfried

    2015-03-01

    The role of the ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) transporter in human pathophysiology is still largely unknown. Indeed, beyond its role in mediating free cholesterol efflux to HDL, the ABCG1 transporter equally promotes lipid accumulation in a triglyceride (TG)-rich environment through regulation of the bioavailability of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Because both ABCG1 and LPL are expressed in adipose tissue, we hypothesized that ABCG1 is implicated in adipocyte TG storage and therefore could be a major actor in adipose tissue fat accumulation. Silencing of Abcg1 expression by RNA interference in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes compromised LPL-dependent TG accumulation during the initial phase of differentiation. Generation of stable Abcg1 knockdown 3T3-L1 adipocytes revealed that Abcg1 deficiency reduces TG storage and diminishes lipid droplet size through inhibition of Pparγ expression. Strikingly, local inhibition of adipocyte Abcg1 in adipose tissue from mice fed a high-fat diet led to a rapid decrease of adiposity and weight gain. Analysis of two frequent ABCG1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1893590 [A/C] and rs1378577 [T/G]) in morbidly obese individuals indicated that elevated ABCG1 expression in adipose tissue was associated with increased PPARγ expression and adiposity concomitant to increased fat mass and BMI (haplotype AT>GC). The critical role of ABCG1 in obesity was further confirmed in independent populations of severe obese and diabetic obese individuals. This study identifies for the first time a major role of adipocyte ABCG1 in adiposity and fat mass growth and suggests that adipose ABCG1 might represent a potential therapeutic target in obesity.

  19. Pancreatic Fat Is Associated With Metabolic Syndrome and Visceral Fat but Not Beta-Cell Function or Body Mass Index in Pediatric Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Staaf, Johan; Labmayr, Viktor; Paulmichl, Katharina; Manell, Hannes; Cen, Jing; Ciba, Iris; Dahlbom, Marie; Roomp, Kirsten; Anderwald, Christian-Heinz; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Schneider, Reinhard; Forslund, Anders; Widhalm, Kurt; Bergquist, Jonas; Ahlström, Håkan; Bergsten, Peter; Weghuber, Daniel; Kullberg, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Adolescents with obesity have increased risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Pancreatic fat has been related to these conditions; however, little is known about associations in pediatric obesity. The present study was designed to explore these associations further. Methods We examined 116 subjects, 90 with obesity. Anthropometry, MetS, blood samples, and oral glucose tolerance tests were assessed using standard techniques. Pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) and other fat depots were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. Results The PFF was elevated in subjects with obesity. No association between PFF and body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) was found in the obesity subcohort. Pancreatic fat fraction correlated to Insulin Secretion Sensitivity Index-2 and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in simple regression; however, when using adjusted regression and correcting for BMI-SDS and other fat compartments, PFF correlated only to visceral adipose tissue and fasting glucose. Highest levels of PFF were found in subjects with obesity and MetS. Conclusions In adolescents with obesity, PFF is elevated and associated to MetS, fasting glucose, and visceral adipose tissue but not to beta-cell function, glucose tolerance, or BMI-SDS. This study demonstrates that conclusions regarding PFF and its associations depend on the body mass features of the cohort. PMID:27941426

  20. Continuous fat oxidation in acetyl–CoA carboxylase 2 knockout mice increases total energy expenditure, reduces fat mass, and improves insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Cheol Soo; Savage, David B.; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi; Liu, Zhen-Xiang; Kim, Sheene; Kulkarni, Ameya; Distefano, Alberto; Hwang, Yu-Jin; Reznick, Richard M.; Codella, Roberto; Zhang, Dongyan; Cline, Gary W.; Wakil, Salih J.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2007-01-01

    Acetyl–CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC)2 is a key regulator of mitochondrial fat oxidation. To examine the impact of ACC2 deletion on whole-body energy metabolism, we measured changes in substrate oxidation and total energy expenditure in Acc2−/− and WT control mice fed either regular or high-fat diets. To determine insulin action in vivo, we also measured whole-body insulin-stimulated liver and muscle glucose metabolism during a hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp in Acc2−/− and WT control mice fed a high-fat diet. Contrary to previous studies that have suggested that increased fat oxidation might result in lower glucose oxidation, both fat and carbohydrate oxidation were simultaneously increased in Acc2−/− mice. This increase in both fat and carbohydrate oxidation resulted in an increase in total energy expenditure, reductions in fat and lean body mass and prevention from diet-induced obesity. Furthermore, Acc2−/− mice were protected from fat-induced peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. These improvements in insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism were associated with reduced diacylglycerol content in muscle and liver, decreased PKCθ activity in muscle and PKCε activity in liver, and increased insulin-stimulated Akt2 activity in these tissues. Taken together with previous work demonstrating that Acc2−/− mice have a normal lifespan, these data suggest that Acc2 inhibition is a viable therapeutic option for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:17923673

  1. Abdominal Fat and Sarcopenia in Women Significantly Alter Osteoblasts Homeostasis In Vitro by a WNT/β-Catenin Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wannenes, Francesca; Papa, Vincenza; Greco, Emanuela A.; Fornari, Rachele; Marocco, Chiara; Di Luigi, Luigi; Donini, Lorenzo M.; Lenzi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and sarcopenia have been associated with mineral metabolism derangement and low bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated whether imbalance of serum factors in obese or obese sarcopenic patients could affect bone cell activity in vitro. To evaluate and characterize potential cellular and molecular changes of human osteoblasts, cells were exposed to sera of four groups of patients: (1) affected by obesity with normal BMD (O), (2) affected by obesity with low BMD (OO), (3) affected by obesity and sarcopenia (OS), and (4) affected by obesity, sarcopenia, and low BMD (OOS) as compared to subjects with normal body weight and normal BMD (CTL). Patients were previously investigated and characterized for body composition, biochemical and bone turnover markers. Then, sera of different groups of patients were used to incubate human osteoblasts and evaluate potential alterations in cell homeostasis. Exposure to OO, OS, and OOS sera significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and BMP4 expression compared to cells exposed to O and CTL, indicating a detrimental effect on osteoblast differentiation. Interestingly, sera of all groups of patients induced intracellular alteration in Wnt/β-catenin molecular pathway, as demonstrated by the significant alteration of specific target genes expression and by altered β-catenin cellular compartmentalization and GSK3β phosphorylation. In conclusion our results show for the first time that sera of obese subjects with low bone mineral density and sarcopenia significantly alter osteoblasts homeostasis in vitro, indicating potential detrimental effects of trunk fat on bone formation and skeletal homeostasis. PMID:24963291

  2. Which Anthropometric Measure Best Correlates with Neonatal Fat Mass at Birth?

    PubMed

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Gal, Moran; Landau-Helman, Yeela; Biderman, Lihi; Nir, Romy; Maayan-Metzger, Ayala

    2016-07-01

    Objective Body composition provides additional information than weight alone. There is currently no accepted anthropometric measure of adiposity in infants, yet weight and length data allow calculations of a wide array of indices. The study objective was to identify the anthropometric index which best correlates with neonatal adiposity, by examining the associations between neonatal fat mass and several anthropometric indices of newborn infants. Study Design The sum of skinfolds (SSF), birth weight, and birth length were measured in 94 healthy infants (58% males) born at term to healthy mothers. Several anthropometric indices were calculated, and their relationship with SSF was assessed using linear regression adjusting for gestational age and sex. Results SSF at birth was significantly higher in females compared with males (20.7 ± 3.3 vs. 18.8 ± 4.1 mm, p = 0.019). Birth weight, birth weight-for-gestational-age percentile, birth weight percentile, and weight/length ratio had the highest associations with SSF, yet R (2) values were very low, ranging from 16 to 18%. Body mass index (BMI), BMI percentile, ponderal index, and the symmetry index had even lower associations. Conclusion No anthropometric measure can confidently assess fat mass in infants at birth, in accordance with previous research. When body composition data are needed, they should be directly measured.

  3. Mass transfer kinetics during deep fat frying of wheat starch and gluten based snacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobukola, O. P.; Bouchon, P.

    2014-06-01

    Mass transfer (moisture loss and oil uptake) kinetics during deep fat frying of wheat starch and gluten based snacks was investigated. Both followed a modified first order reaction. Activation energies, z-value, and highest values of D and k for moisture loss and oil uptake were 28.608 kJ/mol, 129.88 °C, 490 and 0.0080 s-1; and 60.398 kJ/mol, 61.79 °C, 1,354.71 and 0.0052 s-1, respectively.

  4. Determination of glycerol in oils and fats using liquid chromatography chloride attachment electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunfen; Viidanoja, Jyrki

    2017-01-15

    Existing liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry method for the analysis of short chain carboxylic acids was expanded and validated to cover also the measurement of glycerol from oils and fats. The method employs chloride anion attachment and two ions, [glycerol+(35)Cl](-) and [glycerol+(37)Cl](-), as alternative quantifiers for improved selectivity of glycerol measurement. The averaged within run precision, between run precision and accuracy ranged between 0.3-7%, 0.4-6% and 94-99%, respectively, depending on the analyte ion and sample matrix. Selected renewable diesel feedstocks were analyzed with the method.

  5. Body mass index and body fat status of men involved in sports, exercise, and sedentary activites.

    PubMed

    Wan Nudri, Wan Daud; Wan Abdul Manan, Wan Muda; Mohamed Rusli, Abdullah

    2009-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kota Bharu on three groups of men with ages ranging from 18 to 44 years. The study groups included 83 athletes representing various types of sports and levels of participation (athlete group), 80 active men who exercised a minimum of 30 minutes per day at least 3 times per week (exercise group), and 80 inactive men (sedentary group). The objectives of the study were to compare the body mass indices (BMIs) and body fat statuses among the three groups with different physical activity levels. The height and weight of respondents were measured using the Seca weighing balance with height attachment. Skinfold thickness of biceps, triceps, subscapular regions, and suprailiac regions of each respondent were measured using Harpenden skinfold calipers. Percentage body fat was calculated as the sum of the four measurements of skinfold thickness. The results showed that the mean (± SD) BMIs in the athlete, exercise, and sedentary groups were 22.6 ± 2.9, 23.4 ± 3.5, and 24.3 ± 4.6 kg/m(2), respectively. The combined prevalence of pre-obese (BMI 25.029.9) and obese (BMI ³ 30.0) subjects was 21.7% in the athlete group, 29.9% in the exercise group, and 47.5% in the sedentary group. The mean (± SD) percentage of body fat in athletes was 15.7 ± 5.4%, which was lower than in the exercise (18.9 ± 5.5%) and sedentary (20.6 ± 5.8%) groups. The study revealed that individuals who are actively involved in physical activity, particularly in sport activities, have lower BMIs and percentage body fat values compared to sedentary people. Therefore, to prevent obesity, all individuals are encouraged to perform regular physical activity, particularly sports activities.

  6. Somatotype is More Interactive with Strength than Fat Mass and Physical Activity in Peripubertal Children.

    PubMed

    Marta, Carlos; Marinho, Daniel A; Costa, Aldo M; Barbosa, Tiago M; Marques, Mário C

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the interaction between somatotype, body fat and physical activity in prepubescent children. This was a cross-sectional study design involving 312 children (160 girls, 152 boys) aged between 10 and 11.5 years old (10.8 ± 0.4 years old). Evaluation of body composition was done determining body mass index and body fat by means of skin-fold measurements, using the method described by Slaughter. Somatotype was computed according to the Carter's method. Physical activity was assessed with the Baecke questionnaire. The physical activity assessment employed sets of curl-ups, push-ups, standing broad jump, medicine ball throw, handgrip strength and Margaria-Kalamen power stair. There were negative associations for body fat, endomorphy and mesomorphy with curl-ups, push-ups and broad jump tests and positive associations with ball throw, handgrip strength and Margaria-Kalamen power tests. The associations for ectomorphy were the inverse of those for endomorphy and mesomorphy. Non obese children presented higher values for curl-ups, push-ups and standing broad jump. In medicine ball throw, handgrip strength and Margaria-Kalamen power test obese children presented higher scores, followed by children who were overweight. The mesoectomorphic boys and ectomesomorphic girls performed higher in all tests. The morphological typology presented more interactions with strength than % of body fat and physical activity. These data seem to suggest that the presence/absence of certain physical characteristics is crucial in the levels of motor provision in prepubescent children.

  7. [Above and beyond BMI : Alternative methods of measuring body fat and muscle mass in critically ill patients and their clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Weig, T; Irlbeck, T; Frey, L; Paprottka, P; Irlbeck, M

    2016-09-01

    Obesity leads to better survival in critically ill patients. Although there are several studies confirming this thesis, the "obesity paradox" is still surprising from the clinician's perspective. One explanation for the "obesity paradox" is the fact that the body mass index (BMI), which is used in almost all clinical evaluations to determine weight categories, is not an appropriate measure of fat and skeletal muscle mass and its distribution in critically ill patients. In addition, height and weight are frequently estimated rather than measured. Central obesity has been identified in many disorders as an independent risk factor for an unfavourable outcome. The first clues are to be found in intensive care. Along with obesity, an individual's entire muscle mass is a variable that has an influence on outcome. Central obesity can be measured relatively easily with an abdominal calliper, but the calculation of muscle mass is more complex. A valid and detailed measurement of this can be obtained using computed tomography (CT) images, acquired during routine care. For future clinical observation or interventional studies, single cross-sectional CT is a more sophisticated tool for measuring patients' anthropometry than a measuring tape and callipers. Patients with sarcopenic obesity, for example, who may be at a particular risk, can only be identified using imaging procedures such as single cross-sectional CT. Thus, BMI should take a back seat as an anthropometric tool, both in the clinic and in research.

  8. Fat-free mass index in users and nonusers of anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    PubMed

    Kouri, E M; Pope, H G; Katz, D L; Oliva, P

    1995-10-01

    We calculated fat-free mass index (FFMI) in a sample of 157 male athletes, comprising 83 users of anabolic-androgenic steroids and 74 nonusers. FFMI is defined by the formula (fat-free body mass in kg) x (height in meters)-2. We then added a slight correction of 6.3 x (1.80 m - height) to normalize these values to the height of a 1.8-m man. The normalized FFMI values of athletes who had not used steroids extended up to a well-defined limit of 25.0. Similarly, a sample of 20 Mr. America winners from the presteroid era (1939-1959), for whom we estimated the normalized FFMI, had a mean FFMI of 25.4. By contrast, the FFMI of many of the steroid users in our sample easily exceeded 25.0, and that of some even exceeded 30. Thus, although these findings must be regarded as preliminary, it appears that FFMI may represent a useful initial measure to screen for possible steroid abuse, especially in athletic, medical, or forensic situations in which individuals may attempt to deny such behavior.

  9. The Influence of Increased Body Fat or Lean Body Mass on Aerobic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Maciejczyk, Marcin; Więcek, Magdalena; Szymura, Jadwiga; Szyguła, Zbigniew; Wiecha, Szczepan; Cempla, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine aerobic performance in men with an increased body mass due to (a) high body fat (>21.5%) but with a average (59.0–64.3 kg) lean body mass (HBF group) and (b) high lean body mass (>66.3 kg), but with average body fat (14.0–18.5%) (HLBM group). Methods The men in the HBF and HLBM had similar absolute body mass and body mass index (BMI). The aerobic performance was also determined in control group. Methods: Study participants comprised 39 men aged 21.3±1.9 years who did not participate in competitive sports but were recreationally physically active. Participants were divided into three groups. Each group comprised 13 persons. The study involved anthropometric measurements, assessing aerobic performance (VO2max) using an incremental test on a mechanical treadmill. VO2max was expressed in absolute values, relative to body mass (VO2max⋅BM−1), relative to lean body mass (VO2max⋅LBM−1), and relative to BM raised by the exponents of 0.75 and 0.67. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results No statistically significant differences in relative values of VO2max were found between the HBF and HLBM groups, in VO2max⋅BM−1 (50.24±4.56 vs. 53.11±5.45 mL⋅kg−1), VO2max⋅LBM−1 (65.33±5.63 vs. 63.86±7.13 mL⋅kgLBM−1), and VO2max⋅BM−0.75 (150.29±13.5 vs. 160.39±16.15 mL⋅kg−0.75). Values of VO2max⋅BM−1 were significantly lower in the HBF and HLBM groups than in the control group (58.23±5.84 mL⋅kg−1). Conclusion High body mass, regardless of the cause decreases VO2max⋅BM−1. PMID:24752377

  10. Multiple frequency bioimpedance is an adequate tool to assess total and regional fat mass in HIV-positive patients but not to diagnose HIV-associated lipoatrophy: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Blanco, José R; Ibarra, Valvanera; Metola, Luis; Sanz, Mercedes; Hernando, Luis; Martínez, Sagrario; Ramírez, Arsenio; Ramalle-Gomara, Enrique; Oteo, José A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome causes systemic metabolic alterations and psychological distress that worsen the quality of life of these patients. An early detection should be considered to efficiently treat it. Objective criteria or reference indices are needed for an early diagnosis. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is an operator-independent, repeatable and non-invasive method of body composition evaluation that is less expensive than dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and/or CT scans. The aims of this pilot study were to validate the data obtained by BIA to measure fat mass in HIV-positive patients with/without lipoatrophy and to determine if BIA correctly diagnoses lipoatrophy in HIV-positive patients. Methods Thirty-nine participants were included in this preliminary study. Fourteen were HIV-negative (eight men) whereas 25 were HIV-positive patients (17 men). Eleven of the HIV-positive patients were classified as lipoatrophic according to subjective evaluation by the physicians. Total and regional body composition was measured in basal conditions by DXA and by BIA. To obtain abdominal CT scan fat values, transverse slices with 6-mm thickness were acquired at the L4-L5 intervertebral space. Results BIA measurements of total and regional body fat were significantly correlated with those obtained by DXA (p < 0.05 to <0.01) in HIV-positive patients. However, agreement between methods was poor as not very high ICC (intraclass correlation coefficient) values were observed. BIA and DXA showed higher ICC values in lipoatrophic patients. The visceral index obtained by BIA was correlated with total and visceral fat in L4 measured by CT scan (r = 0.607 and r = 0.617, respectively, p < 0.01) in HIV-positive patients. The Fat Mass Ratio (FMR) calculated by BIA did not correlate or agree with DXA values. Conclusions Multi-frequency BIA could be an effective method to evaluate the evolution of total and regional fat composition in HIV

  11. Molecular correlates of fat mass expansion in C57BL/6J mice after short-term exposure to dietary fat

    PubMed Central

    Anunciado-Koza, Rea P.; Manuel, Justin; Koza, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity of obesity within a population of inbred mice fed an obesogenic high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with changes of gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). One gene in particular with large variations among mice, mesoderm-specific transcript (Mest), has been shown to be highly inducible after being fed a short-term HFD, and its expression in WAT before HFD feeding is predictive for susceptibility to the development of obesity. To gain further insight on the association of Mest with rapid changes in body composition, 96 individually housed C57BL/6J mice were fed an HFD for only 2 weeks, resultin in a 12-fold and 90-fold variation in Mest mRNA in visceral epididymal and subcutaneous inguinal WAT, respectively. WAT Mest mRNA was positively associated with interindividual variation of fat mass. Surprisingly, there was only a slight association of WAT Mest with food intake when normalized by body weight or lean mass. In addition, WAT Mest expression coincided highly with the expression of the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 14 (Klf14), an imprinted gene that regulates lipid metabolism in WAT. Our data suggest that KLF14 transcriptional activity may partially mediate, or act in concert with, MEST as part of an epigenetic mechanism that promotes fat mass accumulation in mice fed an obesogenic diet. PMID:26647164

  12. Molecular correlates of fat mass expansion in C57BL/6J mice after short-term exposure to dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Anunciado-Koza, Rea P; Manuel, Justin; Koza, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneity of obesity within a population of inbred mice fed an obesogenic high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with changes of gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). One gene in particular with large variations among mice, mesoderm-specific transcript (Mest), has been shown to be highly inducible after being fed a short-term HFD, and its expression in WAT before HFD feeding is predictive for susceptibility to the development of obesity. To gain further insight into the association of Mest with rapid changes in body composition, 96 individually housed C57BL/6J mice were fed an HFD for only 2 weeks, resulting in a 12-fold and 90-fold variation in Mest mRNA in visceral epididymal and subcutaneous inguinal WAT, respectively. WAT Mest mRNA was positively associated with interindividual variation of fat mass. Surprisingly, there was only a slight association of WAT Mest with food intake when normalized by body weight or lean mass. In addition, WAT Mest expression coincided highly with the expression of the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 14 (Klf14), an imprinted gene that regulates lipid metabolism in WAT. Our data suggest that KLF14 transcriptional activity may partially mediate, or act in concert with, MEST as part of an epigenetic mechanism that promotes fat mass accumulation in mice fed an obesogenic diet.

  13. Measurement error of DXA: interpretation of fat and lean mass changes in obese and non-obese children.

    PubMed

    Wosje, Karen S; Knipstein, Brittany L; Kalkwarf, Heidi J

    2006-01-01

    Information on reproducibility of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements is essential because DXA is frequently used by clinicians and researchers to assess body composition changes. We estimated measurement error and absolute and relative smallest detectable differences (SDDs) for fat, lean, and bone mass in children. The SDD is the change necessary to be confident that the change is not a consequence of measurement error. Duplicate whole body DXA (Hologic QDR 4500A, Hologic Inc., Waltham, MA) scans were obtained on 32 obese and 34 non-obese children ages 6-19 yr. Absolute (kg) and relative (coefficient of variation) measurement error and SDD were calculated. Absolute SDDs for fat and lean were higher for obese (1.39 and 1.30 kg, respectively) than for non-obese children (0.42 and 0.47 kg, respectively). The %SDD for fat was lower for obese (3.58%) than non-obese children (5.24%), but for lean the %SDD was higher for obese (2.60%) than non-obese children (1.32%). The SDDs for bone mass were similar for obese and non-obese children. An obese child must lose or gain more absolute fat and lean mass than a non-obese child to be confident that the change is not a reflection of measurement error. Overall, SDD values for fat, lean, and bone mass are low.

  14. Biochemical and High Throughput Microscopic Assessment of Fat Mass in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Pino, Elizabeth C.; Webster, Christopher M.; Carr, Christopher E.; Soukas, Alexander A.

    2013-01-01

    The nematode C. elegans has emerged as an important model for the study of conserved genetic pathways regulating fat metabolism as it relates to human obesity and its associated pathologies. Several previous methodologies developed for the visualization of C. elegans triglyceride-rich fat stores have proven to be erroneous, highlighting cellular compartments other than lipid droplets. Other methods require specialized equipment, are time-consuming, or yield inconsistent results. We introduce a rapid, reproducible, fixative-based Nile red staining method for the accurate and rapid detection of neutral lipid droplets in C. elegans. A short fixation step in 40% isopropanol makes animals completely permeable to Nile red, which is then used to stain animals. Spectral properties of this lipophilic dye allow it to strongly and selectively fluoresce in the yellow-green spectrum only when in a lipid-rich environment, but not in more polar environments. Thus, lipid droplets can be visualized on a fluorescent microscope equipped with simple GFP imaging capability after only a brief Nile red staining step in isopropanol. The speed, affordability, and reproducibility of this protocol make it ideally suited for high throughput screens. We also demonstrate a paired method for the biochemical determination of triglycerides and phospholipids using gas chromatography mass-spectrometry. This more rigorous protocol should be used as confirmation of results obtained from the Nile red microscopic lipid determination. We anticipate that these techniques will become new standards in the field of C. elegans metabolic research. PMID:23568026

  15. Physical exercise is associated with better fat mass distribution and lower insulin resistance in spinal cord injured individuals

    PubMed Central

    D’Oliveira, Giselle Louise C.; Figueiredo, Flávia A.; Passos, Magna Cottini Fonseca; Chain, Amina; Bezerra, Flávia F.; Koury, Josely Correa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to compare total and regional body composition and their relationship with glucose homeostasis in physically active and non-active individuals with cervical spinal cord injury (c-SCI). Methods Individuals with lesion level between C5–C7 were divided into two groups: physically active (PA; n = 14; who practiced physical exercise for at least 3 months, three times per week or more, minimum of 150 minutes/week): and non-physically active (N-PA n = 8). Total fat mass (t-FM) and regional fat mass (r-FM) were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fasting plasma insulin (FPI) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results PA group present lower (P < 0.01) total fat mass (t-FM), % and kg, regional fat mass (r-FM), % and kg, FPI levels and HOMA index, while they had higher (P < 0.001) total free fat mass (t-FFM), %, and regional free fat mass (r-FFM), %, compared to the N-PA group. In the N-PA group, FPI and HOMA index were negatively (P < 0.05) correlated with FFM% (r = −0.71, −0.69, respectively) and positively correlated to trunk-FM (r = 0.71, 0.69, respectively) and trunk-FM:t-FM (kg) ratio (r = 0.83, 0.79, respectively). Conclusion Physical exercise is associated with lower t-FM, r-FM, and insulin resistance, which could contribute to the decrease of the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic conditions in individuals with c-SCI. PMID:24090139

  16. Increased 2-hydroxylation of estrogen is associated with lower body fat and increased lean body mass in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Nicola; Vattikuti, Swapna; Yarramaneni, Jayasree; Giri, Tusar K; Nekkalapu, Srenath; Qualls, Clifford; Armamento-Villareal, Reina C

    2012-05-01

    Menopause is associated with changes in bone, muscle and fat mass. The importance of postmenopausal estrogen metabolism in bone health has been established. However, its relationship to body composition in postmenopausal women remains undetermined. The objective of this study is to determine the association between estrogen metabolism and body composition in postmenopausal women. This is a cross sectional study of 97 postmenopausal Caucasian women, 49-80 y.o., ≥1 year from the last normal menstrual period or those who have had oophorectomy. Inactive [2-hydroxyestrone (2OHE(1))] and active [16α-hydroxyestrone (16α-OHE(1))] urinary metabolites of estrogen were measured by ELISA. The whole and regional body composition was measured by DXA. We have found that both 2OHE(1), and 2OHE(1)/16α-OHE(1) ratio were negatively correlated with % total fat, and % truncal fat but positively correlated with % total lean mass. Comparing the fat and lean parameters of body composition according to tertiles of 2OHE(1) and 2OHE(1)/16αOHE(1) ratio showed that subjects in the lowest tertiles, had the highest % total fat, and % truncal fat and the lowest % total lean mass. Multiple regression analysis also showed 2OHE(1) and calcium intake as statistically significant predictors of all body composition parameters. In conclusion, in postmenopausal women, an increase in the metabolism of estrogen towards the inactive metabolites is associated with lower body fat and higher lean mass than those with predominance of the metabolism towards the active metabolites.

  17. Fat mass- and obesity-associated gene Fto affects the dietary response in mouse white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Ronkainen, Justiina; Huusko, Tuija J; Soininen, Raija; Mondini, Eleonora; Cinti, Francesca; Mäkelä, Kari A; Kovalainen, Miia; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sebert, Sylvain; Savolainen, Markku J; Salonurmi, Tuire

    2015-03-18

    Common variants of human fat mass- and obesity-associated gene Fto have been linked with higher body mass index, but the biological explanation for the link has remained obscure. Recent findings suggest that these variants affect the homeobox protein IRX3. Here we report that FTO has a role in white adipose tissue which modifies its response to high-fat feeding. Wild type and Fto-deficient mice were exposed to standard or high-fat diet for 16 weeks after which metabolism, behavior and white adipose tissue morphology were analyzed together with adipokine levels and relative expression of genes regulating white adipose tissue adipogenesis and Irx3. Our results indicate that Fto deficiency increases the expression of genes related to adipogenesis preventing adipocytes from becoming hypertrophic after high-fat diet. In addition, we report a novel finding of increased Irx3 expression in Fto-deficient mice after high-fat feeding indicating a complex link between FTO, IRX3 and fat metabolism.

  18. Fat mass is positively associated with bone mass in relatively thin adolescents: data from the Kitakata Kids Health Study.

    PubMed

    Kouda, Katsuyasu; Fujita, Yuki; Sato, Yuho; Ohara, Kumiko; Nakamura, Harunobu; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Iki, Masayuki

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have found that higher body weight is associated with better bone health. Body weight consists of both fat mass (FM) and lean soft tissue mass (LSTM). Previous studies have examined the effects of FM levels during childhood on bone health, with conflicting results. In the present study, we investigated the independent contributions of FM to bone mass in Japanese adolescents. Subjects were 235 adolescents aged 15-18 years old in August 2010 and in August 2013 from the Kitakata Kids Health Study in Japan. We obtained cross-sectional data on body composition as well as bone mineral density (BMD). Body composition and BMD were measured using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner. We found moderate and positive relationships between FM index and LSTM index (males, r=0.69; females, r=0.44). To verify a potentially additive effect of FM on the variance of bone variables beyond LSTM, we assessed the association between FM index and bone variables after stratification by tertiles of the LSTM index. In the lowest tertile of the LSTM index, FM index was significantly (P<0.05) associated with both femoral neck BMD (males, β=0.48; females, β=0.33) and whole body BMC (males, β=0.41; females, β=0.25). On the other hand, we found no significant associations between FM index and bone variables in other tertiles of the LSTM index. These findings indicate that FM can influence how high bone mass is obtained among relatively thin adolescents, but not among those who are of normal weight or overweight.

  19. Comparison of DEXA and QMR for assessing fat and lean body mass in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Miller, Colette N; Kauffman, Tricia G; Cooney, Paula T; Ramseur, Keshia R; Brown, Lynda M

    2011-04-18

    There are several techniques used to measure body composition in experimental models including dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR). DEXA/QMR data have been compared in mice, but have not been compared previously in rats. The goal of this study was to compare DEXA and QMR data in rats. We used rats that varied by sex, diet, and age, in addition we compared dissected samples containing subcutaneous (pelt) or visceral fat (carcass). The data means were compared by focusing on the differences between DEXA/QMR data using a series of scatter plots without assuming that either method is more accurate as suggested by Bland and Altman. DEXA/QMR data did not agree sufficiently in carcass or pelt FM or in pelt LBM. The variation observed within these groups suggests that DEXA and QMR measurements are not comparable. Carcass LBM in young rats did yield comparable data once the data for middle-aged rats was removed. The variation in our data may be a result of different direct and indirect measures that DEXA and QMR technologies use to quantify FM and LBM. DEXA measures FM and estimates fat-free mass. In contrast, QMR uses separate equations of magnetic resonance to measure FM, LBM, total body water and free water. We found that QMR overestimated body mass in our middle-aged rats, and this increased the variation between methods. Our goal was to evaluate the precision of DEXA/QMR data in rats to determine if they agree sufficiently to allow direct comparison of data between methods. However DEXA and QMR did not yield the same estimates of FM or LBM for the majority of our samples.

  20. The 'Fat Mass and Obesity Related' (FTO) gene: Mechanisms of Impact on Obesity and Energy Balance.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R

    2015-03-01

    A cluster of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the first intron of the fat mass and obesity related (FTO) gene were the first common variants discovered to be associated with body mass index and body fatness. This review summarises what has been later discovered about the biology of FTO drawing together information from both human and animal studies. Subsequent work showed that the 'at risk' alleles of these SNPs are associated with greater food intake and increased hunger/lowered satiety, but are not associated with altered resting energy expenditure or low physical activity in humans. FTO is an FE (II) and 2-oxoglutarate dependent DNA/RNA methylase. Contrasting the impact of the SNPs on energy balance in humans, knocking out or reducing activity of the Fto gene in the mouse resulted in lowered adiposity, elevated energy expenditure with no impact on food intake (but the impact on expenditure is disputed). In contrast, overexpression of the gene in mice led to elevated food intake and adiposity, with no impact on expenditure. In rodents, the Fto gene is widely expressed in the brain including hypothalamic nuclei linked to food intake regulation. Since its activity is 2-oxoglutarate dependent it could potentially act as a sensor of citrate acid cycle flux, but this function has been dismissed, and instead it has been suggested to be much more likely to act as an amino acid sensor, linking circulating AAs to the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1. This may be fundamental to its role in development but the link to obesity is less clear. It has been recently suggested that although the obesity related SNPs reside in the first intron of FTO, they may not only impact FTO but mediate their obesity effects via nearby genes (notably RPGRIP1L and IRX3).

  1. The prediction of lean body mass and fat mass from arm anthropometry at diagnosis in children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Webber, Colin; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Young, Andrea; Barr, Ronald D

    2013-10-01

    Maintenance of adequate nutrition is important in the care of children with cancer. In clinical practice, determination of nutritional status can be accomplished with measurement of body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, DXA is seldom available in low-income countries where most children with cancer live. This study sought to provide predictive equations for lean body mass and fat mass, measured by DXA, on the basis of simple arm anthropometry providing measures of mid-upper arm circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness in a population (N=99) of children diagnosed with cancer. Such equations were derived successfully with the inclusion of absolute body weight, the body weight Z-score, and the predicted whole-body bone mineral content on the basis of age and sex. Attempted validation in a small sample (N=7) of children who completed therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed disparities reflective of the prevalence of obesity in such survivors. Further validation must be undertaken in large samples of children with a variety of malignant diseases to assess the robustness of the equations predictive of body composition.

  2. Validity of Impedance Predictions at Various Levels of Fatness,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    estimates of total body water and of fat-free mass. The validity of RES to predict percent body fat (%BF) was evaluated in a sample of 403 male (Mean...were collected on a sample of 403 male and 135 female military personnel. Characteristics of this population sample are provided in Table 1...inferior to the axilla and at the nipple line as described by Beckett and Hodgdon (1985) and Behnke and Wilmore (1974), respectively. Abdominal

  3. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Loan, Marta D.; Keim, Nancy L.; Adams, Sean H.; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R.; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A.; Spurlock, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered. PMID:21941636

  4. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Van Loan, Marta D; Keim, Nancy L; Adams, Sean H; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A; Spurlock, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  5. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Tepaamorndech, Surapun; Kirschke, Catherine P; Huang, Liping

    2014-08-01

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and body fat accumulation is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight and fat deposit and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that link zinc metabolism to growth and adiposity, we conducted a genome-wide mapping study using male F2 Znt7 KO mice and wild-type (WT) littermates with a mixed 129P1/ReJ and C57BL/6J genetic background. The mice were fed a semi-purified diet containing 30-mg Zn/kg diet at weaning. Body weights and fat pad weights including epididymal, retroperitoneal, and femoral subcutaneous fat pads were measured at 16 weeks of age. We detected two significant QTLs (p < 0.05) for body weight and fat deposit. One was in the F2 Znt7 KO population and the other in the F2 WT population. In Znt7 KO mice, the body weight and fat deposit was significantly linked to a locus on chromosome 7 ranging from 64.3 to 78.3 Mb. In WT mice, a significant linkage of retroperitoneal fat mass was found on chromosome 8 between 14.5 and 63.5 Mb. In addition, several other suggestive QTLs (p < 0.63) for body weight and fat accumulation were detected in Znt7 KO and WT mice. In conclusion, the QTLs identified in this study may provide new hints to uncover the genes linking cellular zinc status to growth and body fat accumulation.

  6. Reference Values of Total Lean Mass, Appendicular Lean Mass, and Fat Mass Measured with Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in a Healthy Mexican Population.

    PubMed

    Clark, Patricia; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Ambrosi, Regina; Szulc, Pawel; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Salmerón, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific reference values of total lean body mass (LBM), appendicular lean body mass (ALBM), and fat mass (FM) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data in a healthy Mexican population. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 9518 healthy subjects 7-89 years of age participating in the baseline measurement of the Health Workers Cohort Study. Using DXA, LBM, ALBM, and FM were measured. Using these data, LBM index (LBMI), ALBM index (ALBMI), and fat mass index (FMI) were calculated. LMI, ALMI, and FMI were calculated as the LBM, ALBM, and FM kg divided by the height in meters squared. Males and females were analyzed separately; sex-specific means and standard deviations for LBM, ALBM, FM, LBMI, ALBMI, and FMI were calculated. A total of 2829 males and 6694 females were included in the final analysis. Strong sex gaps were observed after 12 years in LBM, ALBM, LBMI, and ALBMI (P < 0.01). LBM and ALBM values continue to increase for males up to age 20; females plateaued approximately after age 15. Significant sex differences were also observed for FM and FMI. Significant sex- and age-related differences exist in LBM, ALBM, and FM in the Mexican population. In addition, given the null data available in this area, these reference values may be useful in the evaluation of a variety of childhood and adult abnormalities involving lean body mass deficits, mainly in the assessment of muscle wasting, with important medical and epidemiological uses.

  7. Influence of lean and fat mass on bone mineral density and on urinary stone risk factors in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of body composition (lean mass and fat mass) on urine chemistries and bone quality is still debated. Our aim was therefore to determine the effect of lean mass and fat mass on urine composition and bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of healthy females. Materials and methods 78 female volunteers (mean age 46 ± 6 years) were enrolled at the Stone Clinic of Parma University Hospital and subdued to 24-hour urine collection for lithogenic risk profile, DEXA, and 3-day dietary diary. We defined two mathematical indexes derived from body composition measurement (index of lean mass-ILM, and index of fat mass-IFM) and the cohort was split using the median value of each index, obtaining groups differing only for lean or fat mass. We then analyzed differences in urine composition, dietary intakes and BMD. Results The women with high values of ILM had significantly higher excretion of creatinine (991 ± 194 vs 1138 ± 191 mg/day, p = 0.001), potassium (47 ± 13 vs 60 ± 18 mEq/day, p < 0.001), phosphorus (520 ± 174 vs 665 ± 186 mg/day, p < 0.001), magnesium (66 ± 20 vs 85 ± 26 mg/day, p < 0.001), citrate (620 ± 178 vs 807 ± 323 mg/day, p = 0.002) and oxalate (21 ± 7 vs 27 ± 11 mg/day, p = 0.015) and a significantly better BMD values in limbs than other women with low values of ILM. The women with high values of IFM had similar urine composition to other women with low values of IFM, but significantly better BMD in axial sites. No differences in dietary habits were found in both analyses. Conclusions Lean mass seems to significantly influence urine composition both in terms of lithogenesis promoters and inhibitors, while fat mass does not. Lean mass influences bone quality only in limb skeleton, while fat mass influences bone quality only in axial sites. PMID:24099643

  8. Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity.

    PubMed

    Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Li, Shengxu; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Prokopenko, Inga; Inouye, Michael; Freathy, Rachel M; Attwood, Antony P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Berndt, Sonja I; Jacobs, Kevin B; Chanock, Stephen J; Hayes, Richard B; Bergmann, Sven; Bennett, Amanda J; Bingham, Sheila A; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Cauchi, Stéphane; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian; Dina, Christian; De, Subhajyoti; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Doney, Alex S F; Elliott, Katherine S; Elliott, Paul; Evans, David M; Sadaf Farooqi, I; Froguel, Philippe; Ghori, Jilur; Groves, Christopher J; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hebebrand, Johannes; Heid, Iris M; Lamina, Claudia; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Herrera, Blanca; Hinney, Anke; Hunt, Sarah E; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johnson, Toby; Jolley, Jennifer D M; Karpe, Fredrik; Keniry, Andrew; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; Marchini, Jonathan; McArdle, Wendy L; McGinnis, Ralph; Meyre, David; Munroe, Patricia B; Morris, Andrew D; Ness, Andrew R; Neville, Matthew J; Nica, Alexandra C; Ong, Ken K; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Owen, Katharine R; Palmer, Colin N A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Potter, Simon; Pouta, Anneli; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Rayner, Nigel W; Ring, Susan M; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Scherag, André; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Soranzo, Nicole; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Syddall, Holly E; Teichmann, Sarah A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tobias, Jonathan H; Uda, Manuela; Vogel, Carla I Ganz; Wallace, Chris; Waterworth, Dawn M; Weedon, Michael N; Willer, Cristen J; Wraight; Yuan, Xin; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Strachan, David P; Ouwehand, Willem H; Caulfield, Mark J; Samani, Nilesh J; Frayling, Timothy M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Deloukas, Panos; McCarthy, Mark I; Wareham, Nicholas J; Barroso, Inês; Jacobs, Kevin B; Chanock, Stephen J; Hayes, Richard B; Lamina, Claudia; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Hunter, David J; Hu, Frank B; Lyon, Helen N; Voight, Benjamin F; Ridderstrale, Martin; Groop, Leif; Scheet, Paul; Sanna, Serena; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Albai, Giuseppe; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Schlessinger, David; Jackson, Anne U; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Collins, Francis S; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L

    2008-06-01

    To identify common variants influencing body mass index (BMI), we analyzed genome-wide association data from 16,876 individuals of European descent. After previously reported variants in FTO, the strongest association signal (rs17782313, P = 2.9 x 10(-6)) mapped 188 kb downstream of MC4R (melanocortin-4 receptor), mutations of which are the leading cause of monogenic severe childhood-onset obesity. We confirmed the BMI association in 60,352 adults (per-allele effect = 0.05 Z-score units; P = 2.8 x 10(-15)) and 5,988 children aged 7-11 (0.13 Z-score units; P = 1.5 x 10(-8)). In case-control analyses (n = 10,583), the odds for severe childhood obesity reached 1.30 (P = 8.0 x 10(-11)). Furthermore, we observed overtransmission of the risk allele to obese offspring in 660 families (P (pedigree disequilibrium test average; PDT-avg) = 2.4 x 10(-4)). The SNP location and patterns of phenotypic associations are consistent with effects mediated through altered MC4R function. Our findings establish that common variants near MC4R influence fat mass, weight and obesity risk at the population level and reinforce the need for large-scale data integration to identify variants influencing continuous biomedical traits.

  9. The Demethylase Activity of FTO (Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Protein) Is Required for Preadipocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meizi; Zhang, Ying; Ma, Jun; Guo, Feima; Cao, Qian; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Bin; Chai, Jijie; Zhao, Wenqing; Zhao, Renbin

    2015-01-01

    FTO (fat mass and obesity associated gene) was genetically identified to be associated with body mass index (BMI), presumably through functional regulation of energy homeostasis. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which FTO functions remain largely unknown. Using 3T3-L1 preadipocyte as a model to study the role of FTO in adipogenesis, we demonstrated that FTO is functionally required for 3T3-L1 differentiation. FTO knock-down with siRNA inhibited preadipocyte differentiation, whereas ectopic over-expression of FTO enhanced the process. The demethylase activity of FTO is required for differentiation. Level of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is decreased in cells over-expressing FTO. In contrast, overexpression of R96Q, a FTO missense mutant lack of demethylase activity, had no effect on cellular m6A level and impeded differentiation. Treatment with Rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, could overcome the differentiation inhibition imposed by R96Q mutant, suggesting the effect of FTO is mediated through PPARγ.

  10. N-acetylcysteine supplementation decreases osteoclast differentiation and increases bone mass in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have demonstrated that obesity induced by high-fat diets increases bone resorption, decreases trabecular bone mass, and reduces bone strength in various animal models. This study investigated whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and a glutathione precursor, alters glutathione statu...

  11. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  12. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  13. Physical Training of School Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: Effects on Daily Activity, Fat Mass and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Den Berg-Emons, R. J.; Van Baak, M. A.; Speth, L.; Saris, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of two 9-month sports programs (four or two sessions per week) on daily physical activity (PA), fat mass (FM), and physical fitness were assessed in 20 Dutch children (ages 7-13) with spastic cerebral palsy. Four sessions per week tended to increase PA ratio and held FM constant. (Author/CR)

  14. Association of physical activity with muscular strength and fat-free mass in adolescents: the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Ortega, Francisco B; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Rey-Lopez, Juan P; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Widhalm, Kurt; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study is to analyse the association of objectively assessed physical activity (PA) with muscular strength and fat-free mass in adolescents, and to determine whether meeting the current PA recommendations is associated with higher levels of muscular strength and fat-free mass. The present cross-sectional study comprised 363 Spanish adolescents (180 females) aged 12.5-17.5 years. PA was assessed by accelerometry and expressed as average PA (counts/min), and min/day of inactive, light, moderate, vigorous and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). MVPA was dichotomized into < 60 min/day and > or = 60. Upper body muscular strength was measured with the handgrip strength test, and lower body muscular strength was measured with the standing broad jump, squat jump, counter movement jump and Abalakov tests. Fat-free mass was measured by DXA. We observed positive associations between vigorous PA and all the lower body muscular strength tests except for the counter movement jump in males. PA was not associated with fat-free mass in both males and females. Male adolescents engaged in at least 60 min/day MVPA performed better in the standing broad jump test. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that only vigorous PA is associated with muscular strength, particularly lower-body muscular strength in male adolescents.

  15. Association Between MCT1 A1470T Polymorphism and Fat-Free Mass in Well-Trained Young Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Massidda, Myosotis; Eynon, Nir; Bachis, Valeria; Corrias, Laura; Culigioni, Claudia; Cugia, Paolo; Scorcu, Marco; Calò, Carla M

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the MCT1 A1470T polymorphism and fat-free mass in young Italian elite soccer players. Participants were 128 Italian male soccer players. Fat-free mass was estimated for each of the soccer player using age- and gender-specific formulas with plicometry. Genotyping for the MCT1 A1470T polymorphism was performed using polymerase chain reaction. The MCT1 A1470T genotypes were in agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium distribution. The percentage of fat-free mass was significantly higher in soccer players with the TT genotype and in the T-allele-dominant model group (TT + AT) compared with the soccer players with the AA genotype. The MCT1 T allele is associated with the percentage of fat-free mass in young elite male soccer players. Elucidating the genetic basis of body composition in athletes could potentially be used as an additional tool for strength and conditioning professionals in planning and adjusting training. However, these results are preliminary and need to be replicated in more cohorts.

  16. The fat mass and obesity associated gene FTO functions in the brain to regulate postnatal growth in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) was identified as an obesity-susceptibility gene by several independent large-scale genome association studies. A cluster of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) located in the first intron of FTO was found to be significantly associated with obesity-related tr...

  17. Obesity induced by high dietary fat leads to increased bone resorption marker, TRAP, and decreased bone mass in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity, which is growing in prevalence, is a risk factor for such chronic health disorders as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, it is thought to be a protective factor for osteoporosis and bone fractures in humans. Accumulating data in humans suggest that fat mass has a negative effect...

  18. Physical activity, and not fat mass is a primary predictor of circadian parameters in young men

    PubMed Central

    Tranel, Hannah R.; Schroder, Elizabeth A.; England, Jonathan; Black, W. Scott; Bush, Heather; Hughes, Michael E.; Esser, Karyn A.; Clasey, Jody L.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ≈ 24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) would significantly differ among groups of healthy young men of varying adiposities, and that we could identify physiological and behavioral measures that were significantly associated with these temperature parameters. Wrist skin temperatures taken at 10 min intervals for 7 consecutive days were determined in 18 optimal (OGroup), 20 fair (FGroup) and 21 poor (PGroup) %Fat grouped young men and subsequently analyzed using available validated software. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, actigraphy, daily nutritional and sleep data, and fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentration measures were also determined. Significant changes in TempAmp and TempStab parameters in subjects with a single metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factor compared to those with no MetS factors was observed. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that 50% of the variance in TempAmp was explained by actigraphy (mean steps taken per day; MSTPD), cardiorespiratory fitness, and late night eating per week (#LNE); and 57% in TempStab by MSTPD, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity per day, fat mass, and #LNE. Overwhelmingly, physical activity was the most important measure associated with the differences in circadian rhythm parameters. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of increasing the amount and timing of physical activity on the status of the circadian system in a variety of populations. PMID:26101893

  19. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of fat mass and obesity-associated gene in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jinyi; Jing, Wenqian; Jiang, Yunliang

    2013-12-01

    Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene codes for a nuclear protein of the AlkB related nonhaem iron and 2-oxoglutaratedependent oxygenase superfamily, and is involved in animal fat deposition and human obesity. In this work, the molecular characterization and expression features of rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) FTO cDNA were analysed. The rabbit FTO cDNA with a size of 2158 bp was cloned, including 1515 bp of the open reading frame that encoded a basic protein of 504 amino acids. Homologous comparison indicated that the rabbit FTO shared 36.36-91.88% identity with those from other species and phylogenetic analysis showed that the rabbit FTO is closely related to human, but more distantly related to zebrafish. The New Zealand rabbit FTO mRNA was detected in all tissues examined, with the highest levels found in the spleen and the lowest found in the kidney. However, no significant differences were seen in cerebellum, corpora quadrigemina, medulla oblongata and cerebral cortex of commercial adult rabbits. Moreover, mRNA levels of FTO in liver tissues were significantly increased in lactating New Zealand rabbits compared with 70-day-old, 90-day-old and gestating rabbits (P < 0.05). In contrast, FTO mRNA levels were significantly lower in longissimus dorsi muscle of 90-day-old New Zealand rabbits than in 70-day-old rabbits (P <0.05). However, the expression levels of FTO in mammary gland and ovary of gestating and lactating rabbits were not significantly different (P > 0.05).

  20. Physical activity, and not fat mass is a primary predictor of circadian parameters in young men.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Hannah R; Schroder, Elizabeth A; England, Jonathan; Black, W Scott; Bush, Heather; Hughes, Michael E; Esser, Karyn A; Clasey, Jody L

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ≈24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) would significantly differ among groups of healthy young men of varying adiposities, and that we could identify physiological and behavioral measures that were significantly associated with these temperature parameters. Wrist skin temperatures taken at 10 min intervals for 7 consecutive days were determined in 18 optimal (OGroup), 20 fair (FGroup) and 21 poor (PGroup) %Fat grouped young men and subsequently analyzed using available validated software. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, actigraphy, daily nutritional and sleep data, and fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentration measures were also determined. Significant changes in TempAmp and TempStab parameters in subjects with a single metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factor compared to those with no MetS factors was observed. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that 50% of the variance in TempAmp was explained by actigraphy (mean steps taken per day; MSTPD), cardiorespiratory fitness, and late night eating per week (#LNE); and 57% in TempStab by MSTPD, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity per day, fat mass, and #LNE. Overwhelmingly, physical activity was the most important measure associated with the differences in circadian rhythm parameters. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of increasing the amount and timing of physical activity on the status of the circadian system in a variety of populations.

  1. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves exercise tolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with better preserved fat-free mass

    PubMed Central

    Nápolis, Lara Maris; Corso, Simone Dal; Neder, José Alberto; Malaguti, Carla; Gimenes, Ana Cristina Oliveira; Nery, Luiz Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation increases exercise tolerance in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients). However, it is conceivable that its benefits are more prominent in patients with better-preserved peripheral muscle function and structure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation in COPD patients with better-preserved peripheral muscle function. Design: Prospective and cross-over study. METHODS: Thirty COPD patients were randomly assigned to either home-based, high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation or sham stimulation for six weeks. The training intensity was adjusted according to each subject's tolerance. Fat-free mass, isometric strength, six-minute walking distance and time to exercise intolerance (Tlim) were assessed. RESULTS: Thirteen (46.4%) patients responded to high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation; that is, they had a post/pre ΔTlim >10% after stimulation (unimproved after sham stimulation). Responders had a higher baseline fat-free mass and six-minute walking distance than their seventeen (53.6%) non-responding counterparts. Responders trained at higher stimulation intensities; their mean amplitude of stimulation during training was significantly related to their fat-free mass (r  =  0.65; p<0.01). Logistic regression revealed that fat-free mass was the single independent predictor of Tlim improvement (odds ratio [95% CI]  =  1.15 [1.04-1.26]; p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation improved the exercise capacity of COPD patients with better-preserved fat-free mass because they tolerated higher training stimulus levels. These data suggest that early training with high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation before tissue wasting begins might enhance exercise tolerance in patients with less advanced COPD. PMID:21552662

  2. Size at birth and adult fat mass in twin sheep are determined in early gestation

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, S N; Oliver, M H; McLean, C; Jaquiery, A L; Bloomfield, F H

    2012-01-01

    Size at birth is related to adult health outcomes. Twins are born smaller than singletons; this has been assumed to be secondary to limited nutrient supply in late gestation. We hypothesised that growth trajectory in twins, and the adult consequences of being conceived a twin, are determined in early gestation. Twin pregnancies in sheep were randomised to reduction of one twin on day 42 of a 148 day pregnancy by intra-thoracic KCl (Reductions, n = 46) or a sham procedure (Twins, n = 22). Singleton-bearing ewes also underwent a sham procedure (n = 27). Ewes lambed spontaneously. Linear measures of size at birth were similar in Twins and Reductions, and significantly less than in Singletons. Birthweight was lower in Twins and Reductions than in Singletons, and less in Twins than in Reductions (means (SEM): Singletons, liveborn n = 23: 6.59 (0.17) kg; Twins, liveborn n = 36: 5.23 (0.16) kg; Reductions, liveborn n = 27: 5.76 (0.15) kg; all comparisons P < 0.05). Reductions grew most rapidly between birth and weaning (Singletons, 20.0 (0.4) g kg−1 day−1; Twins, 20.0 (0.3) g kg−1 day−1; Reductions, 21.0 (0.3) g kg−1 day−1, P < 0.05) and were of similar weight as Singletons by weaning; Twins remained smaller by weaning but grew most rapidly thereafter (Singletons, 1.6 (0.1) g kg−1 day−1; Twins, 2.1 (0.1) g kg−1 day−1; Reductions, 1.6 (0.1) g kg−1 day−1, P < 0.01), so that all groups had similar weight at 2 years. However, Twins and Reductions had greater percentage fat mass than Singletons at 2 years (Singletons, 11.1 (1.1)%; Twins, 14.8 (1.2)%; Reductions, 15.5 (1.1)%, P < 0.05). Thus, in twins, fetal growth trajectory, linear size at birth and adult fat mass are largely determined in early gestation. If this is also true in humans, there are important implications for interventions aimed at optimising fetal growth and pregnancy outcome. PMID:22183720

  3. Increased fat mass is associated with increased bone size but reduced volumetric density in pre pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Cole, Z A; Harvey, N C; Kim, M; Ntani, G; Robinson, S M; Inskip, H M; Godfrey, K M; Cooper, C; Dennison, E M

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that obesity is associated with an increased risk of fracture in both adults and children. It has been suggested that, despite greater bone size, obese individuals may have reduced true volumetric density; however this is difficult to assess using two dimensional techniques such as DXA. We evaluated the relationship between fat mass, and bone size and density, in a population cohort of children in whom DXA and pQCT measurements had been acquired. We recruited 530 children at 6 years old from the Southampton Women's Survey. The children underwent measurement of bone mass at the whole body, lumbar spine and hip, together with body composition, by DXA (Hologic Discovery, Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA, USA). In addition 132 of these children underwent pQCT measurements at the tibia (Stratec XCT2000, Stratec Biomedical Systems, Birkenfeld, Germany). Significant positive associations were observed between total fat mass and both bone area (BA) and bone mineral content (BMC) at the whole body minus head, lumbar spine and hip sites (all p<0.0001). When true volumetric density was assessed using pQCT data from the tibia, fat mass (adjusted for lean mass) was negatively associated with both trabecular and cortical density (β=-14.6 mg/mm(3) per sd, p=0.003; β=-7.7 mg/mm(3) per sd, p=0.02 respectively). These results suggest that fat mass is negatively associated with volumetric bone density at 6 years old, independent of lean mass, despite positive associations with bone size.

  4. Running 338 Kilometres within Five Days has no Effect on Body Mass and Body Fat But Reduces Skeletal Muscle Mass - the Isarrun 2006.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Kohler, Götz

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the change of body composition in ultra- endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-endurance run, the Isarrun 2006 in Bavaria, Germany, where athletes had to run 338 km within 5 days. Body mass, skin fold thicknesses and circumferences of extremities were measured in 21 well-experienced extreme endurance male runners (mean ± SD, 41.5 ± 6.9 years, 72.6 ± 6.4 kg, 178 ± 5 cm, BMI 23.0 ± 2.0 kg·m(-2)), who finished mainly within the first half of the ranking, in order to calculate skeletal muscle mass and body fat mass to prove changes after the race. Body mass and calculated fat mass did not change significantly (p>0.05), but, calculated skeletal muscle mass decreased significantly (p<0.05) by 0.63 ± 0.79 kg by the end of the race. The most apparent decline (p<0.01) of the calculated skeletal muscle mass was during the first stage, and no changes were observed during the last 4 stages. We conclude, that a multi- stage ultra-endurance run over 338 km within 5 days leads to no changes of body mass or body fat mass, but a statistically significant decrease of skeletal muscle mass of 0.63 ± 0.79 kg by the end of the race in well-trained and well-experienced ultra-endurance runners. The change of skeletal muscle mass has to be evaluated in further studies at ultra-endurance races with suitable methods to detect changes in hydration status and water metabolism. Key pointsUltra-runners at the Isarrun 2006 suffered no loss of body mass.Skeletal muscle mass decreased highly significantly during the first stage but no significant changes of skeletal muscle mass were observed during the following 4 stages of the Isarrun 2006.Body fat mass remained stable during the Isarrun 2006.

  5. Body composition and appetite: fat-free mass (but not fat mass or BMI) is positively associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Blundell, John E; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; Näslund, Erik; King, Neil A; Finlayson, Graham

    2012-02-01

    The idea of body weight regulation implies that a biological mechanism exerts control over energy expenditure and food intake. This is a central tenet of energy homeostasis. However, the source and identity of the controlling mechanism have not been identified, although it is often presumed to be some long-acting signal related to body fat, such as leptin. Using a comprehensive experimental platform, we have investigated the relationship between biological and behavioural variables in two separate studies over a 12-week intervention period in obese adults (total n 92). All variables have been measured objectively and with a similar degree of scientific control and precision, including anthropometric factors, body composition, RMR and accumulative energy consumed at individual meals across the whole day. Results showed that meal size and daily energy intake (EI) were significantly correlated with fat-free mass (FFM, P values < 0·02-0·05) but not with fat mass (FM) or BMI (P values 0·11-0·45) (study 1, n 58). In study 2 (n 34), FFM (but not FM or BMI) predicted meal size and daily EI under two distinct dietary conditions (high-fat and low-fat). These data appear to indicate that, under these circumstances, some signal associated with lean mass (but not FM) exerts a determining effect over self-selected food consumption. This signal may be postulated to interact with a separate class of signals generated by FM. This finding may have implications for investigations of the molecular control of food intake and body weight and for the management of obesity.

  6. Quantification of milk fat globule membrane proteins using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fong, Bertram Y; Norris, Carmen S

    2009-07-22

    Although some of the physiological roles of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins are still unclear, there is increasing evidence that the consumption of bovine MFGM proteins has significant nutritional health benefits for humans; therefore, it may be important to be able to estimate the MFGM proteins in complex ingredients. In this study, the absolute quantification (AQUA) technique, which is typically used for the quantification of proteins in proteomic studies, was applied for the quantification of bovine MFGM proteins in butter milk protein concentrate. Six MFGM proteins (fatty acid binding protein, butyrophilin, PAS 6/7, adipophilin, xanthine oxidase, and mucin 1) were simultaneously quantified using high-resolution selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Samples were rehydrated in 6.7 M urea buffer prior to dilution to 2.2 M before tryspin digestion. Direct rehydration in 2.2 M urea buffer or 2.2 M urea/20% acetonitilrile buffer reduced peptide yield digestion. Isotopically labeled peptides were used as internal standards. The coefficient of variation ranged from 5 to 15%, with a recovery of 84-105%. The limit of detection was in the range of 20-40 pg.

  7. Body mass index and body fat distribution in newly-arrived Vietnamese refugees in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, M; Brock, K; Nguyen, D; Tran-Dinh, H

    1996-10-01

    Body mass index (BMI), body fat distribution and some behavioural variables were examined in an ethnic Vietnamese population newly arrived in Australia. The age range was 23 to 74 years for males (n = 246, mean = 38.8) and 24 to 66 for females (n = 165, mean = 36.4). Mean BMI was 20.62 +/- 2.65 (male) and 21.25 +/- 3.16 (female). Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was 0.844 (males) v 0.802 (females), p < 0.0001: waist was 73.7 cm (males) v 71.7 cm (females), (p = 0.007). Male smoking was 69%, female, 1%; the BMI of male non-smokers was higher than that of smokers 21.22 v 20.35 (p = 0.0017). Exercise patterns, diet or alcohol intake did not appear to affect BMI. The mean BMI of this refugee Vietnamese population is low by comparison with the Australian population. Vietnamese females although of lower mean BMI, have higher WHR than Australian females.

  8. Brief communication: Body mass index, body adiposity index, and percent body fat in Asians.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Yonglan; Zheng, Lianbin; Yu, Keli

    2013-10-01

    Human obesity is a growing epidemic throughout the world. Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used as a good indicator of obesity. Body adiposity index (BAI = hip circumference (cm)/stature (m)(1.5) - 18), as a new surrogate measure, has been proposed recently as an alternative to BMI. This study, for the first time, compares BMI and BAI for predicting percent body fat (PBF; estimated from skinfolds) in a sample of 302 Buryat adults (148 men and 154 women) living in China. The BMI and BAI were strongly correlated with PBF in both men and women. The correlation coefficient between BMI and PBF was higher than that between BAI and PBF for both sexes. For the linear regression analysis, BMI better predicted PBF in both men and women; the variation around the regression lines for each sex was greater for BAI comparisons. For the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the ROC curve for BMI was higher than that for BAI for each sex, which suggests that the discriminatory capacity of the BMI is higher than the one of BAI. Taken together, we conclude that BMI is a more reliable indicator of PBF derived from skinfold thickness in adult Buryats.

  9. Preservation of Fat-free Mass after Bariatric Surgery: A Comparison of Malabsorptive and Restrictive Procedures.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jason; Miller, Megan; Perry, Brittonni; Ewing, Joseph A; Hale, Allyson L; Scott, John D

    2015-08-01

    The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has been shown to cause significant weight loss. However, fat-free mass (FFM) is often lost with this rapid weight change. It is suggested that the loss of FFM is minimized with restrictive-only procedures, such as the vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), when compared with malabsorptive surgery. The purpose of the study was to determine the difference in the postoperative loss of FFM between RYBG and VSG patients. We reviewed all patients who underwent RYGB or VSG between May 2012 and January 2013. Patients were evaluated one month before their procedure and 12 months after for comparison of results. Preoperative and postoperative body analysis data were procured using a body composition analysis device. Within the study period, 33 patients underwent a RYGB procedure and 20 patients a VSG. After 12 months, RYGB patients had an average increase of 38.15 per cent in their proportion of FFM, whereas VSG patients had an average FFM increase of 22.09 per cent, a statically significant difference (P = 0.004). The RYGB helps preserve overall FFM as compared with the VSG. These findings are unexpected because malabsorptive procedures require increased protein intake, resulting in a stronger likelihood of inadequate protein intake, which may lead to protein malnutrition.

  10. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimation Fat-Free Mass in the Army Cadets

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Raquel D.; Borges, Juliano H.; Pascoa, Mauro A.; Cirolini, Vagner X.; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Gonçalves, Ezequiel M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is a fast, practical, non-invasive, and frequently used method for fat-free mass (FFM) estimation. The aims of this study were to validate predictive equations of BIA to FFM estimation in Army cadets and to develop and validate a specific BIA equation for this population. Methods: A total of 396 males, Brazilian Army cadets, aged 17–24 years were included. The study used eight published predictive BIA equations, a specific equation in FFM estimation, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method. Student’s t-test (for paired sample), linear regression analysis, and Bland–Altman method were used to test the validity of the BIA equations. Results: Predictive BIA equations showed significant differences in FFM compared to DXA (p < 0.05) and large limits of agreement by Bland–Altman. Predictive BIA equations explained 68% to 88% of FFM variance. Specific BIA equations showed no significant differences in FFM, compared to DXA values. Conclusion: Published BIA predictive equations showed poor accuracy in this sample. The specific BIA equations, developed in this study, demonstrated validity for this sample, although should be used with caution in samples with a large range of FFM. PMID:26978397

  11. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene: Obesity and beyond?

    PubMed

    Hess, Martin E; Brüning, Jens C

    2014-10-01

    Genome wide association studies undoubtedly linked variants of the fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) to obesity. To date, however, knowledge on the mechanisms coupling variants in the intron of the FTO gene to its expression or enzymatic activity to alter metabolism remains scarce. Until recently, the investigation of the molecular function of FTO had not led to conclusive results concerning the 'where', 'when' and 'how' of FTO activity. Finally, since FTO was identified as a RNA modifying enzyme, demethylating N6-methyladenosine on single stranded RNA, novel understanding of the molecular function is gathered. These and other studies suggest the requirement for a further reaching approach to further investigate FTO function, since the phenotype of aberrant FTO function may encompass more than just obesity. Taking these new insights and translating them into appropriate paradigms for functional research in humans may lead to a deeper understanding of the human physiology and disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: From Genome to Function.

  12. Exploratory study into the effect of abdominal mass loading on airways resistance and ventilatory failure

    PubMed Central

    Dattani, Raj S; Swerner, Casey B; Stradling, John R; Manuel, Ari RG

    2016-01-01

    Objective We hypothesised that the airway resistance during tidal breathing would correlate with a particular pattern of increasing obesity, particularly when supine, and would differ between participants with and without ventilatory failure. Methods In our cross-sectional cohort study, 72 morbidly obese patients (40 males, 32 females, mean body mass index (BMI) 47.2) had measurements of both airways resistance (by impulse oscillometry (IOS)) and adiposity (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)). Results All measures of airways resistance increased in the supine position: total airways resistance (R5) +37% (p<0.0005); large airways resistance (R20) +29% (p<0.0005); and small airways resistance (R5–R20) +52% (p<0.0005). BMI was correlated with seated R5, seated R5–R20, supine R5 and supine R5–R20 (r=0.33 p<0.006, r=0.32 p<0.004, r=0.30 p<0.02 and r=0.36 p<0.04, respectively). Visceral adipose tissue mass was correlated with supine R5–20 (r=0.46 p<0.05). Supine measures of total airways resistance (R5) and large airways resistance (R20) differed between those with and without ventilatory failure, as did mean weight and BMI. Conclusions Our study identifies a potentially detrimental effect of the supine posture on tidal breathing airways resistance in obese patients. This change is correlated most with visceral adipose tissue mass and the small airways. We were able to demonstrate that supine increases in airways resistance during tidal breathing, within obese patients, are different between those with and without ventilatory failure. Trial registration number NCT01380418; pre-results. PMID:27335651

  13. The challenging image-guided abdominal mass biopsy: established and emerging techniques 'if you can see it, you can biopsy it'.

    PubMed

    Sainani, Nisha I; Arellano, Ronald S; Shyn, Paul B; Gervais, Debra A; Mueller, Peter R; Silverman, Stuart G

    2013-08-01

    Image-guided percutaneous biopsy of abdominal masses is among the most commonly performed procedures in interventional radiology. While most abdominal masses are readily amenable to percutaneous biopsy, some may be technically challenging for a number of reasons. Low lesion conspicuity, small size, overlying or intervening structures, motion, such as that due to respiration, are some of the factors that can influence the ability and ultimately the success of an abdominal biopsy. Various techniques or technologies, such as choice of imaging modality, use of intravenous contrast and anatomic landmarks, patient positioning, organ displacement or trans-organ approach, angling CT gantry, triangulation method, real-time guidance with CT fluoroscopy or ultrasound, sedation or breath-hold, pre-procedural image fusion, electromagnetic tracking, and others, when used singularly or in combination, can overcome these challenges to facilitate needle placement in abdominal masses that otherwise would be considered not amenable to percutaneous biopsy. Familiarity and awareness of these techniques allows the interventional radiologist to expand the use of percutaneous biopsy in clinical practice, and help choose the most appropriate technique for a particular patient.

  14. Indices of vascular stiffness and wave reflection in relation to body mass index or body fat in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Adamska, Karolina; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Wysocki, Henryk

    2007-10-01

    1. Obesity appears to influence vascular stiffness, an important cardiovascular risk factor. An accurate picture of arterial stiffness may be obtained when a combination of various techniques is used. 2. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether the body mass index (BMI) and body fat content obtained by bioimpedance were of equal value in estimating the influence of body fatness on various indices of vascular stiffness and wave reflection. 3. A total of 175 healthy subjects was studied. Anthropometric measurements and total body bio-impedance analysis were performed to assess fat mass as a proportion of total body composition. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were assessed using digital volume pulse analysis and tonometric measurement of the wave reflection indices and central haemodynamics. 4. Significant differences in the stiffness index (SI(DVP); P < 0.0001), peripheral augmentation index (pAI(x); P < 0.0001), central augmentation index (cAI(x); P < 0.0001), peripheral pulse pressure (pPP; P = 0.026) and central pulse pressure (cPP; P < 0.0001) were found when the population examined was divided accordingly to tertile of body fat content. However, subdividing various indices of arterial stiffness according to the tertile of BMI did not reveal any significant differences between groups, except for pPP and cPP. 5. Body fat content was significantly correlated with SI(DVP), pAI(x), cAI(x), pPP and cPP. The BMI correlated weakly with SI(DVP), pPP and cPP. 6. In conclusion, the BMI is not very useful in predicting changes in arterial stiffness and wave reflection due to obesity. However, stiffness and wave reflection indices derived from digital volume pulse analysis, the characteristics of radial and aortic pressure waveforms and peripheral and aortic pulse pressure are all related to body fat content, as estimated by bioimpedance.

  15. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    PubMed

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students.

  16. Drinking water boosts food intake rate, body mass increase and fat accumulation in migratory blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla).

    PubMed

    Tsurim, Ido; Sapir, Nir; Belmaker, Jonathan; Shanni, Itai; Izhaki, Ido; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Karasov, William H; Pinshow, Berry

    2008-05-01

    Fat accumulation by blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) is a prerequisite for successful migratory flight in the autumn and has recently been determined to be constrained by availability of drinking water. Birds staging in a fruit-rich Pistacia atlantica plantation that had access to water increased their body mass and fat reserves both faster and to a greater extent than birds deprived of water. We conducted a series of laboratory experiments on birds captured during the autumn migration period in which we tested the hypotheses that drinking water increases food use by easing limitations on the birds' dietary choices and, consequently, feeding and food processing rates, and that the availability of drinking water leads to improved digestion and, therefore, to higher apparent metabolizable energy. Blackcaps were trapped in autumn in the Northern Negev Desert, Israel and transferred to individual cages in the laboratory. Birds were provided with P. atlantica fruit and mealworms, and had either free access to water (controls) or were water-deprived. In experiment 1, in which mealworm availability was restricted, water-deprived birds had a fourfold lower fruit and energy intake rates and, consequently, gained less fat and total mass than control birds. Water availability did not affect food metabolizability. In experiment 2, in which mealworms were provided ad libitum, water availability influenced the birds' diet: water-restricted birds ate more mealworms, while control birds consumed mainly P. atlantica fruit. Further, in experiment 2, fat and mass gain did not differ between the two treatment groups. We conclude that water availability may have important consequences for fat accumulation in migrating birds while they fatten at stopover sites, especially when water-rich food is scarce. Restricted water availability may also impede the blackcap's dietary shift from insectivory to frugivory, a shift probably necessary for successful pre-migratory fattening.

  17. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor lowers PPARγ agonist-induced body weight gain by affecting food intake, fat mass, and beige/brown fat but not fluid retention

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Takahiro; Fu, Yiling; Eguchi, Akiko; Czogalla, Jan; Rose, Michael A.; Kuczkowski, Alexander; Gerasimova, Maria; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Scadeng, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists like pioglitazone (PGZ) are effective antidiabetic drugs, but they induce fluid retention and body weight (BW) gain. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitors are antidiabetic drugs that enhance renal Na+ and fluid excretion. Therefore, we examined whether the DPP IV inhibitor alogliptin (ALG) ameliorates PGZ-induced BW gain. Male Sv129 mice were treated with vehicle (repelleted diet), PGZ (220 mg/kg diet), ALG (300 mg/kg diet), or a combination of PGZ and ALG (PGZ + ALG) for 14 days. PGZ + ALG prevented the increase in BW observed with PGZ but did not attenuate the increase in body fluid content determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). BIS revealed that ALG alone had no effect on fat mass (FM) but enhanced the FM-lowering effect of PGZ; MRI analysis confirmed the latter and showed reductions in visceral and inguinal subcutaneous (sc) white adipose tissue (WAT). ALG but not PGZ decreased food intake and plasma free fatty acid concentrations. Conversely, PGZ but not ALG increased mRNA expression of thermogenesis mediator uncoupling protein 1 in epididymal WAT. Adding ALG to PGZ treatment increased the abundance of multilocular cell islets in sc WAT, and PGZ + ALG increased the expression of brown-fat-like “beige” cell marker TMEM26 in sc WAT and interscapular brown adipose tissue and increased rectal temperature vs. vehicle. In summary, DPP IV inhibition did not attenuate PPARγ agonist-induced fluid retention but prevented BW gain by reducing FM. This involved ALG inhibition of food intake and was associated with food intake-independent synergistic effects of PPARγ agonism and DPP-IV inhibition on beige/brown fat cells and thermogenesis. PMID:24347054

  18. Diet misreporting can be corrected: confirmation of the association between energy intake and fat-free mass in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vainik, Uku; Konstabel, Kenn; Lätt, Evelin; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-10-01

    Subjective energy intake (sEI) is often misreported, providing unreliable estimates of energy consumed. Therefore, relating sEI data to health outcomes is difficult. Recently, Börnhorst et al. compared various methods to correct sEI-based energy intake estimates. They criticised approaches that categorise participants as under-reporters, plausible reporters and over-reporters based on the sEI:total energy expenditure (TEE) ratio, and thereafter use these categories as statistical covariates or exclusion criteria. Instead, they recommended using external predictors of sEI misreporting as statistical covariates. We sought to confirm and extend these findings. Using a sample of 190 adolescent boys (mean age=14), we demonstrated that dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-measured fat-free mass is strongly associated with objective energy intake data (onsite weighted breakfast), but the association with sEI (previous 3-d dietary interview) is weak. Comparing sEI with TEE revealed that sEI was mostly under-reported (74 %). Interestingly, statistically controlling for dietary reporting groups or restricting samples to plausible reporters created a stronger-than-expected association between fat-free mass and sEI. However, the association was an artifact caused by selection bias - that is, data re-sampling and simulations showed that these methods overestimated the effect size because fat-free mass was related to sEI both directly and indirectly via TEE. A more realistic association between sEI and fat-free mass was obtained when the model included common predictors of misreporting (e.g. BMI, restraint). To conclude, restricting sEI data only to plausible reporters can cause selection bias and inflated associations in later analyses. Therefore, we further support statistically correcting sEI data in nutritional analyses. The script for running simulations is provided.

  19. Estimation of fat-free mass in Asian neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tint, Mya-Thway; Ward, Leigh C; Soh, Shu E; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kramer, Michael S; Yap, Fabian; Lingwood, Barbara; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop and validate a prediction equation of fat-free mass (FFM) based on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as a reference in Asian neonates and to test the applicability of the prediction equations in independent Western cohort. A total of 173 neonates at birth and 140 at week-2 of age were included. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to develop the prediction equations in a two-third randomly selected subset and validated on the remaining one-third subset at each time point and in an independent Queensland cohort. FFM measured by ADP was the dependent variable and anthropometric measures, sex and impedance quotient (L2/R50) were independent variables in the model. Accuracy of prediction equations were assessed using intra-class correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. L2/R50 was the significant predictor of FFM at week-2 but not at birth. Compared to the model using weight, sex and length, including L2/R50 slightly improved the prediction with a bias of 0.01kg with 2SD limits of agreement (LOA) (0.18, −0.20). Prediction explained 88.9% of variation but not beyond that of anthropometry. Applying these equations to Queensland cohort provided similar performance at the appropriate age. However, when the Queensland equations were applied to our cohort, the bias increased slightly but with similar LOA. BIA appears to have limited use in predicting FFM in the first few weeks of life compared to simple anthropometry in Asian populations. There is a need for population and age appropriate FFM prediction equations. PMID:26856420

  20. Fat-cell mass, serum leptin and adiponectin changes during weight gain and loss in yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris).

    PubMed

    Florant, Gregory L; Porst, Heather; Peiffer, Aubrey; Hudachek, Susan F; Pittman, Chris; Summers, Scott A; Rajala, Michael W; Scherer, Philipp E

    2004-11-01

    Leptin and adiponectin are proteins produced and secreted from white adipose tissue and are important regulators of energy balance and insulin sensitivity. Seasonal changes in leptin and adiponectin have not been investigated in mammalian hibernators in relationship to changes in fat cell and fat mass. We sought to determine the relationship between serum leptin and adiponectin levels with seasonal changes in lipid mass. We collected serum and tissue samples from marmots (Marmota flaviventris) in different seasons while measuring changes in fat mass, including fat-cell size. We found that leptin is positively associated with increasing fat mass and fat-cell size, while adiponectin is negatively associated with increasing lipid mass. These findings are consistent with the putative roles of these adipokines: leptin increases with fat mass and is involved in enhancing lipid oxidation while adiponectin appears to be higher in summer when hepatic insulin sensitivity should be maintained since the animals are eating. Our data suggest that during autumn/winter animals have switched from a lipogenic condition to a lipolytic state, which may include leptin resistance.

  1. Bovine serum albumin as the dominant form of dietary protein reduces subcutaneous fat mass, plasma leptin and plasma corticosterone in high fat-fed C57/BL6J mice.

    PubMed

    McManus, Bettina L; Korpela, Riitta; Speakman, John R; Cryan, John F; Cotter, Paul D; Nilaweera, Kanishka N

    2015-08-28

    Increasing evidence suggests that the source of dietary protein can have an impact on weight gain and fat mass during high-fat feeding in both humans and rodents. The present study examined whether dietary bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the dominant source of protein alters energy balance and adiposity associated with high-fat feeding. C57/BL6J mice were given a diet with 10 % of energy from fat and 20 % of energy from casein or a diet with 45 % of energy from fat and either 20 % of energy from casein (HFD) or BSA (HFD+BSA) for 13 weeks. The HFD+BSA diet did not significantly alter daily energy expenditure, locomotor activity and RER, but did increase cumulative energy intake and percentage of lean mass while reducing feed efficiency and percentage of fat mass when compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). In subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), the HFD+BSA diet increased the mRNA levels of PPARα (PPARA), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), but reduced the mRNA level of leptin when compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). The SAT mRNA levels of PPARA, CPT1b and UCP3 were negatively correlated (P< 0·05) with SAT mass, which was reduced in HFD+BSA mice compared with HFD controls (P< 0·01). No differences in epididymal fat mass existed between the groups. The HFD+BSA diet normalised plasma leptin and corticosterone levels compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). While differences in leptin levels were associated with the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·01), changes in corticosterone concentrations were independent of the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·05). The data suggest that the HFD+BSA diet influences plasma leptin levels via SAT mass reduction where mRNA levels of genes linked to β-oxidation were increased, whereas differences in plasma corticosterone levels were not related to fat mass reduction.

  2. A high intake of saturated fatty acids strengthens the association between the fat mass and obesity-associated gene and BMI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence that physical activity (PA) modulates the association between the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and BMI is emerging; however, information about dietary factors modulating this association is scarce. We investigated whether fat and carbohydrate intake modified the association of...

  3. Sweetening yoghurt with glucose, but not with saccharin, promotes weight gain and increased fat pad mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Boakes, Robert A; Kendig, Michael D; Martire, Sarah I; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-10-01

    The claim that non-nutritive sweeteners accelerate body weight gain by disrupting sweet-calorie associations was tested in two experiments using rats. The experiments were modelled on a key study from a series of experiments reporting greater body weight gain in rats fed yoghurt sweetened with saccharin than with glucose (Swithers & Davidson, 2008). Both of the current experiments likewise compared groups fed saccharin- or glucose-sweetened yoghurt in addition to chow and water, while Experiment 1 included a third group (Control) given unsweetened yoghurt. In Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2, rats were initially exposed to both saccharin- and glucose-sweetened yoghurts to assess their relative palatability. We also tested whether the provision of an energy-dense sweet biscuit would augment any effects of saccharin on food intake and weight gain, as seemingly predicted by Swithers and Davidson (2008). In Experiment 1 there were no differences in body weight gain or fat pad mass between the Saccharin and Control group, whereas the Glucose group was the heaviest by the final 5 weeks and at cull had the largest fat pads. Greater acceptance of saccharin predicted more weight gain over the whole experiment. Consistent with past reports, fasting blood glucose and insulin measures did not differ between the Saccharin and Control groups, but suggested some impairment of insulin sensitivity in the Glucose group. Experiment 2 found similar effects of glucose on fat mass, but not on body weight gain. In summary, adding saccharin had no detectable effects on body-weight regulation, whereas the effects of glucose on fat pad mass were consistent with previous studies reporting more harmful effects of sugars compared to non-nutritive sweeteners.

  4. Abdominal ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney - blood and urine flow Abdominal ultrasound References Chen L. Abdominal ultrasound imaging. In: Sahani DV, Samir ... the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should not be used ...

  5. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    ... tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap Images Digestive system Peritoneal sample References Garcia-Tiso G. ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  6. Validity of the body mass index and fat mass index as an indicator of obesity in children aged 3-5 year.

    PubMed

    Eto, Chieko; Komiya, Shuichi; Nakao, Takehira; Kikkawa, Kazutoshi

    2004-01-01

    The validity of the BMI and fat mass index (FMI) as indicators of obesity was evaluated in a group of 3-5 yr old (n=486) children. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was measured (using 50 kHz and tetrapolar electrodes) in order to calculate percent fat mass (%FM) and FMI (fat mass/stature squared). For boys, obesity was defined as > or =20%FM. For girls, the cutoff for obesity was > or =25%FM. However, obesity was defined as a BMI at or above the 90th percentile of age- and sex-specific data in this study. The percentile cutoffs for FMI were the same as for BMI using the same sample. There were correlations between BMI or FMI and %FM, but there was no significant correlation between BMI or FMI and stature. Therefore, it appears that both the BMI and FMI in this study are far more useful indices with which to assess obesity, and are reasonable indicators of fatness. However, with the use of %FM by BIA as the criterion for obesity, BMI and FMI had high specificities (95.5-96.4% for BMI and 99.5-100% for FMI) and lower but variable sensitivities (30.4-37.5% for BMI and 42.9-68.8% for FMI). Thus, almost all children who were not obese were classified correctly. In contrast, many obese children were not correctly identified by BMI and FMI. Therefore, we conclude that BMI should be used with caution as an indicator of childhood obesity. The new recommendations based on the FMI approach for defining childhood obesity are associated with a level of sensitivity that is somewhat higher than that of the BMI approach. Caution should, however, be used in generalizing from the findings in this study, and a further investigation of the issue is required.

  7. Agreement between bioelectrical impedance and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in assessing fat, lean and bone mass changes in adults after a lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Duncan J; Chan, Natalie T-Y; Tse, Michael A; Joe, Glen M

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the agreement of a commercially available bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) device in measuring changes in fat, lean and bone mass over a 10-week lifestyle intervention, with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference. A sample of 136 volunteers (18-66 years) underwent a physical activity intervention to enhance lean mass and reduce fat mass. BIA (Tanita BC545) and DXA (Hologic Explorer) measures of whole-body composition were taken at baseline and at the end of the intervention. After an average of 74 ± 18 days intervention, DXA showed significant changes in 2 of 3 outcome variables: reduced fat mass of 0.802 ± 1.092 kg (P < 0.001), increased lean mass of 0.477 ± 0.966 kg (P < 0.001); minor non-significant increase of 0.007 ± 0.041 kg of bone mass (P = 0.052). The respective changes in BIA measures were a significant reduction of 0.486 ± 1.539 kg fat (P < 0.001), but non-significant increases of 0.084 ± 1.201 kg lean mass (P = 0.425), and 0.014 ± 0.091 kg bone (P = 0.074). Significant, but moderately weak, correlations were seen in absolute mass changes between DXA and BIA: 0.511 (fat), 0.362 (lean) and 0.172 (bone). Compared to DXA, BIA demonstrated mediocre agreement to changes in fat mass, but poor agreement to lean mass changes. BIA significantly underestimated the magnitude of changes in fat and lean mass compared to DXA.

  8. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.

  9. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... call your doctor. In Spanish— Dolor abdominal en niños menores de 12 años What is recurrent abdominal ... Functional abdominal pain (FAP) typically affects kids ages 4-12, and is quite common, affecting up to ...

  10. The Mechanism by Which Safflower Yellow Decreases Body Fat Mass and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in HFD-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huijuan; Wang, Xiangqing; Pan, Hui; Dai, Yufei; Li, Naishi; Wang, Linjie; Yang, Hongbo; Gong, Fengying

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Safflower yellow (SY) is the main effective ingredient of Carthamus tinctorius L. It has been reported that SY plays an important role in anti-inflammation, anti-platelet aggregation, and inhibiting thrombus formation. In present study, we try to investigate the effects of SY on body weight, body fat mass, insulin sensitivity in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Methods: HFD-induced obese male ICR mice were intraperitoneally injected with SY (120 mg kg−1) daily. Eight weeks later, intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (IPITT), and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) were performed, and body weight, body fat mass, serum insulin levels were measured. The expression of glucose and lipid metabolic related genes in white adipose tissue (WAT) were determined by RT-qPCR and western blot technologies. Results: The administration obese mice with SY significantly reduced the body fat mass of HFD-induced obese mice (P < 0.05). IPITT test showed that the insulin sensitivity of SY treated obese mice were evidently improved. The mRNA levels of insulin signaling pathway related genes including insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS1), PKB protein kinase (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and forkhead box protein O1(FOXO1) in mesenteric WAT of SY treated mice were significantly increased to 1.9- , 2.8- , 3.3- , and 5.9-folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice, respectively (P < 0.05). The protein levels of AKT and GSK3β were also significantly increased to 3.0 and 5.2-folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice, respectively (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, both the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorgamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α) in inguinal subcutaneous WAT of SY group were notably increased to 2.5 and 3.0-folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice (P < 0.05). Conclusions: SY significantly reduce the body fat mass, fasting blood glucose and increase insulin sensitivity of HFD-induced obese mice. The

  11. Lipidomic and spatio-temporal imaging of fat by mass spectrometry in mice duodenum during lipid digestion.

    PubMed

    Seyer, Alexandre; Cantiello, Michela; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Roques, Véronique; Nauze, Michel; Bézirard, Valérie; Collet, Xavier; Touboul, David; Brunelle, Alain; Coméra, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of dietary fat is a complex process mediated by enterocytes leading to lipid assembly and secretion of circulating lipoproteins as chylomicrons, vLDL and intestinal HDL (iHDL). Understanding lipid digestion is of importance knowing the correlation between excessive fat absorption and atherosclerosis. By using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), we illustrated a spatio-temporal localization of fat in mice duodenum, at different times of digestion after a lipid gavage, for the first time. Fatty acids progressively increased in enterocytes as well as taurocholic acid, secreted by bile and engaged in the entero-hepatic re-absorption cycle. Cytosolic lipid droplets (CLD) from enterocytes were originally purified separating chylomicron-like, intermediate droplets and smaller HDL-like. A lipidomic quantification revealed their contents in triglycerides, free and esterified cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and ceramides but also in free fatty acids, mono- and di-acylglycerols. An acyl-transferase activity was identified and the enzyme monoacylglycerol acyl transferase 2 (MGAT2) was immunodetected in all CLD. The largest droplets was also shown to contain the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), the acyl-coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferases (ACAT) 1 and 2, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). This highlights the fact that during the digestion of fats, enterocyte CLD contain some enzymes involved in the different stages of the metabolism of diet fatty acids and cholesterol, in anticipation of the crucial work of endoplasmic reticulum in the process. The data further underlines the dual role of chylomicrons and iHDL in fat digestion which should help to efficiently complement lipid-lowering therapy.

  12. The fat body of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) tadpoles during metamorphosis: changes in mass, histology, and melatonin content and effect of food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Mary L; Richardson, Shaun E; Bigos, Jill M

    2011-12-01

    The fat body of Lithobates catesbeianus (formerly Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles was studied during metamorphosis and after food deprivation in order to detect changes in its weight, adipocyte size, histology, and melatonin content. Bullfrog tadpoles have large fat bodies throughout their long larval life. Fat bodies increase in absolute weight, and weight relative to body mass, during late stages of prometamorphosis, peaking just before climax, and then decreasing, especially during the latter stages of transformation into the froglet. The climax decrease is accompanied by a reduction in size of adipocytes and a change in histology of the fat body such that interstitial tissue becomes more prominent. Food deprivation for a month during early prometamorphosis significantly decreased fat body weight and adipocyte size but did not affect the rate of development. However, food restriction just before climax retarded development, suggesting that the increased nutrient storage in the fat body before climax is necessary for metamorphic progress. Melatonin, which might be involved in the regulation of seasonal changes in fat stores, stayed approximately at the same level during most of larval life, but increased sharply in the fat body during the late stages of climax. The findings show that the rate of development of these tadpoles is not affected by starvation during larval life as long as they can utilize fat body stores for nourishment. They also suggest that the build up of fat body stores just before climax is necessary for progress during the climax period when feeding stops.

  13. Analysis of phospholipids in bio-oils and fats by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Viidanoja, Jyrki

    2015-09-15

    A new, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of Phospholipids (PLs) in bio-oils and fats. This analysis employs hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (HILIC-sMRM) with a ZIC-cHILIC column. Eight PL class selective internal standards (homologs) were used for the semi-quantification of 14 PL classes for the first time. More than 400 scheduled MRMs were used for the measurement of PLs with a run time of 34min. The method's performance was evaluated for vegetable oil, animal fat and algae oil. The averaged within-run precision and between-run precision were ≤10% for all of the PL classes that had a direct homologue as an internal standard. The method accuracy was generally within 80-120% for the tested PL analytes in all three sample matrices.

  14. Effect of fat free mass on serum and plasma BDNF concentrations during exercise and recovery in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Gilder, M; Ramsbottom, R; Currie, J; Sheridan, B; Nevill, A M

    2014-02-07

    Exercise results in release of brain derived neurotrophic factor into the circulation; however, little is known about the changes in serum and plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations and factors influencing brain derived neurotrophic factor during exercise and recovery. Serum (n=23) and plasma (n=10) brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations were measured in healthy young men at rest, during steady-rate and after exercise to determine the maximum aerobic power. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in blood during exercise and recovery, with one between-subject factor (a median split on: age, height, body mass, fat free mass, body mass index and aerobic fitness), and one within-subject factor (time). Serum brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations increased in response to exercise and declined rapidly in recovery. Plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor had a greater proportional increase relative to exhaustive exercise compared with serum brain derived neurotrophic factor and was slower to return to near baseline values. There was a significant group-by-time interaction indicating a greater release and faster recovery for serum brain derived neurotrophic factor in high- compared with low-fat free mass individuals.

  15. IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-10-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU  = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability.

  16. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Guilherme L; Crisp, Alex H; de Oliveira, Maria R M; da Silva, Carlos A; Silva, Jadson O; Duarte, Ana C G O; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Verlengia, Rozangela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8): control standard diet (CS), control high-fat diet (CH), continuous training standard diet (CTS), continuous training high-fat diet (CTH), interval training standard diet (ITS), and interval training high-fat diet (ITH). The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH) on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats.

  17. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Guilherme L.; Crisp, Alex H.; de Oliveira, Maria R. M.; da Silva, Carlos A.; Silva, Jadson O.; Duarte, Ana C. G. O.; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Verlengia, Rozangela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8): control standard diet (CS), control high-fat diet (CH), continuous training standard diet (CTS), continuous training high-fat diet (CTH), interval training standard diet (ITS), and interval training high-fat diet (ITH). The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH) on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats. PMID:26904718

  18. Lean mass and fat mass have differing associations with bone microarchitecture assessed by high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography in men and women from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mark H; Ward, Kate A; Ntani, Georgia; Parsons, Camille; Thompson, Jennifer; Sayer, Avan A; Dennison, Elaine M; Cooper, Cyrus

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the effects of muscle and fat on bone is increasingly important in the optimisation of bone health. We explored relationships between bone microarchitecture and body composition in older men and women from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study. 175 men and 167 women aged 72-81 years were studied. High resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) images (voxel size 82 μm) were acquired from the non-dominant distal radius and tibia with a Scanco XtremeCT scanner. Standard morphological analysis was performed for assessment of macrostructure, densitometry, cortical porosity and trabecular microarchitecture. Body composition was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Lunar Prodigy Advanced). Lean mass index (LMI) was calculated as lean mass divided by height squared and fat mass index (FMI) as fat mass divided by height squared. The mean (standard deviation) age in men and women was 76 (3) years. In univariate analyses, tibial cortical area (p<0.01), cortical thickness (p<0.05) and trabecular number (p<0.01) were positively associated with LMI and FMI in both men and women. After mutual adjustment, relationships between cortical area and thickness were only maintained with LMI [tibial cortical area, β (95% confidence interval (CI)): men 6.99 (3.97,10.01), women 3.59 (1.81,5.38)] whereas trabecular number and density were associated with FMI. Interactions by sex were found, including for the relationships of LMI with cortical area and FMI with trabecular area in both the radius and tibia (p<0.05). In conclusion, LMI and FMI appeared to show independent relationships with bone microarchitecture. Further studies are required to confirm the direction of causality and explore the mechanisms underlying these tissue-specific associations.

  19. Maternal Omega-3 Supplementation Increases Fat Mass in Male and Female Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Muhlhausler, Beverly Sara; Miljkovic, Dijana; Fong, Laura; Xian, Cory J.; Duthoit, Emmanuelle; Gibson, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Adipogenesis and lipogenesis are highly sensitive to the nutritional environment in utero and in early postnatal life. Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adult rats, however it is not known whether supplementing the maternal diet with omega-3 LCPUFA results in reduced fat deposition in the offspring. Female Albino Wistar rats were fed either a standard chow (Control, n = 10) or chow designed to provide ∼15 mg/kg/day of omega-3 LCPUFA, chiefly as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), throughout pregnancy and lactation (Omega-3, n = 11) and all pups were weaned onto a commercial rat chow. Blood and tissues were collected from pups at 3 and 6 weeks of age and weights of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots recorded. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the subcutaneous and visceral fat depots were determined using quantitative real time reverse transcription-PCR. Birth weight and postnatal growth were not different between groups. At 6 weeks of age, total percentage body fat was significantly increased in both male (5.09 ± 0.32% vs. 4.56 ± 0.2%, P < 0.04) and female (5.15 ± 0.37% vs. 3.89 ± 0.36%, P < 0.04) offspring of omega-3 dams compared to controls. The omega-3 LCPUFA content of erythrocyte phospholipids (as a% of total fatty acids) was higher in omega-3 offspring (6.7 ± 0.2% vs. 5.6 ± 0.2%, P < 0.001). There was no effect of maternal omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation on the expression of adipogenic or lipogenic genes in the offspring in either the visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. We have therefore established that an omega-3 rich environment during pregnancy and lactation in a rodent model increases fat accumulation in both male and female offspring, particularly in subcutaneous depots, but that this effect is not mediated via upregulation adipogenic/lipogenic gene transcription. These data suggest that maternal n−3 LCPUFA

  20. Associations between pQCT-based fat and muscle area and density and DXA-based total and leg soft tissue mass in healthy women and men

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Thiebaud, Robert S; Chen, Zhaojing; Karabulut, Murat; Kim, So Jung; Bemben, Debra A

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) can be used for muscle and fat area and density assessments. These may independently influence muscle and fat mass measurements from Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Objective To determine associations between pQCT-derived soft tissue density and area measures and DXA-derived soft tissue mass. Methods Linear regression models were developed based on BMI and calf fat and muscle cross-sectional area (FCSA and MCSA) and density measured by pQCT in healthy women (n=76) and men (n=82) aged 20–59 years. Independent variables for these models were leg and total bone-free lean mass (BFLM) and fat mass (FM) measured by DXA. Results Sex differences (p<0.01) were found in both muscle (Mean±SE: Women: 78.6±0.4; Men: 79.9 ± 0.2 mg/cm3) and fat (Women: 0.8±0.4 Men: 9.1±0.6 mg/cm3) density. BMI, fat density, and age (R2=0.86, p<0.01) best accounted for the variability in total FM. FCSA, BMI, and fat density explained the variance in leg FM (R2=0.87, p<0.01). MCSA and muscle density explained the variance in total (R2=0.65, p<0.01) and leg BFLM (R2=0.70, p<0.01). Conclusion Calf muscle and fat area and density independently predict lean and fat tissue mass. PMID:25524966

  1. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-04-06

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation.

  2. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation. PMID:27058555

  3. Comparison of Bioimpedance and Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry for Measurement of Fat Mass in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Molfino, Alessio; Don, Burl R.; Kaysen, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fat mass (FM) is measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), but is expensive and not portable. Multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measures total body water (TBW) and intracellular and extracellular water (ICW, ECW). Fat mass (FM) is calculated subtracting Fat Free Mass (FFM) from weight assuming fractional hydration of FFM of 0.73. Hemodialysis patients (HD), however, have non physiologic expansion of ECW. Our aim was to apply a model to estimate FM in HD and controls. Methods We estimated the hydration of FFM in healthy subjects (C) and HD with BIS (Impedimed multifrequency) assuming hydration of 0.73 or using a formula allowing ECW and ICW to vary, deriving a value for FM accounting for variances in ECW and ICW. FM was measured by DXA (Hologic Discovery W) in 25 C and in 11 HD. We measured TBW, ECW and ICW with BIS and calculated FM using either Weight - TBW/.73 or with a formula accounting for variations in ECW/ICW to estimate FM. Results ECW/ICW was greater in HD than in C (0.83±0.08 vs 0.76± 0.04; p=0.001). FM (Kg) measured by DXA, or estimated from TBW using constant hydration or accounting for variations in ECW/ICW were not significantly different in C or in HD. Values obtained by all methods correlated (p<0.001) and none of the Bland-Altman plots regressed (r2=0.00). FM measured by DXA and by BIS in both C and HD combined correlated (r2=0.871). Conclusion Expansion of ECW in HD is statistically significant, however the effect on hydration of FFM is insufficient to cause significant deviation from values derived using a hydration value of 0.73 within the range of expansion of ECW in the HD population studied here. PMID:23689544

  4. DXA, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography and biometry for the estimation of fat and lean mass in cats during weight loss

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few equations have been developed in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine to predict body composition. The present study was done to evaluate the influence of weight loss on biometry (BIO), bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and ultrasonography (US) in cats, proposing equations to estimate fat (FM) and lean (LM) body mass, as compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the referenced method. For this were used 16 gonadectomized obese cats (8 males and 8 females) in a weight loss program. DXA, BIO, BIA and US were performed in the obese state (T0; obese animals), after 10% of weight loss (T1) and after 20% of weight loss (T2). Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (FM, LM) determined by DXA and the independent variables obtained by BIO, BIA and US. The better models chosen were evaluated by a simple regression analysis and means predicted vs. determined by DXA were compared to verify the accuracy of the equations. Results The independent variables determined by BIO, BIA and US that best correlated (p < 0.005) with the dependent variables (FM and LM) were BW (body weight), TC (thoracic circumference), PC (pelvic circumference), R (resistance) and SFLT (subcutaneous fat layer thickness). Using Mallows’Cp statistics, p value and r2, 19 equations were selected (12 for FM, 7 for LM); however, only 7 equations accurately predicted FM and one LM of cats. Conclusions The equations with two variables are better to use because they are effective and will be an alternative method to estimate body composition in the clinical routine. For estimated lean mass the equations using body weight associated with biometrics measures can be proposed. For estimated fat mass the equations using body weight associated with bioimpedance analysis can be proposed. PMID:22781317

  5. 22-gauge core vs 22-gauge aspiration needle for endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling of abdominal masses

    PubMed Central

    Sterlacci, William; Sioulas, Athanasios D; Veits, Lothar; Gönüllü, Pervin; Schachschal, Guido; Groth, Stefan; Anders, Mario; Kontos, Christos K; Topalidis, Theodoros; Hinsch, Andrea; Vieth, Michael; Rösch, Thomas; Denzer, Ulrike W

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the aspiration needle (AN) and core biopsy needle (PC) in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of abdominal masses. METHODS Consecutive patients referred for EUS-FNA were included in this prospective single-center trial. Each patient underwent a puncture of the lesion with both standard 22-gauge (G) AN (Echo Tip Ultra; Cook Medical, Bloomington, Indiana, United States) and the novel 22G PC (EchoTip ProCore; Cook Medical, Bloomington, Indiana, United States) in a randomized fashion; histology was attempted in the PC group only. The main study endpoint was the overall diagnostic accuracy, including the contribution of histology to the final diagnosis. Secondary outcome measures included material adequacy, number of needle passes, and complications. RESULTS Fifty six consecutive patients (29 men; mean age 68 years) with pancreatic lesions (n = 38), lymphadenopathy (n = 13), submucosal tumors (n = 4), or others lesions (n = 1) underwent EUS-FNA using both of the needles in a randomized order. AN and PC reached similar overall results for diagnostic accuracy (AN: 88.9 vs PC: 96.1, P = 0.25), specimen adequacy (AN: 96.4% vs PC: 91.1%, P = 0.38), mean number of passes (AN: 1.5 vs PC: 1.7, P = 0.14), mean cellularity score (AN: 1.7 vs PC: 1.1, P = 0.058), and complications (none). A diagnosis on the basis of histology was achieved in the PC group in 36 (64.3%) patients, and in 2 of those as the sole modality. In patients with available histology the mean cellularity score was higher for AN (AN: 1.7 vs PC: 1.0, P = 0.034); no other differences were of statistical significance. CONCLUSION Both needles achieved high overall diagnostic yields and similar performance characteristics for cytological diagnosis; histological analysis was only possible in 2/3 of cases with the new needle. PMID:27818598

  6. Dietary fat and fatty acid profile are associated with indices of skeletal muscle mass in women aged 18-79 years.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ailsa A; MacGregor, Alex J; Minihane, Anne-Marie; Skinner, Jane; Valdes, Anna A; Spector, Tim D; Cassidy, Aedin

    2014-03-01

    Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass results in a reduction in metabolically active tissue and has been related to the onset of obesity and sarcopenia. Although the causes of muscle loss are poorly understood, dietary fat has been postulated to have a role in determining protein turnover through an influence on both inflammation and insulin resistance. This study was designed to investigate the cross-sectional relation between dietary fat intake, as dietary percentage of fat energy (PFE) and fatty acid profile, with indices of skeletal muscle mass in the population setting. Body composition [fat-free mass (FFM; in kg)] and the fat-free mass index (FFMI; kg FFM/m(2)) was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 2689 women aged 18-79 y from the TwinsUK Study and calculated according to quintile of dietary fat (by food-frequency questionnaire) after multivariate adjustment. Positive associations were found between the polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratio and indices of FFM, and inverse associations were found with PFE, SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and trans fatty acids (TFAs) (all as % of energy). Extreme quintile dietary differences for PFE were -0.6 kg for FFM and -0.28 kg/m(2) for FFMI; for SFAs, MUFAs, and TFAs, these were -0.5 to -0.8 kg for FFM and -0.26 to -0.38 kg/m(2) for FFMI. These associations were of a similar magnitude to the expected decline in muscle mass that occurs over 10 y. To our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to demonstrate an association between a comprehensive range of dietary fat intake and FFM. These findings indicate that a dietary fat profile already associated with cardiovascular disease protection may also be beneficial for conservation of skeletal muscle mass.

  7. Low levels of physical activity are associated with dysregulation of energy intake and fat mass gain over 1 year12

    PubMed Central

    Shook, Robin P; Hand, Gregory A; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hebert, James R; Paluch, Amanda E; Blundell, John E; Hill, James O; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that appetite may be dysregulated at low levels of activity, creating an energy imbalance that results in weight gain. Objective: The aim was to examine the relation between energy intake, physical activity, appetite, and weight gain during a 1-y follow-up period in a large sample of adults. Design: Participants included 421 individuals (mean ± SD age: 27.6 ± 3.8 y). Measurements included the following: energy intake with the use of interviewer-administered dietary recalls and calculated by using changes in body composition and energy expenditure, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with the use of an arm-based monitor, body composition with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and questionnaire-derived perceptions of dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and control of eating. Participants were grouped at baseline into quintiles of MVPA (min/d) by sex. Measurements were repeated every 3 mo for 1 y. Results: At baseline, an inverse relation existed between body weight and activity groups, with the least-active group (15.7 ± 9.9 min MVPA/d, 6062 ± 1778 steps/d) having the highest body weight (86.3 ± 13.2 kg) and the most-active group (174.5 ± 60.5 min MVPA/d, 10260 ± 3087 steps/d) having the lowest body weight (67.5 ± 11.0 kg). A positive relation was observed between calculated energy intake and activity group, except in the lowest quintile of activity. The lowest physical activity group reported higher levels of disinhibition (P = 0.07) and cravings for savory foods (P = 0.03) compared with the group with the highest level of physical activity. Over 1 y of follow-up, the lowest activity group gained the largest amount of fat mass (1.7 ± 0.3 kg) after adjustment for change in MVPA and baseline fat mass. The odds of gaining >3% of fat mass were between 1.8 and 3.8 times as high for individuals in the least-active group as for those in the middle activity group. Conclusions: These results suggest

  8. Identification of A Novel Small-Molecule Binding Site of the Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Protein (FTO).

    PubMed

    He, Wu; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Weijia; Zhang, Meizi; Shen, Zhenhua; Han, Zhifu; Jiang, Qingwei; Yang, Qinghua; Song, Chuanjun; Wang, Ruiyong; Niu, Tianhui; Han, Shengna; Zhang, Lirong; Wu, Jie; Guo, Feima; Zhao, Renbin; Yu, Wenquan; Chai, Jijie; Chang, Junbiao

    2015-09-24

    N-(5-Chloro-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-phenylcyclobutanecarboxamide (N-CDPCB, 1a) is found to be an inhibitor of the fat mass and obesity associated protein (FTO). The crystal structure of human FTO with 1a reveals a novel binding site for the FTO inhibitor and defines the molecular basis for recognition by FTO of the inhibitor. The identification of the new binding site offers new opportunities for further development of selective and potent inhibitors of FTO, which is expected to provide information concerning novel therapeutic targets for treatment of obesity or obesity-associated diseases.

  9. Determination of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol in human fat biopsies from marihuana users by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Johansson, E; Norén, K; Sjövall, J; Halldin, M M

    1989-01-01

    A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC/MS) method for analysis of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 1-THC) in human fat samples is described. The fat sample, obtained from heavy marihuana users 1 week before and 4 weeks after smoking, is homogenized in hexane + 2-propanol, centrifuged, and the supernatant mixed with Lipidex 5000. The solvent is evaporated and the dried gel is packed in a glass column. delta 1-THC is eluted from the column with methanol + water + acetic acid, diluted with water and the eluent is passed through a bed of Octadecylsilane-bonded silica. After washing and drying, the retained delta 1-THC is eluted with hexane, derivatized with N-methyl-N-(t-butyl-dimethysilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and finally purified by HPLC on an Octadecyl Sl 100 column in methanol. The amount of delta 1-THC is determined by GC/MS, using selected ion monitoring, and a deuterated internal standard. The recovery of delta 1-THC is about 80%, and the concentration of delta 1-THC in the fat samples analysed ranged between 0.4 and 193 ng/g wet tissue.

  10. Does increased glucose exposure lead to increased body fat and reduced lean body mass in anuric peritoneal dialysis patients?

    PubMed

    Fan, S; Davenport, A

    2014-11-01

    Residual renal function has been reported to be a major determinant of peritoneal dialysis (PD) technique survival for patients with end-stage kidney disease. Anuria leads to increases in PD prescriptions designed to maintain small solute clearances and ultrafiltration volumes, resulting in greater exposure to hypertonic glucose dialysates. We reviewed the effect of developing anuria in a cohort of 136 PD patients followed for a median of 12 months, to determine whether increasing exposure to higher glucose dialysates affected body composition by increasing body fat and reducing muscle mass. Despite increasing prescription of 22.7 and 38.6 g/l glucose dialysates there was no increase in body fat (31.1±15.4 vs 30.9±16.3 kg) or loss of fat-free weight (36.4±12.1 vs 35.8±12.3 kg). Changing PD prescriptions to maintain small solute clearances and ultrafiltration volumes did not lead to detrimental changes in body composition in the short term.

  11. Associations Between Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measures of Total Body, Android, and Gynoid Fat Mass in Children.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey; Meendering, Jessica; Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Negative health outcomes are associated with excess body fat, low levels of physical activity (PA), and high sedentary time (ST). Relationships between PA, ST, and body fat distribution, including android and gynoid fat, assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have not been measured in children. The purpose of this study was to test associations between levels of activity and body composition in children and to evaluate if levels of activity predict body composition by DXA and by body mass index percentile in a similar manner. PA, ST, and body composition from 87 children (8.8-11.8 yr, grades 3-5, 44 boys) were used to test the association among study variables. Accelerometers measured PA and ST. Body composition measured by DXA included bone mineral content (BMC) and fat and lean mass of the total body (TB, less head), android, and gynoid regions. ST (range: 409-685 min/wk) was positively associated with TB percent fat (0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00-0.05) and android fat mass (1.5 g, 95% CI: 0.4-3.0), and inversely associated with the lean mass of the TB (-10.7 g, 95% CI: -20.8 to -0.63) and gynoid regions (-2.2 g, 95% CI: -4.3 to -0.2), and with BMC (-0.43 g, 95% CI: 0.77-0.09). Moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with lower TB (-53 g, 95% CI: -87 to -18), android (-5 g, 95% CI: -8 to -2]), and gynoid fat (-6 g, 95% CI: -11 to -0.5). Vigorous activity results were similar. Light PA was associated with increased TB (17.1 g, 95% CI: 3.0-31.3) and gynoid lean mass (3.9 g, 95% CI: 1.0-6.8) and BMC (0.59 g, 95% CI: 0.10-1.07). In boys, there were significant associations between activity and DXA percent body fat measures that were not found with the body mass index percentile. Objective measures of PA were inversely associated with TB, android, and gynoid fat, whereas ST was directly associated with TB percent fat and, in particular, android fat. Activity levels predict body composition measures by DXA and, in

  12. Accuracy of body mass index (BMI) thresholds for predicting excess body fat in girls from five ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Duncan, J Scott; Duncan, Elizabeth K; Schofield, Grant

    2009-01-01

    The association between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in young people differs among ethnic groups. Consequently, BMI thresholds for defining childhood overweight may not represent an equivalent level of adiposity in multiethnic populations. The objectives of this study were to characterise the relationships between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) and to determine the appropriateness of universal BMI standards for predicting excess fatness in girls from five ethnic groups. The BMI and %BF of 1,676 European, Maori, Pacific Island, East Asian, and South Asian girls aged 5-16 years were determined using anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were prepared to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) BMI thresholds for detecting %BF >85th percentile. Compared with European girls, South and East Asians averaged 4.2% and 1.3% more %BF at a fixed BMI and age, whereas Pacific Islanders averaged 1.8% less %BF. Areas under the ROC curves ranged from 89.9% to 92.4%, suggesting that BMI is an acceptable screening tool for identifying excess adiposity. However, the IOTF and CDC thresholds showed low sensitivity for predicting excess %BF in South and East Asian girls, with low specificity in Pacific Island and Maori girls. The development of an ethnic-specific definition of overweight improved diagnostic performance. We conclude that BMI can be an acceptable proxy measure of excess fatness in girls from diverse ethnicities, especially when ethnic-specific BMI reference points are implemented.

  13. Saturated fat intake modulates the association between an obesity genetic risk score and body mass index in two US populations.

    PubMed

    Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Arnett, Donna K; Smith, Caren E; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Parnell, Laurence D; Borecki, Ingrid B; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Allison, Matthew; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Taylor, Kent D; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovás, José M

    2014-12-01

    Combining multiple genetic variants related to obesity into a genetic risk score (GRS) might improve identification of individuals at risk of developing obesity. Moreover, characterizing gene-diet interactions is a research challenge to establish dietary recommendations to individuals with higher predisposition to obesity. Our objective was to analyze the association between an obesity GRS and body mass index (BMI) in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) population, focusing on gene-diet interactions with total fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake, and to replicate findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) population. Cross-sectional analyses included 783 white US participants from GOLDN and 2,035 from MESA. Dietary intakes were estimated with validated food frequency questionnaires. Height and weight were measured. A weighted GRS was calculated on the basis of 63 obesity-associated variants. Multiple linear regression models adjusted by potential confounders were used to examine gene-diet interactions between dietary intake (total fat and SFA) and the obesity GRS in determining BMI. Significant interactions were found between total fat intake and the obesity GRS using these variables as continuous for BMI (P for interaction=0.010, 0.046, and 0.002 in GOLDN, MESA, and meta-analysis, respectively). These association terms were stronger when assessing interactions between SFA intake and GRS for BMI (P for interaction=0.005, 0.018, and <0.001 in GOLDN, MESA, and meta-analysis, respectively). SFA intake interacts with an obesity GRS in modulating BMI in two US populations. Although determining the causal direction requires further investigation, these findings suggest that potential dietary recommendations to reduce BMI effectively in populations with high obesity GRS would be to reduce total fat intake mainly by limiting SFAs.

  14. Changes in insulin‐like growth factor‐I and ‐II associated with fat but not lean mass in early old age

    PubMed Central

    Holly, Jeff M.P.; Lashen, Hany; Hardy, Rebecca; Adams, Judith; Kuh, Diana; Ben‐Shlomo, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that insulin‐like growth factors‐I and II (IGF‐I and II) decline during late midlife and that greater declines are related to higher fat mass and lower lean mass. Methods A total of 1,542 men and women in a British birth cohort study had IGF‐I and II measured by immunoassay of blood samples at age 53 and/or 60‐64 years. Fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio, and appendicular lean mass were measured at 60‐64 years using dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DXA). Associations between changes in IGF‐I or II and body composition outcomes were examined using conditional change linear regression models. Results Mean IGF‐I and IGF‐II concentrations were lower at 60‐64 than at 53 years, by 12.8% for IGF‐I and by 12.5% for IGF‐II. Larger declines in either IGF‐I or II were associated with higher fat mass at 60‐64 years. Although higher IGF‐I at 53 years was associated with higher lean mass, there was little evidence linking changes in IGF‐I or II to lean mass. Conclusions The findings suggest that IGF‐I and II concentrations decline with age, and greater declines are associated with higher fat mass levels. These results provide some evidence for the suggested roles of IGF‐I and II in regulating fat mass but not lean mass in older age. PMID:25645314

  15. Derivation and validation of simple anthropometric equations to predict adipose tissue mass and total fat mass with MRI as the reference method.

    PubMed

    Al-Gindan, Yasmin Y; Hankey, Catherine R; Govan, Lindsay; Gallagher, Dympna; Heymsfield, Steven B; Lean, Michael E J

    2015-12-14

    The reference organ-level body composition measurement method is MRI. Practical estimations of total adipose tissue mass (TATM), total adipose tissue fat mass (TATFM) and total body fat are valuable for epidemiology, but validated prediction equations based on MRI are not currently available. We aimed to derive and validate new anthropometric equations to estimate MRI-measured TATM/TATFM/total body fat and compare them with existing prediction equations using older methods. The derivation sample included 416 participants (222 women), aged between 18 and 88 years with BMI between 15·9 and 40·8 (kg/m2). The validation sample included 204 participants (110 women), aged between 18 and 86 years with BMI between 15·7 and 36·4 (kg/m2). Both samples included mixed ethnic/racial groups. All the participants underwent whole-body MRI to quantify TATM (dependent variable) and anthropometry (independent variables). Prediction equations developed using stepwise multiple regression were further investigated for agreement and bias before validation in separate data sets. Simplest equations with optimal R (2) and Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement without bias in the validation analyses: men: TATM (kg)=0·198 weight (kg)+0·478 waist (cm)-0·147 height (cm)-12·8 (validation: R 2 0·79, CV=20 %, standard error of the estimate (SEE)=3·8 kg) and women: TATM (kg)=0·789 weight (kg)+0·0786 age (years)-0·342 height (cm)+24·5 (validation: R (2) 0·84, CV=13 %, SEE=3·0 kg). Published anthropometric prediction equations, based on MRI and computed tomographic scans, correlated strongly with MRI-measured TATM: (R (2) 0·70-0·82). Estimated TATFM correlated well with published prediction equations for total body fat based on underwater weighing (R (2) 0·70-0·80), with mean bias of 2·5-4·9 kg, correctable with log-transformation in most equations. In conclusion, new equations, using simple anthropometric measurements, estimated MRI-measured TATM with correlations and

  16. [Abdominal paracentesis].

    PubMed

    Glauser, Frédéric; Barras, Anne-Catherine; Pache, Isabelle; Monti, Matteo

    2008-10-29

    Abdominal paracentesis is frequently performed in the clinical setting. Every newly developed ascites need to be investigated by abdominal paracentesis. Any clinical or biological deterioration in patients with chronic ascites also requires a new paracentesis. Therapeutically abdominal paracentesis is performed for refractory or symptomatic ascites. As other invasive procedures, it is critical to master its indications, contra-indications and complications. The aim of this article is to review the basics of abdominal paracentesis in order to help physicians to carry out this technical skill.

  17. No association of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs8044769 in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene with knee osteoarthritis risk and body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Chu, M.; Rong, J.; Xing, B.; Zhu, L.; Zhao, Y.; Zhuang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have reported significant association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs8044769 in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) with osteoarthritis (OA) risk in European populations. However, these findings have not been confirmed in Chinese populations. Methods We systematically genotyped rs8044769 and evaluated the association between the genetic variants and OA risk in a case-controlled study including 196 OA cases and 442 controls in a northern Chinese population. Genotyping was performed using the Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX platform. Results We found that the variant T allele of rs8044769 showed no significant association of OA risk (p = 0.791), or association with body mass index (BMI) (pmeta = 0.786) in an additive genetic model. However, we detected a significant interaction between rs8044769 genotypes and BMI on OA risk (p = 0.037), as well as a borderline interaction between rs8044769 genotypes and age on OA risk (p = 0.062). Conclusions Our findings indicate that rs8044769 in the FTO gene may not modify individual susceptibility to OA or increased BMI in the Chinese population. Further studies are warranted to validate and extend our findings. Cite this article: Prof L. Jiang. No association of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs8044769 in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene with knee osteoarthritis risk and body mass index: A population-based study in China. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:169–174. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.55.2000589. PMID:27166265

  18. The relation of fat-free mass to maximum exercise performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, A; Yoneda, T; Yoshikawa, M; Ikuno, M; Takenaka, H; Fukuoka, A; Narita, N; Nezu, K

    2000-01-01

    To assess the factors determining maximum exercise performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we examined nutritional status with special reference to body composition and pulmonary function in 50 stable COPD patients. Nutritional status was evaluated by body weight and body composition, including fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Exercise performance was evaluated by maximum oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)) on a cycle ergometer. A total of 50 patients (FEV(1) = 0.98 L) was divided randomly into either a study group (group A, n = 25) or validation group (group B, n = 25). Stepwise regression analysis was performed in group A to determine the best predictors of Vo(2max) from measurements of pulmonary function and nutritional status. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that Vo(2max) was predicted best by the following equation in group A: Vo(2max) (mL/min) = 10.223 x FFM (kg) + 4.188 x MVV (L/min) + 9.952 x DL(co) (mL/min/mmHg) - 127.9 (r = 0.84, p < 0. 001). This equation was then cross-validated in group B: Measured Vo(2max) (mL/min) = 1.554 x Predicted Vo(2max) (mL/min) - 324.0 (r = 0.87, p < 0.001). We conclude that FFM is an important factor in determining maximum exercise performance, along with pulmonary function parameters, in patients with COPD.

  19. The biology of appetite control: Do resting metabolic rate and fat-free mass drive energy intake?

    PubMed

    Blundell, J E; Finlayson, G; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Hopkins, M

    2015-12-01

    The prevailing model of homeostatic appetite control envisages two major inputs; signals from adipose tissue and from peptide hormones in the gastrointestinal tract. This model is based on the presumed major influence of adipose tissue on food intake. However, recent studies have indicated that in obese people fat-free mass (FFM) is strongly positively associated with daily energy intake and with meal size. This effect has been replicated in several independent groups varying in cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and appears to be a robust phenomenon. In contrast fat mass (FM) is weakly, or mildly negatively associated with food intake in obese people. In addition resting metabolic rate (RMR), a major component of total daily energy expenditure, is also associated with food intake. This effect has been replicated in different groups and is robust. This action is consistent with the proposal that energy requirements — reflected in RMR (and other aspects of energy expenditure) constitute a biological drive to eat. Consistent with its storage function, FM has a strong inhibitory effect on food intake in lean subjects, but this effect appears to weaken dramatically as adipose tissue increases. This formulation can account for several features of the development and maintenance of obesity and provides an alternative, and transparent, approach to the biology of appetite control.

  20. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Percent Body Fat in Vietnamese: Implications for the Diagnosis of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ho-Pham, Lan T.; Lai, Thai Q.; Nguyen, Mai T. T.; Nguyen, Tuan V.

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of obesity in Vietnam has not been well defined because there is a lack of reference data for percent body fat (PBF) in Asians. This study sought to define the relationship between PBF and body mass index (BMI) in the Vietnamese population. Methods The study was designed as a comparative cross-sectional investigation that involved 1217 individuals of Vietnamese background (862 women) aged 20 years and older (average age 47 yr) who were randomly selected from the general population in Ho Chi Minh City. Lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were measured by DXA (Hologic QDR 4500). PBF was derived as FM over body weight. Results Based on BMI ≥30, the prevalence of obesity was 1.1% and 1.3% for men and women, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined (BMI ≥25) was ~24% and ~19% in men and women, respectively. Based on the quadratic relationship between BMI and PBF, the approximate PBF corresponding to the BMI threshold of 30 (obese) was 30.5 in men and 41 in women. Using the criteria of PBF >30 in men and PBF >40 in women, approximately 15% of men and women were considered obese. Conclusion These data suggest that body mass index underestimates the prevalence of obesity. We suggest that a PBF >30 in men or PBF >40 in women is used as criteria for the diagnosis of obesity in Vietnamese adults. Using these criteria, 15% of Vietnamese adults in Ho Chi Minh City was considered obese. PMID:26018910

  1. Duration of sleep at 3 years of age is associated with fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age: the Southampton Women's Survey.

    PubMed

    Baird, Janis; Hill, Catherine M; Harvey, Nicholas C; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Sian M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have shown that shorter sleep duration in childhood is associated with higher body mass index (BMI), and have proposed that it is due to an effect of sleep on adiposity. There is little evidence about the association of sleep with fat-free mass. This study examined the association between child's sleep duration at age 3 years and fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age in a prospective cohort study of 302 boys and 285 girls. Study participants were taking part in the Southampton Women's Survey, a longitudinal study of mothers and children from preconception onwards. Total sleep duration at age 3 years was derived from parental report of night sleep and nap duration. Body composition was assessed by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at 4 years. Mean total sleep duration was 11.5 hours. In linear regression analyses, adjusted for potentially confounding factors (maternal educational attainment, prepregnancy BMI, smoking during pregnancy, child's gestational age at birth, age at DXA, sex, age last breastfed, dietary quality at 3 years, TV watching and hours actively on the move and parental social class), shorter sleep in hours was associated with higher BMI (kg/m(2) ) [β: -0.2340, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.373 to -0.096], a greater fat mass index (kg) (β: -0.1182, 95% CI: -0.218 to -0.018) and a greater fat-free mass index (kg) (β: -0.100, 95% CI: -0.185 to -0.015). Previous research suggested that the association between shorter sleep and higher body mass index is due to an effect on adiposity. Our findings are novel, suggesting that the relationship between sleep and BMI is also determined by an effect on muscle.

  2. Abdominal wall abscess: more than meets the eye.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Jamish; Gandhi, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    An 83-year-old, mildly demented rest home resident presented to the emergency department with a 2 day history of a right sided abdominal wall mass. He had a mechanical fall 2 days previously and landed on his right side and had attributed the mass to this. He had no symptoms apart from feeling bloated and not being able to pass wind for a day. He had passed a normal bowel motion the day before presentation. On abdominal examination there was an 11 × 4 cm mass in the right lower quadrant. It was firm in consistency, non-fluctuant and non-tender to touch. There was mild erythema over the area but no skin breaks. Chest radiograph was unremarkable. The abdominal film showed dilated small bowel and no large bowel could be seen. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a thick walled gallbladder with multiple calculi and air present. There was also an extensive air and fluid collection in the layers of the abdominal wall and subcutaneous fat which arose from a perforation of the gallbladder. The patient was not a surgical candidate due to multiple comorbidities. The patient was treated with antibiotics and underwent a CT guided percutaneous cholecystostomy. Despite the radiological intervention and antibiotics the patient progressively deteriorated and died peacefully 5 days after admission.

  3. Lean Mass and Body Fat Percentage Are Contradictory Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in Pre-Menopausal Pacific Island Women

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Maria; von Hurst, Pamela R.; Beck, Kathryn L.; Shultz, Sarah; Kruger, Marlena C.; O’Brien, Wendy; Conlon, Cathryn A.; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotally, it is suggested that Pacific Island women have good bone mineral density (BMD) compared to other ethnicities; however, little evidence for this or for associated factors exists. This study aimed to explore associations between predictors of bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2), in pre-menopausal Pacific Island women. Healthy pre-menopausal Pacific Island women (age 16–45 years) were recruited as part of the larger EXPLORE Study. Total body BMD and body composition were assessed using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and air-displacement plethysmography (n = 83). A food frequency questionnaire (n = 56) and current bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (n = 59) were completed. Variables expected to be associated with BMD were applied to a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Due to missing data, physical activity and dietary intake factors were considered only in simple correlations. Mean BMD was 1.1 ± 0.08 g/cm2. Bone-free, fat-free lean mass (LMO, 52.4 ± 6.9 kg) and age were positively associated with BMD, and percent body fat (38.4 ± 7.6) was inversely associated with BMD, explaining 37.7% of total variance. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of BMD, while many established contributors to bone health (calcium, physical activity, protein, and vitamin C) were not associated with BMD in this population, partly due to difficulty retrieving dietary data. This highlights the importance of physical activity and protein intake during any weight loss interventions to in order to minimise the loss of muscle mass, whilst maximizing loss of adipose tissue. PMID:27483314

  4. Lean Mass and Body Fat Percentage Are Contradictory Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in Pre-Menopausal Pacific Island Women.

    PubMed

    Casale, Maria; von Hurst, Pamela R; Beck, Kathryn L; Shultz, Sarah; Kruger, Marlena C; O'Brien, Wendy; Conlon, Cathryn A; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-07-30

    Anecdotally, it is suggested that Pacific Island women have good bone mineral density (BMD) compared to other ethnicities; however, little evidence for this or for associated factors exists. This study aimed to explore associations between predictors of bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm²), in pre-menopausal Pacific Island women. Healthy pre-menopausal Pacific Island women (age 16-45 years) were recruited as part of the larger EXPLORE Study. Total body BMD and body composition were assessed using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and air-displacement plethysmography (n = 83). A food frequency questionnaire (n = 56) and current bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (n = 59) were completed. Variables expected to be associated with BMD were applied to a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Due to missing data, physical activity and dietary intake factors were considered only in simple correlations. Mean BMD was 1.1 ± 0.08 g/cm². Bone-free, fat-free lean mass (LMO, 52.4 ± 6.9 kg) and age were positively associated with BMD, and percent body fat (38.4 ± 7.6) was inversely associated with BMD, explaining 37.7% of total variance. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of BMD, while many established contributors to bone health (calcium, physical activity, protein, and vitamin C) were not associated with BMD in this population, partly due to difficulty retrieving dietary data. This highlights the importance of physical activity and protein intake during any weight loss interventions to in order to minimise the loss of muscle mass, whilst maximizing loss of adipose tissue.

  5. Photoperiod regulates lean mass accretion, but not adiposity, in growing F344 rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alexander W; Russell, Laura; Helfer, Gisela; Thomson, Lynn M; Dalby, Matthew J; Morgan, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    In this study the effects of photoperiod and diet, and their interaction, were examined for their effects on growth and body composition in juvenile F344 rats over a 4-week period. On long (16L:8D), relative to short (8L:16D), photoperiod food intake and growth rate were increased, but percentage adiposity remained constant (ca 3-4%). On a high fat diet (HFD), containing 22.8% fat (45% energy as fat), food intake was reduced, but energy intake increased on both photoperiods. This led to a small increase in adiposity (up to 10%) without overt change in body weight. These changes were also reflected in plasma leptin and lipid levels. Importantly while both lean and adipose tissue were strongly regulated by photoperiod on a chow diet, this regulation was lost for adipose, but not lean tissue, on HFD. This implies that a primary effect of photoperiod is the regulation of growth and lean mass accretion. Consistent with this both hypothalamic GHRH gene expression and serum IGF-1 levels were photoperiod dependent. As for other animals and humans, there was evidence of central hyposomatotropism in response to obesity, as GHRH gene expression was suppressed by the HFD. Gene expression of hypothalamic AgRP and CRH, but not NPY nor POMC, accorded with the energy balance status on long and short photoperiod. However, there was a general dissociation between plasma leptin levels and expression of these hypothalamic energy balance genes. Similarly there was no interaction between the HFD and photoperiod at the level of the genes involved in thyroid hormone metabolism (Dio2, Dio3, TSHβ or NMU), which are important mediators of the photoperiodic response. These data suggest that photoperiod and HFD influence body weight and body composition through independent mechanisms but in each case the role of the hypothalamic energy balance genes is not predictable based on their known function.

  6. Anthropometry of height, weight, arm, wrist, abdominal circumference and body mass index, for Bolivian adolescents 12 to 18 years: Bolivian adolescent percentile values from the MESA study.

    PubMed

    Baya Botti, A; Pérez-Cueto, F J A; Vasquez Monllor, P A; Kolsteren, P W

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometry is important as clinical tool for individual follow-up as well as for planning and health policy-making at population level. Recent references of Bolivian Adolescents are not available. The aim of this cross sectional study was to provide age and sex specific centile values and charts of Body Mass Index, height, weight, arm, wrist and abdominal circumference from Bolivian Adolescents. Data from the MEtabolic Syndrome in Adolescents (MESA) study was used. Thirty-two Bolivian clusters from urban and rural areas were selected randomly considering population proportions, 3445 school going adolescents, 12 to 18 y, 45% males; 55% females underwent anthropometric evaluation by trained personnel using standardized protocols for all interviews and examinations. Weight, height, wrist, arm and abdominal circumference data were collected. Body Mass Index was calculated. Smoothed age- and gender specific 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th Bolivian adolescent percentiles(BAP) and Charts(BAC) where derived using LMS regression. Percentile-based reference data for the antropometrics of for Bolivian Adolescents are presented for the first time.

  7. Fat-mass-related hormone, plasma leptin, predicts brain volumes in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Priya; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2013-01-23

    Leptin, a hormone produced by body fat tissue, acts on hypothalamic receptors in the brain to regulate appetite and energy expenditure, and on neurons in the arcuate nucleus to signal that an individual has had enough to eat. Leptin enters the central nervous system at levels that depend on an individual's body fat. Obese people, on average, show greater brain atrophy in old age, so it is valuable to know whether brain atrophy relates to leptin levels, which can be targeted by interventions. We therefore determined how plasma leptin levels, and BMI, relate to brain structure, and whether leptin levels might account for BMI's effect on the brain. We measured regional brain volumes using tensor-based morphometry, in MRI scans of 517 elderly individuals with plasma leptin measured (mean: 13.3±0.6 ng/ml; mean age: 75.2±7.3 years; 321 men/196 women). We related plasma leptin levels to brain volumes at every location in the brain after adjusting for age, sex, and diagnosis and, later, also BMI. Plasma leptin levels were significantly higher (a) in women than men, and (b) in obese versus overweight, normal or underweight individuals. People with higher leptin levels showed deficits in frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, brainstem, and the cerebellum, irrespective of age, sex, or diagnosis. These associations persisted after controlling for BMI. Greater brain atrophy may occur in people with central leptin insufficiency, a marker of obesity. Therapeutic manipulation of leptin may be a promising direction for slowing brain decline.

  8. Determination of Narasin in Chicken Fat: A Bridging Study Comparing the Bioautographic Method (FSIS CLG Method R22) to a Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method (AOAC Method 2011.24).

    PubMed

    Mizinga, Kemmy M; Burnett, Thomas J; Brunelle, Sharon L; Wallace, Michael A; Coleman, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Lilly Method AM-AA-CA-R108-AB-755, which is substantially the same as U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) Chemistry Laboratory Guidebook (CLG) method R22, is the current regulatory method for determining narasin in cattle and chicken tissues and is based on bioautography, creating a zone of inhibition of bacterial growth, with the size of the zone correlating to the amount of narasin extracted from the tissue. AOAC Method 2011.24 is an LC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for determining narasin content from bovine, swine, or chicken tissues. It has many advantages over the regulatory method, including higher throughput, less solvent use, no use of carbon tetrachloride, a wider method range, inclusion of swine tissues, and it is less labor intensive. In this study, AOAC Method 2011.24 was compared to FSIS CLG method R22 for the determination of narasin in chicken abdominal fat. Fortified chicken-fat samples ranging from 20 to 960 ng/g and incurred chicken-fat samples ranging from 40 to 480 ng/g were assayed by both methods in triplicate. Mean accuracies for the two methods were similar, 77-110% for CLG R22 and 84-96% for AOAC Method 2011.24, and the method results showed a linear correlation. The methods differed in precision, however, with the CLG R22 method yielding 2.6-34% RSD and AOAC Method 2011.24 yielding 0.15-6.4% RSD. It is recommended that AOAC Method 2011.24-granted AOAC Official Method(SM) Final Action status-be adopted as the official U.S. regulatory method.

  9. Relative bone mass decreased in mice fed high dietary fat despite an increase in body mass and bone formation markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis and obesity are interrelated health disorders. Osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from common mesenchymal stem cells and age-related osteoporosis is associated with increased bone marrow adipogenesis. To determine whether bone mass and osteoblast number and activity are affected by ...

  10. Body Fat and Body-Mass Index among a Multiethnic Sample of College-Age Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Catherine L.; Yan, Eric; Chen, Steve; Hong, Kurt; Arechiga, Adam; Kim, Woo S.; Deng, Max; Heber, David

    2013-01-01

    Obesity prevalence and average body composition vary by US race and gender. Asian Americans have the lowest prevalence of obesity. Relying on body-mass index (BMI) to estimate obesity prevalence may misclassify subgroups that appear normally weighted but have excess body fat. We evaluated percentage body fat (PBF) and BMI to determine whether BMI reflects PBF consistently across different races. 940 college students were recruited from a local public university over four consecutive years. We measured PBF by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), weight by physicians' scales, and height with stadiometers. Our sample comprised Asians (49%), Caucasians (23%), Hispanics (7%), and Other (21%). Participants averaged 21.4 years old; BMI was 22.9 kg/m2; PBF was 24.8%. BMI and PBF varied significantly by race and gender (P value = 0.002 and 0.005 for men; 0.0009 and 0.0008 for women). Asian-American women had the lowest BMI (21.5 kg/m2) but the second highest PBF (27.8%). Linear association between BMI and PBF was the weakest (r2 = 0.09) among Asian-American women and BMI had the poorest sensitivity (37%) to detect PBF. The high PBF with low BMI pattern exhibited by Asian-American women suggests that they could escape detection for obesity-related disease if BMI is the sole measure that estimates body composition. PMID:23691288

  11. Passive and active roles of fat-free mass in the control of energy intake and body composition regulation.

    PubMed

    Dulloo, A G; Jacquet, J; Miles-Chan, J L; Schutz, Y

    2017-03-01

    While putative feedback signals arising from adipose tissue are commonly assumed to provide the molecular links between the body's long-term energy requirements and energy intake, the available evidence suggests that the lean body or fat-free mass (FFM) also plays a role in the drive to eat. A distinction must, however, be made between a 'passive' role of FFM in driving energy intake, which is likely to be mediated by 'energy-sensing' mechanisms that translate FFM-induced energy requirements to energy intake, and a more 'active' role of FFM in the drive to eat through feedback signaling between FFM deficit and energy intake. Consequently, a loss of FFM that results from dieting or sedentarity should be viewed as a risk factor for weight regain and increased fatness not only because of the impact of the FFM deficit in lowering the maintenance energy requirement but also because of the body's attempt to restore FFM by overeating-a phenomenon referred to as 'collateral fattening'. A better understanding of these passive and active roles of FFM in the control of energy intake will necessitate the elucidation of peripheral signals and energy-sensing mechanisms that drive hunger and appetite, with implications for both obesity prevention and its management.

  12. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Thomas P J; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K; Gonzalez, Frank; Kirwan, John P

    2008-08-01

    Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max) were measured in 10 older (age, 60 +/- 4 years; mean +/- SEM) and 10 younger (age, 35 +/- 4 years) body mass index-matched, obese, normal glucose-tolerant individuals. Fasting blood samples were also collected. Older subjects had slightly elevated fat mass (32.2 +/- 7.1 vs 36.5 +/- 6.7 kg, P = .16); however, waist circumference was not different between groups (104.3 +/- 10.3 vs 102.1 +/- 12.6 cm, P = .65). Basal fat oxidation was 22% lower (1.42 +/- 0.14 vs 1.17 +/- 0.22 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03) in older subjects. The VO(2)max was also decreased in older individuals (44.6 +/- 7.1 vs 38.3 +/- 6.0 mL/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03); but insulin sensitivity, lipemia, and leptinemia were not different between groups (P > .05). Fat oxidation was most related to age (r = -0.61, P = .003) and VO(2)max (r = 0.52, P = .01). These data suggest that aging per se is responsible for reduced basal fat oxidation and maximal oxidative capacity in older obese individuals, independent of changes in insulin resistance, body mass, and abdominal fat. This indicates that age, in addition to obesity, is an independent risk factor for weight gain and for the metabolic complications of elevated body fat.

  13. Fat distribution and insulin resistance in young adult nonobese Asian Indian women.

    PubMed

    Szuszkiewicz-Garcia, Magdalene; Li, Rong; Grundy, Scott M; Abate, Nicola; Chandalia, Manisha

    2012-10-01

    Although Asian Indian (people of Indian subcontinent descent) men are shown to have higher total and truncal body fat as well as greater insulin resistance compared to white men matched for total body fat and age, data in women are not conclusive. The objective of this study was to compare total and regional fat distribution and insulin sensitivity between healthy young premenopausal Asian Indian and white women of similar body mass index (BMI). Twenty Asian Indian women (65% immigrants and 35% first generation living in Dallas) and 31 white women of similar age and BMI [age 24±3 vs. 25±4; BMI 22±4 vs. 23±5; mean±standard deviation (SD) in Asian Indian and white, respectively] without diabetes were evaluated with anthropometric measurements, underwater weighing for percentage of total body fat mass, magnetic resonance imaging of whole abdomen for measurement of abdominal subcutaneous and intraperitoneal fat mass, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp study for measurement of insulin sensitivity. There were no differences in waist or hip circumference, total body subcutaneous abdominal or intraperitoneal fat mass, fasting plasma glucose, and insulin levels between Asian Indian women and white women. The peripheral glucose disposal rate (Rd) during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was found to be almost identical in the two study groups (median value of 6.9 and 6.8 mg/min per kg of body weight, for Asian Indians and whites, respectively). For similar total or regional fat content, the glucose disposal rate was comparable in the two study groups. In conclusion, we demonstrate that young Asian Indian women do not have excess abdominal or intraperitoneal fat or insulin resistance for similar BMI compared to white women of European descent.

  14. Comparative study of the binding of 3 flavonoids to the fat mass and obesity-associated protein by spectroscopy and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijiao; Ren, Ting; Wang, Zechun; Wang, Ruiyong; Chang, Junbiao

    2017-01-06

    This study aims to investigate the interaction between 3 flavonoids (quercetin, apigenin, and naringenin) and fat mass and obesity-associated protein by fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, and molecular modeling. Results indicate that the intrinsic fluorescence of fat mass and obesity-associated protein can be quenched by the 3 flavonoids through a static quenching procedure. Thermodynamic analysis and molecular modeling results suggest that hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond forces play the major roles in the binding process. Moreover, results also show that the rank order of quenching constant and binding constant is quercetin > apigenin > naringenin.

  15. Effect of 29 days of simulated microgravity on maximal oxygen consumption and fat-free mass of rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, Christopher R.; Stump, Craig S.; Stump, Jane A.; Rahman, Zia; Tipton, Charles M.

    1991-01-01

    Effects of a 29-days exposure to simulated microgravity on the values of maximal oxygen consumption and fat-free mass (FFM) and on the mechanical efficiency of running were investigated in rats randomly assigned to one of three regimens: head-down suspension (HDS) at 45 deg, horizontal suspension (HS), or cage control (CC). Before suspension and on days 7, 14, 21, and 28, five exercise performance tests were carried out, with measurements related to maximal oxygen consumption, treadmill run time, and mechanical efficiency. It was found that maximal oxygen consumption of both HDS and HS groups decreased significantly at day 7, after which the HDS rats remained decreased while the HS rats returned to presuspension values. Apparent mechanical efficiency in the HDS and HS groups decreased by 22-35 percent during the experimental period, and FFM decreased significantly.

  16. Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF) and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year) and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min-1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test (SAR), handgrip strength test (HST) and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ). Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28) of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7) of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027). BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women). Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively). Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women). Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs. PMID:23900100

  17. Modelling a response as a function of high-frequency count data: The association between physical activity and fat mass.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Nicole H; Mattocks, Calum; Faraway, Julian J; Greven, Sonja; Ness, Andy R

    2015-07-17

    Accelerometers are widely used in health sciences, ecology and other application areas. They quantify the intensity of physical activity as counts per epoch over a given period of time. Currently, health scientists use very lossy summaries of the accelerometer time series, some of which are based on coarse discretisation of activity levels, and make certain implicit assumptions, including linear or constant effects of physical activity. We propose the histogram as a functional summary for achieving a near lossless dimension reduction, comparability between individual time series and easy interpretability. Using the histogram as a functional summary avoids registration of accelerometer counts in time. In our novel method, a scalar response is regressed on additive multi-dimensional functional predictors, including the histogram of the high-frequency counts, and additive non-linear predictors for other continuous covariates. The method improves on the current state-of-the art, as it can deal with high-frequency time series of different lengths and missing values and yields a flexible way to model the physical activity effect with fewer assumptions. It also allows the commonly made modelling assumptions to be tested. We investigate the relationship between the response fat mass and physical activity measured by accelerometer, in data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Our method allows testing of whether the effect of physical activity varies over its intensity by gender, by time of day or by day of the week. We show that meaningful interpretation requires careful treatment of identifiability constraints in the light of the sum-to-one property of a histogram. We find that the (not necessarily causal) effect of physical activity on kg fat mass is not linear and not constant over the activity intensity.

  18. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is ...

  19. [Abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Gschossmann, J M; Holtmann, G; Netzer, P; Essig, M; Balsiger, B M; Scheurer, U

    2005-10-01

    Abdominal pain can result from a variety of different intra- and extra-abdominal disorders. Given the wide variety of etiological triggers for this pain, the primary task during the first stage of the diagnostic work-up is to determine as soon as possible the underlying cause and the degree of emergency. The aim of this evaluation is to adapt the therapeutic measures which are necessary for a causal treatment to the individual situation. Contrary to somatic causes of abdominal pain, the availability of such a causal therapy for functional bowel disorders is still very limited. Given this dilemma, the therapeutic focus of abdominal pain associated with these functional syndromes has to be placed on symptom-oriented treatment.

  20. Recombinant Human Growth Hormone and Rosiglitazone for Abdominal Fat Accumulation in HIV-Infected Patients with Insulin Resistance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Factorial Trial

    PubMed Central

    Glesby, Marshall J.; Albu, Jeanine; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Ham, Kirsis; Engelson, Ellen; He, Qing; Muthukrishnan, Varalakshmi; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Donovan, Daniel; Ernst, Jerry; Lesser, Martin; Kotler, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume in HIV-infected patients but can worsen glucose homeostasis and lipoatrophy. We aimed to determine if adding rosiglitazone to rhGH would abrogate the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity (SI) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume. Methodology/Principal Findings Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial using a 2×2 factorial design in which HIV-infected subjects with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were randomized to rhGH 3 mg daily, rosiglitazone 4 mg twice daily, combination rhGH + rosiglitazone, or double placebo (control) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in SI by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test from entry to week 12. Body composition was assessed by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual Xray absorptiometry (DEXA). Seventy-seven subjects were randomized of whom 72 initiated study drugs. Change in SI from entry to week 12 differed across the 4 arms by 1-way ANCOVA (P = 0.02); by pair-wise comparisons, only rhGH (decreasing SI; P = 0.03) differed significantly from control. Changes from entry to week 12 in fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve on 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test differed across arms (1-way ANCOVA P = 0.004), increasing in the rhGH arm relative to control. VAT decreased significantly in the rhGH arms (−17.5% in rhGH/rosiglitazone and −22.7% in rhGH) but not in the rosiglitazone alone (−2.5%) or control arms (−1.9%). SAT did not change significantly in any arm. DEXA results were consistent with the MRI data. There was no significant rhGH x rosiglitazone interaction for any body composition parameter. Conclusions/Significance The addition of rosiglitazone abrogated the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance while not significantly modifying the lowering effect of rhGH on VAT. Trial Registration

  1. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2016-08-29

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group.

  2. Olive oil or lard?: distinguishing plant oils from animal fats in the archeological record of the eastern Mediterranean using gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Steele, Valerie J; Stern, Ben; Stott, Andy W

    2010-12-15

    Distinguishing animal fats from plant oils in archaeological residues is not straightforward. Characteristic plant sterols, such as β-sitosterol, are often missing in archaeological samples and specific biomarkers do not exist for most plant fats. Identification is usually based on a range of characteristics such as fatty acid ratios, all of which indicate that a plant oil may be present, none of which uniquely distinguish plant oils from other fats. Degradation and dissolution during burial alter fatty acid ratios and remove short-chain fatty acids, resulting in degraded plant oils with similar fatty acid profiles to other degraded fats. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis of δ(13)C(18:0) and δ(13)C(16:0), carried out by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS), has provided a means of distinguishing fish oils, dairy fats, ruminant and non-ruminant adipose fats, but plant oils are rarely included in these analyses. For modern plant oils where C(18:1) is abundant, δ(13)C(18:1) and δ(13)C(16:0) are usually measured. These results cannot be compared with archaeological data or data from other modern reference fats where δ(13)C(18:0) and δ(13)C(16:0) are measured, as C(18:0) and C(18:1) are formed by different processes resulting in different isotopic values. Eight samples of six modern plant oils were saponified, releasing sufficient C(18:0) to measure the isotopic values, which were plotted against δ(13)C(16:0). The isotopic values for these oils, with one exception, formed a tight cluster between ruminant and non-ruminant animal fats. This result complicates the interpretation of mixed fatty residues in geographical areas where both animal fats and plant oils were in use.

  3. Pre-pregnancy BMI and body fat mass of 2 weeks old infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal programming of fetal metabolism has been previously demonstrated in animal studies. Clinical studies have also shown an association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures in infants. This study reports for the first time infant body composition at 2 weeks us...

  4. Body fat mass of exclusively breastfed infants born to overweight mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although there is evidence that maternal prepregnancy obesity (body mass index [BMI; calculated as kg/m2] =30) results in elevated risk of obesity in the offspring later in life, maternal prepregnancy overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9) has not been clearly demonstrated as a risk factor for the future devel...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Changes in Abdominal Compartments in Obese Diabetics during a Low-Calorie Weight-Loss Program

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Lena J.; Steveling, Antje; Meffert, Peter J.; Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Kessler, Rebecca; Hosten, Norbert; Krüger, Janine; Gärtner, Simone; Aghdassi, Ali A.; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Kühn, Jens-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate changes in the fat content of abdominal compartments and muscle area during weight loss using confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in overweight diabetics. Methods Twenty-nine obese diabetics (10/19 men/women, median age: 59.0 years, median body mass index (BMI): 34.0 kg/m2) prospectively joined a standardized 15-week weight-loss program (six weeks of formula diet exclusively, followed by reintroduction of regular food with gradually increasing energy content over nine weeks) over 15 weeks. All subjects underwent a standardized MRI protocol including a confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded MR sequence with water/fat separation before the program as well at the end of the six weeks of formula diet and at the end of the program at 15 weeks. Fat fractions of abdominal organs and vertebral bone marrow as well as volumes of visceral and subcutaneous fat were determined. Furthermore, muscle area was evaluated using the L4/L5 method. Data were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples. Results Median BMI decreased significantly from 34.0 kg/m2 to 29.9 kg/m2 (p < 0.001) at 15 weeks. Liver fat content was normalized (14.2% to 4.1%, p < 0.001) and vertebral bone marrow fat (57.5% to 53.6%, p = 0.018) decreased significantly throughout the program, while fat content of pancreas (9.0%), spleen (0.0%), and psoas muscle (0.0%) did not (p > 0.15). Visceral fat volume (3.2 L to 1.6 L, p < 0.001) and subcutaneous fat diameter (3.0 cm to 2.2 cm, p < 0.001) also decreased significantly. Muscle area declined by 6.8% from 243.9 cm2 to 226.8 cm2. Conclusion MRI allows noninvasive monitoring of changes in abdominal compartments during weight loss. In overweight diabetics, weight loss leads to fat reduction in abdominal compartments, such as visceral fat, as well as liver fat and vertebral bone marrow fat while pancreas fat remains unchanged. PMID:27110719

  6. Dietary calcium is associated with body mass index and body fat in American Indians.

    PubMed

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Xu, Jiaqiong; Loria, Catherine; Mattil, Claudia; Goldbourt, Uri; Howard, Barbara V; Resnick, Helaine E

    2007-08-01

    American Indians have a high prevalence of obesity. Evidence supports a relationship between increased dietary calcium intake and lower body weight. This study was conducted to investigate the association between dietary calcium intake, BMI, and percentage of body fat (PBF) in American Indians (ages 47-79 y) in the Strong Heart Study (SHS) (2nd exam, 1992-1995). SHS data were compared with data for the general U.S. adult population from the NHANES III (1988-1994). BMI was calculated as kg/m(2). PBF was estimated by bioelectrical impedance using an equation based on total body water. The clinical examination included measures of blood chemistry. Dietary data were collected using a 24-h dietary recall. Calcium intake was significantly lower in SHS participants than in age-matched NHANES III participants. Mean calcium intake in the SHS was 680 mg/d (range: 103-4574 mg/d) for men and 610 mg/d (range: 71-4093 mg/d) for women (P < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, BMI and PBF were lower by 0.80 kg/m(2) (95% CI: -1.53 to -0.08, P = 0.046) and 1.28% (95% CI: -2.10 to -0.47, P = 0.011) in SHS participants with higher (> or = 873 mg/d in the 5th quintile) vs. lower calcium intake (<313 mg/d in the 1st quintile). No relation between calcium intake and BMI or PBF was observed in NHANES III participants. Our data may be used to develop nutritional interventions aimed at weight control in culturally appropriate clinical trials.

  7. Dietary Calcium is Associated with Body Mass Index and Body Fat in American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Xu, Jiaqiong; Loria, Catherine; Mattil, Claudia; Goldbourt, Uri; Howard, Barbara V.; Resnick, Helaine E.

    2009-01-01

    American Indians have a high prevalence of obesity. Evidence exists to support a relationship between increased dietary calcium intake and lower body weight. This study was conducted to investigate the association between dietary calcium intake, BMI, and percentage of body fat (PBF) in American Indians (ages 47–79 y) in the Strong Heart Study (SHS) (2nd exam: 1992–1995). SHS data were compared with data for the general U.S. adult population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1988–1994). BMI was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m2). PBF was estimated by bioelectrical impedance, using an equation based on total body water. The clinical examination included measures of blood chemistry. Dietary data were collected using a 24-h dietary recall. Calcium intake was significantly lower among SHS participants than among age-matched NHANES III participants. Mean calcium intake in the SHS was 680 mg/d (range: 103 – 4574 mg/d) for men and 610 mg/d (range: 71 – 4093 mg/d) for women (P < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, BMI and PBF were lower by 0.80 kg/m2 (95% CI: −1.53 to −0.08, P = 0.046) and 1.28% (95% CI: −2.10 to −0.47, P = 0.011) in SHS participants with higher (≥ 873 mg/d in the 5th quintile) versus lower calcium intake (< 313 mg/d in the 1st quintile). No relation between calcium intake and BMI or PBF was observed in NHANES III participants. Our data may be used to develop nutritional interventions aimed at weight control in culturally appropriate clinical trials. PMID:17634270

  8. Kinetics of mass transfer during deep fat frying of yellow fleshed cassava root slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyedeji, A. B.; Sobukola, O. P.; Henshaw, F. O.; Adegunwa, M. O.; Sanni, L. O.; Tomlins, K. I.

    2016-05-01

    Kinetics of mass transfer [moisture content, oil uptake, total carotenoid (TC) and shrinkage] during frying of yellow fleshed cassava roots (TMS 01/1371) was investigated. Slices were divided into (i) fresh and (ii) pre-dried to 75 % moisture content before atmospheric frying and (iii) vacuum fried. Percentage TC and activation energies of vacuum, fresh and pre-dried fried samples were 76, 63 and 61 %; and 82, 469.7, 213.7 kJ/mol, respectively.

  9. Stem cell activation in adults can reverse detrimental changes in body composition to reduce fat and increase lean mass in both sexes.

    PubMed

    Wiren, Kristine M; Hashimoto, Joel G; Zhang, Xiao-Wei

    2011-12-01

    Detrimental changes in body composition are often associated with declining levels of testosterone. Here, we evaluated the notion that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells, that give rise to both fat and muscle tissue, can play a significant role to alter existing body composition in the adult. Transgenic mice with targeted androgen receptor (AR) overexpression in stem cells were employed. Wild-type littermate and AR-transgenic male and female mice were gonadectomized and left untreated for 2 months. After the hypogonadal period, mice were then treated with 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) for 6 weeks. After orchidectomy (ORX), wild-type males have reduced lean mass and increased fat mass compared to shams. DHT treatment was beneficial to partially restore body composition. In wild-type females, ovariectomy (OVX) produced a similar change but there was no improvement with DHT. In targeted AR transgenic mice, DHT treatment increased lean and reduced fat mass to sham levels. In contrast to wild-type females, DHT treatment in female transgenic mice significantly ameliorated the increased fat and decreased lean mass changes that result after OVX. Our results show that DHT administration reduces fat mass and increases lean mass in wild-type males but not females, indicating that wild-type females are not as sensitive to androgen treatment. Because both male and female transgenic mice are more responsive than wild-type, results suggest that body composition remains linked to stem cell fate in the adult and that targeted androgen signaling in stem cells can play a significant role to reverse detrimental changes in body composition in both sexes.

  10. Higher Daily Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient, Rather Than Fat-Free Mass, Independently Determine Greater ad Libitum Overeating

    PubMed Central

    Thearle, Marie S.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Body fat-free mass (FFM), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) are known predictors of daily food intake. Because FFM largely determines EE, it is unclear whether body composition per se or the underlying metabolism drives dietary intake. Objective: The objective of the study was to test whether 24-hour measures of EE and RQ and their components influence ad libitum food intake independently of FFM. Design and Participants: One hundred seven healthy individuals (62 males/45 females, 84 Native Americans/23 whites; age 33 ± 8 y; body mass index 33 ± 8 kg/m2; body fat 31% ± 8%) had 24-hour measures of EE in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance, followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake using computerized vending machine systems. Body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Main Outcome Measures: FFM, 24-hour EE, RQ, spontaneous physical activity, sleeping EE (sleeping metabolic rate), awake and fed thermogenesis, and ad libitum food intake (INTAKE) were measured. Results: Higher 24-hour RQ (P < .001, partial R2 = 16%) and EE (P = .01, partial R2 = 7%), but not FFM (P = .65), were independent predictors of INTAKE. Mediation analysis demonstrated that 24-hour EE is responsible for 80% of the FFM effect on INTAKE (44.5 ± 16.9 kcal ingested per kilogram of FFM, P= .01), whereas the unique effect due to solely FFM was negligible (10.6 ± 23.2, P = .65). Spontaneous physical activity (r = 0.33, P = .001), but not sleeping metabolic rate (P = .71), positively predicted INTAKE, whereas higher awake and fed thermogenesis determined greater INTAKE only in subjects with a body mass index of 29 kg/m2 or less (r = 0.44, P = .01). Conclusions: EE and RQ, rather than FFM, independently determine INTAKE, suggesting that competitive energy-sensing mechanisms driven by the preferential macronutrient oxidation and total energy demands may regulate food intake. PMID:26086330

  11. Determination of short chain carboxylic acids in vegetable oils and fats using ion exclusion chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Viidanoja, Jyrki

    2015-02-27

    A new method for quantification of short chain C1-C6 carboxylic acids in vegetable oils and fats by employing Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) has been developed. The method requires minor sample preparation and applies non-conventional Electrospray Ionization (ESI) liquid phase chemistry. Samples are first dissolved in chloroform and then extracted using water that has been spiked with stable isotope labeled internal standards that are used for signal normalization and absolute quantification of selected acids. The analytes are separated using Ion Exclusion Chromatography (IEC) and detected with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) as deprotonated molecules. Prior to ionization the eluent that contains hydrochloric acid is modified post-column to ensure good ionization efficiency of the analytes. The averaged within run precision and between run precision were generally lower than 8%. The accuracy was between 85 and 115% for most of the analytes. The Lower Limit of Quantification (LLOQ) ranged from 0.006 to 7mg/kg. It is shown that this method offers good selectivity in cases where UV detection fails to produce reliable results.

  12. Measurement of boar taint in porcine fat using a high-throughput gas chromatography-mass spectrometry protocol.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Klavs M; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2014-10-01

    This work outlines an optimized gas chromatrography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based protocol for screening of the presence of the three boar-taint-producing compounds indole, skatole (3-methylindole), and androstenone (5α-androst-16-en-3-one) in porcine fat. The study shows that an accuracy suitable for sample screening can be achieved even when speed and ease of sample handling is prioritized and without the use of internal standards. The method provides levels of detection of 82 ng/g for indole, 97 ng/g for skatole, and 623 ng/g for androstenone (in a 2 g natural backfat matrix). A least-squares approach of predicting the sample analyte mass from instrument response is shown to have prediction errors (root-mean-square error) of 96 ng/g for indole, 94 ng/g for skatole, and 331.3 ng/g for androstenone. The method is intended for discrimination of samples in risk groups, and a scheme is proposed to turn the GC-MS response of the boar-taint analytes into risk classes.

  13. Assessment of the Body Composition and the Loss of Fat-Free Mass through Bioelectric Impedance Analysis in Patients Who Underwent Open Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas Junior, Wilson Rodrigues; Ilias, Elias Jirjoss; Kassab, Paulo; Cordts, Roberto; Porto, Paulo Gustavo; Martins Rodrigues, Francisco Cesar; Ali Taha, Mohamed Ibrahim; Carrara, Paulo; de Carvalho Aguiar, Isabella; de Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco; Malheiros, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bariatric surgery is considered an effective option for the management of morbid obesity. The incidence of obesity has been gradually increasing all over the world reaching epidemic proportions in some regions of the world. Obesity can cause a reduction of up to 22% in the life expectancy of morbidly obese patients. Objective. The objective of this paper is to assess the weight loss associated with the first 6 months after bariatric surgery using bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) for the evaluation of fat mass and fat-free mass. Method. A total of 36 morbidly obese patients were subjected to open gastric bypass surgery. The patients weight was monitored before and after the procedure using the bioelectric impedance analysis. Results. Bariatric surgery resulted in an average percentage of weight loss of 28.6% (40 kg) as determined 6 months after the procedure was performed. Analysis of the different components of body weight indicated an undesirable loss of fat-free mass along with the reduction of total body weight. Conclusion. Open gastric bypass induced a significant loss of total weight and loss of fat-free mass in patients six months after the surgery. The use of bioelectric impedance analysis resulted in an appropriate estimation of the total weight components in individuals subjected to bariatric surgery allowing a more real analysis of the variation of weight after the surgery. PMID:24523649

  14. MTOR signaling and ubiquitin-proteosome gene expression in the preservation of fat free mass following high protein, calorie restricted weight loss

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Caloric restriction is one of the most efficient ways to promote weight loss and is known to activate protective metabolic pathways. Frequently reported with weight loss is the undesirable consequence of fat free (lean muscle) mass loss. Weight loss diets with increased dietary protein intake are popular and may provide additional benefits through preservation of fat free mass compared to a standard protein, high carbohydrate diet. However, the precise mechanism by which a high protein diet may mitigate dietary weight loss induced reductions in fat free mass has not been fully elucidated. Maintenance of fat free mass is dependent upon nutrient stimulation of protein synthesis via the mTOR complex, although during caloric restriction a decrease (atrophy) in skeletal muscle may be driven by a homeostatic shift favouring protein catabolism. This review evaluates the relationship between the macronutrient composition of calorie restricted diets and weight loss using metabolic indicators. Specifically we evaluate the effect of increased dietary protein intake and caloric restricted diets on gene expression in skeletal muscle, particularly focusing on biosynthesis, degradation and the expression of genes in the ubiquitin-proteosome (UPP) and mTOR signaling pathways, including MuRF-1, MAFbx/atrogin-1, mTORC1, and S6K1. PMID:22974011

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF VARIABLE ELIMINATION RATE AND BODY FAT MASS IN A PBPK MODEL FOR TCDD IN PREDICTING THE SERUM TCDD CONCENTRATIONS FROM VETERANS OF OPERATION RANCH HAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Influence of Variable Elimination Rate and Body Fat Mass in a PBPK Model for TCDD in Predicting the Serum TCDD Concentrations from Veterans of Operation Ranch Hand.
    C Emond1,2, LS Birnbaum2, JE Michalek3, MJ DeVito2
    1 National Research Council, National Academy of Scien...

  16. Effects of Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percent on Default Mode, Executive Control, and Salience Network Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Figley, Chase R.; Asem, Judith S. A.; Levenbaum, Erica L.; Courtney, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that obesity decreases overall life expectancy and increases the risk of several adverse health conditions. Mounting evidence indicates that body fat is likely also associated with structural and functional brain changes, reduced cognitive function, and greater impulsivity. However, previously reported differences in brain structure and function have been variable across studies and difficult to reconcile due to sample population and methodological differences. To clarify these issues, we correlated two independent measures of body composition—i.e., body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BFP)—with structural and functional neuroimaging data obtained from a cohort of 32 neurologically healthy adults. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses indicated that higher BMI and BFP were associated with widespread decreases in gray matter volume, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure (including several regions, such as the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, which may influence value assessment, habit formation, and decision-making). Moreover, closer examination of resting state functional connectivity, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure throughout the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN) revealed that higher BMI and BFP were associated with increased SN functional connectivity and decreased white matter volumes throughout all three networks (i.e., the DMN, ECN, and SN). Taken together, these findings: (1) offer a biologically plausible explanation for reduced cognitive performance, greater impulsivity, and altered reward processing among overweight individuals, and (2) suggest neurobiological mechanisms (i.e., altered functional and structural brain connectivity) that may affect overweight individuals' ability to establish and maintain healthy lifestyle choices. PMID:27378831

  17. "Gas and fat embolic syndrome" involving a mass stranding of beaked whales (family Ziphiidae) exposed to anthropogenic sonar signals.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A; Edwards, J F; Rodríguez, F; Espinosa de los Monteros, A; Herráez, P; Castro, P; Jaber, J R; Martín, V; Arbelo, M

    2005-07-01

    A study of the lesions of beaked whales (BWs) in a recent mass stranding in the Canary Islands following naval exercises provides a possible explanation of the relationship between anthropogenic, acoustic (sonar) activities and the stranding and death of marine mammals. Fourteen BWs were stranded in the Canary Islands close to the site of an international naval exercise (Neo-Tapon 2002) held on 24 September 2002. Strandings began about 4 hours after the onset of midfrequency sonar activity. Eight Cuvier's BWs (Ziphius cavirostris), one Blainville's BW (Mesoplodon densirostris), and one Gervais' BW (Mesoplodon europaeus) were examined postmortem and studied histopathologically. No inflammatory or neoplastic processes were noted, and no pathogens were identified. Macroscopically, whales had severe, diffuse congestion and hemorrhage, especially around the acoustic jaw fat, ears, brain, and kidneys. Gas bubble-associated lesions and fat embolism were observed in the vessels and parenchyma of vital organs. In vivo bubble formation associated with sonar exposure that may have been exacerbated by modified diving behavior caused nitrogen supersaturation above a threshold value normally tolerated by the tissues (as occurs in decompression sickness). Alternatively, the effect that sonar has on tissues that have been supersaturated with nitrogen gas could be such that it lowers the threshold for the expansion of in vivo bubble precursors (gas nuclei). Exclusively or in combination, these mechanisms may enhance and maintain bubble growth or initiate embolism. Severely injured whales died or became stranded and died due to cardiovascular collapse during beaching. The present study demonstrates a new pathologic entity in cetaceans. The syndrome is apparently induced by exposure to mid-frequency sonar signals and particularly affects deep, long-duration, repetitive-diving species like BWs.

  18. Fat tissue and inflammation in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Rincón Bello, Abraham; Bucalo, Laura; Abad Estébanez, Soraya; Vega Martínez, Almudena; Barraca Núñez, Daniel; Yuste Lozano, Claudia; Pérez de José, Ana; López-Gómez, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Body weight has been increasing in the general population and is an established risk factor for hypertension, diabetes, and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) gain weight, mainly during the first months of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between body composition and metabolic and inflammatory status in patients undergoing PD. Methods This was a prospective, non-interventional study of prevalent patients receiving PD. Body composition was studied every 3 months using bioelectrical impedance (BCM®). We performed linear regression for each patient, including all BCM® measurements, to calculate annual changes in body composition. Thirty-one patients in our PD unit met the inclusion criteria. Results Median follow-up was 26 (range 17–27) months. Mean increase in weight was 1.8 ± 2.8 kg/year. However, BCM® analysis revealed a mean increase in fat mass of 3.0 ± 3.2 kg/year with a loss of lean mass of 2.3 ± 4.1 kg/year during follow-up. The increase in fat mass was associated with the conicity index, suggesting that increases in fat mass are based mainly on abdominal adipose tissue. Changes in fat mass were directly associated with inflammation parameters such as C-reactive protein (r = 0.382, P = 0.045) and inversely associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=−0.50, P = 0.008). Conclusions Follow-up of weight and body mass index can underestimate the fat mass increase and miss lean mass loss. The increase in fat mass is associated with proinflammatory state and alteration in lipid profile. PMID:27274820

  19. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  20. The relationships between breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density with body mass index, body fat mass and ethnicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariyah, N.; Pathy, N. B.; Taib, N. A. M.; Rahmat, K.; Judy, C. W.; Fadzil, F.; Lau, S.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that breast density and obesity are related to breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships of breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density (VBD) with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass (BFM) for the three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian) in Malaysia. We collected raw digital mammograms from 2450 women acquired on three digital mammography systems. The mammograms were analysed using Volpara software to obtain breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Body weight, BMI and BFM of the women were measured using a body composition analyser. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of increased overall breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Indians have highest breast volume and breast dense volume followed by Malays and Chinese. While Chinese are highest in VBD, followed by Malay and Indian. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing BMI and BFM were independent predictors of increased overall breast volume and dense volume. Moreover, BMI and BFM were independently and inversely related to VBD.

  1. Fat-free body mass is the most important body composition determinant of 10-yr longitudinal development of lumbar bone in adult men and women.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Ingrid; Twisk, Jos W R; Van Mechelen, Willem; Kemper, Han C G

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the longitudinal relationship between body composition and lumbar bone mineral density (LBMD) and lumbar bone mineral content (LBMC) in (young) adults over a 10-yr period. The data are from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Two hundred twenty-five men and 241 women were measured at 27, 32, and/or 36 yr of age. Nine body composition components were explored: total body weight, standing height, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to hip ratio, sum of four skinfolds, fat mass, and fat-free mass (FFM). Stratified analyses were performed by gender and adjustment was made for physical activity and calcium intake. Univariate multilevel analyses indicated that FFM was significantly positively related to the 10-yr development of both LBMD and LBMC in both sexes. Total body weight, standing height, and body mass index also showed a significant positive univariate relationships with LBMD and LBMC in both sexes, fat mass only with female LBMD. All best predictive multiple regression models included FFM, explaining 4-27% of the variation in bone mineral over this 10-yr period. Because FFM can be interpreted as a proxy for skeletal muscle mass, these results indicate the importance of muscle contractions on bone to increase bone strength in (young) adults.

  2. Effects of a eucaloric reduced-carbohydrate diet on body composition and fat distribution in women with PCOS

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Amy M.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Ovalle, Fernando; Goree, Laura Lee; Azziz, Ricardo; Desmond, Renee A.; Bates, G. Wright; Gower, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if consumption of a reduced-carbohydrate (CHO) diet would result in preferential loss of adipose tissue under eucaloric conditions, and whether changes in adiposity were associated with changes in postprandial insulin concentration. Methods In a crossover-diet intervention, 30 women with PCOS consumed a reduced-CHO diet (41:19:40%energy from CHO:protein:fat) for 8 weeks and a standard diet (55:18:27) for 8 weeks. Body composition by DXA and fat distribution by CT were assessed at baseline and following each diet phase. Insulin AUC was obtained from a solid meal test (SMT) during each diet phase. Results Participants lost 3.7% and 2.2% total fat following the reduced-CHO diet and STD diet, resp. (p<0.05 for difference between diets). The reduced-CHO diet induced a decrease in subcutaneous-abdominal, intra-abdominal, and thigh-intermuscular adipose tissue (−7.1%, −4.6%, and −11.5%, resp.), and the STD diet induced a decrease in total lean mass. Loss of fat mass following the reduced CHO diet arm was associated with lower insulin AUC (p<0.05) during the SMT. Conclusions In women with PCOS, consumption of a diet lower in CHO resulted in preferential loss of fat mass from metabolically harmful adipose depots, whereas a diet high in CHO appeared to promote repartitioning of lean mass to fat mass. PMID:25125349

  3. Effects of GH on Body Composition and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Young Men With Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Gerweck, Anu V.; Lin, Eleanor; Landa, Melissa G.; Torriani, Martin; Schoenfeld, David A.; Hemphill, Linda C.; Miller, Karen K.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Visceral adiposity is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk and decreased GH secretion. Objective: Our objective was to determine the effects of GH administration in abdominally obese young men on body composition, including liver fat, mitochondrial function, and cardiovascular (CV) risk markers. Design and Participants: This was a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 62 abdominally obese men (IGF-1 below the mean, no exclusion based on GH level), 21 to 45 years of age. Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated abdominal fat depots, thigh muscle and fat (computed tomography), fat and lean mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), intramyocellular and intrahepatic lipids (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy), mitochondrial function (dynamic phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy), CV risk markers, carotid intimal-medial thickness, and endothelial function. Results: GH administration resulted in a mean IGF-1 SD score increase from −1.9 ± 0.08 to −0.2 ± 0.3 in the GH group and a decrease in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT/sc adipose tissue, trunk/extremity fat, intrahepatic lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and apolipoprotein B/low-density lipoprotein vs placebo after controlling for the increase in weight observed in both groups. There were inverse associations between change in IGF-1 levels and change in VAT, VAT/sc adipose tissue, trunk fat, trunk/extremity fat, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and apolipoprotein B. Mitochondrial function improved in the GH group compared with placebo after controlling for change in glucose. There was no change in thigh fat, muscle mass, intramyocellular lipids, cholesterol, fibrinogen, intimal-medial thickness, or endothelial function. There was no increase in fasting glucose or hemoglobin A1c in the GH vs placebo group, although glucose during the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test increased slightly. Conclusion: GH replacement in abdominally obese men improves

  4. Leptin treatment reduces body fat but does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis in lean hypoleptinemic women.

    PubMed

    Brinkoetter, Mary; Magkos, Faidon; Vamvini, Maria; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-07-01

    Animal studies in vivo indicate that leptin treatment in extremely leptin-sensitive ob/ob mice reduces body weight exclusively by reducing fat mass and that it increases muscle mass by downregulating myostatin expression. Data from human trials are limited. Therefore, we aimed at characterizing the effects of leptin administration on fat mass, lean body mass, and circulating regulators of muscle growth in hypoleptinemic and presumably leptin-sensitive human subjects. In an open-label, single-arm trial, seven lean, strenuously exercising, amenorrheic women with low leptin concentrations (≤5 ng/ml) were given recombinant methionyl human leptin (metreleptin; 0.08 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 10 wk. In a separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, seven women were given metreleptin (initial dose: 0.08 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 3 mo, increased thereafter to 0.12 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) if menstruation did not occur), and six were given placebo for 9 mo. Metreleptin significantly reduced total body fat by an average of 18.6% after 10 wk (P < 0.001) in the single-arm trial and by 19.5% after 9 mo (placebo subtracted; P for interaction = 0.025, P for metreleptin = 0.004) in the placebo-controlled trial. There were no significant changes in lean body mass (P ≥ 0.33) or in serum concentrations of myostatin (P ≥ 0.35), follistatin (P ≥ 0.30), and activin A (P ≥ 0.20) whether in the 10-wk trial or the 9-mo trial. We conclude that metreleptin administration in lean hypoleptinemic women reduces fat mass exclusively and does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis.

  5. Evaluating the Contribution of Gut Microbiota to the Variation of Porcine Fatness with the Cecum and Fecal Samples

    PubMed Central

    He, Maozhang; Fang, Shaoming; Huang, Xiaochang; Zhao, Yuanzhang; Ke, Shanlin; Yang, Hui; Li, Zhuojun; Gao, Jun; Chen, Congying; Huang, Lusheng

    2016-01-01

    Microbial community in gastrointestinal tract participates in the development of the obesity as well as quite a few metabolic diseases in human. However, there are few studies about the relationship between gut microbiota and porcine fatness. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to perform 16S rRNA gene analysis in 256 cecum luminal samples from Erhualian pigs and 244 stools from Bamaxiang pigs, and adopted a two-part model statistical method to evaluate the association of gut microbes with porcine fatness. As the results, we identified a total of 6 and 108 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and 9 and 10 bacterial taxa which showed significant associations with fatness traits in the stool and cecum samples, respectively. Cross-validation analysis indicated that gut microbiome showed the largest effect on abdominal adipose by explaining 2.73% phenotypic variance of abdominal fat weight. Significantly more fatness-associated OTUs were identified in the cecum samples than that in the stools, suggesting that cecum luminal samples were better used for identification of fatness-associated microbes than stools. The fatness-associated OTUs were mainly annotated to Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Prevotella, Treponema, and Bacteroides. These microbes have been reported to produce short-chain fatty acids by fermenting dietary indigested polysaccharide and pectin. The short-chain fatty acids can regulate host body energy homeostasis, protect host from inflammation and inhibit fat mass development. Our findings suggested that the gut microbiome may be an important factor modulating fatness in pigs. PMID:28066405

  6. Differential Effects of Bariatric Surgery Versus Exercise on Excessive Visceral Fat Deposits.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fu-Zong; Huang, Yi-Luan; Wu, Carol C; Wang, Yen-Chi; Pan, Hsiang-Ju; Huang, Chin-Kun; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Wu, Ming-Ting

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare differential impacts of bariatric surgery and exercise-induced weight loss on excessive abdominal and cardiac fat deposition.Excessive fat accumulation around the heart may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Recent evidences have suggested that bariatric surgery results in relatively less decrease in epicardial fat compared with abdominal visceral fat and paracardial fat.Sixty-four consecutive overweight or obese subjects were enrolled in the study. Clinical characteristics and metabolic profiles were recorded. The volumes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (AVAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), epicardial (EAT), and paracardial adipose tissue (PAT) were measured by computed tomography in the bariatric surgery group (N = 25) and the exercise group (N = 39) at baseline and 3 months after intervention. Subjects in both the surgery and exercise groups showed significant reduction in body mass index (15.97%, 7.47%), AVAT (40.52%, 15.24%), ASAT (31.40, 17.34%), PAT (34.40%, 12.05%), and PAT + EAT (22.31%, 17.72%) (all P < 0.001) after intervention compared with baseline. In both the groups, the decrease in EAT was small compared with the other compartments (P < 0.01 in both groups). Compared with the exercise group, the surgery group had greater loss in abdominal and cardiac visceral adipose tissue (AVAT, ASAT, PAT, EAT+PAT) (P < 0.001), but lesser loss in EAT (P = 0.037).Compared with the exercise group, bariatric surgery results in significantly greater percentage loss of excessive fat deposits except for EAT. EAT, but not PAT, was relatively preserved despite weight reduction in both the groups. The physiological impact of persistent EAT deserves further investigation.

  7. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91–111. Seek Help for ... and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website ... Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders 700 West Virginia ...

  8. High Fat Diet Regulation of β-Cell Proliferation and β-Cell Mass

    PubMed Central

    Golson, M.L.; Misfeldt, A. Ackermann; Kopsombut, U.G.; Petersen, C.P.; Gannon, M.

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is characterized by relative insulin insufficiency, caused when peripheral tissues such as liver, muscle, and adipocytes have a decreased response to insulin. One factor that elevates the risk for insulin resistance and T2D is obesity. In obese patients without T2D and initially in people who develop T2D, pancreatic β-cells are able to compensate for insulin resistance by increasing β-cell mass, effected by increased proliferation and hypertrophy, as well as increased insulin secretion per β-cell. In patients that go on to develop T2D, however, this initial period of compensation is followed by β-cell failure due to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. The forkhead box transcription factor FoxM1 is required for β-cell replication in mice after four weeks of age, during pregnancy, and after partial pancreatectomy. We investigated whether it is also required for β-cell proliferation due to diet-induced obesity. PMID:24339840

  9. Associations of lean and fat mass measures with whole body bone mineral content and bone mineral density in female adolescent weightlifters and swimmers.

    PubMed

    Koşar, Şükran Nazan

    2016-01-01

    Body composition and sport participation have been associated with bone mass. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of lean and fat mass measures with whole body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in female adolescent weightlifters, swimmers and non-athletic counterparts. This study included a total of 25 female adolescents (mean age: 15.3±1.1 years). Body composition and bone mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In most of the studied variables weight lifters had higher values compared to swimmers and non-athletes (p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between swimmers and non-athletes (p > 0.05). Lean and fat mass measures were positively associated with BMC and BMD for the total participants (p < 0.05) while the associations differed when the study groups were analysed separately. In conclusion, both lean and fat mass measures were strongly related to BMC and BMD in female adolescents while these associations differed in swimmers, weightlifters and non-athletes.

  10. Energy absorption, lean body mass, and total body fat changes during 5 weeks of continuous bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, Jean M.; Evans, Harlan; Kuo, Mike C.; Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the body composition changes due to inactivity was examined together with the question of whether these changes are secondary to changes in energy absorption. Volunteers were 15 healthy males who lived on a metabolic research ward under close staff supervision for 11 weeks. Subjects were ambulatory during the first six weeks and remained in continuous bed rest for the last five weeks of the study. Six male volunteers (age 24-61 years) were selected for body composition measurements. Nine different male volunteers (age 21-50 years) were selected for energy absorption measurements. The volunteers were fed weighed conventional foods on a constant 7-d rotation menu. The average daily caloric content was 2,592 kcal. Comparing the five weeks of continuous bed rest with the previous six weeks of ambulation, it was observed that there was no change in energy absorption or total body weight during bed rest, but a significant decrease in lean body mass and a significant increase in total body fat (p less than 0.05).

  11. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA.

    PubMed

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Jensen, Signe M; Christensen, Line B; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-27

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height(2)/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross-validation approach. Prediction error of FFM was 3.0% for both equations (root mean square error: 360 and 356 g, respectively). The derived equations produced BIA-based prediction of FFM and FM near DXA scan results. We suggest that the predictive equations can be applied in similar population samples aged 2-4 years. The derived equations may prove useful for studies linking body composition to early risk factors and early onset of obesity.

  12. Fat mass- and obesity-associated genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometric measures in European adults: the Food4Me study.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Forster, Hannah; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; Kolossa, Silvia; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Moschonis, George; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne C; Lovegrove, Julie A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C

    2016-02-14

    The interplay between the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and diet has been implicated in the development of obesity. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate associations between FTO genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometrics among European adults. Participants in the Food4Me randomised controlled trial were genotyped for FTO genotype (rs9939609) and their dietary intakes, and diet quality scores (Healthy Eating Index and PREDIMED-based Mediterranean diet score) were estimated from FFQ. Relationships between FTO genotype, diet and anthropometrics (weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI) were evaluated at baseline. European adults with the FTO risk genotype had greater WC (AA v. TT: +1·4 cm; P=0·003) and BMI (+0·9 kg/m2; P=0·001) than individuals with no risk alleles. Subjects with the lowest fried food consumption and two copies of the FTO risk variant had on average 1·4 kg/m2 greater BMI (Ptrend=0·028) and 3·1 cm greater WC (Ptrend=0·045) compared with individuals with no copies of the risk allele and with the lowest fried food consumption. However, there was no evidence of interactions between FTO genotype and dietary intakes on BMI and WC, and thus further research is required to confirm or refute these findings.

  13. The Relationship Between Body Fat Percentage and Body Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Individuals in an Urban African Setting

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Julie S.; Igumbor, Ehimario U.

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in both developed and developing countries is associated with musculoskeletal and other non-communicable diseases. To address this, an accurate measure of body adiposity, bearing in mind several shortcomings of body mass index (BMI), should be used. This study determined the relationship between BMI and body fat (BF)% among adult Nigerians of different ethnic groups residing in an urban setting. Using multistage cluster sampling technique were recruited 1571 subjects (>18 years; male=51.2%) in a cross-sectional study. Body adiposity indices were assessed using BMI and BF%. Using BF%, the result shows that a total number of 156 (9.9%) had low BF% while 291 (18.5%) had very high BF%, while the BMI classifications of body adiposity, 68 (4.3%) were underweight while 271 (17.3%) were obese. There was a strong and positive statistical relationship between BF% and BMI when both were paired without controlling for gender and age (r=0.81, P<0.01). The results show that there is a strong positive association between BMI and BF%, and age and sex are predictors of this association. PMID:28299149

  14. Tissue- and breed-specific expression of the chicken fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO).

    PubMed

    Song, C; Song, W T; Shu, J T; Tao, Z Y; Zhu, W Q; Di, C; Li, H F

    2015-09-08

    The fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is involved in energy metabolism, but little is known about the chicken FTO gene. The objective of the current study was to detect chicken FTO expression patterns in the hypothalamus, liver, and skeletal muscle during development, and analyze the effects of age and breed on FTO expression. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results revealed that chicken FTO mRNA was expressed in all of the tissues tested. Chicken FTO exhibited tissue- and breed-specific patterns in the recessive White Plymouth Rock chicken and the Qingyuan partridge chicken. The highest FTO expression level was in the hypothalami of 1-week-old chicks. FTO mRNA was expressed more in the breast muscles and livers of recessive White Plymouth Rock chickens than those of Qingyuan partridge chickens at 1 and 8 weeks of age. These results indicate that FTO probably plays a significant role in energy metabolism at 1 week old, when chicks have undergone metabolic adaptations from yolk dependence to the utilization of exogenous feed.

  15. Maternal high-fat diet inversely affects insulin sensitivity in dams and young adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Sadeghimahalli, Forouzan; Zardooz, Homeira

    2016-09-01

    This study attempts to further clarify the potential effects of maternal high-fat (HF) diet on glucose homeostasis in dams and young adult male rat offspring. Female rats were divided into control (CON dams) and HF (HF dams) diet groups, which received the diet 4 weeks prior to and through pregnancy and lactation periods. Blood samples were taken to determine metabolic parameters, then an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed. Maternal HF diet increased intra-abdominal fat mass and plasma corticosterone level, but decreased leptin concentration in dams. In HF offspring intra-abdominal fat mass, plasma leptin, and corticosterone levels decreased. Following IPGTT, the plasma insulin level of HF dams was higher than the controls. In HF offspring plasma insulin level was not significantly different from the controls, but a steeper decrease of their plasma glucose concentration was observed.

  16. Sonographic evaluation of visceral and subcutaneous fat in obese children*

    PubMed Central

    Sakuno, Telma; Tomita, Letícia Mary; Tomita, Carolina Mywa; Giuliano, Isabela de Carlos Back; Ibagy, Amanda; Perin, Nilza Maria Medeiros; Poeta, Lisiane Schilling

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate sonographic measurements of visceral and subcutaneous fat in children, and to investigate the usefulness of preperitoneal fat (PF) and the abdominal wall fat index (AFI) as parameters to determine visceral fat and presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. Materials and Methods A case-control study of a sample including 44 children (22 cases and 22 controls) matched by sex and age. The Student t test and the Fisher exact test were utilized in the descriptive and bivariate analysis. Results The sonographic parameters evaluated - subcutaneous cell tissue, PF and intraperitoneal fat, and NAFLD - presented high statistical association with body mass index. NAFLD was observed in eight obese patients (36.36%), and PF and AFI were the variables with highest statistical significance, with p < 0.0001. Conclusion Ultrasonography is useful tool in the differentiation and quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat in children. The measures of PF and AFI are useful in the assessment of visceral fat and NAFLD in obese children. PMID:25741071

  17. LINE-1 methylation is positively associated with healthier lifestyle but inversely related to body fat mass in healthy young individuals

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Rocha, José Luiz; Milagro, Fermin I.; Mansego, Maria Luisa; Mourão, Denise Machado; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Bressan, Josefina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With the goal of investigating if epigenetic biomarkers from white blood cells (WBC) are associated with dietary, anthropometric, metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in young and apparently healthy individuals. We evaluated 156 individuals (91 women, 65 men; age: 23.1±3.5 years; body mass index: 22.0±2.9 kg/m2) for anthropometric, biochemical and clinical markers, including some components of the antioxidant defense system and inflammatory response. DNA methylation of LINE-1, TNF-α and IL-6 and the expression of some genes related to the inflammatory process were analyzed in WBC. Adiposity was lower among individuals with higher LINE-1 methylation. On the contrary, body fat-free mass was higher among those with higher LINE-1 methylation. Individuals with higher LINE-1 methylation had higher daily intakes of calories, iron and riboflavin. However, those individuals who presented lower percentages of LINE-1 methylation reported higher intakes of copper, niacin and thiamin. Interestingly, the group with higher LINE-1 methylation had a lower percentage of current smokers and more individuals practicing sports. On the other hand, TNF-α methylation percentage was negatively associated with waist girth, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-stature ratio. Plasma TNF-α levels were lower in those individuals with higher TNF-α methylation. This study suggests that higher levels of LINE-1 and TNF-α methylation are associated with better indicators of adiposity status in healthy young individuals. In addition, energy and micronutrient intake, as well as a healthy lifestyle, may have a role in the regulation of DNA methylation in WBC and the subsequent metabolic changes may affect epigenetic biomarkers. PMID:26786189

  18. LINE-1 methylation is positively associated with healthier lifestyle but inversely related to body fat mass in healthy young individuals.

    PubMed

    Marques-Rocha, José Luiz; Milagro, Fermin I; Mansego, Maria Luisa; Mourão, Denise Machado; Martínez, J Alfredo; Bressan, Josefina

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of investigating if epigenetic biomarkers from white blood cells (WBC) are associated with dietary, anthropometric, metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in young and apparently healthy individuals. We evaluated 156 individuals (91 women, 65 men; age: 23.1±3.5 years; body mass index: 22.0±2.9 kg/m(2)) for anthropometric, biochemical and clinical markers, including some components of the antioxidant defense system and inflammatory response. DNA methylation of LINE-1, TNF-α and IL-6 and the expression of some genes related to the inflammatory process were analyzed in WBC. Adiposity was lower among individuals with higher LINE-1 methylation. On the contrary, body fat-free mass was higher among those with higher LINE-1 methylation. Individuals with higher LINE-1 methylation had higher daily intakes of calories, iron and riboflavin. However, those individuals who presented lower percentages of LINE-1 methylation reported higher intakes of copper, niacin and thiamin. Interestingly, the group with higher LINE-1 methylation had a lower percentage of current smokers and more individuals practicing sports. On the other hand, TNF-α methylation percentage was negatively associated with waist girth, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-stature ratio. Plasma TNF-α levels were lower in those individuals with higher TNF-α methylation. This study suggests that higher levels of LINE-1 and TNF-α methylation are associated with better indicators of adiposity status in healthy young individuals. In addition, energy and micronutrient intake, as well as a healthy lifestyle, may have a role in the regulation of DNA methylation in WBC and the subsequent metabolic changes may affect epigenetic biomarkers.

  19. Whole body, regional fat accumulation, and appetite-related hormonal response after hypoxic training.

    PubMed

    Morishima, Takuma; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Goto, Kazushige

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted to determine change in regional fat accumulation and appetite-related hormonal response following hypoxic training. Twenty sedentary subjects underwent hypoxic (n = 9, HYPO, FiO(2) = 15%) or normoxic training (n = 11, NOR, FiO(2) = 20·9%) during a 4-week period (3 days per week). They performed a 4-week training at 55% of maximal oxygen uptake (V·O(2max)) for each condition. Before and after the training period, V·O(2max), whole body fat mass, abdominal fat area, intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL), fasting and postprandial appetite-related hormonal responses were determined. Both groups showed a significant increase in V·O(2max) following training (P<0·05). Whole body and segmental fat mass, abdominal fat area, IMCL did not change in either group. Fasting glucose and insulin concentrations significantly reduced in both groups (P<0·05). Although area under the curve for the postprandial blood glucose concentrations significantly decreased in both groups (P<0·05), the change was significantly greater in the HYPO group than in the NOR group (P<0·05). Changes in postprandial plasma ghrelin were similar in both groups. A significant reduction of postprandial leptin response was observed in both groups (P<0·05), while postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations increased significantly in the NOR group only (P<0·05). In conclusion, hypoxic training for 4 weeks resulted in greater improvement in glucose tolerance without loss of whole body fat mass, abdominal fat area or IMCL. However, hypoxic training did not have synergistic effect on the regulation of appetite-related hormones.

  20. Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Attenuates Body Fat Mass, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance through the Interplay between the Liver and Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ye Jin; Choi, Ji-Young; Ryu, Ri; Lee, Jeonghyeon; Cho, Su-Jung; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Rina, Yu; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE), which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males) were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat), and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w) PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1), that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and energy expenditure. In addition, PGE improved insulin sensitivity through activation of the PPARγ expression, which upregulates adiponectin while decreasing leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGE improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis while increasing expression of FAO-associated genes such as PGC1α. PGE normalized body fat and body weight, which is likely associated with the increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene expression. PGE can protect from HFD-induced insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis by controlling lipid and glucose metabolism. PMID:27589792

  1. Dysregulation of the peripheral and adipose tissue endocannabinoid system in human abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Blüher, Matthias; Engeli, Stefan; Klöting, Nora; Berndt, Janin; Fasshauer, Mathias; Bátkai, Sándor; Pacher, Pál; Schön, Michael R; Jordan, Jens; Stumvoll, Michael

    2006-11-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been suspected to contribute to the association of visceral fat accumulation with metabolic diseases. We determined whether circulating endocannabinoids are related to visceral adipose tissue mass in lean, subcutaneous obese, and visceral obese subjects (10 men and 10 women in each group). We further measured expression of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes in paired samples of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in all 60 subjects. Circulating 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) was significantly correlated with body fat (r = 0.45, P = 0.03), visceral fat mass (r = 0.44, P = 0.003), and fasting plasma insulin concentrations (r = 0.41, P = 0.001) but negatively correlated to glucose infusion rate during clamp (r = 0.39, P = 0.009). In visceral adipose tissue, CB(1) mRNA expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), fasting insulin (r = 0.48, P < 0.001), and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.5, P < 0.001), whereas FAAH gene expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.39, P = 0.01) and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that abdominal fat accumulation is a critical correlate of the dysregulation of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity. Thus, the endocannabinoid system may represent a primary target for the treatment of abdominal obesity and associated metabolic changes.

  2. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and fatness is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight gain and fat deposit a...

  3. [Regional distribution of the body fat: use of image techniques as tools for nutritional diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Pérez Miguelsanz, M J; Cabrera Parra, W; Varela Moreiras, G; Garaulet, M

    2010-01-01

    Fat mass is the most variable component in the human body, both when comparing several individuals and when considering changes in the same person throughout life. Obesity is characterized by an excess of body fat that affects health and well-being of individuals. Risk associated with excess body fat is due, in part, to location of fat rather than to total amount. Today is stated that causes and metabolic consequences of regional distribution of fat are of particular clinical importance. To identify a compartment of morbid adipose tissue and to be able to act on it is one of the main aims of the present research. In this review, we have revised the existing literature on location and characteristics of total body fat in human adult. We have focused on abdominal region, basing this review on the use of modern imaging techniques available nowadays, such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, with their advantages and limitations. The purpose of this review is to assess whether it is possible to know the body composition and fat distribution on the basis of image methods. Computed tomography technique was first applied in studies of obesity, but today, due to the inconvenience of irradiating the patient, this technique is being replaced by magnetic resonance that, in addition to avoid radiation, provides images of extraordinary quality. Both methods allow to subdivide the classic general fat depots in others more specific. Subcutaneous fat depot can be superficial or deep, while visceral can be divided in mesenteric, omental or epiploic, retroperitoneal and perirrenal fat. In addition, these modern techniques of imaging permit to study muscular fat, considered by some authors as the new fat compartment. Muscular fat includes fat located between skeletal muscle fibers, called extramyocellular fat, as well as lipids located within skeletal muscle fibers (intramyocellular fat). Its importance lies not only in size, similar to visceral fat, but on its

  4. Fat mass and obesity-associated gene rs11642015 polymorphism is significantly associated with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes subsequent to adjustment for body mass index.

    PubMed

    Han, Liyuan; Tang, Linlin; Wang, Changyi; Chen, Zhongwei; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Sihan; Liu, Shengyuan; Peng, Xiaolin; Mai, Yifeng; Duan, Shiwei

    2014-09-01

    The association of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs11642015 polymorphism with prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity in certain populations has not been previously reported. A population-based study was conducted that included 490 type 2 diabetic, 471 prediabetic and 575 normal subjects. The main outcomes of the study were prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity. Binary logistic regression was performed to estimate the association of FTO rs11642015 with the risk of prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity following adjustment for the corresponding confounders. A meta-analysis was also conducted to evaluate the association between FTO rs11642015 and obesity. FTO rs11642015 was significantly associated with prediabetes in the whole sample under the additive model [odds ratio (OR), 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.17-1.93; P=0.002], particularly in females. The polymorphism remained consistently significant following adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), showing an increased prediabetes risk with an additive effect (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.19-2.01; P=0.001). In addition, a significant association was found for rs11642015 with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes under the dominant model. However, under the stringent Bonferroni's correction there was no evidence of positive associations for FTO rs11642015 with obesity in the whole sample, females or males. Findings of the meta-analysis showed that FTO rs11642015 was not predisposed to obesity. In conclusion, the T allele of FTO rs11642015 is positively associated with an increased risk of prediabetes, even after adjustment for age and BMI, particularly in females. Subjects carrying the CT + TT genotype are predisposed to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, results of the population-based study and follow-up meta-analysis suggested that FTO rs11642015 is not significantly associated with susceptibility to obesity.

  5. Fat mass and obesity-associated gene rs11642015 polymorphism is significantly associated with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes subsequent to adjustment for body mass index

    PubMed Central

    HAN, LIYUAN; TANG, LINLIN; WANG, CHANGYI; CHEN, ZHONGWEI; ZHANG, TAO; CHEN, SIHAN; LIU, SHENGYUAN; PENG, XIAOLIN; MAI, YIFENG; DUAN, SHIWEI

    2014-01-01

    The association of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs11642015 polymorphism with prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity in certain populations has not been previously reported. A population-based study was conducted that included 490 type 2 diabetic, 471 prediabetic and 575 normal subjects. The main outcomes of the study were prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity. Binary logistic regression was performed to estimate the association of FTO rs11642015 with the risk of prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity following adjustment for the corresponding confounders. A meta-analysis was also conducted to evaluate the association between FTO rs11642015 and obesity. FTO rs11642015 was significantly associated with prediabetes in the whole sample under the additive model [odds ratio (OR), 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.17–1.93; P=0.002], particularly in females. The polymorphism remained consistently significant following adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), showing an increased prediabetes risk with an additive effect (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.19–2.01; P=0.001). In addition, a significant association was found for rs11642015 with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes under the dominant model. However, under the stringent Bonferroni’s correction there was no evidence of positive associations for FTO rs11642015 with obesity in the whole sample, females or males. Findings of the meta-analysis showed that FTO rs11642015 was not predisposed to obesity. In conclusion, the T allele of FTO rs11642015 is positively associated with an increased risk of prediabetes, even after adjustment for age and BMI, particularly in females. Subjects carrying the CT + TT genotype are predisposed to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, results of the population-based study and follow-up meta-analysis suggested that FTO rs11642015 is not significantly associated with susceptibility to obesity. PMID:25054011

  6. A bizarre abdominal cystic lesion.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Giorgia; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Ricci, Claudio; Casadei, Riccardo; Santini, Donatella; Calculli, Lucia; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2010-09-06

    In spite of careful intraoperative precautions and gauze counts, mistakes can still occur during surgery. In the case reported, a retained gauze leaved during a surgical approach for removing a solid-cystic papillary tumor localized in the pancreatic tail, caused both persistent abdominal discomfort and the presence of an abdominal cystic lesion at imaging techniques. When a previous operative history is present, a foreign body should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an intra-abdominal cystic mass. Finally, radio-opaque marker should be routinely used by surgeons in order to reach a correct diagnosis in operated patients having retained gauze.

  7. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  8. Water-induced thermogenesis and fat oxidation: a reassessment

    PubMed Central

    Charrière, N; Miles-Chan, J L; Montani, J-P; Dulloo, A G

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Drinking large amounts of water is often recommended for weight control. Whether water intake stimulates energy and fat metabolism is, however, controversial with some studies reporting that drinking half a litre or more of water increases resting energy expenditure (REE) by 10–30% and decreases respiratory quotient (RQ), whereas others report no significant changes in REE or RQ. The aim here was to reassess the concept of water-induced thermogenesis and fat oxidation in humans, with particular focus on interindividual variability in REE and RQ responses, comparison with a time-control Sham drink, and on the potential impact of gender, body composition and abdominal adiposity. Subjects/Methods: REE and RQ were measured in healthy young adults (n=27; body mass index range: 18.5–33.9 kg m−2), by ventilated hood indirect calorimetry for at least 30 min before and 130 min after ingesting 500 ml of purified (distilled) water at 21–22 °C or after Sham drinking, in a randomized cross-over design. Body composition and abdominal fat were assessed by bioimpedance techniques. Results: Drinking 500 ml of distilled water led to marginal increases in REE (<3% above baseline), independently of gender, but which were not significantly different from Sham drinking. RQ was found to fall after the water drink, independently of gender, but it also diminished to a similar extent in response to sham drinking. Interindividual variability in REE and RQ responses was not associated with body fatness, central adiposity or fat-free mass. Conclusions: This study conducted in young men and women varying widely in adiposity, comparing the ingestion of distilled water to Sham drinking, suggests that ingestion of purified water per se does not result in the stimulation of thermogenesis or fat oxidation. PMID:26690288

  9. Effect of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis GCL2505 on visceral fat accumulation in healthy Japanese adults: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Shota; ANZAWA, Daisuke; TAKAMI, Kazuyo; ISHIZUKA, Akihiro; MAWATARI, Takashi; KAMIKADO, Kohei; SUGIMURA, Haruhi; NISHIJIMA, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis GCL2505 (B. lactis GCL2505) is able to survive passage through the intestine and then proliferate, leading to an increase in the amount of gut bifidobacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of B. lactis GCL2505 on abdominal visceral fat storage in overweight and mildly obese Japanese adults. This clinical study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative trial performed for 12 weeks. Healthy Japanese subjects (N=137) with body mass indices ranging from 23 to 30 kg/m2 consumed either fermented milk containing B. lactis GCL2505 or a placebo every day, and then visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat areas were measured by computed tomography as the primary endpoints. The number of fecal bifidobacteria was also measured. Visceral fat area, but not subcutaneous fat area, was significantly reduced from baseline at 8 and 12 weeks in the GCL2505 group, compared with the placebo group. The total number of fecal bifidobacteria was significantly increased in the GCL2505 group. These results indicate that B. lactis GCL2505 reduces abdominal visceral fat, a key factor associated with metabolic disorders. This finding suggests that this probiotic strain can potentially serve as a specific functional food to achieve visceral fat reduction in overweight or mildly obese individuals. PMID:27867803

  10. Evaluation of body weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage changes in early stages of fixed orthodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, K. Sai; Singaraju, Gowri Sankar; Reddy, V. Karunakar; Mandava, Prasad; Bhavikati, Venkata N.; Reddy, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage (BFP) during the initial stages of fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample for this observational prospective study included 68 individuals with fixed orthodontic appliance in the age group of 18–25 years of both the sexes (25 males and 43 females). The control group consisted of 60 individuals (24 males and 36 females). The weight, BMI, and BFP were measured using a Body Composition Monitor at three points of time “T1” initial; “T2” after 1 month; and “T2” after 3 months. The results were tabulated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The mean changes between different parameters in both the study and control groups and between males and females in the study group was compared by using two-tailed unpaired student's t-test. The statistical significance is set atP ≤ 0.05. Results: There was an overall decrease in the body weight, BMI, and BFP after 1 month in the study cohort, which was statistically significant compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). This was followed by an increase in the parameters after the end of the 3rd month. Comparison of the parameters between the study and control group at the start of the treatment and at the end of the 3rd month had no statistical significance. There was a marked variation in the changes of these parameters between males and females of the study group, which is statistically significant (<0.0001). Conclusion: There is a definite reduction in the weight, BMP, and BMI at the end of the first month followed by a gain of weight, but not at the initial point by the end of the 3rd month. PMID:27583224

  11. Validity of segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis for estimating fat-free mass in children including overweight individuals.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Megumi; Midorikawa, Taishi; Hikihara, Yuki; Masuo, Yoshihisa; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Torii, Suguru; Kawakami, Yasuo; Fukunaga, Tetsuo; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the validity of segmental bioelectrical impedance (BI) analysis for predicting the fat-free masses (FFMs) of whole-body and body segments in children including overweight individuals. The FFM and impedance (Z) values of arms, trunk, legs, and whole body were determined using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and segmental BI analyses, respectively, in 149 boys and girls aged 6 to 12 years, who were divided into model-development (n = 74), cross-validation (n = 35), and overweight (n = 40) groups. Simple regression analysis was applied to (length)(2)/Z (BI index) for each of the whole-body and 3 segments to develop the prediction equations of the measured FFM of the related body part. In the model-development group, the BI index of each of the 3 segments and whole body was significantly correlated to the measured FFM (R(2) = 0.867-0.932, standard error of estimation = 0.18-1.44 kg (5.9%-8.7%)). There was no significant difference between the measured and predicted FFM values without systematic error. The application of each equation derived in the model-development group to the cross-validation and overweight groups did not produce significant differences between the measured and predicted FFM values and systematic errors, with an exception that the arm FFM in the overweight group was overestimated. Segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis is useful for predicting the FFM of each of whole-body and body segments in children including overweight individuals, although the application for estimating arm FFM in overweight individuals requires a certain modification.

  12. Influence of prenatal nutrition and obesity on tissue specific fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sébert, S P; Hyatt, M A; Chan, L L Y; Yiallourides, M; Fainberg, H P; Patel, N; Sharkey, D; Stephenson, T; Rhind, S M; Bell, R C; Budge, H; Gardner, D S; Symonds, M E

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery of an association between body composition, energy intake and the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene represents a promising new therapeutic target in obesity prevention. In a well, pre-established large animal model, we investigated the regulation of FTO gene expression under conditions either leading to obesity or increased risk of obesity related disorders: i) a sedentary 'Western' lifestyle and ii) prenatal exposure to nutrient restriction. Pregnant sheep were either fed to fully meet their nutritional requirements throughout gestation or 50% of this amount from early-to-mid gestation. Following weaning, offspring were either made obese through exposure to a sedentary obesogenic environment or remained lean. A significant positive relationship between placental FTO gene expression and fetal weight was found at 110 days gestation. In both the newborn and adult offspring, the hypothalamus was the major site of FTO gene expression. Hypothalamic FTO gene expression was upregulated by obesity and was further increased by prenatal nutrient restriction. Importantly, we found a strong negative relationship between the hypothalamic FTO gene expression and food intake in lean animals only that may imply FTO as a novel controller of energy intake. In contrast, FTO gene expression in the heart was downregulated in obese offspring born to nutrient restricted mothers. In addition, FTO gene expression was unaffected by obesity or prenatal diet in insulin-dependent tissues, where it changed with age possibly reflecting adaptations in cellular energetic activity. These findings extend information gained from human epidemiology and provide new insights into the regulation of in vivo energy metabolism to prevent obesity.

  13. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Karen; Batterham, Marijka; Langford, Kelly; Lateo, Jenna; Brock, Erin; Walton, Karen; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Eisenhauer, Katie; Green, Nick; McLean, Cameron

    2015-08-26

    Impaired strength adversely influences an older person's ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI) = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m²) aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1) upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS); (2) lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG) and sit to stand test (STS)); and (3) endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT). Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM)) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA) and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg), MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln) of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001) and % body fat (p < 0.005) were significant (r² = 46.5%; p < 0.000). For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000), age (p = 0.036), protein intake (p = 0.015) and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015) were significant (r² = 0.535; p < 0.000). For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r² = 0.346; p < 0.000). For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r² = 0.251; p < 0.000). LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance.

  14. Consumption of Pueraria flower extract reduces body mass index via a decrease in the visceral fat area in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Takano, Akira; Matsuzuka, Yuki; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Kondo, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, kudzu is a familiar plant, well-known as an ingredient in the Japanese-style confections kudzu-kiri and kudzu-mochi. In this study, we focused on the flower of kudzu (Pueraria thomsonii) and conducted a clinical trial to investigate the effects of Pueraria thomsonii flower extract (PFE) on obesity using obese Japanese males and females (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)). Eighty-one obese subjects were randomly divided into three groups and consumed test food containing 300 mg of PFE, 200 mg of PFE, and a placebo over 12 weeks. The results indicate that PFE intake reduces BMI and decreases, the visceral fat area, but not the subcutaneous fat area. In addition, the decrease in visceral fat area showed no sexual dimorphism. Consequently, we propose that PFE intake expresses its BMI reduction effects via a decrease in visceral fat area.

  15. A study of ovarian follicular kinetics, oviduct, fat body, and liver mass cycles in laboratory-maintained Rana cyanophlyctis in comparison with wild-caught frogs.

    PubMed

    Pancharatna, K; Saidapur, S K

    1992-11-01

    Ovarian follicular dynamics and fluctuations in fat body, oviducal, and liver masses were studied in captive Rana cyanophlyctis in comparison with wild-caught frogs, sampled at monthly intervals over a period of 12 months. In both the captive and wild-caught frogs first growth phase (FGP) and second growth phase (SGP) or vitellogenic oocytes were produced throughout the period examined; however, changes in ovarian and oviducal weights were less marked in the former group. In the captive frogs SGP oocyte production was reduced by 50%, and, maximum ovarian weight and SGP oocyte number were attained 2-3 months earlier than in wild-caught controls. The FGP oocyte pool in laboratory-maintained frogs, however, was comparable with that of the corresponding wild-caught frogs. Captivity caused a threefold increase in atresia and reduced the number of oocytes reaching SGP. The depletion of fat stores in fat bodies during the later phases of captivity suggests that the deposition of lipids into oocytes (for SGP) was given priority over storage in the fat bodies. The low oviducal weights of captive frogs was correlated with a reduced number of SGP oocytes, which are the source of estrogen. On the other hand, liver weight remained high, indicating adequate hepatic vitellogenin synthesis. Possible reduction in its output was not detected, possibly due to the reduced number of follicles reaching SGP. The findings indicate that stress of captivity decreases gonadotrophins and estrogen levels. Oviducal growth is reduced in captive frogs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Relationship between maternal pre‐pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain and childhood fatness at 6–7 years by air displacement plethysmography

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Iná S.; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to investigate the effect of maternal pre‐pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on offspring body composition. In this prospective cohort study, offspring body composition at 6 years of age was obtained through air displacement plethysmography. Linear regression was used to obtain crude and adjusted coefficients. Information regarding offspring body composition and maternal pre‐pregnancy BMI was available for 3156 children and on offspring body composition and GWG for 3129 children. There was a direct association of maternal pre‐pregnancy BMI and GWG with offspring's fat mass (FM), fat‐free mass (FFM), fat mass index (FMI), fat‐free mass index (FFMI) and body fat percent (BF%) in crude and adjusted analyses. After adjustment for co‐variables, for each kg m−2 of maternal pre‐pregnancy BMI increase, there was a mean increment of 0.13 kg in the offspring FFM, 0.06 kg m−2 in FFMI, 0.11 kg in FM, 0.07 kg m−2 in FMI and 0.18% in BF%. For each kilogram of maternal GWG increase, there was a mean increment of 0.08 kg in offspring's FM, 0.05 kg m−2 in FMI, 0.04 kg in FFM, 0.01 kg m−2 in FFMI and 0.18 % in BF%. Mothers with a higher pre‐pregnancy BMI or GWG tend to have children with greater adiposity at age 6 years. Fetal overnutrition is more likely among mothers with greater BMI during pregnancy; as a consequence, it can accelerate the childhood obesity epidemic. PMID:25850519

  17. Increased consumption of dairy foods and protein during diet- and exercise-induced weight loss promotes fat mass loss and lean mass gain in overweight and obese premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Josse, Andrea R; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Phillips, Stuart M

    2011-09-01

    Weight loss can have substantial health benefits for overweight or obese persons; however, the ratio of fat:lean tissue loss may be more important. We aimed to determine how daily exercise (resistance and/or aerobic) and a hypoenergetic diet varying in protein and calcium content from dairy foods would affect the composition of weight lost in otherwise healthy, premenopausal, overweight, and obese women. Ninety participants were randomized to 3 groups (n = 30/group): high protein, high dairy (HPHD), adequate protein, medium dairy (APMD), and adequate protein, low dairy (APLD) differing in the quantity of total dietary protein and dairy food-source protein consumed: 30 and 15%, 15 and 7.5%, or 15 and <2% of energy, respectively. Body composition was measured by DXA at 0, 8, and 16 wk and MRI (n = 39) to assess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume at 0 and 16 wk. All groups lost body weight (P < 0.05) and fat (P < 0.01); however, fat loss during wk 8-16 was greater in the HPHD group than in the APMD and APLD groups (P < 0.05). The HPHD group gained lean tissue with a greater increase during 8-16 wk than the APMD group, which maintained lean mass and the APLD group, which lost lean mass (P < 0.05). The HPHD group also lost more VAT as assessed by MRI (P < 0.05) and trunk fat as assessed by DXA (P < 0.005) than the APLD group. The reduction in VAT in all groups was correlated with intakes of calcium (r = 0.40; P < 0.05) and protein (r = 0.32; P < 0.05). Therefore, diet- and exercise-induced weight loss with higher protein and increased dairy product intakes promotes more favorable body composition changes in women characterized by greater total and visceral fat loss and lean mass gain.

  18. Increased Consumption of Dairy Foods and Protein during Diet- and Exercise-Induced Weight Loss Promotes Fat Mass Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Overweight and Obese Premenopausal Women1234

    PubMed Central

    Josse, Andrea R.; Atkinson, Stephanie A.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss can have substantial health benefits for overweight or obese persons; however, the ratio of fat:lean tissue loss may be more important. We aimed to determine how daily exercise (resistance and/or aerobic) and a hypoenergetic diet varying in protein and calcium content from dairy foods would affect the composition of weight lost in otherwise healthy, premenopausal, overweight, and obese women. Ninety participants were randomized to 3 groups (n = 30/group): high protein, high dairy (HPHD), adequate protein, medium dairy (APMD), and adequate protein, low dairy (APLD) differing in the quantity of total dietary protein and dairy food-source protein consumed: 30 and 15%, 15 and 7.5%, or 15 and <2% of energy, respectively. Body composition was measured by DXA at 0, 8, and 16 wk and MRI (n = 39) to assess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume at 0 and 16 wk. All groups lost body weight (P < 0.05) and fat (P < 0.01); however, fat loss during wk 8–16 was greater in the HPHD group than in the APMD and APLD groups (P < 0.05). The HPHD group gained lean tissue with a greater increase during 8–16 wk than the APMD group, which maintained lean mass and the APLD group, which lost lean mass (P < 0.05). The HPHD group also lost more VAT as assessed by MRI (P < 0.05) and trunk fat as assessed by DXA (P < 0.005) than the APLD group. The reduction in VAT in all groups was correlated with intakes of calcium (r = 0.40; P < 0.05) and protein (r = 0.32; P < 0.05). Therefore, diet- and exercise-induced weight loss with higher protein and increased dairy product intakes promotes more favorable body composition changes in women characterized by greater total and visceral fat loss and lean mass gain. PMID:21775530

  19. Hand-to-Hand Model for Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimate Fat Free Mass in a Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Chiang, Li-Ming; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Dwyer, Gregory B.; Hsu, Ying-Lin; Chen, Chun-Hao; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a hand-to-hand (HH) model for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) fat free mass (FFM) estimation by comparing with a standing position hand-to-foot (HF) BIA model and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); we also verified the reliability of the newly developed model. A total of 704 healthy Chinese individuals (403 men and 301 women) participated. FFM (FFMDXA) reference variables were measured using DXA and segmental BIA. Further, regression analysis, Bland–Altman plots, and cross-validation (2/3 participants as the modeling group, 1/3 as the validation group; three turns were repeated for validation grouping) were conducted to compare tests of agreement with FFMDXA reference variables. In male participants, the hand-to-hand BIA model estimation equation was calculated as follows: FFMmHH = 0.537 h2/ZHH − 0.126 year + 0.217 weight + 18.235 (r2 = 0.919, standard estimate of error (SEE) = 2.164 kg, n = 269). The mean validated correlation coefficients and limits of agreement (LOAs) of the Bland–Altman analysis of the calculated values for FFMmHH and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.369–4.343 kg, respectively, for hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for men; the FFM (FFMmHF) and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.356–4.375 kg, respectively. The hand-to-hand BIA model estimating equation for female participants was FFMFHH = 0.615 h2/ZHH − 0.144 year + 0.132 weight + 16.507 (r2 = 0.870, SEE = 1.884 kg, n = 201); the three mean validated correlation coefficient and LOA for the hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for female participants (FFMFHH and FFMDXA) were 0.929 and −3.880–3.886 kg, respectively. The FFMHF and FFMDXA were 0.942 and −3.511–3.489 kg, respectively. The results of both hand-to-hand and hand-to-foot BIA models demonstrated similar reliability, and the hand-to-hand BIA models are practical for assessing FFM. PMID:27775642

  20. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gotthardt, Juliet D.; Verpeut, Jessica L.; Yeomans, Bryn L.; Yang, Jennifer A.; Yasrebi, Ali; Bello, Nicholas T.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%–52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%–13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%–42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%–60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%–32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%–75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy. PMID:26653760

  1. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.

  2. Applying an intelligent model and sensitivity analysis to inspect mass transfer kinetics, shrinkage and crust color changes of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes.

    PubMed

    Amiryousefi, Mohammad Reza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use image analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) to predict mass transfer kinetics as well as color changes and shrinkage of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes. Two generalized feedforward networks were separately developed by using the operation conditions as inputs. Results based on the highest numerical quantities of the correlation coefficients between the experimental versus predicted values, showed proper fitting. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that among the input variables, frying temperature was the most sensitive to moisture content (MC) and fat content (FC) compared to other variables. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that MC and FC were the most sensitive to frying temperature compared to other input variables. Similarly, for the second ANN architecture, microwave power density was the most impressive variable having the maximum influence on both shrinkage percentage and color changes.

  3. Abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, V. K.

    1998-01-01

    Tuberculosis has staged a global comeback and forms a dangerous combination with AIDS. The abdomen is one of the common sites of extrapulmonary involvement. Patients with abdominal tuberculosis have a wide range and spectrum of symptoms and signs; the disease is therefore a great mimic. Diagnosis, mainly radiological and supported by endoscopy, is difficult to make and laparotomy is required in a large number of patient. Management involves judicious combination of antitubercular therapy and surgery which may be required to treat complications such as intestinal obstruction and perforation. The disease, though potentially curable, carries a significant morbidity and mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:9926119

  4. Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight & intra-abdominal adipose tissue loss or reduce adipocyte size & inflammatory markers in overweight & obese adults; Controlled feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Research on the role of dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective: A 15 week controlled feeding study to answer the question: do dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a mode...

  5. Facts about saturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    Cholesterol - saturated fat; Atherosclerosis - saturated fat; Hardening of the arteries - saturated fat; Hyperlipidemia - saturated fat; Hypercholesterolemia - saturated fat; Coronary artery disease - saturated fat; ...

  6. Dietary L-arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Xinguo; Xu, Haijun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Huang, Ruilin; Tang, Wenjie; Shinzato, Izuru; Smith, Stephen B; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Obesity in humans is a major public health crisis worldwide. In addition, livestock species exhibit excessive subcutaneous fat at market weight. However, there are currently few means of reducing adiposity in mammals. This study was conducted with a swine model to test the hypothesis that dietary L-arginine supplementation may increase muscle gain and decrease fat deposition. Twenty-four 110-day-old barrows were assigned randomly into two treatments, representing supplementation with 1.0% L-arginine or 2.05% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet. Growth performance was measured based on weight gain and food intake. After a 60-day period of supplementation, carcass and muscle composition were measured. Serum triglyceride concentration was 20% lower (P < 0.01) but glucagon level was 36% greater (P < 0.05) in arginine-supplemented than in control pigs. Compared with the control, arginine supplementation increased (P < 0.05) body weight gain by 6.5% and carcass skeletal-muscle content by 5.5%, while decreasing (P < 0.01) carcass fat content by 11%. The arginine treatment enhanced (P < 0.05) longissimus dorsi muscle protein, glycogen, and fat contents by 4.8, 42, and 70%, respectively, as well as muscle pH at 45 min post-mortem by 0.32, while reducing muscle lactate content by 37%. These results support our hypothesis that dietary arginine supplementation beneficially promotes muscle gain and reduces body fat accretion in growing-finishing pigs. The findings have a positive impact on development of novel therapeutics to treat human obesity and enhance swine lean-tissue growth.

  7. Diabetes: insulin resistance and derangements in lipid metabolism. Cure through intervention in fat transport and storage.

    PubMed

    Raz, Itamar; Eldor, Roi; Cernea, Simona; Shafrir, Eleazar

    2005-01-01

    We present multiple findings on derangements in lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes. The increase in the intracellular deposition of triglycerides (TG) in muscles, liver and pancreas in subjects prone to diabetes is well documented and demonstrated to attenuate glucose metabolism by interfering with insulin signaling and insulin secretion. The obesity often associated with type 2 diabetes is mainly central, resulting in the overload of abdominal adipocytes with TG and reducing fat depot capacity to protect other tissues from utilizing a large proportion of dietary fat. In contrast to subcutaneous adipocytes, the central adipocytes exhibit a high rate of basal lipolysis and are highly sensitive to fat mobilizing hormones, but respond poorly to lipolysis restraining insulin. The enlarged visceral adipocytes are flooding the portal circulation with free fatty acids (FFA) at metabolically inappropriate time, when FFA should be oxidized, thus exposing nonadipose tissues to fat excess. This leads to ectopic TG accumulation in muscles, liver and pancreatic beta-cells, resulting in insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. This situation, based on a large number of observations in humans and experimental animals, confirms that peripheral adipose tissue is closely regulated, performing a vital role of buffering fluxes of FFA in the circulation. The central adipose tissues tend to upset this balance by releasing large amounts of FFA. To reduce the excessive fat outflow from the abdominal depots and prevent the ectopic fat deposition it is important to decrease the volume of central fat stores or increase the peripheral fat stores. One possibility is to downregulate the activity of lipoprotein lipase, which is overexpressed in abdominal relatively to subcutaneous fat stores. This can be achieved by gastrointestinal bypass or gastroplasty, which decrease dietary fat absorption, or by direct means that include surgical removal of mesenteric fat. Indirect treatment consists

  8. A low-carbohydrate high-fat diet increases weight gain and does not improve glucose tolerance, insulin secretion or β-cell mass in NZO mice

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, B J; Waters, M F; Andrikopoulos, S

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Dietary guidelines for the past 20 years have recommended that dietary fat should be minimized. In contrast, recent studies have suggested that there could be some potential benefits for reducing carbohydrate intake in favor of increased fat. It has also been suggested that low-carbohydrate diets be recommended for people with type 2 diabetes. However, whether such diets can improve glycemic control will likely depend on their ability to improve β-cell function, which has not been studied. The objective of the study was to assess whether a low-carbohydrate and therefore high-fat diet (LCHFD) is beneficial for improving the endogenous insulin secretory response to glucose in prediabetic New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice. Methods: NZO mice were maintained on either standard rodent chow or an LCHFD from 6 to 15 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake and blood glucose were assessed weekly. Blood glucose and insulin levels were also assessed after fasting and re-feeding and during an oral glucose tolerance test. The capacity of pancreatic β-cells to secrete insulin was assessed in vivo with an intravenous glucose tolerance test. β-Cell mass was assessed in histological sections of pancreata collected at the end of the study. Results: In NZO mice, an LCHFD reduced plasma triglycerides (P=0.001) but increased weight gain (P<0.0001), adipose tissue mass (P=0.0015), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.044) and exacerbated glucose intolerance (P=0.013). Although fasting insulin levels tended to be higher (P=0.08), insulin secretory function in LCHFD-fed mice was not improved (P=0.93) nor was β-cell mass (P=0.75). Conclusions: An LCHFD is unlikely to be of benefit for preventing the decline in β-cell function associated with the progression of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. PMID:26878317

  9. The positive effects of growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 on weight gain and fat mass accrual depend on the insulin/glucose status.

    PubMed

    Granado, Miriam; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Frago, Laura M; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2010-05-01

    Ghrelin and GH secretagogues, including GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-6, stimulate food intake and adiposity. Because insulin modulates the hypothalamic response to GH secretagogues and acts synergistically with ghrelin on lipogenesis in vitro, we analyzed whether insulin plays a role in the metabolic effects of GHRP-6 in vivo. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats received saline, GHRP-6, insulin, or insulin plus GHRP-6 once daily for 8 wk. Rats receiving saline suffered hyperglycemia, hyperphagia, polydipsia, and weight loss. Insulin, but not GHRP-6, improved these parameters (P < 0.001 for all), as well as the diabetes-induced increase in hypothalamic mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide and decrease in proopiomelanocortin. Cocaine amphetamine-related transcript mRNA levels were also reduced in diabetic rats, with GHRP-6 inducing a further decrease (P < 0.03) and insulin an increase. Diabetic rats receiving insulin plus GHRP-6 gained more weight and had increased epididymal fat mass and serum leptin levels compared with all other groups (P < 0.001). In epididymal adipose tissue, diabetic rats injected with saline had smaller adipocytes (P < 0.001), decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS; P < 0.001), and glucose transporter-4 (P < 0.001) and increased hormone sensitive lipase (P < 0.001) and proliferator-activated receptor-gamma mRNA levels (P < 0.01). Insulin normalized these parameters to control values. GHRP-6 treatment increased FAS and glucose transporter-4 gene expression and potentiated insulin's effect on epididymal fat mass, adipocyte size (P < 0.001), FAS (P < 0.001), and glucose transporter-4 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, GHRP-6 and insulin exert an additive effect on weight gain and visceral fat mass accrual in diabetic rats, indicating that some of GHRP-6's metabolic effects depend on the insulin/glucose status.

  10. High-protein diet selectively reduces fat mass and improves glucose tolerance in Western-type diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin; Hu, Eugenia; Karasawa, Hiroshi; Pisegna, Joseph R; Taché, Yvette

    2013-09-15

    Obesity is an increasing health problem. Because drug treatments are limited, diets remain popular. High-protein diets (HPD) reduce body weight (BW), although the mechanisms are unclear. We investigated physiological mechanisms altered by switching diet induced obesity (DIO) rats from Western-type diet (WTD) to HPD. Male rats were fed standard (SD) or WTD (45% calories from fat). After developing DIO (50% of rats), they were switched to SD (15% calories from protein) or HPD (52% calories from protein) for up to 4 weeks. Food intake (FI), BW, body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and intestinal hormone plasma levels were monitored. Rats fed WTD showed an increased FI and had a 25% greater BW gain after 9 wk compared with SD (P < 0.05). Diet-induced obese rats switched from WTD to HPD reduced daily FI by 30% on day 1, which lasted to day 9 (-9%) and decreased BW during the 2-wk period compared with SD/SD (P < 0.05). During these 2 wk, WTD/HPD rats lost 72% more fat mass than WTD/SD (P < 0.05), whereas lean mass was unaltered. WTD/HPD rats had lower blood glucose than WTD/SD at 30 min postglucose gavage (P < 0.05). The increase of pancreatic polypeptide and peptide YY during the 2-h dark-phase feeding was higher in WTD/HPD compared with WTD/SD (P < 0.05). These data indicate that HPD reduces BW in WTD rats, which may be related to decreased FI and the selective reduction of fat mass accompanied by improved glucose tolerance, suggesting relevant benefits of HPD in the treatment of obesity.

  11. Effects of high-protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Cao, Jay J; Margolis, Lee M; Sauter, Edward R; Whigham, Leah D; McClung, James P; Rood, Jennifer C; Carbone, John W; Combs, Gerald F; Young, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the effects of varying levels of dietary protein on body composition and muscle protein synthesis during energy deficit (ED). A randomized controlled trial of 39 adults assigned the subjects diets providing protein at 0.8 (recommended dietary allowance; RDA), 1.6 (2×-RDA), and 2.4 (3×-RDA) g kg(-1) d(-1) for 31 d. A 10-d weight-maintenance (WM) period was followed by a 21 d, 40% ED. Body composition and postabsorptive and postprandial muscle protein synthesis were assessed during WM (d 9-10) and ED (d 30-31). Volunteers lost (P<0.05) 3.2 ± 0.2 kg body weight during ED regardless of dietary protein. The proportion of weight loss due to reductions in fat-free mass was lower (P<0.05) and the loss of fat mass was higher (P<0.05) in those receiving 2×-RDA and 3×-RDA compared to RDA. The anabolic muscle response to a protein-rich meal during ED was not different (P>0.05) from WM for 2×-RDA and 3×-RDA, but was lower during ED than WM for those consuming RDA levels of protein (energy × protein interaction, P<0.05). To assess muscle protein metabolic responses to varied protein intakes during ED, RDA served as the study control. In summary, we determined that consuming dietary protein at levels exceeding the RDA may protect fat-free mass during short-term weight loss.

  12. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Perioperative Outcomes of Open and Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2005–2007

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Kristina A; Wyers, Mark C; Pomposelli, Frank B; Hamdan, Allen D; Ching, Y Avery; Schermerhorn, Marc L

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Obesity and morbid obesity have been shown to increase wound infections and occasionally mortality after many surgical procedures. Little is known about the relative impact of body mass index on these outcomes after open (OAR) and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). METHODS The 2005–2007 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), a multi-institutional risk-adjusted database, was retrospectively queried to compare perioperative mortality (in-hospital or 30-day) and postoperative wound infections after OAR and EVAR. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and operative details were analyzed. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from height and weight variables and definitions of obesity and morbid obesity were defined as BMI > 30kg/m2 and BMI > 40kg/m2 respectively. Student's T-test, Wilcoxon Rank Sum, Chi-square, and multivariate logistic regression were used to compare outcomes. RESULTS There were 2,097 OAR and 3,358 EVAR. Compared to EVAR, OAR patients were younger, more likely to be female (26% vs. 17%, P < .001), and less obese (27% vs. 32%, P < .001). Mortality was 3.7% vs. 1.2% after OAR vs. EVAR respectively (RR 3.1, P < .001) and overall morbidity was 28% vs. 12% (RR 2.3, P < .001). Morbidly obese patients had a higher mortality for both OAR (7.3%) and EVAR (2.4%) than obese patients (3.9% OAR; 1.5% EVAR) or non-obese patients (3.7% OAR; 1.1% EVAR). Obese patients had a higher rate of wound infection vs. non-obese after open repair (6.3% vs. 2.4%, P < .001) and EVAR (3.3% vs. 1.5%, P < .001). Morbid obesity predicted mortality after OAR but not EVAR and obesity was an independent predictor of wound infection after OAR and EVAR. CONCLUSIONS Morbid obesity confers a worse outcome for mortality after AAA repair. Obesity is also a risk factor for infectious complications after OAR and EVAR. Obese patients and particularly morbidly obese patients should be treated with EVAR when anatomically feasible. PMID:20843627

  13. Association between body mass index and body fat in 9–11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development

    PubMed Central

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9–11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of −1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models. Correlations between BMI and TBF were >0.90 in all countries, and correlations between BMI and PBF ranged from 0.76 to 0.96. Boys from India had higher PBF than boys from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Kenyan girls had lower levels of PBF than girls from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Boys and girls from Colombia had higher values of PBF at BMIz=−1, whereas Colombian boys at BMIz 0 and +1 also had higher values of PBF than boys in other countries. Our results show a consistently high correlation between BMI and adiposity in children from countries representing a wide range of human development. PMID:27152184

  14. Association between body mass index and body fat in 9-11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development.

    PubMed

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9-11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of -1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models. Correlations between BMI and TBF were >0.90 in all countries, and correlations between BMI and PBF ranged from 0.76 to 0.96. Boys from India had higher PBF than boys from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Kenyan girls had lower levels of PBF than girls from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Boys and girls from Colombia had higher values of PBF at BMIz=-1, whereas Colombian boys at BMIz 0 and +1 also had higher values of PBF than boys in other countries. Our results show a consistently high correlation between BMI and adiposity in children from countries representing a wide range of human development.

  15. Effects of gum Arabic ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage in healthy adult females: two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gum Arabic (acacia Senegal) is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals. It has been considered as a safe dietary fiber by the United States, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since the 1970s. Although its effects were extensively studied in animals, there is paucity of data regarding its quantified use in humans. This study was conducted to determine effects of regular Gum Arabic (GA) ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. Methods A two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in the Department of Physiology at the Khartoum University. A total of 120 healthy females completed the study. They were divided to two groups: A test group of 60 volunteers receiving GA (30 gm /day) for 6 weeks and a placebo group of 60 volunteers receiving pectin (1 gm/day) for the same period of time. Weight and height were measured before and after intervention using standardized height and weight scales. Skin fold thickness was measured using Harpenden Skin fold caliper. Fat percentage was calculated using Jackson and Pollock 7 caliper method and Siri equation. Results Pre and post analysis among the study group showed significant reduction in BMI by 0.32 (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.47; P<0.0001) and body fat percentage by 2.18% (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.83; P<0.0001) following regular intake of 30 gm /day Gum Arabic for six weeks. Side effects caused by GA ingestion were experienced only in the first week. They included unfavorable viscous sensation in the mouth, early morning nausea, mild diarrhea and bloating abdomen. Conclusions GA ingestion causes significant reduction in BMI and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. The effect could be exploited in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23241359

  16. A potential role for the midbrain in integrating fat-free mass determined energy needs: An H2 (15) O PET study.

    PubMed

    Weise, Christopher M; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Reiman, Eric M; Chen, Kewei; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Little is known on how sensing of energy needs is centrally represented, integrated, and translated into the behavioral aspects of energy homeostasis. Fat free mass (FFM) is the major determinant of energy expenditure. We investigated how interindividual variances in FFM relate to neuronal activity in humans. Healthy adults (n = 64, 21F/43M; age 31.3 ± 9.1y; percentage of body fat [PFAT] 25.6 ± 10.7%; BMI 30.4 ± 9) underwent a 36h fast and subsequent H(2) (15) O positron emission tomographic (PET) measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Multiple variable regression analysis revealed significant associations of FFM with rCBF within the midbrain [including parts of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), ventral tegmental area (VTA), thalamic and hypothalamic regions], the bilateral parahippocampal region, left anterior cingulate, left insular cortex, right cerebellum, and distinct regions within the temporal and occipital cortex. In contrast, no significant associations were found for fat mass (FM). We investigated the potential functional-anatomical link between FFM and central regulation of food intake by performing a conjunction analysis of FFM and the perceived hunger feelings. This showed a significant overlap within the midbrain PAG. Mediation analysis demonstrated a significant indirect effect of FFM on hunger with PAG rCBF as mediator. Most regions we found to be associated with FFM form part in ascending homeostatic pathways and cortical circuitries implicated in the regulation of basic bodily functions indicating a potential role of these central networks in the integration of FFM determined energy needs.

  17. Internal Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Following a Meal-Replacement Regimen vs. Comprehensive Lifestyle Changes in Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    König, Daniel; Zdzieblik, Denise; Deibert, Peter; Berg, Aloys; Gollhofer, Albert; Büchert, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a meal-replacement regimen vs. comprehensive lifestyle changes in overweight or obese subjects on intra-abdominal fat stores (Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurements) and cardiometabolic risk factors. Forty-two obese men (n = 18) and women (n = 24) (age 49 ± 8 years; weight 96.3 ± 12.1 kg; BMI 32.7 ± 2.3 kg/m2) were selected for this randomized parallel-group design investigation. Subjects in the lifestyle group (LS-G; n = 22) received dietary counselling sessions and instructions how to increase physical activity. In the meal replacement group (MR-G; n = 20) meals were replaced by a low-calorie drink high in soy protein. After six months, subjects in the LS-G lost 8.88 ± 6.24 kg and subjects in the MR-G lost 7.1 ± 2.33 kg; p < 0.01 for changes within groups; no significant differences were found between the groups. Lean body mass remained constant in both intervention groups. MRI analyses showed that internal fat was significantly reduced in both groups to a comparable amount; the higher fat loss in the LS-G in the abdominal area was due to a higher reduction in subcutaneous fat. Both interventions significantly reduced components of the cardiometabolic risk profile and leptin levels. The decrease in the adipokines fetuin A and resistin was more pronounced in the MR-G. In conclusion, both interventions significantly reduced body weight, total fat mass and internal abdominal fat while preserving lean body mass. The reduction in the adipokines fetuin A and resistin was more pronounced in the meal replacement group suggesting an additional effect of soy protein components. PMID:26633473

  18. Internal Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Following a Meal-Replacement Regimen vs. Comprehensive Lifestyle Changes in Obese Subjects.

    PubMed

    König, Daniel; Zdzieblik, Denise; Deibert, Peter; Berg, Aloys; Gollhofer, Albert; Büchert, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a meal-replacement regimen vs. comprehensive lifestyle changes in overweight or obese subjects on intra-abdominal fat stores (Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurements) and cardiometabolic risk factors. Forty-two obese men (n = 18) and women (n = 24) (age 49 ± 8 years; weight 96.3 ± 12.1 kg; BMI 32.7 ± 2.3 kg/m2) were selected for this randomized parallel-group design investigation. Subjects in the lifestyle group (LS-G; n = 22) received dietary counselling sessions and instructions how to increase physical activity. In the meal replacement group (MR-G; n = 20) meals were replaced by a low-calorie drink high in soy protein. After six months, subjects in the LS-G lost 8.88 ± 6.24 kg and subjects in the MR-G lost 7.1 ± 2.33 kg; p < 0.01 for changes within groups; no significant differences were found between the groups. Lean body mass remained constant in both intervention groups. MRI analyses showed that internal fat was significantly reduced in both groups to a comparable amount; the higher fat loss in the LS-G in the abdominal area was due to a higher reduction in subcutaneous fat. Both interventions significantly reduced components of the cardiometabolic risk profile and leptin levels. The decrease in the adipokines fetuin A and resistin was more pronounced in the MR-G. In conclusion, both interventions significantly reduced body weight, total fat mass and internal abdominal fat while preserving lean body mass. The reduction in the adipokines fetuin A and resistin was more pronounced in the meal replacement group suggesting an additional effect of soy protein components.

  19. Combined inhibition of PI3Kβ and PI3Kγ reduces fat mass by enhancing α-MSH-dependent sympathetic drive.

    PubMed

    Perino, Alessia; Beretta, Martina; Kilić, Ana; Ghigo, Alessandra; Carnevale, Daniela; Repetto, Ivan Enrico; Braccini, Laura; Longo, Dario; Liebig-Gonglach, Michaela; Zaglia, Tania; Iacobucci, Roberta; Mongillo, Marco; Wetzker, Reinhard; Bauer, Michael; Aime, Silvio; Vercelli, Alessandro; Lembo, Giuseppe; Pfeifer, Alexander; Hirsch, Emilio

    2014-11-18

    Obesity is defined as an abnormal increase in white adipose tissue and has become a major medical burden worldwide. Signals from the brain control not only appetite but also energy expenditure, both of which contribute to body weight. We showed that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of two phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Kβ and PI3Kγ) in mice reduced fat mass by promoting increased energy expenditure. This effect was accompanied by stimulation of lipolysis and the acquisition of the energy-burning characteristics of brown adipocytes by white adipocytes, a process referred to as "browning." The browning of the white adipocytes involved increased norepinephrine release from the sympathetic nervous system. We found that PI3Kβ and PI3Kγ together promoted a negative feedback loop downstream of the melanocortin 4 receptor in the central nervous system, which controls appetite and energy expenditure in the periphery. Analysis of mice with drug-induced sympathetic denervation suggested that these kinases controlled the sympathetic drive in the brain. Administration of inhibitors of both PI3Kβ and PI3Kγ to mice by intracerebroventricular delivery induced a 10% reduction in fat mass as quickly as 10 days. These results suggest that combined inhibition of PI3Kβ and PI3Kγ might represent a promising treatment for obesity.

  20. Fatness mediates the influence of muscular fitness on metabolic syndrome in Colombian collegiate students

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Prieto-Benavidez, Daniel Humberto; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: to analyze the association between muscular fitness (MF) and clustering of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components, and to determine if fatness parameters mediate the association between MF and MetS clustering in Colombian collegiate students. This cross-sectional study included a total of 886 (51.9% women) healthy collegiate students (21.4 ± 3.3 years old). Standing broad jump and isometric handgrip dynamometry were used as indicators of lower and upper body MF, respectively. Also, a MF score was computed by summing the standardized values of both tests, and used to classify adults as fit or unfit. We also assessed fat mass, body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, and abdominal visceral fat, and categorized individuals as low and high fat using international cut-offs. A MetS cluster score was derived by calculating the sum of the sample-specific z-scores from the triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and arterial blood pressure. Linear regression models were used to examine whether the association between MF and MetS cluster was mediated by the fatness parameters. Data were collected from 2013 to 2016 and the analysis was done in 2016. Findings revealed that the best profiles (fit + low fat) were associated with lower levels of the MetS clustering (p <0.001 in the four fatness parameters), compared with unfit and fat (unfit + high fat) counterparts. Linear regression models indicated a partial mediating effect for fatness parameters in the association of MF with MetS clustering. Our findings indicate that efforts to improve MF in young adults may decrease MetS risk partially through an indirect effect on improvements to adiposity levels. Thus, weight reduction should be taken into account as a complementary goal to improvements in MF within exercise programs. PMID:28296952

  1. Fatness mediates the influence of muscular fitness on metabolic syndrome in Colombian collegiate students.

    PubMed

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Prieto-Benavidez, Daniel Humberto; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio; Peterson, Mark D; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: to analyze the association between muscular fitness (MF) and clustering of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components, and to determine if fatness parameters mediate the association between MF and MetS clustering in Colombian collegiate students. This cross-sectional study included a total of 886 (51.9% women) healthy collegiate students (21.4 ± 3.3 years old). Standing broad jump and isometric handgrip dynamometry were used as indicators of lower and upper body MF, respectively. Also, a MF score was computed by summing the standardized values of both tests, and used to classify adults as fit or unfit. We also assessed fat mass, body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, and abdominal visceral fat, and categorized individuals as low and high fat using international cut-offs. A MetS cluster score was derived by calculating the sum of the sample-specific z-scores from the triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and arterial blood pressure. Linear regression models were used to examine whether the association between MF and MetS cluster was mediated by the fatness parameters. Data were collected from 2013 to 2016 and the analysis was done in 2016. Findings revealed that the best profiles (fit + low fat) were associated with lower levels of the MetS clustering (p <0.001 in the four fatness parameters), compared with unfit and fat (unfit + high fat) counterparts. Linear regression models indicated a partial mediating effect for fatness parameters in the association of MF with MetS clustering. Our findings indicate that efforts to improve MF in young adults may decrease MetS risk partially through an indirect effect on improvements to adiposity levels. Thus, weight reduction should be taken into account as a complementary goal to improvements in MF within exercise programs.

  2. CT of abdominal tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, B.M.; Mann, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.

  3. Effects of dietary fat and saturated fat content on liver fat and markers of oxidative stress in overweight/obese men and women under weight-stable conditions.

    PubMed

    Marina, Anna; von Frankenberg, Anize Delfino; Suvag, Seda; Callahan, Holly S; Kratz, Mario; Richards, Todd L; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2014-10-28

    Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate) or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10): 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate). Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNFα, IFN-γ) and oxidative stress (urinary F2-α isoprostanes) were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI): change -2.13% (-3.74%, -0.52%)), but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-α isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  4. Abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome: contribution to global cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Lemieux, Isabelle; Bergeron, Jean; Pibarot, Philippe; Mathieu, Patrick; Larose, Eric; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Bertrand, Olivier F; Poirier, Paul

    2008-06-01

    There is currently substantial confusion between the conceptual definition of the metabolic syndrome and the clinical screening parameters and cut-off values proposed by various organizations (NCEP-ATP III, IDF, WHO, etc) to identify individuals with the metabolic syndrome. Although it is clear that in vivo insulin resistance is a key abnormality associated with an atherogenic, prothrombotic, and inflammatory profile which has been named by some the "metabolic syndrome" or by others "syndrome X" or "insulin resistance syndrome", it is more and more recognized that the most prevalent form of this constellation of metabolic abnormalities linked to insulin resistance is found in patients with abdominal obesity, especially with an excess of intra-abdominal or visceral adipose tissue. We have previously proposed that visceral obesity may represent a clinical intermediate phenotype reflecting the relative inability of subcutaneous adipose tissue to act as a protective metabolic sink for the clearance and storage of the extra energy derived from dietary triglycerides, leading to ectopic fat deposition in visceral adipose depots, skeletal muscle, liver, heart, etc. Thus, visceral obesity may partly be a marker of a dysmetabolic state and partly a cause of the metabolic syndrome. Although waist circumference is a better marker of abdominal fat accumulation than the body mass index, an elevated waistline alone is not sufficient to diagnose visceral obesity and we have proposed that an elevated fasting triglyceride concentration could represent, when waist circumference is increased, a simple clinical marker of excess visceral/ectopic fat. Finally, a clinical diagnosis of visceral obesity, insulin resistance, or of the metabolic syndrome is not sufficient to assess global risk of cardiovascular disease. To achieve this goal, physicians should first pay attention to the classical risk factors while also considering the additional risk resulting from the presence of abdominal

  5. A comparison between handgrip strength, upper limb fat free mass by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (SBIA) and anthropometric measurements in young males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Varon-Serna, D. R.

    2013-04-01

    The mechanical function and size of a muscle may be closely linked. Handgrip strength (HGS) has been used as a predictor of functional performing. Anthropometric measurements have been made to estimate arm muscle area (AMA) and physical muscle mass volume of upper limb (ULMMV). Electrical volume estimation is possible by segmental BIA measurements of fat free mass (SBIA-FFM), mainly muscle-mass. Relationship among these variables is not well established. We aimed to determine if physical and electrical muscle mass estimations relate to each other and to what extent HGS is to be related to its size measured by both methods in normal or overweight young males. Regression analysis was used to determine association between these variables. Subjects showed a decreased HGS (65.5%), FFM, (85.5%) and AMA (74.5%). It was found an acceptable association between SBIA-FFM and AMA (r2 = 0.60) and poorer between physical and electrical volume (r2 = 0.55). However, a paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman plot showed that physical and electrical models were not interchangeable (pt<0.0001). HGS showed a very weak association with anthropometric (r2 = 0.07) and electrical (r2 = 0.192) ULMMV showing that muscle mass quantity does not mean muscle strength. Other factors influencing HGS like physical training or nutrition require more research.

  6. The link between abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Liza K; Prins, Johannes B

    2008-04-01

    The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors associated with abdominal obesity is well established. Although currently lacking a universal definition, the metabolic syndrome describes a constellation of metabolic abnormalities, including abdominal obesity, and was originally introduced to characterize a population at high cardiovascular risk. Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that secretes several inflammatory and immune mediators known as adipokines. Dysregulation of adipokine secretion, free fatty acid toxicity, and the site-specific differences in abdominal (visceral) versus subcutaneous fat support abdominal obesity as a causal factor mediating the insulin resistance, increased risk of diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in the metabolic syndrome.

  7. Serum lipocalin-2 levels are positively associated with not only total body fat but also visceral fat area in Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuqi; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Serum lipocalin-2 (LCN2) plays an important role in the regulation of the obesity-associated dysmetabolic state and cardiovascular disease. However, relatively little is known about the relationship between serum LCN2 levels and body fat content and distribution. We examined the associations of total body fat content and abdominal fat distribution with serum LCN2 levels in Chinese men. The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of data for 1203 Chinese men aged 22 to 78 years from the Shanghai Obesity Study. Body fat percentage (fat%) was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and magnetic resonance imaging was adopted to quantify the visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA). Serum levels of LCN2 were measured with a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Subjects with a high fat% had higher serum LCN2 levels than those with a normal fat% regardless of their body mass index category (<25 and ≥25 kg/m2). The frequency of isolated high VFA was increased with increasing quintiles of serum LCN2 levels (P < 0.001), but the frequency of isolated high SFA did not differ between quintiles of serum LCN2 levels. A trend of increasing VFA was observed with increasing serum LCN2 levels (P < 0.001). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that VFA was positively associated with serum LCN2 levels, independent of overall obesity and other confounding factors (standardized β = 0.082, P = 0.008). Serum LCN2 levels are positively correlated with body fat content and independently associated with VFA in Chinese men. PMID:27472678

  8. Excess weight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal Brazilian women: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The menopause is associated with a tendency to gain weight. Several alterations in fat deposits occur, leading to changes in the distribution of body fat. There are strong indications that, in middle age, obesity is associated with increased mortality. This study set out to determine the factors associated with the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women in a population-based study in Brazil. Methods The sample included 456 women, aged 45–69 years, residing in the urban area of Maringa, Parana. Systematic sampling, with a probability proportional to the size of the census sector, was performed. Behavioral, economic, and sociodemographic data were collected, and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were determined. Results According to BMI criteria (≥25.0 kg/m2), 72.6% of the women were overweight, and according to WC (≥88 cm), 63.6% had abdominal obesity. Based on logistic regression analysis, the factors that were most closely associated with overweight were: having three or more children (odds ratio (OR): 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–3.00); and not taking hormone replacement therapy (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.06–2.63). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was positively associated with greater parity (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05–1.72) and age older than 65 years (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.03–2.19). Conclusions This study found that the prevalences of overweight and abdominal obesity were higher for postmenopausal women who had three or more children. Age over 65 years was also a risk factor for abdominal obesity and no use of hormonal replacement therapy was a risk factor for overweight. PMID:24228934

  9. Infliximab therapy increases body fat mass in early rheumatoid arthritis independently of changes in disease activity and levels of leptin and adiponectin: a randomised study over 21 months

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with changes in body composition and bone mineral density (BMD). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether anti-TNF treatment in early RA has an impact on body composition and BMD besides that which could be achieved by intensive disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) combination therapy. Methods Forty patients with early RA who failed treatment with methotrexate up to 20 mg/week for 3 months were randomised to addition of sulphasalazine and hydroxychloroquine (treatment A) or addition of infliximab (treatment B). At 3, 12 and 24 months, body composition and BMD were assessed by total-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. At the same time points, leptin, adiponectin, apolipoproteins, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and markers of bone remodelling were analysed. Compliance to treatment was considered in the analyses. Data were analysed with a mixed, linear model. Results Patients treated with anti-TNF had a significant increase in fat mass at 2 years, 3.8 (1.6 to 5.9) kg, in contrast to patients in treatment A, 0.4 (-1.5 to 2.2) kg (P = 0.040), despite similar reduction in disease activity. Both treatment strategies prevented loss of muscle mass and bone. Leptin concentrations increased significantly in both groups at 2 years and adiponectin increased significantly at 2 years in treatment A and at 1 year in treatment B. There were no significant changes in apolipoproteins or IGF-1. The markers of bone resorption decreased at 12 months in both treatment groups with no significant difference between the treatment groups. Conclusions Infliximab therapy increased body fat mass, an effect that was not achieved with the combination of DMARDs, despite a similar reduction in disease activity, and thus seemed to be drug specific. The increase of fat mass was not associated with an exacerbated atherogenic lipid profile. Leptin and adiponectin concentrations increased in both treatment groups. The

  10. Body mass index trajectory patterns and changes in visceral fat and glucose metabolism before the onset of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Honda, Toru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    We investigated BMI trajectory patterns before diabetes diagnosis and examined associated changes in visceral adiposity and glucose metabolism. 23,978 non-diabetic Japanese participants (2,789 women) aged 30–64 years were assessed with a mean follow-up of 7.6 years. Diabetes was diagnosed via fasting glucose, HbA1c, and self-report. Latent-class trajectory analyses were performed to identify BMI trajectories. Longitudinal changes in BMI, visceral adiposity, and glucose metabolism were estimated using mixed models. 1,892 individuals developed diabetes. Three distinct BMI trajectories were identified in adults developing and not developing diabetes, respectively. Among adults developing diabetes, 47.3% were classified as “medium BMI” (n = 895), and had increased mean BMI within the obesity category before diagnosis. The “low BMI” group (38.4%, n = 726) had an initial mean BMI of 21.9 kg/m2, and demonstrated small weight gain. The “high BMI” group (n = 271) were severely obese and showed greater increase in BMI until diagnosis. All groups which developed diabetes showed absolute and/or relative increase in visceral fat and impaired β-cell compensation for insulin resistance. All groups not developing diabetes showed measured variables were relatively stable during observation. These data suggest that visceral fat gain may induce β-cell failure in compensation for insulin resistance, resulting in diabetes regardless of obesity level. PMID:28266592

  11. Lipid signaling and fat storage in the dark-eyed junco.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jacqueline M; Bergeon Burns, Christine M; Rendon, Nikki M; Rosvall, Kimberly A; Bradshaw, Heather B; Ketterson, Ellen D; Demas, Gregory E

    2017-02-02

    Seasonal hyperphagia and fattening promote survivorship in migratory and wintering birds, but reduced adiposity may be more advantageous during the breeding season. Factors such as photoperiod, temperature, and food predictability are known environmental determinants of fat storage, but the underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms are less clear. Endocannabinoids and other lipid signaling molecules regulate multiple aspects of energy balance including appetite and lipid metabolism. However, these functions have been established primarily in mammals; thus the role of lipid signals in avian fat storage remains largely undefined. Here we examined relationships between endocannabinoid signaling and individual variation in fat storage in captive white-winged juncos (Junco hyemalis aikeni) following a transition to long-day photoperiods. We report that levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), but not anandamide (AEA), in furcular and abdominal fat depots correlate negatively with fat mass. Hindbrain mRNA expression of CB1 endocannabinoid receptors also correlates negatively with levels of fat, demonstrating that fatter animals experience less central and peripheral endocannabinoid signaling when in breeding condition. Concentrations of the anorexigenic lipid, oleoylethanolamide (OEA), also inversely relate to adiposity. These findings demonstrate unique and significant relationships between adiposity and lipid signaling molecules in the brain and periphery, thereby suggesting a potential role for lipid signals in mediating adaptive levels of fat storage.

  12. Coconut fats.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  13. Sleep duration is associated with body fat and muscle mass and waist-to-height ratio beyond conventional obesity parameters in Korean adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jee Hyun; Seo, Won Hee

    2017-02-21

    While evidence has supported a strong association between sleep duration and obesity globally, results from studies of children and adolescents have been conflicting, and information about a sex-specific association has been limited. This study aimed to investigate the association of sleep duration with various parameters of obesity among South Korean adolescents. This population-based, cross-sectional study analysed the data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2009 and 2010. Data of 990 adolescents were analysed. Sleep duration was based on a self-reported questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage (BFP) and skeletal muscle index (SMI, appendicular skeletal muscle mass as a percentage of body weight) were assessed as parameters of obesity. Mean sleep duration in boys was associated inversely with BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and positively with SMI. Proportions of the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and the lowest quartile of SMI increased significantly with increased sleep duration only in boys. Also, in boys, decreased sleep duration was associated significantly with the increased risk of the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and the lowest quartile of SMI, even after adjusting for confounding factors. However, in girls, there was no significant association between sleep duration and obesity parameters except WC. Periodic assessment of sleep duration in relation to body fat or muscle mass in male adolescents may be considered, especially in those who are at risk for obesity or related disorders.

  14. Physical Activity is Associated with Percent Body Fat and Body Composition but not Body Mass Index in White and Black College Students.

    PubMed

    Zanovec, Michael; Lakkakula, Anantha P; Johnson, Lisa G; Turri, Georgianna

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of self-reported physical activity (PA) with body composition in 290 college students (49% male, 60% White) 18-25 years of age. Outcome measures included: self-reported PA levels calculated in MET-hrs·wk(-1) from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ); body mass index (BMI; in kg·m(-2)); and body composition variables estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean activity levels of the sample were 39.8 ± 23.8 MET-hrs·wk(-1). Participants were divided into quartiles of PA levels: ≥0 to <24.0, ≥24.0 to <34.0, ≥34.0 to <51.25, and ≥51.25 MET-hrs ·wk(-1) and body composition variables were compared by group. Chi-square analyses revealed a significant difference for gender by PA quartile [χ(2) (3, N=290) = 32.42, p < 0.0001], and for gender by race by PA quartile [χ(2) (9, N=290) = 37.82, p < 0.0001]. MET-hrs·wk(-1) was inversely correlated with %BF (r = -0.40, p < 0.0001) but not BMI (r = 0.05, p = 0.43). When comparing body composition variables across PA quartiles, no significant differences were observed for BMI; however, subjects in the highest quartile of PA had a lower percent body fat (%BF) and fat mass (FM), and a higher lean-tissue mass (LTM) compared to subjects in the other three groups. In this cohort of young adults, participants in the highest activity group had a more fit body composition profile (e.g., lower %BF, lower FM, and higher LTM) which was not reflected in BMI and was independent of gender and race.

  15. [Abdominal pregnancy care. Case report].

    PubMed

    Morales Hernández, Sara; Díaz Velázquez, Mary Flor; Puello Tamara, Edgardo; Morales Hernández, Jorge; Basavilvazo Rodríguez, Maria Antonia; Cruz Cruz, Polita del Rocío; Hernández Valencia, Marcelino

    2008-10-01

    Abdominal pregnancies are the implantation of gestation in some of the abdominal structures. This kind of pregnancies represents sevenfold maternal death risk than tubarian ectopic pregnancies, and 90-fold death risk than normal ones. Previous cases have erroneously reported as abscess in Douglas punch, and frequently result in obitus or postnatal deaths. We report a case of a patient with 27 years old, and diagnosis of 25.2 weeks of pregnancy, prior placenta and anhidramnios, referred due to difficult in uterine contour delimitation, easy palpation of fetal parts, cephalic pole in left hypochondrious and presence of mass in hypogastria, no delimitations, pain with mobilization, no transvaginal bleed and fetal movements. Interruption of pregnancy is decided by virtue of severe oligohidramnios, retardation in fetal intrabdominal growth, and recurrent maternal abdominal pain. Surgical intervention was carried out for resolution of the obstetrical event, in which was found ectopic abdominal pregnancy with bed placental in right uterine horn that corresponded to a pregnancy of 30 weeks of gestation. Abdominal pregnancy is still a challenge for obstetrics due to its diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis is oriented to prevent an intrabdominal hemorrhage that is the main maternal cause of mortality.

  16. Low Carbohydrate/High Fat Diet Attenuates Pressure Overload Induced Ventricular Remodeling and Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Monika K.; O’Shea, Karen M.; Lei, Biao; Barrows, Brian R.; Azimzadeh, Agnes M.; McElfresh, Tracy E.; Hoit, Brian D.; Kop, Willem J.; Stanley, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Background It is not known how carbohydrate and fat intake impact the development of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction in response to pressure overload. We hypothesized that a low carbohydrate/high fat diet prevents LV hypertrophy and dysfunction compared to high carbohydrate diets. Methods and Results Rats were fed high carbohydrate diets comprised of either starch or sucrose, or a low carbohydrate/high fat diet, and underwent abdominal aortic banding (AAB) for two months. AAB increased LV mass with all diets. LV end diastolic and systolic volumes, and the ratio of the mRNA for myosin heavy chainβ/α were increased with both high carbohydrate diets, but not with the low carbohydrate/high fat diet. Circulating levels of insulin and leptin, both stimulants for cardiac growth, were lower, and free fatty acids higher, with the low carbohydrate/high fat diet compared to high carbohydrate diets. Among AAB animals LV volumes were positively correlated with insulin, and LV mass correlated with leptin. Conclusion A low carbohydrate/high fat diet attenuated pressure overload-induced LV remodeling compared to high carbohydrate diets. This effect corresponded to lower insulin and leptin concentrations, suggesting they may contribute to the development of LV hypertrophy and dysfunction under conditions of pressure overload. PMID:18474346

  17. Dietary DHA reduces downstream endocannabinoid and inflammatory gene expression and epididymal fat mass while improving aspects of glucose use in muscle in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J; Carlson, M E; Kuchel, G A; Newman, J W; Watkins, B A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Endocannabinoid system (ECS) overactivation is associated with increased adiposity and likely contributes to type 2 diabetes risk. Elevated tissue cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and circulating endocannabinoids (ECs) derived from the n-6 polyunsaturated acid (PUFA) arachidonic acid (AA) occur in obese and diabetic patients. Here we investigate whether the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the diet can reduce ECS overactivation (that is, action of ligands, receptors and enzymes of EC synthesis and degradation) to influence glycemic control. This study targets the ECS tonal regulation of circulating glucose uptake by skeletal muscle as its primary end point. Design: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a semipurified diet containing DHA or the control lipid. Serum, skeletal muscle, epididymal fat pads and liver were collected after 62 and 118 days of feeding. Metabolites, genes and gene products associated with the ECS, glucose uptake and metabolism and inflammatory status were measured. Results: Dietary DHA enrichment reduced epididymal fat pad mass and increased ECS-related genes, whereas it reduced downstream ECS activation markers, indicating that ECS activation was diminished. The mRNA of glucose-related genes and proteins elevated in mice fed the DHA diet with increases in DHA-derived and reductions in AA-derived EC and EC-like compounds. In addition, DHA feeding reduced plasma levels of various inflammatory cytokines, 5-lipoxygenase-dependent inflammatory mediators and the vasoconstrictive 20-HETE. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that DHA feeding altered ECS gene expression to reduce CB1 activation and reduce fat accretion. Furthermore, the DHA diet led to higher expression of genes associated with glucose use by muscle in mice, and reduced those associated with systemic inflammatory status. PMID:26219414

  18. Gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric and stable carbon isotopic investigations of organic residues of plant oils and animal fats employed as illuminants in archaeological lamps from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Copley, M S; Bland, H A; Rose, P; Horton, M; Evershed, R P

    2005-06-01

    Man's use of illuminants in lamps or as torches to extend the working day and range of environments accessible to him would have been a major technological advance in human civilisation. The most obvious evidence for this in the archaeological record comes from pottery and stone vessels showing sooting due to the use of a wick in conjunction with a lipid-based fuel or illuminant. A wide range of potential fuels would have been exploited depending upon availability and burning requirements. Reported herein are the results of chemical investigations of a number of lamps recovered from excavations of the site of Qasr Ibrim, Egypt. Gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric and stable carbon isotopic analyses of both free (solvent extractable) and 'bound'(released from solvent extracted pottery by base treatment) lipids have revealed a wide range of saturated fatty acids, hydroxy fatty acids and alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids. Examination of the distributions of compounds and comparisons with the fatty acid compositions of modern plant oils have allowed a range of fats and oils to be recognised. Specific illuminants identified include Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) seed oil (most likely radish oil, Raphanus sativus), castor oil (from Ricinus communis), animal fat, with less diagnostic distributions and delta(13)C values being consistent with low stearic acid plant oils, such as linseed (Linum usitatissimum) or sesame (Sesamum indicum) oils. The identifications of the various oils and fats are supported by parallel investigations of illuminant residues produced by burning various oils in replica pottery lamps. The findings are entirely consistent with the classical writers including Strabo, Pliny and Theophrastrus.

  19. Sequential determination of fat- and water-soluble vitamins in Rhodiola imbricata root from trans-Himalaya with rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tayade, Amol B; Dhar, Priyanka; Kumar, Jatinder; Sharma, Manu; Chaurasia, Om P; Srivastava, Ravi B

    2013-07-30

    A rapid method was developed to determine both types of vitamins in Rhodiola imbricata root for the accurate quantification of free vitamin forms. Rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) source operating in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was optimized for the sequential analysis of nine water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, two B3 vitamins, B5, B6, B7, B9, and B12) and six fat-soluble vitamins (A, E, D2, D3, K1, and K2). Both types of vitamins were separated by ion-suppression reversed-phase liquid chromatography with gradient elution within 30 min and detected in positive ion mode. Deviations in the intra- and inter-day precision were always below 0.6% and 0.3% for recoveries and retention time. Intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) values of retention time for water- and fat-soluble vitamin were ranged between 0.02-0.20% and 0.01-0.15%, respectively. The mean recoveries were ranged between 88.95 and 107.07%. Sensitivity and specificity of this method allowed the limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) of the analytes at ppb levels. The linear range was achieved for fat- and water-soluble vitamins at 100-1000 ppb and 10-100 ppb. Vitamin B-complex and vitamin E were detected as the principle vitamins in the root of this adaptogen which would be of great interest to develop novel foods from the Indian trans-Himalaya.

  20. Reductions in body weight and percent fat mass increase the vitamin D status of obese subjects: a systematic review and metaregression analysis.

    PubMed

    Pannu, Poonam K; Zhao, Yun; Soares, Mario J

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this review was to confirm a volumetric dilution of vitamin D in obesity. It was based on the hypothesis that weight loss, particularly fat loss, would increase serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in the obese. We conducted a systematic review of the literature over the last 21 years and included human trials that reported changes in 25OHD, weight, or body composition after weight loss. Study arms were excluded if vitamin D was supplemented, dietary intake exceeded 800 IU/d, or extreme sun exposure was reported. Eighteen of 23 trials that met our criteria documented an increase in vitamin D status with weight loss. Metaregression analyses indicated a marginally significant effect of weight loss on unadjusted weighted mean difference of 25OHD (β = -0.60 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -1.24 to +0.04] nmol/L; P = .06) and after adjustment for study quality (Jadad score ≥3) (β = -0.64 [95% CI, -1.28 to +0.01] nmol/L; P = .05). The effect of percent fat mass on weighted mean difference of 25OHD was also marginally significant before (β = -0.91 [95% CI, -1.96 to +0.15] nmol/L; P = .08) and after adjustment of study quality (β = -1.05 [95% CI, -2.18 to +0.08] nmol/L; P = .06). Collectively, these outcomes support a volumetric dilution of vitamin D. The slopes of the respective regression lines, however, indicate a smaller increase in 25OHD than would be expected from a direct mobilization of stores into the circulation. Hence, sequestration of 25OHD and its conversion to inactive metabolites would also play a role. Future studies could relate changes in body fat compartments to the enzymatic regulation of 25OHD in response to weight loss.

  1. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid and vitamin E on performance, energy metabolism, and change of fat depot mass in transitional dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schäfers, S; von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Drong, C; Frahm, J; Kluess, J; Raschka, C; Rehage, J; Tröscher, A; Pelletier, W; Dänicke, S

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E as well as their interaction on performance variables and lipomobilization during late pregnancy and early lactation (wk 6 antepartum until wk 10 postpartum). For this purpose, 59 pluriparous German Holstein cows were assigned to 4 dietary groups in a 2 × 2 design with the factors CLA and vitamin E at 2 levels. For this trial, we selected cows with a high body condition score because they are more likely to mobilize fat and consequently are at a higher risk of developing ketosis. Furthermore, concentrate proportions were adjusted to provoke ketosis. Lactation performance variables were analyzed in 3 periods (d 42 antepartum until calving, 1 to 21 d in milk, 22 to 70 d in milk). Dry matter intake and net energy intake were reduced in animals receiving CLA. Milk fat content was reduced in the CLA group compared with the control group (4.83 vs. 5.46% in period 2; 3.36 vs. 4.57% in period 3). In the vitamin E and the CLA + vitamin E groups, reduction of milk fat content was observed in period 3 (3.76 vs. 4.57% compared with the control group). Milk yield was not affected by treatment. β-Hydroxybutyrate concentrations and liver lipid contents were not influenced by CLA or vitamin E. Moreover, longitudinal changes of adipose tissue depot mass were not affected by dietary treatments. Results suggest that the effects CLA had on milk composition were compensated by an increased milk yield and a decreased dry matter intake. Reduced milk energy output in CLA-treated animals was compensated by a reduced dry matter intake. Therefore, the net energy balance was not affected by either treatment. Consequently, we found no group effect on the mobilization of adipose tissue.

  2. Diet and diet combined with chronic aerobic exercise decreases body fat mass and alters plasma and adipose tissue inflammatory markers in obese women.

    PubMed

    Lakhdar, Nadia; Denguezli, Myriam; Zaouali, Monia; Zbidi, Abdelkrim; Tabka, Zouhair; Bouassida, Anissa

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 months aerobic exercise and diet alone or in combination on markers of inflammation (MOI) in circulation and in adipose abdominal tissue (AT) in obese women. Thirty obese subjects were randomized into a 24-week intervention: (1) exercise (EX), (2) diet (DI), and (3) exercise and diet (EXD). Blood samples were collected at baseline, after 12 and 24 weeks. AT biopsies were obtained only at baseline and after 24 weeks. In the EXD and DI groups, the fat loss was after 12 weeks was -13.74 and -7.8 % (P < 0.01) and after 24 weeks was -21.82 and -17 % (P < 0.01) with no changes in the EX group. After 12 and 24 weeks, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was increased by 21.81-39.54 % (P < 0.05) in the EXD group and 18.09-40.95 % in the EX group with no changes in the DI group. In the EXD and DI groups, circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 were decreased after 24 weeks for both groups (P < 0.01). No changes in the EX group. Homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance decreased (P < 0.05) only after 24 weeks in the EXD group. In AT biopsies, subjects in the EXD and DI groups exhibited a significant decrease in MO (P < 0.01 for all). No changes in AT biopsies were found in the EX group. In conclusion, chronic aerobic exercise was found to have no effects on circulating and AT MOI despite an increased VO2max. Rather important body composition modifications were found to have beneficial effects on circulating and AT MOI in these obese women.

  3. Analysis of volatile compounds in beef fat by dynamic-headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, A; Ueda, Y; Higuchi, M; Shiba, N

    2008-06-01

    A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique has been applied to the determination of the volatile compounds, including diterpenoids and lactones, in cooked beef fat. The ability of static-headspace SPME to extract lactones was disappointing, regardless of the type of SPME fiber or the temperature used. Dynamic-headspace SPME extraction with 50-/30-microm divinylbenzene-Carboxen on a polydimethylsiloxane fiber at 100 degrees C, by contrast, enabled the analysis of volatiles, including delta-lactones, gamma-lactones, and diterpenoids, with 50-/30-microm divinylbenzene-Carboxen on a polydimethylsiloxane fiber at 100 degrees C. Fifty-three compounds were identified from only 0.20 g of rendered beef fat, and 76% of these showed reliable peak size repeatability: the coefficient of variation was less than 10% on the total ion chromatograms obtained from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Some lactones showed higher CV values (>10%), but single-ion mode GC-MS analysis reduced them to 10% or less. In a study of beef samples available to the Japanese market, our analytical procedure revealed significantly higher levels of 1-hexanol, octadecane, ethyl tetradecanoate, gamma-nonalactone, but lower levels of delta-decalactone, delta-dodecalactone, and neophytadiene, in Japanese Black cattle than in beef imported from Australia.

  4. Structure-based design and evaluation of novel N-phenyl-1H-indol-2-amine derivatives for fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) protein inhibition.

    PubMed

    Padariya, Monikaben; Kalathiya, Umesh

    2016-10-01

    Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) protein contributes to non-syndromic human obesity which refers to excessive fat accumulation in human body and results in health risk. FTO protein has become a promising target for anti-obesity medicines as there is an immense need for the rational design of potent inhibitors to treat obesity. In our study, a new scaffold N-phenyl-1H-indol-2-amine was selected as a base for FTO protein inhibitors by applying scaffold hopping approach. Using this novel scaffold, different derivatives were designed by extending scaffold structure with potential functional groups. Molecular docking simulations were carried out by using two different docking algorithm implemented in CDOCKER (flexible docking) and AutoDock programs (rigid docking). Analyzing results of rigid and flexible docking, compound MU06 was selected based on different properties and predicted binding affinities for further analysis. Molecular dynamics simulation of FTO/MU06 complex was performed to characterize structure rationale and binding stability. Certainly, Arg96 and His231 residue of FTO protein showed stable interaction with inhibitor MU06 throughout the production dynamics phase. Three residues of FTO protein (Arg96, Asp233, and His231) were found common in making H-bond interactions with MU06 during molecular dynamics simulation and CDOCKER docking.

  5. Interrelationship between food availability, fat body, and ovarian cycles in the frog, Rana tigrina, with a discussion on the role of fat body in anuran reproduction.

    PubMed

    Girish, S; Saidapur, S K

    2000-04-01

    Long-term experiments were conducted to study the progression of vitellogenic cycles in Rana tigrina (an annual breeder) having different foraging backgrounds and held under conditions of weekly or daily food supply and in presence or absence of abdominal fat bodies. They were autopsied in June to assess fecundity. In nature an adult R. tigrina produces on an average 4,000 eggs/100 g body mass (b.m.) And spawns in June-July following monsoon rains. Weekly feeding from July to next breeding season, June resulted in a significant decrease in both fecundity (1700 eggs/100 g body b.m.) And mean size of eggs, compared to well-fed or wild-caught frogs. The abdominal fat bodies were barely seen in frogs fed weekly throughout, whereas in frogs fed weekly from July-December but daily from January onwards, the fat bodies became noticeable (1% of b.m.) And number and mean size of eggs increased significantly over those fed weekly throughout. Frogs captured in January possessed enlarged fat bodies (5% of b.m.), depicting a good foraging history. Maintenance of these frogs on a weekly feeding regimen led to an exhaustion of fat stores. They produced less number of eggs (2, 000/100 g b.m.) As compared to wild frogs but of normal size, whereas daily feeding slowed down a depletion of fat body mass and also significantly increased fecundity (3,000/100 g b.m.) Over the weekly fed individuals. Sham operation or fat body ablation in October or February had no significant effect on total fecundity per se (3,000-3,500 eggs/100 g b.m.) Compared to that of wild-caught frogs. However, eggs were significantly smaller due to fat body ablation despite daily feeding. The study shows that food abundance/fat bodies influence egg size and number in R. tigrina and that a direct or indirect functional relationship exists between fat body and ovarian cycles that are characteristically inverse to each other. J. Exp. Zool. 286:487-493, 2000.

  6. High-fat Diet Decreases Cancellous Bone Mass But Has No Effect on Cortical Bone Mass in the Tibia in Mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Body mass has a positive effect on bone mineral density and the strength. Whether mass derived from an obesity condition is beneficial to bone has not been established; neither have the mechanism by which obesity affects bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to examine the effects...

  7. Insulin sensitivity and regional fat gain in response to overfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, S. B.; Jensen, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Although insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes are associated with upper body fat distribution, it is unknown whether insulin resistance predisposes to upper body fat gain or whether upper body fat gain causes insulin resistance. Our objective was to determine whether insulin sensitivity predicts abdominal (subcutaneous and/or visceral) fat gain in normal weight adults. Twenty-eight (15 men) lean (BMI = 22.1±2.5 kg/m2), healthy adults underwent ~8 weeks of overfeeding to gain ~4 kg fat. Body composition was assessed before and after overfeeding using DXA and abdominal CT to measure total a