Science.gov

Sample records for abdominal fat necrosis

  1. Mobile encapsulated bodies comprising fat necrosis and fibrous tissue in the abdominal cavity of cows.

    PubMed

    Herzog, K; Burgdorf, W; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    2010-11-01

    The microscopical features of 18 samples of fat necrosis and/or fibrous tissue removed from the abdominal cavity during laparotomy from 15 cows were studied. The nodular, ivory-coloured mobile structures were free-floating in the abdominal cavity, were not attached to any abdominal tissues or organs, and were completely surrounded by a fibrous capsule. Abdominal fat necrosis (bovine lipomatosis) was not observed in any animal. The structures comprised either necrotic fat, fibrous tissue or varying proportions of both. Focal calcification and mild inflammatory cell infiltration and accumulations of haemosiderin were also present. Microscopically, the lesions resembled encapsulated fat necrosis occurring in human subcutaneous tissue. The mechanisms of development of these mobile encapsulated bodies in cows is unknown and it is not clear how, in the absence of a blood supply, there can be inflammatory cell infiltration, calcification and proliferation of fibroblasts.

  2. FDG PET/CT Findings in Abdominal Fat Necrosis After Treatment for Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, Julien; Moreau, Aurélie; Sarkozy, Clémentine; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Skanjeti, Andrea; Salles, Gilles; Giammarile, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    FDG PET/CT is now validated in non-Hodgkin lymphoma for response assessment in interim and posttreatment lymphoma. We report the case of a 62-year-old man followed by FDG PET/CT for a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with initial stage III. The interim FDG PET/CT examination concluded in complete metabolic and morphological response of subdiaphragmatic lymphadenopathy but a persistent abnormal subdiaphragmatic uptake (SUVmax at 9 and Deauville 5-point scale at 5). Therefore, an abdominal biopsy of the corresponding nodules was conducted with a final diagnosis of diffuse fat necrosis. PMID:26825213

  3. Fat Necrosis and Oil Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Previous Topic Granular cell tumors Next Topic Mastitis Fat necrosis and oil cysts Fat necrosis happens when ... lumpy area if it becomes bothersome. How do fat necrosis and oil cysts affect your risk for ...

  4. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-04-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help future surgeons to establish the diagnosis peroperatively. PMID:27099753

  5. Retroperitoneal fat necrosis producing ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ross, J S; Prout, G R

    1976-05-01

    We present 3 cases of a rare syndrome of extrinsic ureteral obstruction produced by retroperitoneal fat necrosis and compare the medical records and histopathology to 19 cases of classic idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis. Clinical similarities include average age of onset in the fourth and fifth decades, male preponderance, abdominal or back pain as the presenting symptom, elevation of the blood urea concentration prior to diagnosis and tendency toward bilateral involvement. Histologically, the 2 conditions were different. Retroperitoneal fat necrosis is characterized by coalescence of fat cells into fat cysts bordered by foreign body giant cell granulomas, foam cells, light chronic inflammatory infiltrate and unimpressive fibrosis. The microscopic pathology of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis is dominated by densely collagenized fibrous tissue of varying cellularity without evidence of fat necrosis. Of the 3 cases of retroperitoneal fat necrosis 2 featured prior ischiorectal abscesses and this is considered in a discussion of the etiology of this unusual cause of ureteral compression.

  6. Post-pancreatitis Fat Necrosis Mimicking Carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Arnoletti, J Pablo; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Morgan, Desiree E

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis can result in retroperitoneal fat necrosis, typically occurring in the peripancreatic region, with extension into the transverse mesocolon, omentum and mesenteric root. When evaluated with contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT), acute peripancreatic post necrotic collections typically become lower in attenuation over time, and often appear as homogeneous fluid collections. Saponification as a complication of fat necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis is a well recognized clinical entity. While retroperitonal fat necrosis is commonly seen on CECT, saponification is not a prominent imaging feature. We present a case of acute pancreatitis complicated by extensive saponification of fat throughout the retroperitoneum and peritoneal lining, mimicking carcinomatosis.

  7. Painful fat necrosis resulting from insulin injections

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, M; Menon, V; Roberts, S; Barber, T M

    2014-01-01

    Summary The case is a 34-year-old woman with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus with existing follow-up in the outpatient clinic at the Warwickshire Institute for the Study of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, UHCW. She had maintained good glycaemic control and glycaemic stability with basal bolus regimen for many years. She had not developed any diabetes-related complications and had no other co-morbidities. Six months ago, she presented to A&E with sudden-onset, well-localised and severe pain in the right iliac fossa, just lateral to the para-umbilical area. Her biochemistry was normal. Ultrasound scan, however, revealed a right-sided ovarian cyst, which was thought to have caused pain to her. She was discharged from A&E with simple analgesia. On subsequent gynaecological follow-up 4 weeks later, her pain remained severe and examination revealed an exquisitely tender subcutaneous nodule at the same location measuring 2 cm in diameter. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at the time revealed a 1 cm mass in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, which co-localised to her pain. The mass demonstrated a central fat signal surrounded by a peripheral ring: observations consistent with fat necrosis. There were other smaller subcutaneous nodules also observed in the left para-umbilical area. Subsequent surgical resection of the main area of fat necrosis was performed. The patient made an excellent recovery and her pain resolved post-operatively. Histology confirmed the presence of fat necrosis. Fat necrosis is a rare complication of s.c. insulin injection. This case illustrates the importance of considering this diagnosis in patients who inject insulin and develop localised injection-site pain. Learning points Fat necrosis is a rare complication of insulin injections that can manifest with severe, persistent and well-localised pain.Fat necrosis can masquerade as other pathologies causing diagnostic confusion.The imaging modality of choice for accurate diagnosis

  8. Abdominal fat weight and thickness as predictors of total body fat in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sonaiya, E B

    1985-10-01

    In two experiments broilers of both sexes from two strains were reared to 16 weeks of age to determine how total body fat could be estimated and predicted from some carcase traits. In the first experiment, age, carcase weight and abdominal fat thickness were found to be significant factors in the prediction of total body fat weight estimated from abdominal fat weight. In the second experiment abdominal fat weight was the best predictor of total body fat weight, obtained by ether extraction of the minced whole carcase. Inclusion of abdominal fat weight in the prediction equation after carcase weight and abdominal fat thickness significantly improved the regression. If the carcase cannot be weighed and abdominal fat weight is not available, because of the more laborious nature of its determination, then the measurement of abdominal fat thickness can be useful in predicting the total body fat content.

  9. Pseudotumoral encapsulated fat necrosis with diffuse pseudomembranous degeneration.

    PubMed

    Felipo, F; Vaquero, M; del Agua, C

    2004-09-01

    An extraordinary case of encapsulated fat necrosis characterized by its large size, diffuse formation of pseudomembranes, and tendency to recur after excision is reported. A 67-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from morbid obesity was admitted for diagnosis and surgical treatment of a soft tissue mass showing a longest diameter of 14 cm and lying adjacently to the scar from previous appendicectomy. Histopathologic features were consistent with a nodular-cystic encapsulated fat necrosis with diffuse pseudomembranous transformation. Eight months after surgery, a new larger mass (longest diameter of 18 cm) sharing identical histopathologic features appeared in the same location. Encapsulated fat necrosis is a well-defined entity even though several names have been proposed for this condition, including mobile encapsulated lipoma, encapsulated necrosis, or nodular-cystic fat necrosis. Its pathogenesis seems to be related to ischemic changes secondary to previous trauma. It may occasionally show degenerative changes, including dystrophic calcifications and presence of pseudomembranes. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of encapsulated fat necrosis presenting as lesions of such size and showing diffuse formation of pseudomembranes; these particular features made diagnosis difficult and led to consideration of a wide range of potential diagnostic possibilities. This case expands the clinico-pathologic spectrum of membranocystic fat necrosis, including the potential ability of this subcutaneous fatty tissue abnormality to recur after surgical excision. Felipo F, Vaquero M, del Agua C. Pseudotumoral encapsulated fat necrosis with diffuse pseudomembranous degeneration.

  10. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  11. Abdominal obesity: a marker of ectopic fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    In the early 1980s, we analyzed the metabolic profile of 930 men and women and concluded that an abdominal distribution of fat for a given BMI is associated with increased insulin resistance and risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The correlation between abdominal fat and metabolic dysfunction has since been validated in many studies, and waist circumference is now a criterion for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Several mechanisms for this relationship have been postulated; however, we now know that visceral fat is only one of many ectopic fat depots used when the subcutaneous adipose tissue cannot accommodate excess fat because of its limited expandability.

  12. Perirenal fat promotes renal arterial endothelial dysfunction in obese swine through tumor necrosis factor-α

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shuangtao; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Eirin, Alfonso; Woollard, John R.; Jordan, Kyra L.; Tang, Hui; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Perirenal fat is associated with poor blood pressure control and chronic kidney disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We tested the hypothesis that perirenal fat impairs renal arterial endothelial function in pigs with obesity-metabolic derangements (ObM). Material and Methods Fourteen domestic pigs were studied after 16 weeks of a high-fat/high-fructose diet (ObM) or standard chow (Lean). Renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and visceral fat volumes were studied in-vivo with CT. Renal arterial endothelial function was also studied ex-vivo in the organ bath. Results ObM pigs demonstrated increased body weight, blood pressure, cholesterol, and intra-abdominal fat compared to lean pigs, and perirenal fat volume was significantly larger. RBF and GFR were markedly elevated, while urinary protein level was preserved. Ex-vivo acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent vasodilation of renal artery rings was substantially impaired in ObM compared to Lean. Endothelial function was further blunted in both ObM and Lean arterial rings by incubation with perirenal fat harvested from ObM, but not from Lean pigs, and was restored by inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. ObM perirenal fat also showed increased pro-inflammatory macrophage infiltration and TNF-α expression. Conclusions ObM perirenal fat directly causes renal artery endothelial dysfunction, partly mediated by TNF-α. PMID:26417644

  13. Nutritional Factors Affecting Abdominal Fat Deposition in Poultry: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, A. M.; El-Senousey, H. K.

    2014-01-01

    The major goals of the poultry industry are to increase the carcass yield and to reduce carcass fatness, mainly the abdominal fat pad. The increase in poultry meat consumption has guided the selection process toward fast-growing broilers with a reduced feed conversion ratio. Intensive selection has led to great improvements in economic traits such as body weight gain, feed efficiency, and breast yield to meet the demands of consumers, but modern commercial chickens exhibit excessive fat accumulation in the abdomen area. However, dietary composition and feeding strategies may offer practical and efficient solutions for reducing body fat deposition in modern poultry strains. Thus, the regulation of lipid metabolism to reduce the abdominal fat content based on dietary composition and feeding strategy, as well as elucidating their effects on the key enzymes associated with lipid metabolism, could facilitate the production of lean meat and help to understand the fat-lowering effects of diet and different feeding strategies. PMID:25050050

  14. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model.

  15. Histological fate of abdominal dermis-fat grafts implanted in the temporomandibular joint of the rabbit following condylectomy.

    PubMed

    Dimitroulis, G; Slavin, J; Morrison, W

    2011-02-01

    The histological fate of abdominal dermis-fat grafts implanted into the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) following condylectomy was studied. 21 rabbits underwent left TMJ discectomies and condylectomies; 6 were controls (Group A; no graft used); 15 (Group B) had autogenous abdominal grafts transplanted into the left TMJ. Animals were killed after 4, 12 and 20 weeks. Specimens of the TMJ were histologically and histomorphometrically evaluated. At 4 weeks, fat necrosis was clear in all specimens. The dermis component survived and formed cysts with no necrosis. By 12 weeks, viable fat deposits appeared with no evidence of necrotic fat. At 20 weeks, large amounts of viable fat were present in Group B specimens. Group A had no fat, although the missing condyles regenerated. In the presence of viable fat, Group B showed little condyle regeneration 20 weeks after condylectomy. Non-vascularised fat grafts do not survive transplantation, but stimulate neoadipogenesis. The fate of the dermis component of the graft is independent of the fat component. Fat in the joint space disrupts the regeneration of a new condylar head. Neoadipogensis inhibits growth of new bone and cartilage. This has clinical implications for TMJ ankylosis management and preventing heterotopic bone formation around prosthetic joints. PMID:21050720

  16. Abdominal wall fat index in neonates: correlation with birth size.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Silva, E; Didier, R; Bandeira, M; Bandeira, F

    2010-06-01

    Low birth weight is associated with obesity in later life and a more central fat distribution has a positive correlation with cardiovascular disease. However, the correlation between visceral adiposity in newborns and birth size is unknown. We measured the visceral adiposity in 118 newborns using the abdominal wall fat index (AFI), ratio between the maximum thickness of preperitoneal and the minimum thickness of subcutaneous fat evaluated by ultrasound. There was a weak negative correlation between AFI and birth weight (r = -0.197; P = 0.033) but not with birth length (r = -0.118; P = 0.201), body mass index (r = -0.138; P = 0.176) and abdominal circumference (r = 0.063; P = 0.497). In conclusion, we suggest that AFI is a useful parameter for evaluating the fat distribution in newborns and that visceral adiposity has a weak negative correlation with birth weight.

  17. Fat Embolism Syndrome Secondary to Bone Marrow Necrosis in Patients with Hemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Gangaraju, Radhika; Reddy, Vishnu V B; Marques, Marisa B

    2016-09-01

    Bone marrow necrosis with subsequent embolization of the fat and necrotic tissues into the systemic circulation causing fat embolism syndrome and multiorgan failure is a rare complication of patients with hemoglobinopathies. The exact etiology of this condition is not known. Because it occurs more often in patients with compound heterozygous conditions than in sickle cell disease, some patients are unaware of their predisposition. The initial symptoms are nonspecific, such as back and/or abdominal pain, fever, and fatigue, which may rapidly progress to respiratory failure and severe neurologic compromise. Common laboratory tests reveal anemia without reticulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, leukoerythroblastic picture with immature white cells and nucleated red blood cells, increased lactate dehydrogenase, high ferritin, and, sometimes increased creatinine. The diagnosis can be delayed because of an apparent lack of awareness about bone marrow necrosis with fat embolism syndrome, its rarity, and its similarities with other conditions such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Although a bone marrow biopsy is diagnostic, waiting for it delays definitive treatment, which appears to be essential for the recovery of end-organ damage, such as neurologic and pulmonary damage. In our experience, either multiple units of red blood cell transfusion or, preferably, red cell exchange initiated promptly, is lifesaving. PMID:27598359

  18. Abdominal fat and metabolic risk in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Revenga-Frauca, J; González-Gil, E M; Bueno-Lozano, G; De Miguel-Etayo, P; Velasco-Martínez, P; Rey-López, J P; Bueno-Lozano, O; Moreno, L A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fat distribution, mainly abdominal fat, and its relationship with metabolic risk variables in a group of 126 children and adolescents (60 males and 66 females) aged 5.0 to 14.9. According to IOTF criteria, 46 were classified as normal weight, 28 overweight and 52 obese. Weight, height, waist (WC) and hip circumferences were measured. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Total body fat, trunkal and abdominal fat were also assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Glucose, insulin, HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), ferritine, homocystein and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Obesity status was related with insulin concentrations, CRP, TG and HDL. Obese patients had higher abdominal fat and higher CRP values than overweight and normal subjects. All markers of central body adiposity were related with insulin and lipid metabolism; however, they were not related with homocystein or ferritin. A simple anthropometric measurement, like waist circumference, seems to be a good predictor of the majority of the obesity related metabolic risk variables. PMID:20358355

  19. The use of body mass index for measurement of fat mass in children is highly dependant on abdominal fat.

    PubMed

    El Taguri, A; Dabbas-Tyan, M; Goulet, O; Ricour, C

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between body fat and body mass index (BMI) in a multiethnic population of obese children. BMI z-scores were compared to DEXA measures of whole body composition and regional fat distribution. Fat mass index (FMI) was best predicted by the equation: 1/[(0.159- 0.013 x percentile of total abdominal fat)- (0.01 x BMI z-score)], where percentile of abdominal fat ranges from 1 to 5. Predicted FMI had high agreement with FMI measured by DEXA. There were no detectable differences in this relation between different ethnic groups. Both BMI and abdominal fat should be used as a proxy to determine adiposity.

  20. Subcutaneous abdominal fat and thigh muscle composition predict insulin sensitivity independently of visceral fat.

    PubMed

    Goodpaster, B H; Thaete, F L; Simoneau, J A; Kelley, D E

    1997-10-01

    Whether visceral adipose tissue has a uniquely powerful association with insulin resistance or whether subcutaneous abdominal fat shares this link has generated controversy in the area of body composition and insulin sensitivity. An additional issue is the potential role of fat deposition within skeletal muscle and the relationship with insulin resistance. To address these matters, the current study was undertaken to measure body composition, aerobic fitness, and insulin sensitivity within a cohort of sedentary healthy men (n = 26) and women (n = 28). The subjects, who ranged from lean to obese (BMI 19.6-41.0 kg/m2), underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to measure fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM), computed tomography to measure cross-sectional abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, and computed tomography (CT) of mid-thigh to measure muscle cross-sectional area, muscle attenuation, and subcutaneous fat. Insulin sensitivity was measured using the glucose clamp technique (40 mU.m-2.min-1), in conjunction with [3-3H]glucose isotope dilution. Maximal aerobic power (VO2max) was determined using an incremental cycling test. Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) ranged from 3.03 to 16.83 mg.min-1.kg-1 FFM. Rd was negatively correlated with FM (r = -0.58), visceral fat (r = -0.52), subcutaneous abdominal fat (r = -0.61), and thigh fat (r = -0.38) and positively correlated with muscle attenuation (r = 0.48) and VO2max (r = 0.26, P < 0.05). In addition to manifesting the strongest simple correlation with insulin sensitivity, in stepwise multiple regression, subcutaneous abdominal fat retained significance after adjusting for visceral fat, while the converse was not found. Muscle attenuation contributed independent significance to multiple regression models of body composition and insulin sensitivity, and in analysis of obese subjects, muscle attenuation was the strongest single correlate of insulin resistance. In summary, as a component of

  1. Fat Necrosis of the Breast Following Folinic Acid Extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Hammon, M.; Dilbat, G.; Schulz-Wendtland, R.

    2013-01-01

    Case Report: We report here on a 58-year-old patient with abnormal findings in the left breast on screening mammography (October 2012). In May 2008 the patient was diagnosed with rectal cancer, subsequently treated by surgical resection followed by radiochemotherapy. In September 2011 the patient was diagnosed with peritoneal cancer. Extravasation of folinic acid occurred during palliative chemotherapy, which was delivered through a surgically implanted port, placed prepectorally on the left side. The patient had not previously undergone breast surgery. The abnormal finding in the left breast was located at the 1–2 oʼclock position. The mammogram showed extensive hyperdense nodules with predominantly round, fine granular calcifications. On sonography, the findings presented as a hypoechogenic, inhomogenous, partially diffuse, partly solid, partly cystic mass with individual calcifications and reduced echogenicity in the dorsal aspect. Strong densification of the left breast was found at the corresponding position on palpation. On computed tomography (CT) done during follow-up for rectal cancer, new streaky/pitted densifications were noted in the left breast. Based on the patientʼs previous history and the results of the breast diagnostics a diagnosis of extensive fat necrosis after folinic acid extravasation was made. No further measures were taken. The patient will continue to be screened using mammography. Conclusion: A good knowledge of the mammographic and sonographic features of fat necrosis can reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies. Careful consideration of the patientʼs prior medical history is very important in breast diagnostics and may often be decisive for the correct diagnosis. PMID:24771912

  2. Selection against abdominal fat percentage may increase intramuscular fat content in broilers.

    PubMed

    Leng, L; Zhang, H; Dong, J Q; Wang, Z P; Zhang, X Y; Wang, S Z; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Li, H

    2016-10-01

    Excessive abdominal fat content (AFC) has negative impacts on feed efficiency and carcass quality. Unlike AFC, intramuscular fat content (IMFC) could be a favourable trait, which has a positive impact on meat quality. To meet consumers' needs, a long-term goal of broiler breeders is to decrease AFC and improve the IMFC simultaneously. The current study was designed to investigate the relationship between AFC and IMFC and to compare IMFC, including the pectoral major muscle fat content (PIMFC) and intramuscular fat content of leg muscle (LIMFC), between two broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat percentage over 17 generations. The results showed that there was a significant difference in PIMFC and LIMFC between the two lines in all five generation populations used. The birds in the lean line had significantly lower AFC but higher PIMFC and LIMFC than the birds in the fat line. We also detected differences in the liver fat content (LFC) between the two lines and the results showed that birds in the fat line had significant higher LFC than birds in the lean line. Our results indicated that a desirable broiler line with higher IMFC but lower AFC could be obtained by genetic selection.

  3. Selection against abdominal fat percentage may increase intramuscular fat content in broilers.

    PubMed

    Leng, L; Zhang, H; Dong, J Q; Wang, Z P; Zhang, X Y; Wang, S Z; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Li, H

    2016-10-01

    Excessive abdominal fat content (AFC) has negative impacts on feed efficiency and carcass quality. Unlike AFC, intramuscular fat content (IMFC) could be a favourable trait, which has a positive impact on meat quality. To meet consumers' needs, a long-term goal of broiler breeders is to decrease AFC and improve the IMFC simultaneously. The current study was designed to investigate the relationship between AFC and IMFC and to compare IMFC, including the pectoral major muscle fat content (PIMFC) and intramuscular fat content of leg muscle (LIMFC), between two broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat percentage over 17 generations. The results showed that there was a significant difference in PIMFC and LIMFC between the two lines in all five generation populations used. The birds in the lean line had significantly lower AFC but higher PIMFC and LIMFC than the birds in the fat line. We also detected differences in the liver fat content (LFC) between the two lines and the results showed that birds in the fat line had significant higher LFC than birds in the lean line. Our results indicated that a desirable broiler line with higher IMFC but lower AFC could be obtained by genetic selection. PMID:26931078

  4. [Brachial plexus compression from supraclavicular encapsulated fat necrosis. A case report].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Páez, Miguel; de Miguel-Pueyo, Luis; Marín-Salido, Esteban José; Carrasco-Brenes, Antonio; Martín-Gallego, Alvaro; Arráez-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 44-year-old male, lacking clinical history of previous illness, who had surgery at our hospital to treat a mass in the supraclavicular space. The patient presented with a 1-month progressive distal paresis of the left arm. The histo-pathological examination of the mass revealed an encapsulated fat necrosis. Fat necrosis is characterised by cystic architecture, encapsulation with fat necrosis within, and inflammatory infiltration of its walls. Neural structure compression secondary to this tumour mass is very rare. Fat necrosis is more frequent in the lower limbs, in areas exposed to trauma. This article is the first report of brachial plexus compression due to supraclavicular fat necrosis. PMID:24837841

  5. Segregation analysis of abdominal visceral fat: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    PubMed

    Rice, T; Després, J P; Pérusse, L; Gagnon, J; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Rao, D C; Bouchard, C

    1997-09-01

    A major gene hypothesis for abdominal visceral fat (AVF) level, both before and after adjustment for total body fat mass, was investigated in 86 white families who participated in the HERITAGE Family Study. In this study, sedentary families were tested for a battery of measures (baseline), endurance exercise trained for 20 weeks, and then remeasured again. The baseline measures reported here are unique in that the variance due to a potentially important environmental factor (activity level) was limited. AVF area was assessed at L4 to L5 by the use of computerized tomography scan, and total body fat mass was assessed with underwater weighing. For fat mass, a putative locus accounted for 64% of the variance, but there was no evidence of a multifactorial component (i.e., no polygenic and/or common familial environmental effects). For AVF area, both a major gene effect accounting for 54% of the variance and a multifactorial component accounting for 17% of the variance were significant. However, after AVF area was adjusted for the effects of total level of body fat, the support for a major gene was reduced. In particular, there was a major effect for fat mass-adjusted AVF area, but it was not transmitted from parents to offspring (i.e., the three transmission probabilities were equal). The importance of this study is twofold. First, these results confirm a previous study that suggested that there is a putative major locus for AVF and for total body fat mass. Second, the findings from the HERITAGE Family Study suggest that the factors underlying AVF area in sedentary families may be similar to those in the population at large, which includes both sedentary and active families. Whether the gene(s) responsible for the high levels of AVF area is the same as that which influences total body fat content remains to be further investigated. PMID:9385615

  6. Change in Intra-Abdominal Fat Predicts the Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Americans.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Catherine A; Kahn, Steven E; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas.

  7. Change in Intra-Abdominal Fat Predicts the Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Americans.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Catherine A; Kahn, Steven E; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas. PMID:26063668

  8. Changes in fat intake, body fat composition and intra-abdominal fat after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Heesook; Jeong, Gui Ae; Cho, Gyu Seok; Lee, Min Hee; Kim, Soonkyung

    2014-07-01

    Bariatric surgery is considered to be the effective treatment alternative conducted over the lifetime for reducing weight in patients with clinically morbid obesity. For many patients, the benefits of weight loss, including decreases in blood glucose, lipids, and blood pressure as well as increase in mobility, will outweigh the risks of surgical complications. But patients undergoing bariatric surgery have the least risk for long-term diet-related complications as reported in several studies. Thus, with an increasing number of severely obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, the multidisciplinary healthcare system will need to be managed continuously. Many nutrition support specialists will need to become familiar with the metabolic consequences for the frequent monitoring of nutrition status of the patients. South Korea has a very short history with bariatric surgery, and relatively few studies have been conducted on bariatric surgery. Therefore, the objective of this report was to compare the nutrient intake, weight loss, body fat composition, and visceral fat before and after the bariatric surgery.

  9. Ultrasonographic evaluation of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue before and after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Djurić-Stefanović, A; Vasin, D; Jovanović, S; Lazić, Lj; Kovac, J; Popović, I; Bajec, Dj; Saranović, Dj

    2013-01-01

    Visceral fat is considered a key factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and other pathological conditions and diseases associated with obesity. Therefore, analysis of the dynamics of reducing the amount of abdominal visceral fat is important for evaluating the therapeutic effects of different modalities of obesity treatment, including bariatric surgery. In 53 obese patients visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue was measured by ultrasonography (US) before and after bariatric surgery, in the period of 1, 3, 6 months. At the same time, standard anthropometric parameters were assessed: body mass (m), BMI, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC). Five diameters of the visceral abdominal fat (VAF) were measured: IAFT (Intraabdominal Fat Thickness), LV (Lienal Vein), VF (Visceral Fat), MES sum (Mesenterial leafs) and Max PFT (Maximal Preperitoneal Fat Thickness), and three diameters of the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAF): Min SFT (Minimal Subcutaneous Fat), and MaxSFTa and MaxSFTb (Maximal Subcutaneous Fat Thickness a and b). Statistically significant decrease in all anthropometric parameters, except HC was registered 1, 3 and 6 months after the surgery. We registered the decline of almost all US diameters of abdominal adipose tissue in the follow-up period, but statistically significant decrease were found only in the diameters of visceral adipose tissue: IAFT after 1 and 3 months (p = 0.031 and p = 0.027); VF after 1 month (p = 0.031), LV after 6 months (p = 0.011), and MESsum after 3 and 6 months (p = 0.001 and p = 0.028), as well as MaxSFTb, at 1 month follow-up (p = 0.015). In the short-term follow-up period after the bariatric surgery, there was a significant decrease in body mass, BMI and WC, and ultrasonography revealed a significant reduction in the diameters of the visceral abdominal fat.

  10. Computer-aided Assessment of Regional Abdominal Fat with Food Residue Removal in CT

    PubMed Central

    Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Caturegli, Giorgio; Davatzikos, Christos; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Separate quantification of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat regions is essential to understand the role of regional adiposity as risk factor in epidemiological studies. Fat quantification is often based on computed tomography (CT) because fat density is distinct from other tissue densities in the abdomen. However, the presence of intestinal food residues with densities similar to fat may reduce fat quantification accuracy. We introduce an abdominal fat quantification method in CT with interest in food residue removal. Materials and Methods Total fat was identified in the feature space of Hounsfield units and divided into subcutaneous and visceral components using model-based segmentation. Regions of food residues were identified and removed from visceral fat using a machine learning method integrating intensity, texture, and spatial information. Cost-weighting and bagging techniques were investigated to address class imbalance. Results We validated our automated food residue removal technique against semimanual quantifications. Our feature selection experiments indicated that joint intensity and texture features produce the highest classification accuracy at 95%. We explored generalization capability using k-fold cross-validation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with variable k. Losses in accuracy and area under ROC curve between maximum and minimum k were limited to 0.1% and 0.3%. We validated tissue segmentation against reference semimanual delineations. The Dice similarity scores were as high as 93.1 for subcutaneous fat and 85.6 for visceral fat. Conclusions Computer-aided regional abdominal fat quantification is a reliable computational tool for large-scale epidemiological studies. Our proposed intestinal food residue reduction scheme is an original contribution of this work. Validation experiments indicate very good accuracy and generalization capability. PMID:24119354

  11. Fat-plug myringoplasty of ear lobule vs abdominal donor sites.

    PubMed

    Acar, Mustafa; Yazıcı, Demet; San, Turhan; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the success rates of fat-graft myringoplasties harvesting adipose grafts from different donor sites (ear lobule vs abdomen). The clinical records of 61 patients (24 males and 37 females) who underwent fat-plug myringoplasty (FPM) were reviewed retrospectively. Fat from ear lobule (FEL) and abdominal fat were used as graft materials. The impact of age, gender, systemic diseases, topography of the perforation, utilization of fat graft materials of different origin on the tympanic membrane closure rate and the effect of FPM on hearing gain was analyzed. Our tympanic membrane (TM) closure rate was 82 %. No statistical significant difference was observed regarding age, gender, comorbidities (septal deviation, hypertension and diabetes mellitus) or habits (smoking). Posterior TM perforations had significantly lower healing rate. The change in TM closure rate considering different adipose tissue donor sites was not statistically significant. The hearing gain of the patients was mostly below 20 dB. Fat-plug myringoplasty (FPM) is a safe, cost-effective and easy operation for selected patients. Abdominal fat graft is as effective as ear lobe fat graft on tympanic membrane healing, has cosmetic advantages and should be taken into consideration when planning fat as the graft source. PMID:24469028

  12. Ethnic Bias in Anthropometric Estimates of DXA Abdominal Fat: the TIGER Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Daniel P.; Bray, Molly S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine race/ethnicity bias of using waist circumference (WC) to estimate abdominal fat. Methods A total of 771 females and 484 males (17–35 y) were tested one to three times during a prescribed 30-week aerobic exercise program. The race/ethnicity distribution for women was: non-Hispanic white (NHW), 29%; Hispanic, 25%; African-American (AA), 35%; Asian-Indian, 3%; and Asian, 8%. The distribution for men was: NHW, 37%; Hispanic, 26%; AA 22%; Asian-Indian, 5%; and Asian, 10%. Abdominal fat (L1 to L5) was estimated from whole body scanning using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA Abd-Fat). Results DXA Abd-Fat varied by race/ethnicity after accounting for WC and height in both women and men. The increase in DXA Abd-Fat per increase in WC was lower in the Asian and Asian-Indian women than in the other women. The increase in DXA Abd-Fat per increase in WC was higher in the AA men and lower in the Asian-Indian men than in the other men. These differential race/ethnicity effects were most notable when WC exceeded 90 cm in the women and 100 cm in the men, values which are consistent with current definitions of abdominal obesity in the United States. Conclusions Prediction equations for abdominal fat using WC that do not account for race/ethnicity group provide biased estimates. These results may affect assessment of disease risk from abdominal obesity among racial/ethnic groups. PMID:21364481

  13. Detection of necrosis of the gastric fundus after blunt abdominal trauma by PET-CT.

    PubMed

    Hofer, A; Kratochwill, H; Pentsch, A; Gabriel, M

    2015-02-01

    Positron emission tomography with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose provides functional and anatomic information by visualising the uptake of radiolabelled glucose in tumour and inflammatory cells. We report delayed diagnosis of necrosis of the gastric fundus after blunt abdominal trauma in a 73-year-old man. After a car accident with head-on collision, the patient was stabilised in our emergency room. His femur was treated by internal fixation, his ellbow was stabilised by a fixateur externe. During surgery his status deteriorated. The patient was in need of high dosage of inotrops during the following days. He had a biventricular pacemaker implanted because of ischemic myocardiopathy, and he suffered from renal insufficiency. Over the next days, his haemodynamics improved. A central venous line had to be removed because of ensuing septic fever. The patient complained of upper abdominal pain and nausea. A sonography and computer tomography without contrast medium were performed with negative result. Because of contamination of the central venous line with Staphylococcus epidermidis the pacemaker was evaluated for infection by transoesophageal echocardiography, again without any findings. Because of ongoing fever and positive inflammatory markers a positron emission tomography was indicated, as a contrast examination and a magnetic resonance examination were not feasible because of the renal insufficiency and the pacemaker, respectively. Prophylactic removal of the pacemaker would have been a substantial risk for the patient due to his underlying myocardiopathy. Positron emission tomography showed an increased tracer uptake in the gastric fundus, which turned out to be necrotic by endoscopy. A laparoscopic resection followed, and drainage of an abscess, which had evolved subsequently between stomach and spleen stopped the inflammatory process. This case report demonstrates that positron emission tomography may be an alternative to computer tomography with contrast medium

  14. Effects of clay on fat necrosis and carcass characteristics in Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Oka, Akio; Iwamoto, Eiji; Tatsuda, Ken

    2015-10-01

    Twenty 10-month-old Japanese Black steers were used to evaluate the effects of clay on fat necrosis and carcass characteristics. Ten steers (Clay group) were fed the clay (50 g/day) during 10-30 months of age. The other 10 steers (Control group) were not fed it. There was no significant difference in body weight or average daily gain between the two groups (P > 0.05). The occurrence of fat necrotic mass in the Clay group (30%) was lower (P < 0.05) than that in the Control group (90%) at slaughter. The size of necrotic masses in the Clay group was smaller (P < 0.05) than that in the Control group. There was no significant difference in the marbling score, beef color, Longissimus muscle area or subcutaneous fat thickness between the two groups. These results suggest that the clay prevented the occurrence of fat necrosis and did not affect the carcass characteristics in Japanese Black steers.

  15. A Case of Intestinal Necrosis after Bilateral Internal Iliac Artery-Preserving Endovascular Repair for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Masataka; Imai, Akito; Watanabe, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    A 79-year-old man underwent endovascular repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and both internal iliac arteries (IIAs) were preserved. Postoperatively, loss of appetite developed. On the fifth day, computerized tomography (CT) showed inferior mesenteric artery thrombus formation, necrosis of the descending colon and rectum, and generalized peritonitis. The endovascular devices had not migrated. A colonic resection was performed. Histological analysis confirmed intestinal necrosis associated with mesenteric thrombus. The colon can become necrotic even if both IIAs are patent. Ischemic changes in the colon should be detected if it occurs and subsequent laparotomy should be done if it is necessary.

  16. Intra-abdominal fat. Part III. Neoplasms lesions of the adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on various cancerous lesions that are found beyond organs in the intra-abdominal fat and can be visualized with ultrasonography. These lesions are divided into five groups. The first group includes primary benign tumors containing adipocytes, such as lipoma, lipoblastoma, hibernoma and other lesions with an adipose tissue component, such as myolipoma, angiomyolipoma, myelolipoma and teratoma. The second group comprises primary malignant adipocytecontaining tumors, including liposarcoma and immature teratoma. The third group contains primary benign tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. This is a numerous group of lesions represented by cystic and solid tumors. The fourth group encompasses primary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. These are rare lesions associated mainly with sarcomas: fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, hemangiopericytoma and leiomyosarcoma. An epithelioid tumor at this site is mesothelioma. The last but not least group includes secondary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component located in intra-abdominal fat. This is the most numerous group with prevailing carcinoma foci. For each of these groups, the authors present ultrasound features of individual lesions and discuss their differential diagnosis. In the vast majority of cases, the material for cytological and histological analysis can be obtained during ultrasound-guided procedures. This is the advantage of this imaging modality. PMID:27446599

  17. Gender differences of regional abdominal fat distribution and their relationships with insulin sensitivity in healthy and glucose-intolerant Thais.

    PubMed

    Rattarasarn, Chatchalit; Leelawattana, Rattana; Soonthornpun, Supamai; Setasuban, Worawong; Thamprasit, Atchara

    2004-12-01

    To determine gender differences of regional abdominal fat distribution and their relationships with insulin sensitivity in healthy and glucose-intolerant Thais, 44 subjects, 22 men and 22 body mass index-matched women, with normal and abnormal glucose tolerance, which included subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes, were studied. Total body fat and total abdominal fat (TAF) at L1-L4 were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Regional abdominal fat, which consists of sc abdominal fat and visceral abdominal fat, was determined by single-slice computerized tomography of the abdomen at L4-L5 disc space level. Insulin sensitivity was determined by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and expressed as glucose infusion rate (GIR). With comparable body mass index, visceral abdominal fat was most strongly correlated with GIR after adjustment with percent total body fat in both healthy (r = -0.8155; P = 0.007) and glucose-intolerant women (r = -0.7597; P = 0.011), whereas TAF was most strongly correlated with GIR in both healthy (r = -0.8114; P = 0.008) and glucose-intolerant men (r = -0.6194; P = 0.101). By linear regression analysis, visceral abdominal fat accounted for 35.0% (beta = -3.53 x 10(-2); P = 0.001) of GIR variance in women, whereas TAF accounted for 39.3% (beta = -1.28 x 10(-4); P < 0.0001) of GIR variance in men. We conclude that there are gender differences in the relationships of regional abdominal fat and insulin sensitivity in slightly obese healthy and glucose-intolerant Thais, the difference of which may possibly be in part due to the difference of abdominal fat patterning between genders.

  18. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  19. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Han, Juyoung; Kim, So Hun; Suh, Young Ju; Lim, Hyun Ae; Shin, Heekyoung; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Chei Won; Lee, Seung Youn; Lee, Dae Hyung; Hong, Seongbin; Kim, Yong Seong; Nam, Moon-Suk

    2016-06-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  20. Green tea catechin consumption enhances exercise-induced abdominal fat loss in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Reeves, Matthew S; Farmer, Mildred; Yasunaga, Koichi; Matsuo, Noboru; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Komikado, Masanori; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Wilder, Donna; Jones, Franz; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Cartwright, Yolanda

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercise-induced weight loss. Participants (n = 132 with 107 completers) were randomly assigned to receive a beverage containing approximately 625 mg of catechins with 39 mg caffeine or a control beverage (39 mg caffeine, no catechins) for 12 wk. Participants were asked to maintain constant energy intake and engage in >or=180 min/wk moderate intensity exercise, including >or=3 supervised sessions per week. Body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry), abdominal fat areas (computed tomography), and clinical laboratory tests were measured at baseline and wk 12. There was a trend (P = 0.079) toward greater loss of body weight in the catechin group compared with the control group; least squares mean (95% CI) changes, adjusted for baseline value, age, and sex, were -2.2 (-3.1, -1.3) and -1.0 (-1.9, -0.1) kg, respectively. Percentage changes in fat mass did not differ between the catechin [5.2 (-7.0, -3.4)] and control groups [-3.5 (-5.4, 1.6)] (P = 0.208). However, percentage changes in total abdominal fat area [-7.7 (-11.7, -3.8) vs. -0.3 (-4.4, 3.9); P = 0.013], subcutaneous abdominal fat area [-6.2 (-10.2, -2.2) vs. 0.8 (-3.3, 4.9); P = 0.019], and fasting serum triglycerides (TG) [-11.2 (-18.8, -3.6) vs. 1.9 (-5.9, 9.7); P = 0.023] were greater in the catechin group. These findings suggest that green tea catechin consumption enhances exercise-induced changes in abdominal fat and serum TG.

  1. Pancreaticoportal Fistula and Disseminated Fat Necrosis After Revision of a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Seth J. Saad, Nael; Korenblat, Kevin; Darcy, Michael D.

    2013-04-15

    A 59-year old man with alcohol related cirrhosis and portal hypertension was referred for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to treat his refractory ascites. Ten years later, two sequential TIPS revisions were performed for shunt stenosis and recurrent ascites. After these revisions, he returned with increased serum pancreatic enzyme levels and disseminated superficial fat necrosis; an iatrogenic pancreaticoportal vein fistula caused by disruption of the pancreatic duct was suspected. The bare area of the TIPS was subsequently lined with a covered stent-graft, and serum enzyme levels returned to baseline. In the interval follow-up period, the patient has clinically improved.

  2. Insulin resistance as a predictor of gains in body fat, weight, and abdominal fat in nondiabetic women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Larry A; Tucker, Jared M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose was to determine the relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and risk of gaining body fat percentage (BF%), body weight, and abdominal fat over 18 months. A prospective cohort study was conducted using a sample of 226 women. IR was assessed using fasting blood insulin and glucose levels to calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Participants were divided into High (4th quartile) Moderate (2nd and 3rd quartiles), and Low (1st quartile) HOMA categories. BF% was estimated using plethysmography (Bod Pod), weight was measured in a standard swimsuit, and abdominal fat was indexed using the average of two circumferences taken at the umbilicus. Participants wore accelerometers and completed weighed food logs for 7 consecutive days to control for the effect of physical activity (PA) and energy intake, respectively. On average, women in the High HOMA group decreased in BF% (-0.48 ± 3.60), whereas those in the Moderate (0.40 ± 3.66) and Low HOMA (1.17 ± 3.15) groups gained BF% (F = 5.4, P = 0.0211). Changes in body weight showed a similar dose-response relationship (F = 4.7, P = 0.0317). However, baseline IR was not predictive of changes in abdominal fat (F = 0.8, P = 0.3635). Controlling for several covariates had little effect on gains in BF% and weight, but adjusting for initial BF% and/or initial weight nullified changes in BF% and weight across the IR groups. In conclusion, women with High HOMA tend to gain significantly less BF% and weight than women with low or moderate HOMA. The decreased risk appears unrelated to several covariates, except initial BF% and weight levels, which seem to play key roles in the relationships.

  3. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  4. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  5. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  6. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-03-10

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner.

  7. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  8. Effect of the inclusion time of dietary saturated and unsaturated fats before slaughter on the accumulation and composition of abdominal fat in female broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sanz, M; Lopez-Bote, C J; Flores, A; Carmona, J M

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this experiment was to assess the effects of four different feeding programs designed to include tallow, a saturated fat at 0, 8, 12, and 28 d prior to slaughter on female broiler performance and the deposition, fatty acid profile, and melting point of abdominal fat. The following treatment groups were established according to dietary inclusion--from 21 to 49 d of age--of: sunflower oil (SUN), sunflower oil followed by tallow during the last 8 d (SUN + 8TALL), sunflower oil followed by tallow during the last 12 d (SUN + 12TALL), and tallow (TALL). The diets were designed to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Abdominal fat deposition increased linearly with increasing number of days in which birds were fed the tallow-enriched diet. However, linear and quadratic response patterns were found between days before slaughter in which the birds were fed the tallow-enriched diet and abdominal fat melting points. This result suggested an exponential response in which 85% of the maximum level was already attained when the dietary fat type changed from an unsaturated to a saturated condition during the last 8 d of the feeding period. The use of an unsaturated fat source during the first stages of growth, and the substitution of a saturated fat for a few days before slaughter, may offer the advantage of lower abdominal fat deposition and an acceptable fat fluidity compared with the use of a saturated fat source during the whole growing and finishing period.

  9. Intra-abdominal fat is related to metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fat liver disease in obese youth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an association between adiposity, especially intra-abdominal adipose tissue, and hemodynamic/metabolic comorbidities in adults, however it is not clear in pediatric population. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) with values of intra-abdominal (IAAT) and subcutaneous (SCAT) adipose tissue in obese children and adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study. Subjects: 182 obese sedentary children and adolescents (aged 6 to 16 y), identified by the body mass index (BMI). Measurements: Body composition and trunk fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry- DXA; lipid profile, blood pressure and pubertal stage were also assessed. NAFLD was classified as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2) and severe (3), and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were identified by ultrasound. The MS was identified according to the cut offs proposed by World Health Organization adapted for children and adolescents. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables, and the binary logistic regression indicated the magnitude of the associations adjusted by potential cofounders (sex, age, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR). Results Higher quartile of SCAT was associated with elevated blood pressure (p = 0.015), but not associated with NAFLD (p = 0.665). Higher IAAT was positively associated with increased dyslipidemia (p = 0.001), MS (p = 0.013) and NAFLD (p = 0.005). Intermediate (p = 0.007) and highest (p = 0.001) quartile of IAAT were also associated with dyslipidemia, independently of age, sex, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance). Conclusion Obese children and adolescents, with higher IAAT are more prone to develop MS and NAFLD than those with higher values of SCAT, independent of possible confounding variables. PMID:23919592

  10. Chronic Stress Increases Vulnerability to Diet-Related Abdominal Fat, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; Kornfeld, Sarah; Picard, Martin; Puterman, Eli; Havel, Peter; Stanhope, Kimber; Lustig, Robert H.; Epel, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background In preclinical studies, the combination of chronic stress and a high sugar/fat diet is a more potent driver of visceral adiposity than diet alone, a process mediated by peripheral Neuropeptide Y (NPY). Methods In a human model of chronic stress, we investigated whether the synergistic combination of highly palatable foods (HPF; high sugar/fat) and stress was associated with elevated metabolic risk. Using a case-control design, we compared 33 post-menopausal caregivers (the chronic stress group) to 28 age-matched low-stress control women on reported HPF consumption (modified Block Food Frequency Questionnaire), waistline circumference, truncal fat ultrasound, and insulin sensitivity using a three-hour oral glucose tolerance test. A fasting blood draw was assayed for plasma NPY and oxidative stress markers (8-hydroxyguanosine and F2-Isoprostanes). Results Among chronically stressed women only, greater HPF consumption was associated with greater abdominal adiposity, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance at baseline (all p’s ≤.01). Furthermore, plasma NPY was significantly elevated in chronically stressed women (p<.01), and the association of HPF with abdominal adiposity was stronger among women with high versus low NPY. There were no significant predictions of change over one-year, likely due to high stability (little change) in the primary outcomes over this period. Discussion Chronic stress is associated with enhanced vulnerability to diet-related metabolic risk (abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress). Stress-induced peripheral NPY may play a mechanistic role. PMID:24882154

  11. [Indices of tissue necrosis markers in acute pyo-destructive diseases of organs of the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Ostrovskiĭ, V K; Makarov, S V; Rodionov, P N; Kochetkov, L N

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of indices of lactate dehydrogenase (LDG) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) in a group of patients with extensive necrotic alterations in organs of the abdominal cavity and in a group of patients without extensive necroses has shown that in the first group there were higher levels of LDG and CPK. It shows that the LDG and CPK indices may be used as markers of tissue necrosis of the abdominal organs. In addition, in patients who died against the background of growing polyorganic insufficiency the LDG and CPK level by the end of treatment was statistically reliably higher than on admission of the same patients that may be an indicator of growing phenomena of dystrophy and micronecroses in vitals, so the indices of LDG and CPK may show the degree of severity of polyorganic insufficiency and determine its prognosis.

  12. Genome-wide association studies suggest sex-specific loci associated with abdominal and visceral fat

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yun Ju; Pérusse, Louis; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Fornage, Myriam; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rice, Treva; Terry, Gregg; Jacobs, David R.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Curran, Joanne E; Carr, John Jeffrey; Blangero, John; Ghosh, Sujoy; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D.C.; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify loci associated with abdominal fat and replicate prior findings, we performed genome-wide association (GWA) studies of abdominal fat traits: subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total adipose tissue (TAT) and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VSR). Subjects and Methods Sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses were performed on each trait with (TRAIT-BMI) or without (TRAIT) adjustment for BMI, and cohort-specific results were combined via a fixed effects meta-analysis. A total of 2,513 subjects of European descent were available for the discovery phase. For replication, 2,171 European Americans and 772 African Americans were available. Results A total of 52 SNPs encompassing 7 loci showed suggestive evidence of association (p < 1.0 × 10−6) with abdominal fat in the sex-combined analyses. The strongest evidence was found on chromosome 7p14.3 between a SNP near BBS9 gene and VAT (rs12374818; p= 1.10 × 10−7), an association that was replicated (p = 0.02). For the BMI-adjusted trait, the strongest evidence of association was found between a SNP near CYCSP30 and VAT-BMI (rs10506943; p= 2.42 × 10−7). Our sex-specific analyses identified one genome-wide significant (p < 5.0 × 10−8) locus for SAT in women with 11 SNPs encompassing the MLLT10, DNAJC1 and EBLN1 genes on chromosome 10p12.31 (p = 3.97 × 10−8 to 1.13 × 10−8). The THNSL2 gene previously associated with VAT in women was also replicated (p= 0.006). The six gene/loci showing the strongest evidence of association with VAT or VAT-BMI were interrogated for their functional links with obesity and inflammation using the Biograph knowledge-mining software. Genes showing the closest functional links with obesity and inflammation were ADCY8 and KCNK9, respectively. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for new loci influencing abdominal visceral (BBS9, ADCY8, KCNK9) and subcutaneous (MLLT10/DNAJC1/EBLN1) fat, and confirmed a locus (THNSL2

  13. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in genetically fat and lean chickens reveals adipokines, lipogenic genes and a link between hemostasis and leanness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This descriptive study of the abdominal fat transcriptome takes advantage of two experimental lines of meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus), which were selected over seven generations for a large difference in abdominal (visceral) fatness. At the age of selection (9 wk), the fat line (FL) and lean line (LL) chickens exhibit a 2.5-fold difference in abdominal fat weight, while their feed intake and body weight are similar. These unique avian models were originally created to unravel genetic and endocrine regulation of adiposity and lipogenesis in meat-type chickens. The Del-Mar 14K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray was used for a time-course analysis of gene expression in abdominal fat of FL and LL chickens during juvenile development (1–11 weeks of age). Results Microarray analysis of abdominal fat in FL and LL chickens revealed 131 differentially expressed (DE) genes (FDR≤0.05) as the main effect of genotype, 254 DE genes as an interaction of age and genotype and 3,195 DE genes (FDR≤0.01) as the main effect of age. The most notable discoveries in the abdominal fat transcriptome were higher expression of many genes involved in blood coagulation in the LL and up-regulation of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in FL chickens. Many of these DE genes belong to pathways controlling the synthesis, metabolism and transport of lipids or endocrine signaling pathways activated by adipokines, retinoid and thyroid hormones. Conclusions The present study provides a dynamic view of differential gene transcription in abdominal fat of chickens genetically selected for fatness (FL) or leanness (LL). Remarkably, the LL chickens over-express a large number of hemostatic genes that could be involved in proteolytic processing of adipokines and endocrine factors, which contribute to their higher lipolysis and export of stored lipids. Some of these changes are already present at 1 week of age before the divergence in fatness. In contrast, the FL chickens have

  14. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Resnyk, Christopher W.; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H.; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J.; Cogburn, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5–2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  15. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Resnyk, Christopher W; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J; Cogburn, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  16. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-08-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

  17. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-08-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates. PMID:27656630

  18. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates. PMID:27656630

  19. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

  20. The relationship between parental yolk cholesterol and yolk fat concentration to abdominal fat content and feed conversion ratio of their respective offspring.

    PubMed

    Suk, Y O; Washburn, K W

    1998-03-01

    The correlation of yolk cholesterol and yolk fat concentrations of egg from the pedigreed Athens-Canadian Randombred control population with the percentage of abdominal fat (AF) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of their progeny were studied. The average yolk cholesterol, yolk fat, and AF were 20.3 mg/g yolk, 244 mg/g yolk, and 1.64%, respectively. The phenotypic correlation of both yolk cholesterol and yolk fat content of eggs from the parental population with AF or FCR of their progeny were low and nonsignificant. PMID:9521446

  1. Fat Necrosis After Partial-Breast Irradiation With Brachytherapy or Electron Irradiation Versus Standard Whole-Breast Radiotherapy-4-Year Results of a Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Loevey, Katalin Fodor, Janos; Major, Tibor; Szabo, Eva; Orosz, Zsolt; Sulyok, Zoltan; Janvary, Levente; Froehlich, Georgina; Kasler, Miklos; Polgar, Csaba

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To examine the incidence and clinical relevance of fat necrosis after accelerated partial-breast irradiation (PBI) using interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in comparison with partial-breast electron irradiation (ELE) and whole-breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomized to receive 50 Gy WBI (n = 130) or PBI (n = 128). The latter consisted of either 7 x 5.2 Gy HDR-BT (n = 88) or 50 Gy ELE (n = 40). The incidence of fat necrosis, its impact on cosmetic outcome, accompanying radiologic features, and clinical symptoms were evaluated. Results: The 4-year actuarial rate of fat necrosis was 31.1% for all patients, and 31.9%, 36.5%, and 17.7% after WBI, HDR-BT and ELE, respectively (p{sub WBI/HDR-BT} = 0.26; p{sub WBI/ELE} = 0.11; p{sub ELE/HDR-BT} = 0.025). The respective rate of asymptomatic fat necrosis was 20.2%, 25.3%, and 10% of patients. The incidence of symptomatic fat necrosis was not significantly different after WBI (8.5%), HDR-BT (11.4%), and ELE (7.5%). Symptomatic fat necrosis was significantly associated with a worse cosmetic outcome, whereas asymptomatic fat necrosis was not. Fat necrosis was detectable with mammography and/or ultrasound in each case. Additional imaging examinations were required in 21% of cases and aspiration cytology in 42%. Conclusions: Asymptomatic fat necrosis is a common adverse event of breast-conserving therapy, having no significant clinical relevance in the majority of the cases. The incidence of both symptomatic and asymptomatic fat necrosis is similar after conventional WBI and accelerated partial-breast HDR-BT.

  2. Acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis (massive necrosis) with fat necrosis induced in mice by DL-ethionine fed with a choline-deficient diet.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, B.; Estes, L. W.; Longnecker, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    Female, albino mice were fed a choline-deficient diet containing 0.5% DL-ethionine. All animals died within 5 days due to the development of an acute hemorrhagic pancreatis with fat necrosis throughout the peritoneal cavity. The apancreatitis was characterized by a massive necrosis of the exocrine parenchyma with intense hemorrhage and inflammatory reaction of the stroma. The sequence of histologic and ultrastructural alterations occurring in the acinar cells of the pancreas were studied in mice fed the diet for 1, 2, and 3 days. Major findings consited of accumulation of zymogen granules, vacuolation due to foci of cytoplasmic degradation, and alterations in the morphology of the zymogen granules. The pancreatitis appears to be due to intraparenchymal activation of zymogens, resulting from a synergistic action of choline deficiency with the basic toxicity of ethionine toward the acinar cells of the pancreas. The experimental model simulates closely the acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis with fat necrosis occurring in humans and may prove useful for exploring the pathogenesis of this condition. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 PMID:1094837

  3. Quantification of Abdominal Fat Depots in Rats and Mice during Obesity and Weight Loss Interventions

    PubMed Central

    KN, Bhanu Prakash; Gopalan, Venkatesh; Lee, Swee Shean; Velan, S. Sendhil

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Obesity is a leading healthcare issue contributing to metabolic diseases. There is a great interest in non-invasive approaches for quantitating abdominal fat in obese animals and humans. In this work, we propose an automated method to distinguish and quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues (SAT and VAT) in rodents during obesity and weight loss interventions. We have also investigated the influence of different magnetic resonance sequences and sources of variability in quantification of fat depots. Materials and Methods High-fat diet fed rodents were utilized for investigating the changes during obesity, exercise, and calorie restriction interventions (N = 7/cohort). Imaging was performed on a 7T Bruker ClinScan scanner using fast spin echo (FSE) and Dixon imaging methods to estimate the fat depots. Finally, we quantified the SAT and VAT volumes between the L1–L5 lumbar vertebrae using the proposed automatic hybrid geodesic region-based curve evolution algorithm. Results Significant changes in SAT and VAT volumes (p<0.01) were observed between the pre- and post-intervention measurements. The SAT and VAT were 44.22±9%, 21.06±1.35% for control, −17.33±3.07%, −15.09±1.11% for exercise, and 18.56±2.05%, −3.9±0.96% for calorie restriction cohorts, respectively. The fat quantification correlation between FSE (with and without water suppression) sequences and Dixon for SAT and VAT were 0.9709, 0.9803 and 0.9955, 0.9840 respectively. The algorithm significantly reduced the computation time from 100 sec/slice to 25 sec/slice. The pre-processing, data-derived contour placement and avoidance of strong background–image boundary improved the convergence accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Conclusions We developed a fully automatic segmentation algorithm to quantitate SAT and VAT from abdominal images of rodents, which can support large cohort studies. We additionally identified the influence of non-algorithmic variables including

  4. Effects of peroxidized corn oil on performance, AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ehr, I J; Kerr, B J; Persia, M E

    2015-07-01

    There is a trend to use more alternative lipids in poultry diets, either through animal-vegetable blends, distillers corn oil, or yellow grease. This has resulted in the use of lipids in poultry diets with a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, which have a greater potential for peroxidation. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of peroxidized corn oil on broiler performance, dietary AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight. The same refined corn oil sample was divided into 3 subsamples, 2 of which were exposed to different peroxidative processes. The 3 diets contained the unperoxidized corn oil (UO), a slowly peroxidized corn oil (SO; heated for 72 h at 95°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min), or a rapidly peroxidized corn oil (RO; heated for 12 h at 185°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min). Diets were fed from 0 to 14 d of age with each lipid fed at a 5% inclusion rate, continuing on from 15 to 27 d of age with each lipid fed at a 10% inclusion rate. There were 6 Ross 708 broiler chicks per cage with 10 replicates for each of the 3 dietary treatments. Abdominal fat pad and excreta collection was performed on d 27. Body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured for the 0 to 14 and 0 to 27 d periods. The increased level of peroxidation reduced AMEn in broiler diets (UO = 3,490 kcal/kg; SO = 3,402 kcal/kg; RO = 3,344 kcal/kg on an as-is basis; SEM = 12.9, P ≤ 0.01). No significant treatment differences were observed among oil supplemented birds for BW gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, or abdominal fat pad weight. In conclusion, corn oil peroxidation status resulted in a decrease in dietary AMEn, but had minimal effects on broiler performance or fat pad weights.

  5. Physical activity and reduced intra-abdominal fat in midlife African-American and white women.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Sheila A; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Karavolos, Kelly; Avery, Elizabeth F; Wesley, Deidre E; Powell, Lynda H

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine whether self-reported physical activity (PA), including recreational, household, and exercise activities, is associated with intra-abdominal fat (IAF) in community-dwelling white and black midlife women. We performed a cross-sectional study of 369 women from the Chicago site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) ancillary study, the SWAN Fat Patterning Study. PA level was the independent variable, and IAF, assessed by computerized tomography (CT) scan, was the dependent variable. Measures were obtained at SWAN Fat Patterning Baseline visit between August 2002 and December 2005. Linear regression models explored the association between PA and IAF. The first model included IAF as the outcome and total score PA as the main predictor, adjusting for total percent fat mass, age, and ethnicity. The second model included education, parity, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) level, and depressive symptoms, measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Each 1-point higher total PA score was associated with a 4.0 cm(2) lower amount of IAF (P = 0.004), independent of total percent fat mass, age, ethnicity, SHBG level, educational level, CES-D, and parity. Associations did not differ between white and black women. This study demonstrates a significant negative association between PA and IAF independent of multiple covariates in midlife women. Our findings suggest that motivating white and black women to increase PA during midlife may lessen IAF, which may have a positive impact on subsequent development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  6. Unsaturated Oral Fat Load Test Improves Glycemia, Insulinemia and Oxidative Stress Status in Nondiabetic Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Navarro, Inmaculada; Real, Jose T.; Artero, Ana; Peiro, Marta; Gonzalez-Navarro, Herminia; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative stress markers during an oral fat load test in nondiabetic subjects with abdominal obesity and to analyze the association between postprandial oxidative stress markers and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Methods We included 20 subjects with abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women) and 20 healthy lean controls (waist circumference < 102 cm for men and < 88 cm for women). After 12 hours of fasting we performed a standardized fat load test (0–8 hours) with supracal® (50 g/m2). We determined metabolic parameters, oxidized and reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde. Results In both groups, insulin, HOMA, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and malondialdehyde significantly decreased in the postprandial state after the OFLT. All these parameters were significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group at baseline and during all the postprandial points, but the reduction from the baseline levels was significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group. Conclusion Unsaturated fat improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress status. It is possible that a consumption of unsaturated fat could be beneficial even in subjects with abdominal obesity in postprandial state. PMID:27537847

  7. Effect of Ramadan fasting on metabolic markers, dietary intake and abdominal fat distribution in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gur, EB; Turan, GA; Ince, O; Karadeniz, M; Tatar, S; Kasap, E; Sahin, N; Guclu, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on metabolic markers, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and abdominal visceral fat thickness (VFT) in pregnancy. Methods: Seventy-eight healthy pregnant subjects who had fasted for at least 15 days during the month of Ramadan in 2012 and 2013 and 78 controls were included in this study. Metabolic markers, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and ultrasonographic VFT were calculated for each subject before and after Ramadan fasting. Results: When before and after Ramadan values in the fasting group were compared, we found that daily protein intake was increased (p <0.001), but fat and carbohydrate intake remained unchanged. A significant reduction was observed in liquid consumption while the frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria was increased. High-density lipoprotein significantly increased, and glycated hemoglobin, insulin, and homeostasis model index significantly decreased (p =0.005, p =0.01, p <0.001, and p =0.03, respectively). A significant increase in ferritin was found (p =0.02). No change was observed in subcutaneous fat thickness, while VFT significantly decreased (p =0.08, p =0.005). However, in the control group, only ferritin level increased. Conclusion: A combined change in the number and timing of meals and the portioning of the entire daily intake into only two meals per day may have beneficial metabolic effects and reduction in VFT during pregnancy. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (4): 298-303. PMID:27688692

  8. [Subcutaneous fat necrosis and persistent hypercalcaemia in a newborn treated with therapeutic neonatal hypothermia. A case report].

    PubMed

    Martínez de Zabarte Fernández, José M; Laliena Aznar, Sara; Corella Aznar, Elena; Cuadrado Piqueras, Laura; Oliván del Cacho, María J; Pinillos Pisón, Raquel

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is the current standard treatment in newborns with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, changing the outcome of these children. It is considered a safe technique with almost no side effects. A possible adverse side event is subcutaneous fat necrosis, which is an acute self-limiting panniculitis that develops during the first weeks of life. We report a case of a newborn at term suffering hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with a generalized multiform erythematous rash and firm and indurated plaques over the back, buttocks and extremities on his 12th day of life after being treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Histopathological study after skin punchbiopsy confirmed the suspicion of subcutaneous fat necrosis. The infant developed asymptomatic moderate hypercalcaemia within the first month of life, which was treated with intravenous fluids and diuretics. Serum calcium levels decreased and normalized in 3 months, with progressive disappearance of skin lesions.

  9. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Abdominal Lipectomy on Weight and Fat Mass in Females: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Seretis, Konstantinos; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Koliakos, Georgios; Demiri, Efterpi

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue is considered as an endocrine organ, which is developed in specific depots, distinguished either as subcutaneous or visceral. Lipectomy, by means of liposuction or abdominoplasty, is a common plastic surgery procedure, which can remove substantial amounts of subcutaneous fat. This systematic review aims to evaluate the impact of surgical removal of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue on body weight and fat mass in females in the short- and long-term. A systematic review was conducted using a predetermined protocol established according to the Cochrane Handbook's recommendations. PubMed, Scopus, CENTRAL, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to December 2014. Eligible studies were prospective studies with ≥1 month of follow-up that included female only individuals who underwent lipectomy of the abdominal region and reported on body weight, body mass index (BMI), or fat mass. Ten studies were included in this systematic review with a total of 231 individuals. A significant weight loss and BMI improvement were reported in 4 out of 5 studies with a mean follow-up of 1-2 months, but in none of the 5 studies with a longer follow-up (3-20 months). Fat mass showed a similar to weight change. The risk of bias was low for the two clinical trials but high for the observational studies included in the review. This systematic review revealed only a transient effect of abdominal lipectomy in body fat and weight in women, which fades a few months after the operation. These results corroborate the evidence from experimental and clinical studies, which support fat redistribution and compensatory fat growth, as a result of feedback mechanisms, triggered by fat removal. Additional clinical studies, with adequate follow-up, may further elucidate the long-term effects of abdominal lipectomy in body weight and composition. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42015017564 ( www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO ).

  10. Smoking Is Associated with More Abdominal Fat in Morbidly Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Daniela; Wagner, Mario; Mottin, Cláudio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While the association between cigarette smoking and abdominal fat has been well studied in normal and overweight patients, data regarding the influence of tobacco use in patients with morbid obesity remain scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate body fat distribution in morbidly obese smokers. Methods We employed a cross-sectional study and grouped severely obese patients (body mass index [BMI] >40 kg/m2 or >35 kg/m2 with comorbidities) according to their smoking habits (smokers or non-smokers). We next compared the anthropometrical measurements and body composition data (measured by electric bioimpedance) of both groups. We analyzed the effect of smoking on body composition variables using univariate and multiple linear regression (MLR); differences are presented as regression coefficients (b) and their respective 95% confidence intervals. Results We included 536 morbidly obese individuals, 453 (84.5%) non-smokers and 83 (15.5%) smokers. Male smokers had a higher BMI (b=3.28 kg/m2, p=0.036), larger waist circumference (b=6.07 cm, p=0.041) and higher percentage of body fat (b=2.33%, p=0.050) than non-smokers. These differences remained significant even after controlling for confounding factors. For females, the only significant finding in MLR was a greater muscle mass among smokers (b=1.34kg, p=0.028). No associations were found between tobacco load measured in pack-years and anthropometric measures or body composition. Discussion Positive associations between smoking and BMI, and waist circumference and percentage of body fat, were found among male morbidly obese patients, but not among females. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first investigation of these aspects in morbidly obese subjects. We speculate that our findings may indicate that the coexistence of morbid obesity and smoking helps to explain the more serious medical conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, seen in these patients. PMID:25978682

  11. Epistatic effects on abdominal fat content in chickens: results from a genome-wide SNP-SNP interaction analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangge; Hu, Guo; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Shouzhi; Wang, Zhipeng; Li, Hui

    2013-01-01

    We performed a pairwise epistatic interaction test using the chicken 60 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip for the 11(th) generation of the Northeast Agricultural University broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content. A linear mixed model was used to test two dimensions of SNP interactions affecting abdominal fat weight. With a threshold of P<1.2×10(-11) by a Bonferroni 5% correction, 52 pairs of SNPs were detected, comprising 45 pairs showing an Additive×Additive and seven pairs showing an Additive×Dominance epistatic effect. The contribution rates of significant epistatic interactive SNPs ranged from 0.62% to 1.54%, with 47 pairs contributing more than 1%. The SNP-SNP network affecting abdominal fat weight constructed using the significant SNP pairs was analyzed, estimated and annotated. On the basis of the network's features, SNPs Gga_rs14303341 and Gga_rs14988623 at the center of the subnet should be important nodes, and an interaction between GGAZ and GGA8 was suggested. Twenty-two quantitative trait loci, 97 genes (including nine non-coding genes), and 50 pathways were annotated on the epistatic interactive SNP-SNP network. The results of the present study provide insights into the genetic architecture underlying broiler chicken abdominal fat weight.

  12. Regular tart cherry intake alters abdominal adiposity, adipose gene transcription, and inflammation in obesity-prone rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Seymour, E M; Lewis, Sarah K; Urcuyo-Llanes, Daniel E; Tanone, Ignasia I; Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2009-10-01

    Obesity, systemic inflammation, and hyperlipidemia are among the components of metabolic syndrome, a spectrum of phenotypes that can precede the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Animal studies show that intake of anthocyanin-rich extracts can affect these phenotypes. Anthocyanins can alter the activity of tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which affect energy substrate metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown if physiologically relevant, anthocyanin-containing whole foods confer similar effects to concentrated, anthocyanin extracts. The effect of anthocyanin-rich tart cherries was tested in the Zucker fatty rat model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. For 90 days, rats were pair-fed a higher fat diet supplemented with either 1% (wt/wt) freeze-dried, whole tart cherry powder or with a calorie- and macronutrient-matched control diet. Tart cherry intake was associated with reduced hyperlipidemia, percentage fat mass, abdominal fat (retroperitoneal) weight, retroperitoneal interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, and plasma IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Tart cherry diet also increased retroperitoneal fat PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma mRNA (P = .12), decreased IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA, and decreased nuclear factor kappaB activity. In conclusion, in at-risk obese rats fed a high fat diet, physiologically relevant tart cherry consumption reduced several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and reduced both systemic and local inflammation. Tart cherries may reduce the degree or trajectory of metabolic syndrome, thereby reducing risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and heart disease. PMID:19857054

  13. Regular tart cherry intake alters abdominal adiposity, adipose gene transcription, and inflammation in obesity-prone rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Seymour, E M; Lewis, Sarah K; Urcuyo-Llanes, Daniel E; Tanone, Ignasia I; Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2009-10-01

    Obesity, systemic inflammation, and hyperlipidemia are among the components of metabolic syndrome, a spectrum of phenotypes that can precede the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Animal studies show that intake of anthocyanin-rich extracts can affect these phenotypes. Anthocyanins can alter the activity of tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which affect energy substrate metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown if physiologically relevant, anthocyanin-containing whole foods confer similar effects to concentrated, anthocyanin extracts. The effect of anthocyanin-rich tart cherries was tested in the Zucker fatty rat model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. For 90 days, rats were pair-fed a higher fat diet supplemented with either 1% (wt/wt) freeze-dried, whole tart cherry powder or with a calorie- and macronutrient-matched control diet. Tart cherry intake was associated with reduced hyperlipidemia, percentage fat mass, abdominal fat (retroperitoneal) weight, retroperitoneal interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, and plasma IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Tart cherry diet also increased retroperitoneal fat PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma mRNA (P = .12), decreased IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA, and decreased nuclear factor kappaB activity. In conclusion, in at-risk obese rats fed a high fat diet, physiologically relevant tart cherry consumption reduced several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and reduced both systemic and local inflammation. Tart cherries may reduce the degree or trajectory of metabolic syndrome, thereby reducing risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

  14. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J.; Lee, William R.; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences. PMID:26295149

  15. Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity in early pregnancy together predict impaired glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy.

    PubMed

    De Souza, L R; Berger, H; Retnakaran, R; Vlachou, P A; Maguire, J L; Nathens, A B; Connelly, P W; Ray, J G

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity individually reflect insulin resistance, but their combined effect on glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy is unknown. A cohort of 476 pregnant women prospectively underwent sonographic assessment of hepatic fat and visceral (VAT) and total (TAT) adipose tissue at 11-14 weeks' gestation. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation between the presence of maternal hepatic fat and/or the upper quartile (Q) of either VAT or TAT and the odds of developing the composite outcome of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks' gestation, based on a 75 g OGTT. Upon adjusting for maternal age, ethnicity, family history of DM and body mass index (BMI), the co-presence of hepatic fat and quartile 4 (Q4) of VAT (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.5, 95% CI: 2.3-18.5) or hepatic fat and Q4 of TAT (aOR 7.8 95% CI 2.8-21.7) were each associated with the composite outcome, relative to women with neither sonographic feature. First-trimester sonographic evidence of maternal hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity may independently predict the development of impaired glucose homeostasis and GDM in mid-pregnancy. PMID:27643724

  16. Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity in early pregnancy together predict impaired glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, L R; Berger, H; Retnakaran, R; Vlachou, P A; Maguire, J L; Nathens, A B; Connelly, P W; Ray, J G

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity individually reflect insulin resistance, but their combined effect on glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy is unknown. A cohort of 476 pregnant women prospectively underwent sonographic assessment of hepatic fat and visceral (VAT) and total (TAT) adipose tissue at 11–14 weeks' gestation. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation between the presence of maternal hepatic fat and/or the upper quartile (Q) of either VAT or TAT and the odds of developing the composite outcome of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or gestational diabetes mellitus at 24–28 weeks' gestation, based on a 75 g OGTT. Upon adjusting for maternal age, ethnicity, family history of DM and body mass index (BMI), the co-presence of hepatic fat and quartile 4 (Q4) of VAT (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.5, 95% CI: 2.3–18.5) or hepatic fat and Q4 of TAT (aOR 7.8 95% CI 2.8–21.7) were each associated with the composite outcome, relative to women with neither sonographic feature. First-trimester sonographic evidence of maternal hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity may independently predict the development of impaired glucose homeostasis and GDM in mid-pregnancy. PMID:27643724

  17. Effect of inulin supplementation and dietary fat source on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, abdominal fat deposition, and tissue fatty acid composition in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Velasco, S; Ortiz, L T; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J; Rodríguez, M L

    2010-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding inulin to diets containing 2 different types of fat as energy sources on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, and fatty acids of abdominal adipose tissue and breast and thigh meat. A total of 240 one-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 1 of 6 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 5 chicks per pen. The experiment consisted of a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 3 concentrations of inulin (0, 5, and 10 g/kg of diet) and 2 types of fat [palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO)] at an inclusion rate of 90 g/kg of diet. The experimental period lasted from 1 to 34 d. Dietary fat type did not affect BW gain but impaired feed conversion (P < 0.001) in birds fed the PO diets compared with birds fed the SO diets. The diets containing PO increased abdominal fat deposition and serum lipid and glucose concentrations. Triacylglycerol contents in liver were higher in the birds fed PO diets. Dietary fat type also modified fatty acids of abdominal and i.m. fat, resulting in a higher concentration of C16:0 and C18:1n-9 and a lower concentration of C18:2n-6 in the birds fed PO diets. The addition of inulin to diets modified (P = 0.017) BW gain quadratically without affecting feed conversion. Dietary inulin decreased the total lipid concentration in liver (P = 0.003) and that of triacylglycerols and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (up to 31%) in blood serum compared with the control groups. The polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio increased in abdominal and i.m. fat when inulin was included in the SO-containing diets. The results from the current study suggest that the addition of inulin to broiler diets has a beneficial effect on blood serum lipids by decreasing triacylglyceride concentrations The results also support the use of inulin to increase the capacity of SO for enhancing polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio of i.m. fat

  18. In Subfertile Couple, Abdominal Fat Loss in Men Is Associated with Improvement of Sperm Quality and Pregnancy: A Case-Series

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Céline; Dupont, Charlotte; Baraibar, Martin A.; Ladouce, Romain; Cedrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Wolf, Jean Philippe; Lévy, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of overweight among men of reproductive-age may affect fertility. Abdominal fat, more than body mass index, is an indicator of higher metabolic risk, which seems to be involved in decreasing sperm quality. This study aims to assess the relationship between abdominal fat and sperm DNA fragmentation and the effect of abdominal fat loss, among 6 men in subfertile couples. Methods Sperm DNA fragmentation, abdominal fat and metabolic and hormonal profiles were measured in the 6 men before and after dietary advices. Seminal oxidative stress and antioxidant markers were determined. Results After several months of a lifestyle program, all 6 men lost abdominal fat (patient 1: loss of 3 points of abdominal fat, patient 2: loss of 3 points, patient 3: loss of 2 points, patient 4: loss of 1 point, patient 5: loss of 4 points and patient 6: loss of 13 points). At the same time, their rate of sperm DNA fragmentation decreased: 9.5% vs 31%, 24% vs 43%, 18% vs 47%, 26.3% vs 66%, 25.4% vs 35% and 1.7% vs 25%. Also, an improvement in both metabolic (significant decrease in triglycerides and total cholesterol; p = 0.0139) and hormonal (significant increase in testosterone/oestradiol ratio; p = 0.0139) blood profiles was observed after following the lifestyle program. In seminal plasma, the amount of SOD2 has significantly increased (p = 0.0139) while in parallel carbonylated proteins have decreased. Furthermore, all spouses got pregnant. All pregnancies were brought to term. Conclusion This study shows specifically that sperm DNA fragmentation among men in subfertile couples could be affected by abdominal fat, but improvement of lifestyle factor may correct this alteration. The effect of specific abdominal fat loss on sperm quality needs further investigation. The reduction of oxidative stress may be a contributing factor. PMID:24520319

  19. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  20. Inverse Relationship between the Inflammatory Marker Pentraxin-3, Fat Body Mass, and Abdominal Obesity in End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Tetsu; Rashid Qureshi, Abdul; Heimbürger, Olof; Bárány, Peter; Carrero, Karin; Sjöberg, Bodil; Lindholm, Bengt; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) belongs to the same pentraxin superfamily of acute-phase reactants as C-reactive protein (CRP). Abdominal fat accumulation in ESRD is considered a chronic inflammatory state, but the relationship of PTX3 to this phenomenon is unknown. This study assesses plausible associations between PTX3 and surrogates of fat mass deposits in dialysis patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Circulating levels of PTX3, CRP, and IL-6 were cross-sectionally analyzed in relation to anthropometric and nutritional surrogate markers of fat tissue in two cohorts comprising 156 prevalent hemodialysis (HD) and 216 incident dialysis patients. Results In both cohorts, PTX3 was negatively associated with body mass index (BMI) and fat body mass index (FBMI) derived from anthropometrics and leptin, whereas there was a positive association with adiponectin. In prevalent HD patients, those with larger waist circumference (above gender-specific median values) had lower PTX3, higher CRP, and higher IL-6 levels. This was also true in multivariate analyses. In both cohorts, multivariate regression analyses showed that PTX3 was negatively and CRP (or IL-6) was positively associated with FBMI. Conclusions Although CRP and IL-6 were directly associated with body fat, PTX3 levels showed negative correlations with surrogates of adipose tissue in two independent cohorts of ESRD patients. Understanding the underlying reasons behind these opposite associations may have clinical relevance given the survival advantage described for obese patients on dialysis. PMID:22157708

  1. Leptin ameliorates ischemic necrosis of the femoral head in rats with obesity induced by a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lu; Jang, Kyu Yun; Moon, Young Jae; Wagle, Sajeev; Kim, Kyoung Min; Lee, Kwang Bok; Park, Byung-Hyun; Kim, Jung Ryul

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for ischemic necrosis of the femoral head (INFH). The purpose of this study was to determine if leptin treatment of INFH stimulates new bone formation to preserve femoral head shape in rats with diet-induced obesity. Rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or normal chow diet (NCD) for 16 weeks to induce progressive development of obesity. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN) was surgically induced. Adenovirus-mediated introduction of the leptin gene was by intravenous injection 2 days before surgery-induced AVN. At 6 weeks post-surgery, radiologic and histomorphometric assessments were performed. Leptin signaling in tissues was examined by Western blot. Osteogenic markers were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Radiographs showed better preservation of femoral head architecture in the HFD-AVN-Leptin group than the HFD-AVN and HFD-AVN-LacZ groups. Histology and immunohistochemistry revealed the HFD-AVN-Leptin group had significantly increased osteoblastic proliferation and vascularity in infarcted femoral heads compared with the HFD-AVN and HFD-AVN-LacZ groups. Intravenous injection of leptin enhanced serum VEGF levels and activated HIF-1α pathways. Runx 2 and its target genes were significantly upregulated in the HFD-AVN-Leptin group. These results indicate that leptin resistance is important in INFH pathogenesis. Leptin therapy could be a new strategy for INFH. PMID:25797953

  2. The effects of high fat, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate diets on tumor necrosis factor superfamily proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Sirjani, Mahshid; Taleban, Foroogh Azam; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Amiri, Zohreh; Pellizzon, Michael; Hedayati, Mehdi; Bidad, Katayoon; Shokouhi Shoormasti, Raheleh; Pourpak, Zahra

    2014-08-01

    There has been considerable inconsistency regarding the potential relationship between dyslipidemia and bone metabolism. The inflammatory stimulation through the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/ receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)/ osteoprotegerin (OPG) pathway could be the infrastructural mechanism for hypercholesterolemia-induced bone loss.In this study, we investigated the effect of dyslipidemia on RANKL and OPG alongside with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thirty male C57Bl/6 mice (4 weeks old) were randomized to two purified diet groups (15 animals in each group), high fat, low carbohydrate diet (HFLCD) and its matched low fat, high carbohydrate diet (LFHCD). After 12 weeks of feeding in standard situations, the plasma concentration of lipid profile, interleukin (IL) 1Beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and RANKL, OPG, and RANKL: OPG ratio were measured.In the present study, although the body weight significantly increased during 12 weeks in HFLCD and LFHCD groups, there were no significant differences in food intake, food efficiency ratio and weight gain between the two groups. The LFHCD group had significantly higher median RANKL and RANKL/OPG ratio. There was no significant difference in plasma IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α concentration between LFHCD and HFLCD groups.These unexpected findings from LFHCD, that seem to be as a result of its higher carbohydrate proportion in comparison to HFLCD, implicate dietary carbohydrate rather than dietary fat as a more significant nutritional factor contributing to change in RANKL level and RANKL: OPG ratio.

  3. Effects of GH and/or sex steroid administration on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat in healthy aged women and men.

    PubMed

    Münzer, T; Harman, S M; Hees, P; Shapiro, E; Christmas, C; Bellantoni, M F; Stevens, T E; O'Connor, K G; Pabst, K M; St Clair, C; Sorkin, J D; Blackman, M R

    2001-08-01

    Aging is associated with reduced GH, IGF-I, and sex steroid axis activity and with increased abdominal fat. We employed a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, noncross-over design to study the effects of 6 months of administration of GH alone (20 microg/kg BW), sex hormone alone (hormone replacement therapy in women, testosterone enanthate in men), or GH + sex hormone on total abdominal area, abdominal sc fat, and visceral fat in 110 healthy women (n = 46) and men (n = 64), 65-88 yr old (mean, 72 yr). GH administration increased IGF-I levels in women (P = 0.05) and men (P = 0.0001), with the increment in IGF-I levels being higher in men (P = 0.05). Sex steroid administration increased levels of estrogen and testosterone in women and men, respectively (P = 0.05). In women, neither GH, hormone replacement therapy, nor GH + hormone replacement therapy altered total abdominal area, sc fat, or visceral fat significantly. In contrast, in men, administration of GH and GH + testosterone enanthate decreased total abdominal area by 3.9% and 3.8%, respectively, within group and vs. placebo (P = 0.05). Within-group comparisons revealed that sc fat decreased by 10% (P = 0.01) after GH, and by 14% (P = 0.0005) after GH + testosterone enanthate. Compared with placebo, sc fat decreased by 14% (P = 0.05) after GH, by 7% (P = 0.05) after testosterone enanthate, and by 16% (P = 0.0005) after GH + testosterone enanthate. Compared with placebo, visceral fat did not decrease significantly after administration of GH, testosterone enanthate, or GH + testosterone enanthate. These data suggest that in healthy older individuals, GH and/or sex hormone administration elicits a sexually dimorphic response on sc abdominal fat. The generally proportionate reductions we observed in sc and visceral fat, after 6 months of GH administration in healthy aged men, contrast with the disproportionate reduction of visceral fat reported after a similar period of GH treatment of nonelderly GH

  4. Validation of Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Measures of Abdominal Fat by Comparison with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Amy E.; Kuper, Hannah; Varma, Ravi D.; Wells, Jonathan C.; Bell, Jimmy D.; V.Radhakrishna, K.; Kulkarni, Bharati; Kinra, Sanjay; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Ebrahim, Shah; Smith, George Davey; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Objective Abdominal adiposity is an important risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Indians. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to determine abdominal fat depots, being more accessible and less costly than gold standard measures such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DXA has not been fully validated for use in South Asians. Here, we determined the accuracy of DXA for measurement of abdominal fat in an Indian population by comparison with MRI. Design 146 males and females (age range 18–74, BMI range 15–46 kg/m2) from Hyderabad, India underwent whole body DXA scans on a Hologic Discovery A scanner, from which fat mass in two abdominal regions was calculated, from the L1 to L4 vertebrae (L1L4) and from the L2 to L4 vertebrae (L2L4). Abdominal MRI scans (axial T1-weighted spin echo images) were taken, from which adipose tissue volumes were calculated for the same regions. Results Intra-class correlation coefficients between DXA and MRI measures of abdominal fat were high (0.98 for both regions). Although at the level of the individual, differences between DXA and MRI could be large (95% of DXA measures were between 0.8 and 1.4 times MRI measures), at the sample level, DXA only slightly overestimated MRI measures of abdominal fat mass (mean difference in L1L4 region: 2% (95% CI:0%, 5%), mean difference in L2L4 region:4% (95% CI: 1%, 7%)). There was evidence of a proportional bias in the association between DXA and MRI (correlation between difference and mean −0.3), with overestimation by DXA greater in individuals with less abdominal fat (mean bias in leaner half of sample was 6% for L1L4 (95%CI: 2, 11%) and 7% for L2L4 (95% CI:3,12%). Conclusions DXA measures of abdominal fat are suitable for use in Indian populations and provide a good indication of abdominal adiposity at the population level. PMID:23272086

  5. Optimization of abdominal fat quantification on CT imaging through use of standardized anatomic space: A novel approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The quantification of body fat plays an important role in the study of numerous diseases. It is common current practice to use the fat area at a single abdominal computed tomography (CT) slice as a marker of the body fat content in studying various disease processes. This paper sets out to answer three questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. At what single anatomic slice location do the areas of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) estimated from the slice correlate maximally with the corresponding fat volume measures? How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? Are there combinations of multiple slices (not necessarily contiguous) whose area sum correlates better with volume than does single slice area with volume? Methods: The authors propose a novel strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. The authors then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. To address the third issue, the authors carry out similar correlation studies by utilizing two and three slices for calculating area sum. Results: Based on 50 abdominal CT data sets, the proposed mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized currently for single slice area estimation as a marker. Conclusions: The maximum area-to-volume correlation achieved is quite high, suggesting that it may be reasonable to estimate body fat by measuring the area of fat from a single anatomic slice at the site of maximum correlation and use this as a marker. The site of maximum correlation is not at L4-L5 as commonly assumed

  6. Noncontrast computed tomography can predict the outcome of shockwave lithotripsy via accurate stone measurement and abdominal fat distribution determination.

    PubMed

    Geng, Jiun-Hung; Tu, Hung-Pin; Shih, Paul Ming-Chen; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Jang, Mei-Yu; Wu, Wen-Jen; Li, Ching-Chia; Chou, Yii-Her; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease of the urinary system. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) has become one of the standard treatments for renal and ureteral stones; however, the success rates range widely and failure of stone disintegration may cause additional outlay, alternative procedures, and even complications. We used the data available from noncontrast abdominal computed tomography (NCCT) to evaluate the impact of stone parameters and abdominal fat distribution on calculus-free rates following SWL. We retrospectively reviewed 328 patients who had urinary stones and had undergone SWL from August 2012 to August 2013. All of them received pre-SWL NCCT; 1 month after SWL, radiography was arranged to evaluate the condition of the fragments. These patients were classified into stone-free group and residual stone group. Unenhanced computed tomography variables, including stone attenuation, abdominal fat area, and skin-to-stone distance (SSD) were analyzed. In all, 197 (60%) were classified as stone-free and 132 (40%) as having residual stone. The mean ages were 49.35 ± 13.22 years and 55.32 ± 13.52 years, respectively. On univariate analysis, age, stone size, stone surface area, stone attenuation, SSD, total fat area (TFA), abdominal circumference, serum creatinine, and the severity of hydronephrosis revealed statistical significance between these two groups. From multivariate logistic regression analysis, the independent parameters impacting SWL outcomes were stone size, stone attenuation, TFA, and serum creatinine. [Adjusted odds ratios and (95% confidence intervals): 9.49 (3.72-24.20), 2.25 (1.22-4.14), 2.20 (1.10-4.40), and 2.89 (1.35-6.21) respectively, all p < 0.05]. In the present study, stone size, stone attenuation, TFA and serum creatinine were four independent predictors for stone-free rates after SWL. These findings suggest that pretreatment NCCT may predict the outcomes after SWL. Consequently, we can use these predictors for selecting

  7. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS. PMID:23411176

  8. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS.

  9. DXA estimates of fat in abdominal, trunk and hip regions varies by ethnicity in men

    PubMed Central

    Stults-Kolehmainen, M A; Stanforth, P R; Bartholomew, J B; Lu, T; Abolt, C J; Sinha, R

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether the quantity of fat is different across the central (that is, android, trunk) and peripheral (that is, arm, leg and gynoid) regions among young African-American (AA), Asian (AS), Hispanic (HI) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) men. Subjects and Methods: A cohort of 852 men (18–30 years; mean total body fat percent (TBF%)=18.8±7.9, range=3.7–45.4) were assessed for body composition in five body regions via dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results: HI men (21.8±8.3) had higher TBF% than AA (17.0±10.0), NHW (17.9±7.2) and AS (18.9±8.0) groups (P-values <0.0001). AS had a lower BMI (23.9±3.4) than all other groups, and NHW (24.7±3.2) had a lower BMI than HI (25.7±3.9) and AA (26.5±4.7; P-values<0.0001). A linear mixed model (LMM) revealed a significant ethnicity by region fat% interaction (P<0.0001). HI men had a greater fat% than NHW for every region (adjusted means (%); android: 29.6 vs 23.3; arm: 13.3 vs 10.6; gynoid: 27.2 vs 23.8; leg: 21.2 vs 18.3; trunk: 25.5 vs 20.6) and a greater fat% than AA for every region except the arm. In addition, in the android and trunk regions, HI had a greater fat% than AS, and AS had a higher fat% than AA. Finally, the android fat% for AS was higher than that of NHW. When comparing the region fat% within ethnicities, the android region was greater than the gynoid region for AS and HI, but did not differ for AA and NHW, and the arm region had the least fat% in all ethnicities. Conclusions: Fat deposition and body fat patterning varies by ethnicity. PMID:23507968

  10. Mildly compromised tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor biosynthesis due to Pts variants leads to unusual body fat distribution and abdominal obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Korner, Germaine; Scherer, Tanja; Adamsen, Dea; Rebuffat, Alexander; Crabtree, Mark; Rassi, Anahita; Scavelli, Rossana; Homma, Daigo; Ledermann, Birgit; Konrad, Daniel; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Wolfrum, Christian; Horsch, Marion; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klingenspor, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; Wolf, Eckhard; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Blau, Nenad; Rozman, Jan; Thöny, Beat

    2016-03-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, alkylglycerol monooxygenase, and nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Inborn errors of BH4 metabolism lead to severe insufficiency of brain monoamine neurotransmitters while augmentation of BH4 by supplementation or stimulation of its biosynthesis is thought to ameliorate endothelial NOS (eNOS) dysfunction, to protect from (cardio-) vascular disease and/or prevent obesity and development of the metabolic syndrome. We have previously reported that homozygous knock-out mice for the 6-pyruvolytetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS; Pts-ko/ko) mice with no BH4 biosynthesis die after birth. Here we generated a Pts-knock-in (Pts-ki) allele expressing the murine PTPS-p.Arg15Cys with low residual activity (15% of wild-type in vitro) and investigated homozygous (Pts-ki/ki) and compound heterozygous (Pts-ki/ko) mutants. All mice showed normal viability and depending on the severity of the Pts alleles exhibited up to 90% reduction of PTPS activity concomitant with neopterin elevation and mild reduction of total biopterin while blood L-phenylalanine and brain monoamine neurotransmitters were unaffected. Yet, adult mutant mice with compromised PTPS activity (i.e., Pts-ki/ko, Pts-ki/ki or Pts-ko/wt) had increased body weight and elevated intra-abdominal fat. Comprehensive phenotyping of Pts-ki/ki mice revealed alterations in energy metabolism with proportionally higher fat content but lower lean mass, and increased blood glucose and cholesterol. Transcriptome analysis indicated changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes associated with obesity, weight loss, hepatic steatosis, and insulin sensitivity were consistent with the observed phenotypic alterations. We conclude that reduced PTPS activity concomitant with mildly compromised BH4-biosynthesis leads to abnormal body fat distribution and abdominal obesity at least in mice. This study associates a novel

  11. Body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile in response to a novel hydroxycitric acid-based dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sashwati; Rink, Cameron; Khanna, Savita; Phillips, Christina; Bagchi, Debasis; Bagchi, Manashi; Sen, Chandan K

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is a global public health problem, with about 315 million people worldwide estimated to fall into the WHO-defined obesity categories. Traditional herbal medicines may have some potential in managing obesity. Botanical dietary supplements often contain complex mixtures of phytochemicals that have additive or synergistic interactions. The dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, also known as Malabar tamarind, is a unique source of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), which exhibits a distinct sour taste and has been safely used for centuries in Southeastern Asia to make meals more filling. Recently it has been demonstrated that HCA-SX or Super Citrimax, a novel derivative of HCA, is safe when taken orally and that HCA-SX is bioavailable in the human plasma as studied by GC-MS. Although HCA-SX has been observed to be conditionally effective in weight management in experimental animals as well as in humans, its mechanism of action remains to be understood. We sought to determine the effects of low-dose oral HCA-SX on the body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. We observed that at doses relevant for human consumption dietary HCA-SX significantly contained body weight growth. This response was associated with lowered abdominal fat leptin expression while plasma leptin levels remained unaffected. Repeated high-density microarray analysis of 9960 genes and ESTs present in the fat tissue identified a small set (approximately 1% of all genes screened) of specific genes sensitive to dietary HCA-SX. Other genes, including vital genes transcribing for mitochondrial/nuclear proteins and which are necessary for fundamental support of the tissue, were not affected by HCA-SX. Under the current experimental conditions, HCA-SX proved to be effective in restricting body weight gain in adult rats. Functional characterization of HCA-SX-sensitive genes revealed that upregulation of genes encoding serotonin receptors represent a distinct effect of

  12. Effects of high-intensity exercise training on body composition, abdominal fat loss, and cardiorespiratory fitness in middle-aged Korean females.

    PubMed

    Lee, Man-Gyoon; Park, Kyung-Shin; Kim, Do-Ung; Choi, Soon-Mi; Kim, Hyoung-Jun

    2012-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity exercise training under relatively equal energy expenditure on whole body fat and abdominal fat loss, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty-two untrained middle-aged Korean females were randomized into one of the following groups: control, low-intensity training group (LI), and high-intensity training group (HI). Subjects completed 14 weeks of training at 50% maximal oxygen consumption (LI) or 70% maximal oxygen consumption (HI) with the volume of exercise equated relative to kilograms of body weight. Weekly exercise volumes were 13.5 METs⋅h/week for the first 4 weeks, 18 METs⋅h/week for next 5 weeks, and 22.5 METs⋅h/week for the final 5 weeks. Data were analyzed using 2-way repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc test, using Bonferroni's correction. HI showed significant reductions in fat mass (p < 0.05), total abdominal fat (p < 0.01), and subcutaneous abdominal fat (p < 0.01). LI reduced total abdominal fat (p < 0.05), but there were no other significant changes found in the control or LI groups. Maximal oxygen consumption was enhanced in both HI and LI with no significant group difference. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly in HI (p < 0.05). IL-6, C-reactive protein, TNF-α, and other blood lipids were unaltered following training. Results indicate that high-intensity exercise training is more beneficial in whole body and abdominal fat loss; however, cardiorespiratory enhancement shows a dose-response relationship with weekly exercise volume. It is suggested that 14 weeks of aerobic exercise training at either high- or low-intensity is not sufficient enough to induce changes in levels of inflammatory proteins.

  13. Daily intake of rosehip extract decreases abdominal visceral fat in preobese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Nagatomo, Akifumi; Nishida, Norihisa; Fukuhara, Ikuo; Noro, Akira; Kozai, Yoshimichi; Sato, Hisao; Matsuura, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity has become a great problem all over the world. We repeatedly screened to find an effective food to treat obesity and discovered that rosehip extract shows potent anti-obesity effects. Investigations in mice have demonstrated that rosehip extract inhibits body weight gain and decreases visceral fat. Thus, the present study examined the effect of rosehip extract on human body fat in preobese subjects. Methods We conducted a 12-week, single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 32 subjects who had a body mass index of ≥25 but <30. The subjects were assigned to two random groups, and they received one tablet of placebo or rosehip that contained 100 mg of rosehip extract once each day for 12 weeks with no dietary intervention. Abdominal fat area and body fat percent were measured as primary outcomes. The other outcomes were body weight and body mass index. Results Abdominal total fat area, abdominal visceral fat area, body weight, and body mass index decreased significantly in the rosehip group at week 12 compared with their baseline levels (P<0.01) after receiving the rosehip tablet intake, and the decreases in these parameters were significantly higher when compared with those in the placebo group. Additionally, body fat percent tended to decrease compared with the placebo group and their baseline level. Moreover, the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was significantly lower in the rosehip group than in the placebo group at week 12 after the initiation of intake (P<0.05). In addition, there were no abnormalities, subjective symptoms, and findings that may indicate clinical problems during the study period. Conclusion These results suggest that rosehip extract may be a good candidate food material for preventing obesity. PMID:25834460

  14. Preventive effect of a melon extract rich in superoxide scavenging activity on abdominal and liver fat and adipokine imbalance in high-fat-fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Décordé, Kelly; Agne, Anta; Lacan, Dominique; Ramos, Jeanne; Fouret, Gilles; Ventura, Emilie; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2009-07-22

    Studies showed that dietary antioxidants could be a therapy against obesity that is associated with a state of oxidative stress. Thus, this paper investigates whether a dietary ingredient, a melon juice extract rich in superoxide dismutase, would prevent the development of such obesity in hamsters. Five groups received a standard diet or a high-fat diet (HF) plus a daily gavage with water (control) or extract at 0.7, 2.8, or 5.6 mg/day. After 84 days, the higher dose lowered triglyceridemia (68%), production of liver superoxide anion (12%), mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity (40%), lipid and protein oxidation products (35 and 35%, respectively), and leptinemia (99%) and increased adiponectinemia (29%), leading to a concomitant reduction in insulinemia (39%), insulin resistance (41%), and abdominal lipids (25%). The extract triggered a remarkable decrease of liver lipids (73%) and fully prevented the steatohepatitis induced by the HF diet. Chronic consumption of this melon extract may represent a new alternative to reduce obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

  15. Interrelationships between changes in anthropometric variables and computed tomography indices of abdominal fat distribution in response to a 1-year physical activity-healthy eating lifestyle modification program in abdominally obese men.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Nicole; Pelletier-Beaumont, Emilie; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Lemieux, Isabelle; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The objectives were to (i) measure the effects of a 1-year lifestyle modification program on body fat distribution/anthropometric variables; (ii) determine the interrelationships between changes in all these variables; and (iii) investigate whether there is a selective reduction in deep (DSAT) vs. superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SSAT) at the abdominal level following a 1-year lifestyle modification program. Anthropometric variables, body composition and abdominal and midthigh fat distribution were assessed at baseline and after 1 year in 109 sedentary, dyslipidemic and abdominally obese men. Reductions in anthropometric variables, skinfold thicknesses (except the trunk/extremity ratio) and fat mass as well as an increase in fat-free mass were observed after 1 year (p < 0.0001). Decreases in abdominal adipose tissue volumes were also noted (-23%, -26%, -18%, -19%, -17%, p < 0.0001 for total adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, DSAT and SSAT, respectively). Adipose tissue areas at midthigh also decreased (-18%, -18%, -17%, p < 0.0001 for total, deep, and subcutaneous adipose tissue, respectively). A reduction (-9%, p < 0.0001) in low-attenuation muscle area and an increase (+1%, p < 0.05) in normal-attenuation muscle area were also observed. There was a positive relationship between changes in visceral adipose tissue and changes in DSAT (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001) or SSAT (r = 0.63, p < 0.0001). Although absolute changes in DSAT were greater than changes in SSAT, relative changes in both depots were similar, independent of changes in visceral adipose tissue. The 1-year lifestyle modification program therefore improved the body fat distribution pattern and midthigh muscle quality in abdominally obese men.

  16. Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercised-induced weight loss. Methods: Participants (N=132) were randomly assigned to receive a 500 mL beverage containing approximately 625 mg of...

  17. Whole-body electromyostimulation as a means to impact muscle mass and abdominal body fat in lean, sedentary, older female adults: subanalysis of the TEST-III trial

    PubMed Central

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 months of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) exercise on appendicular muscle mass and abdominal fat mass in subjects specifically at risk for sarcopenia and abdominal obesity, but unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally. Methods Forty-six lean, nonsportive (<60 minutes of exercise per week), elderly women (aged 75 ± 4 years) with abdominal obesity according to International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n=23) which performed 18 minutes of intermittent, bipolar WB-EMS (85 Hz) three sessions in 14 days or an “active” control group (n=23). Whole-body and regional body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine appendicular muscle mass, upper leg muscle mass, abdominal fat mass, and upper leg fat mass. Maximum strength of the leg extensors was determined isometrically by force plates. Results After 12 months, significant intergroup differences were detected for the primary end-points of appendicular muscle mass (0.5% ± 2.0% for the WB-EMS group versus −0.8% ± 2.0% for the control group, P=0.025) and abdominal fat mass (−1.2% ± 5.9% for the WB-EMS group versus 2.4% ± 5.8% for the control group, P=0.038). Further, upper leg lean muscle mass changed favorably in the WB-EMS group (0.5% ± 2.5% versus −0.9% ± 1.9%, in the control group, P=0.033), while effects for upper leg fat mass were borderline nonsignificant (−0.8% ± 3.5% for the WB-EMS group versus 1.0% ± 2.6% for the control group, P=0.050). With respect to functional parameters, the effects for leg extensor strength were again significant, with more favorable changes in the WB-EMS group (9.1% ± 11.2% versus 1.0% ± 8.1% in the control group, P=0.010). Conclusion In summary, WB-EMS showed positive effects on the parameters of sarcopenia and regional fat accumulation. Further, considering the good acceptance of this technology by

  18. A genome-wide scan of selective sweeps in two broiler chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic regions controlling abdominal fatness (AF) were studied in the Northeast Agricultural University broiler line divergently selected for AF. In this study, the chicken 60KSNP chip and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) test were used to detect genome-wide signatures of AF. Results A total of 5357 and 5593 core regions were detected in the lean and fat lines, and 51 and 57 reached a significant level (P<0.01), respectively. A number of genes in the significant core regions, including RB1, BBS7, MAOA, MAOB, EHBP1, LRP2BP, LRP1B, MYO7A, MYO9A and PRPSAP1, were detected. These genes may be important for AF deposition in chickens. Conclusions We provide a genome-wide map of selection signatures in the chicken genome, and make a contribution to the better understanding the mechanisms of selection for AF content in chickens. The selection for low AF in commercial breeding using this information will accelerate the breeding progress. PMID:23241142

  19. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities.

  20. [Systolic pressure, abdominal obesity and body fat, metabolic syndrome predictors in Spanish preschoolers].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Hervás, Ana Isabel; Rizo Baeza, María Mercedes; Martínez Amorós, Natalia; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2015-05-01

    Se plantea como objetivo determinar la presencia de predictores de síndrome metabólico en niños de 2 a 7 años en relación a su estado nutricional. Método: Estudio descriptivo con análisis cuantitativo en 260 niños de 2-7 años (135 niñas y 125 niños), 66% del total censados. Se midieron parámetros antropométricos y tensión arterial y se calcularon IMC, grasa corporal según Hoffman e índice cintura-talla (ICT). Se realizaron subgrupos con Z-Score del IMC según edad y sexo (bajo peso, normopeso, sobrepeso y obesidad), según grasa corporal (normal y con exceso), ICT (normal y obesidad abdominal) y tensión sistólica (normotensos e hipertensos según edad y sexo). Se utilizó como variable principal la clasificación según Z-Score del IMC. Resultados: La prevalencia combinada de sobrepeso y obesidad fue del 27%, sin diferencias por sexo. El estado nutricional relacionó significativamente con tensión arterial, grasa corporal e índice cintura-talla. Mayor porcentaje de obesos con tensión arterial sistólica alta que de normonutridos (OR=4.1; IC95% 1.7-9.8; p.

  1. The effect of reverse protein and low protein feeding regimens in the rearing period on pullet growth, subsequent performance, and liver and abdominal fat at end of lay.

    PubMed

    Maurice, D V; Hughes, B L; Jones, J E; Weber, J M

    1982-12-01

    Four brown egg strains were used to study the effect of rearing diets on growth and performance. The treatments were arranged in a 4 x 3 factorial with two replicates of 45 birds. The control diet was formulated and fed to National Research Council recommendations. Birds on reverse protein (RP) were fed diets with 13, 16, and 19% protein and those on low protein (LP) regimen received a 13.5% protein diet with amino acids adjusted on a megacalorie basis to approximate the control diet. At 20 weeks of age pullets were caged and fed a standard layer diet. Logistic curves were fitted to the growth data by a nonlinear least squares method and the parameters of each curve analyzed. No significant strain x diet interactions were observed. There were significant differences among strains in weight gain and feed intake. Dietary regimens had no significant effect on total gain and feed intake. However, diets significantly altered age at one-half maximum growth or inflection point (alpha) and mean growth rate (rho). Inflection point of the growth curve was significantly delayed in birds fed RP and LP diets. Although apparent conversion was not affected by diets, the partition coefficients at any time (t) for maintenance (beta mt) and gain (beta gt) were altered. Neither strain nor dietary regimens affected abdominal fat or organ weights at the end of the rearing period. No significant effect of rearing dietary regimens was detected in age at 50% production or peak production, feed conversion, feed intake, livability, liver fat, abdominal fat, or shell strength. The reverse-protein regimen significantly depressed egg weight. The results of the study indicate that 1) the rearing dietary regimens were adequate for strains of different body weight and egg output characteristics; 2) dietary alteration of growth curve parameters failed to influence production, feed intake, mortality, shell strength, livability, liver fat, or abdominal fat during the production period. PMID:6897679

  2. The morphology of apoptosis and necrosis of fat cells after photodynamic treatment at a constant temperature in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Orlova, Tatyana G.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy with temperature control is a new approach for treatment of obesity and cellulite. Cell death can occur under the action of various physical, chemical and biological factors. Depending on the inductor, this is apoptosis or necrosis. These two forms of cell death differ on the biochemical and morphological levels. Biochemical changes occur quickly enough and it raises difficulties of their detection. One of the morphological characteristics of apoptosis is a decrease (contraction) of cells, and necrosis - an increase in the size of the cell (swelling). This attribute simply determined visually using a digital microscope. The program was designed using LabVEIW media, which allowed us to develop the software for providing interaction with the measuring and control equipment, data collection, processing and displaying the information and results of calculations and simulations for the individual cells and ensembles of cells, and, in general, to automate process.

  3. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2) recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32]) and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86]) than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]). A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]). Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that contribute to metabolic status

  4. Impact of weight loss with or without exercise on abdominal fat and insulin resistance in obese individuals: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Trussardi Fayh, Ana Paula; Lopes, André Luiz; Fernandes, Pablo Rober; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Friedman, Rogério

    2013-08-28

    Evidence supports an important contribution of abdominal obesity and inflammation to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and CVD. Weight loss in obese individuals can reduce inflammation and, consequently, IR, but the role of training remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of body weight reduction with and without exercise over abdominal fat tissue (primary outcome) and IR. In this randomised clinical trial, forty-eight obese individuals (age 31·8 (SD 6·0) years, BMI 34·8 (SD 2·7) kg/m2) were randomised to either a diet-only group (DI) or a diet and exercise group (DI þ EXE). Treatment was maintained until 5% of the initial body weight was lost. At baseline and upon completion, the following parameters were analysed: biochemical parameters such as glycaemia and insulin for the determination of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and abdominal computed tomography for the determination of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. A total of thirteen individuals dropped out before completing the weight-loss intervention and did not repeat the tests. In both the DI (n 18) and DI þ EXE (n 17) groups, we observed significant and similar decreases of visceral adipose tissue (difference between means: 7·9 (95% CI 29·5, 25·2) cm2, P¼0·36), hs-CRP (difference between means: 20·06 (95% CI 20·19, 0·03) mg/l, P¼0·39) and HOMA (difference between means: 20·04 (95% CI 20·17, 0·08), P¼0·53). In the present study, 5% weight loss reduced abdominal fat and IR in obese individuals and exercise did not add to the effect of weight loss on the outcome variables.

  5. Associations of birth weight, linear growth and relative weight gain throughout life with abdominal fat depots in adulthood: the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Araújo de França, G V; Lucia Rolfe, E De; Horta, B L; Gigante, D P; Yudkin, J S; Ong, K K; Victora, C G

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported on associations of size at birth and early growth with general and central obesity; however, few have examined the potential effects of birth weight and postnatal growth on separate abdominal fat compartments. We investigated the effects of size at birth, linear growth and relative weight gain from birth to adulthood on visceral (VFT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAFT) fat thicknesses at age 30 years. Methods: A total of 2663 participants from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study had complete information on ultrasound measures of abdominal fat at age 30 years, and anthropometric measurements for at least five visits (0/2/4/23/30 years). We estimated weight and height Z-score changes, conditional relative weight gain and conditional height at several ages. Results: In both men and women, VFT and SAFT showed positive associations with conditional relative weight gain during all age periods beyond 2 years and birth, respectively (all P⩽0.01). Women born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) had greater VFT than other women (difference=0.15 s.d., 95% CI: 0.01–0.29), and they showed a stronger positive influence of infant weight gain 0–2 years on VFT (IUGR: β=0.17 s.d., 95% CI: 0.05–0.29; non-IUGR: β=0.01 s.d., 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.06; Pinteraction=0.02). Stunting at 2 years was associated with lower SAFT but not VFT, and it modified the influence of weight gain 2–4 years on SAFT in both sexes (both Pinteraction<0.05). Conclusions: Our findings reinforce the advantages of being born with an appropriate birth weight, and the hazards of rapid postnatal gains in weight relative to linear growth, particularly after the critical window of the first 1000 days. PMID:26395747

  6. Omental infarction and its mimics: imaging features of acute abdominal conditions presenting with fat stranding greater than the degree of bowel wall thickening.

    PubMed

    Tonerini, Michele; Calcagni, Francesca; Lorenzi, Silvia; Scalise, Paola; Grigolini, Alessandro; Bemi, Pietro

    2015-08-01

    The segmental omental infarction is a rare self-limited disorder presenting with aspecific clinical symptoms that may mimic several acute abdominal conditions. Therefore, a correct noninvasive diagnosis is important because treatment approaches range from monitoring to surgery. As omental infarction results in an important fat stranding that is much greater than the degree of bowel wall thickening, it suggests a narrower differential diagnosis: appendicitis, diverticulitis, epiploic appendagitis, and mesenteric panniculitis. In this pictorial essay, we point out the importance of imaging in identifying this typical sign allowing alternate diagnoses such as segmental omental infarction that can be conservatively managed.

  7. The utility of dual bioelectrical impedance analysis in detecting intra-abdominal fat area in obese patients during weight reduction therapy in comparison with waist circumference and abdominal CT.

    PubMed

    Yamakage, Hajime; Ito, Ryo; Tochiya, Mayu; Muranaka, Kazuya; Tanaka, Masashi; Matsuo, Yoshiyuki; Odori, Shinji; Kono, Shigeo; Shimatsu, Akira; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    An increase in intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) is an essential component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Waist circumference (WC) is not a precise measure of IAFA, and computed tomography (CT) is unsuitable for frequent monitoring. Here, we examined utility of a dual bioelectrical impedance analysis (Dual BIA) for measuring IAFA in obese patients during weight reduction. Fat distribution was measured by Dual BIA and CT in 100 obese outpatients. All fat areas including total, IAFA, and subcutaneous fat by Dual BIA were more closely correlated with those by CT than WC. Estimated IAFA by Dual BIA was significantly correlated with number of MetS components as well as CT, but WC was not. Furthermore, in 61 obese patients who received 6-month weight reduction therapy, estimated IAFA by Dual BIA showed an earlier and greater decrease as well as that by CT than WC and BMI. In addition, decrease in estimated IAFA by Dual BIA through weight reduction had a higher correlation with decrease in IAFA by CT, than WC. This study is the first to demonstrate that the change in estimated IAFA by Dual BIA was highly correlated with that in IAFA by CT during weight reduction therapy. Our findings also indicate that estimated IAFA by Dual BIA is, potentially, a better indicator of severity of MetS, cardiovascular risk factors, and effectiveness of weight reduction than WC, and equal to IAFA by CT. Estimated IAFA by Dual BIA may be useful for monitoring the effectiveness of weight reduction therapy in obese patients.

  8. A Comparison of the Abdominal Fat Distribution and Coronary Risk Markers in Body Mass Index-matched Subjects with and without Fatty Liver.

    PubMed

    Shiina, Yutaka; Homma, Koichiro; Ozawa, Hideki; Yoshizawa, Joe; Kobayashi, Takako; Igarashi, Mihoko; Aikawa, Minoru; Shibata, Takeo; Homma, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective The close relationship between fatty liver and metabolic syndrome suggests that individuals with fatty liver may have multiple coronary risk factors. In the present study, we investigated the relationships among fatty liver, abdominal fat distribution, and coronary risk markers. Methods and Results Eighty-seven pairs of men and 42 pairs of women who were matched for age and body mass index were enrolled in the present study. The obesity-related markers, abdominal fat distribution (examined by CT), and coronary risk markers were compared in subjects with and without fatty liver. The visceral fat area was significantly larger in the men with fatty liver than in the men without fatty liver. The plasma levels of triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), as well as the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance level, were higher in both males and females with fatty liver than in those without fatty liver, while the plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and adiponectin were lower in the males and females with fatty liver. The plasma levels of apolipoprotein B, remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C), and oxidized LDL were higher in men with fatty liver, but not in women with fatty liver. Conclusion Both males and females with fatty liver had lower insulin sensitivity, lower plasma levels of HDL-C and adiponectin, and higher triglyceride and LDL-C levels. However, the plasma levels of apolipoprotein B, RLP-C, and oxidized LDL were only higher and closely associated with fatty liver in men. Men with fatty liver had a higher risk of coronary disease than women with fatty liver. PMID:27629946

  9. Use of prediction equations to determine the accuracy of whole-body fat and fat-free mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass measurements from a single abdominal image using computed tomography in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, Robert D; Cardiff, Katrina; Rosenthall, Leonard; Lucar, Enriqueta; Trutschnigg, Barbara; Vigano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single abdominal images from computed tomography (CT) in advanced cancer patients (ACP) have important diagnostic and prognostic value. The question arises as to whether CT scans can serve as surrogates for DXA in terms of whole-body fat-free mass (FFM), whole-body fat mass (FM), and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) mass. Predictive equations to estimate body composition for ACP from CT images have been proposed (Mourtzakis et al. 2008; Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metabol. 33(5): 997-1006); however, these equations have yet to be validated in an independent cohort of ACP. Thus, this study evaluated the accuracy of these equations in estimating FFM, FM, and ASM mass using CT images at the level of the third lumbar vertebrae and compared these values with DXA measurements. FFM, FM, and ASM mass were estimated from the prediction equations proposed by Mourtzakis and colleagues (2008) using single abdominal CT images from 43 ACP and were compared with whole-body DXA scans using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman analyses. Despite a moderate to high correlation between the actual (DXA) and predicted (CT) values for FM (rho = 0.93; p ≤ 0.001), FFM (rho = 0.78; p ≤ 0.001), and ASM mass (rho = 0.70; p ≤ 0.001), Bland-Altman analyses revealed large range-of-agreement differences between the 2 methods (29.39 kg for FFM, 15.47 kg for FM, and 3.99 kg for ASM mass). Based on the magnitude of these differences, we concluded that prediction equations using single abdominal CT images have poor accuracy, cannot be considered as surrogates for DXA, and may have limited clinical utility. PMID:26695688

  10. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  11. Association between Abdominal Fat (DXA) and Its Subcomponents (CT Scan) before and after Weight Loss in Obese Postmenopausal Women: A MONET Study.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Brochu, Martin; Messier, Virginie; Lavoie, Marie-Ève; Faraj, May; Doucet, Eric; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Subcutaneous fat (ScF) and visceral fat (VF) measurements using CT scan are expensive and may imply significant radiation doses. Cross-sectional studies using CT scan showed that ScF and VF are significantly correlated with abdominal fat measured by DXA (AF-DXA). The association has not been studied after a weight loss. Objective. To determine (1) the associations between AF-DXA and ScF and VF before and after weight loss and (2) the associations between their changes. Methods. 137 overweight/obese postmenopausal women were divided in two groups (1-caloric restriction or 2-caloric restriction + resistance training). AF was assessed using DXA and CT scan. Results. Correlations between AF-DXA and ScF (before: r = 0.87, after; r = 0.87; P < .01) and, AF-DXA and VF (before: r = 0.61, after; r = 0.69; P < .01) are not different before and after the weight loss. Correlations between delta AF-DXA and delta ScF (r = 0.72; P < .01) or delta VF (r = 0.51; P < .01) were found. Conclusion. The use of AF-DXA as a surrogate for VF after weight loss is questionable, but may be interesting for ScF.

  12. Confined housing system increased abdominal and subcutaneous fat deposition and gene expressions of carbohydrate response element-binding protein and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 in chicken.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Zhao, X L; Gilbert, E R; Liu, Y P; Wang, Y; Qiu, M H; Zhu, Q

    2015-01-01

    Free-range production system is increasingly being used in poultry breeding and feed production in many countries. The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the effects of different raising systems on fat-related traits and mRNA levels of liver lipogenesis genes in Erlang Mountainous chicken. Each of 10 birds (91 day old) from caged, indoor-floor housed, and free-range housing systems was slaughtered, and fat-related traits, live body weight (BW), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), abdominal fat weight (AFW), abdominal fat percentage (AFP), and intramuscular fat content were determined. The mRNA levels of liver X receptor α, carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1), and fatty acid synthase were detected. The caged chicken exhibited significantly higher BW, SFT, and AFW than those of free-ranged chicken (P < 0.05). All the 4 genes had a similar expression pattern, and they showed the highest level in caged chicken, while the lowest level was found in free-ranged chicken. Association analysis indicated that there were significant (P < 0.05) or highly significant (P < 0.01) positive correlations between the mRNA levels of ChREBP, SREBP1, and fat traits of SFT, AFW, and AFP. Thus, we deduced that increased fat deposition in caged chicken was probably induced by increased gene expression of ChREBP and SREBP1 in the liver. PMID:25730060

  13. Confined housing system increased abdominal and subcutaneous fat deposition and gene expressions of carbohydrate response element-binding protein and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 in chicken.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Zhao, X L; Gilbert, E R; Liu, Y P; Wang, Y; Qiu, M H; Zhu, Q

    2015-02-06

    Free-range production system is increasingly being used in poultry breeding and feed production in many countries. The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the effects of different raising systems on fat-related traits and mRNA levels of liver lipogenesis genes in Erlang Mountainous chicken. Each of 10 birds (91 day old) from caged, indoor-floor housed, and free-range housing systems was slaughtered, and fat-related traits, live body weight (BW), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), abdominal fat weight (AFW), abdominal fat percentage (AFP), and intramuscular fat content were determined. The mRNA levels of liver X receptor α, carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1), and fatty acid synthase were detected. The caged chicken exhibited significantly higher BW, SFT, and AFW than those of free-ranged chicken (P < 0.05). All the 4 genes had a similar expression pattern, and they showed the highest level in caged chicken, while the lowest level was found in free-ranged chicken. Association analysis indicated that there were significant (P < 0.05) or highly significant (P < 0.01) positive correlations between the mRNA levels of ChREBP, SREBP1, and fat traits of SFT, AFW, and AFP. Thus, we deduced that increased fat deposition in caged chicken was probably induced by increased gene expression of ChREBP and SREBP1 in the liver.

  14. NOX1-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species in abdominal fat-derived mesenchymal stromal cells impinges on long-term proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sela, M; Tirza, G; Ravid, O; Volovitz, I; Solodeev, I; Friedman, O; Zipori, D; Gur, E; Krelin, Y; Shani, N

    2015-04-16

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent and can be derived from different adult tissues including fat. Our repeated attempts to produce long-term proliferative cultures of rat abdominal adipose stem cells (aASCs) under normal oxygen concentration (21%) were unsuccessful. We set to examine the events controlling this cytostasis of aASCs and found that it resulted from overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that led to apoptosis. ROS overproduction in aASCs was accompanied by increased expression of NOX1 but not of NOX2 or NOX4. NOX family members are an important source of intracellular ROS pointing to NOX1 involvement in ROS accumulation. This was verified when aASCs that were grown under 3% oxygen conditions expanded long term, displaying reduced NOX1 expression and decreased ROS accumulation. NOX1 involvement in aASC cytostasis was reaffirmed when cells that were expanded under normoxic conditions in the presence of a specific NOX1 inhibitor, ML171, demonstrated reduced ROS accumulation, reduced apoptosis and long-term expansion. aASC expansion arrest was accompanied also by a weak fat differentiation and migratory potential, which was enhanced by NOX1 inhibition. This suggests an inhibitory role for NOX1-induced ROS overproduction on aASCs, their fat differentiation and migratory potential. In contrast to aASCs, similar cells produced from subcutaneous fat were easily expanded in normoxic cultures, exhibiting low ROS concentrations, a low number of apoptotic cells and improved fat differentiation and migration. Taken together, our results show, for the first time, that NOX1-induced ROS accumulation halts ASC expansion and reduces their differentiation and migratory potential under normoxic conditions. Importantly, this phenotype comprises a tissue-specific signature as it was evident in aASCs but not in subcutaneous ASCs. NOX-induced ROS accumulation and cytokine production by fat are part of the metabolic syndrome. The similarity of this

  15. HPMC supplementation reduces abdominal fat content, intestinal permeability, inflammation, and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a highly viscous non-fermentable soluble dietary fiber, were evaluated on adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in diet induced obese (DIO) mice fed a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with either HPMC or insoluble fiber. DIO C57BL/6J m...

  16. Dietary long-chain inulin reduces abdominal fat but has no effect on bone density in growing female rats.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Jennifer A; Ryz, Natasha R; Taylor, Carla G; Weiler, Hope A

    2008-08-01

    New strategies to improve Ca absorption and bone health are needed to address the current state of osteoporosis prevention and management. Inulin-type fructans have shown great promise as a dietary intervention strategy, but have not yet been tested in a young female model. Our objective was to investigate the effect of long chain (LC) inulin on bone mineralization and density in growing, female rats, as well as the quality of growth. Weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to inulin or cellulose treatments for either 4 or 8 weeks. Growth was measured weekly and quality of growth assessed using fat pad weights and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Whole body (WB) and selected regions were analysed for bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition by DXA. Serum markers of bone turnover were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Ca and P concentrations were determined in excised femurs by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Feeding inulin resulted in 4 % higher femoral weight (adjusted for body weight) and 6 % less feed intake. Inulin did not affect WB or regional BMD, but was associated with a 28 % lower parametrial fat pad mass, 21 % less WB fat mass and 5 % less WB mass. In summary, LC-inulin lowered body fat mass, without consequence to bone density in growing female rats.

  17. The atomic resolution structure of human AlkB homolog 7 (ALKBH7), a key protein for programmed necrosis and fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoqiang; He, Qingzhong; Feng, Chong; Liu, Yang; Deng, Zengqin; Qi, Xiaoxuan; Wu, Wei; Mei, Pinchao; Chen, Zhongzhou

    2014-10-01

    ALKBH7 is the mitochondrial AlkB family member that is required for alkylation- and oxidation-induced programmed necrosis. In contrast to the protective role of other AlkB family members after suffering alkylation-induced DNA damage, ALKBH7 triggers the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and promotes cell death. Moreover, genetic ablation of mouse Alkbh7 dramatically increases body weight and fat mass. Here, we present crystal structures of human ALKBH7 in complex with Mn(II) and α-ketoglutarate at 1.35 Å or N-oxalylglycine at 2.0 Å resolution. ALKBH7 possesses the conserved double-stranded β-helix fold that coordinates a catalytically active iron by a conserved HX(D/E) … Xn … H motif. Self-hydroxylation of Leu-110 was observed, indicating that ALKBH7 has the potential to catalyze hydroxylation of its substrate. Unlike other AlkB family members whose substrates are DNA or RNA, ALKBH7 is devoid of the "nucleotide recognition lid" which is essential for binding nucleobases, and thus exhibits a solvent-exposed active site; two loops between β-strands β6 and β7 and between β9 and β10 create a special outer wall of the minor β-sheet of the double-stranded β-helix and form a negatively charged groove. These distinct features suggest that ALKBH7 may act on protein substrate rather than nucleic acids. Taken together, our findings provide a structural basis for understanding the distinct function of ALKBH7 in the AlkB family and offer a foundation for drug design in treating cell death-related diseases and metabolic diseases.

  18. Epigallocatechin gallate prevents inflammation by reducing macrophage infiltration and inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-α signaling in the pancreas of rats on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanli; Bao, Suqing; Yang, Wanli; Zhang, Jin; Li, Lin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) would suppress inflammation in the pancreas, and thus, we investigated the effects that EGCG administration had in the pancreas of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). To test our hypothesis, 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups: normal diet (control) group and HFD group. When there was a significant difference in body weight between the 2 groups (P < .05), the HFD group was further divided into 2 subgroups: the HFD group (HFD, n = 10, 16 weeks) and the EGCG group (HFD + 3.2 g/kg EGCG, n = 10, 16 weeks). Metabolite levels and the expression of inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin 6 [IL-6], and toll-like receptor 4) were measured using standard biochemical techniques. Insulin secretion and pancreatic histology were also evaluated. Epigallocatechin gallate significantly decreased fasting insulin levels as well as the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index. In the HFD group, the average glucose infusion rate and the TNF-α and IL-6 levels increased, whereas toll-like receptor 4 and TNF receptor-associated factor-6 did not. A pathologic analysis of pancreatic tissue revealed an increase in inflammatory TNF-α and infiltrating CD68+ macrophages in the islets of the HFD rats, but rarely is this observed in the in the HFD + EGCG rats. Overall, these data suggest that EGCG suppresses inflammation, partially reverses metabolic abnormalities, and ultimately increases insulin sensitivity in the pancreas of HFD rats.

  19. Dural repair using autologous fat: Our experience and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Di Vitantonio, Hambra; De Paulis, Danilo; Del Maestro, Mattia; Ricci, Alessandro; Dechordi, Soheila Raysi; Marzi, Sara; Millimaggi, Daniele F.; Galzio, Renato J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various materials have been proposed to obliterate dead spaces and to reconstruct dural defects during a neurosurgical approach. This study describes our technique of using the abdominal autologous fat graft and evaluates the complications and characteristics related to the use of this tissue during cranial procedures. Methods: Autologous fat grafts were used in 296 patients with basicranial and convexity extraaxial tumors from April 2005 to January 2015. The adipose tissue was removed from the paraumbilical abdominal region and was transformed into a thin foil. When possible, a watertight suture was made between the dural or bone edge with a fat graft. We always used fibrin glue to reinforce the dural closure. Results: Complications occurred between 2 days and 1 year following procedure. Cerebrospinal fluid leaks were found in 11 cases. No case of mortality, pseudomeningoceles, fistula, infections, bacterial meningitides, or lipoid meningitides was reported. No patient required removal of the graft. No adhesion was observed between the brain and the autologous fat. Other fat-related complications observed were 2 cases of fat necrosis in the abdomen and 2 cases of abdominal hemorrhage. Conclusion: The technique of harvesting and applying fat grafts is fairly simple, although it must be performed meticulously to be effective. Our experience has led us to believe that the use of fat grafts presents low morbidity and mortality. However, a neurosurgeon should never forget the possible late or early complications related to the use of fat grafts. PMID:27500007

  20. Abdominal Fat and Sarcopenia in Women Significantly Alter Osteoblasts Homeostasis In Vitro by a WNT/β-Catenin Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wannenes, Francesca; Papa, Vincenza; Greco, Emanuela A.; Fornari, Rachele; Marocco, Chiara; Di Luigi, Luigi; Donini, Lorenzo M.; Lenzi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and sarcopenia have been associated with mineral metabolism derangement and low bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated whether imbalance of serum factors in obese or obese sarcopenic patients could affect bone cell activity in vitro. To evaluate and characterize potential cellular and molecular changes of human osteoblasts, cells were exposed to sera of four groups of patients: (1) affected by obesity with normal BMD (O), (2) affected by obesity with low BMD (OO), (3) affected by obesity and sarcopenia (OS), and (4) affected by obesity, sarcopenia, and low BMD (OOS) as compared to subjects with normal body weight and normal BMD (CTL). Patients were previously investigated and characterized for body composition, biochemical and bone turnover markers. Then, sera of different groups of patients were used to incubate human osteoblasts and evaluate potential alterations in cell homeostasis. Exposure to OO, OS, and OOS sera significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and BMP4 expression compared to cells exposed to O and CTL, indicating a detrimental effect on osteoblast differentiation. Interestingly, sera of all groups of patients induced intracellular alteration in Wnt/β-catenin molecular pathway, as demonstrated by the significant alteration of specific target genes expression and by altered β-catenin cellular compartmentalization and GSK3β phosphorylation. In conclusion our results show for the first time that sera of obese subjects with low bone mineral density and sarcopenia significantly alter osteoblasts homeostasis in vitro, indicating potential detrimental effects of trunk fat on bone formation and skeletal homeostasis. PMID:24963291

  1. Abdominal Fat and Sarcopenia in Women Significantly Alter Osteoblasts Homeostasis In Vitro by a WNT/ β -Catenin Dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wannenes, Francesca; Papa, Vincenza; Greco, Emanuela A; Fornari, Rachele; Marocco, Chiara; Baldari, Carlo; Di Luigi, Luigi; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Guidetti, Laura; Donini, Lorenzo M; Lenzi, Andrea; Migliaccio, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and sarcopenia have been associated with mineral metabolism derangement and low bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated whether imbalance of serum factors in obese or obese sarcopenic patients could affect bone cell activity in vitro. To evaluate and characterize potential cellular and molecular changes of human osteoblasts, cells were exposed to sera of four groups of patients: (1) affected by obesity with normal BMD (O), (2) affected by obesity with low BMD (OO), (3) affected by obesity and sarcopenia (OS), and (4) affected by obesity, sarcopenia, and low BMD (OOS) as compared to subjects with normal body weight and normal BMD (CTL). Patients were previously investigated and characterized for body composition, biochemical and bone turnover markers. Then, sera of different groups of patients were used to incubate human osteoblasts and evaluate potential alterations in cell homeostasis. Exposure to OO, OS, and OOS sera significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and BMP4 expression compared to cells exposed to O and CTL, indicating a detrimental effect on osteoblast differentiation. Interestingly, sera of all groups of patients induced intracellular alteration in Wnt/ β -catenin molecular pathway, as demonstrated by the significant alteration of specific target genes expression and by altered β -catenin cellular compartmentalization and GSK3 β phosphorylation. In conclusion our results show for the first time that sera of obese subjects with low bone mineral density and sarcopenia significantly alter osteoblasts homeostasis in vitro, indicating potential detrimental effects of trunk fat on bone formation and skeletal homeostasis. PMID:24963291

  2. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... abdominal cavity ( most often cancer of the ovaries ) Cirrhosis of the liver Damaged bowel Heart disease Infection ...

  3. Predictors of Treatment Response to Tesamorelin, a Growth Hormone-Releasing Factor Analog, in HIV-Infected Patients with Excess Abdominal Fat

    PubMed Central

    Mangili, Alexandra; Falutz, Julian; Mamputu, Jean-Claude; Stepanians, Miganush; Hayward, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Background Tesamorelin, a synthetic analog of human growth hormone-releasing factor, decreases visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy. Objectives 1) To evaluate the utility of patient characteristics and validated disease-risk scores, namely indicator variables for the metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation (MetS-IDF) or the National Cholesterol Education Program (MetS-NCEP) and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), as predictors of VAT reduction during tesamorelin therapy at 3 and 6 months, and 2) To explore the characteristics of patients who reached a threshold of VAT <140 cm2, a level associated with lower risk of adverse health outcomes, after 6 months of treatment with tesamorelin. Methods Data were analyzed from two Phase 3 studies in which HIV-infected patients with excess abdominal fat were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive tesamorelin 2 mg (n = 543) or placebo (n = 263) subcutaneously daily for 6 months, using ANOVA and ANCOVA models. Results Metabolic syndrome (MetS-IDF or MetS-NCEP) and FRS were significantly associated with VAT at baseline. Presence of metabolic syndrome ([MetS-NCEP), triglyceride levels >1.7 mmol/L, and white race had a significant impact on likelihood of response to tesamorelin after 6 months of therapy (interaction p-values 0.054, 0.063, and 0.025, respectively). No predictive factors were identified at 3 months. The odds of a VAT reduction to <140 cm2 for subjects treated with tesamorelin was 3.9 times greater than that of subjects randomized to placebo after controlling for study, gender, baseline body mass index (BMI) and baseline VAT (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.03; 7.44). Conclusions Individuals with baseline MetS-NCEP, elevated triglyceride levels, or white race were most likely to experience reductions in VAT after 6 months of tesamorelin treatment. The odds of response of VAT <140 cm2 was 3.9 times greater for tesamorelin

  4. Effects of Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-I/IGF-Binding Protein-3 Treatment on Glucose Metabolism and Fat Distribution in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients with Abdominal Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Madhu N.; Mulligan, Kathleen; Tai, Viva; Wen, Michael J.; Dyachenko, Artem; Weinberg, Melissa; Li, Xiaojuan; Lang, Thomas; Grunfeld, Carl; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Schambelan, Morris

    2010-01-01

    Context: HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for excess visceral adiposity and insulin resistance. Treatment with GH decreases visceral adiposity but worsens glucose metabolism. IGF-I, which mediates many of the effects of GH, improves insulin sensitivity in HIV-negative individuals. Objective: Our objective was to determine whether IGF-I, complexed to its major binding protein, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), improves glucose metabolism and alters body fat distribution in HIV-infected patients with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. Methods: We conducted a pilot, open-label study in 13 HIV-infected men with excess abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance to assess the effect of 3 months of treatment with IGF-I/IGFBP-3 on glucose metabolism and fat distribution. Glucose metabolism was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Endogenous glucose production (EGP), gluconeogenesis, whole-body lipolysis, and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were measured with stable isotope infusions. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scan. Results: Glucose tolerance improved and insulin-mediated glucose uptake increased significantly during treatment. EGP increased under fasting conditions, and suppression of EGP by insulin was blunted. Fasting triglycerides decreased significantly in association with a decrease in hepatic DNL. Lean body mass increased and total body fat decreased, whereas visceral adipose tissue did not change. Conclusions: Treatment with IGF-I/IGFBP-3 improved whole-body glucose uptake and glucose tolerance, while increasing hepatic glucose production. Fasting triglycerides improved, reflecting decreased DNL, and visceral adiposity was unchanged. PMID:20610601

  5. Bone marrow necrosis and fat embolism syndrome in sickle cell disease: increased susceptibility of patients with non-SS genotypes and a possible association with human parvovirus B19 infection.

    PubMed

    Tsitsikas, Dimitris A; Gallinella, Giorgio; Patel, Sneha; Seligman, Henry; Greaves, Paul; Amos, Roger J

    2014-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) due to extensive bone marrow necrosis (BMN) in sickle cell disease (SCD) is a potentially under-diagnosed complication associated with severe morbidity and mortality. We identified 58 cases reported in the world literature to date. Typically, patients presented with a seemingly uncomplicated vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) and subsequently deteriorated rapidly with a drop in their haemoglobin and platelets, development of respiratory failure, encephalopathy and varying degrees of involvement of other systems. Overall mortality in the reported cases was 64% but differed according to the use of transfusion and was 29%, 61% and 91% for patients receiving exchange, top-up or no transfusion respectively. Patients most at risk appear to be those with a "milder" form of SCD as 81% of patients had a genotype other than HbSS and the majority had no history of significant sickle-related complications. Human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19) infection was documented in 24% of cases.

  6. Trans fatty acids adversely affect blood lipids but not intra-abdominal and liver fat deposition - a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFA) is, according to observational studies, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the causal mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Besides inducing dyslipidemia, TFA intake is suspected of promoting abdominal and liv...

  7. Major gender differences in the lipolytic capacity of abdominal subcutaneous fat cells in obesity observed before and after long-term weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, Patrik; Hoffstedt, Johan; Rydén, Mikael; Thörne, Anders; Holm, Cecilia; Wahrenberg, Hans; Arner, Peter

    2002-02-01

    The influence of obesity on the lipolytic capacity of isolated sc fat cells was studied prospectively in 13 women and 10 men, all obese, but otherwise healthy, before and 2 and 3 yr after weight reduction by bariatric surgery. Nonobese subjects (25 women and 17 men) without a family history of obesity served as the control group. Lipolytic capacity was determined after stimulation at different steps of the lipolytic cascade with noradrenaline, isoprenaline, forskolin, and (Bu)(2)AMP. Bariatric surgery was followed by a marked and similar reduction of body mass index and fat cell volume (approximately 40%) in both genders. Before weight loss, lipolytic capacity per cell was elevated in obese women and decreased to normal levels after weight reduction at 2 and 3 yr. However, lipolytic capacity per fat cell surface area was not changed in obese women. In obese men, lipolytic capacity per cell was almost the same as in lean men and was not influenced by weight reduction. Lipolytic capacity was related to fat cell size in women (P = 0.0008; r = 0.58), but not in men (P = 0.67; r = 0.086). The protein content of hormone-sensitive lipase, which determines lipolytic capacity, was significantly lower in obese men and women and increased slightly after weight reduction in men only. Thus, in women, but not in men, the adipocyte lipolytic capacity is influenced by obesity and weight reduction, probably due to changes in fat cell size. These gender differences are not related to the amount of hormone-sensitive lipase protein in adipocytes. PMID:11836318

  8. Breast reconstruction with single-pedicle TRAM flap in breast cancer patients with low midline abdominal scar

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun-Dong; Huang, Wen-He; Qiu, Si-Qi; He, Li-Fang; Guo, Cui-Ping; Zhang, Yong-Qu; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Breast reconstruction with transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap is challenging in patients with low midline abdominal scar. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical feasibility of immediate breast reconstruction using single-pedicle TRAM (SP-TRAM) flaps in patients with low midline abdominal scar. There were 4 strict selection criteria: 1) presence at least 3 perforators on the pedicle side; 2) perforators with regional average flow velocity of >20 cm/s; 3) upper edge of the abdominal scar at least 4 cm from the umbilicus; and 4) scar age >1 year. Eight breast cancer patients with low midline abdominal scar (scar group) and 20 without (control group) underwent immediate breast reconstruction with SP-TRAM flaps consisting of zone I and III and zone II tissues. Flap complications, donor-site complications, and cosmetic results were compared between the two groups. All flaps survived and both groups presented similar flap and donor site complications, including fat necrosis, seroma, hematoma, infection, delayed wound healing, and abdominal hernia, and patients in both groups had similar aesthetic results (p > 0.05). Thus, the study demonstrated that breast reconstruction using SP-TRAM flap was a safe approach in carefully selected patients with low midline abdominal scar. PMID:27406872

  9. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... can help the overall situation for the child. Teaching kids self-hypnosis [8] or guided imagery [8a] ... related topics? Functional Abdominal Pain (English, French or Spanish)—from The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, ...

  10. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is ...

  11. Abdominal body composition differences in NFL football players.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Weir, Nate L; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weston, Todd D; Dengel, Donald R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine visceral fat mass as well as other measures abdominal body composition in National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the season. Three hundred and seventy NFL football players were measured before the start of the season using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Regional fat and lean mass was measured for each player. Players were categorized into 3 groups based on positions that mirror each other: linemen; linebackers/tight ends/running backs and wide receivers/defensive backs. Significant differences were observed between the position groups for both lean and fat regional measurements. However, the magnitude of difference was much greater for fat measures than lean measures. Additionally, a threshold was observed (∼114 kg) at which there is a greater increase in fat accumulation than lean mass accumulation. The increase in fat accumulation is distributed to the abdominal region where thresholds were observed for subcutaneous abdominal fat accumulation (12.1% body fat) and visceral abdominal fat accumulation (20.1% body fat), which likely explains the regional fat differences between groups. The results of this study suggest that as players get larger, there is more total fat than total lean mass accumulation and more fat is distributed to the abdominal region. This is of importance as increased fat mass may be detrimental to performance at certain positions. The thresholds observed for increased abdominal fat accumulation should be monitored closely given recent research observed that abdominal obesity predicts lower extremity injury risk and visceral adipose tissue's established association with cardiometabolic risk.

  12. Recombinant Human Growth Hormone and Rosiglitazone for Abdominal Fat Accumulation in HIV-Infected Patients with Insulin Resistance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Factorial Trial

    PubMed Central

    Glesby, Marshall J.; Albu, Jeanine; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Ham, Kirsis; Engelson, Ellen; He, Qing; Muthukrishnan, Varalakshmi; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Donovan, Daniel; Ernst, Jerry; Lesser, Martin; Kotler, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume in HIV-infected patients but can worsen glucose homeostasis and lipoatrophy. We aimed to determine if adding rosiglitazone to rhGH would abrogate the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity (SI) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume. Methodology/Principal Findings Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial using a 2×2 factorial design in which HIV-infected subjects with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were randomized to rhGH 3 mg daily, rosiglitazone 4 mg twice daily, combination rhGH + rosiglitazone, or double placebo (control) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in SI by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test from entry to week 12. Body composition was assessed by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual Xray absorptiometry (DEXA). Seventy-seven subjects were randomized of whom 72 initiated study drugs. Change in SI from entry to week 12 differed across the 4 arms by 1-way ANCOVA (P = 0.02); by pair-wise comparisons, only rhGH (decreasing SI; P = 0.03) differed significantly from control. Changes from entry to week 12 in fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve on 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test differed across arms (1-way ANCOVA P = 0.004), increasing in the rhGH arm relative to control. VAT decreased significantly in the rhGH arms (−17.5% in rhGH/rosiglitazone and −22.7% in rhGH) but not in the rosiglitazone alone (−2.5%) or control arms (−1.9%). SAT did not change significantly in any arm. DEXA results were consistent with the MRI data. There was no significant rhGH x rosiglitazone interaction for any body composition parameter. Conclusions/Significance The addition of rosiglitazone abrogated the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance while not significantly modifying the lowering effect of rhGH on VAT. Trial Registration

  13. Ectopic fat and cardiometabolic and vascular risk.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo; Meigs, James B

    2013-11-01

    Given that the variation in how regional adipose tissue handles and stores excess dietary energy has substantial cardiometabolic implications, ectopic fat distribution might be an important predictor of cardiometabolic and vascular risk, in addition to overall obesity itself. Conceptually, ectopic fat depots may be divided into systemically acting fat depots and locally acting fat depots. Systemically acting fat depots include visceral fat, fat in the liver, muscle, or neck, and subcutaneous fat. Accumulation in the abdominal visceral area, compared with overall obesity, has an equally or more important role in the development of cardiometabolic risk. Fat depots in liver/muscle tissue cause adverse cardiometabolic effects by affecting energy metabolism. Fat depots in lower-body subcutaneous areas may be protective regarding cardiometabolic risk, by trapping remnant energy. Fat accumulation in the neck is a unique type of fat depot that may increase cardiovascular risk by increasing insulin resistance. Locally acting fat depots include pericardial fat, perivascular fat, and renal sinus fat. These fat depots have effects primarily on adjacent anatomic organs, directly via lipotoxicity and indirectly via cytokine secretion. Pericardial fat is associated with coronary atherosclerosis. Perivascular fat may play an independent role in adverse vascular biology, including arterial stiffness. Renal sinus fat is a unique fat depot that may confer additional cardiometabolic risk. Thus, ectopic fat depots may contribute to the understanding of the link between body composition and cardiometabolic risk. In this review, we focus on the role and clinical implications of ectopic fat depots in cardiometabolic and vascular risk. PMID:24063931

  14. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy. PMID:27363829

  15. Successful Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Harvest despite Preoperative Therapeutic Subcutaneous Heparin Administration into the Abdominal Pannus

    PubMed Central

    Miyagi, Kana; Forouhi, Parto

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal free flaps for microsurgical breast reconstruction are most commonly harvested based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels that supply skin and fat via perforators through the rectus muscle and sheath. Intact perforator anatomy and connections are vital for subsequent optimal flap perfusion and avoidance of necrosis, be it partial or total. The intraflap vessels are delicate and easily damaged and it is generally advised that patients should avoid heparin injection into the abdominal pannus preoperatively as this may compromise the vascular perforators through direct needle laceration, pressure from bruising, haematoma formation, or perforator thrombosis secondary to external compression. We report three cases of successful deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap harvest despite patients injecting therapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparin into their abdomens for thrombosed central venous lines (portacaths™) used for administering primary chemotherapy in breast cancer. PMID:27651974

  16. Successful Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Harvest despite Preoperative Therapeutic Subcutaneous Heparin Administration into the Abdominal Pannus

    PubMed Central

    Miyagi, Kana; Forouhi, Parto

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal free flaps for microsurgical breast reconstruction are most commonly harvested based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels that supply skin and fat via perforators through the rectus muscle and sheath. Intact perforator anatomy and connections are vital for subsequent optimal flap perfusion and avoidance of necrosis, be it partial or total. The intraflap vessels are delicate and easily damaged and it is generally advised that patients should avoid heparin injection into the abdominal pannus preoperatively as this may compromise the vascular perforators through direct needle laceration, pressure from bruising, haematoma formation, or perforator thrombosis secondary to external compression. We report three cases of successful deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap harvest despite patients injecting therapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparin into their abdomens for thrombosed central venous lines (portacaths™) used for administering primary chemotherapy in breast cancer.

  17. Successful Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Harvest despite Preoperative Therapeutic Subcutaneous Heparin Administration into the Abdominal Pannus.

    PubMed

    Duncumb, Joseph W; Miyagi, Kana; Forouhi, Parto; Malata, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal free flaps for microsurgical breast reconstruction are most commonly harvested based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels that supply skin and fat via perforators through the rectus muscle and sheath. Intact perforator anatomy and connections are vital for subsequent optimal flap perfusion and avoidance of necrosis, be it partial or total. The intraflap vessels are delicate and easily damaged and it is generally advised that patients should avoid heparin injection into the abdominal pannus preoperatively as this may compromise the vascular perforators through direct needle laceration, pressure from bruising, haematoma formation, or perforator thrombosis secondary to external compression. We report three cases of successful deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap harvest despite patients injecting therapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparin into their abdomens for thrombosed central venous lines (portacaths™) used for administering primary chemotherapy in breast cancer. PMID:27651974

  18. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePlus

    ... call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing abdominal thrusts, ... American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ... Red Cross; 2014. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, et al. Part 5: ...

  19. [APOPTOSIS AND NECROSIS OF CIRCULATING NEUTROPHILS IN PATIENTS WHILE HIGH RISK OF POSTOPERAIVE PERITONITIS OCCURRENCE].

    PubMed

    Sheyko, V D; Sytnik, D A; Shkurupiy, O O

    2015-11-01

    Processes of apoptosis and necrosis of peripheral neutrophils were investigated in 43 patients, operated on for an acute abdominal organs diseases on the first and fourth postoperative days. Changes of apoptosis and necrosis processes in peripheral neutrophils in dynamics were established. Unfavorable course of early postoperative period in patients with initial high and average risk of postoperative peritonitis occurrence was accompanied by shift in necrosis/apoptosis ratio towards necrosis of peripheral neutrophils.

  20. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  1. Fat Grafting for Facial Filling and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Sydney R; Katzel, Evan B

    2015-07-01

    Plastic surgeons have come to realize that fat grafting can rejuvenate an aging face by restoring or creating fullness. However, fat grafting does much more than simply add volume. Grafted fat can transform or repair the tissues into which it is placed. Historically, surgeons have hesitated to embrace the rejuvenating potential of fat grafting because of poor graft take, fat necrosis, and inconsistent outcomes. This article describes fat grafting techniques and practices to assist readers in successful harvesting, processing, and placement of fat for optimal graft retention and facial esthetic outcomes.

  2. Renal papillary necrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your provider. Alternative Names Necrosis - renal papillae; Renal medullary necrosis Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Ruggenenti P, Cravedi P, Remuzzi G. Microvascular and macrovascular diseases of the kidney. In: Taal MW, Chertow GM, ...

  3. Fecal fat

    MedlinePlus

    Quantitative stool fat determination; Fat absorption ... This test evaluates fat absorption to tell how well the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and intestines are working. Fat malabsorption can cause a change in your ...

  4. Chylous Ascites after Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Ohki, Shinichi; Kurumisawa, Soki; Misawa, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was transferred for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. He had no history of abdominal surgeries. Grafting between the infra-renal abdominal aorta and the bilateral common iliac arteries was performed. Proximal and distal cross clamps were applied for grafting. He developed chylous ascites on the 5th post-operative day, 2 days after initiation of oral intake. Fortunately, he responded to treatment with total parenteral hyper-alimentation for 10 days, followed by a low-fat diet. There was no recurrence of ascites. PMID:27087873

  5. The role of antidepressants in the treatment of abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Rosmond, R; Björntorp, P

    2000-06-01

    The pathophysiology of abdominal obesity is unclear and controversial. Recent evidence now suggests that inadequate cortisol secretion is associated with abnormalities in glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, including hypertension, bringing the importance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the pathogenesis of abdominal obesity to the forefront. In addition, abnormal gonadal steroid concentrations and impaired plasma growth hormone levels accompany the abdominally obese state. Since the reproductive and growth axes are inhibited at many levels by various components of the HPA axis, increasing cortisol levels results in further depression of testosterone and growth hormone concentrations. Over the last decade, antidepressant (serotoninergic) drugs have proved useful as equalizers of HPA axis hyperactivity. Such therapy may interrupt the vicious circle of a hyperactive HPA axis leading to increasing abdominal obesity and endocrine perturbations that, in turn, leads to progressive accumulation of abdominal fat. Additionally, preliminary results indicate that serotoninergic agents decrease abdominal fat mass with improvements in related risk factors.

  6. Double-pedicle abdominal perforator free flaps for unilateral breast reconstruction: new horizons in microsurgical tissue transfer to the breast.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Moustapha; Khuthaila, Dana K; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Roche, Nathalie; Monstrey, Stan

    2007-01-01

    The DIEAP (deep inferior epigastric artery perforator) flap is a suitable option for breast reconstruction resulting in excellent aesthetic outcome, and minimal donor site morbidity. Contraindications for use of the DIEAP flap may include previous abdominal liposuction and/or surgery, or lack of abdominal tissue. The purpose of this paper is to describe options of using abdominal perforator flaps, based on double-pedicle techniques, despite these contraindications. A retrospective evaluation was carried out on a series of 16 patients who required abdominal double-pedicle free perforator flaps for unilateral breast reconstruction since June 2002. The indications were multiple abdominal scars, previous abdominal liposuction and thin patients in five, three and eight cases, respectively. Preoperative mapping of the vascular network was done using Duplex and/or multi-detector CT scan imaging. Clinical evaluation of medical charts was done regarding patients' characteristics, surgical techniques, ischaemia/total operative time and complications. A clinical evaluation was done on all patients with average follow up of 15 months. Fat necrosis was investigated clinically and by mammogram examination. Different microsurgical techniques were performed to provide enough blood supply to the requested flaps: Perforator (P) to contralateral Deep Inferior Epigastric (DIE) anastomosis (P/DIEAP), in two patients; bilateral DIE vessels (DIEAP/DIEAP) in seven patients; and DIE with SIE (superficial inferior epigastric) vessels in seven patients (DIEAP/SIEA). One pedicle was always anastomosed to the internal mammary vessels. The second pedicle was anastomosed end-to-end to a side branch of the DIE or end-to-side with the DIE pedicle in 13 cases. The thoracodorsal vessels were used as recipient vessels for the second pedicle in three cases. Average operative time was 6h 30min (range 5h 30min-8h). All 16 flaps survived and fat necrosis occurred in one case. The harvesting of perforator

  7. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  8. Lipolysis of visceral adipocyte triglyceride by pancreatic lipases converts mild acute pancreatitis to severe pancreatitis independent of necrosis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krutika; Trivedi, Ram N; Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Cline, Rachel A; DeLany, James P; Navina, Sarah; Singh, Vijay P

    2015-03-01

    Visceral fat necrosis has been associated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) for over 100 years; however, its pathogenesis and role in SAP outcomes are poorly understood. Based on recent work suggesting that pancreatic fat lipolysis plays an important role in SAP, we evaluated the role of pancreatic lipases in SAP-associated visceral fat necrosis, the inflammatory response, local injury, and outcomes of acute pancreatitis (AP). For this, cerulein pancreatitis was induced in lean and obese mice, alone or with the lipase inhibitor orlistat and parameters of AP induction (serum amylase and lipase), fat necrosis, pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure, and inflammatory response were assessed. Pancreatic lipases were measured in fat necrosis and were overexpressed in 3T3-L1 cells. We noted obesity to convert mild cerulein AP to SAP with greater cytokines, unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), and multisystem organ failure, and 100% mortality without affecting AP induction or pancreatic necrosis. Increased pancreatic lipase amounts and activity were noted in the extensive visceral fat necrosis of dying obese mice. Lipase inhibition reduced fat necrosis, UFAs, organ failure, and mortality but not the parameters of AP induction. Pancreatic lipase expression increased lipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells. We conclude that UFAs generated via lipolysis of visceral fat by pancreatic lipases convert mild AP to SAP independent of pancreatic necrosis and the inflammatory response. PMID:25579844

  9. Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight & intra-abdominal adipose tissue loss or reduce adipocyte size & inflammatory markers in overweight & obese adults; Controlled feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Research on the role of dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective: A 15 week controlled feeding study to answer the question: do dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a mode...

  10. Bladder Necrosis Associated with Placenta Accreta, Embolization, and Repair of Cystotomies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wayland J.; Smith, Arthur D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bladder necrosis is an unusual and potentially devastating complication of embolization of the hypogastric arterial branches. The rich collateral blood supply makes this an extremely rare event. We present the case of a patient with bladder necrosis following placenta accreta that was treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and uterine artery embolization and cystotomy repairs. PMID:27579379

  11. Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Marina, Anna; von Frankenberg, Anize Delfino; Suvag, Seda; Callahan, Holly S.; Kratz, Mario; Richards, Todd L.; Utzschneider, Kristina M.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate) or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10): 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate). Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNFα, IFN-γ) and oxidative stress (urinary F2-α isoprostanes) were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI): change −2.13% (−3.74%, −0.52%)), but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-α isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:25353663

  12. [Torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices of the large bowel].

    PubMed

    Timofeev, M E; Fedorov, E D; Krechetova, A P; Shapoval'iants, S G

    2014-01-01

    The features of the clinical symptoms was studied, the possibility of laparoscopy in modern diagnosis and treatment of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis of the large bowel was assessed in the article. It was done the retrospective analysis of the medical records of 87 patients with a diagnosis of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis of the large bowel. The patients had laparoscopic operations in our hospital in the period from January 1995 to December 2012. The clinical picture, laboratory and instrumental datas in cases of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis were scarce and nonspecific. An abdominal pain preferentially localized in the lower divisions was the main symptom (97.7%). The instrumental methods did not allow to diagnose the torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices in the majority of cases and all these techniques were used for the differential diagnosis with other diseases. The assumption of the presence of appendices torsion and necrosis occured just in 34.5% of cases before the operation. Diagnosis of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis present significant difficulties on prehospital and preoperative stages. The diagnostic laparoscopy is the method of choice in unclear situations and it allows to diagnose the torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices in 96.6% of cases. Successful surgical treatment by using laparoscopic approach is possible in 90.8% of cases.

  13. Coconut fats.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  14. Large posterior abdominal masses: computed tomographic localization.

    PubMed

    Engel, I A; Auh, Y H; Rubenstein, W A; Whalen, J P; Kazam, E

    1983-10-01

    Large posterior abdominal masses, particularly those in the right upper abdomen, may be difficult to localize correctly into the peritoneal or retroperitoneal compartments. The following signs were found to be reliable CT indicators of retroperitoneal location: obliteration of the perinephric fat outlining the psoas muscle; lateral displacement of the fat outlining the posterior right lobe of the liver; rotation of the intrahepatic portal veins to the left; anterior displacement of the inferior vena cava and renal veins; and anterior displacement of the ascending colon, descending duodenum, or pancreatic head.

  15. Facial lipohypertrophy in HIV-infected subjects who underwent autologous fat tissue transplantation.

    PubMed

    Guaraldi, Giovanni; De Fazio, Domenico; Orlando, Gabriella; Murri, Rita; Wu, Albert; Guaraldi, Pietro; Esposito, Roberto

    2005-01-15

    Of 41 HIV-infected patients with facial lipoatrophy who underwent autologous fat transplantation, disfiguring facial lipohypertrophy at the graft site occurred at the same time as recurrent fat accumulation at the tissue harvest site in 4 patients who had had fat transferred from the dorsocervical fat pad or from subcutaneous abdominal tissue.

  16. Body Fat Composition Assessment Using Analytic Morphomics Predicts Infectious Complications After Bowel Resection in Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Waljee, Akbar K.; Day, Nicholas M.; Bergmans, Carrie L.; Zahn, Katelin M.; Higgins, Peter D. R.; Wang, Stewart C.; Su, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Decisions between medical and surgical management of Crohn's disease (CD) incorporate risk assessments for potential complications of each therapy. Analytic morphomics is a novel method of image analysis providing quantifiable measurements of body tissue composition, characterizing body fat more comprehensively than body mass index alone. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with postoperative complications in CD, incorporating fat composition analysis using analytic morphomics. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of adults undergoing bowel resection for CD between 2004 and 2011 at a single center. Computed tomography obtained within 30 days prior to surgery underwent morphomic analysis for fat characterization. Postoperative infectious complications were defined as the need for a postoperative abdominal drain, intravenous antibiotics, or reoperation within 30 days. Bivariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression were used to generate a prediction model of infectious complications. Results: A total of 269 subjects met selection criteria; 27% incurred postoperative infectious complications. Bivariate analysis showed hemoglobin, albumin, surgical urgency, high-dose prednisone use, and subcutaneous-to-visceral fat volume distribution as predictors of complications. Body mass index, anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapies, and immunomodulator use were not predictors of complication. Multivariate modeling demonstrated a c-statistic of 0.77 and a negative predictive value of 81.1% with surgical urgency (odds ratio = 2.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.46–6.02; P = 0.004), subcutaneous-to-visceral fat distribution (odds ratio = 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.20–3.19; P = 0.006), and hemoglobin (odds ratio = 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.55–0.85; P = 0.001) as predictors of infectious complication. Conclusions: Fat subtype and distribution are predictive of postoperative infectious complications

  17. Spring-harvested game birds in the Western James Bay region of Northern Ontario, Canada: the amount of organochlorines in matched samples of breast muscle, skin, and abdominal fat.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Martin, Emily S; LeBlanc, Alain; Dumas, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    We examined matched-tissue samples (the right pectoral muscle plus the associated skin and fat was considered a breast portion) of 81 spring-harvested waterfowl and 19 summer-harvested godwits (Limosa spp.) to assess the potential of these water birds contributing to the body burden of PCBs and DDT noted in First Nation people of the western James Bay region, northern Ontario, Canada. In general, the dabbling ducks (mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos; and northern pintail, A. acuta) had significantly lower percent lipid (gravimetrically determined) values in skin tissue, fat tissue, and breast muscle compared to the goose species (Canada goose, Branta canadensis; lesser snow goose, Chen caerulescens); godwits had percent lipid values not significantly different than ducks and geese. Also, the percent lipid values in skin for all species of birds examined approached those found in fat tissue. Organochlorine data were expressed as the amount (microg) of each contaminant per breast portion to show contaminant consumption in terms of typical and easily recognizable dietary portions; direct comparisons were made to acceptable daily intake (ADI) or tolerable daily intake (TDI) values as recommended by Health Canada. Significant differences in the amount of organochlorines between bird species for skin, fat tissue, and breast muscle samples were found. In general, breast portions from snow geese contained the least amount of organochlorines, followed by godwits (except for mirex) and then Canada geese; the dabbling ducks had the greatest amount of organochlorines on a breast portion basis. However, on average, no 60 kg person would exceed the calculated organochlorine ADI/TDI values consuming one breast portion (i.e., breast + associated skin and fat), but the maximum value of SigmaPCBs for skin tissue alone in male mallards (47 microg) was more than twice the ADI/TDI (18 microg/day); while, that in fat tissue alone (17 microg) approached the ADI/TDI. Thus, the consumption

  18. Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocysts.

    PubMed

    Erşahin, Y; Mutluer, S; Tekeli, G

    1996-12-01

    Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst in an infrequent complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. We reviewed ten patients with abdominal pseudocyst. There were five girls and five boys, aged between 4 months and 14 years. The number of shunt procedures prior to the presentation varied between one and five. Only one patient had had a previous shunt infection. No patients had undergone prior abdominal surgery other than VP shunting. The time from the last shunting procedure to the development of abdominal pseudocyst ranged from 3 weeks to 5 years. Presenting symptoms and signs were mainly related to abdominal complaints in all patients. Three patients also had signs of shunt malfunction. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound in all patients. Shunt infection was determined in six patients. Repositioning if the peritoneal catheter seemed to have a higher rate of recurrence. The diagnosis of abdominal pseudocyst should be considered in VP-shunted patients presenting with abdominal complaints.

  19. Abdominal Circulatory Interactions.

    PubMed

    Dagar, Gaurav; Taneja, Amit; Nanchal, Rahul S

    2016-04-01

    The abdominal compartment is separated from the thoracic compartment by the diaphragm. Under normal circumstances, a large portion of the venous return crosses the splanchnic and nonsplanchnic abdominal regions before entering the thorax and the right side of the heart. Mechanical ventilation may affect abdominal venous return independent of its interactions at the thoracic level. Changes in pressure in the intra-abdominal compartment may have important implications for organ function within the thorax, particularly if there is a sustained rise in intra-abdominal pressure. It is important to understand the consequences of abdominal pressure changes on respiratory and circulatory physiology. This article elucidates important abdominal-respiratory-circulatory interactions and their clinical effects. PMID:27016167

  20. Simvastatin Attenuates Oxidative Stress, NF-κB Activation, and Artery Calcification in LDLR-/- Mice Fed with High Fat Diet via Down-regulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and TNF Receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Pei; Huang, Po-Hsun; Lai, Chung Fang; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jia-Shiong

    2015-01-01

    Simvastatin (SIM) is anti-inflammatory. We used low density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR-/-) mice and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) as model systems to study the effect of SIM on arterial calcification and to explore the potential mechanisms contributing to this protective effect. High-fat diet (HFD) caused the LRLR -/- to develop dyslipidemia, diabetics, atherosclerosis and aortic smooth muscle calcification. SIM, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, a ROS scavenger) and apocynin (APO, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor) did not significantly retard the development of dyslipidemia or diabetic. However, those treatments were still effective in attenuating the HFD-induced atherosclerosis and aortic smooth muscle calcification. These findings suggest that the protective effect of SIM against aortic calcification is not contributed by the cholesterol lowering effect. SIM, NAC and APO were found to attenuate the HFD induced elevation of serum TNF-α, soluble TNFR1 (sTNFR1), 3-nitro-tyrosine. We hypothesized that the pro-inflammatory cytokine, oxidative stress and TNFR1 played a role in inducing aortic calcification. We used HASMC to investigate the role of TNF-α, oxidative stress and TNFR1 in inducing aortic calcification and to elucidate the mechanism contributes the protective effect of SIM against aortic calcification. We demonstrated that treating HASMC with TNF-α induced cell Ca deposit and result in an increase in ALP, NADPH oxidase activity, NF-kB subunit p65, BMP2, MSX2, and RUNX2 expression. SIM suppressed the TNF-α induced activation of NADPH oxidase subunit p47, the above-mentioned bone markers and TNFR1 expression. Furthermore, p65, p47 and TNFR1 siRNAs inhibited the TNF-α-mediated stimulation of BMP-2, MSX2, RUNX2 expression. SIM, APO, and NAC either partially inhibit or completely block the TNF-α induced H2O2 or superoxide production. These results suggest that SIM may, independent of its cholesterol-lowering effect, suppresses the progression of

  1. Simvastatin Attenuates Oxidative Stress, NF-κB Activation, and Artery Calcification in LDLR-/- Mice Fed with High Fat Diet via Down-regulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and TNF Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Pei; Huang, Po-Hsun; Lai, Chung Fang; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jia-Shiong

    2015-01-01

    Simvastatin (SIM) is anti-inflammatory. We used low density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR-/-) mice and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) as model systems to study the effect of SIM on arterial calcification and to explore the potential mechanisms contributing to this protective effect. High-fat diet (HFD) caused the LRLR -/- to develop dyslipidemia, diabetics, atherosclerosis and aortic smooth muscle calcification. SIM, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, a ROS scavenger) and apocynin (APO, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor) did not significantly retard the development of dyslipidemia or diabetic. However, those treatments were still effective in attenuating the HFD-induced atherosclerosis and aortic smooth muscle calcification. These findings suggest that the protective effect of SIM against aortic calcification is not contributed by the cholesterol lowering effect. SIM, NAC and APO were found to attenuate the HFD induced elevation of serum TNF-α, soluble TNFR1 (sTNFR1), 3-nitro-tyrosine. We hypothesized that the pro-inflammatory cytokine, oxidative stress and TNFR1 played a role in inducing aortic calcification. We used HASMC to investigate the role of TNF-α, oxidative stress and TNFR1 in inducing aortic calcification and to elucidate the mechanism contributes the protective effect of SIM against aortic calcification. We demonstrated that treating HASMC with TNF-α induced cell Ca deposit and result in an increase in ALP, NADPH oxidase activity, NF-kB subunit p65, BMP2, MSX2, and RUNX2 expression. SIM suppressed the TNF-α induced activation of NADPH oxidase subunit p47, the above-mentioned bone markers and TNFR1 expression. Furthermore, p65, p47 and TNFR1 siRNAs inhibited the TNF-α-mediated stimulation of BMP-2, MSX2, RUNX2 expression. SIM, APO, and NAC either partially inhibit or completely block the TNF-α induced H2O2 or superoxide production. These results suggest that SIM may, independent of its cholesterol-lowering effect, suppresses the progression of

  2. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  3. Death by necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Syntichaki, Popi; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2002-01-01

    Cells suffer necrotic death when exposed to extreme environmental conditions, adverse and excessive stimuli, or when deleterious mutations are encoded in their genetic material. Unlike apoptosis, which involves a highly regulated and elaborate network of biochemical events and cascades, necrosis has been considered generally to be a chaotic decadence process that effects the inexorable demise of cells otherwise not destined to die. This grim prospect is now slowly being overturned, mostly by exciting new findings in two simple model organisms, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Despite the wide spectrum of necrosis-initiating conditions, evidence is accumulating that execution of necrotic or neurodegenerative cell death may be carried out by a finite common set of mechanisms. PMID:12101090

  4. Fat Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Sean F.; Pike, Oscar A.

    Methods for characterizing edible lipids, fats, and oils can be separated into two categories: those developed to analyze bulk oils and fats, and those focusing on analysis of foodstuffs and their lipid extracts. In evaluating foodstuffs, it is usually necessary to extract the lipids prior to analysis. In these cases, if sufficient quantities of lipids are available, methods developed for bulk fats and oils can be utilized.

  5. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Keisler, Brian; Carter, Chuck

    2015-04-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm refers to abdominal aortic dilation of 3.0 cm or greater. The main risk factors are age older than 65 years, male sex, and smoking history. Other risk factors include a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery disease, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, and previous myocardial infarction. Diagnosis may be made by physical examination, an incidental finding on imaging, or ultrasonography. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released updated recommendations for abdominal aortic aneurysm screening in 2014. Men 65 to 75 years of age with a history of smoking should undergo one-time screening with ultrasonography based on evidence that screening will improve abdominal aortic aneurysm-related mortality in this population. Men in this age group without a history of smoking may benefit if they have other risk factors (e.g., family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, other vascular aneurysms, coronary artery disease). There is inconclusive evidence to recommend screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in women 65 to 75 years of age with a smoking history. Women without a smoking history should not undergo screening because the harms likely outweigh the benefits. Persons who have a stable abdominal aortic aneurysm should undergo regular surveillance or operative intervention depending on aneurysm size. Surgical intervention by open or endovascular repair is the primary option and is typically reserved for aneurysms 5.5 cm in diameter or greater. There are limited options for medical treatment beyond risk factor modification. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is a medical emergency presenting with hypotension, shooting abdominal or back pain, and a pulsatile abdominal mass. It is associated with high prehospitalization mortality. Emergent surgical intervention is indicated for a rupture but has a high operative mortality rate. PMID:25884861

  6. Dietary Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... PHOs to food. Try to replace them with oils such as canola, olive, safflower, sesame, or sunflower. Of course, eating too much fat will put on the pounds. Fat has twice as many calories as proteins or carbohydrates. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  7. Thioacetamide-induced Hepatocellular Necrosis Is Attenuated in Diet-induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Makoto; Arakawa, Shingo; Miida, Hiroaki; Matsuyama, Takuya; Kinoshita, Junzo; Makino, Toshihiko; Kai, Kiyonori; Teranishi, Munehiro

    2013-06-01

    To assess modification of thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in mice fed a high-fat diet, male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal rodent diet or a high-fat diet for 8 weeks and then treated once intraperitoneally with thioacetamide at 50 mg/kg body weight. At 24 and 48 hours after administration, massive centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis was observed in mice fed the normal rodent diet, while the necrosis was less severe in mice fed the high-fat diet. In contrast, severe swelling of hepatocytes was observed in mice fed the high-fat diet. In addition, mice fed the high-fat diet displayed more than a 4-fold higher number of BrdU-positive hepatocytes compared with mice fed the normal rodent diet at 48 hours after thioacetamide treatment. To clarify the mechanisms by which the hepatic necrosis was attenuated, we investigated exposure to thioacetamide and one of its metabolites, the expression of CYP2E1, which converts thioacetamide to reactive metabolites, and the content of glutathione S-transferases in the liver. However, the reduced hepatocellular necrosis noted in mice fed the high-fat diet could not be explained by the differences in exposure to thioacetamide or thioacetamide sulfoxide or by differences in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes. On the other hand, at 8 hours after thioacetamide administration, hepatic total glutathione in mice fed the high-fat diet was significantly lower than that in mice fed the normal diet. Hence, decreased hepatic glutathione amount is a candidate for the mechanism of the attenuated necrosis. In conclusion, this study revealed that thioacetamide-induced hepatic necrosis was attenuated in mice fed the high-fat diet. PMID:23914059

  8. Computer Tomography Imaging Findings of Abdominal Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Geng, Zhi-Jun; Xie, Chuan-Miao; Zhang, Xin-Ke; Chen, Rui-Ying; Cai, Pei-Qiang; Lv, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is a neoplasm that arises from follicular dendritic cells. FDCSs originating in the abdomen are extremely rare. Clinically, they often mimic a wide variety of other abdominal tumors, and correct preoperative diagnosis is often a challenging task. To date, only scattered cases of abdominal FDCS have been reported and few data are available on their radiological features. Here we present the computer tomography imaging findings of 5 patients with surgically and pathologically demonstrated abdominal FDCS. An abdominal FDCS should be included in the differential diagnosis when single or multiple masses with relatively large size, well- or ill-defined borders, complex internal architecture with marked internal necrosis and/or focal calcification, and heterogeneous enhancement with “rapid wash-in and slow wash-out” or “progressive enhancement” enhancement patterns in the solid component are seen. PMID:26735543

  9. [Abdominal compartment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pottecher, T; Segura, P; Launoy, A

    2001-04-01

    French physicians dealing with abdominal emergencies are not very familiar with the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Increased abdominal pressure has deleterious consequences on local (intestine, liver, kidney) circulation, leading to death in the absence of correct treatment. Abdominal trauma and ruptured aortic aneurism are the main causes of ACS. Clinical presentation may be misleading: respiratory failure, oliguria or circulatory symptoms are often predominant. Abdominal palpation is inefficient for evaluating intra-abdominal pressure (IAP); only measurement of cystic pressure allows precise evaluation of IAP. Abdominal decompression is the treatment of choice. It must be performed as soon as IAP exceeds 25 mmHg. The procedure may be risky with a high incidence of severe complications when ischaemic territories are reperfused. Recent data underline the importance of compensation of hypovolemia before decompression. Abdominal closure may necessitate various techniques (aponevrotomy, Bogota bags, etc.). At any rate, IAP must remain low at the end of the procedure. In case of suspicion of ACS, early measurement of IAP is mandatory. If pressure is over 25 mmHg, a decompressive procedure must be initiated. PMID:11340703

  10. [Semeiotics of abdominal tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Guseĭnov, G K; Ramazanova, A M; Guseĭnov, A G

    1984-01-01

    Examination of 119 patients with abdominal tuberculosis permitted the description of the characteristic semiotics of the illness. Today the patients with abdominal tuberculosis are mainly women of child-bearing age with a long-term tuberculosis catamnesis and intoxication, with a history of tuberculosis of different sites, those suffering from tuberculosis or its sequels at present (64%), those with pains (94%), discomfort or swelling of the abdomen (79%), malfunction of the gastrointestinal tract (65%), weight loss (86%), malnutrition (72%), anemia (63%), not infrequently with inflammatory induration (43%) or ascites in the abdominal cavity (39%). In addition to this characteristic semiotics, the patients with abdominal tuberculosis may demonstrate the most different and unexpected symptoms up to acute abdomen (23%). To make differential diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis, one has often to resort to diagnostic laparotomy, laparoscopy, Koch's test and to trial therapy.

  11. Epipericardial fat necrosis as a cause of acute chest pain

    PubMed Central

    Bogale, Vivek; Hurst, David; dePrisco, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Acute chest pain is one of the most common reasons for presentation to the emergency department. Although most etiologies of chest pain are easy to clinically ascertain with routine history, physical, and laboratory examinations, we present an important benign cause of acute chest pain that may mimic acute coronary syndrome.

  12. Epipericardial fat necrosis as a cause of acute chest pain

    PubMed Central

    Bogale, Vivek; Hurst, David; dePrisco, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Acute chest pain is one of the most common reasons for presentation to the emergency department. Although most etiologies of chest pain are easy to clinically ascertain with routine history, physical, and laboratory examinations, we present an important benign cause of acute chest pain that may mimic acute coronary syndrome. PMID:27695190

  13. [Intestinal necrosis as clinical presentation of Takayasu arteritis].

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Rodrigo; Gatica, Héctor; Segovia, Erico; Cortés, Claudia

    2002-10-01

    A 32 years old female was admitted to hospital due to acute abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and liquid stools. Physical examination was normal except for pain on her left inferior abdominal quadrant without peritoneal irritation signs. An abdominal CAT-scan suggested thrombosis at celiac trunk, although the echo Doppler showed no alterations except for signs of ischemia in the distal branch of the superior mesenteric artery. An exploratory laparotomy was performed disclosing a necrosis of the distal ileum and cecum, diffuse peritonitis and thrombosis of the ileocecoapendiculocolic artery. No vasculitis lesions were found in the arteries of medium size examined. A history of intermittent claudication for the past 3 years as well as acrocyanosis, asymmetry of pulses and blood pressure in the superior extremities was ascertained after the surgery. A MRI angiogram showed multiple stenoses and irregularities at the celiac trunk, hepatic, superior mesenteric and fibular arteries. No abnormalities at the aortic arch and its main branches were documented. A sepsis due to Candida sp complicated her postoperative period. After recovery, prednisone 1 mg/kg/day was started and the anticoagulation continued. The abdominal pain, intermittent claudication and superior limb acrocyanosis disappeared. This is an unusual case of type IV Takayasu's arteritis with acute abdominal signs as the first manifestation.

  14. Visceral fat and liver fat are independent predictors of metabolic risk factors in men.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Duy, Thanh-Binh; Nichaman, Milton Z; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N; Ross, Robert

    2003-06-01

    We examined the independent associations among abdominal adipose tissue (AT), liver fat, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and lipid variables in 161 Caucasian men who had a wide variation in adiposity. We measured AT and liver fat by computed tomography and CRF by a maximal exercise test on a treadmill. Visceral AT remained a significant (P abdominal subcutaneous AT, CRF, and alcohol consumption. Abdominal subcutaneous AT was not a significant (P >or= 0.05) correlate of any lipid variable after control for visceral AT and CRF. Furthermore, subdivision of subcutaneous AT into deep and superficial depots did not alter these observations. Visceral AT was the strongest correlate of liver fat and remained so after control for abdominal subcutaneous AT, CRF, and alcohol consumption (r = -0.34, P < 0.01). In contrast, abdominal subcutaneous AT and CRF were not significant (P > 0.10) correlates of liver fat after control for visceral AT. Visceral AT remained a significant (P < 0.01) correlate of TG, HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C independent of liver fat. However, liver fat was also a significant correlate (P fat carry independent health risk.

  15. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T

    2000-01-01

    The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  16. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  17. A Case of Idiopathic Mesenteric Phlebosclerosis with Progressive Intestinal Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Kayano, Hajime; Nomura, Eiji; Hiraiwa, Shinichiro; Kuramoto, Toru; Yatabe, Kentaro; Machida, Takashi; Tajiri, Takuma; Mukai, Masaya; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    The patient was a 39-year-old woman who was referred to our department from her previous doctor with a 2-day history of right abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography showed wall thickening associated with calcification in the ascending colon. Contrast enhancement in the same portion of the intestinal wall was rather poor. Fluid accumulation was also seen around the intestine, so emergency surgery was performed under a provisional diagnosis of intestinal necrosis. Intestinal necrosis due to idiopathic mesenteric phlebosclerosis was diagnosed from postoperative histopathological tests. Idiopathic mesenteric phlebosclerosis displays a chronic course and in most cases conservative treatment is indicated. Bowel obstruction is common among patients who require surgical treatment, but rare cases such as the present one are also seen in which intestinal necrosis occurs. In recent years, an association with herbal medicine has been indicated as one potential cause of this disease, and this entity should be kept in mind when patients with acute abdomen and a history of taking herbal medicines are encountered. PMID:27344996

  18. Higher lipid accumulation in broilers fed on saturated fats than in those fed on unsaturated fats.

    PubMed

    Sanz, M; Flores, A; De Ayala, P P; Lopez-Bote, C J

    1999-03-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of fat sources differing in degree of saturation on the performance of and fat deposition in broiler chickens fed on isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. 2. There were no differences in initial body weight between sexes but female broilers had lower daily gains (P<0.0001), final weights (P<0.0001) and food intakes (P<0.0001) than males. Abdominal fat pad weight was lower in male broilers than in female (P<0.001). 3. There were no significant differences in intake, weight gain, final body weight or food-to-gain ratios between birds fed on diets differing solely in the degree of fat saturation. Broilers fed on diets containing an animal fat blend or tallow had higher abdominal fat pad weight (P<0.001) and intramuscular lipid content (P=0.0085) than those fed on diets containing sunflower oil. 4. It was concluded that dietary fat saturation affects fat accumulation in broiler chickens.

  19. [METHODS IN ABDOMINAL OBESITY].

    PubMed

    Savchenko, O; Zavalskaya, T; Lizogub, V; Kuzhel, O; Baitser, M; Zapeka, Y

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the anatomical and physiological, histological and topographic features of adipose tissue on the relationship of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. An advanced diagnostic techniques of total body fat and visceral fat content quantification as the most metabolically active are described. PMID:27491154

  20. Effect of diet with and without exercise training on markers of inflammation and fat distribution in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Gordon; Hyatt, Tanya C; Hunter, Gary R; Oster, Robert A; Desmond, Renee A; Gower, Barbara A

    2011-06-01

    The independent effects of exercise and weight loss on markers of inflammation (MOI) in obese individuals have not been clearly characterized. The objectives of this study were to: (i) identify the independent effects of exercise and weight loss on MOI and (ii) determine whether changes in MOI were associated with changes in fat distribution. Subjects were 126 healthy, premenopausal women, BMI 27-30 kg/m(2). They were randomized to one of three groups: diet only, diet + aerobic-, or diet + resistance training until a BMI <25 kg/m(2) was achieved. Fat distribution was measured with computed tomography, and body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1), soluble TNF receptor 2 (sTNF-R2), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin (IL)-6 were assessed. Results of repeated-measures ANOVA indicated a significant effect of time on MOI, such that MOI decreased with weight loss. Results of mixed-model analysis indicated that adjusting for intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) and total fat mass explained the decreases in TNF-α and sTNF-R1, whereas only total fat mass explained the decreases in sTNF-R2, IL-6, and CRP. In conclusion, weight loss was associated with decreases in MOI. The effect of weight loss appeared to be mediated by changes in total fat mass or IAAT. Addition of exercise did not alter the response, suggesting that weight loss has a more profound impact for reducing MOI in overweight women than exercise.

  1. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition.

  2. Gallbladder torsion with acute cholecystitis and gross necrosis.

    PubMed

    Alkhalili, Eyas; Bencsath, Kalman

    2014-01-01

    A 92-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 2-week history of worsening right-sided abdominal pain. On examination she had right mid-abdominal tenderness. Laboratory studies demonstrated leukocytosis with normal liver function tests. A CT of the abdomen was remarkable for a large fluid collection in the right abdomen and no discernible gallbladder in the gallbladder fossa. An ultrasound confirmed the suspicion of a distended, floating gallbladder. The patient was taken to the operating room for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The gallbladder was found to have volvulised in a counter -clockwise manner around its pedicle, with gross necrosis of the gallbladder. She underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Pathological examination revealed acute necrotising calculus cholecystitis.

  3. Fat Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Michael C.; Pike, Oscar A.

    Lipids in food are subjected to many chemical reactions during processing and storage. While some of these reactions are desirable, others are undesirable; so, efforts are made to minimize the reactions and their effects. The laboratory deals with the characterization of fats and oils with respect to composition, structure, and reactivity.

  4. [Abdominal actinomycosis: four cases].

    PubMed

    Ghannouchi Jaafoura, N; Kaabia, N; Khalifa, M; Ben Jazia, I; Hachfi, W; Braham, A; Letaief, A; Bahri, F

    2008-12-01

    The abdominal actinomycosis (AA) is a rare and often unrecognised suppurative chronic illness. It is caused by an anaerobic Gram positive bacteria, Actinomyces israelii. Abdominal actinomycosis is responsible for pseudotumoral syndrome often leading, to a large and mutilating surgery whereas a prolonged treatment by antibiotics would have permitted to cure the disease. The diagnosis is obtained generally from anatomopathologic exam. We report four cases of abdominal actinomycosis being revealed by a pseudotumoral syndrome. The diagnosis was only made after surgery. In spite of an active treatment by antibiotics during several months, two of our patients had a relapse of the infectious process. These four observations confirm the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties previously reported by other authors.

  5. Microcirculatory Evaluation of the Abdominal Skin in Breast Reconstruction with Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Perforator Flap

    PubMed Central

    Tønseth, Kim Alexander; Pripp, Are Hugo; Tindholdt, Tyge Tind

    2016-01-01

    Background: No studies have assessed the perfusion of the undermined abdominal skin in breast reconstruction with deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. A greater understanding of the procedure’s impact on the perfusion of the abdominal skin can be valuable in predicting areas susceptible to necrosis. Methods: Microcirculatory changes were monitored in the abdominal skin of 20 consecutive patients undergoing breast reconstruction with a deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. Quantitative mapping was performed with laser Doppler perfusion imaging at 7 set intervals. Measurements were taken and recorded within 4 standardized zones covering the skin between the xiphoid process and the upper incisional boundary of the flap (zones 1–4; cranial to caudal). Results: Before commencing surgery, a significantly higher perfusion was registered in zones 3 and 4 when compared with zone 1. After undermining the abdominal skin, the perfusion in zones 1–3 increased significantly. After the abdominal closure, the perfusion dropped in all 4 zones and only the perfusion level in zone 1 remained significantly higher than preoperative mean. Postoperatively, the perfusion of each zone stabilized at a significantly higher level compared with preoperative values. No tissue necrosis was observed in any of the zones. Conclusions: Although perforators are divided during undermining of the abdominal skin, there seems to be a reactive hyperemia that exceeds the blood supply delivered by the perforators. Thus, due to microcirculatory mechanisms, the undermining of the abdomen during the procedure does not seem to present any great risk of tissue necrosis. PMID:27014545

  6. Overfeeding polyunsaturated and saturated fat causes distinct effects on liver and visceral fat accumulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Rosqvist, Fredrik; Iggman, David; Kullberg, Joel; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Johansson, Hans-Erik; Larsson, Anders; Johansson, Lars; Ahlström, Håkan; Arner, Peter; Dahlman, Ingrid; Risérus, Ulf

    2014-07-01

    Excess ectopic fat storage is linked to type 2 diabetes. The importance of dietary fat composition for ectopic fat storage in humans is unknown. We investigated liver fat accumulation and body composition during overfeeding saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). LIPOGAIN was a double-blind, parallel-group, randomized trial. Thirty-nine young and normal-weight individuals were overfed muffins high in SFAs (palm oil) or n-6 PUFAs (sunflower oil) for 7 weeks. Liver fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), total adipose tissue, pancreatic fat, and lean tissue were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Transcriptomics were performed in SAT. Both groups gained similar weight. SFAs, however, markedly increased liver fat compared with PUFAs and caused a twofold larger increase in VAT than PUFAs. Conversely, PUFAs caused a nearly threefold larger increase in lean tissue than SFAs. Increase in liver fat directly correlated with changes in plasma SFAs and inversely with PUFAs. Genes involved in regulating energy dissipation, insulin resistance, body composition, and fat-cell differentiation in SAT were differentially regulated between diets, and associated with increased PUFAs in SAT. In conclusion, overeating SFAs promotes hepatic and visceral fat storage, whereas excess energy from PUFAs may instead promote lean tissue in healthy humans.

  7. Walled-off pancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Ramia, J M; de la Plaza, R; Quiñones-Sampedro, J E; Ramiro, C; Veguillas, P; García-Parreño, J

    2012-05-01

    Acute severe pancreatitits may be complicated by the development of 'walled-off pancreatic necrosis' (WOPN), which is characterised by a mixture of solid components and fluids on imaging studies as a consequence of organised pancreatic tissue necrosis. We present here an overview of the definition, clinical features, and diagnostic and therapeutic management of this clinical condition, which is mostly based on consensus as adequate clinical trials are lacking. PMID:22641624

  8. The Acute Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Heiken, Jay P

    2015-11-01

    Acute disorders of the abdominal aorta are potentially lethal conditions that require prompt evaluation and treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging method for evaluating these conditions because of its availability and speed. Volumetric CT acquisition with multiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional analysis is now the standard technique for evaluating the aorta. MR imaging may be useful for select applications in stable patients in whom rupture has been excluded. Imaging is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment planning, because management has shifted toward endoluminal repair. Acute abdominal aortic conditions most commonly are complications of aneurysms and atherosclerosis. PMID:26526434

  9. Fecal Fat: The Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Fecal Fat Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Qualitative or Quantitative Stool Fat; Stool Lipids; 72 Hour Fecal Fat; Fat Stain ...

  10. Fats and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fats and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Fats and ... an important part of a healthy diet. About Fat Fats are nutrients in food that the body ...

  11. Learning about Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Learning About Fats KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning About Fats Print A ... over each gram of fat. continue Types of Fat You might see ads for foods that say ...

  12. Know Your Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Know Your Fats Updated:Mar 28,2016 LDL cholesterol is affected ... eat for a period of time. Know Your Fats Saturated fat The majority of saturated fat comes ...

  13. Saturated fat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay close ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay close ...

  14. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... packaged foods have a nutrition label that includes fat content. Reading food labels can help you keep track of how ... of fats. Some have higher amounts of healthy fats than others. Foods and oils with higher amounts of monounsaturated fats ...

  15. Abdominal organs (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... small intestine further digests food and begins the absorption of nutrients. Secretions from the pancreas in the ... gallbladder and liver emulsify fat and enhance the absorption of fatty acids. The large intestine temporarily stores ...

  16. Destructive fat tissue engineering using photodynamic and selective photothermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Yanina, Irina Yu.; Simonenko, Georgy V.

    2009-02-01

    Destructive fat tissue engineering could be realized using the optical method, which provides reduction of regional or site-specific accumulations of subcutaneous adipose tissue on the cell level. We hypothesize that light irradiation due to photodynamic and selective photothermal effects may lead to fat cell lypolytic activity (the enhancement of lipolysis of cell triglycerides due to expression of lipase activity and cell release of free fat acids (FFAs) due to temporal cell membrane porosity), and cell delayed killing due to apoptosis caused by the induced fat cell stress and/or limited cell necrosis.

  17. Fat Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  18. [A rare variant of enterocele entrapment in the abdominal cavity of a woman].

    PubMed

    Vinnik, Yu S; Prusov, I A; Serova, E V; Shirokobokov, A O; Berdnikov, S I; Struzik, A S; Loginovsky, A S

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal enterocele is a result of entering abdominal organs into peritoneal pockets and folds through the holes in mesenterium or into the adjoining cavities through defects in their walls. Enteroceles are localized at the sites where one segment of the gastrointestinal tract passes into another, in a pocket behind the cecum and sigmoid, between mesenteric layers of small intestine and colon, in the holes of mesenterium of vermiform appendage, gastrocolic and falciform ligaments, pockets and holes of broad ligament of the uterine, omental foramen, rectouterine excavation, and diaphragmal defects. We observed a 26 year old woman with enterocele entrapment in the abdominal cavity complicated by necrosis of part of the small intestine.

  19. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation statement applies to adults ages ...

  20. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  1. [A case report of progressive penile necrosis].

    PubMed

    Haba, Tomomi; Koike, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The penis is provided with blood by multiple arteries. Penile necrosis is uncommon. Penile necrosis sporadically occurs in patients with progressive diabetes mellitus and/or end stage renal failure. Penile necrosis is often considered a poor prognostic feature. We present a case of penile necrosis in a patient with mild diabetes mellitus.

  2. Fatness QTL on chicken chromosome 5 and interaction with sex

    PubMed Central

    Abasht, Behnam; Pitel, Frédérique; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Le Roy, Pascale; Demeure, Olivier; Vignoles, Florence; Simon, Jean; Cogburn, Larry; Aggrey, Sammy; Vignal, Alain; Douaire, Madeleine

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fatness in male chickens were previously identified on chromosome 5 (GGA5) in a three-generation design derived from two experimental chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat weight. A new design, established from the same pure lines, produced 407 F2 progenies (males and females) from 4 F1-sire families. Body weight and abdominal fat were measured on the F2 at 9 wk of age. In each sire family, selective genotyping was carried out for 48 extreme individuals for abdominal fat using seven microsatellite markers from GGA5. QTL analyses confirmed the presence of QTL for fatness on GGA5 and identified a QTL by sex interaction. By crossing one F1 sire heterozygous at the QTL with lean line dams, three recombinant backcross 1 (BC1) males were produced and their QTL genotypes were assessed in backcross 2 (BC2) progenies. These results confirmed the QTL by sex interaction identified in the F2 generation and they allow mapping of the female QTL to less than 8 Mb at the distal part of the GGA5. They also indicate that fat QTL alleles were segregating in both fat and lean lines. PMID:16635451

  3. Successful treatment of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) with tocilizumab: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Akasbi, Nessrine; Soyfoo, Muhammad S.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is an autosomal dominant autoinflammatory disease linked to chromosome 12p13 and, more specifically, with mutations within the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1A gene (TNFRSF1A gene). It is characterized by the presence of fever, abdominal pain, myalgia, arthralgia or arthritis, and skin rash. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) treated successfully with the anti-interleukin-6 (anti-IL-6) receptor monoclonal antibody tocilizumab, while treatment with anti-TNF α etanercept and infliximab had both failed.

  4. Black Anal Canal: Acute Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Catarina; Gonçalves, Cláudia; Alves, Paulo; Gil, Inês; Canhoto, Manuela; Silva, Filipe; Cotrim, Isabel; Amado, Cristina; Eliseu, Liliana; Vasconcelos, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemia of the rectum or anal canal resulting in necrosis is extremely uncommon because both the rectum and the anal canal have excellent blood supplies. We present a case with spontaneous necrosis of the anal canal without rectal involvement. Surgical debridement was accomplished, and the recovery was uneventful. The patient was elderly, with probable atherosclerotic arterial disease, and presented with hypotension. Due to the lack of other precipitating factors, the hypoperfusion hypothesis seems to be the most suitable in this case. To the best of our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature on this subject.

  5. Black Anal Canal: Acute Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Barbeiro, Sandra; Martins, Catarina; Gonçalves, Cláudia; Alves, Paulo; Gil, Inês; Canhoto, Manuela; Silva, Filipe; Cotrim, Isabel; Amado, Cristina; Eliseu, Liliana; Vasconcelos, Helena

    2016-08-01

    Acute ischemia of the rectum or anal canal resulting in necrosis is extremely uncommon because both the rectum and the anal canal have excellent blood supplies. We present a case with spontaneous necrosis of the anal canal without rectal involvement. Surgical debridement was accomplished, and the recovery was uneventful. The patient was elderly, with probable atherosclerotic arterial disease, and presented with hypotension. Due to the lack of other precipitating factors, the hypoperfusion hypothesis seems to be the most suitable in this case. To the best of our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature on this subject. PMID:27626027

  6. Black Anal Canal: Acute Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Catarina; Gonçalves, Cláudia; Alves, Paulo; Gil, Inês; Canhoto, Manuela; Silva, Filipe; Cotrim, Isabel; Amado, Cristina; Eliseu, Liliana; Vasconcelos, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemia of the rectum or anal canal resulting in necrosis is extremely uncommon because both the rectum and the anal canal have excellent blood supplies. We present a case with spontaneous necrosis of the anal canal without rectal involvement. Surgical debridement was accomplished, and the recovery was uneventful. The patient was elderly, with probable atherosclerotic arterial disease, and presented with hypotension. Due to the lack of other precipitating factors, the hypoperfusion hypothesis seems to be the most suitable in this case. To the best of our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature on this subject. PMID:27626027

  7. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  8. Abdominal SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Van Heertum, R.L.; Brunetti, J.C.; Yudd, A.P.

    1987-07-01

    Over the past several years, abdominal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has evolved from a research tool to an important clinical imaging modality that is helpful in the diagnostic assessment of a wide variety of disorders involving the abdominal viscera. Although liver-spleen imaging is the most popular of the abdominal SPECT procedures, blood pool imaging is becoming much more widely utilized for the evaluation of cavernous hemangiomas of the liver as well as other vascular abnormalities in the abdomen. Adjunctive indium leukocyte and gallium SPECT studies are also proving to be of value in the assessment of a variety of infectious and neoplastic diseases. As more experience is acquired in this area, SPECT should become the primary imaging modality for both gallium and indium white blood cells in many institutions. Renal SPECT, on the other hand, has only recently been used as a clinical imaging modality for the assessment of such parameters as renal depth and volume. The exact role of renal SPECT as a clinical tool is, therefore, yet to be determined. 79 references.

  9. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management.

  10. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  11. Fatty acid composition of fat depots in wintering Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    I determined the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, abdominal, visceral, and leg saddle depots in adult female Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) wintering in north-central Missouri during October 1984-March 1985. Mean levels of C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 generally were highest in the subcutaneous and abdominal depots. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fats was highest in the leg saddle depot and lowest in the abdominal depot. I also assessed the differences among sexes, seasons, and years in fatty acid composition of abdominal fat depots in adult geese collected during October-March, 1985-1987. Adult females had consistently higher levels of C14:0 in abdominal depots than males. Fatty acid composition of the abdominal depot differed among years but not by season. In the abdominal depot, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 were higher in 1986-1987 compared with the previous two years, whereas C18:3 was highest in 1984-1985. Differences among years reflected changes in winter diet. Fatty acids of wintering geese were similar to those previously found in breeding Canada Geese.

  12. Inflammatory duodenal necrosis complicating gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Dina; Lee, Geraint J.; Upadhyaya, Manasvi; Drake, David

    2016-01-01

    Babies with gastroschisis have an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) that can lead to short bowel syndrome, a long-term parenteral nutrition requirement, and its associated complications. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of recurrent duodenal ischemia and necrosis associated with gastroschisis in the absence of NEC totalis. PMID:27695214

  13. Inflammatory duodenal necrosis complicating gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Dina; Lee, Geraint J.; Upadhyaya, Manasvi; Drake, David

    2016-01-01

    Babies with gastroschisis have an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) that can lead to short bowel syndrome, a long-term parenteral nutrition requirement, and its associated complications. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of recurrent duodenal ischemia and necrosis associated with gastroschisis in the absence of NEC totalis.

  14. Fat tissue staining and photodynamic/photothermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Yanina, Irina Yu.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.

    2010-02-01

    Cellulite is considered as a disease of the subcutaneous fat layer that appears mostly in women and consists of changes in fat cell accumulation together with disturbed lymphatic drainage, affecting the external appearance of the skin. The photodynamic and selective photothermal treatments may provide reduction the volume of regional or sitespecific accumulations of subcutaneous adipose tissue on the cellular level. We hypothesize that light irradiation of stained fat tissue at selected temperature leads to fat cell lypolytic activity (the enhancement of lipolysis of cell triglycerides due to expression of lipase activity and cell release of free fat acids (FFAs) due to temporal cell membrane porosity), and cell killing due to apoptosis caused by the induced fat cell stress and/or limited cell necrosis.

  15. High-intensity intermittent exercise and fat loss.

    PubMed

    Boutcher, Stephen H

    2011-01-01

    The effect of regular aerobic exercise on body fat is negligible; however, other forms of exercise may have a greater impact on body composition. For example, emerging research examining high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) indicates that it may be more effective at reducing subcutaneous and abdominal body fat than other types of exercise. The mechanisms underlying the fat reduction induced by HIIE, however, are undetermined. Regular HIIE has been shown to significantly increase both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. HIIE also significantly lowers insulin resistance and results in a number of skeletal muscle adaptations that result in enhanced skeletal muscle fat oxidation and improved glucose tolerance. This review summarizes the results of HIIE studies on fat loss, fitness, insulin resistance, and skeletal muscle. Possible mechanisms underlying HIIE-induced fat loss and implications for the use of HIIE in the treatment and prevention of obesity are also discussed.

  16. Exercise is required for visceral fat loss in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, I; Ploutz-Snyder, L L; Carhart, R; Weinstock, R S; Fernhall, B; Goulopoulou, S; Kanaley, J A

    2005-03-01

    This study examined the effects of aerobic exercise without weight loss, a hypocaloric high monounsaturated fat diet, and diet plus exercise (D+E) on total abdominal and visceral fat loss in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-three postmenopausal women (body mass index, 34.6 +/- 1.9 kg/m(2)) were assigned to one of three interventions: a hypocaloric high monounsaturated fat diet alone, exercise alone (EX), and D+E for 14 wk. Aerobic capacity, body composition, abdominal fat distribution (magnetic resonance imaging), glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity were measured pre- and postintervention. Body weight ( approximately 4.5 kg) and percent body fat ( approximately 5%) were decreased (P < 0.05) with the D and D+E intervention, whereas only percent body fat ( approximately 2.3%) decreased with EX. Total abdominal fat and sc adipose tissue (SAT) were reduced with the D and D+E interventions (P < 0.05), whereas visceral adipose tissue (VAT) decreased with the D+E and EX intervention, but not with the D intervention. EX resulted in a reduction in total abdominal fat, VAT, and SAT (P < 0.05) despite the lack of weight loss. The reductions in total abdominal fat and SAT explained 32.7% and 9.7%, respectively, of the variability in the changes in fasting glucose levels, whereas the reductions in VAT explained 15.9% of the changes in fasting insulin levels (P < 0.05). In conclusion, modest weight loss, through either D or D+E, resulted in similar improvements in total abdominal fat, SAT, and glycemic status in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes; however, the addition of exercise to diet is necessary for VAT loss. These data demonstrate the importance of exercise in the treatment of women with type 2 diabetes.

  17. The relationships between intra-abdominal echogenicity, cardiometabolic risk factors and physical performance in obese children.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji Won; Lee, Nam-Gi; Kim, Hee-Jung; Cho, Hyo-Min; You, Joshua H

    2014-01-01

    While the abdominal adipose tissue has been identified as an important pathomarker for the cardiometabolic syndrome in adults, the relationships between the cardiometabolic risk factors and abdominal adipose morphology or physical performance levels have not been examined in children with obesity. Therefore, the specific aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between risk factors (BMI and physical activity levels and abdominal fat layers including subcutaneous, intra-abdominal preperitoneal and mesenteric fat thickness in children with obesity. 30 children with obesity (mean ± SD = 10.0 ± 4.5 yrs; 9 girls; BMI > 20) underwent physical performance (curl-ups, sit and reach, push-ups, and a 400-m run), ultrasound measurement of thickness of fat composition of the abdomen, blood pressure, oxygen consumption. Pearson correlation analysis showed significant correlations, ranging from -0.523- 0.898 between the intra-abdominal adipose tissue thickness, cardiometabolic risk factors (BMI, blood pressure, heart rate), and the curl-up physical performance test. In conclusion, the present study provides a compelling evidence that the intra-abdominal adipose tissue morphological characteristics were associated with BMI, physical performance, and most importantly cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure and heart rate), which eventually contribute to the development of cardiometabolic syndrome in adulthood.

  18. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 ... warm What are the different types of dietary fat? The four main types of fat found in ...

  19. Facts about saturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... with trans fat . These fats are most often solid at room temperature. Foods like butter, palm and ... products (butter, ice cream, pudding, cheese, whole milk) Solid fats such as coconut oil, palm, and palm ...

  20. Facts about trans fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... made when food makers turn liquid oils into solid fats, like shortening or margarine. Trans fats can ... list. It means oils have been turned to solids and trans fats. Manufacturers can show 0 grams ...

  1. Dietary fat and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... These include fats found in fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Limit foods with saturated and trans fats (such as meats, full-fat dairy products, and processed foods). Fruits and vegetables are healthy snack foods. Children should be taught ...

  2. Heating properties of non-invasive hyperthermia treatment for abdominal deep tumors by 3-D FEM.

    PubMed

    Morita, E; Kato, K; Ono, S; Shindo, Y; Tsuchiya, K; Kubo, M

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the heating properties of a new type of hyperthermia system composed of a re-entrant type resonant cavity applicator for deep tumors of the abdominal region. In this method, a human body is placed in the gap of two inner electrodes and is non-invasively heated with electromagnetic fields stimulated in the cavity. Here, we calculated temperature distributions of a simple human abdominal phantom model that we constructed to examine the heating properties of the developed hyperthermia system. First, the proposed heating method and a simple abdominal model to calculate the temperature distribution are presented. Second, the computer simulation results of temperature distribution by 3-D FEM are presented. From these results, it was found that the proposed simple human abdominal phantom model composed of muscle, fat and lung was useful to test the heating properties of our heating method. Our heating method was also effective to non-invasively heat abdominal deep tumors.

  3. Leaking mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sing, T M; Young, N; O'Rourke, I C; Tomlinson, P

    1994-11-01

    A case of leaking mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm is reported, with a brief review of the literature. A 58 year old female presented with shoulder and abdominal pain associated with diarrhoea, vomiting and fever with leucocytosis. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed pooling of contrast in the retroperitoneum anterior to a non-dilated abdominal aorta. There was considerable retroperitoneal blood accumulating in a mass-like lesion in the right lower abdomen and pelvis obstructing the right renal collecting system. Laparotomy revealed a 4 cm diameter saccular aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, with a 1 cm diameter neck. Culture of the thrombus grew Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:7993259

  4. Hypnosis for functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Gottsegen, David

    2011-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other somatic symptoms are easily adaptable for use with functional abdominal pain. The author discusses 2 contrasting hypnotic approaches to functional abdominal pain and provides implications for further research. These approaches may provide new insights into this common and complex disorder. PMID:21922712

  5. Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cebulski, Włodzimierz; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz W.

    2014-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25653725

  6. Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Inayat, Faisal; Hurairah, Abu; Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) or “black esophagus” is a rare clinical entity with an unclear etiology. It is diagnosed at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. The treatment is primarily medical, but the prognosis is generally poor due to advanced age and comorbid illnesses in patients who develop AEN. Herein, we discussed the implications of poor glycemic control in regards with AEN and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis. PMID:27583242

  7. Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Update.

    PubMed

    Inayat, Faisal; Hurairah, Abu; Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) or "black esophagus" is a rare clinical entity with an unclear etiology. It is diagnosed at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. The treatment is primarily medical, but the prognosis is generally poor due to advanced age and comorbid illnesses in patients who develop AEN. Herein, we discussed the implications of poor glycemic control in regards with AEN and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis. PMID:27583242

  8. [Talus necrosis and its treatment].

    PubMed

    Trauth, J; Bläsius, K

    1988-08-01

    Aetiopathogenesis of the necrosis of the talus has not yet been definitely clarified, and neither has that of the other aseptic necroses. We were able to study the aetiopathogenesis, course of the disease and therapy in 20 of our own patients by follow-up; two of these developed necrosis of the talus in both feet. We definitely excluded patients suffering from osteochondrosis dissecans. Even though fracture of the talus is on the whole relatively rare, it remains the most frequent cause of necrosis of the talus. We also found talonecrosis after surgical correction of clubfoot, after Sudeck's disease (Sudeck-Leriche syndrome, Sudeck's atrophy or dystrophy), suppurative arthritis of the ankle joint, subtalar luxation and haematogenic osteomyelitis. Only few patients required surgery. In most cases a special boot constructed for arthrodesis patients proved sufficient. Each patient developed arthrodesis to a different degree. Depending upon the complaints and stiffening of the ankle joint or of the talo-calcanonavicular joint, the capacity of the patients to be gainfully employed was reduced by an amount between 20 and 30 per cent. PMID:2905578

  9. [Abdominal approaches and drainages of the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Hagel, C; Schilling, M

    2006-04-01

    Appropriate access to the abdominal cavity is the first and crucial step for successful abdominal surgical intervention. In planning the incision, several variables have to be considered, such as anatomy of the abdominal wall, localization of the target organ, and individual conditions (previous incisions, minimal access surgery, etc). Medial laparotomy is the preferred incision for emergency cases and ill-defined pathologies, allowing access and hence exploration to all quadrants. Transverse laparotomies give superior access to the dorsal and right aspects of the liver and cause less pain in patients unfit for regional anesthetic procedures. Draining of the abdominal cavity is used after various resective and reconstructive procedures, but there is little evidence for its use in a number of operations such as gastric, hepatic, and colorectal resections. Advantages and disadvantages of different abdominal wall incisions and drainages are discussed.

  10. A Curious Case of Right Upper Quadrant Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Grock, Andrew; Chan, Wendy; deSouza, Ian S

    2016-09-01

    An otherwise healthy 36-year-old man presented with sudden-onset right upper quadrant abdominal pain and vomiting. A bedside ultrasound, performed to evaluate hepatobiliary pathology, revealed a normal gallbladder but free intraperitoneal fluid. After an expedited CT and emergent explorative laparotomy, the patient was diagnosed with a small bowel obstruction with ischemia secondary to midgut volvulus. Though midgut volvulus is rare in adults, delays in definitive diagnosis and management can result in bowel necrosis. Importantly, an emergency physician must be able to recognize bedside ultrasound findings associated with acutely dangerous intrabdominal pathology. PMID:27625732

  11. A Curious Case of Right Upper Quadrant Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Grock, Andrew; Chan, Wendy; deSouza, Ian S.

    2016-01-01

    An otherwise healthy 36-year-old man presented with sudden-onset right upper quadrant abdominal pain and vomiting. A bedside ultrasound, performed to evaluate hepatobiliary pathology, revealed a normal gallbladder but free intraperitoneal fluid. After an expedited CT and emergent explorative laparotomy, the patient was diagnosed with a small bowel obstruction with ischemia secondary to midgut volvulus. Though midgut volvulus is rare in adults, delays in definitive diagnosis and management can result in bowel necrosis. Importantly, an emergency physician must be able to recognize bedside ultrasound findings associated with acutely dangerous intrabdominal pathology.

  12. A Curious Case of Right Upper Quadrant Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Grock, Andrew; Chan, Wendy; deSouza, Ian S.

    2016-01-01

    An otherwise healthy 36-year-old man presented with sudden-onset right upper quadrant abdominal pain and vomiting. A bedside ultrasound, performed to evaluate hepatobiliary pathology, revealed a normal gallbladder but free intraperitoneal fluid. After an expedited CT and emergent explorative laparotomy, the patient was diagnosed with a small bowel obstruction with ischemia secondary to midgut volvulus. Though midgut volvulus is rare in adults, delays in definitive diagnosis and management can result in bowel necrosis. Importantly, an emergency physician must be able to recognize bedside ultrasound findings associated with acutely dangerous intrabdominal pathology. PMID:27625732

  13. Spontaneous, isolated caecal necrosis: report of a case, review of the literature, and updated classification.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J P; Saratzis, A; Zayyan, K

    2013-01-01

    Isolated necrosis of the caecum is a rare cause of abdominal pain. In the absence of occlusive vascular disease it has a number of well documented associations, the commonest of which is patients' receiving haemodialysis for endstage renal failure. It has also been associated with shock states, cardiac failure, ischaemic heart disease, diabetes and drugs such as cocaine, thiopentone and cytotoxic agents. However, there are few reported cases in the literature without the aforementioned associations and the majority of cases, regardless of aetiology, were treated with either hemicolectomy or wedge resection and ileocolic anastamosis. This report describes a case of isolated caecal necrosis, mimicking acute appendicitis, successfully treated by local excision of the necrotic segment. It also provides a systematic review of the literature and proposes an updated classification of associations in isolated caecal necrosis.

  14. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Chi H. L.; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD), only fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or fed low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins. Supplementation of drinking water with BARD prevented mesenteric fat deposition, as determined by a reduction in large adipocytes. BARD prevented inflammation as there were fewer inflammatory macrophages and reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha). BARD reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, suggesting an antioxidative stress effect. BARD upregulates energy expenditure proteins, judged by the increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) proteins. Overall, BARD induces preventive effect in HFD mice through regulation of mesenteric adipose tissue. PMID:26618193

  15. Electro-optical techniques for the investigation of photoplethysmographic signals in human abdominal organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriacou, P. A.; Crerar-Gilber, A.; Langford, R. M.; Jones, D. P.

    2006-07-01

    There is a need for reliable continuous monitoring of abdominal organ oxygen saturation (SpO2). Splanchnic ischaemia may ultimately lead to cellular hypoxia and necrosis and may well contribute to the development of multiple organ failures and increased mortality. A new reflectance electro-optical photoplethysmographic (PPG) probe and signal processing system were developed. PPG signals from abdominal organs (bowel, liver, and kidney) and the finger were obtained from 12 anaesthetised patients. The amplitudes of the abdominal organ PPGs were, on average, approximately the same as those obtained simultaneously from the finger. These observations suggest that pulse oximetry may be a valid monitoring technique for abdominal organs such as the bowel liver and kidney.

  16. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Figuring Out Fat and Calories KidsHealth > For Teens > Figuring Out Fat ... the truth on fat and calories? What Are Fat and Calories? Fats, or lipids , are nutrients in ...

  17. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  18. [The abdominal drop flap].

    PubMed

    Bodin, F; Liverneaux, P; Seigle-Murandi, F; Facca, S; Bruant-Rodier, C; Dissaux, C; Chaput, B

    2015-08-01

    The skin between the mastectomy scar and the future infra-mammary fold may be managed in different ways in delayed breast reconstruction using a DIEP (deep inferior epigastric perforator). Conserving this skin and positioning the flap skin paddle in the middle of the breast usually highlights skin color disparity because of two visible transition zones. Resection of the entire skin under the scar may be more aesthetic but limits direct closure possibility in case of flap failure. In order to benefit from both aesthetic result and safe surgical method, we propose the abdominal drop flap. The inferior thoracic skin flap is detached from the thoracic wall beyond the future infra-mammary fold, preserved and pushed under the breast.

  19. Comparative integromics on FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-09-01

    WNT5A, WNT5B, WNT11, FZD3, FZD6, VANGL1, VANGL2, DVL1, DVL2, DVL3, PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, ANKRD6, NKD1, NKD2, DAAM1, DAAM2, CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3, ROR1 and ROR2 are planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling molecules implicated in the regulation of cellular polarity, convergent extension, and invasion. FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4 are Cadherin superfamily members homologous to Drosophila Fat, functioning as a positive regulator of PCP in the Drosophila wing. Complete coding sequence (CDS) for human FAT1 (NM_005245.3) and FAT2 (NM_001447.1) are available, while artificial CDS for human FAT3 (XM_926199 and XM_936538) and partial CDS for FAT4 (NM_024582.2). Here, complete CDS of human FAT3 and FAT4 were determined by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). FAT3 gene, consisting of 26 exons, encoded a 4557-aa protein with extracellular 33 Cadherin repeats, one Laminin G (LamG) domain and two EGF domains. FAT4 gene encoded a 4924-aa protein with extracellular 34 Cadherin repeats, two LamG domains and three EGF domains. Cytoplasmic VCSVxPxLP and SDYxS motifs were identified as novel motifs conserved among FAT1, FAT2 and FAT3 orthologs. Domain architecture comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that FAT1, FAT2 and FAR3 were divergent from FAT4. FAT1-MTNR1A locus at 4q35.2 and FAT3-MTNR1B locus at 11q14.3-q21 were paralogous regions within the human genome. FAT1 mRNA was expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, neural tissues, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and brain tumors. FAT2 mRNA was expressed in infant brain, cerebellum, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, esophageal cancer, skin squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer. FAT3 mRNA was expressed in ES cells, primitive neuroectoderm, fetal brain, infant brain, adult neural tissues and prostate. FAT4 mRNA was expressed in fetal brain, infant brain, brain tumor and colorectal cancer. FAT family members were revealed to be targets of systems

  20. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  1. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  2. The MRI of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma in the abdominal cavity.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Huang Sui; Feng, Xu Lin; Yong, Li; Yong, Zhang; Lian, Zhong Jing; Ling, Liang Bi

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the MR appearances of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma in the abdominal cavity and evaluate the capabilities of MRI in diagnosis of the tumor. Eleven consecutive patients with an extraadrenal pheochromocytoma in abdominal cavity who underwent preoperative 0.5 T (n=5) or 1.5 T (n=6) superconductor MRI and had a surgical resection were enrolled in the study. The MR scanning protocol included axial T(2)-weighted imaging with or without fat-suppressed sequences, axial and coronal uncontrast and contrast T(1)-weighted sequences with or without fat suppression. The extraadrenal pheochromocytomas were found in retroperitoneum (n=5), the urinary bladder (n=1), the pelvis (n=1), the right prerenal area (n=1), the renal hilus (n=1), the left paramusculus psoas major (n=1) and liver (n=1). The mean maximal diameter of tumors was 55.9 mm (range 17.8-162.2 mm). The high signal intensity was seen on T(2)-weighted imaging in all tumors compared to muscle or liver, especially with fat suppression. The intratumoral septa and capsules were shown in 63.6% and 72.7% of cases, respectively, which had low signal intensity on T(2)-weighted imaging. These relative characteristics may be helpful for qualitative diagnosis of extraadrenal pheochromocytomas with MRI. Other usefulness of MRI was to locate the position, to decide the range of tumors and to show well the relationship between the tumor and near structures.

  3. Modest Visceral Fat Gain Causes Endothelial Dysfunction In Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H.; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Orban, Marek; Gami, Apoor; Davison, Diane; Singh, Prachi; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Huyber, Christine; Votruba, Susanne; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Jensen, Michael D.; Somers, Virend K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine the impact of fat gain and its distribution on endothelial function in lean healthy humans. Background Endothelial dysfunction has been identified as an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Whether fat gain impairs endothelial function is unknown. Methods A randomized controlled study to assess the effects of fat gain on endothelial function. We recruited 43 normal weight healthy volunteers (mean age 29 years; 18 women). Subjects were assigned to gain weight (approximately 4 kg) (n=35) or to maintain weight (n=8). Endothelial function (brachial artery flow mediated dilation -FMD) was measured at baseline, after fat gain (8 weeks) and after weight loss (16 weeks) for fat-gainers and at baseline and follow-up (8 weeks) for weight-maintainers. Body composition was measured by DXA and abdominal CT scans. Results After an average weight gain of 4.1 kg, fat-gainers significantly increased their total, visceral and subcutaneous fat. Blood pressure and overnight polysomnography did not change after fat gain or loss. FMD remained unchanged in weight-maintainers. FMD decreased in fat-gainers (9.1 ± 3% vs. 7.8 ± 3.2%, p =0.003), but recovered to baseline when subjects shed the gained weight. There was a significant correlation between the decrease in FMD and the increase in visceral fat gain (rho = −0.42, p=0.004), but not with subcutaneous fat gain (rho = −0.22, p=0.15). Conclusions In normal weight healthy young subjects, modest fat gain results in impaired endothelial function, even in the absence of changes in blood pressure. Endothelial function recovers after weight loss. Increased visceral rather than subcutaneous fat predicts endothelial dysfunction. PMID:20705223

  4. Quantitative Proton Magnetic Resonance Techniques for Measuring Fat

    PubMed Central

    Harry, Houchun; Kan, Hermien E.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate, precise, and reliable techniques for quantifying body and organ fat distributions are important tools in physiology research. They are critically needed in studies of obesity and diseases involving excess fat accumulation. Proton magnetic resonance methods address this need by providing an array of relaxometry-based (T1, T2) and chemical-shift-based approaches. These techniques can generate informative visualizations of regional and whole-body fat distributions, yield measurements of fat volumes within specific body depots, and quantify fat accumulation in abdominal organs and muscles. MR methods are commonly used to investigate the role of fat in nutrition and metabolism, to measure the efficacy of short and long-term dietary and exercise interventions, to study the implications of fat in organ steatosis and muscular dystrophies, and to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms in the context of obesity and its comorbidities. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of mainstream MR strategies for fat quantification. The article will succinctly describe the principles that differentiate water and fat proton signals, summarize advantages and limitations of various techniques, and offer a few illustrative examples. The article will also highlight recent efforts in MR of brown adipose tissue and conclude by briefly discussing some future research directions. PMID:24123229

  5. The reverse abdominal reduction and the 'waistcoating' procedure for the correction of the fixated Pfannenstiel incision.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Douglas H

    2016-05-01

    The principles of a standard abdominal reduction are well understood; this technique has been used for many years. However, a reverse abdominal reduction may be considered in some cases, for example, continued weight loss, and thus skin redundancy on the upper abdomen in patients who have already undergone abdominal reduction and upper abdomen improvement in patients requiring a mastopexy or breast reduction simultaneously. Reverse abdominal reduction is rarely mentioned in the medical literature, but it can prove successful; although the scar across the lower sternum has often been considered to be unsatisfactory, often it does not prove to be so. Thus, this procedure can be proven to be successful in suitable cases. Secondly, the Pfannenstiel incision, if not satisfactorily repaired in the first instance, can become fixated to the abdominal wall; this fixation along with the inevitable migration of skin and fat at its cephalic edge causes a rather displeasing contour defect when wearing tight-fitting swimwear. The principle of the waistcoating procedure is essentially to chamfer the fat cephalically; this procedure is employed for removing the Pfannenstiel scar from the abdominal wall. The principle is simple and effective and can be applied in cases with fixated scars. These two aforementioned principles are not commonly used, but they can prove particularly effective in suitable cases. We illustrate the principles. PMID:26966077

  6. The reverse abdominal reduction and the 'waistcoating' procedure for the correction of the fixated Pfannenstiel incision.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Douglas H

    2016-05-01

    The principles of a standard abdominal reduction are well understood; this technique has been used for many years. However, a reverse abdominal reduction may be considered in some cases, for example, continued weight loss, and thus skin redundancy on the upper abdomen in patients who have already undergone abdominal reduction and upper abdomen improvement in patients requiring a mastopexy or breast reduction simultaneously. Reverse abdominal reduction is rarely mentioned in the medical literature, but it can prove successful; although the scar across the lower sternum has often been considered to be unsatisfactory, often it does not prove to be so. Thus, this procedure can be proven to be successful in suitable cases. Secondly, the Pfannenstiel incision, if not satisfactorily repaired in the first instance, can become fixated to the abdominal wall; this fixation along with the inevitable migration of skin and fat at its cephalic edge causes a rather displeasing contour defect when wearing tight-fitting swimwear. The principle of the waistcoating procedure is essentially to chamfer the fat cephalically; this procedure is employed for removing the Pfannenstiel scar from the abdominal wall. The principle is simple and effective and can be applied in cases with fixated scars. These two aforementioned principles are not commonly used, but they can prove particularly effective in suitable cases. We illustrate the principles.

  7. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-11-14

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer.

  8. Inflammatory responses to neutral fat and fatty acids in multiple organs in a rat model of fat embolism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takada, Meri; Chiba, Shoetsu; Nagai, Tomonori; Takeshita, Hiroshi; Kanno, Sanae; Ikawa, Toru; Sakamoto, Kana; Sagi, Morihisa; Ichiba, Kazue; Mukai, Toshiji

    2015-09-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a common complication of long bone fractures. FES is rare but with significant morbidity and occasional fatalities. Studies of animal models of FES are numerous; however, few studies compare inflammatory reactions in multiple organs. The present study investigated the effect of neutral fat and fatty acids, which cause changes in multiple organs and induce FES. Using rats we evaluated the ratio of lung-to-body weight and conducted histological analyses and quantitative analysis of inflammatory cytokine mRNAs in the lungs following intravenous administration of neutral fat or fatty acids. Neutral fat increased the ratio of lung-to-body weight, and neutral fat formed emboli in lung capillaries. The levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the lungs increased after injection of neutral fat and oleic acid. Analysis of the histologic changes revealed that the highest numbers of fat droplets, occluding the capillaries of the lungs, kidney, heart, and brain formed 12h after the injection of neutral fat and fat droplets gradually diminished 48h later. Fat droplets were not detected in any organs after the injection of oleic acid. IL-1β and TNF-α levels in the lungs were elevated 9-24h after the injection of neutral fat, although IL-6 levels peaked at 6h. After injection of oleic acid, peak levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were detected at 6h, and IL-6 again increased in all organs and plasma at 15h. Neutral fat, but not fatty acids, formed emboli in the capillaries of multiple organs. These findings suggest that neutral fat increased inflammatory cytokine levels by forming emboli in organ capillaries, particularly in the lungs, while oleic acid augmented inflammatory cytokine levels by stimulating endothelial cells of multiple organs.

  9. [ENDOVASCULAR ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM REPAIR].

    PubMed

    Maĭstrenko, D N; Generalov, M I; Tarazov, P G; Zherebtsov, F K; Osovskikh, V V; Ivanov, A S; Oleshchuk, A N; Granov, D A

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the single-center experience of treatment of 72 patients with abdominal aortic aneurisms and severe accompanied pathology. The aneurisms were repaired by stent-grafts. All the patients had abdominal aortic aneurisms with the diameters from 41 to 84 mm against the background of severe somatic pathology. It was a contraindication to planned open surgery. An installation of stent-graft was successful in all 72 follow-ups. It wasn't necessary to use a conversion to open surgery. The follow-up period consisted of 44,6?2,1 months. Control ultrasound and computer tomography studies hadn't revealed an increase of aneurism sack sizes or "eakages". A reduction of abdominal aortic aneurism sizes was noted in 37 patients on 4-5% during first year after operation. The stent-graft implantation extends the possibilities of abdominal aortic aneurism treatment for patients from a high surgical risk group. PMID:26234059

  10. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... At low doses, these medicines can be excellent pain relievers for some children. A fearful, anxious, or depressed child however should be fully assessed by a psychiatrist or psychologist. Some psychological treatments that help children cope with functional abdominal pain ...

  11. LOCATION OF BODY FAT AMONG WOMEN WHO ACCURATELY OR INACCURATELY PERCEIVE THEIR WEIGHT STATUS.

    PubMed

    Rote, Aubrianne E; Klos, Lori A; Swartz, Ann M

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated location of body fat, with specific focus on abdominal fat, among normal weight and overweight women who accurately or inaccurately perceived their weight status. Young, adult women (N = 120; M age = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.2) were asked to classify their weight status using the Self-Classified Weight subscale from the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Actual weight status was operationalized via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Overweight women who thought they were normal weight had an average of 19 pounds more fat than normal weight women with 1.5 pounds of excess abdominal fat. Interventions to raise awareness among overweight women unaware of their fat level are warranted. However, these interventions should balance consideration of potential detriments to body image among these women. PMID:26474442

  12. Abdominal ultrasonography, 2nd Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    This volume is a new and updated edition of an extensively illustrated text and reference on the capabilities and imaging of gray scale ultrasonography for each major abdominal organ. Each major organ system is treated separately, including liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, pancreas, kidney, retroperitoneum, abdominal vasculature, and more. There are over 500 illustrations and ten pages of full color plates for cross sectional anatomy.

  13. Effects of growth hormone administration for 6 months on bone turnover and bone marrow fat in obese premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Gerweck, Anu V.; Barber, Lauren A.; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford J.; Torriani, Martin; Miller, Karen K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Abdominal adiposity is associated with low BMD and decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion, an important regulator of bone homeostasis. The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of a short course of GH on markers of bone turnover and bone marrow fat in premenopausal women with abdominal adiposity. Materials and Methods In a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we studied 79 abdominally obese premenopausal women (21–45y) who underwent daily sc injections of GH vs. placebo. Main outcome measures were body composition by DXA and CT, bone marrow fat by proton MR spectroscopy, P1NP, CTX, 25(OH)D, hsCRP, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref 1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and IGF-1. Results GH increased IGF-1, P1NP, 25(OH)D, ucOC, bone marrow fat and lean mass, and decreased abdominal fat, hsCRP, and ApoB compared with placebo (p<0.05). There was a trend toward an increase in CTX and Pref-1. Among all participants, 6-month increase in IGF-1 correlated with 6-month increase in P1NP (p=0.0005), suggesting that subjects with the greatest increases in IGF-1 experienced the greatest increases in bone formation. Six-month decrease in abdominal fat, hsCRP, and ApoB inversely predicted 6-month change in P1NP, and 6-month increase in lean mass and 25(OH)D positively predicted 6-month change in P1NP (p≤0.05), suggesting that subjects with greatest decreases in abdominal fat, inflammation and ApoB, and the greatest increases in lean mass and 25(OH)D experienced the greatest increases in bone formation. Six-month increase in bone marrow fat correlated with 6-month increase in P1NP (trend), suggesting that subjects with the greatest increases in bone formation experienced the greatest increases in bone marrow fat. Forward stepwise regression analysis indicated that increase in lean mass and decrease in abdominal fat were positive predictors of P1NP. When IGF-1 was added to the model, it became the only predictor

  14. Osteoprotegerin Prevents Development of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Koichi; Aoki, Hiroki; Orita, Yuichi; Ishida, Takafumi; Ohtaki, Megu; Nagao, Masataka; Ishida, Mari; Yoshizumi, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), which commonly occur among elderly individuals, are accompanied by a risk of rupture and subsequent high mortality. Establishment of medical therapies for the prevention of AAAs requires further understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this condition. This report details the possible involvement of Osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the prevention of AAAs through inhibition of Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). In CaCl2-induced AAA models, both internal and external diameters were significantly increased with destruction of elastic fibers in the media in Opg knockout (KO) mice, as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, up-regulation of TRAIL expression was observed in the media by immunohistochemical analyses. Using a culture system, both the TRAIL-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and the chemoattractive effect of TRAIL on SMCs were inhibited by OPG. These data suggest that Opg may play a preventive role in the development of AAA through its antagonistic effect on Trail. PMID:26783750

  15. Acute oesophageal necrosis (black oesophagus).

    PubMed

    Galtés, Ignasi; Gallego, María Ángeles; Esgueva, Raquel; Martin-Fumadó, Carles

    2016-03-01

    A 54-year-old man was admitted to hospital after being found unconscious in his home. He had a history of alcoholism, multiple drug addictions, and type I diabetes mellitus. At admission, he had hyperglycaemia (550 mg/dL) with glucosuria and ketone bodies in the urine, along with septic shock refractory to bilateral alveolar infiltrates and severe respiratory failure. The patient died 24 hours post admission due to multiple organ failure, with diabetic ketoacidosis decompensated by possible respiratory infection in a patient with polytoxicomania. The autopsy confirmed the presence of acute bilateral bronchopneumonia, chronic pancreatitis, severe hepatic steatosis, and generalized congestive changes. At the oesophagus, acute oesophageal necrosis was evident. PMID:26949146

  16. Abdominal emergencies in the geriatric patient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons that elderly people visit the emergency department (ED). In this article, we review the deadliest causes of abdominal pain in this population, including mesenteric ischemia, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and appendicitis and potentially lethal non-abdominal causes. We also highlight the pitfalls in diagnosing, or rather misdiagnosing, these clinical entities. PMID:25635203

  17. Abdominal MR imaging at 3T.

    PubMed

    Merkle, Elmar M; Dale, Brian M; Paulson, Erik K

    2006-02-01

    Body MR imaging at 3T is in its infancy, and should improve substantially over the next several years. Radiologists need to be aware of several limitations that are based on the laws of physics: Overall, the gain in SNR at 3T will be less than twofold (without protocol alteration) compared with a standard 1.5T MR system because of the increase in T'I'1 at ultra high field. Typically, the gain in SNR is greater in T2-weighted sequences than in TI-weighted sequences, because longer TRs allow for a more complete recovery of the longitudinal magnetization, and T2 is independent of Bo. Thus, for example, patients who are referred for an MR cholangiography may benefit from an ultrahigh-field MR examination. Chemical shift artifacts of the first kind are twice as large in ultrahigh-field MR imaging compared with standard 1.5T MR imaging. Conversely, chemical shift artifacts of the second kind do not increase in size, although the timing is altered. The increased difference in resonant frequency between water and fat at 3T also is advantageous because it allows for a better separation of the fat and water peak during MR spectroscopy, and allows better or faster fat suppression using chemical shift techniques, such as fat saturation or water excitation. Susceptibility artifacts are approximately twice as large by volume on 3T MR imaging. Although patients who are referred for a "colon" study may be challenging at ultrahigh field, the search for "gas" (eg, free air or pneumobilia) should be easier. Patients with metal implants should undergo an MR examination at 3T only if the metal-containing device specifically has been proved to be MR safe at this field strength. Usually, standing wave and conductivity effects are not seen in body imaging at a field strength of 1.5T. At 3T, these artifacts are most pronounced in pregnant women in the sec-ond and third trimester, because of the large amount of conductive amniotic fluid and the increased size of the abdomen. Therefore

  18. Lipocytes (fat cells) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to energy output, there is no expansion of fat cells (lipocytes) to accommodate excess. It is only when more calories are taken in than used that the extra fat is stored in the lipocytes and the person ...

  19. [Overweight and abdominal obesity in adults in aquilombocommunity in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes nutritional status, estimates the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity, and investigates factors associated with these outcomes in a two-stage random sample of adults (> 20 years) in quilombos (communities that descend from African slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2011. Among 739 participants, prevalence rates were 31.8% and 10.2% for overweight and obesity, respectively, and 55.7% for increased waist-to-height ratio (> 0.50). Prevalence of overweight was higher among 30-39-year-olds, while abdominal obesity was more frequent among older individuals. Female sex, eating chicken or beef with untrimmed fat, and hypertension were associated with higher odds of overweight and abdominal obesity, while smoking and single marital status were associated with lower odds. The results show high prevalence rates for overweight and abdominal obesity in these very poor and socially isolated communities. Specific preventive and control measures are urgently needed.

  20. Follicle-stimulating hormone increases the intramuscular fat content and expression of lipid biosynthesis genes in chicken breast muscle*

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiao-yan; Li, Ying-ying; Liu, Ran-ran; Zhao, Gui-ping; Zheng, Mai-qing; Li, Qing-he; Wen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) is a crucial factor in the quality of chicken meat. The genetic basis underlying it is complex. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), well-known as an effector in reproductive tissues, was recently discovered to stimulate abdominal fat accumulation in chicken. The effect of FSH on IMF accumulation and the underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms controlling both IMF and abdominal fat deposition in vivo are largely unknown. In this study, two groups of chickens were treated with chicken FSH or a placebo. The lipid content of breast muscle, abdominal fat volume, and serum concentrations of FSH were examined. Related genes implicated in breast muscle and abdominal fat accumulation were also investigated. Compared to the control group, the triglyceride (TG) content of breast muscle and the percentage of abdominal fat in FSH-treated chickens were significantly increased by 64.9% and 56.5% (P<0.01), respectively. The FSH content in the serum of FSH-treated chickens was 2.1 times than that of control chickens (P<0.01). Results from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays showed that relative expression levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2), adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) were significantly upregulated in breast muscle following FSH treatment (P<0.01). Treatment with FSH also significantly increased relative expression levels of FAS, LPL, DGAT2, A-FABP, and PPARγ in abdominal fat tissue (P<0.05). The results of principal component analysis (PCA) for gene expression (breast muscle and abdominal fat) showed that the control and FSH treatment groups were well separated, which indicated the reliability of the data. This study demonstrates that FSH plays an important role in IMF accumulation in female chickens, which likely involves the regulation of biosynthesis genes related to lipid

  1. Thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat using coaxial probe.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein; Nadimi, Esmaeil S

    2016-03-01

    In this Letter, a non-invasive method for thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat layer of abdominal wall is presented by using a coaxial probe. Fat layer has the highest impact on the averaged attenuation parameter of the abdominal wall due to its high thickness and low permittivity. The abdominal wall is modelled as a multi-layer medium and an analytical model for the probe is derived by calculation of its aperture admittance facing to this multi-layer medium. The performance of this model is then validated by a numerical simulation using finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) analysis. Simulation results show the high impact of the probe dimension and fat layer thickness on the sensitivity of the measured permittivity. The authors further investigate this sensitivity by statistical analysis of the permittivity variations. Finally, measuring in different locations relative to the body surface is presented as a solution to estimate the fat layer thickness in the presence of uncertainty of model parameters.

  2. Thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat using coaxial probe.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein; Nadimi, Esmaeil S

    2016-03-01

    In this Letter, a non-invasive method for thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat layer of abdominal wall is presented by using a coaxial probe. Fat layer has the highest impact on the averaged attenuation parameter of the abdominal wall due to its high thickness and low permittivity. The abdominal wall is modelled as a multi-layer medium and an analytical model for the probe is derived by calculation of its aperture admittance facing to this multi-layer medium. The performance of this model is then validated by a numerical simulation using finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) analysis. Simulation results show the high impact of the probe dimension and fat layer thickness on the sensitivity of the measured permittivity. The authors further investigate this sensitivity by statistical analysis of the permittivity variations. Finally, measuring in different locations relative to the body surface is presented as a solution to estimate the fat layer thickness in the presence of uncertainty of model parameters. PMID:27222737

  3. Thermal inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosting, L.; Gould, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A plaque assay was used to follow the inactivation kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in cell culture media at various temperatures. Inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a visceral organ slurry was compared with that in culture media.

  4. Weighing in on Dietary Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Weighing in on Dietary Fats Some Fats Are Healthier Than Others With the winter holidays ... of these foods, though, can be high in fat. Learn which fats are naughty and which are ...

  5. Conservative management of abdominal injuries

    PubMed Central

    Okuş, Ahmet; Sevinç, Barış; Ay, Serden; Arslan, Kemal; Karahan, Ömer; Eryılmaz, Mehmet Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Non-operative management of abdominal injuries has recently become more common. Especially non-operative treatment of blunt abdominal trauma is gaining wide acceptance. In this study, the efficacy of non-operative treatment in abdominal trauma (blunt penetrating) is discussed. Material and Methods: All patients who received treatment due to abdominal trauma from November 2008 to January 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The demographic characteristics, type of injury, injured organ, type of treatment (operative vs. nonoperative) and mortality data were evaluated. Results: The study includes 115 patients treated for abdominal trauma in our department. The mechanism of trauma was stab wounds in 60%, blunt abdominal trauma in 23.5% and gunshot wounds in 16.5%. Forty-two patients (36.5%) were operated for hemodynamic instability and/or peritonitis on admission. The remaining 63.5% of patients (n=73) were treated nonoperatively, 10 of whom required laparotomy during follow-up. The remaining 63 patients were treated with non-operative management. The success rate for non-operative treatment was 86.3% and there was no difference in terms of the types of injuries. The mortality rate was 4.3% (n= 5) in the whole series, but there were no deaths among the patients who had received non-operative treatment. In the whole patient group 54.2% (n=63) were treated nonoperatively. Conclusion: Nonoperative treatment in abdominal trauma is safe and effective. Patients with clinical stability and normal physical examination findings can be treated nonoperatively with close monitoring. PMID:25931868

  6. Controversies in fat perception.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Jaana M; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Frank, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional fat is one of the most controversial topics in nutritional research, particularly against the background of obesity. Studies investigating fat taste perception have revealed several associations with sensory, genetic, and personal factors (e.g. BMI). However, neuronal activation patterns, which are known to be highly sensitive to different tastes as well as to BMI differences, have not yet been included in the scheme of fat taste perception. We will therefore provide a comprehensive survey of the sensory, genetic, and personal factors associated with fat taste perception and highlight the benefits of applying neuroimaging research. We will also give a critical overview of studies investigating sensory fat perception and the challenges resulting from multifaceted methodological approaches. In conclusion, we will discuss a multifactorial approach to fat perception to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause varying fat sensitivity which could be responsible for overeating. Such knowledge might be beneficial in new treatment strategies for obesity and overweight.

  7. [Prevention and treatment of post-traumatic pancreatic necrosis in patients with blunt abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Cherdantsev, D V; Pervova, O V; Vinnik, Yu S; Kurbanov, D Sh

    2016-01-01

    Введение. Особенностью острого панкреатита травматического генеза является высокий удельный вес некротических и гнойно-некротических форм осложнений. Тяжелая травма поджелудочной железы и развившийся посттравматический панкреатит приводят к разгерметизации протоковой системы органа, что обязывает хирурга адекватно дренировать зону повреждения и забрюшинную клетчатку. Материал и методы. Пациенты 1-й группы (95 больных) получали стандартизированную терапию. Пострадавшим 2-й группы (44 больных) в ранние сроки проводили иммуноактивную (ронколейкин) и секретолитическую терапию (октреотид - доза зависела от тяжести панкреатита). Эффективность лечения оценивали по клинико-лабораторным и инструментальным показателям. Методы статистической обработки. Статистическая обработка результатов исследования проводилась с помощью пакета прикладных программ Microsoft Excel 2007 и Statistica 6.0. Результаты. Без учета тяжести травмы поджелудочной железы общая летальность в 1-й группе составила 41%, во 2-й группе на фоне применения малоинвазивных хирургических технологий в сочетании со специфической медикаментозной терапией этот показатель был равен 20,5%. Основные причины неблагоприятных исходов - тяжелый деструктивный панкреатит, постнекротические гнойные осложнения. Выводы. При выборе способа операции у пострадавшего с закрытым повреждением поджелудочной железы следует стремиться не к радикальности, а к адекватности операции, шире использовать малоинвазивные хирургические технологии и новые методы биологического гемостаза. Своевременное применение секретолитической и иммуноактивной терапии позволяет уменьшить риск развития тяжелого посттравматического панкреатита, гнойно-некротических осложнений и улучшить результаты лечения пострадавших с закрытой травмой поджелудочной железы.

  8. Abdominal aortic grafting for spontaneous infrarenal abdominal aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Hiroto; Shibuya, Takashi; Shintani, Takashi; Uenaka, Hisazumi; Suehiro, Shigefumi; Satoh, Hisashi

    2010-02-01

    This case report concerns a 62-year-old woman with spontaneous infrarenal abdominal aortic dissection, which developed into claudication and rest pain in the lower extremity. Multi-row detector computed tomography showed the entry site of the abdominal aortic dissection at the second lumbar artery, while the reentry site was found intraoperatively at the median sacral artery, indicating that the false lumen had progressed and compressed the true lumen. A direct approach involving grafting appears to be an effective procedure for resolving mesenteric and lower extremity hypoperfusion due to aortic dissection with a dilated false channel, even during the acute period. PMID:19879731

  9. Autologous fat injection in Poland's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pinsolle, V; Chichery, A; Grolleau, J-L; Chavoin, J P

    2008-07-01

    Poland's syndrome is a deformity of the breast and sometimes of the chest wall. Several techniques, which may be combined if necessary, are generally used to treat the forms involving both the breast and chest wall (breast implants, customised chest wall implants, latissimus dorsi pedicled flap). For some years, we have also grafted autologous fat cells according to Coleman's method to treat this rare disorder. We report the preliminary results of this technique and demonstrate its value in the treatment of Poland's syndrome. We studied patients treated for Poland's syndrome by autologous fat injection between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2005. We recorded their age, gender, the other surgical techniques used, and grade of Poland's syndrome according to the classification of Foucras. Concerning fat injections, we recorded the number of sessions, volumes injected and complications. The series was composed of seven women and one man, mean age 25 years (range 13 to 40 years). Four patients were grade I, three were grade II and one grade III. The mean number of fat injection sessions was 2.1 (range 1-5) and mean volume injected 96 cc (range 25-200 cc). Lipofilling was used alone in one case and associated with other reconstruction techniques in seven. We had one complication, fat necrosis which progressed favourably after surgical drainage. Autologous fat injection appears to us to be a treatment which can be used alone, or more often associated with traditional reconstruction techniques in all grades of Poland's syndrome. This technique is useful to add volume and especially to correct the contour defects of this syndrome such as the subclavicular hollow and absence of anterior axillary fold.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Changes in Abdominal Compartments in Obese Diabetics during a Low-Calorie Weight-Loss Program

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Lena J.; Steveling, Antje; Meffert, Peter J.; Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Kessler, Rebecca; Hosten, Norbert; Krüger, Janine; Gärtner, Simone; Aghdassi, Ali A.; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Kühn, Jens-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate changes in the fat content of abdominal compartments and muscle area during weight loss using confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in overweight diabetics. Methods Twenty-nine obese diabetics (10/19 men/women, median age: 59.0 years, median body mass index (BMI): 34.0 kg/m2) prospectively joined a standardized 15-week weight-loss program (six weeks of formula diet exclusively, followed by reintroduction of regular food with gradually increasing energy content over nine weeks) over 15 weeks. All subjects underwent a standardized MRI protocol including a confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded MR sequence with water/fat separation before the program as well at the end of the six weeks of formula diet and at the end of the program at 15 weeks. Fat fractions of abdominal organs and vertebral bone marrow as well as volumes of visceral and subcutaneous fat were determined. Furthermore, muscle area was evaluated using the L4/L5 method. Data were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples. Results Median BMI decreased significantly from 34.0 kg/m2 to 29.9 kg/m2 (p < 0.001) at 15 weeks. Liver fat content was normalized (14.2% to 4.1%, p < 0.001) and vertebral bone marrow fat (57.5% to 53.6%, p = 0.018) decreased significantly throughout the program, while fat content of pancreas (9.0%), spleen (0.0%), and psoas muscle (0.0%) did not (p > 0.15). Visceral fat volume (3.2 L to 1.6 L, p < 0.001) and subcutaneous fat diameter (3.0 cm to 2.2 cm, p < 0.001) also decreased significantly. Muscle area declined by 6.8% from 243.9 cm2 to 226.8 cm2. Conclusion MRI allows noninvasive monitoring of changes in abdominal compartments during weight loss. In overweight diabetics, weight loss leads to fat reduction in abdominal compartments, such as visceral fat, as well as liver fat and vertebral bone marrow fat while pancreas fat remains unchanged. PMID:27110719

  11. Molecular mechanisms of regulated necrosis.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Krautwald, Stefan; Kroemer, Guido; Linkermann, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    It is now clear that apoptosis does not constitute the sole genetically encoded form of cell death. Rather, cells can spontaneously undertake or exogenously be driven into a cell death subroutine that manifests with necrotic features, yet can be inhibited by pharmacological and genetic interventions. As regulated necrosis (RN) plays a major role in both physiological scenarios (e.g., embryonic development) and pathological settings (e.g., ischemic disorders), consistent efforts have been made throughout the last decade toward the characterization of the molecular mechanisms that underlie this cell death modality. Contrarily to initial beliefs, RN does not invariably result from the activation of a receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3)-dependent signaling pathway, but may be ignited by distinct molecular networks. Nowadays, various types of RN have been characterized, including (but not limited to) necroptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-dependent RN and parthanatos. Of note, the inhibition of only one of these modules generally exerts limited cytoprotective effects in vivo, underscoring the degree of interconnectivity that characterizes RN. Here, we review the signaling pathways, pathophysiological relevance and therapeutic implications of the major molecular cascades that underlie RN. PMID:24582829

  12. Abdominal actinomycosis mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Robert Joseph; Riela, Steven; Patel, Ravi; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old Hispanic woman presented to the emergency department, reporting worsening sharp lower right quadrant abdominal pain for 3 days. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed evidence of inflammation in the peritoneal soft tissues adjacent to an enlarged and thick-walled appendix, an appendicolith, no abscess formation and a slightly thickened caecum consistent with acute appendicitis. During laparoscopic appendectomy, the caecum was noted to be firm, raising suspicion of malignancy. Surgical oncology team was consulted and open laparotomy with right hemicolectomy was performed. Pathology reported that the ileocaecal mass was not a malignancy but was, rather, actinomycosis. The patient was discharged after 10 days of intravenous antibiotics in the hospital, with the diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis. Although the original clinical and radiological findings in this case were highly suggestive of acute appendicitis, abdominal actinomycosis should be in the differential for right lower quadrant pain as it may be treated non-operatively.

  13. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  14. Effect of endurance and resistance training on regional fat mass and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Ara Royo, Ignacio; Martínez-Redondo, Diana; Puzo Foncillas, José; Moreno, Luis A; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Casajús, José A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 10-week of endurance training or resistance training on regional and abdominal fat, and in the lipid profile, examining the associations among the changes in body composition, weight, waist circumference and lipid profile. Body composition, waist circumference and lipid profile were analyzed in 26 volunteers healthy young men (age 22.5 ± 1.9 yr), randomly assigned to: endurance group (EG), resistance group (RG) or control group (CG). The EG significantly decreased after training the body weight, body mass index, total body fat and percentage of fat, fat and percentage of fat at the trunk and at the abdominal region and High-Density Lipoprotein. The RG significantly increased total lean mass and decreased total cholesterol, High-Density and Low- Density Lipoprotein. Close relationship were found among changes in weight, total lean mass, regional fat mass, waist circumference and changes in lipid profile (all p < 0.05). We concluded that 10-week of endurance training decreased abdominal and body fat in young men, while 10-week of resistance training increased total lean mass. These types of training had also effects on lipid profile that seem to be to some extent associated to changes in body composition; however it requires additional investigation.

  15. Effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy ducks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Wu, J L; Zhou, W D; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy duck were evaluated. The objective of this research was to establish whether alfalfa meal can reduce fat content and improve carcase quality of Muscovy duck. Animal products with a high fat content present a risk factor for many diseases. Reducing fat content in poultry products is an important goal for the poultry industry. 2. A total of 240 14-d-old white Muscovy ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 5 weeks. Growth performances were recorded and carcase characteristics and lipid parameters were analysed. 3. Results showed that 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal in diet had no significant effects on growth performance of Muscovy ducks from 14 to 49 d of age. Ducks given 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher dressing percentage and lower abdominal fat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. Ducks given 9% alfalfa meal had higher breast meat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. The concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and free fatty acid in serum of ducks fed on alfalfa meal decreased. Alfalfa meal in the diet decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits of Muscovy duck. 4. The study showed that dietary alfalfa meal decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits, without an adverse effect on performance.

  16. Relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic control, and fat distribution in type 2 diabetes subjects.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Elisabetta; Negri, Carlo; Tarperi, Cantor; Baraldo, Anna; Faccioli, Niccolò; Milanese, Chiara; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta; Lanza, Massimo; Cevese, Antonio; Bonora, Enzo; Schena, Federico; Moghetti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Factors contributing to the reduced cardiorespiratory fitness typical of sedentary subjects with type 2 diabetes are still largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal and skeletal muscle fat content in 39 untrained type 2 diabetes subjects, 27 males and 12 females (mean ± SD age 56.5 ± 7.3 year, BMI 29.4 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and ventilatory threshold (VO2VT) were assessed by maximal cycle ergometer exercise test, insulin sensitivity by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate visceral, total subcutaneous (SAT), superficial (SSAT) and deep sub-depots of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), as well as femoral quadriceps skeletal muscle fat content. In univariate analysis, both VO2peak and VO2VT were inversely associated with BMI, total fat mass, SAT, SSAT, and sagittal abdominal diameter. VO2peak was also inversely associated with skeletal muscle fat content. A significant direct association was observed between VO2VT and insulin sensitivity. No associations between cardiorespiratory fitness parameters and metabolic profile data were found. In multivariable regression analysis, after adjusting for age and gender, VO2peak was independently predicted by higher HDL cholesterol, and lower SAD and skeletal muscle fat content (R (2) = 0.64, p < 0.001), whereas VO2VT was predicted only by sagittal abdominal diameter (R (2) = 0.48, p = 0.025). In conclusion, in untrained type 2 diabetes subjects, peak oxygen uptake is associated with sagittal abdominal diameter, skeletal muscle fat content, and HDL cholesterol levels. Future research should target these features in prospective intervention studies.

  17. Current options in the management of complex abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Bahair; Deigni, Olivier; Yezhelyev, Maksym; Losken, Albert

    2011-05-01

    The management of complex abdominal wall defects is challenging and often requires an individualized strategy with additional measures to minimize morbidity and recurrence. We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent reconstruction of complex abdominal wall defects at Emory Hospital by the senior author over a 7-year period. Abdominal hernia defects were categorized into primary, secondary, and tertiary hernias; infection; composite tumor defects; and dehiscence. Charts were queried for comorbidities, surgical technique, and outcome measures such as complications and recurrence. A total of 165 patients included in the series, with an average age of 52 years, and an average body mass index of 38 kg/m. Mesh was used in 81.8% of cases, 77% of those (mesh) being acellular dermal matrices (ADM). Component separation was performed in 75 patients (45.4%). The overall complication rate was 23.6% (39/165) including infection, delayed healing, skin necrosis, and fistulae, and was higher in patients with 2 or more comorbidities and those who required synthetic mesh reconstruction. The hernia recurrence or bulge was observed in 20.6% (34/165), and 29.4% of these patients required an additional, equally complex procedure. Hernia recurrence was significantly associated with a history of previous recurrent hernia, and hypertension (P < 0.04 and P = 0.001, respectively). Recurrence was higher in patients with 2 or more comorbidities (26% vs. 14%, P = 0.022). The recurrence rate was similar for synthetic and ADM reconstructions; however, the complication rates were higher when synthetic mesh was used. Attention to surgical technique, optimization of comorbidities, and the increased use of biologic meshes will minimize the need for operative intervention of complications following reconstruction of complex abdominal wall defects. Components separation and ADM have been very useful additions to the surgical management in these high-risk patients.

  18. [Hibernoma: brown fat retroperitoneal tumor. Report of a pediatric case].

    PubMed

    Collado, Laura; Sierre, Sergio; Bosalec, Andrea; Lipsich, José

    2011-12-01

    Hibernoma is a rare benign tumor of soft tissue, composed of brown fat. This tissue is predominant in hibernating animals and hence its name. Because of its rarity in Pediatrics and difficult diagnosis, we report a 3 month-old patient with a diagnosis consistent with an abdominal tumor. Ultrasound and computed tomography exams showed an infiltrative retroperitoneal tumor, with hypervascular and lipomatous features. After tumor excision, histopathological exam confirmed the diagnosis of hibernoma or brown fat tumor. This presentation describes the characteristics of this type of tumor, rare in children, and reviews the fatty tumors, according to their frequency in pediatric patients.

  19. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: case report

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Rajwani, Moez

    1998-01-01

    A 71-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with subacute low back pain. While the pain appeared to be mechanical in nature, radiographic evaluation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which required the patient to have vascular surgery. This case report illustrates the importance of the history and physical examination in addition to a thorough knowledge of the features of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The application of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with (AAA) is also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  20. Recurrent abdominal pain during childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain is a common presenting complaint among children. A thorough history and physical examination and limited laboratory investigation should enable a physician to make a positive diagnosis of "functional" recurrent abdominal pain in 90% to 95% of cases; an organic cause is identified in only 5% to 10%. The care and thoroughness of the history and physical examination establish the physician's credibility; explaining the clinical basis for the diagnosis and educating the child and parents on what is known about the condition reassures the parents. PMID:8199511

  1. Abdominal Bloating: Pathophysiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seo, A Young; Oh, Dong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004

  2. Radiological management of abdominal abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Mac Erlean, D P; Gibney, R G

    1983-01-01

    Forty-two abdominal and retroperitoneal abscesses were drained percutaneously under ultrasound guidance. A success rate of 85.7% was achieved. Subsequent surgery was required in only 5 patients. Postoperative and spontaneous abscesses did equally well. Most intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal abscesses are amenable to this form of percutaneous drainage. The procedure requires only local anaesthesia and is well tolerated. Surgical management should probably now be reserved for those cases which are considered unsuitable for percutaneous drainage or which fail to resolve following this procedure. PMID:6842496

  3. Laparoscopic excision of intra-abdominal paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Young; Kang, Chang-Moo; Choi, Gi-Hong; Yang, Woo-Ick; Sim, Seo-Bo; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Sik; Choi, Jin-Sub; Lee, Woo-Jung; Kim, Byong-Ro

    2007-12-01

    Lung fluke, Paragonimus westermani of Paragonimus species usually are accompanied by a persistent cough, hemoptysis, and chest pain. Extrapulmonary paragonimiasis caused by ectopic parasites in aberrant locations such as the abdominal wall, abdominal organs, and brain has been reported and the most commonly involved extrapulmonary organ is the brain. We present a case of 56-year-old male patient with intra-abdominal paragonimiasis who underwent laparoscopic excision of abdominal granuloma caused by parasite infection. An intra-abdominal mass associated with eosinophilia might be related to parasite infection. A laparoscopic approach is the most appropriate treatment modality in such benign abdominal pathology.

  4. An adipose segmentation and quantification scheme for the intra abdominal region on minipigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engholm, Rasmus; Dubinskiy, Aleksandr; Larsen, Rasmus; Hanson, Lars G.; Christoffersen, Berit Østergaard

    2006-03-01

    This article describes a method for automatic segmentation of the abdomen into three anatomical regions: subcutaneous, retroperitoneal and visceral. For the last two regions the amount of adipose tissue (fat) is quantified. According to recent medical research, the distinction between retroperitoneal and visceral fat is important for studying metabolic syndrome, which is closely related to diabetes. However previous work has neglected to address this point, treating the two types of fat together. We use T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetic resonance data of the abdomen of obese minipigs. The pigs were manually dissected right after the scan, to produce the "ground truth" segmentation. We perform automatic segmentation on a representative slice, which on humans has been shown to correlate with the amount of adipose tissue in the abdomen. The process of automatic fat estimation consists of three steps. First, the subcutaneous fat is removed with a modified active contour approach. The energy formulation of the active contour exploits the homogeneous nature of the subcutaneous fat and the smoothness of the boundary. Subsequently the retroperitoneal fat located around the abdominal cavity is separated from the visceral fat. For this, we formulate a cost function on a contour, based on intensities, edges, distance to center and smoothness, so as to exploit the properties of the retroperitoneal fat. We then globally optimize this function using dynamic programming. Finally, the fat content of the retroperitoneal and visceral regions is quantified based on a fuzzy c-means clustering of the intensities within the segmented regions. The segmentation proved satisfactory by visual inspection, and closely correlated with the manual dissection data. The correlation was 0.89 for the retroperitoneal fat, and 0.74 for the visceral fat.

  5. Liver fat is not a marker of metabolic risk in lean premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Nichaman, Milton Z; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N; Ross, Robert

    2004-08-01

    We examined the independent associations among abdominal adipose tissue (AT) depots, liver fat, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and metabolic risk factors in 86 lean premenopausal women. We measured abdominal AT and liver fat by computed tomography (CT), and CRF by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Liver fat was not related to any abdominal AT depot, metabolic risk factor, or CRF (P > .10). Visceral AT mass (kilograms) remained a significant (P < .05) predictor of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and LDL-C/HDL-C after statistical adjustment for CRF. Abdominal subcutaneous AT mass was also a significant (P < .05) correlate of TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C after control for CRF. Visceral AT remained a significant predictor (P < .05) of TC and LDL-C after control for abdominal subcutaneous AT. Conversely, subcutaneous AT did not remain a significant correlate after control for visceral AT. However, the deep subcutaneous AT depot remained significantly associated with LDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C after control for visceral AT. In contrast, visceral AT remained correlated with triglycerides (TG) alone, after control for the deep subcutaneous AT. These observations suggest that liver fat is not a determinant of metabolic risk in lean women. Conversely, both visceral and the deep subcutaneous depot are determinants of metabolic risk in premenopausal woman despite the absence of obesity.

  6. Transpapillary drainage of pancreatic parenchymal necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Smoczyński, Marian; Adrych, Krystian

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades the strategy of treatment of necrotizing pancreatitis has changed. Endoscopic therapy of patients with symptomatic walled-off pancreatic necrosis has a high rate of efficiency. Here we present a description of a patient with parenchymal limited necrosis of the pancreas and a disruption of the main pancreatic duct. In the treatment, active transpapillary drainage of the pancreatic necrosis (through the major duodenal papilla) was performed and insertion of an endoprosthesis into the main pancreatic duct (through the minor duodenal papilla) was applied, which enabled a bypass over the infiltration and resulted in complete resolution. PMID:26649102

  7. Role of the Mitochondrion in Programmed Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Baines, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the “programmed” nature of apoptosis and autophagy, necrotic cell death has always been believed to be a random, uncontrolled process that leads to the “accidental” death of the cell. This dogma, however, is being challenged and the concept of necrosis also being “programmed” is gaining ground. In particular, mitochondria appear to play a pivotal role in the mediation of programmed necrosis. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to appraise the current concepts regarding the signaling mechanisms of programmed necrosis, with specific attention to the contribution of mitochondria to this process. PMID:21423395

  8. An Unusual Cause of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Acute Esophageal Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tokala, Madhusudhan R.; Dhillon, Sonu; Pisoh, Watcoun-Nchinda; Walayat, Saqib; Vanar, Vishwas; Puli, Srinivas R.

    2016-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN), also called “black esophagus,” is a condition characterized by circumferential necrosis of the esophagus with universal distal involvement and variable proximal extension with clear demarcation at the gastroesophageal junction. It is an unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is recognized with distinct and striking mucosal findings on endoscopy. The patients are usually older and are critically ill with shared comorbidities, which include atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic renal insufficiency, and malnutrition. Alcoholism and substance abuse could be seen in younger patients. Patients usually have systemic hypotension along with upper abdominal pain in the background of clinical presentation of hematemesis and melena. The endoscopic findings confirm the diagnosis and biopsy is not always necessary unless clinically indicated in atypical presentations. Herein we present two cases with distinct clinical presentation and discuss the endoscopic findings along with a review of the published literature on the management of AEN. PMID:27642529

  9. An Unusual Cause of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Acute Esophageal Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tokala, Madhusudhan R.; Dhillon, Sonu; Pisoh, Watcoun-Nchinda; Walayat, Saqib; Vanar, Vishwas; Puli, Srinivas R.

    2016-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN), also called “black esophagus,” is a condition characterized by circumferential necrosis of the esophagus with universal distal involvement and variable proximal extension with clear demarcation at the gastroesophageal junction. It is an unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is recognized with distinct and striking mucosal findings on endoscopy. The patients are usually older and are critically ill with shared comorbidities, which include atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic renal insufficiency, and malnutrition. Alcoholism and substance abuse could be seen in younger patients. Patients usually have systemic hypotension along with upper abdominal pain in the background of clinical presentation of hematemesis and melena. The endoscopic findings confirm the diagnosis and biopsy is not always necessary unless clinically indicated in atypical presentations. Herein we present two cases with distinct clinical presentation and discuss the endoscopic findings along with a review of the published literature on the management of AEN.

  10. An Unusual Cause of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Acute Esophageal Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Kalva, Nikhil R; Tokala, Madhusudhan R; Dhillon, Sonu; Pisoh, Watcoun-Nchinda; Walayat, Saqib; Vanar, Vishwas; Puli, Srinivas R

    2016-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN), also called "black esophagus," is a condition characterized by circumferential necrosis of the esophagus with universal distal involvement and variable proximal extension with clear demarcation at the gastroesophageal junction. It is an unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is recognized with distinct and striking mucosal findings on endoscopy. The patients are usually older and are critically ill with shared comorbidities, which include atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic renal insufficiency, and malnutrition. Alcoholism and substance abuse could be seen in younger patients. Patients usually have systemic hypotension along with upper abdominal pain in the background of clinical presentation of hematemesis and melena. The endoscopic findings confirm the diagnosis and biopsy is not always necessary unless clinically indicated in atypical presentations. Herein we present two cases with distinct clinical presentation and discuss the endoscopic findings along with a review of the published literature on the management of AEN. PMID:27642529

  11. Trapped without a diagnosis: Tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS).

    PubMed

    Kirresh, Ali; Everitt, Alex; Kon, Onn Min; DasGupta, Ranan; Pickering, Matthew C; Lachmann, Helen J

    2016-08-01

    Tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is an autosomal dominant condition caused by mutations in the TNFRSF1A gene. It is characterised by recurrent episodes of myalgia, followed by prolonged fever, migratory rashes, headache, serositis, arthralgia, abdominal pain and periorbital oedema. We describe a 49-year-old man with a self-limiting episode of paraparesis who reported recurrent bouts of abdominal symptoms and headaches since childhood. He had a persistent inflammatory response with night sweats and weight loss. We diagnosed TRAPS 2 years after having identified a TNFRSF1A gene mutation. His symptoms and inflammatory response resolved dramatically with the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra. PMID:26965498

  12. Visceral fat estimation method by bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Tasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Naoki; Hamaguchi, Takehiro; Shiga, Toshikazu

    2011-06-01

    It has been clarified that abdominal visceral fat accumulation is closely associated to the lifestyle disease and metabolic syndrome. The gold standard in medical fields is visceral fat area measured by an X-ray computer tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging. However, their measurements are high invasive and high cost; especially a CT scan causes X-ray exposure. They are the reasons why medical fields need an instrument for viscera fat measurement with low invasive, ease of use, and low cost. The article proposes a simple and practical method of visceral fat estimation by employing bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis. In the method, abdominal shape and dual impedances of abdominal surface and body total are measured to estimate a visceral fat area based on the cause-effect structure. The structure is designed according to the nature of abdominal body composition to be fine-tuned by statistical analysis. The experiments were conducted to investigate the proposed model. 180 subjects were hired to be measured by both a CT scan and the proposed method. The acquired model explained the measurement principle well and the correlation coefficient is 0.88 with the CT scan measurements.

  13. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  14. Massive tongue necrosis secondary to temporal arteritis.

    PubMed

    Roseman, B B; Granite, E

    1984-10-01

    A case of unusually massive necrosis of the tongue secondary to temporal arteritis is presented. The clinician must include temporal arteritis in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with signs and symptoms of tongue ischemia.

  15. Intracellular serpins, firewalls and tissue necrosis.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Stefan J; Lomas, David A

    2008-02-01

    Luke and colleagues have recently attributed a new role to a member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors. They have used Caenorhabditis elegans to show that an intracellular serpin is crucial for maintaining lysosomal integrity. We examine the role of this firewall in preventing necrosis and attempt to integrate this with current theories of stress-induced protein degradation. We discuss how mutant serpins cause disease either through polymerization or now, perhaps, by unleashing necrosis. PMID:18215520

  16. Retroperitoneal endoscopic debridement for infected peripancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Seifert, H; Wehrmann, T; Schmitt, T; Zeuzem, S; Caspary, W F

    2000-08-19

    Standard management of infected peripancreatic necrosis consists of open surgical debridement and lavage--a traumatic intervention with substantial morbidity and mortality. As an alternative and novel approach with minimum invasiveness, we present fenestration of the gastric wall and debridement of infected necrosis by direct retroperitoneal endoscopy. In three patients, this strategy led to rapid clinical improvement and no serious complications. Transgastric endoscopic therapy may be a less traumatic alternative to surgery and should be further assessed in prospective studies.

  17. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol

    PubMed Central

    Aghighi, Maryam; Golovko, Daniel; Ansari, Celina; Marina, Neyssa M.; Pisani, Laura; Kurlander, Lonnie; Klenk, Christopher; Bhaumik, Srabani; Wendland, Michael; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

    2015-01-01

    showed similar findings with high T1 signal in areas of tumor necrosis and low signal in areas of intracellularly compartmentalized iron. Conclusion Differential T1- and T2-enhancement patterns of USPIO in tumors enable conclusions about their intracellular and extracellular location. This information can be used to characterize the composition of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26569397

  18. Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:25239980

  19. The association between abdominal body composition and vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Jensky, Nicole E; Criqui, Michael H; Wright, C Michael; Wassel, Christina L; Alcaraz, John E; Allison, Matthew A

    2011-12-01

    Subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be associated with both adipose and skeletal muscle tissues in the abdomen. Accordingly, we examined whether subcutaneous, intermuscular, and visceral adipose tissue, as well as abdominal lean muscle, were associated with the presence and extent of vascular calcification in multiple vascular beds. Three hundred and ninety four patients (58.1% men) underwent electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) scans as part of routine health maintenance screening. The coronary and carotid calcium scores were analyzed at the time of the scan, whereas the other calcium scores, as well as the body composition analyses, were analyzed retrospectively. Mean age was 55.2 ± 11.1 years and BMI was 26.9 ± 4.2. The prevalence of any calcification in the carotids, coronaries, thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, and iliacs was 30.1, 60.1, 39.8, 55.7, and 56.8%, respectively. Compared to those with calcification in different vascular beds, those without vascular calcification generally had significantly more lean muscle and less adipose tissue. In separate multivariable logistic models, a 1 s.d. increment in the ratio of abdominal and visceral fat to total area of each corresponding compartments was significantly associated with an increased odds for the presence of thoracic aortic calcium (odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 1.5, respectively; P = 0.01 for both). Conversely, increases in abdominal lean muscle were associated with significantly decreased odds of thoracic aortic calcification (OR = 0.34; P ≤ 0.01). A similar pattern of associations existed among the other vascular beds. Also, the association between lean muscle and vascular calcification was independent of visceral adipose tissue. In conclusion, adipose tissue was positively and lean body mass inversely associated with prevalent aortic calcification. PMID:21475146

  20. Visceral fat in prepubertal children: Influence of obesity, anthropometry, ethnicity, gender, diet, and growth.

    PubMed

    Goran, Michael I.

    1999-01-01

    Visceral fat, or intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) lies deep within the abdominal cavity and can only be directly quantified with imaging techniques. IAAT has been detected in children as young as 5 years of age. IAAT generally increases in proportion with general fatness, but the relationship between IAAT and total body fat is complex; in children, a major portion of the variance in IAAT is independent of total body fat. The waist-to-hip ratio and the trunk:extremity skinfold ratio are not good indices of IAAT in children, and central skinfolds and waist circumference alone are highly correlated with IAAT as well as subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (r = 0.85-0.92). African-American children have less IAAT than Caucasian children, and gender differences in IAAT become more apparent after adolescence. Preliminary evidence in children suggests that IAAT may have a stronger influence on cardiovascular risk factors than dietary fat intake. Preliminary evidence in children also suggests that acquisition of IAAT during growth is a linear process that occurs in proportion to general increases in body fat. The study of the regulation of IAAT acquisition during childhood development and its relationship with long-term disease risk is in its early infancy and further studies are required. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:201-207, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11533944

  1. Three cases of systemic amyloidosis successfully diagnosed by subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip.

    PubMed

    Arahata, Masahisa; Shimadoi, Shigeru; Yamatani, Satosi; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi; Miwa, Shigeharu; Asakura, Hidesaku; Nakao, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the abdominal fat pad is considered to be a minimally invasive procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis. However, this procedure is sometimes difficult and can be dangerous for elderly patients whose abdominal fat layer is thin because of malnutrition. In such cases, alternative diagnostic methods are required. We report three elderly patients with heart failure complicated by malnutrition. In all cases, electrocardiogram showed low voltage in the limb leads and a pseudoinfarct pattern in the chest leads, and echocardiography showed left ventricular wall thickening with granular sparkling appearance. These patients were suspected of having amyloid cardiomyopathy but could not undergo myocardial biopsies because of their poor conditions. After failed attempts at biopsy of the abdominal fat pad or the other organs, subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy over the hip led to the diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis with cardiomyopathy. The resultant diagnosis guided us to choose the appropriate treatment for the patients. This article illustrates that subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip could be a useful procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis in elderly patients, particularly when a fat tissue biopsy of the abdomen is associated with a high risk of complications because of malnutrition. PMID:27540285

  2. Three cases of systemic amyloidosis successfully diagnosed by subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip.

    PubMed

    Arahata, Masahisa; Shimadoi, Shigeru; Yamatani, Satosi; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi; Miwa, Shigeharu; Asakura, Hidesaku; Nakao, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the abdominal fat pad is considered to be a minimally invasive procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis. However, this procedure is sometimes difficult and can be dangerous for elderly patients whose abdominal fat layer is thin because of malnutrition. In such cases, alternative diagnostic methods are required. We report three elderly patients with heart failure complicated by malnutrition. In all cases, electrocardiogram showed low voltage in the limb leads and a pseudoinfarct pattern in the chest leads, and echocardiography showed left ventricular wall thickening with granular sparkling appearance. These patients were suspected of having amyloid cardiomyopathy but could not undergo myocardial biopsies because of their poor conditions. After failed attempts at biopsy of the abdominal fat pad or the other organs, subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy over the hip led to the diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis with cardiomyopathy. The resultant diagnosis guided us to choose the appropriate treatment for the patients. This article illustrates that subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip could be a useful procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis in elderly patients, particularly when a fat tissue biopsy of the abdomen is associated with a high risk of complications because of malnutrition.

  3. Pregnancy complicated by obesity induces global transcript expression alterations in visceral and subcutaneous fat.

    PubMed

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-08-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet not much is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n = 4/group) at the time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations led to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase, tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2, and ephrin type-B receptor 6, not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis as compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity.

  4. Pregnancy Complicated by Obesity Induces Global Transcript Expression Alterations in Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J.; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H.; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet little is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n=4/group) at time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations lead to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT), tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), and ephrin type-B receptor 6 (EPHB6), not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity. PMID:24696292

  5. Three cases of systemic amyloidosis successfully diagnosed by subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip

    PubMed Central

    Arahata, Masahisa; Shimadoi, Shigeru; Yamatani, Satosi; Hayashi, Shin-ichi; Miwa, Shigeharu; Asakura, Hidesaku; Nakao, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the abdominal fat pad is considered to be a minimally invasive procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis. However, this procedure is sometimes difficult and can be dangerous for elderly patients whose abdominal fat layer is thin because of malnutrition. In such cases, alternative diagnostic methods are required. We report three elderly patients with heart failure complicated by malnutrition. In all cases, electrocardiogram showed low voltage in the limb leads and a pseudoinfarct pattern in the chest leads, and echocardiography showed left ventricular wall thickening with granular sparkling appearance. These patients were suspected of having amyloid cardiomyopathy but could not undergo myocardial biopsies because of their poor conditions. After failed attempts at biopsy of the abdominal fat pad or the other organs, subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy over the hip led to the diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis with cardiomyopathy. The resultant diagnosis guided us to choose the appropriate treatment for the patients. This article illustrates that subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip could be a useful procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis in elderly patients, particularly when a fat tissue biopsy of the abdomen is associated with a high risk of complications because of malnutrition. PMID:27540285

  6. Face the Fats Quiz 2

    MedlinePlus

    Face the Fats Quiz II Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you ... to fried chicken, test your knowledge about the fats in some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the ...

  7. Differential Effects of Bariatric Surgery Versus Exercise on Excessive Visceral Fat Deposits.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fu-Zong; Huang, Yi-Luan; Wu, Carol C; Wang, Yen-Chi; Pan, Hsiang-Ju; Huang, Chin-Kun; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Wu, Ming-Ting

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare differential impacts of bariatric surgery and exercise-induced weight loss on excessive abdominal and cardiac fat deposition.Excessive fat accumulation around the heart may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Recent evidences have suggested that bariatric surgery results in relatively less decrease in epicardial fat compared with abdominal visceral fat and paracardial fat.Sixty-four consecutive overweight or obese subjects were enrolled in the study. Clinical characteristics and metabolic profiles were recorded. The volumes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (AVAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), epicardial (EAT), and paracardial adipose tissue (PAT) were measured by computed tomography in the bariatric surgery group (N = 25) and the exercise group (N = 39) at baseline and 3 months after intervention. Subjects in both the surgery and exercise groups showed significant reduction in body mass index (15.97%, 7.47%), AVAT (40.52%, 15.24%), ASAT (31.40, 17.34%), PAT (34.40%, 12.05%), and PAT + EAT (22.31%, 17.72%) (all P < 0.001) after intervention compared with baseline. In both the groups, the decrease in EAT was small compared with the other compartments (P < 0.01 in both groups). Compared with the exercise group, the surgery group had greater loss in abdominal and cardiac visceral adipose tissue (AVAT, ASAT, PAT, EAT+PAT) (P < 0.001), but lesser loss in EAT (P = 0.037).Compared with the exercise group, bariatric surgery results in significantly greater percentage loss of excessive fat deposits except for EAT. EAT, but not PAT, was relatively preserved despite weight reduction in both the groups. The physiological impact of persistent EAT deserves further investigation.

  8. Regional variations in HDL metabolism in human fat cells: effect of cell size

    SciTech Connect

    Despres, J.; Fong, B.S.; Julien, P.; Jimenez, J.; Angel, A.

    1987-05-01

    Abdominal obesity is related to reduced plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and both are associated with cardiovascular disease risk. The authors have observed that plasma membranes from abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes have a greater HDL binding capacity than omental fat cell plasma membranes. The present study examined whether these binding characteristics could be due to differences in fat cell size or cholesterol concentration between the two adipose depots. Abdominal subcutaneous and deep omental fat were obtained from massively obese patients at surgery. Subcutaneous abdominal fat cells were significantly larger and their cellular cholesterol content greater than omental adipocytes. The uptake of HDL by collagenase-isolated fat cells was studied by incubating the cells for 2 h at 37/sup 0/C with 10 ..mu..g/ml /sup 125/I-HDL/sub 2/ or /sup 125/I-HDL/sub 3/. In both depots, the cellular uptake of /sup 125/I-HDL/sub 2/ and /sup 125/I-HDL/sub 3/ was specifically inhibited by addition of 25-fold excess unlabeled HDL and a close correlation was observed between the cellular uptake of /sup 125/I-HDL/sub 2/ and /sup 125/I-HDL/sub 3/. In obese patients, the uptake of /sup 125/I-HDL was higher in subcutaneous cells than in omental cells. The cellular /sup 125/I-HDL uptake was significantly correlated with adipocyte size and fat cell cholesterol content but not with adipocyte cholesterol concentration. These results suggest that the higher HDL uptake observed in subcutaneous cells compared with omental cells in obesity is the result of differences in adipocyte size rather than differences in the cholesterol concentration (cholesterol-to-triglyceride ratio). The increased interaction of HDL with hypertrophied abdominal adipocytes may play an important role in determining the lipid composition of HDL in obesity.

  9. Abdominal Distension and Vascular Collapse.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Gina; Uwaifo, Gabriel I

    2016-04-01

    We present the case of a 43-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency room with acute abdominal distension, confusion and vascular collapse. The emergent radiologic imaging obtained showed massive bilateral adrenal enlargement, but despite the initial clinical suspicion of possible overwhelming sepsis and/or massive abdominal/intralesional hemorrhage, lab tests based obtained rapidly confirmed the diagnosis of acute Addisonian crisis which responded dramatically to adrenocorticoid hormone replacement therapy and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The patient's established history of metastatic lung cancer confirmed this as a case of metastatic massive bilateral adrenal metastases with an initial presentation of acute adrenal insufficiency which is uncommon in the setting of metastatic carcinomatosis but more typically associated with lymphomas. Recognition of this clinical possibility is vital to enable rapid diagnosis and consequent life saving therapy. PMID:27328473

  10. [Abdominal bruit associated with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Fontseré, N; Bonet, J; Bonal, J; Romero, R

    2004-01-01

    First cause of secondary hypertension is renovascular hypertension which presents abdominal bruit in 16 to 20% of cases. This clinical sign is also associated with other vascular disease of the abdomen such as celiac trunk stenosis and/or aneurysms located on the pancreaticoduodenal or gastroduodenal arcs level, with little representation among aneurysm. They usually appear on a context of digestive complications like neoplasias, chronic pancreatitis or gastric obstructions possibly with obstructive icterus, hemorrhage and acute abdomen episodes. Its presentation in other contexts is rare and constitutes a diagnostic challenge. Diagnosis is made by abdominal arteriography which is the best method because you can locate the problem as well as intervene therapeutically with embolization of the aneurysme. We would like to emphasize the importance of a quick diagnosis due to the risk of rupture and the high morbi-mortality associated.

  11. Congenital lateral abdominal wall hernia.

    PubMed

    Montes-Tapia, Fernando; Cura-Esquivel, Idalia; Gutiérrez, Susana; Rodríguez-Balderrama, Isaías; de la O-Cavazos, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Congenital abdominal wall defects that are located outside of the anterior wall are extremely rare and difficult to classify because there are no well accepted guidelines. There are two regions outside of the anterior wall: the flank or lateral wall; and the lumbar region. We report the case of a patient with an oval 3 cm-diameter hernia defect located above the anterior axillary line, which affects all layers of the muscular wall. An anorectal malformation consisting of a recto-vestibular fistula was also identified, and chest X-ray showed dextrocardia. The suggested treatment is repair of the defect before 1 year of age. Given that the anomalies described may accompany lateral abdominal wall hernia, it is important to diagnose and treat the associated defects.

  12. [Abdominal cystic tumor revealing lymphangioleiomyomatosis].

    PubMed

    Barbier, L; Ebbo, M; Andrac-Meyer, L; Schneilitz, N; Le Treut, Y-P; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Hardwigsen, J

    2009-02-01

    We report the case of a 39 year-old woman with many years of intermittent abdominal pain who was found to have cystic masses evocative of cystic lymphangioma involving the posterior mediastinal and retroperitoneum. Worsening abdominal pain led to a recommendation for laparoscopic unroofing and decompression of the cysts. During the postoperative period, hemorrhagic shock required reintervention with excision of the tumoral mass. Pathologic examination revealed lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). On the 15th postoperative day, the patient developed a chylopneumothorax which required prolonged chest tube drainage. The presence of multiple polycystic lesions in the pulmonary parenchyma supported the diagnosis of diffuse LAM with primary extrapulmonary presentation. This diagnosis should be considered preoperatively since it modifies the treatment: a complete excision of the cystic lesions seems to be necessary in order to prevent bleeding and lymphatic extravasation.

  13. Management of voluminous abdominal incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Bouillot, J-L; Poghosyan, T; Pogoshian, T; Corigliano, N; Canard, G; Veyrie, N

    2012-10-01

    Incisional hernia is one of the classic complications after abdominal surgery. The chronic, gradual increase in size of some of these hernias is such that the hernia ring widens to a point where there is a loss of substance in the abdominal wall, herniated organs can become incarcerated or strangulated while poor abdominal motility can alter respiratory function. The surgical treatment of small (<5 cm) incisional hernias is safe and straightforward, by either laparotomy or laparoscopy. For large hernias, surgical repair is often difficult. After reintegration of herniated viscera into the abdominal cavity, the abdominal wall defect must be closed anatomically in order to restore the function to the abdominal wall. Prosthetic reinforcement of the abdominal wall is mandatory for long-term successful repair. There are multiple techniques for prosthetic hernia repair, but placement of Dacron mesh in the retromuscular plane is our preference. PMID:23137643

  14. Observation of a Flowing Duct in the Abdominal Wall by Using Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jang, HyunSuk; Yoon, Joohwan; Gil, HyunJi; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Kim, Min-Suk; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Young-Jae; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2016-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS) is being established as a circulatory system that corresponds to acupuncture meridians. There have been two critical questions in making the PVS accepted as a novel liquid flowing system. The first one was directly to show the flow of liquid in PVS and the second one was to explain why it was not observed in the conventional histological study of animal tissues. Flow in the PVS in the abdominal cavity was previously verified by injecting Alcian blue into a primo node. However, the tracing of the dye to other subsystems of the PVS has not been done. In the current work we injected fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) into a primo node and traced them along a primo vessel which was inside a fat tissue in the abdominal wall. Linea alba is a white middle line in the abdominal skin of a mammal and a band of fat tissue is located in parallel to the linea alba in the parietal side of the abdominal wall of a rat. In this fat band a primo vessel runs parallel to the prominent blood vessels in the fat band and is located just inside the parietal peritoneum. About the second question on the reason why the PVS was not in conventional histological study the current work provided the answer. Histological analysis with hematoxyline and eosine, Masson's trichrome, and Toluidine blue could not discriminate the primo vessel even when we knew the location of the PVS by the trace of the FNPs. This clearly explains why the PVS is hard to observe in conventional histology: it is not a matter of resolution but the contrast. The PVS has very similar structure to the connective tissues that surround the PVS. In the current work we propose a method to find the PVS: Observation of mast cell distribution with toluidine blue staining and the PN has a high density of mast cells, while the lymph node has low density.

  15. Observation of a Flowing Duct in the Abdominal Wall by Using Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Kim, Min-Suk; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Young-Jae; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2016-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS) is being established as a circulatory system that corresponds to acupuncture meridians. There have been two critical questions in making the PVS accepted as a novel liquid flowing system. The first one was directly to show the flow of liquid in PVS and the second one was to explain why it was not observed in the conventional histological study of animal tissues. Flow in the PVS in the abdominal cavity was previously verified by injecting Alcian blue into a primo node. However, the tracing of the dye to other subsystems of the PVS has not been done. In the current work we injected fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) into a primo node and traced them along a primo vessel which was inside a fat tissue in the abdominal wall. Linea alba is a white middle line in the abdominal skin of a mammal and a band of fat tissue is located in parallel to the linea alba in the parietal side of the abdominal wall of a rat. In this fat band a primo vessel runs parallel to the prominent blood vessels in the fat band and is located just inside the parietal peritoneum. About the second question on the reason why the PVS was not in conventional histological study the current work provided the answer. Histological analysis with hematoxyline and eosine, Masson’s trichrome, and Toluidine blue could not discriminate the primo vessel even when we knew the location of the PVS by the trace of the FNPs. This clearly explains why the PVS is hard to observe in conventional histology: it is not a matter of resolution but the contrast. The PVS has very similar structure to the connective tissues that surround the PVS. In the current work we propose a method to find the PVS: Observation of mast cell distribution with toluidine blue staining and the PN has a high density of mast cells, while the lymph node has low density. PMID:26937963

  16. Fat quantification and analysis of lung transplant patients on unenhanced chest CT images based on standardized anatomic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.; Wu, Caiyun; Christie, Jason; Lederer, David J.

    2016-03-01

    Chest fat estimation is important for identifying high-risk lung transplant candidates. In this paper, an approach to chest fat quantification based on a recently formulated concept of standardized anatomic space (SAS) is presented. The goal of this paper is to seek answers to the following questions related to chest fat quantification on single slice versus whole volume CT, which have not been addressed in the literature. What level of correlation exists between total chest fat volume and fat areas measured on single abdominal and thigh slices? What is the anatomic location in the chest where maximal correlation of fat area with fat volume can be expected? Do the components of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have the same area-to-volume correlative behavior or do they differ? The SAS approach includes two steps: calibration followed by transformation which will map the patient slice locations non-linearly to SAS. The optimal slice locations found for SAT and VAT based on SAS are different and at the mid-level of the T8 vertebral body for SAT and mid-level of the T7 vertebral body for VAT. Fat volume and area on optimal slices for SAT and VAT are correlated with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.86, respectively. The correlation of chest fat volume with abdominal and thigh fat areas is weak to modest.

  17. Acute Abdominal Pain in Children.

    PubMed

    Reust, Carin E; Williams, Amy

    2016-05-15

    Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound tenderness. The age of the child can help focus the differential diagnosis. In infants and toddlers, clinicians should consider congenital anomalies and other causes, including malrotation, hernias, Meckel diverticulum, or intussusception. In school-aged children, constipation and infectious causes of pain, such as gastroenteritis, colitis, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections, are more common. In female adolescents, clinicians should consider pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy, ruptured ovarian cysts, or ovarian torsion. Initial laboratory tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, urinalysis, and a pregnancy test. Abdominal radiography can be used to diagnose constipation or obstruction. Ultrasonography is the initial choice in children for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, pancreatitis, ovarian cyst, ovarian or testicular torsion, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy-related pathology, and appendicitis. Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgery, with a peak incidence during adolescence. When the appendix is not clearly visible on ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:27175718

  18. Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Abdominal Wall Caused by Serratia Marcescens.

    PubMed

    Lakhani, Naheed A; Narsinghani, Umesh; Kumar, Ritu

    2015-04-15

    In this article, we present the first case of necrotizing fasciitis affecting the abdominal wall caused by Serratia marcescens and share results of a focused review of S. marcescens induced necrotizing fasciitis. Our patient underwent aorto-femoral bypass grafting for advanced peripheral vascular disease and presented 3 weeks postoperatively with pain, erythema and discharge from the incision site in the left lower abdominal wall and underwent multiple debridement of the affected area. Pathology of debrided tissue indicated extensive necrosis involving the adipose tissue, fascia and skeletal muscle. Wound cultures were positive for Serratia marcescens. She was successfully treated with antibiotics and multiple surgical debridements. Since necrotizing fasciitis is a medical and surgical emergency, it is critical to examine infectivity trends, clinical characteristics in its causative spectrum. Using PubMed we found 17 published cases of necrotizing fasciitis caused by Serratia marcescens, and then analyzed patterns among those cases. Serratia marcescens is prominent in the community and hospital settings, and information on infection presentations, risk factors, characteristics, treatment, course, and complications as provided through this study can help identify cases earlier and mitigate poor outcomes. Patients with positive blood cultures and those patients where surgical intervention was not provided or delayed had a higher mortality. Surgical intervention is a definite way to establish the diagnosis of necrotizing infection and differentiate it from other entities.

  19. Ultrasonography for the evaluation of visceral fat and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Filho, F F; Faria, A N; Kohlmann, O; Ajzen, S; Ribeiro, A B; Zanella, M T; Ferreira, S R

    2001-09-01

    Visceral fat accumulation is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Clinical evaluation of visceral fat is limited because of the lack of reliable and low-cost methods. To assess the correlation between ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of visceral fat, 101 obese women, age 50.5+/-7.7 years with a body mass index of 39.2+/-5.4 kg/m(2), were submitted to ultrasonograph and CT scans. Visceral fat measured by ultrasonography, 1 cm above the umbilical knot, showed a high correlation with CT-determined visceral fat (r=0.67, P<0.0001). The ultrasonograph method showed good reproducibility with an intra-observer variation coefficient of <2%. Both ultrasonograph and CT visceral fat values were correlated with fasting insulin (r=0.29 and r=0.27, P<0.01) and plasma glucose 2 hours after oral glucose load (r=0.22 and r=0.34, P<0.05), indicating that ultrasonography is a useful method to evaluate cardiovascular risk. A significant correlation was also found between visceral fat by CT and serum sodium (r=0.18, P<0.05). A ultrasonograph-determined visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio of 2.50 was established as a cutoff value to define patients with abdominal visceral obesity. This value also identified patients with higher levels of plasma glucose, serum insulin and triglycerides and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol, which are metabolic abnormalities characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. Our data demonstrate that ultrasonography is a precise and reliable method for evaluation of visceral fat and identification of patients with adverse metabolic profile. PMID:11566963

  20. MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Dieckmeyer, Michael; Ruschke, Stefan; Franz, Daniela; Hauner, Hans; Kirschke, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using magnetic resonance (MR) methods has recently gained significant attention as it further extends our pathophysiological understanding of diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, or type 2 diabetes mellitus, and allows more detailed insights into treatment response and effects of lifestyle interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review the current literature on MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. PubMed search was performed to identify relevant studies on the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using MR methods. T1-, T2-weighted MR Imaging (MRI), Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), and chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI have been successfully used for the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. The relationship of insulin resistance and serum lipids with abdominal adipose tissue (i.e. subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue), liver, muscle, and bone marrow fat content have been extensively investigated and may help to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the multifaceted obese phenotype. MR methods have also been used to monitor changes of body fat distribution and characteristics after interventions (e.g. diet or physical activity) and revealed distinct, adipose tissue-specific properties. Lastly, chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI can detect brown adipose tissue which is currently the focus of intense research as a potential treatment target for obesity. In conclusion, MR methods reliably allow the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. Irrespective of the promising findings based on these MR methods the clinical usefulness remains to be established.

  1. Renal Papillary Necrosis: Role of Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Vaidehi K.

    2016-01-01

    Renal Papillary Necrosis (RPN) is idefined as Ischemic necrobiosis of the papilla in the medulla of the kidneys. Variety of etiological factors are recognized which cause papillary necrosis, such as analgesic nephropathy, diabetes mellitus, urinary obstruction and sickle cell haemoglobinopathy. The early diagnosis of RPN is important to improve prognosis and reduce morbidity. Radiological Imaging offers early diagnosis and can guide prompt treatment of papillary necrosis and can minimize a decline in renal function. Here we report three cases of RPN with typical imaging findings. One of them was diabetic and hypertensive female with recurrent Urinary tract Infections and other was a male with no known co-morbidity. Both of them were diagnosed to have renal papillary necrosis on CT scan and were managed operatively and conservatively, respectively. Third case was a healthy female being investigated to be renal donor for her son. Here RPN was an incidental finding and was treated conservatively. Thus CT scan could detect it pre-operatively and complications due to transplantation of a kidney with papillary necrosis were avoided. So, we want to emphasize the importance of Radiology, particularly CT scanning in detection of RPN and to guide early and prompt treatment. PMID:26894147

  2. [Regional distribution of the body fat: use of image techniques as tools for nutritional diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Pérez Miguelsanz, M J; Cabrera Parra, W; Varela Moreiras, G; Garaulet, M

    2010-01-01

    Fat mass is the most variable component in the human body, both when comparing several individuals and when considering changes in the same person throughout life. Obesity is characterized by an excess of body fat that affects health and well-being of individuals. Risk associated with excess body fat is due, in part, to location of fat rather than to total amount. Today is stated that causes and metabolic consequences of regional distribution of fat are of particular clinical importance. To identify a compartment of morbid adipose tissue and to be able to act on it is one of the main aims of the present research. In this review, we have revised the existing literature on location and characteristics of total body fat in human adult. We have focused on abdominal region, basing this review on the use of modern imaging techniques available nowadays, such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, with their advantages and limitations. The purpose of this review is to assess whether it is possible to know the body composition and fat distribution on the basis of image methods. Computed tomography technique was first applied in studies of obesity, but today, due to the inconvenience of irradiating the patient, this technique is being replaced by magnetic resonance that, in addition to avoid radiation, provides images of extraordinary quality. Both methods allow to subdivide the classic general fat depots in others more specific. Subcutaneous fat depot can be superficial or deep, while visceral can be divided in mesenteric, omental or epiploic, retroperitoneal and perirrenal fat. In addition, these modern techniques of imaging permit to study muscular fat, considered by some authors as the new fat compartment. Muscular fat includes fat located between skeletal muscle fibers, called extramyocellular fat, as well as lipids located within skeletal muscle fibers (intramyocellular fat). Its importance lies not only in size, similar to visceral fat, but on its

  3. Expression of ceramide-metabolising enzymes in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal human adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammation and increased ceramide concentrations characterise adipose tissue of obese women with high liver fat content compared to equally obese women with normal liver fat content. The present study characterises enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Methods Pathways leading to increased ceramide concentrations in inflamed versus non-inflamed adipose tissue were investigated by quantifying expression levels of key enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism. Sphingomyelinases (sphingomyelin phosphodiesterases SMPD1-3) were investigated further using immunohistochemistry to establish their location within adipose tissue, and their mRNA expression levels were determined in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue from both non-obese and obese subject. Results Gene expression levels of sphingomyelinases, enzymes that hydrolyse sphingomyelin to ceramide, rather than enzymes involved in de novo ceramide synthesis, were higher in inflamed compared to non-inflamed adipose tissue of obese women (with high and normal liver fat contents respectively). Sphingomyelinases were localised to both macrophages and adipocytes, but also to blood vessels and to extracellular regions surrounding vessels within adipose tissue. Expression levels of SMPD3 mRNA correlated significantly with concentrations of different ceramides and sphingomyelins. In both non-obese and obese subjects SMPD3 mRNA levels were higher in the more inflamed intra-abdominal compared to the subcutaneous adipose tissue depot. Conclusions Generation of ceramides within adipose tissue as a result of sphingomyelinase action may contribute to inflammation in human adipose tissue. PMID:22974251

  4. Risk Factors for the Development of Intra-Abdominal Fungal Infections in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Schwender, Brian J.; Gordon, Stuart R.; Gardner, Timothy B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intra-abdominal fungal infections (AFI) complicating acute pancreatitis arise in the context of pancreatic necrosis. Our goal was to determine which risk factors contribute to AFI in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods Records were reviewed from 479 non-transfer patients admitted to our medical center with acute pancreatitis from 1985–2009. Using multivariable regression models, risk factors for AFI were identified. Results Out of 479 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis, 17 patients were subsequently found to have an AFI and 3 of these patients expired. The mean length of stay for patients with an AFI was 24 days and 76% were admitted to the intensive care unit. Patients with AFI were more likely to have received prophylactic antibiotics on admission (OR 1.7, 95% C.I. 1.2–2.3), TPN within 7 days of admission (OR 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1–1.7) or to have necrosis on CT scan within 7 days of admission (OR 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1–1.7). Multivariable regression models identified admission antibiotic use (OR 1.6, 95% C.I. 1.4–1.8) as the strongest predictor of AFI. Conclusion Admission antibiotics are the biggest risk factor for the development of intra-abdominal fungal infections in acute pancreatitis. Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent infected necrosis should therefore be discouraged. PMID:25872170

  5. The progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Holland, G N

    1994-01-01

    The progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a recently described clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is caused by varicellazoster virus infection of the retina. Its course and clinical features distinguish it from the acute retinal necrosis syndrome and CMV retinopathy. Early disease is characterized by multifocal deep retinal opacification. Lesions rapidly coalesce and progress to total retinal necrosis over a short period of time. Despite aggressive therapy with intravenous antivirial drugs, prognosis is poor; disease progression and/or recurrence is common, and the majority of patients develop no light perception vision. Total retinal detachments are common. Prophylaxis against retinal detachment using laser retinopexy has not been useful in most cases. PORN syndrome is an uncommon, but devastating complication of AIDS.

  6. The progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Holland, G N

    1994-01-01

    The progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a recently described clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is caused by varicellazoster virus infection of the retina. Its course and clinical features distinguish it from the acute retinal necrosis syndrome and CMV retinopathy. Early disease is characterized by multifocal deep retinal opacification. Lesions rapidly coalesce and progress to total retinal necrosis over a short period of time. Despite aggressive therapy with intravenous antivirial drugs, prognosis is poor; disease progression and/or recurrence is common, and the majority of patients develop no light perception vision. Total retinal detachments are common. Prophylaxis against retinal detachment using laser retinopexy has not been useful in most cases. PORN syndrome is an uncommon, but devastating complication of AIDS. PMID:7852023

  7. Water-induced thermogenesis and fat oxidation: a reassessment

    PubMed Central

    Charrière, N; Miles-Chan, J L; Montani, J-P; Dulloo, A G

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Drinking large amounts of water is often recommended for weight control. Whether water intake stimulates energy and fat metabolism is, however, controversial with some studies reporting that drinking half a litre or more of water increases resting energy expenditure (REE) by 10–30% and decreases respiratory quotient (RQ), whereas others report no significant changes in REE or RQ. The aim here was to reassess the concept of water-induced thermogenesis and fat oxidation in humans, with particular focus on interindividual variability in REE and RQ responses, comparison with a time-control Sham drink, and on the potential impact of gender, body composition and abdominal adiposity. Subjects/Methods: REE and RQ were measured in healthy young adults (n=27; body mass index range: 18.5–33.9 kg m−2), by ventilated hood indirect calorimetry for at least 30 min before and 130 min after ingesting 500 ml of purified (distilled) water at 21–22 °C or after Sham drinking, in a randomized cross-over design. Body composition and abdominal fat were assessed by bioimpedance techniques. Results: Drinking 500 ml of distilled water led to marginal increases in REE (<3% above baseline), independently of gender, but which were not significantly different from Sham drinking. RQ was found to fall after the water drink, independently of gender, but it also diminished to a similar extent in response to sham drinking. Interindividual variability in REE and RQ responses was not associated with body fatness, central adiposity or fat-free mass. Conclusions: This study conducted in young men and women varying widely in adiposity, comparing the ingestion of distilled water to Sham drinking, suggests that ingestion of purified water per se does not result in the stimulation of thermogenesis or fat oxidation. PMID:26690288

  8. Some determinants of body weight, subcutaneous fat, and fat distribution in 25-64 year old Swiss urban men and woman.

    PubMed

    Puig, T; Marti, B; Rickenbach, M; Dai, S F; Casacuberta, C; Wietlisbach, V; Gutzwiller, F

    1990-01-01

    Data from a predominantly urban sample of 116 men and 130 women aged 25-64 years and collected in 1984/85 as a part of the Swiss WHO MONICA project, were analysed cross-sectionally to study the interrelationship between relative weight, subcutaneous fat and fat distribution, as well as the dependence of these anthropometric characteristics on behavioral and sociodemographic factors. Skinfold thicknesses were found to increase with age almost linearly in women, while in men they increased only before age 40 to 45. Subcutaneous fat was, but fat distribution was not, highly correlated with relative weight in both sexes. Alcohol consumption, healthy dietary habits (inversely), and exercise (inversely) were all significantly related to subcutaneous fat in men, while the relatively strongest predictors of female skinfold thicknesses were smoking (inversely), coffee consumption, and education (inversely). In multivariate analysis, environmental factors explained up to 10% of skinfold variance in male subjects and between 10 and 15% in females. Fat distribution was more influenced by environmental factors in men (about 8% of explained variance) than in women (about 4%). In men, truncal fat depended more on lifestyle that did upper arm fat, with smoking (directly) and exercise (inversely) being relatively most predictive of abdominal fat. We conclude that, although relative weight, subcutaneous fat, and fat distribution correlate intra-individually, they are not equivalent and interchangeable anthropometric characteristics. This is reflected by the varying associations of the three fatness indicators with age and environmental factors such as smoking, diet, exercise, and education. Gender seems to be an important modifying factor of environment-body fat-associations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Extensive hepatic necrosis in a premature infant.

    PubMed

    Bemmel, L A; Hack, W W; Seldenrijk, C A; Kneepkens, C M

    1992-02-01

    A fatal case of fulminant hepatic failure that occurred in the neonatal period is reported in a premature infant born after 27 4/7-weeks' gestation. Immediately after birth the infant had severe hypoxia and hypotension resulting from birth asphyxia, hypovolemic shock, and septicemia. At autopsy, histological appearance of the liver showed virtually total hepatocellular necrosis without features of fibrosis. Although the exact cause of hepatocellular injury cannot be fully ascertained, it is assumed that hypoxia and hypotension must have been the predominant factors leading to massive hepatic necrosis.

  10. Fat burn X: burning more than fat.

    PubMed

    Hannabass, Kyle; Olsen, Kevin Robert

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of bilateral lower extremity cramping and dark urine. The patient was found to have a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevated of up to 2306 U/L, a serum uric acid of 9.7 mg/dL and 101 red blood cell's per high-powered field on urinalysis. On questioning, the patient endorsed daily exercise with free weights. There were no changes in his regular exercise and medication regimen, no muscle trauma, no recent drug use and no illness. The patient did mention using a new fat burner known as 'Fat Burn X', which he had begun taking 2 days prior to the onset of his muscle cramps. The patient was given normal saline intravenous fluid resuscitation for 48 h with resultant normalisation of his CPK and creatinine, and was discharged with primary care follow-up.

  11. Keratinocyte Growth Factor Combined with a Sodium Hyaluronate Gel Inhibits Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guangbing; Zhou, Cancan; Wang, Guanghui; Fan, Lin; Wang, Kang; Li, Xuqi

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion is a very common complication after abdominal surgery. One clinical problem that remains to be solved is to identify an ideal strategy to prevent abdominal adhesions. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) has been proven to improve the proliferation of mesothelial cells, which may enhance fibrinolytic activity to suppress postoperative adhesions. This study investigated whether the combined administration of KGF and a sodium hyaluronate (HA) gel can prevent intra-abdominal adhesions by improving the orderly repair of the peritoneal mesothelial cells. The possible prevention mechanism was also explored. The cecum wall and its opposite parietal peritoneum were abraded after laparotomy to induce intra-abdominal adhesion formation. Animals were randomly allocated to receive topical application of HA, KGF, KGF + HA, or normal saline (Control). On postoperative day 7, the adhesion score was assessed with a visual scoring system. Masson’s trichrome staining, picrosirius red staining and hydroxyproline assays were used to assess the magnitude of adhesion and tissue fibrosis. Cytokeratin, a marker of the mesothelial cells, was detected by immunohistochemistry. The levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in the abdominal fluid were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Western blotting was performed to examine the expression of the TGF-β1, fibrinogen and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) proteins in the rat peritoneal adhesion tissue. The combined administration of KGF and HA significantly reduced intra-abdominal adhesion formation and fibrin deposition and improved the orderly repair of the peritoneal mesothelial cells in the rat model. Furthermore, the combined administration of KGF and HA significantly increased the tPA levels but reduced the levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and TGF-β1 in the abdominal fluid. The expression

  12. Keratinocyte Growth Factor Combined with a Sodium Hyaluronate Gel Inhibits Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guangbing; Zhou, Cancan; Wang, Guanghui; Fan, Lin; Wang, Kang; Li, Xuqi

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion is a very common complication after abdominal surgery. One clinical problem that remains to be solved is to identify an ideal strategy to prevent abdominal adhesions. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) has been proven to improve the proliferation of mesothelial cells, which may enhance fibrinolytic activity to suppress postoperative adhesions. This study investigated whether the combined administration of KGF and a sodium hyaluronate (HA) gel can prevent intra-abdominal adhesions by improving the orderly repair of the peritoneal mesothelial cells. The possible prevention mechanism was also explored. The cecum wall and its opposite parietal peritoneum were abraded after laparotomy to induce intra-abdominal adhesion formation. Animals were randomly allocated to receive topical application of HA, KGF, KGF + HA, or normal saline (Control). On postoperative day 7, the adhesion score was assessed with a visual scoring system. Masson's trichrome staining, picrosirius red staining and hydroxyproline assays were used to assess the magnitude of adhesion and tissue fibrosis. Cytokeratin, a marker of the mesothelial cells, was detected by immunohistochemistry. The levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in the abdominal fluid were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Western blotting was performed to examine the expression of the TGF-β1, fibrinogen and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) proteins in the rat peritoneal adhesion tissue. The combined administration of KGF and HA significantly reduced intra-abdominal adhesion formation and fibrin deposition and improved the orderly repair of the peritoneal mesothelial cells in the rat model. Furthermore, the combined administration of KGF and HA significantly increased the tPA levels but reduced the levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and TGF-β1 in the abdominal fluid. The expression

  13. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... with higher amounts of polyunsaturated fats include: Walnuts Sunflower seeds Flax seeds or flax oil Fish, such ... flax seed on your meal. Add walnuts or sunflower seeds to salads. Cook with corn or safflower ...

  14. Dietary fats explained

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk, ice cream, cream, and fatty meats. Some vegetable oils, such as coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil, ... fats can help lower your LDL cholesterol. Most vegetable oils that are liquid at room temperature have unsaturated ...

  15. Dietary fat overload reprograms brown fat mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Tatulli, Giuseppe; Vegliante, Rolando; Cannata, Stefano M.; Bernardini, Sergio; Ciriolo, Maria R.; Aquilano, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD) at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulate health and lifespan. PMID:26483700

  16. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Robin R.

    1997-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome, an important contributor to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, has been associated with both traumatic and nontraumatic disorders. Fat embolization after long bone trauma is probably common as a subclinical event. Fat emboli can deform and pass through the lungs, resulting in systemic embolization, most commonly to the brain and kidneys. The diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome is based on the patient’s history, supported by clinical signs of pulmonary, cerebral and cutaneous dysfunction and confirmed by the demonstration of arterial hypoxemia in the absence of other disorders. Treatment of fat embolism syndrome consists of general supportive measures, including splinting, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and the administration of oxygen. Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilatory assistance can be indicated. The role of corticosteroids remains controversial. Early stabilization of long bone fractures has been shown to decrease the incidence of pulmonary complications. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that the exact method of fracture fixation plays a minor role in the development of pulmonary dysfunction. As more is learned about the specifics of the various triggers for the development of fat embolism syndrome, it is hoped that the prospect of more specific therapy for the prevention and treatment of this disorder will become a reality. PMID:9336522

  17. ELBW survivors in early adulthood have higher hepatic, pancreatic and subcutaneous fat

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Justin D.; Yellin, Samuel A.; Ong, Frank J.; Singh, Nina P.; Konyer, Norman; Noseworthy, Michael D.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Premature birth in conjunction with extremely low birth weight (<1 kg, ELBW) is associated with insulin resistance and increased cardiometabolic health risk compared to birth at full term with normal birth weight (NBW). However, little is known regarding the biologic mediators of these effects. Abdominal and ectopic lipid accumulation is linked to insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction, yet whether ELBW survivors are predisposed to aberrant lipid deposition in adulthood is unknown. We used magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of 16 NBW and 29 ELBW participants to determine if ELBW survivors have differences in pancreatic, hepatic, subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution compared to NBW participants. ELBW individuals had a higher proportion of liver and pancreatic fat compared to NBW subjects (P < 0.05). Abdominal subcutaneous fat, but not visceral fat, area was higher in ELBW survivors compared to NBW individuals. In multivariate analyses, tissue fat measures were most highly related to BMI and sex, but not preterm birth. This work highlights that fat deposition is enhanced in adults born preterm and suggests that ectopic fat accretion driven by their relatively greater adiposity may contribute to the higher rates of metabolic dysfunction seen in ELBW survivors. PMID:27530702

  18. ELBW survivors in early adulthood have higher hepatic, pancreatic and subcutaneous fat.

    PubMed

    Crane, Justin D; Yellin, Samuel A; Ong, Frank J; Singh, Nina P; Konyer, Norman; Noseworthy, Michael D; Schmidt, Louis A; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M

    2016-01-01

    Premature birth in conjunction with extremely low birth weight (<1 kg, ELBW) is associated with insulin resistance and increased cardiometabolic health risk compared to birth at full term with normal birth weight (NBW). However, little is known regarding the biologic mediators of these effects. Abdominal and ectopic lipid accumulation is linked to insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction, yet whether ELBW survivors are predisposed to aberrant lipid deposition in adulthood is unknown. We used magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of 16 NBW and 29 ELBW participants to determine if ELBW survivors have differences in pancreatic, hepatic, subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution compared to NBW participants. ELBW individuals had a higher proportion of liver and pancreatic fat compared to NBW subjects (P < 0.05). Abdominal subcutaneous fat, but not visceral fat, area was higher in ELBW survivors compared to NBW individuals. In multivariate analyses, tissue fat measures were most highly related to BMI and sex, but not preterm birth. This work highlights that fat deposition is enhanced in adults born preterm and suggests that ectopic fat accretion driven by their relatively greater adiposity may contribute to the higher rates of metabolic dysfunction seen in ELBW survivors. PMID:27530702

  19. Adipose Expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α: Direct Role in Obesity-Linked Insulin Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotamisligil, Gokhan S.; Shargill, Narinder S.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    1993-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has been shown to have certain catabolic effects on fat cells and whole animals. An induction of TNF-α messenger RNA expression was observed in adipose tissue from four different rodent models of obesity and diabetes. TNF-α protein was also elevated locally and systemically. Neutralization of TNF-α in obese fa/fa rats caused a significant increase in the peripheral uptake of glucose in response to insulin. These results indicate a role for TNF-α in obesity and particularly in the insulin resistance and diabetes that often accompany obesity.

  20. Use of MRI and CT for fat imaging in children and youth: what have we learned about obesity, fat distribution and metabolic disease risk?

    PubMed

    Samara, A; Ventura, E E; Alfadda, A A; Goran, M I

    2012-08-01

    Childhood obesity is a matter of great concern for public health. Efforts have been made to understand its impact on health through advanced imaging techniques. An increasing number of studies focus on fat distribution and its associations with metabolic risk, in interaction with genetics, environment and ethnicity, in children. The present review is a qualitative synthesis of the existing literature on visceral and subcutaneous abdominal, intrahepatic and intramuscular fat. Our search revealed 80 original articles. Abdominal as well as ectopic fat depots are prevalent already in childhood and contribute to abnormal metabolic parameters, starting early in life. Visceral, hepatic and intramuscular fat seem to be interrelated but their patterns as well as their independent contribution on metabolic risk are not clear. Some ethnic-specific characteristics are also prevalent. These results encourage further research in childhood obesity by using imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. These imaging methods can provide a better understanding of fat distribution and its relationships with metabolic risk, compared to less detailed fat and obesity assessment. However, studies on bigger samples and with a prospective character are warranted.

  1. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Norwood, M G A; Lloyd, G M; Bown, M J; Fishwick, G; London, N J; Sayers, R D

    2007-01-01

    The operative mortality following conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair has not fallen significantly over the past two decades. Since its inception in 1991, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has provided an alternative to open AAA repair and perhaps an opportunity to improve operative mortality. Two recent large randomised trials have demonstrated the short and medium term benefit of EVAR over open AAA repair, although data on the long term efficacy of the technique are still lacking. This review aimed at providing an overview of EVAR and a discussion of the potential benefits and current limitations of the technique. PMID:17267674

  2. [Dirofilaria in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Révész, Erzsébet; Markovics, Gabriella; Darabos, Zoltán; Tóth, Ildikó; Fok, Eva

    2008-10-01

    Number of cases of filariasis have been recently reported in the Hungarian medical literature, most of them caused by Dirofilaria repens . Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted filarioid worm in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs and cats. Human infection manifests as either subcutaneous nodules or lung parenchymal disease, which may even be asymptomatic. The authors report a human Dirofilaria repens infection of the abdominal cavity in a 61-year-old man,who underwent laparotomy for acute abdomen. Intraoperatively, local peritonitis was detected caused by a white nemathhelminth, measured 8 cm in size. Histocytology confirmed that the infection was caused by Dirofilaria repens.

  3. [Abdominal pain, constipation and anemia].

    PubMed

    Barresi, Fabio; Kunz Caflish, Isabel; Bayly-Schinzel, Leena; Dressel, Holger

    2016-03-30

    We present the case of a 42-year old man who went to the emergency department because of spasmodic abdominal pain. The abdomen was soft. A gastroscopy and a colonoscopy were without pathological findings. The laboratory analyses indicated anemia. The differential blood count showed basophilic granules in the red blood cells. The blood lead level was elevated. A lead poisoning was diagnosed. The cause was the oral intake of an ayurvedic medication which the patient had received in Bangladesh to treat his vitiligo. PMID:27005735

  4. Treatment of neonatal abdominal cysts.

    PubMed

    Dénes, J; Lukäcs, F V; Léb, J; Bognár, M

    1974-01-01

    Intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal cystic structures in the newborn appear with a variable clinical picture and in the case of intra-abdominal cysts, surgery is performed mostly on an emergency basis. In such cases the exact preoperative diagnosis is difficult and is seldom made. With early laparotomy, extensive small bowel resection can usually be avoided. Retroperitoneal lesions are mostly of renal origin; in such cases, preoperative diagnosis is easy, being based on specific examinations. In the year 1973, 5 newborns with an intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal cyst have been treated surgically. In this series, one infant died after resection of 90% of the small bowel.

  5. [Internationalization and innovation of abdominal acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Characteristics of abdominal acupuncture are analyzed through three aspects of inheriting and innovation, collaborated research as well as international visual field. It is pointed that abdominal acupuncture is based on clinical practice, focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effect and expending the clinical application. It also promots the thinking on how to recall the tradition and how to inherit tradition availably. The modern medical problems should be studied and innovation resolutions should be searched, which can help the internationalization and modernization of abdominal acupuncture.

  6. [FUNCTIONAL PLASTIC OF ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIAS].

    PubMed

    Grubnik, V V; Parfentyeva, N D; Parfentyev, R S

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve the treatment efficacy of postoperative anterior abdominal wall hernias the method of plastic with restoration of anatomical and physiological properties of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall was used. After the intervention by the improved method, regardless of the location of the hernia defect yielded promising results for the conservation of anterior abdominal wall muscle function in 75% of cases completely restored functional ability of muscles recti abdomini. PMID:26591212

  7. Pancreatic necrosis in progressive systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, A A; Joos, A

    1980-01-01

    Fatal pancreatic necrosis, secondary to extensive acute arteritic changes, is reported in a case of progressive systemic sclerosis. The patient presented first with hypertension and renal involvement, with active vascular lesions demonstrated by biopsy. The renal lesion at necropsy was inactive, showing the characteristic concentric fibrosis only, while the pancreatic vascular lesions were both chronic proliferative and acute in type. Images PMID:7436566

  8. Infectious pancreatic necrosis: its detection and identification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, K.

    1965-01-01

    Ultimate control of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in hatcheries depends largely upon learning where the virus occurs. To detect the presence of virus either susceptible fish or susceptible fish cell cultures may be used as test systems. In modern virology, it is generally agreed that cell cultures are more convenient, are usually a much more sensitive test system, and allow more rapid determinations.

  9. Metabolic characteristics of human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissueafter overnight fast

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Sandy M.

    2012-01-01

    Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue is one of the largest fat depots and contributes the major proportion of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Little is known about aspects of human adipose tissue metabolism in vivo other than lipolysis. Here we collated data from 331 experiments in 255 healthy volunteers over a 23-year period, in which subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism was studied by measurements of arterio-venous differences after an overnight fast. NEFA and glycerol were released in a ratio of 2.7:1, different (P < 0.001) from the value of 3.0 that would indicate no fatty acid re-esterification. Fatty acid re-esterification was 10.2 ± 1.4%. Extraction of triacylglycerol (TG) (fractional extraction 5.7 ± 0.4%) indicated intravascular lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase, and this contributed 21 ± 3% of the glycerol released. Glucose uptake (fractional extraction 2.6 ± 0.3%) was partitioned around 20–25% for provision of glycerol 3-phosphate and 30% into lactate production. There was release of lactate and pyruvate, with extraction of the ketone bodies 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, although these were small numerically compared with TG and glucose uptake. NEFA release (expressed per 100 g tissue) correlated inversely with measures of fat mass (e.g., with BMI, rs = −0.24, P < 0.001). We examined within-person variability. Systemic NEFA concentrations, NEFA release, fatty acid re-esterification, and adipose tissue blood flow were all more consistent within than between individuals. This picture of human adipose tissue metabolism in the fasted state should contribute to a greater understanding of adipose tissue physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:22167523

  10. Advanced techniques in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Monson, J R

    1993-01-01

    Almost every abdominal organ is now amenable to laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic appendicectomy is a routine procedure which also permits identification of other conditions initially confused with an inflamed appendix. However, assessment of appendiceal inflammation is more difficult. Almost all colonic procedures can be performed laparoscopically, at least partly, though resection for colonic cancer is still controversial. For simple patch repair of perforated duodenal ulcers laparoscopy is ideal, and inguinal groin hernia can be repaired satisfactorily with a patch of synthetic mesh. Many upper abdominal procedures, however, still take more time than the open operations. These techniques reduce postoperative pain and the incidence of wound infections and allow a much earlier return to normal activity compared with open surgery. They have also brought new disciplines: surgeons must learn different hand-eye coordination, meticulous haemostasis is needed to maintain picture quality, and delivery of specimens may be problematic. The widespread introduction of laparoscopic techniques has emphasised the need for adequate training (operations that were straight-forward open procedures may require considerable laparoscopic expertise) and has raised questions about trainee surgeons acquiring adequate experience of open procedures. Images FIG 9 p1347-a p1347-b p1349-a p1350-a p1350-b PMID:8257893

  11. Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

  12. The Potential Role of Kallistatin in the Development of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaze; Krishna, Smriti Murali; Golledge, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular condition that causes permanent dilation of the abdominal aorta, which can lead to death due to aortic rupture. The only treatment for AAA is surgical repair, and there is no current drug treatment for AAA. Aortic inflammation, vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, angiogenesis, oxidative stress and vascular remodeling are implicated in AAA pathogenesis. Kallistatin is a serine proteinase inhibitor, which has been shown to have a variety of functions, potentially relevant in AAA pathogenesis. Kallistatin has been reported to have inhibitory effects on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) signaling induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Kallistatin also inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Wnt canonical signaling, which promote inflammation, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling in various pre-clinical experimental models. This review explores the potential protective role of kallistatin in AAA pathogenesis. PMID:27529213

  13. The Potential Role of Kallistatin in the Development of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiaze; Krishna, Smriti Murali; Golledge, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular condition that causes permanent dilation of the abdominal aorta, which can lead to death due to aortic rupture. The only treatment for AAA is surgical repair, and there is no current drug treatment for AAA. Aortic inflammation, vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, angiogenesis, oxidative stress and vascular remodeling are implicated in AAA pathogenesis. Kallistatin is a serine proteinase inhibitor, which has been shown to have a variety of functions, potentially relevant in AAA pathogenesis. Kallistatin has been reported to have inhibitory effects on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) signaling induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Kallistatin also inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Wnt canonical signaling, which promote inflammation, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling in various pre-clinical experimental models. This review explores the potential protective role of kallistatin in AAA pathogenesis. PMID:27529213

  14. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: pulmonary and abdominal findings with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Pallisa, Esther; Sanz, Pilar; Roman, Antonio; Majó, Joaquim; Andreu, Jordi; Cáceres, José

    2002-10-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease characterized by pulmonary cysts at computed tomography (CT) and proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells at lung biopsy. Almost all patients are female, and all have pulmonary cysts at high-resolution CT. Although the presence of cysts may be suggested at conventional CT or chest radiography, high-resolution CT is superior for cyst detection and is essential for diagnosis. The cysts are typically round; in most cases, the cyst wall is barely seen at thin-section CT. They are typically diffusely distributed throughout the central and peripheral lung parenchyma. The lung bases are affected in all patients. Some patients also have increased lung attenuation or a reticular pattern. Expiratory CT shows no air trapping between the cysts, and most of the cysts decrease in size. Pneumothorax, pleural effusion, and chylothorax are complications of LAM. Certain abdominal findings may provide additional corroborative evidence of the diagnosis. Renal angiomyolipomas, the most frequent abdominal lesions, usually manifest as asymptomatic, small, bilateral tumors of fat attenuation in the renal cortex. Lymphangiomas are cystic retroperitoneal masses that occur in up to 20% of patients. Other CT findings are hypo- or hyperattenuating lymph nodes, a dilated thoracic duct, and ascites.

  15. Whole abdominal wall segmentation using augmented active shape models (AASM) with multi-atlas label fusion and level set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhoubing; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Abramson, Richard G.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    The abdominal wall is an important structure differentiating subcutaneous and visceral compartments and intimately involved with maintaining abdominal structure. Segmentation of the whole abdominal wall on routinely acquired computed tomography (CT) scans remains challenging due to variations and complexities of the wall and surrounding tissues. In this study, we propose a slice-wise augmented active shape model (AASM) approach to robustly segment both the outer and inner surfaces of the abdominal wall. Multi-atlas label fusion (MALF) and level set (LS) techniques are integrated into the traditional ASM framework. The AASM approach globally optimizes the landmark updates in the presence of complicated underlying local anatomical contexts. The proposed approach was validated on 184 axial slices of 20 CT scans. The Hausdorff distance against the manual segmentation was significantly reduced using proposed approach compared to that using ASM, MALF, and LS individually. Our segmentation of the whole abdominal wall enables the subcutaneous and visceral fat measurement, with high correlation to the measurement derived from manual segmentation. This study presents the first generic algorithm that combines ASM, MALF, and LS, and demonstrates practical application for automatically capturing visceral and subcutaneous fat volumes.

  16. Whole Abdominal Wall Segmentation using Augmented Active Shape Models (AASM) with Multi-Atlas Label Fusion and Level Set

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhoubing; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Abramson, Richard G.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-01-01

    The abdominal wall is an important structure differentiating subcutaneous and visceral compartments and intimately involved with maintaining abdominal structure. Segmentation of the whole abdominal wall on routinely acquired computed tomography (CT) scans remains challenging due to variations and complexities of the wall and surrounding tissues. In this study, we propose a slice-wise augmented active shape model (AASM) approach to robustly segment both the outer and inner surfaces of the abdominal wall. Multi-atlas label fusion (MALF) and level set (LS) techniques are integrated into the traditional ASM framework. The AASM approach globally optimizes the landmark updates in the presence of complicated underlying local anatomical contexts. The proposed approach was validated on 184 axial slices of 20 CT scans. The Hausdorff distance against the manual segmentation was significantly reduced using proposed approach compared to that using ASM, MALF, and LS individually. Our segmentation of the whole abdominal wall enables the subcutaneous and visceral fat measurement, with high correlation to the measurement derived from manual segmentation. This study presents the first generic algorithm that combines ASM, MALF, and LS, and demonstrates practical application for automatically capturing visceral and subcutaneous fat volumes. PMID:27127333

  17. Dysregulation of the Peripheral and Adipose Tissue Endocannabinoid System in Human Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Blüher, Matthias; Engeli, Stefan; Klöting, Nora; Berndt, Janin; Fasshauer, Mathias; Bátkai, Sádor; Pacher, Pál; Schön, Michael R.; Jordan, Jens; Stumvoll, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been suspected to contribute to the association of visceral fat accumulation with metabolic diseases. We determined whether circulating endocannabinoids are related to visceral adipose tissue mass in lean, subcutaneous obese, and visceral obese subjects (10 men and 10 women in each group). We further measured expression of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes in paired samples of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in all 60 subjects. Circulating 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) was significantly correlated with body fat (r = 0.45, P = 0.03), visceral fat mass (r = 0.44, P = 0.003), and fasting plasma insulin concentrations (r = 0.41, P = 0.001) but negatively correlated to glucose infusion rate during clamp (r = 0.39, P = 0.009). In visceral adipose tissue, CB1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), fasting insulin (r = 0.48, P < 0.001), and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.5, P < 0.001), whereas FAAH gene expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.39, P = 0.01) and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that abdominal fat accumulation is a critical correlate of the dysregulation of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity. Thus, the endocannabinoid system may represent a primary target for the treatment of abdominal obesity and associated metabolic changes. PMID:17065342

  18. Changes in Skinfold Thicknesses and Body Fat in Ultra-endurance Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Bischof, Martin; Knechtle, Beat; A.Rüst, Christoph; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The present study investigated the changes in single skinfold thicknesses and body fat during an ultra-endurance cycling race. Methods One hundred and nineteen ultra-endurance cyclists in the ‘Swiss Cycling Marathon’ covering a distance of 600 km were included. Changes in skinfold thickness, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass and total body water were estimated using anthropometric methods. Results The subjects were riding at a mean speed of 23.5±4.0 km/h and finished the race within 1,580±296 min. During the race, body mass decreased by 1.5±1.2 kg (P<0.001), and fat mass decreased by 1.5±1.1 kg (P<0.001). Skeletal muscle mass and total body water remained unchanged (P>0.05). The decrease in body mass correlated to the decrease in fat mass (r = 0.20, P=0.03). The skinfold thicknesses at pectoral (-14.7%), abdominal (-14.9%), and thigh (-10.2%) site showed the largest decrease. The decrease in abdominal skinfold was significantly and negatively related to cycling speed during the race (r = -0.31, P<0.001). Conclusion Cycling 600 km at ∼23 km/h led to a decrease in fat mass and in all skinfold thicknesses. The largest decrease in skinfold thickness was recorded for pectoral, abdominal, and thigh site. The decrease in abdominal skinfold thickness was negatively related to cycling speed. The body seems to reduce adipose subcutaneous fat during an ultra-endurance performance at the site of the thickest skinfold. PMID:23785571

  19. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities in obstructive sleep apnea and associations with subcutaneous fat distributions.

    PubMed

    Ucok, Kagan; Aycicek, Abdullah; Sezer, Murat; Genc, Abdurrahman; Akkaya, Muzaffer; Caglar, Veli; Fidan, Fatma; Unlu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for the development and progression of sleep apnea. Responses to exercise by patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are clinically relevant to reducing body weight and cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to clarify the aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities and their possible relationships with other findings in patients with OSAS. Forty patients (30 males, 10 females) and 40 controls (30 males, 10 females) were enrolled in this study. Questionnaires (excessive daytime sleepiness, daytime tiredness, morning headache, waking unrefreshed, and imbalance), overnight polysomnography, indirect laryngoscopy, and aerobic and anaerobic exercise tests were performed. Triceps, subscapular, abdomen, and thigh skinfold thicknesses were measured. Subcutaneous abdominal fat (abdomen skinfold) was significantly higher in OSAS patients than in controls. Maximal anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity were not different significantly between the patients and controls. We found that aerobic capacity was significantly lower in OSAS patients than in controls. Aerobic capacity was negatively correlated with upper-body subcutaneous fat (triceps and subscapular skinfolds) but not correlated with subcutaneous abdominal fat in OSAS patients. In multivariate analyses using all patients, the apnea-hypopnea index remained a significant independent predictor of aerobic capacity after controlling for a variety of potential confounders including body mass index. Our data confirm that central obesity (subcutaneous abdominal fat) is prominent in patients with OSAS. Our results suggest that lower aerobic exercise capacity in patients with OSAS might be due to daily physical activity that is restricted by OSA itself. This study also suggests that the degree of subcutaneous abdominal fat cannot be used for predicting aerobic capacity level. We think that upper-body subcutaneous fat might be suitable for determining the physical fitness of

  20. Interrelationships of spontaneous growth hormone axis activity, body fat, and serum lipids in healthy elderly women and men.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, K G; Harman, S M; Stevens, T E; Jayme, J J; Bellantoni, M F; Busby-Whitehead, M J; Christmas, C; Münzer, T; Tobin, J D; Roy, T A; Cottrell, E; St Clair, C; Pabst, K M; Blackman, M R

    1999-11-01

    Aging is associated with decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels, increased total and abdominal fat, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Similar changes in lipids and body composition occur in nonelderly GH-deficient adults and are reversed with GH administration. To examine whether GH/IGF-I axis function in the elderly is related to the lipid profile independently of body fat, we evaluated GH secretion, serum IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels, adiposity via the body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and circulating lipids in 101 healthy subjects older than 65 years. Integrated nocturnal GH secretion (log IAUPGH) was inversely related (P < .005) to DEXA total and abdominal fat and MRI visceral fat in both genders. Log IAUPGH was inversely related to visceral fat in women (P < .005) and men (P < .0001), but was not significantly related to total fat in either gender. In women, log IAUPGH was related inversely to total and LDL cholesterol and positively to HDL cholesterol (P < .008). In men, log IAUPGH was inversely related to total cholesterol and triglycerides (P < .005). In women, HDL cholesterol was inversely related to the WHR (P < .005). In men, triglycerides were positively related (P < .001) to the WHR and DEXA abdominal and MRI visceral fat. Multivariate regression revealed log IAUPGH, but not DEXA total body fat, to be an independent determinant of total (P < .001 for women and P = .01 for men) and LDL (P < .007 and P = .05) cholesterol in both sexes and of HDL cholesterol (P < .005) and triglycerides (P < .03) in women. Log IAUPGH, but not DEXA abdominal fat, was related to total (P < .005 and P < .03) and LDL (P < .03 and P = .05) cholesterol in both genders and to HDL in women (P < .05). Log IAUPGH, but not

  1. The Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Training on Abdominal Strength, Endurance, and Selected Anthropometric Measures

    PubMed Central

    Porcari, John P.; Miller, Jennifer; Cornwell, Kelly; Foster, Carl; Gibson, Mark; McLean, Karen; Kernozek, Tom

    2005-01-01

    firmer and more toned as a result of EMS Abdominal and waist girth was also significantly reduced, despite no changes in body weight or subcutaneous fat PMID:24431963

  2. Abdominal Lipomatosis with Secondary Self-Strangulation of Masses in an Adult Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque. PMID:25402181

  3. Abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in an adult rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-10-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque.

  4. Excess weight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal Brazilian women: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The menopause is associated with a tendency to gain weight. Several alterations in fat deposits occur, leading to changes in the distribution of body fat. There are strong indications that, in middle age, obesity is associated with increased mortality. This study set out to determine the factors associated with the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women in a population-based study in Brazil. Methods The sample included 456 women, aged 45–69 years, residing in the urban area of Maringa, Parana. Systematic sampling, with a probability proportional to the size of the census sector, was performed. Behavioral, economic, and sociodemographic data were collected, and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were determined. Results According to BMI criteria (≥25.0 kg/m2), 72.6% of the women were overweight, and according to WC (≥88 cm), 63.6% had abdominal obesity. Based on logistic regression analysis, the factors that were most closely associated with overweight were: having three or more children (odds ratio (OR): 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–3.00); and not taking hormone replacement therapy (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.06–2.63). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was positively associated with greater parity (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05–1.72) and age older than 65 years (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.03–2.19). Conclusions This study found that the prevalences of overweight and abdominal obesity were higher for postmenopausal women who had three or more children. Age over 65 years was also a risk factor for abdominal obesity and no use of hormonal replacement therapy was a risk factor for overweight. PMID:24228934

  5. Measurement of Visceral Fat: Should We Include Retroperitoneal Fat?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung-Yi; Hsieh, Hung-Ren; Ma, Wen-Ya; Lin, Mao-Shin; Liu, Pi-Hua; Shih, Shyang-Rong; Liou, Jyh-Ming; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chen, Ming-Fong; Lin, Jou-Wei; Wei, Jung-Nan; Li, Hung-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes. Methods We enrolled 432 adult participants (153 men and 279 women) in a community-based cohort study. Computed tomography at the umbilicus level was used to measure the fat areas. Results Retroperitoneal fat correlated significantly with metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 5.651, p<0.05) and the number of metabolic abnormalities (p<0.05). Retroperitoneal fat area was significantly associated with blood pressure, plasma glycemic indices, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, adiponectin (r = −0.244, P<0.05), and leptin (r = 0.323, p<0.05), but not plasma renin or aldosterone concentrations. During the 2.94±0.84 years of follow-up, 32 participants developed incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area (hazard ration (HR) 1.62, p = 0.003) and peritoneal fat area (HR 1.62, p = 0.009), but not subcutaneous fat area (p = 0.14) were associated with incident hypertension. Neither retroperitoneal fat area, peritoneal fat area, nor subcutaneous fat areas was associated with incident diabetes after adjustment. Conclusions Retroperitoneal fat is similar to peritoneal fat, but differs from subcutaneous fat, in terms of its relationship with metabolic syndrome and incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area should be included in the measurement of visceral fat for cardio-metabolic studies in human. PMID:25401949

  6. Complete spontaneous necrosis of hepatocellular carcinoma confirmed on resection: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Ryusuke; Amano, Hironobu; Abe, Tomoyuki; Fujikuni, Nobuaki; Nakahara, Masahiro; Yonehara, Shuji; Teramen, Kazushi; Noriyuki, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Complete spontaneous necrosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) without any pretreatment or angiography is rare. We present a rare case of spontaneous complete necrosis of HCC, as confirmed after hepatectomy. Presentation of case The patient, a 74-year-old man with a history of alcoholic hepatitis, was referred to our hospital for confirmation of suspected HCC. In March 2015, abdominal ultrasonography detected a low echoic mass in segment 8 (S8) of the liver. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed interval growth of this tumor and showed that the tumor was well enhanced in the arterial phase and washed out in the portal and delayed phases. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level was elevated at 30.8 ng/mL and the percentage of the L3 isoform was 25.5%. Two months later, CT imaging showed that the tumor was of low density and had decreased in size; no contrast enhancement of the tumor was seen. Spontaneous necrosis of the HCC was considered; however, as we could not exclude viable malignant cells in the tumor, we performed S8 segmentectomy of the liver. The resected tumor specimen had a thick fibrous capsule. Histopathological findings showed only granulation and necrotic tissue accompanied by bleeding and hemosiderosis. No viable tumor cells were observed. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level returned to the normal range one month after surgery. Discussion If spontaneous regression has occurred, there is a possibility of HCC recurrence and of remnant viable tumor cells. Conclusion We present a rare case of complete spontaneous necrosis of HCC and strongly recommended surgical intervention. PMID:27060644

  7. Puerperal endometritis after abdominal twin delivery.

    PubMed

    Suonio, S; Huttunen, M

    1994-04-01

    The infectious complications of 122 consecutive abdominal twin deliveries over the period 1984-1989 were analyzed in a prospective clinical study, comparing them with 761 singleton abdominal deliveries over the period 1984-1986. The incidence of endometritis was nearly three-fold after twin deliveries and the incidence of abdominal wound infections nearly two-fold compared with singleton abdominal pregnancies (13.1/4.7% and 5.6/3.0%). The risk of amnionitis was increased ten-fold, 6 hours after rupture of the membranes in abdominal twin delivery, but no connection was found between amnionitis and endometritis, as in singleton abdominal deliveries. Multiple regression analysis indicated only two risk factors as regards puerperal endometritis after abdominal twin delivery: age under 25 years (odds ratio 6.9, 95% confidence limits 1.9-24.8), an association also seen in singleton abdominal deliveries, and a period of more than 6 hours from rupture of membranes to delivery (odds ratio 7.8, 95% confidence limits 2.1-28.5). Multiple pregnancy appears to be associated with an increased risk of endometritis. The etiological factors remain unknown, but a large placental bed and/or immunological factors may be implicated. PMID:8160537

  8. Pediatric Abdominal Pain: An Emergency Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeremiah; Fox, Sean M

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain is a common complaint that leads to pediatric patients seeking emergency care. The emergency care provider has the arduous task of determining which child likely has a benign cause and not missing the devastating condition that needs emergent attention. This article reviews common benign causes of abdominal pain as well as some of the cannot-miss emergent causes. PMID:27133248

  9. Inhibition by dietary D-psicose of body fat accumulation in adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-obesity effects of dietary D-psicose on adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Wistar rats (16 weeks old) that had previously been fed a high-sucrose diet (HSD) were fed HSD or a high-starch diet (HTD) with or without 5% D-psicose for 8 weeks. The food efficiency, carcass fat percentage, abdominal fat accumulation, and body weight gain were all significantly suppressed by dietary D-psicose.

  10. Use of human and porcine dermal-derived bioprostheses in complex abdominal wall reconstructions: a literature review and case report.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Daniel R; Stawicki, S Peter; Eustance, Nicole; Warsaw, David; Desai, Darius

    2007-05-01

    The goal of abdominal wall reconstruction is to restore and maintain abdominal domain. A PubMed(R) review of the literature (including "old" MEDLINE through February 2007) suggests that bioprosthetic materials are increasingly used to facilitate complex abdominal wall reconstruction. Reported results (eight case reports/series involving 137 patients) are encouraging. The most commonly reported complications are wound seroma (18 patients, 13%), skin dehiscence with graft exposure without herniation (six, 4.4%), superficial and deep wound infections (five, 3.6%), hernia recurrence (four, 2.9%), graft failure with dehiscence (two), hematoma (two), enterocutaneous fistula (one), and flap necrosis (one). Two recent cases are reported herein. In one, a 46-year-old woman required open abdominal management after gastric remnant perforation following a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure. Porcine dermal collagen combined with cutaneous flaps was used for definitive abdominal wall reconstruction. The patient's condition improved postoperatively and she was well 5 months after discharge from the hospital. In the second, a 54-year-old woman underwent repair of an abdominal wall defect following resection of a large leiomyosarcoma. Human acellular dermis combined with myocutaneous flaps was used to reconstruct the abdominal wall defect. The patient's recovery was uncomplicated and 20 weeks following surgery she was doing well with no evidence of recurrence or hernia. The results reported to date and the outcomes presented here suggest that bioprosthetic materials are safe and effective for repair of large abdominal wall defects. Prospective, randomized, controlled studies are needed to compare the safety and efficacy of other reconstructive techniques as well as human and porcine dermal-derived bioprostheses.

  11. Finger necrosis after accidental radial artery puncture

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun Sik; Lee, Tae Rim; Cha, Won Chul; Shin, Tae Gun; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Keun Jeong; Rhee, Joong Eui; Jeong, Yeon Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Radial artery puncture, an invasive procedure, is frequently used for critical patients. Although considered safe, severe complications such as finger necrosis can occur. Herein, we review the clinical course of finger necrosis after accidental radial artery puncture. A 63-year-old woman visited the emergency department (ED) with left second and third finger pain after undergoing intravenous (IV) access in her wrist for procedural sedation. During the IV access, she experienced wrist pain, which increased during the 12 hours prior to her ED presentation. Emergency angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm in her left radial artery and absence of blood flow to the proper palmar digital artery. Subsequent angiointervention and urokinase thrombolysis failed. The second finger was eventually amputated owing to gangrene. Radial artery puncture can occur accidentally during IV wrist access, resulting in severe morbidity. Providers should carefully examine the puncture site and collateral flow, followed by multiple examinations to ensure distal circulation.

  12. Abdominal tuberculosis of the gastrointestinal tract: Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Debi, Uma; Ravisankar, Vasudevan; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal tuberculosis is an increasingly common disease that poses diagnostic challenge, as the nonspecific features of the disease which may lead to diagnostic delays and development of complications. This condition is regarded as a great mimicker of other abdominal pathology. A high index of suspicion is an important factor in early diagnosis. Abdominal involvement may occur in the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lymphnodes or solid viscera. Various investigative methods have been used to aid in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and initiation of antituberculous therapy and surgical treatment are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality. Most of the patients respond very well to standard antitubercular therapy and surgery is required only in a minority of cases. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis because early recognition of this condition is important. We reviewed our experience with the findings on various imaging modalities for diagnosis of this potentially treatable disease. PMID:25356043

  13. A fibromatosis case mimicking abdominal aorta aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, Arzu; Kahraman, Cemal; Tasdemir, Kutay; Mavili, Ertugrul

    2013-01-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a rare fibrosing reactive process that may be confused with mesenteric fibromatosis. Abdominal aorta aneurysm is rare too and mostly develops secondary to Behcet's disease, trauma, and infection or connective tissue diseases. Incidence of aneurysms occurring as a result of atherosclerotic changes increases in postmenopausal period. Diagnosis can be established with arteriography, tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging associated with clinical findings. Tumors and cysts should be considered in differential diagnosis. Abdominal ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computerized tomography revealed an infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysm in a 41-year-old woman, but, on surgery, retroperitoneal fibrosis surrounding the aorta was detected. We present this interesting case because retroperitoneal fibrosis encircling the abdominal aorta can mimic abdominal aorta aneurysm radiologically.

  14. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are not seeing trans fat on a product's label. First, products entering interstate commerce on or after ... already begun to declare trans fat on their products' labels. Second, FDA has granted enforcement discretion to some ...

  15. Identification and characterization of genes that control fat deposition in chickens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fat deposits in chickens contribute significantly to meat quality attributes such as juiciness, flavor, taste and other organoleptic properties. The quantity of fat deposited increases faster and earlier in the fast-growing chickens than in slow-growing chickens. In this study, Affymetrix Genechip® Chicken Genome Arrays 32773 transcripts were used to compare gene expression profiles in liver and hypothalamus tissues of fast-growing and slow-growing chicken at 8 wk of age. Real-time RT-PCR was used to validate the differential expression of genes selected from the microarray analysis. The mRNA expression of the genes was further examined in fat tissues. The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of four lipid-related genes with fat traits was examined in a F2 resource population. Results Four hundred genes in the liver tissues and 220 genes hypothalamus tissues, respectively, were identified to be differentially expressed in fast-growing chickens and slow-growing chickens. Expression levels of genes for lipid metabolism (SULT1B1, ACSBG2, PNPLA3, LPL, AOAH) carbohydrate metabolism (MGAT4B, XYLB, GBE1, PGM1, HKDC1)cholesttrol biosynthesis (FDPS, LSS, HMGCR, NSDHL, DHCR24, IDI1, ME1) HSD17B7 and other reaction or processes (CYP1A4, CYP1A1, AKR1B1, CYP4V2, DDO) were higher in the fast-growing White Recessive Rock chickens than in the slow-growing Xinghua chickens. On the other hand, expression levels of genes associated with multicellular organism development, immune response, DNA integration, melanin biosynthetic process, muscle organ development and oxidation-reduction (FRZB, DMD, FUT8, CYP2C45, DHRSX, and CYP2C18) and with glycol-metabolism (GCNT2, ELOVL 6, and FASN), were higher in the XH chickens than in the fast-growing chickens. RT-PCR validated high expression levels of nine out of 12 genes in fat tissues. The G1257069A and T1247123C of the ACSBG2 gene were significantly associated with abdominal fat weight. The G4928024A of the FASN gene

  16. Programmed necrosis in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Linkermann, Andreas; De Zen, Federica; Weinberg, Joel; Kunzendorf, Ulrich; Krautwald, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) had been widely used synonymously to caspase-mediated apoptosis until caspase-independent cell death was described. Identification of necrosis as a regulated process in ischaemic conditions has recently changed our understanding of PCD. At least three pathways of programmed necrosis (PN) have been identified. First, receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3)-dependent necroptosis causes organ failure following stroke, myocardial infarction and renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Necroptosis can be mediated either by a large intracellular caspase-8-containing signalling complex called the ripoptosome or by the RIP1-/RIP3-containing necroptosome and is controlled by a caspase-8/FLICE inhibitory protein(long) heterodimer at least in the latter case. Second, mitochondrial permeability transition mediates apoptotic or necrotic stimuli and depends on the mitochondrial protein cyclophilin D. The third PN pathway involves the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-calpain axis that contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI). Preclinical interference with the PN pathways therefore raises expectations for the future treatment of ischaemic conditions. In this brief review, we aim to summarize the clinically relevant PCD pathways and to transfer the basic science data to settings of AKI. We conclude that pathologists were quite right to refer to ischaemic kidney injury as 'acute tubular necrosis'. PMID:22942173

  17. Body fat standards and individual physical readiness in a randomized Army sample: screening weights, methods of fat assessment, and linkage to physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E; Leu, John R

    2002-12-01

    Body fat standards have been used by the military services since the early 1980s to prevent obesity and motivate good fitness habits. The Army Weight Control Program has continued to undergo evaluation and incorporate improvements based on emerging scientific findings. Recently drafted revisions of Department of Defense-wide procedures address issues of consistency and validity raised by external oversight groups. This study evaluated the impact of three proposed refinements of the Army Weight Control Program. Anthropometric measurements and fitness test performance were obtained in a randomized sample of 1,038 male and 347 nonpregnant female soldiers at three Army posts. Of this sample, 11% of men and 17% of women were overweight and overfat; 6.3 and 9.8%, respectively, were currently on the Army Weight Control Program. Screening weight tables that ensure women are not inappropriately striving to meet weights more stringent than "healthy" weight (i.e., body mass index < 25 kg/m2) still correctly identified all women for evaluation for the age-specific body fat standards. Body fat estimation using more valid DoD body fat equations that include an abdominal circumference for women reduced the number of female soldiers currently classified as exceeding fat standards, coincidentally resulting in a comparable prevalence of male and female soldiers over the fat standards (12%). A body fat allowance for young soldiers who scored very well on the physical fitness test could have benefited one-fourth of the soldiers exceeding fat standards and acknowledges biological variability in body fat thresholds. Whereas this linkage may motivate fitness habits, it complicates enforcement of reasonably achievable body fat standards. The proposed changes in fat screening and measurement methods are appropriate, but the impact to health and physical readiness of the Force cannot be accurately predicted or measured because of the absence of comprehensive baseline data and tracking

  18. Ultrasound measurement of pediatric visceral fat thickness: correlations with metabolic and liver profiles

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hwa; Jung, Mo Kyung; Kim, Ki Eun; Kwon, Ah Reum; Yoon, Choon Sik; Kim, Ho Seong; Kim, Duk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Abdominal obesity is a fundamental factor underlying the development of metabolic syndrome. Because of radiation exposure and cost, computed tomography or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to evaluate abdominal adiposity are not appropriate in children. Authors evaluated whether ultrasound results could be an indicator of insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods We enrolled 73 subjects (aged 6–16 years) who were evaluated abdominal adiposity by ultrasound. Subcutaneous fat thickness was defined as the measurement from the skin-fat interface to the linea alba, and visceral fat thickness (VFT) was defined as the thickness from the linea alba to the aorta. Anthropometric and biochemical metabolic parameters were also collected and compared. The subjects who met 2 criteria, radiologic confirmed fatty liver and alanine aminotransferase >40, were diagnosed with NAFLD. Results There was a strong positive correlation between VFT and obesity. VFT was highly correlated with the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance score (r=0.403, P<0.001). The area under the curve for VFT as a predictor of NAFLD was 0.875 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.787–0.964). VFT of 34.3 mm was found to be the discriminating cutoff for NAFLD (sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 71.2%, respectively). Conclusion Ultrasound could be useful in measuring VFT and assessing abdominal adiposity in children. Moreover, increased VFT might be an appropriate prognostic factor for insulin resistance and NAFLD. PMID:27462583

  19. Development of an automated 3D segmentation program for volume quantification of body fat distribution using CT.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Shuji; Yamaji, Taiki; Suzuki, Masahiro; Mutoh, Michihiro; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Kotera, Ken; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Muramatsu, Yukio; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2008-09-20

    The objective of this study was to develop a computing tool for full-automatic segmentation of body fat distributions on volumetric CT images. We developed an algorithm to automatically identify the body perimeter and the inner contour that separates visceral fat from subcutaneous fat. Diaphragmatic surfaces can be extracted by model-based segmentation to match the bottom surface of the lung in CT images for determination of the upper limitation of the abdomen. The functions for quantitative evaluation of abdominal obesity or obesity-related metabolic syndrome were implemented with a prototype three-dimensional (3D) image processing workstation. The volumetric ratios of visceral fat to total fat and visceral fat to subcutaneous fat for each subject can be calculated. Additionally, color intensity mapping of subcutaneous areas and the visceral fat layer is quite obvious in understanding the risk of abdominal obesity with the 3D surface display. Preliminary results obtained have been useful in medical checkups and have contributed to improved efficiency in checking obesity throughout the whole range of the abdomen with 3D visualization and analysis.

  20. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  1. Exercise and Fat Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This document analyzes the problems encountered by the obese individual and the effects of regular exercise on weight loss and fat reduction. Part one compares the psychological traits of obese children with age groups of normal weight and discusses the organic disorders and social attitudes which plague the overweight individual. Part two states…

  2. The role of abdominal compliance, the neglected parameter in critically ill patients - a consensus review of 16. Part 2: measurement techniques and management recommendations.

    PubMed

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; De Laet, Inneke; De Waele, Jan J; Sugrue, Michael; Schachtrupp, Alexander; Duchesne, Juan; Van Ramshorst, Gabrielle; De Keulenaer, Bart; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Ahmadi-Noorbakhsh, Siavash; Mulier, Jan; Pelosi, Paolo; Ivatury, Rao; Pracca, Francisco; David, Marcelo; Roberts, Derek J

    2014-01-01

    The recent definitions on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), intra-abdominal volume (IAV) and abdominal compliance (Cab) are a step forward in understanding these important concepts. They help our understanding of the pathophysiology, aetiology, prognosis, and treatment of patients with low Cab. However, there is still a relatively poor understanding of the different methods used to measure IAP, IAV and Cab and how certain conditions may affect the results. This review will give a concise overview of the different methods to assess and estimate Cab; it will list important conditions that may affect baseline values and suggest some therapeutic options. Abdominal compliance (Cab), defined as a measure of the ease of abdominal expansion, is measured differently than IAP. The compliance of the abdominal wall is only a part of the total abdominal pressure-volume (PV) relationship. Measurement or estimation of Cab is difficult at the bedside and can only be done in a case of change (removal or addition) in IAV. The different measurement techniques will be discussed in relation to decreases (ascites drainage, haematoma evacuation, gastric suctioning) or increases in IAV (gastric insufflation, laparoscopy with CO₂ pneumoperitoneum, peritoneal dialysis). More specific techniques using the interactions between the thoracic and abdominal compartment during positive pressure ventilation will also be discussed (low flow PV loop, respiratory IAP variations, respiratory abdominal variation test, mean IAP and abdominal pressure variation), together with the concept of the polycompartment model. The relation between IAV and IAP is linear at low IAV and becomes curvilinear and exponential at higher volumes. Specific conditions in relation to increased (previous pregnancy or laparoscopy, gynoid fat distribution, ellipse-shaped internal abdominal perimeter) or decreased Cab (obesity, fluid overload, android fat distribution, sphere-shaped internal abdominal perimeter) will be discussed

  3. Dietary calcium intake is associated with less gain in intra-abdominal adipose tissue over 1 yr

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Nikki C.; Alvarez, Jessica A.; Choquette, Suzanne S.; Hunter, Gary R.; Oster, Robert A.; Darnell, Betty E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Calcium intake is reported to enhance weight loss with a preferential loss in trunk fat. Discrepant findings exist as to the effects of calcium intake on longitudinal changes in total fat mass and central fat deposition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine associations between dietary calcium intake and 1-yr change in body composition and fat distribution, specifically intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT). 119 healthy, premenopausal women were evaluated at baseline and 1 yr later. Average dietary calcium was determined via 4-day food records. Total fat was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) and IAAT by computed tomography. Over the study period, participants’ reported daily calcium and energy intakes were 610.0 ± 229.9 mg and 1623.1 ± 348.5 kcals, respectively. The mean change in weight, total fat, IAAT, and SAAT were +4.9 ± 4.4 kg, +5.3 ± 4.0 kg, +7.7 ± 19.5 cm2, and +49.3 ± 81.1 cm2, respectively. Average calcium intake was significantly, inversely associated with 1-yr change in IAAT (standardized β: −0.23, P<0.05) after adjusting for confounding variables. For every 100 mg/day of calcium consumed, gain in IAAT was reduced by 2.7 cm2. No significant associations were observed for average calcium intake with change in weight, total fat, or SAAT. In conclusion, dietary calcium intake was significantly associated with less gain in IAAT over 1 yr in premenopausal women. Further investigation is needed to verify these findings and determine the calcium intake needed to exert beneficial effects on fat distribution. PMID:20203630

  4. Catch-up growth and catch-up fat in children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won Kyoung; Suh, Byung-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of perinatal morbidity, persistent short stature, and metabolic alterations in later life. Recent studies have focused on the association between birth weight (BW) and later body composition. Some reports suggest that fetal nutrition, as reflected by BW, may have an inverse programing effect on abdominal adiposity later in life. This inverse association between BW and abdominal adiposity in adults may contribute to insulin resistance. Rapid weight gain during infancy in SGA children seemed to be associated with increased fat mass rather than lean mass. Early catch-up growth after SGA birth rather than SGA itself has been noted as a cardiovascular risk factor in later life. Children who are born SGA also have a predisposition to accumulation of fat mass, particularly intra-abdominal fat. It is not yet clear whether this predisposition is due to low BW itself, rapid postnatal catch-up growth, or a combination of both. In this report, we review the published literature on central fat accumulation and metabolic consequences of being SGA, as well as the currently popular research area of SGA, including growth aspects. PMID:26893597

  5. Intra-abdominal pressure during swimming.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, S; Ogita, F; Huang, Z; Kurobe, K; Nagira, A; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, H; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the intra-abdominal pressure during front crawl swimming at different velocities in competitive swimmers and to clarify the relationships between stroke indices and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. The subjects were 7 highly trained competitive collegiate male swimmers. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured during front crawl swimming at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 m · s(-1) and during the Valsalva maneuver. Intra-abdominal pressure was taken as the difference between minimum and maximum values, and the mean of 6 stable front crawl stroke cycles was used. Stroke rate and stroke length were also measured as stroke indices. There were significant differences in stroke rate among all velocities (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in stroke length by velocity. Significant within-subject correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke rate or stroke length (P < 0.01) were observed, although there were no significant correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke indices when controlling for swimming velocity. These findings do not appear to support the effectiveness of trunk training performed by competitive swimmers aimed at increasing intra-abdominal pressure. PMID:23868677

  6. Intra-abdominal pressure during swimming.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, S; Ogita, F; Huang, Z; Kurobe, K; Nagira, A; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, H; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the intra-abdominal pressure during front crawl swimming at different velocities in competitive swimmers and to clarify the relationships between stroke indices and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. The subjects were 7 highly trained competitive collegiate male swimmers. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured during front crawl swimming at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 m · s(-1) and during the Valsalva maneuver. Intra-abdominal pressure was taken as the difference between minimum and maximum values, and the mean of 6 stable front crawl stroke cycles was used. Stroke rate and stroke length were also measured as stroke indices. There were significant differences in stroke rate among all velocities (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in stroke length by velocity. Significant within-subject correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke rate or stroke length (P < 0.01) were observed, although there were no significant correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke indices when controlling for swimming velocity. These findings do not appear to support the effectiveness of trunk training performed by competitive swimmers aimed at increasing intra-abdominal pressure.

  7. Ketoconazole attenuates radiation-induction of tumor necrosis factor

    SciTech Connect

    Hallahan, D.E.; Virudachalam, S.; Kufe, D.W.; Weichselbaum, R.R.

    1994-07-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that inhibitors of phospholipase A2 attenuate ionizing radiation-induced arachidonic acid production, protein kinase C activation, and prevent subsequent induction of the tumor necrosis factor gene. Because arachidonic acid contributes to radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor expression, the authors analyzed the effects of agents which alter arachidonate metabolism on the regulation of this gene. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors quinicrine, bromphenyl bromide, and pentoxyfylline or the inhibitor of lipoxygenase (ketoconazole) or the inhibitor of cycloxygenase (indomethacine) were added to cell culture 1 h prior to irradiation. Radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by each of the phospholipase A2 inhibitors (quinicrine, bromphenylbromide, and pentoxyfylline). Furthermore, ketoconazole attenuated X ray induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression. Conversely, indomethacin enhanced tumor necrosis factor expression following irradiation. The finding that radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by ketoconazole suggests that the lipoxygenase pathway participates in signal transduction preceding tumor necrosis factor induction. Enhancement of tumor necrosis factor expression by indomethacin following irradiation suggests that prostaglandins produced by cyclooxygenase act as negative regulators of tumor necrosis factor expression. Inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor induction ameliorate acute and subacute sequelae of radiotherapy. The authors propose therefore, that ketoconazole may reduce acute radiation sequelae such as mucositis and esophagitis through a reduction in tumor necrosis factor induction or inhibition of phospholipase A2 in addition to its antifungal activity. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Ultrasonic scalpel causes greater depth of soft tissue necrosis compared to monopolar electrocautery at standard power level settings in a pig model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ultrasonic scalpel (UC) and monopolar electrocautery (ME) are common tools for soft tissue dissection. However, morphological data on the related tissue alteration are discordant. We developed an automatic device for standardized sample excision and compared quality and depth of morphological changes caused by UC and ME in a pig model. Methods 100 tissue samples (5 × 3 cm) of the abdominal wall were excised in 16 pigs. Excisions were randomly performed manually or by using the self-constructed automatic device at standard power levels (60 W cutting in ME, level 5 in UC) for abdominal surgery. Quality of tissue alteration and depth of coagulation necrosis were examined histopathologically. Device (UC vs. ME) and mode (manually vs. automatic) effects were studied by two-way analysis of variance at a significance level of 5%. Results At the investigated power level settings UC and ME induced qualitatively similar coagulation necroses. Mean depth of necrosis was 450.4 ± 457.8 μm for manual UC and 553.5 ± 326.9 μm for automatic UC versus 149.0 ± 74.3 μm for manual ME and 257.6 ± 119.4 μm for automatic ME. Coagulation necrosis was significantly deeper (p < 0.01) when UC was used compared to ME. The mode of excision (manual versus automatic) did not influence the depth of necrosis (p = 0.85). There was no significant interaction between dissection tool and mode of excision (p = 0.93). Conclusions Thermal injury caused by UC and ME results in qualitatively similar coagulation necrosis. The depth of necrosis is significantly greater in UC compared to ME at investigated standard power levels. PMID:22361346

  9. Abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue is Associated with Myocardial Infarction in Patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Alejandro A.; Young, Tom P.; Kurugol, Sila; Eckbo, Erick; Muralidhar, Nina; Chapman, Joshua K.; Kinney, Gregory L.; Ross, James C.; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Harmouche, Rola; Black-Shinn, Jennifer L.; Budoff, Matthew; Bowler, Russell P.; Hokanson, John; Washko, George R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are frequent and a major cause of death in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, various fat depots including abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and liver fat have been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesize that these adipose tissue compartments are associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with COPD. Methods We collected measures of VAT and SAT areas and liver attenuation on the computed tomography scan of the chest from 1267 patients with COPD. MI was a self-reported physician-diagnosed outcome. The association between fat depots and self-reported history of MI was assessed by logistic regression analysis in which the patients within the 2 lowest tertiles of VAT and SAT areas were the reference group. Results Eighty three patients (6.6%) reported a history of MI at the time of enrollment. Compared to patients who did not have an MI episode, those who had a prior MI had a higher VAT area (mean ± SD, 303.4 ± 208.5 vs. 226.8 ± 172.6 cm2; P=0.002) with no differences in SAT area and liver fat. After adjustment for age, gender, obesity, pack years of smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes, patients within the upper tertile (vs. those in the lower tertiles) of VAT area had increased odds of MI (odds ratio [OR] 1.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 – 3.41). Conclusion Increased abdominal visceral fat is independently associated with a history of MI in individuals with COPD. PMID:25914898

  10. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 9 Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats Why should I choose healthy fats? Diabetes raises your chances of having a heart ... protect your heart and blood vessels by choosing fats wisely. Some kinds of fat, such as butter ...

  11. Inflammation-induced formation of fat-associated lymphoid clusters

    PubMed Central

    Bénézech, Cécile; Kruglov, Andrei A.; Loo, Yunhua; Nakamura, Kyoko; Zhang, Yang; Nayar, Saba; Jones, Lucy H.; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; McIntosh, Alistair; Marshall, Jennifer; Barone, Francesca; Besra, Gurdyal; Miles, Katherine; Allen, Judith E.; Gray, Mohini; Kollias, George; Cunningham, Adam F.; Withers, David R.; Toellner, Kai Michael; Jones, Nick D.; Veldhoen, Marc; Nedospasov, Sergei A.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.; Caamaño, Jorge H.

    2015-01-01

    Fat-associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs) are a recently discovered type of lymphoid tissue associated with visceral fat. Here we show that distribution of FALCs was heterogeneous with the pericardium containing large numbers of these clusters. FALCs contributed to the retention of B-1 B cells in the peritoneal cavity through high expression of the chemokine CXCL13 and supported B cell proliferation and germinal center differentiation during peritoneal immune challenges. FALC formation was induced by inflammation, which triggered recruitment of myeloid cells that express tumor necrosis factor (TNF) necessary for TNF receptor-signaling in stromal cells. CD1d-restricted Natural killer T (NKT) cells were likewise required for inducible formation of FALCs. Thus, FALCs support and coordinate innate B and T cell activation during serosal immune responses. PMID:26147686

  12. Laparoscopic repair of abdominal incisional hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal incisional hernia is a common complication after open abdominal operations. Laparoscopic procedures have obvious mini-invasive advantages for surgical treatment of abdominal incisional hernia, especially to cases with big hernia defect. Laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia has routine mode but the actual operations will be various according to the condition of every hernia. Key points of these operations include design of the position of trocars, closure of defects and fixation of meshes. The details of these issues and experiences of perioperative evaluation and treatment will be talked about in this article. PMID:27761446

  13. [Internationalization and innovation of abdominal acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Characteristics of abdominal acupuncture are analyzed through three aspects of inheriting and innovation, collaborated research as well as international visual field. It is pointed that abdominal acupuncture is based on clinical practice, focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effect and expending the clinical application. It also promots the thinking on how to recall the tradition and how to inherit tradition availably. The modern medical problems should be studied and innovation resolutions should be searched, which can help the internationalization and modernization of abdominal acupuncture. PMID:24298780

  14. Isolate abdominal bronchogenic cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cetinkurşun, S; Oztürk, H; Celasun, B; Sakarya, M T; Sürer, I

    1997-04-01

    Isolated abdominal bronchogenic cysts are rare abnormalities. They are usually asymptomatic unless secondarily infected or large enough to cause compression of other vital structures. The authors report on a 20-month-old girl who had an abdominal bronchogenic cyst and presented with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. The evaluation and treatment of this patient is presented as well as a review of the ten previously reported cases. A literature review showed only four cases in the pediatric age group. Excision is recommended to establish diagnosis and alleviate any symptoms. Abdominal bronchogenic cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses.

  15. Estimating carcass fat and protein in northern pintails during the nonbreeding season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    I used northern pintails (Anas acuta) collected from August through March 1979-82 in the Sacramento Valley, California to derive equations to predict ether-extracted carcass fat, carcass protein, and skeletal lean dry weight. Ether-extracted carcass fat was best predicted by total fat depot weight (wet skin, abdominal fat, and intestinal fat) (r2 = 0.94) and estimates based on carcass water content (r2 = 0.93-0.98). Measured carcass protein was best predicted by a multiple regression including total protein depot weight (breast muscles, leg muscles, and gizzard) and tarsus length (R2 = 0.79). I predicted skeletal lean dry weight by a multiple regression incorporating culmen, tarsus, and wing length (R2 = 0.77). Predicted carcass fat agreed well with measured carcass fat in an independent data set of 30 pintails using total fat depot (r2 = 0.92-0.96) and carcass water (r2 = 0.97-0.99), but predicted carcass protein agreed less well with measured protein.

  16. [Churg-Strauss abdominal manifestation].

    PubMed

    Suarez-Moreno, Roberto; Ponce-Pérez, Luis Virgilio; Margain-Paredes, Miguel Angel; Garza-de la Llave, Heriberto; Madrazo-Navarro, Mario; Espinosa-Álvarez, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la enfermedad de Churg-Strauss es poco común, idiopática, caracterizada por hipereosinofilia en sangre y tejidos, aunada a vasculitis sistémica en pacientes con antecedentes de asma o rinitis alérgica. Las manifestaciones gastrointestinales del síndrome de Churg Strauss se caracterizan por dolor abdominal, seguido de diarrea y hemorragia en 31-45% de los casos. Caso clínico: paciente masculino con antecedente de asma que acudió a consulta por abdomen agudo con probable apendicitis aguda; durante el protocolo de estudio se diagnosticó síndrome de Churg Strauss, con manifestaciones intestinales. Conclusión: el síndrome de Churg Strauss es una vasculitis poco frecuente que puede manifestarse con síntomas intestinales, como en este caso; es importante tenerlo en mente a la hora de los diagnósticos diferenciales. Existen pocos reportes con este síndrome asociado con abdomen agudo, todos ellos con mal pronóstico.

  17. Evaluation Experiment of Ultrasound Computed Tomography for the Abdominal Sound Speed Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, Keisuke; Yamada, Akira

    2007-07-01

    Abdominal sound speed tomographic imaging using through-transmission travel time data on the body surface was investigated. To this end, a hundred kHz range low-frequency wave was used to reduce the wave attenuation within an inner body medium. A method was investigated for the reconstruction of the image with the smallest possible number of path data around the abdominal surface. Specifically, the data from a strong scattering spinal cord should be avoided. To fulfill the requirement, the smoothed path algebraic reconstruction technique was introduced. The validity of this method was examined both on the numerically synthesized data and the experimentally measured data for the phantom specimen and actual human subject. It was shown that an abdominal tomographic sound speed image could be successfully obtained by preparing only 32 transducer locations at the circumference around the abdominal surface and their combination of less than 100 number of observation path data as well as by avoiding the data intersecting the spinal cord. In addition, fat regions were extracted having a sound speed lower than the threshold value to demonstrate the possibility of this method for metabolic syndrome diagnosis.

  18. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  19. Tracheal necrosis with surgical emphysema following thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, A; Ganguly, M; Saidha, N; Gulia, P

    2009-01-01

    Tracheal necrosis after thyroidectomy is an extremely rare event with only a few published reports. We present a case of a 65-year-old male who developed rapidly progressive surgical emphysema of face and upper thorax on the seventh day following total thyroidectomy. Prompt surgical exploration of neck revealed a tracheal rent at the level of the second tracheal ring. This hole was then refashioned into a formal tracheostomy. Patient had an eventful recovery. Tracheostomy was closed by the 14th day. The complication was probably related to tracheal injury sustained due to electro-coagulation and subsequent secondary infection. PMID:19884745

  20. Tracheal necrosis with surgical emphysema following thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, A; Ganguly, M; Saidha, N; Gulia, P

    2009-01-01

    Tracheal necrosis after thyroidectomy is an extremely rare event with only a few published reports. We present a case of a 65-year-old male who developed rapidly progressive surgical emphysema of face and upper thorax on the seventh day following total thyroidectomy. Prompt surgical exploration of neck revealed a tracheal rent at the level of the second tracheal ring. This hole was then refashioned into a formal tracheostomy. Patient had an eventful recovery. Tracheostomy was closed by the 14th day. The complication was probably related to tracheal injury sustained due to electro-coagulation and subsequent secondary infection.

  1. Systematic review on the association of abdominal obesity in children and adolescents with cardio-metabolic risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Mirmoghtadaee, Parisa; Najafi, Hananeh; Keikha, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Background: The adverse health effects of abdominal obesity are well documented in adults, but such association remains to be determined in the pediatric age group. This study aims to perform a systematic review on the association between abdominal obesity and cardio-metabolic factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia among children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases to May 2014. Two independent reviewers identified relevant papers in several steps. After studying the titles and texts of documents, repeated and irrelevant ones were excluded. The search was refined to the English language. We did not consider any time limitation. Studies with different measuring methods of abdominal obesity were included. Studies with abdominal obese patients secondary to other disease were excluded from the study. In final, the data of association of cardio-metabolic risk factors and abdominal obesity extracted from studies. Results: Overall, 3966 articles were reviewed, and 61 of them were studied according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio, and waist-to-hip ratio were the most common indexes used for defining abdominal obesity. The association of high blood pressure with increasing WC was seen in several studies. The association of other cardio-metabolic risk factors was seen in some studies. Conclusion: Whatever the definition used for abdominal obesity and whatever the methods used for anthropometric measurements, central body fat deposition in children and adolescents increases the risk of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Therefore, more attention should be paid to abdominal obesity of children and adolescents both in clinical practice and in epidemiological studies. PMID:26109978

  2. Heterotopic mesenteric ossification after a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurism: case report with a review of literatures.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Hiroaki; Kumagai, Youichi; Ishiguro, Toru; Imaizumi, Hideko; Ono, Tomojiro; Suzuki, Okihide; Ito, Tetsuya; Haga, Norihiro; Kuwabara, Kohki; Sobajima, Jun; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Baba, Hiroyuki; Sato, Osamu; Ishida, Hideyuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Heterotopic mesenteric ossification (HMO) is a rare disease that results in intra-abdominal ossification of unknown origin. An 88-year-old man developed an intestinal obstruction 2 weeks after undergoing an operation for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, resulting in intestinal obstructions those did not improved concervatively. During relaparotomy performed 30 days after the first operation, hard adhesions of the small intestine and mesentery were found; these adhesions were difficult to separate without damaging the serosa of the small intestine. We removed 240 cm of the small intestine and performed a jejuno-ileo anastomosis. Microscopically, trabecular bone tissue had increased irregularly in the fat tissue of the nodules with fibrosis, which were partially lined with osteoblasts. Accordingly, we histopathologically diagnosed the patient as having HMO. The patient was treated with NSAIDs and cimetidine to prevent the recurrence of HMO. No signs of recurrence have occurred as of one year after the second operation. PMID:25058788

  3. Heterotopic Mesenteric Ossification After a Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurism: Case Report With a Review of Literatures

    PubMed Central

    Honjo, Hiroaki; Kumagai, Youichi; Ishiguro, Toru; Imaizumi, Hideko; Ono, Tomojiro; Suzuki, Okihide; Ito, Tetsuya; Haga, Norihiro; Kuwabara, Kohki; Sobajima, Jun; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Baba, Hiroyuki; Sato, Osamu; Ishida, Hideyuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Heterotopic mesenteric ossification (HMO) is a rare disease that results in intra-abdominal ossification of unknown origin. An 88-year-old man developed an intestinal obstruction 2 weeks after undergoing an operation for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, resulting in intestinal obstructions those did not improved concervatively. During relaparotomy performed 30 days after the first operation, hard adhesions of the small intestine and mesentery were found; these adhesions were difficult to separate without damaging the serosa of the small intestine. We removed 240cm of the small intestine and performed a jejuno-ileo anastomosis. Microscopically, trabecular bone tissue had increased irregularly in the fat tissue of the nodules with fibrosis, which were partially lined with osteoblasts. Accordingly, we histopathologically diagnosed the patient as having HMO. The patient was treated with NSAIDs and cimetidine to prevent the recurrence of HMO. No signs of recurrence have occurred as of one year after the second operation. PMID:25058788

  4. Spontaneous rupture of the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, T. G.

    1977-01-01

    Fatal spontaneous rupture of the lower abdominal aorta in a previously healthy 61-year-old woman is reported; the possibility that she had the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:870895

  5. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... size and can usually be diagnosed early in fetal development, typically between the tenth and fourteenth weeks of ... organs at the abdominal wall opening late in fetal development may also contribute to organ injury. Intestinal damage ...

  6. Understanding noninguinal abdominal hernias in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Cabry, Robert J; Thorell, Erik; Heck, Keith; Hong, Eugene; Berkson, David

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal hernias are common with over 20 million hernia repairs performed worldwide. Inguinal hernias are the most common type of hernia. Inguinal and sports hernia have been discussed at length in recent literature, and therefore, they will not be addressed in this article. The noninguinal hernias are much less common but do occur, and knowledge of these hernias is important when assessing the athlete with abdominal pain. Approximately 25% of abdominal wall hernias are noninguinal, and new data show the order of frequency as umbilical, epigastric, incisional, femoral, and all others (i.e., Spigelian, obturator, traumatic). Return-to-play guidelines need to be tailored to the athlete and the needs of their sport. Using guidelines similar to abdominal strain injuries can be a starting point for the treatment plan. Laparoscopic repair is becoming more popular because of safety and efficacy, and it may lead to a more rapid return to play. PMID:24614421

  7. Magnetic Surgical Instruments for Robotic Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Leong, Florence; Garbin, Nicolo; Natali, Christian Di; Mohammadi, Alireza; Thiruchelvam, Dhan; Oetomo, Denny; Valdastri, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    This review looks at the implementation of magnetic-based approaches in surgical instruments for abdominal surgeries. As abdominal surgical techniques advance toward minimizing surgical trauma, surgical instruments are enhanced to support such an objective through the exploration of magnetic-based systems. With this design approach, surgical devices are given the capabilities to be fully inserted intraabdominally to achieve access to all abdominal quadrants, without the conventional rigid link connection with the external unit. The variety of intraabdominal surgical devices are anchored, guided, and actuated by external units, with power and torque transmitted across the abdominal wall through magnetic linkage. This addresses many constraints encountered by conventional laparoscopic tools, such as loss of triangulation, fulcrum effect, and loss/lack of dexterity for surgical tasks. Design requirements of clinical considerations to aid the successful development of magnetic surgical instruments, are also discussed.

  8. [Spuriously healthy plant fats].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-10-01

    Since long plant fats are considered by nutritionists, dieticians and doctors, as main source of essential unsaturated fatty acids) n-6 and n-3 in human diet. On the market there is plenty of oils that can be consumed directly or used to frying. Last four decades consumption of oils increased several times due to stimulated by advertisement popularization of their pro-health activity. Plant oils supply mostly multi unsaturated fatty acids n-6 excess of which disadvantageously influence human health. Determinations of changes of oxidative stability of plant fats (during processing and storage) proved that consumption of oxidation products of fatty acids and sterols may be a reason of various diseases. Both epidemiologic and clinic studies indicated that if plant fats (both oils except this from olives and margarines) have possessed pro-health properties, their several times increased consumption would liquidate the problem of arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (heart attack, stroke). For the present, every second death in the industrial countries results from the cardiovascular disease. Morbidity of cancer is also increasing and of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases is growing up vigorously. PMID:22097183

  9. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    PubMed

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  10. Effects of sphingosylphosphorylcholine on cryopreserved fat tissue graft survival.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yong Chan; Choi, Chi Won; Nam, Kyeong Wook; Song, Ji Sun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2016-10-01

    Autogenous microfat grafting is widely used to augment depressed deformities or for other cosmetic purposes. Since the microfat survival rate is unpredictable due to absorption and calcification, previously cryopreserved fat is widely used for secondary procedures. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is a lysophospholipid, which has a role in several cellular responses, and is known to stimulate DNA synthesis and proliferation. Since endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are known to enhance the survival rate of transplanted fat tissue, the present study assessed the effects of SPC on EPCs, in order to verify its positive effects on proliferation. Cryopreserved human fat tissues mixed with various concentrations of SPC were grafted into the nude mouse model. After grafting, the viability of each SPC mixed group was determined and compared with that of the non‑SPC group. SPC exhibited a positive effect on EPC proliferation and angiogenic potential over 3 days when used at specific concentrations. The fat grafts of the 3 µM SPC‑treated group weighed significantly more and the volume was markedly increased, as compared with the control group. A reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was conducted on the total RNA extracted from SPC‑treated fat tissues, which detected increased mRNA expression levels of matrix metallopeptidase‑9 and tumor necrosis factor‑α compared with in the control group. These results indicate that specific concentrations of SPC may exert favorable effects on grafted cryopreserved human fat tissue, which may be due to the increased mRNA expression levels of genes associated with angiogenesis. PMID:27572900

  11. Management of abdominal contusion in polytraumatized children.

    PubMed

    Canarelli, J P; Boboyono, J M; Ricard, J; Doidy, L; Collet, L M; Postel, J P

    1991-01-01

    Management of abdominal contusion in polytraumatized children is based on the conservative treatment of spleen and liver lesions when it is possible. Ultrasonography and CTScan can give a good evaluation of splenic, liver, pancreas or kidney lesions. In some cases, if the haemodynamic conditions are good, a non-operative treatment may be proposed. We report our experience of conservative management of intra abdominal lesions in children, about 91 cases in ten years. PMID:1869385

  12. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysmectomy in Renal Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jebara, Victor A.; Fabiani, Jean-Noël; Moulonguet-Deloris, L.; Acar, Christophe; Debauchez, Mathieu; Chachques, J.C.; Glotz, Denis; Duboust, Alain; Langanay, Thierry; Carpentier, Alain

    1990-01-01

    Because renal transplantation is allowing an increased number of patients to survive for prolonged periods, abdominal aortic aneurysms can be expected to occur with growing frequency in these patients. Surgical management of such cases involves the provision of allograft protection. To date, the literature contains 15 reports of abdominal aortic aneurysms in renal allograft recipients. We describe a 16th case and discuss the management of these patients. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1990;17:240-4) Images PMID:15227179

  13. Abdominal apoplexy resulting in small bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Le, Don; Guileyardo, Joseph; Casanova, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal apoplexy is a rare hemorrhagic condition involving the small arteries or veins within the abdominal cavity. A high degree of clinical suspicion, followed by appropriate diagnostic workup and therapeutic intervention, is critical, as nonoperative mortality approaches 100%. Contrary to most previously reported cases, which were associated with hemoperitoneum, we present a patient in which gastroduodenal artery dissection resulted in an organized retroperitoneal hematoma with local compression of the duodenum and subsequent bowel obstruction, resulting in vomiting, aspiration, and death. PMID:27695177

  14. Computed tomography of the postoperative abdominal aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, S.; Megibow, A.J.; Naidich, D.P.; Bosniak, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was performed on 46 patients who had undergone graft replacement of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Twelve post-operative complications were found in nine patients. They included hemorrhage, infection, anastomotic pseudoaneurysms, major vessel occlusion, postoperative pancreatitis, and others. The varied apperance of the normal postoperative graft is also presented. It is concluded that CT is a rapid, sensitive, and noninvasive method for detecting or excluding postoperative complications of abdominal aortic surgery.

  15. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug resistant infections such as

  16. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  17. Abdominal apoplexy resulting in small bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Le, Don; Guileyardo, Joseph; Casanova, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal apoplexy is a rare hemorrhagic condition involving the small arteries or veins within the abdominal cavity. A high degree of clinical suspicion, followed by appropriate diagnostic workup and therapeutic intervention, is critical, as nonoperative mortality approaches 100%. Contrary to most previously reported cases, which were associated with hemoperitoneum, we present a patient in which gastroduodenal artery dissection resulted in an organized retroperitoneal hematoma with local compression of the duodenum and subsequent bowel obstruction, resulting in vomiting, aspiration, and death.

  18. [Late primary abdominal pregnancy. Case report].

    PubMed

    Farías, Emigdio Torres; Gómez, Luis Guillermo Torres; Allegre, René Márquez; Higareda, Salvador Hernández

    2008-09-01

    Abdominal advanced pregnancy is an obstetric complication that put at risk maternal and fetal life. We report a case of advanced abdominal pregnancy with intact ovaries and fallopian tubes, without ureteroperitoneal fistulae and, late prenatal diagnosis, in a multiparous patient without risk factors, with alive newborn, and whose pregnancy was attended at Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad, Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia, Centro Medico Nacional de Occidente del IMSS, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

  19. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-16

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  20. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  1. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  2. Fat tissue and inflammation in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Rincón Bello, Abraham; Bucalo, Laura; Abad Estébanez, Soraya; Vega Martínez, Almudena; Barraca Núñez, Daniel; Yuste Lozano, Claudia; Pérez de José, Ana; López-Gómez, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Body weight has been increasing in the general population and is an established risk factor for hypertension, diabetes, and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) gain weight, mainly during the first months of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between body composition and metabolic and inflammatory status in patients undergoing PD. Methods This was a prospective, non-interventional study of prevalent patients receiving PD. Body composition was studied every 3 months using bioelectrical impedance (BCM®). We performed linear regression for each patient, including all BCM® measurements, to calculate annual changes in body composition. Thirty-one patients in our PD unit met the inclusion criteria. Results Median follow-up was 26 (range 17–27) months. Mean increase in weight was 1.8 ± 2.8 kg/year. However, BCM® analysis revealed a mean increase in fat mass of 3.0 ± 3.2 kg/year with a loss of lean mass of 2.3 ± 4.1 kg/year during follow-up. The increase in fat mass was associated with the conicity index, suggesting that increases in fat mass are based mainly on abdominal adipose tissue. Changes in fat mass were directly associated with inflammation parameters such as C-reactive protein (r = 0.382, P = 0.045) and inversely associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=−0.50, P = 0.008). Conclusions Follow-up of weight and body mass index can underestimate the fat mass increase and miss lean mass loss. The increase in fat mass is associated with proinflammatory state and alteration in lipid profile. PMID:27274820

  3. Quantification of regional fat volume in rat MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacha, Jaroslaw P.; Cockman, Michael D.; Dufresne, Thomas E.; Trokhan, Darren

    2003-05-01

    Multiple initiatives in the pharmaceutical and beauty care industries are directed at identifying therapies for weight management. Body composition measurements are critical for such initiatives. Imaging technologies that can be used to measure body composition noninvasively include DXA (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). Unlike other approaches, MRI provides the ability to perform localized measurements of fat distribution. Several factors complicate the automatic delineation of fat regions and quantification of fat volumes. These include motion artifacts, field non-uniformity, brightness and contrast variations, chemical shift misregistration, and ambiguity in delineating anatomical structures. We have developed an approach to deal practically with those challenges. The approach is implemented in a package, the Fat Volume Tool, for automatic detection of fat tissue in MR images of the rat abdomen, including automatic discrimination between abdominal and subcutaneous regions. We suppress motion artifacts using masking based on detection of implicit landmarks in the images. Adaptive object extraction is used to compensate for intensity variations. This approach enables us to perform fat tissue detection and quantification in a fully automated manner. The package can also operate in manual mode, which can be used for verification of the automatic analysis or for performing supervised segmentation. In supervised segmentation, the operator has the ability to interact with the automatic segmentation procedures to touch-up or completely overwrite intermediate segmentation steps. The operator's interventions steer the automatic segmentation steps that follow. This improves the efficiency and quality of the final segmentation. Semi-automatic segmentation tools (interactive region growing, live-wire, etc.) improve both the accuracy and throughput of the operator when working in manual mode. The quality of automatic segmentation has been

  4. Fatness and physical fitness of girls 7 to 17 years.

    PubMed

    Malina, R M; Beunen, G P; Classens, A L; Lefevre, J; Vanden Eynde, B V; Renson, R; Vanreusel, B; Simons, J

    1995-05-01

    A two-fold approach was used to investigate the association between fatness and fitness of girls 7 to 17 years of age: first, age-specific correlations between fatness and measures of health-related and motor fitness, and second, comparisons of fitness levels of girls classified as fat and lean. A representative sample of 6700 between 7 to 17 years was surveyed. Adiposity (fatness) was estimated as the sum of five skinfolds (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf). Physical fitness included health-related items (step test, PWC170, the sit and reach, sit-ups and leg lifts, flexed arm hang) and motor performance items (standing long jump, vertical jump, arm pull strength, flamingo stand, shuttle run, plate tapping). Age-specific partial correlations between fatness and each fitness item, controlling for stature and weight, were calculated. In addition, in each age group the fattest 5% (presumably the obese) and the leanest 5% were compared on each fitness test. After controlling for stature and weight, subcutaneous fatness accounts for variable percentages of the variance in each fitness item. Estimates for health-related fitness items are: cardiorespiratory endurance-step test (3% to 5%) and PWC170 (0% to 16%), flexibility-sit and reach (3% to 8%), functional strength-flexed arm hand (6% to 17%) and abdominal strength-sit-ups/leg lifts (1% to 8%). Corresponding estimates for motor fitness items are more variable: speed of limb movement-plate tapping (0% to 3%), balance-flamingo stand (0% to 5%), speed and agility-shuttle run (2% to 12%), static strength-arm pull (4% to 12%), explosive strength-standing long jump/vertical jump (11% to 18%). At the extremes, the fattest girls have generally poorer levels of health-related and motor fitness.

  5. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  6. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Luster, M I; Simeonova, P P; Gallucci, R; Matheson, J

    1999-09-01

    The molecular cloning of a group of proteins, collectively referred to as cytokines, and including interleukins, chemokines, growth factors, colony stimulating factors, and tumor necrosis factors, has allowed for the increased understanding of the mechanisms for many disease processes as well as provided strategies for the development of novel therapies. Conceptually similar to hormones and peptides, this group of phylogenetically related molecules are also involved in various toxicological processes, including apoptosis, cell repair, and in particular inflammation. In this review, we offer a description of what many believe represents the primary regulatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha and its role in toxicological processes. For over a decade it has been suspected that this molecule helps mediate the shock state induced by bacterial endotoxin and the wasting diathesis that typifies chronic diseases. Advances in molecular biology that have provided tools to modulate TNFalpha regulation and synthesis have allowed for the identification of additional roles for TNFalpha in homeostasis, cellular damage, and repair. This review provides a brief summary of our understanding of TNFalpha biology followed by a discussion of its role in toxicological responses. This is followed by specific examples of organ-specific and tissue-specific responses to chemical damage where TNFalpha has been implicated. The review concludes with a review of its implication in human risk assessment, particularly as it relates to genetic polymorphisms of TNFalpha expression and disease susceptibility.

  7. Mechanisms of Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Dean W.; James, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    Although considered safe at therapeutic doses, at higher doses, acetaminophen produces a centrilobular hepatic necrosis that can be fatal. Acetaminophen poisoning accounts for approximately one-half of all cases of acute liver failure in the United States and Great Britain today. The mechanism occurs by a complex sequence of events. These events include: (1) CYP metabolism to a reactive metabolite which depletes glutathione and covalently binds to proteins; (2) loss of glutathione with an increased formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in hepatocytes undergoing necrotic changes; (3) increased oxidative stress, associated with alterations in calcium homeostasis and initiation of signal transduction responses, causing mitochondrial permeability transition; (4) mitochondrial permeability transition occurring with additional oxidative stress, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and loss of the ability of the mitochondria to synthesize ATP; and (5) loss of ATP which leads to necrosis. Associated with these essential events there appear to be a number of inflammatory mediators such as certain cytokines and chemokines that can modify the toxicity. Some have been shown to alter oxidative stress, but the relationship of these modulators to other critical mechanistic events has not been well delineated. In addition, existing data support the involvement of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in the initiation of regenerative processes leading to the reestablishment of hepatic structure and function. PMID:20020268

  8. Effects of prior acute exercise on circulating cytokine concentration responses to a high-fat meal.

    PubMed

    Brandauer, Josef; Landers-Ramos, Rian Q; Jenkins, Nathan T; Spangenburg, Espen E; Hagberg, James M; Prior, Steven J

    2013-08-01

    High-fat meal consumption alters the circulating cytokine profile and contributes to cardiometabolic diseases. A prior bout of exercise can ameliorate the triglyceride response to a high-fat meal, but the interactive effects of exercise and high-fat meals on cytokines that mediate cardiometabolic risk are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of prior exercise on the responses of circulating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, leptin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) to a high-fat meal. Ten healthy men were studied before and 4 h after ingestion of a high-fat meal either with or without ∼50 min of endurance exercise at 70% of VO2 max on the preceding day. In response to the high-fat meal, lower leptin and higher VEGF, bFGF, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations were evident (P < 0.05 for all). There was no effect of the high-fat meal on PlGF, TNF-α, or RBP4 concentrations. We found lower leptin concentrations with prior exercise (P < 0.05) and interactive effects of prior exercise and the high-fat meal on sFlt-1 (P < 0.05). The high-fat meal increased IL-6 by 59% without prior exercise and 218% with prior exercise (P < 0.05). In conclusion, a prior bout of endurance exercise does not affect all high-fat meal-induced changes in circulating cytokines, but does affect fasting or postprandial concentrations of IL-6, leptin, and sFlt-1. These data may reflect a salutary effect of prior exercise on metabolic responses to a high-fat meal. PMID:24303126

  9. Effects of prior acute exercise on circulating cytokine concentration responses to a high-fat meal

    PubMed Central

    Brandauer, Josef; Landers-Ramos, Rian Q; Jenkins, Nathan T; Spangenburg, Espen E; Hagberg, James M; Prior, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    High-fat meal consumption alters the circulating cytokine profile and contributes to cardiometabolic diseases. A prior bout of exercise can ameliorate the triglyceride response to a high-fat meal, but the interactive effects of exercise and high-fat meals on cytokines that mediate cardiometabolic risk are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of prior exercise on the responses of circulating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, leptin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) to a high-fat meal. Ten healthy men were studied before and 4 h after ingestion of a high-fat meal either with or without ∼50 min of endurance exercise at 70% of VO2 max on the preceding day. In response to the high-fat meal, lower leptin and higher VEGF, bFGF, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations were evident (P < 0.05 for all). There was no effect of the high-fat meal on PlGF, TNF-α, or RBP4 concentrations. We found lower leptin concentrations with prior exercise (P < 0.05) and interactive effects of prior exercise and the high-fat meal on sFlt-1 (P < 0.05). The high-fat meal increased IL-6 by 59% without prior exercise and 218% with prior exercise (P < 0.05). In conclusion, a prior bout of endurance exercise does not affect all high-fat meal–induced changes in circulating cytokines, but does affect fasting or postprandial concentrations of IL-6, leptin, and sFlt-1. These data may reflect a salutary effect of prior exercise on metabolic responses to a high-fat meal. PMID:24303126

  10. Genes and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hinterseher, Irene; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Since first candidate gene studies were published 20 years ago, nearly 100 genetic association studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biologically relevant genes have been reported on AAA. The studies investigated SNPs in genes of the extracellular matrix, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and signaling pathways. Very few studies were large enough to draw firm conclusions and very few results could be replicated in another sample set. The more recent unbiased approaches are family-based DNA linkage studies and genome-wide genetic association studies, which have the potential of identifying the genetic basis for AAA, if appropriately powered and well-characterized large AAA cohorts are used. SNPs associated with AAA have already been identified in these large multicenter studies. One significant association was of a variant in a gene called CNTN3 which is located on chromosome 3p12.3. Two follow-up studies, however, could not replicate the association. Two other SNPs, which are located on chromosome 9p21 and 9q33 were replicated in other samples. The two genes with the strongest supporting evidence of contribution to the genetic risk for AAA are the CDKN2BAS gene, also known as ANRIL, which encodes an antisense RNA that regulates expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and DAB2IP, which encodes an inhibitor of cell growth and survival. Functional studies are now needed to establish the mechanisms by which these genes contribute to AAA pathogenesis. PMID:21146954

  11. Second Trimester Fetal and Maternal Epicardial Fat Thickness in Gestational Diabetic Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, A; Akkurt, M O; Yalcin, S; Karakoc, G; Varol, E; Sezik, M

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the association between gestational diabetes mellitus and sonographically measured fetal epicardial fat thickness between 24-28 weeks' gestation. This was a cross-sectional study that included 40 pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus, matched with 40 normal pregnancies with similar maternal age, body-mass index, gestational age, fetal gender, and fetal abdominal circumference on ultrasound. Fetal epicardial fat thickness was measured and recorded during ultrasonography at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Maternal evaluation included measurement of maternal epicardial fat thickness, using echocardiography. Fetal and maternal epicardial fat thickness values were compared across the groups. Ultrasound views of fetal epicardial fat thickness were evaluated independently by 3 perinatology fellows to determine inter- and intra-observer variability. Partial and intraclass correlation analyses were used. Fetal and maternal epicardial fat thickness measurements were moderately correlated (r=0.63). Mean fetal and maternal epicardial fat thickness values were higher in gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancies (p=0.004 and p<0.0001, respectively) compared to controls. Fetal epicardial fat thickness was positively correlated (r=0.43) with postchallenge 2-h glucose values. Inter- and intra-observer agreement was high, demonstrated by strong correlations (r=0.99 and r=0.99, respectively) across fetal epicardial fat thickness measurements of the examiners. Fetuses from gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancies have significantly higher fetal and maternal epicardial fat thickness values compared to nongestational diabetes mellitus pregnancies. Fetal epicardial fat thickness obtained during second trimester fetal anatomy ultrasound may potentially be a reliable indicator for gestational diabetes mellitus. However, clinical validation studies are needed.

  12. Hepatic glutathione contributes to attenuation of thioacetamide-induced hepatic necrosis due to suppression of oxidative stress in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Makoto; Matsuoka, Miho; Makino, Toshihiko; Kai, Kiyonori; Teranishi, Munehiro; Takasaki, Wataru

    2015-08-01

    We previously reported that hepatic necrosis induced by thioacetamide (TA), a hepatotoxicant, was attenuated in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD mice) in comparison with mice fed a normal rodent diet (ND mice). In this study, we focused on investigation of the mechanism of the attenuation. Hepatic content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), an oxidative stress marker, significantly increased in ND mice at 24 and 48 hr after TA administration in comparison to that in vehicle-treated ND mice. At these time points, severe hepatic necrosis was observed in ND mice. Treatment with an established antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole, attenuated the TA-induced hepatic necrosis in ND mice. In contrast, in HFD mice, hepatic TBARS content did not increase, and hepatic necrosis was attenuated in comparison with ND mice at 24 and 48 hr after TA dosing. Metabolomics analysis regarding hepatic glutathione, a biological antioxidant, revealed decreased glutathione and changes in the amount of glutathione metabolism-related metabolites, such as increased ophtalmate and decreased cysteine, and this indicated activation of glutathione synthesis and usage in HFD mice. Finally, after treatment with L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoxinine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, TA-induced hepatic necrosis was enhanced and hepatic TBARS contents increased after TA dosing in HFD mice. These results suggested that activated synthesis and usage of hepatic GSH, which suppresses hepatic oxidative stress, is one of the factors that attenuate TA-induced hepatic necrosis in HFD mice. PMID:26165648

  13. The ability of genetically lean or fat slow-growing chickens to synthesize and store lipids is not altered by the dietary energy source.

    PubMed

    Baéza, E; Gondret, F; Chartrin, P; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Berri, C; Gabriel, I; Narcy, A; Lessire, M; Métayer-Coustard, S; Collin, A; Jégou, M; Lagarrigue, S; Duclos, M J

    2015-10-01

    The increasing use of unconventional feedstuffs in chicken's diets results in the substitution of starch by lipids as the main dietary energy source. To evaluate the responses of genetically fat or lean chickens to these diets, males of two experimental lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content were fed isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets with either high lipid (80 g/kg), high fiber (64 g/kg) contents (HL), or low lipid (20 g/kg), low fiber (21 g/kg) contents (LL) from 22 to 63 days of age. The diet had no effect on growth performance and did not affect body composition evaluated at 63 days of age. Glycolytic and oxidative energy metabolisms in the liver and glycogen storage in liver and Sartorius muscle at 63 days of age were greater in chicken fed LL diet compared with chicken fed HL diet. In Pectoralis major (PM) muscle, energy metabolisms and glycogen content were not different between diets. There were no dietary-associated differences in lipid contents of the liver, muscles and abdominal fat. However, the percentages of saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in tissue lipids were generally higher, whereas percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were lower for diet LL than for diet HL. The fat line had a greater feed intake and average daily gain, but gain to feed ratio was lower in that line compared with the lean line. Fat chickens were heavier than lean chickens at 63 days of age. Their carcass fatness was higher and their muscle yield was lower than those of lean chickens. The oxidative enzyme activities in the liver were lower in the fat line than in the lean line, but line did not affect energy metabolism in muscles. The hepatic glycogen content was not different between lines, whereas glycogen content and glycolytic potential were higher in the PM muscle of fat chickens compared with lean chickens. Lipid contents in the liver, muscles and abdominal fat did not differ between lines, but fat chickens stored less MUFA and

  14. Visceral Fat Accumulation, Insulin Resistance, and Elevated Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Matsushita, Yumi; Nakagawa, Toru; Honda, Toru; Hayashi, Takeshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate visceral fat accumulation and markers of insulin resistance in relation to elevated depressive symptoms (EDS). Methods Participants were 4,333 male employees (mean age, 49.3 years) who underwent abdominal computed tomography scanning, measured fasting insulin, and did not self-report diabetes and mental disorders under treatment and history of cancer, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of EDS with abdominal fat deposition and markers of insulin resistance. Results Visceral fat area (VFA) and fasting insulin were significantly, positively associated with EDS. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of high VFA for the lowest through highest quartile of depression score were 1 (reference), 1.18 (0.97–1.42), 1.25 (1.02–1.54), 1.23 (1.01–1.51), respectively, and corresponding figures for high fasting insulin were 1 (reference), 0.98 (0.80–1.19), 1.12 (0.91–1.38), and 1.29 (1.06–1.57), respectively. Subcutaneous fat area was not associated with EDS. Conclusions Results suggest that EDS is related to visceral, but not subcutaneous, fat accumulation and insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men. PMID:26891344

  15. Interaction of dietary high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls and different fat sources in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Viveros, A; Ortiz, L T; Rodríguez, M L; Rebolé, A; Alzueta, C; Arija, I; Centeno, C; Brenes, A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of dietary fat sources (high-oleic-acid sunflower seeds, HOASS; palm oil, PO; and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil, HOASO) and high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls (HOAS hulls; 40 g/kg of diet) on performance, digestive organ size, fat digestibility, and fatty acid profile in abdominal fat and blood serum parameters was evaluated in chickens (from 1 to 21 d of age). Bird performance and digestive organ size were not affected by either dietary fat source or sunflower hull supplementation. Fat digestibility in birds fed diets enriched (HOASS and HOASO) in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was increased compared with those fed the PO diet. The addition of sunflower hulls did not modify fat digestibility. The fatty acids pattern of abdominal fat reflected the dietary fat profile. The greatest concentrations of C16:0 and C18:0 were found in birds fed PO diets. The C18:1n-9 content was increased in birds that received HOASS and HOASO diets compared with those fed PO diets. The greatest content of C18:2n-6 was observed in birds fed HOASS diets. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to MUFA was significantly increased in birds fed PO diets compared with those fed HOASS or HOASO diets. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets resulted in a decrease of C18:2n-6 and PUFA concentrations and PUFA:MUFA ratio in abdominal fat. Dietary fat sources and sunflower hulls modify blood triglycerides and serum lipoproteins. A decrease in triglyceride concentrations was observed in birds fed HOASS diets compared with those fed PO and HOASO diets. The greatest concentrations of serum high density, very low density (VLDL), and low density lipoproteins were found in birds receiving HOASO, PO, and HOASS diets, respectively. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets caused an increase of serum triglycerides and VLDL concentrations. The MUFA-enriched diets had lower triglyceride and VLDL concentrations than did diets rich in saturated fatty acids. However, the sunflower hull

  16. Perineal colostomy: an alternative to avoid permanent abdominal colostomy: operative technique, results and reflection

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Alcino Lázaro; HAYCK, Johnny; DEOTI, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Background The most common injury to indicate definitive stoma is rectal cancer. Despite advances in surgical treatment, the abdominoperineal resection is still the most effective operation in radical treatment of malignancies of the distal rectum invading the sphincter and anal canal. Even with all the effort that surgeons have to preserve anal sphincters, abdominoperineal amputation is still indicated, and a definitive abdominal colostomy is necessary. This surgery requires patients to live with a definitive abdominal colostomy, which is a condition that modify body image, is not without morbidity and has great impact on the quality of life. Aim To evaluate the technique of abdominoperineal amputation with perineal colostomy with irrigation as an alternative to permanent abdominal colostomy. Method Retrospective analysis of medical records of 55 patients underwent abdominoperineal resection of the rectum with perineal colostomy in the period 1989-2010. Results The mean age was 58 years, 40 % men and 60 % women. In 94.5% of patients the indication for surgery was for cancer of the rectum. In some patients were made three valves, other two valves and in the remaining no valve at all. Complications were: mucosal prolapse, necrosis of the lowered segment and stenosis. Conclusion The abdominoperineal amputation with perineal colostomy is a good therapeutic option in the armamentarium of the surgical treatment of rectal cancer. PMID:25626931

  17. Maternal high-fat diet inversely affects insulin sensitivity in dams and young adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Sadeghimahalli, Forouzan; Zardooz, Homeira

    2016-09-01

    This study attempts to further clarify the potential effects of maternal high-fat (HF) diet on glucose homeostasis in dams and young adult male rat offspring. Female rats were divided into control (CON dams) and HF (HF dams) diet groups, which received the diet 4 weeks prior to and through pregnancy and lactation periods. Blood samples were taken to determine metabolic parameters, then an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed. Maternal HF diet increased intra-abdominal fat mass and plasma corticosterone level, but decreased leptin concentration in dams. In HF offspring intra-abdominal fat mass, plasma leptin, and corticosterone levels decreased. Following IPGTT, the plasma insulin level of HF dams was higher than the controls. In HF offspring plasma insulin level was not significantly different from the controls, but a steeper decrease of their plasma glucose concentration was observed. PMID:27604865

  18. Avascular necrosis of bone complicating corticosteroid replacement therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P L; Corbett, M

    1983-01-01

    Two patients who developed widespread severe avascular necrosis of bone while on steroid replacement therapy are described. One, a diabetic, underwent yttrium-90 pituitary ablation for retinopathy and developed avascular necrosis within 18 months of starting prednisolone. The other, who had Addison's disease, developed avascular necrosis within 14 months of starting cortisol replacement therapy. Both cases came to bilateral total hip replacement. Images PMID:6859959

  19. Topical fat reduction.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L; Bray, G A; Heber, D

    1995-11-01

    The fat on women's thighs is more difficult to mobilize due to increased alpha-2 adrenergic receptor activity induced by estrogen. Lipolysis can be initiated through adipocyte receptor stimulation (beta adrenergic) or inhibition (adenosine or alpha-2 adrenergic) or by inhibition of phosphodiesterase. Since many women desire regional thigh fat loss, a series of clinical trials were initiated using one thigh as a double-blinded control. Trial #1: Five overweight women had injections of isoproterenol at intervals around the thigh three times a week for 4 weeks with diet and walking. Trial #2: Five overweight woman had ointment containing forskolin, yohimbine and aminophylline applied to the thigh five times a week for 4 weeks after hypertonic warm soaks with a diet and walking. Trial #3: Eighteen overweight women were divided into three groups of six and trial #2 was repeated with each agent alone vs. placebo using forskolin, yohimbine or aminophylline in separate ointments. Trial #4: Thirty overweight women had 10% aminophylline ointment applied to the thigh five times a week for 6 weeks with diet and walking. Chemistry panel, theophylline level and patch testing were performed. Trial #5: Twelve women had trial #4 repeated with 2% aminophylline cream without a diet or walking. Trial #6: Trial #5 was repeated with 0.5% aminophylline cream. All trials except yohimbine ointment gave significantly more girth loss from the treated thigh (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Chemistry panel showed no toxicity. Theophylline was undetectable and patch testing was negative. We conclude that topical fat reduction for women's thighs can be achieved without diet or exercise. PMID:8697059

  20. In vivo determination of subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue depots in German Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Raschka, C; Ruda, L; Wenning, P; von Stemm, C-I; Pfarrer, C; Huber, K; Meyer, U; Dänicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasonography was used as a noninvasive method for quantitative estimation of the subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue depots in dairy cattle. The prediction model was created and validated with a total of 29 German Holstein cows; 6 were in early lactation (≤100 d in milk [DIM]) and 16 were in advanced lactation (101 to 292 DIM). Seven cows were nonpregnant and nonlactating and had been off milk for 350 to 450 d. Transcutaneous assessment of the thickness of subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was done at 16 sites on the body surface of all cows. After completion of the ultrasonographic measurements, the cows were slaughtered and the adipose depots were separately weighed. A stepwise multivariate regression analysis of the ultrasonographic variables was performed to estimate the slaughter weights of the different fat depots. Slaughter weights of the fat depots ranged from 5.0 to 43.0 kg for subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT), from 13.7 to 98.8 kg for abdominal adipose tissue (AAT), from 3.4 to 30.3 kg for retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT), from 5.2 to 39.6 kg for omental adipose tissue (OMAT), and from 4.0 to 35.8 kg for mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT). The relationship between calculated amount of fat and slaughter weight of fat had coefficients of determination () and root mean square errors (kg) of 0.88 and 3.4, respectively, for SCAT; 0.94 and 6.1, respectively, for AAT; 0.94 and 1.7, respectively, for RPAT; 0.83 and 3.2, respectively, for OMAT; and 0.95 and 1.6, respectively, for MAT. The accuracy of ultrasonographic measurement of the different fat depots appears sufficient for the quantitative assessment of internal and subcutaneous fat stores in cows. This method is noninvasive and therefore allows safe and repeated monitoring of the amount of stored fat in different adipose tissue depots of German Holsteins cows.

  1. Multiorgan chronic inflammatory hepatobiliary pancreatic murine model deficient in tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provoke persistent/chronic multiorgan inflammatory response and to contribute to stones formation followed by fibrosis in hepatobiliary and pancreatic tissues. METHODS: Tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (TNFR1/R2) deficient mice reared in-house were given dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) twice within 10 d by oral gavage delivery. Sham control animals received vehicle treatment and naïve animals remained untreated throughout the study. Animals were monitored daily for symptoms of pain and discomfort. The abdominal and hindpaw hypersensitivity were assessed with von Frey microfilaments. Exploratory behaviors were recorded at the baseline, after initiation of treatment, and before study termination. Histopathological changes were examined postmortem in tissues. Collagen accumulation and fibrosis were confirmed with Sirius Red staining. RESULTS: Animals lost weight after oral administration of DBTC and developed persistent inflammatory abdominal and hindpaw hypersensitivity compared to sham-treated controls (P < 0.0001). These pain related secondary mechanical hypersensitivity responses increased more than 2-fold in DBTC-treated animals. The drastically diminished rearing and grooming rates persisted after DBTC administration throughout the study. Gross as well as micropathology at one month confirmed that animals treated with DBTC developed chronic hepatobiliary injuries evidenced with activation of stellate cells, multifocal necrosis, fatty degeneration of hepatocytes, periportal infiltration of inflammatory cells, and prominent biliary ductal dilation. The severity of hepatitis was scored 3.7 ± 0.2 (severe) in DBTC-treated animals vs score 0 (normal) in sham-treated animals. Fibrotic thickening was extensive around portal ducts, in hepatic parenchyma as well as in lobular pancreatic structures and confirmed with Sirius Red histopathology. In addition, pancreatic microarchitecture was presented with distortion of islets, and parenchyma, infiltration of

  2. The Supersymmetric Fat Higgs

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni

    2004-10-27

    Supersymmetric models have traditionally been assumed to be perturbative up to high scales due to the requirement of calculable unification. In this note I review the recently proposed `Fat Higgs' model which relaxes the requirement of perturbativity. In this framework, an NMSSM-like trilinear coupling becomes strong at some intermediate scale. The NMSSM Higgses are meson composites of an asymptotically-free gauge theory. This allows us to raise the mass of the Higgs, thus alleviating the MSSM of its fine tuning problem. Despite the strong coupling at an intermediate scale, the UV completion allows us to maintain gauge coupling unification.

  3. Definition of bone necrosis by the pathologist

    PubMed Central

    Fondi, Cristina; Franchi, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Osteonecrosis is a common disorder that may go clinically unrecognized or may result in the collapse of the architecture of bone, determining severe anatomic alterations of the involved site. Osteonecrosis is not a specific disease entity, but rather the result of a number of conditions ultimately leading to an impairment of blood supply to the bone tissue, although there is evidence that modifications of bone remodelling activity and weakening of bone structure with formation of microfractures are implicated as well. According to the site involved and to the factors promoting its development, the morbid anatomy and histopathology of osteonecrosis show a different appearance. This review discusses the main skeletal manifestations of osteonecrosis, including subarticular avascular necrosis of the femoral head and of the knee, as well as osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:22460748

  4. Tumour necrosis factor in synovial exudates.

    PubMed Central

    Di Giovine, F S; Nuki, G; Duff, G W

    1988-01-01

    The actions of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) include resorption of bone and cartilage, suggesting a potential role in the pathogenesis of arthritis. TNF activity was looked for in synovial fluids from 137 patients with different rheumatic diseases. Unfractionated samples were tested in the L929 bioassay. Significant TNF activity that was neutralised by monoclonal antibody to TNF alpha occurred in 13 (30%) of 44 samples. Raised TNF levels were not associated with any particular disease type or routine laboratory markers of inflammation but were related to disease duration in osteoarthritis. The finding of biologically active TNF in symptomatic joints of arthritic patients supports the idea that it may contribute to the pathogenesis of joint damage in chronic rheumatic diseases. PMID:3263088

  5. Nicolau Syndrome: An Iatrogenic Cutaneous Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Nischal, KC; Basavaraj, HB; Swaroop, MR; Agrawal, DP; Sathyanarayana, BD; Umashankar, NP

    2009-01-01

    Nicolau syndrome is an uncommon complication of intramuscular injection leading to variable degrees of necrosis of skin and the underlying tissues. We report here two cases of this syndrome. Our first case was a 25 year-old male who developed intense pain and purplish discoloration of the skin in the right hip after intramuscular diclofenac injection. The second case was a 60 year-old male who developed intense pain and discoloration of skin, not only at the injection site, but also on the left scapular area and left elbow after receiving chlorpheniramine maleate injection intramuscularly. These cases highlight the need for awareness about this condition and the need to exercise utmost care during the administration of any parenteral injections by dermatologists. PMID:20808597

  6. Tlr-4 deficiency selectively protects against obesity induced by diets high in saturated fat.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jeremy E; Gabler, Nicholas K; Walker-Daniels, Jennifer; Spurlock, Michael E

    2008-06-01

    Toll-like receptor-4 (Tlr-4), a key pattern recognition receptor involved in innate immune response, is activated by saturated fatty acids (SFAs). To investigate the involvement of this receptor in obesity caused by consumption of diets high in fat, we utilized male Tlr-4-deficient 10ScN mice and 10J controls. Mice were fed either low fat (low-fat control (LFC)), high unsaturated fat (high-fat control (HFC)), or high saturated fat + palmitate (HFP) diets ad libitum for 16 weeks. Relative to the LFC diet, the HFC diet resulted in greater epididymal fat pad weights and adipocyte hypertrophy in both Tlr-4-deficient and normal mice. However, the 10ScN mice were completely protected against the obesigenic effects of the HFP diet. Moreover, macrophage infiltration and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) transcript abundance were lower in adipose tissue of 10ScN mice fed the HFP diet, and the hyperinsulinemic response was negated. Tlr-4-deficient mice also had markedly lower circulating concentrations of MCP-1 and much less nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB) protein in nuclear extracts prepared from adipose tissue, irrespective of diet. In contrast, Tlr-4 deficiency did not attenuate the induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in adipose tissue. These data indicate that Tlr-4 deficiency selectively protects against the obesigenic effects of SFA and alters obesity-related inflammatory responses in adipose tissue. PMID:18421279

  7. Intrinsic fat suppression in TIDE balanced steady-state free precession imaging.

    PubMed

    Paul, Dominik; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2006-12-01

    A novel fat-suppressed balanced steady-state free precession (b-SSFP) imaging method based on the transition into driven equilibrium (TIDE) sequence with variable flip angles is presented. The new method, called fat-saturated (FS)-TIDE, exploits the special behavior of TIDE signals from off-resonance spins during the flip angle ramp. As shown by simulations and experimental data, the TIDE signal evolution for off-resonant isochromats during the transition from turbo spin-echo (TSE)-like behavior to the true fast imaging with steady precession (TrueFISP) mode undergoes a zero crossing. The resulting signal notch for off-resonant spins is then used for fat suppression. The efficiency of FS-TIDE is demonstrated in phantoms and healthy volunteers on a 1.5T system. The resulting images are compared with standard TrueFISP data with and without fat suppression. It is demonstrated that FS-TIDE provides a fast and stable means for homogenous fat suppression in abdominal imaging while maintaining balanced SSFP-like image contrast and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The scan time of FS-TIDE is not increased compared to normal TrueFISP imaging without fat suppression and identical k-space trajectories. Because of the intrinsic fat suppression, no additional preparation is needed. Possible repetition times (TRs) are not firmly limited to special values and are nearly arbitrary.

  8. Body fatness and its social and lifestyle determinants in young working males from Cracow, Poland.

    PubMed

    Suder, Agnieszka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the degree to which general body fatness variation, presented by body mass index (BMI), the sum of the three skinfold thicknesses (TST) (triceps, subscapular, abdominal) and percentage of body fat (%FAT), can be explained by socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle. The cross-sectional, population-based survey was of 259 healthy working males aged 20-30 from the city of Cracow, Poland. Objective anthropometric measurements, bioelectrical impedance analysis, the results of motor fitness tests and social and lifestyle data from a questionnaire were analysed. The independent variables were: age, socioeconomic status (birthplace, place of residence until the age of 14, social class, educational level and the type of work done) and lifestyle elements (smoking habits, dietary habits, family obesity resemblance, sport activity in the past, leisure time physical activity and level of motor fitness). Three separate full models were created using stepwise straightforward regression with BMI, TST and %FAT as dependent variables. The highest autonomous influence on BMI and %FAT was ascribed to age and family obesity resemblance, whereas variation in TST was explained by level of motor fitness, age, city as a place of residence until the age of 14 and family obesity resemblance. Although the analysed variables explained only from 8% (BMI) to 13% (TST) of body fatness variation, indicating at the same time that most variations are explained by other variables, the impact of lifestyle family-shared factors on body fatness seems to be significant.

  9. Mechanisms of Fat Graft Survival.

    PubMed

    Pu, Lee L Q

    2016-02-01

    Although more fat grafting procedures have been performed by plastic surgeons with the primary goal to restore soft tissue loss, the actual mechanism on how fat graft survives remains less completely understood. An established old theory on fat graft survival is still based on the cell survival theory proposed by Peer in the early 1950s. On the basis of his preliminary experimental study, he proposed that the mechanism of fat graft survival is based on established early blood circulation through anastomosis of the fat graft and host blood vessels. Recently, several investigators have demonstrated new concepts of the fat graft survival: One further advanced the old Peer cell survival theory and another based on new discovery and understanding of adipose-derived stem cells. This article serves as a scientific review on how fat graft survives after in vivo transplantation based on a number of well-conducted experimental studies. Both the graft survival and graft replacement theories on how fat graft survives are true based on the previously mentioned well-conducted experimental studies. Each theory may play a role in fat graft survival. It is possible that graft survival may be more dominant in some patients but the graft replacement may be more dominant in other patients.

  10. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  11. Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, W; Longstreth, G; Drossman, D; Heaton, K; Irvine, E; Muller-Lissner, S

    1999-01-01

    The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised. A functional bowel disorder (FBD) is diagnosed by characteristic symptoms for at least 12 weeks during the preceding 12 months in the absence of a structural or biochemical explanation. The irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal bloating, functional constipation, and functional diarrhea are distinguished by symptom-based diagnostic criteria. Unspecified FBD lacks criteria for the other FBDs. Diagnostic testing is individualized, depending on patient age, primary symptom characteristics, and other clinical and laboratory features. Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is defined as either the FAP syndrome, which requires at least six months of pain with poor relation to gut function and loss of daily activities, or unspecified FAP, which lacks criteria for the FAP syndrome. An organic cause for the pain must be excluded, but aspects of the patient's pain behavior are of primary importance. Treatment of the FBDs relies upon confident diagnosis, explanation, and reassurance. Diet alteration, drug treatment, and psychotherapy may be beneficial, depending on the symptoms and psychological features.


Keywords: functional bowel disorder; functional constipation; functional diarrhea; irritable bowel syndrome; functional abdominal pain; functional abdominal bloating; Rome II PMID:10457044

  12. Methods of Patient Warming during Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Li; Zheng, Hong; Jia, Feng-Ju; Wang, Hui-Qin; Liu, Li; Sun, Qi; An, Meng-Ying; Zhang, Xiu-Hua; Wen, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Background Keeping abdominal surgery patients warm is common and warming methods are needed in power outages during natural disasters. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost, low-power warming methods for maintaining normothermia in abdominal surgery patients. Methods Patients (n = 160) scheduled for elective abdominal surgery were included in this prospective clinical study. Five warming methods were applied: heated blood transfusion/fluid infusion vs. unheated; wrapping patients vs. not wrapping; applying moist dressings, heated or not; surgical field rinse heated or not; and applying heating blankets or not. Patients’ nasopharyngeal and rectal temperatures were recorded to evaluate warming efficacy. Significant differences were found in mean temperatures of warmed patients compared to those not warmed. Results When we compared temperatures of abdominal surgery patient groups receiving three specific warming methods with temperatures of control groups not receiving these methods, significant differences were revealed in temperatures maintained during the surgeries between the warmed groups and controls. Discussion The value of maintaining normothermia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia is accepted. Three effective economical and practically applicable warming methods are combined body wrapping and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and warmed surgical rinse fluid, with or without heating blanket. These methods are practically applicable when low-cost method is indeed needed. PMID:22808045

  13. Hydatidemesis: a bizarre presentation of abdominal hydatidosis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S; Mishra, M C; Kriplani, A K; Kapur, B M

    1993-06-01

    A 31 year old male presented with high grade fever and abdominal pain of 20 days duration. At the age of 9 he had been operated on for a solitary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst and had been asymptomatic until the age of 21 when he sustained a blunt injury to the abdomen. An exploratory laparotomy for splenic rupture revealed multiple intra-abdominal hydatid cysts, which were removed. The patient remained well until the present episode. An ultrasound examination revealed multiple intra-abdominal hydatid cysts. Seven days after admission, the patient developed hydatidemesis (hydatid cysts and membranes in the vomitus) and hydatidenteria (passage of hydatid membranes in the stools), and his pain and fever subsided. A Gastrografin study and a computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed hydatid cysts communicating with the stomach and duodenum. In view of his disseminated recurrent abdominal hydatidosis, he was treated with high dose, long-term albendazole along with regular follow up. This is the first documented case of disseminated abdominal hydatidosis presenting with a cystogastric fistula and hydatidemesis.

  14. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt with a rare twist: small-bowel ischemia and necrosis secondary to knotting of peritoneal catheter.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lee A; Kasliwal, Manish K; Moftakhar, Roham; Munoz, Lorenzo F

    2014-09-01

    Small-bowel ischemia and necrosis due to knotting of the peritoneal catheter is an extremely rare complication related to a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). A 3-month-old girl, with a history of Chiari II malformation and myelomeningocele (MM) after undergoing right occipital VPS insertion and MM repair at birth, presented to the emergency department with a high-grade fever. Examination of a CSF sample obtained via shunt tap raised suspicion for the presence of infection. Antibiotic therapy was initiated, and subsequently the VPS was removed and an external ventricular drain was placed. Intraoperatively, as attempts at pulling the distal catheter from the scalp incision were met with resistance, the distal catheter was cut and left in the abdomen while the remainder of the shunt system was successfully removed. While the patient was awaiting definitive shunt revision surgery to replace the VPS, she developed abdominal distension due to small-bowel obstruction. An emergency exploratory laparotomy revealed a knot in the distal catheter looping around and strangulating the distal ileum, causing small-bowel ischemia and necrosis in addition to the obstruction. A small-bowel resection with ileostomy was performed, with subsequent placement of ventriculoatrial shunt for treatment of hydrocephalus. The authors report this exceedingly rare clinical scenario to highlight the fact that any retained distal catheter must be carefully managed with immediate abdominal exploration to remove the distal catheter to avoid bowel necrosis as pulling of a knotted peritoneal catheter may strangulate the bowel and cause ischemia, with significant clinical morbidity and possible mortality.

  15. Making Fat Work*

    PubMed Central

    Sargis, Robert M.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The burgeoning obesity and metabolic disease epidemics in the developed world are exerting a terrible toll on society, yet the precise mechanisms responsible for the emergence of these dramatic trends over a relatively short period of time remain poorly understood. Philip A. Wood’s book How Fat Works provides important insights into cellular lipid metabolism, as well as discussing some of the important external contributors to the development of human obesity. The foundation provided by this book allows for the exploration of how body fat has gone from hero during the millennia when starvation was the paramount nutritional risk to its current role as villain in our period of caloric excess. With the incredible personal and societal costs brought about by excess body weight, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms responsible for obesity is fundamentally necessary if we are to reverse these dire trends. Here, we delve deeper into some of the forces contributing to the obesity epidemic and discuss some individual measures as well as public policy decisions that may help reverse weight trends, while specifically focusing on the growing problem of pediatric obesity. PMID:21037416

  16. Trunk Fat is Associated with Increased Serum Levels of Alanine Aminotransferase in the US

    PubMed Central

    Ruhl, Constance E.; Everhart, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Liver injury is associated with obesity and related measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. The relationship between liver injury and body composition has not been evaluated in a population-based study. Methods Using data from a US population-based survey, we examined the contributions of body composition, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity among 11,821 adults without viral hepatitis. Trunk fat, extremity fat, trunk lean, and extremity lean mass were divided by height squared and used to categorize subjects into quintiles; logistic regression odds ratios (OR) were calculated for increased ALT. Results Increased ALT was associated with higher measures of fat and lean mass (p<0.001) after adjustment for alcohol consumption and other liver injury risk factors in separate models for each DXA measure. Trunk fat was associated with increased ALT (p≤0.001) in models also including any 1 of the other 3 measures. Extremity fat was independently inversely associated among women (p<0.001). Trunk and extremity lean mass were not independently related to increased ALT. In models that contained all 4 DXA measures, the OR (95% confidence interval) for increased ALT for the highest, relative to lowest, quintile of trunk fat/height squared was 13.8 (5.4-35.3) for men and 7.8 (3.9-15.8) for women. When BMI, waist circumference, and trunk fat were considered together, only trunk fat remained independently associated with increased ALT. Conclusions Trunk fat is a major body composition determinant of increased ALT, supporting the hypothesis that liver injury can be induced by metabolically active intra-abdominal fat. PMID:20060831

  17. Psychosocial factors and childhood recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Boey, Christopher Chiong-Meng; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2002-12-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain in children is not a single condition but a description of a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, some of which fit into a definite pattern, such as the irritable bowel syndrome, while others do not. Organic disorders may be present, but in the majority of children they cannot be detected. Although children with recurrent abdominal pain do not generally have psychological or psychiatric illness, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that psychosocial stress plays an important role in this condition. This review will look into some of this evidence. The precise pathophysiology that results in abdominal pain is still not clearly understood, but the current belief is that visceral hypersensitivity or hyperalgesia and changes in the brain-gut axis linking the central and enteric nervous systems are important mechanisms. PMID:12423267

  18. Thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Toribio, R E; Kohn, C W; Lawrence, A E; Hardy, J; Hutt, J A

    1999-05-01

    A 5-year-old Quarter Horse mare was examined because of lethargy, fever, and weight loss of 1 month's duration. Thoracic auscultation revealed decreased lung sounds cranioventrally. Thoracic ultrasonography revealed bilateral anechoic areas with hyperechoic strands, consistent with pleural effusion and fibrin tags. A large amount of free fluid was evident during abdominal ultrasonography. Abnormalities included anemia, hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Thoracic radiography revealed alveolar infiltrates in the cranial and caudoventral lung fields. A cavitary mass, consistent with an abscess, could be seen caudodorsal to the crura of the diaphragm. Ultrasonographic evaluation of this area revealed a hypoechoic mass with septations. Bilateral thoracocentesis was performed. Bacterial culture of the pleural fluid did not yield growth, but Blastomyces dermatitidis was isolated from pleural fluid, abdominal fluid, and an aspirate of the abscess. The mare was euthanatized, and a diagnosis of thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis was confirmed at necropsy. PMID:10319179

  19. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal cysts in children].

    PubMed

    Józsa, Gergő; Mohay, Gabriella; Pintér, András; Vástyán, Attila

    2015-09-13

    19 children were diagnosed with abdominal cysts of different origin in the Surgical Unit of the Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Pécs, Hungary between 2010 and 2013. The authors discuss the details of representative cases of a parovarial cyst, an intestinal duplication, and an omental cyst with emphasis on the clinical symptoms, diagnostic tools, and surgical interventions. The authors conclude that abdominal cysts often cause mild symptoms only, and they are discovered accidentally by ultrasound imaging performed for other reasons. In some cases, the cyst can cause severe complaints or even acute abdomen requiring emergency surgery. Laporoscopy may be a valuable method both in diagnosis and surgical therapy. Abdominal CT or MRI are not required in the majority of the patients.

  20. Abdominal Sarcoidosis May Mimic Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Gorkem, Umit; Gungor, Tayfun; Bas, Yılmaz; Togrul, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. It shows a great variety of clinical presentation, organ involvement, and disease progression. Lungs and lymphoid system are the most common sites involved with a frequency of 90% and 30%, respectively. Extrapulmonary involvement of sarcoidosis is reported in 30% of patients and abdomen is the most frequent site. Furthermore, peritoneal involvement is extremely rare in sarcoidosis. The case presented here described peritoneal manifestations of sarcoidosis without involvement of lungs. A 78-year-old woman possessing signs of malignancy on blood test and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging underwent laparatomy with a suspicion of ovarian malignancy. The macroscopic interpretation during surgery was peritoneal carcinomatosis. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, peritoneal biopsies, total omentectomy, and appendectomy were performed. Final histopathological result revealed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Clinicians must keep in mind that peritoneal sarcoidosis can mimic intra-abdominal malignancies. PMID:26558122

  1. Perforated second trimester appendicitis with abdominal compartment syndrome managed with negative pressure wound therapy and open abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Turnock, Adam R.; Fleischer, Brian P.; Carney, Martin J.; Vanderlan, Wesley B.

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a known complication of laparotomy; however, the literature is lacking in regards to treatment of this entity in pregnant patients. We present a case of acute perforated appendicitis in a second trimester primagravida, complicated by gangrenous necrosis of the contiguous bowel with subsequent development of ACS and intra-abdominal sepsis. This was treated with a novel approach, using non-commercial negative pressure wound therapy and open abdomen technique. Gestational integrity was preserved and the patient went on to experience a normal spontaneous vaginal delivery. At 5 years post-delivery the patient has had no surgical complications and her baby has met all developmental milestones. PMID:27302498

  2. [Role of correction of the syndrome of intestinal failure and abdominal hypertension in the prevention of infection of pancreatic necrosis].

    PubMed

    Dibirov, M D; Isaev, A I; Dzhadzhiev, A B; Ashimova, A I; Ataev, T

    2016-01-01

    Количество больных с острым панкреатитом (ОП) и панкреонекрозом (ПН) неуклонно растет. Летальность при инфицированном ПН остается высокой. Цель — разработать меры для профилактики инфицирования ПН путем своевременной коррекции внутрибрюшной гипертензии (ВБГ) и синдрома кишечной недостаточности (СКН). Материал и методы. Разработан комплекс мероприятий, состоящий из раннего энтеральнего лаважа и энтеросорбции, высоких внутривенных доз октреотида, перидуральной блокады, адекватной детоксикации и стартовой эффективной антибактериальной терапии (АБТ). Проведена сравнительная оценка клинических, лабораторных и инструментальных данных в основной (n=50) и контрольной (n=50) группах. Результаты. В основной группе панкреатогенный сепсис развился у 10%, в контрольной — у 18% пациентов. Летальность составила 8 и 16% соответственно.

  3. Decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, E.; Malbrain, M.; Nesbitt, I.; Cohen, J.; Kaloiani, V.; Ivatury, R.; Mone, M.; Debergh, D.; Björck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of decompressive laparotomy on outcomes in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome has been poorly investigated. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to describe the effect of decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome on organ function and outcomes. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in adult patients who underwent decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. The primary endpoints were 28‐day and 1‐year all‐cause mortality. Changes in intra‐abdominal pressure (IAP) and organ function, and laparotomy‐related morbidity were secondary endpoints. Results Thirty‐three patients were included in the study (20 men). Twenty‐seven patients were surgical admissions treated for abdominal conditions. The median (i.q.r.) Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 26 (20–32). Median IAP was 23 (21–27) mmHg before decompressive laparotomy, decreasing to 12 (9–15), 13 (8–17), 12 (9–15) and 12 (9–14) mmHg after 2, 6, 24 and 72 h. Decompressive laparotomy significantly improved oxygenation and urinary output. Survivors showed improvement in organ function scores, but non‐survivors did not. Fourteen complications related to the procedure developed in eight of the 33 patients. The abdomen could be closed primarily in 18 patients. The overall 28‐day mortality rate was 36 per cent (12 of 33), which increased to 55 per cent (18 patients) at 1 year. Non‐survivors were no different from survivors, except that they tended to be older and on mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Decompressive laparotomy reduced IAP and had an immediate effect on organ function. It should be considered in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome. PMID:26891380

  4. Black esophagus (acute esophageal necrosis) after spinal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Román Fernández, A; López Álvarez, A; Fossati Puertas, S; Areán González, I; Varela García, O; Viaño López, P M

    2014-01-01

    Acute esophagic necrosis or black esophagus is an uncommon clinical entity that owes its name to the endoscopic view of the necrotic esophageal mucosa. It is always related with a critical medical condition and usually has an ischemic etiology. We report the first case of acute esophageal necrosis after a spinal anesthetic for partial hip joint arthroplasty. We discuss the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.

  5. Combined abdominal and vaginal approach for bladder neck closure and permanent suprapubic tube: urinary diversion in the neurologically impaired woman.

    PubMed

    Levy, J B; Jacobs, J A; Wein, A J

    1994-12-01

    Chronic indwelling Foley catheter placement in the neurologically impaired patient can lead to pressure necrosis of the urethra with incontinence. We report on 2 series of patients who underwent bladder neck closure and insertion of a suprapubic catheter for this problem. Our initial group includes 4 patients who underwent 5 transvaginal procedures, of which 2 (40%) were successful. Subsequently, we modified our approach, and used a combined abdominal and transvaginal repair, which was successful in 10 consecutive patients with a followup of 6 to 40 months (mean 15.6). PMID:7966679

  6. An abdominal extraskeletal osteosarcoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WU, ZHIMING; CHU, XIUFENG; MENG, XINGCHENG; XU, CHAOYANG

    2013-01-01

    Primary abdominal extraskeletal osteosarcoma (EOS) is a rare carcinoma. The present study reports a case of a primary abdominal EOS involving the greater omentum and also presents a review of the literature on the etiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, pathological features, treatment and prognosis of the disease. The patient in the present study underwent laparoscopic surgery. A pathological examination revealed that the tumor tissues contained malignant and primitive spindle cells with varying amounts of neoplastic osteoid and osseous or cartilaginous tissue. The post-operative follow-up appointments were scheduled at three-month intervals for two years. The tumor recurred three months after the surgery. PMID:24137451

  7. An unusual cause of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Terneu, S; Verhelst, D; Thys, F; Ketelslegers, E; Hantson, P; Wittebole, X

    2003-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Room because of abdominal pain associated with hematuria and red blood blending to stool. On admission, the physical examination revealed abdominal tenderness and diffuse cutaneous hematoma. The laboratory findings showed abnormal clotting tests with high International Normalised Ratio (INR) and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Hemoperitoneum and ureteral hematoma were noted on the abdomen computed tomography. The patient confessed she had ingested difenacoum for several weeks. All the symptoms resolved with fresh frozen plasma perfusion and vitamin K. PMID:14635532

  8. Acellular dermal matrix in abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Ronald P

    2011-09-01

    Abdominal wall reconstruction is a complex and challenging surgical undertaking. While permanent prosthetic mesh is considered the gold standard for minimizing hernia recurrence, placement of synthetic mesh is sometimes imprudent due to contamination or risk of infection. Acellular dermal matrices (ADM) offer an exciting biologic alternative. This article provides a historical perspective on the evolution of complex ventral hernia repair leading up to and including the placement of ADM, an explanation of the biology of ADM as it relates to ventral hernia repair, and a description of the current indications, techniques, benefits, and shortcomings of its use in the abdominal wall.

  9. [Penetrating abdominal wounds. Apropos of 330 cases].

    PubMed

    Nejjar, M; Bennani, S; Zerouali, O N

    1991-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal wounds are frequent and serious. 330 cases have been treated in the Department of Emergencies and visceral Surgery at Averroes Hospital of Casablanca from 1980 to 1990. The predominance of male sex is noted, and these wounds are always the result of aggression by white arm. All patients have been operated, the white laparotomy rate is of 36%. The classic interventionist attitude is still recommended in spite of this high rate, because our present conditions can't permit us a rigorous watching. According to abdominal lesions, the different interventions are reviewed, and their indications are detailed. PMID:1960187

  10. [Abdominal migraine as a cause of chronic recurrent abdominal pain in a 9-years-old girl--case report].

    PubMed

    Kwiecień, Jarosław; Piasecki, Leszek; Kasner, Jacek; Karczewska, Krystyna

    2005-08-01

    Abdominal migraine is a rarely recognized functional intestinal disorder, manifesting as recurrent paroxysmal abdominal pain of neurogenic origin. The authors describe the 9-years old girl referred to the hospital because of chronic paroxysmal abdominal pain. She did not improve after medication used commonly in functional abdominal disorders (drotaverine, mebeverine, trimebutine). On the ground of various investigations organic causes of abdominal pain were excluded. Carefully completed anamnesis, as well as precise description of the clinical picture of abdominal pain attacks, has lead to the diagnosis of abdominal migraine. According to advice of neurologist the treatment with amitriptyline was introduced. Thereafter a significant improvement was observed. Abdominal migraine has to be taken in to account when diagnosing chronic abdominal pain in children. PMID:16245431

  11. [Programmed necrosis: a new target for
ischemia reperfusion injury].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Ming, Yingzi; Niu, Ying; Liu, Qianwen; Ye, Qifa

    2016-07-01

    Recent years, the researchers have found a new type of cell death, referred to programmed necrosis or necroptosis, which involves the death receptor and the ligand binds and is initiated under the inhibition of apoptosis pathway. Programmed necrosis possesses the morphological features of typical necrosis accompanied by inflammation. The receptor interacting protein kinase 1/3(RIPK1/3) can be inhibited by the specific inhibitors, such as necrostatin-1. RIPK1/3 could regulate programmed necrosis and play a key role in the process. The significance of programmed necrosis in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) has been attracted great attention at present. Simultaneously, a series of studies have found it also involves in the IRI of heart, kidney, brain and retina. PMID:27592584

  12. Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Radiation Necrosis in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    MIYATAKE, Shin-Ichi; NONOGUCHI, Noasuke; FURUSE, Motomasa; YORITSUNE, Erina; MIYATA, Tomo; KAWABATA, Shinji; KUROIWA, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    New radiation modalities have made it possible to prolong the survival of individuals with malignant brain tumors, but symptomatic radiation necrosis becomes a serious problem that can negatively affect a patient’s quality of life through severe and lifelong effects. Here we review the relevant literature and introduce our original concept of the pathophysiology of brain radiation necrosis following the treatment of brain, head, and neck tumors. Regarding the pathophysiology of radiation necrosis, we introduce two major hypotheses: glial cell damage or vascular damage. For the differential diagnosis of radiation necrosis and tumor recurrence, we focus on the role of positron emission tomography. Finally, in accord with our hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology, we describe the promising effects of the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab on symptomatic radiation necrosis in the brain. PMID:25744350

  13. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  14. Fats and oils: An overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary fat is a macronutrient that has historically engendered considerable controversy and continues to do so. Contentious areas include optimal amount and type for cardiovascular disease risk reduction, and role in body weight regulation. Dietary fats and oils are unique in modern times in that ...

  15. Fat harvesting site is an important determinant of proliferation and pluripotency of adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ardeshirylajimi, Abdolreza; Rafeie, Farjad; Zandi-Karimi, Ali; Jaffarabadi, Ghobad Asgari; Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Abdollah; Samiei, Rahmat; Toghdory, Abdolhakim; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Hashemi, Seyed Mahmoud; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Gastal, Eduardo L

    2016-01-01

    To define the optimal fat harvest site and detect any potential differences in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) proliferation properties in camels, aspirates from the abdomen and hump sites were compared. Obtained results revealed that ASCs from both abdomen and hump exhibited spindle-shaped and fibroblast-like morphology with hump-derived ASCs being smaller in size and narrower in overall appearance than abdominal ASCs. Abdominal ASCs required a greater time for proliferation than the hump-derived cells. These results were further confirmed with a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT) which showed a greater cell proliferation rate for hump ASCs than for the abdomen. Under inductive conditions, ASCs from both abdominal and hump fat deposits maintained their lineage differentiation potential into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages during subsequent passages without any qualitative difference. However, expression of alkaline phosphatase was higher in osteogenic differentiated cells from the hump compared with those of the abdomen. Moreover, the increase in calcium content in hump-derived stem cells was higher than that in abdominal-derived stem cells. In conclusion, our findings revealed that ASCs can be obtained from different anatomical locations, although ASCs from the hump fat region may be the ideal stem cell sources for use in cell-based therapies.

  16. Extrahepatic, nonneoplastic, fat-containing lesions of the abdominopelvic cavity: spectrum of lesions, significance, and typical appearance on multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kani, Kimia Khalatbari; Moshiri, Mariam; Bhargava, Puneet; Kolokythas, Orpheus

    2012-01-01

    Fat may be noted in a diffuse or focal manner in a variety of nonneoplastic abdominopelvic conditions. The specific signature of macroscopic fat on computed tomography along with the usually characteristic findings of these entities makes the diagnosis of most of these conditions relatively straightforward. In the intestinal tract, the "fat halo sign" usually arises in the context of subacute to chronic bowel wall inflammation. Excess fat in the renal sinus may occur with renal sinus lipomatosis or "replacement lipomatosis of the kidney." Some cases of "pancreatic lipomatosis" may culminate in steatopancreatitis and ultimately neoplastic transformations. "Fibrofatty mesenteric proliferation" is a characteristic feature of Crohn disease. In the setting of the acute abdomen, accurate diagnosis of fat-containing lesions (epiploic appendagitis or omental infarction) from other causes of the acute abdomen is critical. Mesenteric panniculitis is 1 of the causes of the "misty mesentery." Juxtacaval fat deposition is a benign process that has the potential to be confused with more serious conditions. More diffuse fat deposition (abdominal or pelvic lipomatosis) has the potential to become symptomatic by causing mass effect upon the adjacent structures. Fat can also be seen in a variety of postoperative/iatrogenic conditions or abdominal wall/diaphragmatic hernias. PMID:22285003

  17. Effects of peroxidized corn oil on performance, AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a trend to use more alternative lipids in poultry diets, either through animal-vegetable blends, distillers corn oil, or yellow grease. This has resulted in the use of lipids in poultry diets with a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids which have a greater potential for peroxidat...

  18. Body mass index, abdominal obesity, body fat and migraine features in women.

    PubMed

    Rossoni de Oliveira, Vanessa; Camboim Rockett, Fernanda; Castro, Kamila; da Silveira Perla, Alexandre; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes; Schweigert Perry, Ingrid D

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los estudios que tratan de establecer una asociación entre la migraña y los parámetros antropométricos hasta ahora han sido poco concluyentes. Además, los fármacos utilizados para la profilaxis de la migraña pueden estar asociados con cambios en el peso corporal. Objetivos: Investigar la posible asociación de los parámetros antropométricos y el porcentaje de grasa corporal con patrones de ataque y el uso de la profilaxis en los pacientes con migraña. Métodos: Estudio transversal que evaluó el índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de cintura, porcentaje de grasa corporal y las variables clínicas (características de los ataques y uso de medicación) en mujeres con migraña. Resultados: 166 mujeres con migraña ≥18 años (edad media, 45 ± 14 años) fueron incluidos en el estudio. Migraña sin aura era más frecuente (71,7%). La media del índice de masa corporal y porcentaje de grasa corporal fueron 27,8 ± 6,0 kg/m(2) y 36,4 ± 8,3%, respectivamente. Índice de masa corporal y la circunferencia de cintura se correlacionaron débilmente con la frecuencia de los ataques durante 6 meses (rs = 0,162, p < 0,05 y r = 0,187, p < 0,05, respectivamente). Estas correlaciones se mantiene débil considerando sólo las mujeres premenopáusicas, pero desaparecen en las mujeres mayores. La estratificación de los análisis por tipo migraña muestra una correlación moderada entre la migraña con aura y la frecuencia de los ataques de más de 6 meses y el índice de masa corporal (rs = 0,369, p < 0,05), así como la circunferencia de cintura (rs = 0,423, p < 0,01) . Los pacientes que estaban tomando medicamentos profilácticos tuvieron un mayor índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de la cintura, y los valores de porcentaje de grasa corporal (p < 0,01, prueba t de Student). Conclusiones: Este estudio reveló un potencial, aunque débil asociación entre la migraña y los parámetros antropométricos y la frecuencia de ataques, que no refleja la duración, la gravedad y la incapacidad de los ataques, que tienen diferentes modelos según el tipo de migraña, la edad reproductiva y la medicación profiláctica.

  19. Effect of a Prolonged Altitude Expedition on Glucose Tolerance and Abdominal Fatness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mu-Tsung; Lee, Wen-Chih; Chen, Shih-Chang; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Chen, Chung-Yu; Lee, Shin-Da; Jensen, Jorgen; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of a long-term mountain expedition on glucose tolerance and insulin action. Twelve registered mountaineers ages 31 years (SD = 1.1) participated in a 25-day expedition at a 2,200-3,800-m altitude with an average duration of 8 hr per day. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO[subscript 2]) was…

  20. [Role of core decompression as treatment method for ischemic femur head necrosis].

    PubMed

    Hungerford, D S

    1990-08-01

    Nontraumatic ischemic necrosis of the femoral head remains a source of much controversy. The etiology is also controversial. Possibilities are: hypertrophy of intraosseous structures (lipocytes, hematopoietic elements), creating intraosseous hypertension; alcohol and steroids as toxic agents; circulating fat globules embolizing the microcirculation of the metaphysis. The disease appears most frequently in young adults, but no satisfactory nonoperative treatment modalities have been reported as yet. In 1971, Ficat and Arlet published their results on core decompression performed in 100 patients, with a follow-up of from 1 to 5 years. The results for those with stage I disease (n = 40) were good or excellent in 88% of the patients. The results for those with stage II disease (n = 16) were good or excellent in 69%. Based on current experience, the treatment is to be recommended for patients with pre-collapse stages 0, I and IIA of ischemic necrosis of the femoral head. For stage III disease, the procedure may reduce pain at night and at rest and can be considered in patients wishing to avoid total hip arthroplasty for a period of time. PMID:2216450

  1. Maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy is associated with neonatal abdominal adiposity: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study1-4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Tint, Mya-Thway; Fortier, Marielle V.; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kramer, Michael S.; van Dam, Rob M.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-01-01

    Background Infant body composition has been associated with later metabolic risk, but few studies have examined the association between maternal macronutrient intake and neonatal body composition. Furthermore, most of those studies have used proxy measures of body composition that may not reflect body fat distribution, particularly abdominal internal adiposity. Objective We investigated the relation between maternal macronutrient intake and neonatal abdominal adiposity measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a multi-ethnic Asian mother-offspring cohort. Methods Macronutrient intakes of mothers were ascertained using a 24-h dietary recall at 26-28 weeks gestation. Neonatal abdominal adiposity was assessed using MRI in the second week of life. Mother-offspring dyads with complete macronutrient intake and adiposity information (n= 320) were included in the analysis. Associations were assessed by both substitution and addition models using multivariable linear regressions. Results Mothers [mean age: 30 y; 44% Chinese, 38% Malay, 18% Indians] consumed 15.5 ± 4.3% (mean ± SD) of their energy intakes from protein, 32.4 ± 7.7% from fat, and 52.1 ± 9.0% from carbohydrate. A higher protein, lower carbohydrate/fat diet during pregnancy was associated with lower abdominal internal adipose tissue (IAT) in the neonates [β (95% CI): -0.18 (-0.35, -0.001) mL per 1% protein to carbohydrate substitution and -0.25 (-0.46, -0.04) mL per 1% protein to fat substitution]. These associations were stronger in boys than in girls (P-interactions <0.05). Higher maternal intake of animal protein [-0.26 (-0.47, -0.05) mL for fat substitution], but not plant protein, was associated with lower offspring IAT. In contrast, maternal macronutrient intake was not consistently associated with infant anthropometric measurements, including abdominal circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness. Conclusions Higher maternal protein intake (at the expense of carbohydrate or fat intake

  2. What Are the Types of Fat?

    MedlinePlus

    ... also found in liquid tropical oils (palm and coconut). Trans fats (partially hydrogenated or hydrogenated fats) are ... fat dairy products (cream/milk) Butter Palm and coconut oil (snack foods, non- dairy creamers, whipped toppings) ...

  3. Acute Bladder Necrosis after Pelvic Arterial Embolization for Pelvic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Two Cases of Immediate Postembolization Bladder Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, E. Charles; Elliott, Sean P.; Hittelman, Adam B.

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of acute bladder injury with bladder neck necrosis identified during the initial operative evaluation and within the early postprocedural period in patients with significant pelvic trauma requiring pelvic vascular embolization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bladder neck necrosis found during the initial intraoperative surgical evaluation or early postoperative setting.

  4. Acute Bladder Necrosis after Pelvic Arterial Embolization for Pelvic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Two Cases of Immediate Postembolization Bladder Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, E. Charles; Elliott, Sean P.; Hittelman, Adam B.

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of acute bladder injury with bladder neck necrosis identified during the initial operative evaluation and within the early postprocedural period in patients with significant pelvic trauma requiring pelvic vascular embolization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bladder neck necrosis found during the initial intraoperative surgical evaluation or early postoperative setting. PMID:27656309

  5. Carcass characteristics and fat depots in Iberian and F Large White × Landrace pigs intensively finished or raised outdoors in oak-tree forests.

    PubMed

    Bressan, M C; Almeida, J; Santos Silva, J; Bettencourt, C; Francisco, A; Gama, L T

    2016-06-01

    A factorial experiment was performed with 117 barrows belonging to the Iberian (IB) and crossbred F Large White × Landrace (F) genetic groups, either intensively finished (IN) or finished outdoors on pasture in an oak and cork tree forest (EX). Information was collected on carcass weight, yield, and dimensions; weight of organs, carcass cuts, and abdominal fat depots; backfat depth; measurements of the longissimus thoracis (LT); and yield of different leg tissues. For the 41 slaughter and carcass traits analyzed, the interaction between genetic group and finishing system was significant ( < 0.05) in 18 traits, and overall, there was a more pronounced influence of genetic group than of finishing system. In most variables, particularly those related with fat deposition, the interaction reflected mostly changes in mean differences among genetic groups rather than in their ranking, where IB pigs consistently produced fatter carcasses, regardless of the finishing system. Liver weight in IB-EX pigs was lower by nearly 8% when compared with F-EX or IB-IN pigs, but the opposite pattern was found in F pigs, where liver weight in F-EX pigs was higher by 16% relative to IB-EX pigs or to F-IN pigs. The deposition of adipose tissue was much larger ( < 0.05) in IB pigs compared with F pigs, with means for fat depots in IB pigs that were higher by about 25% in total abdominal fat, 94% in dorsal fat depth, 72% in intermuscular plus subcutaneous fat in the leg, and over 300% in intramuscular fat (IMF). The deposition of lean tissue was much lower in IB pigs ( < 0.05), with means for trimmed loin weight corresponding to about one-half of the means obtained in F pigs, whereas lean percentage in the leg of IB pigs was about two-thirds of the mean in F pigs and the mean area of the LT was nearly one-half of that observed in F pigs in the same finishing system ( < 0.05). A strong correlation was observed between the various fat depots when the full data set was considered (correlations

  6. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning.

  7. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning. PMID:21951331

  8. Immunization with viral antigens: infectious haematopoietic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Winton, J R

    1997-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) is one of the most important viral diseases of salmonids, especially among juvenile fish where losses can be high. For over 20 years, researchers have tested a variety of preparations for control of IHN. Early vaccines consisted of killed virus and were effective when delivered by injection, but too costly to be practical on a large scale. Attenuated vaccines were developed by serial passage in cell culture and by monoclonal antibody selection. These offered excellent protection and were cost-effective, but residual virulence and uncertainty about their effects on other aquatic species made them poor candidates for licensing. Subunit vaccines using part of the IHNV glycoprotein gene cloned into E. coli or into an attenuated strain of A. salmonicida have been tested, appeared safe and were inexpensive. These vaccines were reported to provide some protection when delivered by immersion. Information on the location of antigenic sites on the glycoprotein led to trials using synthetic peptides, but these did not seem to be economically viable. Recently, plasmid vectors encoding the glycoprotein gene under control of a cytomegalovirus promoter were developed for genetic immunization. The constructs were highly protective when delivered by injection, but a more practical delivery system is needed. Thus, while several vaccine strategies have been tried in order to stimulate specific immunity against IHN, more research is needed to develop a commercially viable product for control of this important disease. PMID:9270850

  9. Immunization with viral antigens: infectious haematopoietic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Winton, J R

    1997-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) is one of the most important viral diseases of salmonids, especially among juvenile fish where losses can be high. For over 20 years, researchers have tested a variety of preparations for control of IHN. Early vaccines consisted of killed virus and were effective when delivered by injection, but too costly to be practical on a large scale. Attenuated vaccines were developed by serial passage in cell culture and by monoclonal antibody selection. These offered excellent protection and were cost-effective, but residual virulence and uncertainty about their effects on other aquatic species made them poor candidates for licensing. Subunit vaccines using part of the IHNV glycoprotein gene cloned into E. coli or into an attenuated strain of A. salmonicida have been tested, appeared safe and were inexpensive. These vaccines were reported to provide some protection when delivered by immersion. Information on the location of antigenic sites on the glycoprotein led to trials using synthetic peptides, but these did not seem to be economically viable. Recently, plasmid vectors encoding the glycoprotein gene under control of a cytomegalovirus promoter were developed for genetic immunization. The constructs were highly protective when delivered by injection, but a more practical delivery system is needed. Thus, while several vaccine strategies have been tried in order to stimulate specific immunity against IHN, more research is needed to develop a commercially viable product for control of this important disease.

  10. Stimulation of neutrophils by tumor necrosis factor

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanoff, S.J.; Vadas, M.A.; Harlan, J.M.; Sparks, L.H.; Gamble, J.R.; Agosti, J.M.; Waltersdorph, A.M.

    1986-06-01

    Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was shown to be a weak direct stimulus of the neutrophil respiratory burst and degranulation. The stimulation, as measured by iodination, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production, and lysozyme release, was considerably increased by the presence of unopsonized zymosan in the reaction mixture, an effect which was associated with the increased ingestion of the zymosan. TNF does not act as an opsonin but, rather, reacts with the neutrophil to increase its phagocytic activity. TNF-dependent phagocytosis, as measured indirectly by iodination, is inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (Mab) 60.1 and 60.3, which recognize different epitopes on the C3bi receptor/adherence-promoting surface glycoprotein of neutrophils. Other neutrophil stimulants, namely N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, and phorbol myristic acetate, also increase iodination in the presence of zymosan; as with TNF, the effect of these stimulants is inhibited by Mab 60.1 and 60.3, whereas, in contrast to that of TNF, their stimulation of iodination is unaffected by an Mab directed against TNF. TNF may be a natural stimulant of neutrophils which promotes adherence to endothelial cells and to particles, leading to increased phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and degranulation.

  11. [An infected necrosis of the chin].

    PubMed

    Muller, B S; van Goor, H F; Rosenberg, A J W P

    2016-01-01

    A 51-year-old man was referred by his dentist to a maxillofacial surgeon with complaints of illness and pain in the mandible, associated with a rapidly expanding area of black gingiva and mucosa surrounding the lower front teeth. Clinically and radiographically there was evidence of an infected necrosis of the chin and floor of mouth. Following debridement at the operating room, the patient was treated at the intensive care unit for septic shock leading to prolonged hospitalisation. Investigation of the bone marrow did not provide an explanation for pancytopenia or the severity of the illness. In addition, genetic investigation of thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene showed no mutations. This gene codes for an identically named protein enzyme that contributes in the metabolising of the medicine azathioprine, used daily for an autoimmune disease. A combination of the use of azathioprine, a folic acid deficiency and sepsis led to this exceptional course of illness. Therapeutic intervention consisted of surgical debridement and treatment of the bacteraemia. Afterwards several corrective surgeries were necessary to restore oral functions.

  12. Reliability of Abdominal Muscle Stiffness Measured Using Elastography during Trunk Rehabilitation Exercises.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, David; Wan, Alan; McPhee, Megan; Tucker, Kylie; Hug, François

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intra-session and inter-rater reliability of shear modulus measured in abdominal muscles during two commonly used trunk stability exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers performed a series of abdominal hollow and abdominal brace tasks. Supersonic shear imaging was used to measure the shear modulus (considered an index of muscle tension) of the four anterior trunk muscles: obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, transversus abdominis and rectus abdominis. Because of measurement artifacts, internus abdominis and transversus abdominis data were not analyzed for 36.7% and 26.7% of the participants, respectively. These participants exhibited thicker superficial fat layers than the others. For the remaining participants, fair to excellent intra-session and inter-rater reliability was observed with moderate to high intra-class coefficients (0.45-0.97) and low to moderate standard error of measurement values (0.38-3.53 kPa). Reliability values were consistently greater for superficial than for deeper muscles.

  13. Reliability of Abdominal Muscle Stiffness Measured Using Elastography during Trunk Rehabilitation Exercises.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, David; Wan, Alan; McPhee, Megan; Tucker, Kylie; Hug, François

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intra-session and inter-rater reliability of shear modulus measured in abdominal muscles during two commonly used trunk stability exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers performed a series of abdominal hollow and abdominal brace tasks. Supersonic shear imaging was used to measure the shear modulus (considered an index of muscle tension) of the four anterior trunk muscles: obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, transversus abdominis and rectus abdominis. Because of measurement artifacts, internus abdominis and transversus abdominis data were not analyzed for 36.7% and 26.7% of the participants, respectively. These participants exhibited thicker superficial fat layers than the others. For the remaining participants, fair to excellent intra-session and inter-rater reliability was observed with moderate to high intra-class coefficients (0.45-0.97) and low to moderate standard error of measurement values (0.38-3.53 kPa). Reliability values were consistently greater for superficial than for deeper muscles. PMID:26746381

  14. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Weng-Yew; Poudyal, Hemant; Ward, Leigh C.; Brown, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome. PMID:23201770

  15. Diet and diet combined with chronic aerobic exercise decreases body fat mass and alters plasma and adipose tissue inflammatory markers in obese women.

    PubMed

    Lakhdar, Nadia; Denguezli, Myriam; Zaouali, Monia; Zbidi, Abdelkrim; Tabka, Zouhair; Bouassida, Anissa

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 months aerobic exercise and diet alone or in combination on markers of inflammation (MOI) in circulation and in adipose abdominal tissue (AT) in obese women. Thirty obese subjects were randomized into a 24-week intervention: (1) exercise (EX), (2) diet (DI), and (3) exercise and diet (EXD). Blood samples were collected at baseline, after 12 and 24 weeks. AT biopsies were obtained only at baseline and after 24 weeks. In the EXD and DI groups, the fat loss was after 12 weeks was -13.74 and -7.8 % (P < 0.01) and after 24 weeks was -21.82 and -17 % (P < 0.01) with no changes in the EX group. After 12 and 24 weeks, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was increased by 21.81-39.54 % (P < 0.05) in the EXD group and 18.09-40.95 % in the EX group with no changes in the DI group. In the EXD and DI groups, circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 were decreased after 24 weeks for both groups (P < 0.01). No changes in the EX group. Homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance decreased (P < 0.05) only after 24 weeks in the EXD group. In AT biopsies, subjects in the EXD and DI groups exhibited a significant decrease in MO (P < 0.01 for all). No changes in AT biopsies were found in the EX group. In conclusion, chronic aerobic exercise was found to have no effects on circulating and AT MOI despite an increased VO2max. Rather important body composition modifications were found to have beneficial effects on circulating and AT MOI in these obese women.

  16. History of fat grafting: from ram fat to stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Riccardo F; Mazzola, Isabella C

    2015-04-01

    Fat injection empirically started 100 years ago to correct contour deformities mainly on the face and breast. The German surgeon Eugene Hollaender (1867-1932) proposed a cocktail of human and ram fat, to avoid reabsorption. Nowadays, fat injection has evolved, and it ranks among the most popular procedures, for it provides the physician with a range of aesthetic and reconstructive clinical applications with regenerative effects on the surrounding tissues. New research from all over the world has demonstrated the role of adipose-derived stem cells, present in the adipose tissue, in the repair of damaged or missing tissues.

  17. [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Cervantes Castro, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.

  18. Cardiopulmonary monitoring in intra-abdominal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; Ameloot, Koen; Gillebert, Carl; Cheatham, Michael L

    2011-07-01

    Cardiopulmonary dysfunction and failure are commonly encountered in the patient with intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) or abdominal compartment syndrome. Accurate assessment and optimization of preload, contractility, and afterload in conjunction with appropriate goal-directed resuscitation and assessment of fluid responsiveness are essential to restore end-organ perfusion. In patients with IAH, the traditional "barometric" preload indicators such as pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and central venous pressure are erroneously increased. Volumetric monitoring techniques have been proven to be superior in directing the appropriate resuscitation together with targeted abdominal perfusion pressure. If such limitations are not recognized, misinterpretation of the patient's cardiac status is likely, resulting in inappropriate and potentially detrimental therapy. IAH also markedly affects the mechanical properties of the chest wall and consequently also the respiratory function. Altered mechanical properties of the chest wall may limit ventilation, influence the work of breathing, affect the interaction between the respiratory muscles, hasten the development of respiratory failure, and interfere with gas exchange. Pulmonary monitoring is important to understand the relationships between intra-abdominal pressure and chest wall mechanics and the impact of IAH on ventilator-induced lung injury, lung distention, recruitment, and lung edema. PMID:21944448

  19. Childhood functional abdominal pain: mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Korterink, Judith; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Vlieger, Arine; Benninga, Marc A

    2015-03-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is one of the most common clinical syndromes encountered in day to day clinical paediatric practice. Although common, its definition is confusing, predisposing factors are poorly understood and the pathophysiological mechanisms are not clear. The prevailing viewpoint in the pathogenesis involves the inter-relationship between changes in hypersensitivity and altered motility, to which several risk factors have been linked. Making a diagnosis of functional abdominal pain can be a challenge, as it is unclear which further diagnostic tests are necessary to exclude an organic cause. Moreover, large, well-performed, high-quality clinical trials for effective agents are lacking, which undermines evidence-based treatment. This Review summarizes current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors and diagnostic work-up of functional abdominal pain. Finally, management options for children with functional abdominal pain are discussed including medications, dietary interventions, probiotics and psychological and complementary therapies, to improve understanding and to maximize the quality of care for children with this condition. PMID:25666642

  20. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Chronic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Flageole, Helene; Ouahed, Jodie; Walton, J. Mark; Yousef, Yasmin

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an elevated intraabdominal pressure with evidence of organ dysfunction. The majority of published reports of ACS are in neonates with abdominal wall defects and in adults following trauma or burns, but it is poorly described in children. We describe the unusual presentation of an 11-year-old boy with a long history of chronic constipation who developed acute ACS requiring resuscitative measures and emergent disimpaction. He presented with a 2-week history of increasing abdominal pain, nausea, diminished appetite and longstanding encopresis. On exam, he was emaciated with a massively distended abdomen with a palpable fecaloma. Abdominal XR confirmed these findings. Within 24 hours of presentation, he became tachycardic and oliguric with orthostatic hypotension. Following two enemas, he acutely deteriorated with severe hypotension, marked tachycardia, acute respiratory distress, and a declining mental status. Endotracheal intubation, fluid boluses, and vasopressors were commenced, followed by emergent surgical fecal disimpaction. This resulted in rapid improvement in vital signs. He has been thoroughly investigated and no other condition apart from functional constipation has been identified. Although ACS secondary to constipation is extremely unusual, this case illustrates the need to actively treat constipation and what can happen if it is not. PMID:22606517