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Sample records for abdominal fat weight

  1. Can you be large and not obese? The distinction between body weight, body fat, and abdominal fat in occupational standards.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E

    2004-10-01

    Weight control is an important early intervention in diabetes, but the nature of the association between weight and disordered metabolism has been confused because fat mass and its distribution are only partly associated with increasing body size. Weight, fat, and regional fat placement, specifically in the abdominal site, may each have distinctly different associations with diabetes risk. Abdominal circumference may be the common marker of poor fitness habits and of increased risk for metabolic diseases such as diabetes. This is an important question for public health policy as well as for occupational standards such as those of the military, which are intended to promote fitness for military missions and include strength and aerobic capacity, as well as military appearance considerations. U.S. soldiers are heavier than ever before, reflecting both increased muscle and fat components. They also have better health care than ever before and are required to exercise regularly, and even the oldest soldiers are required to remain below body fat limits that are more stringent than the current median values of the U.S. population over age 40. The body fat standards assessed by circumference-based equations are 20-26% and 30-36%, for various age groups of men and women, respectively, and the upper limits align with threshold values of waist circumference recommended in national health goals. The basis and effects of the Army standards are presented in this paper. U.S. Army body fat standards may offer practical and reasonable health guidelines suitable for all active Americans that might help stem the increasing prevalence of obesity that is predicted to increase the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:15628823

  2. Effects of peroxidized corn oil on performance, AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ehr, I J; Kerr, B J; Persia, M E

    2015-07-01

    There is a trend to use more alternative lipids in poultry diets, either through animal-vegetable blends, distillers corn oil, or yellow grease. This has resulted in the use of lipids in poultry diets with a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, which have a greater potential for peroxidation. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of peroxidized corn oil on broiler performance, dietary AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight. The same refined corn oil sample was divided into 3 subsamples, 2 of which were exposed to different peroxidative processes. The 3 diets contained the unperoxidized corn oil (UO), a slowly peroxidized corn oil (SO; heated for 72 h at 95°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min), or a rapidly peroxidized corn oil (RO; heated for 12 h at 185°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min). Diets were fed from 0 to 14 d of age with each lipid fed at a 5% inclusion rate, continuing on from 15 to 27 d of age with each lipid fed at a 10% inclusion rate. There were 6 Ross 708 broiler chicks per cage with 10 replicates for each of the 3 dietary treatments. Abdominal fat pad and excreta collection was performed on d 27. Body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured for the 0 to 14 and 0 to 27 d periods. The increased level of peroxidation reduced AMEn in broiler diets (UO = 3,490 kcal/kg; SO = 3,402 kcal/kg; RO = 3,344 kcal/kg on an as-is basis; SEM = 12.9, P ≤ 0.01). No significant treatment differences were observed among oil supplemented birds for BW gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, or abdominal fat pad weight. In conclusion, corn oil peroxidation status resulted in a decrease in dietary AMEn, but had minimal effects on broiler performance or fat pad weights. PMID:26015587

  3. Quantification of Abdominal Fat Depots in Rats and Mice during Obesity and Weight Loss Interventions

    PubMed Central

    KN, Bhanu Prakash; Gopalan, Venkatesh; Lee, Swee Shean; Velan, S. Sendhil

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Obesity is a leading healthcare issue contributing to metabolic diseases. There is a great interest in non-invasive approaches for quantitating abdominal fat in obese animals and humans. In this work, we propose an automated method to distinguish and quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues (SAT and VAT) in rodents during obesity and weight loss interventions. We have also investigated the influence of different magnetic resonance sequences and sources of variability in quantification of fat depots. Materials and Methods High-fat diet fed rodents were utilized for investigating the changes during obesity, exercise, and calorie restriction interventions (N = 7/cohort). Imaging was performed on a 7T Bruker ClinScan scanner using fast spin echo (FSE) and Dixon imaging methods to estimate the fat depots. Finally, we quantified the SAT and VAT volumes between the L1–L5 lumbar vertebrae using the proposed automatic hybrid geodesic region-based curve evolution algorithm. Results Significant changes in SAT and VAT volumes (p<0.01) were observed between the pre- and post-intervention measurements. The SAT and VAT were 44.22±9%, 21.06±1.35% for control, −17.33±3.07%, −15.09±1.11% for exercise, and 18.56±2.05%, −3.9±0.96% for calorie restriction cohorts, respectively. The fat quantification correlation between FSE (with and without water suppression) sequences and Dixon for SAT and VAT were 0.9709, 0.9803 and 0.9955, 0.9840 respectively. The algorithm significantly reduced the computation time from 100 sec/slice to 25 sec/slice. The pre-processing, data-derived contour placement and avoidance of strong background–image boundary improved the convergence accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Conclusions We developed a fully automatic segmentation algorithm to quantitate SAT and VAT from abdominal images of rodents, which can support large cohort studies. We additionally identified the influence of non-algorithmic variables including

  4. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Abdominal Lipectomy on Weight and Fat Mass in Females: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Seretis, Konstantinos; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Koliakos, Georgios; Demiri, Efterpi

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue is considered as an endocrine organ, which is developed in specific depots, distinguished either as subcutaneous or visceral. Lipectomy, by means of liposuction or abdominoplasty, is a common plastic surgery procedure, which can remove substantial amounts of subcutaneous fat. This systematic review aims to evaluate the impact of surgical removal of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue on body weight and fat mass in females in the short- and long-term. A systematic review was conducted using a predetermined protocol established according to the Cochrane Handbook's recommendations. PubMed, Scopus, CENTRAL, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to December 2014. Eligible studies were prospective studies with ≥1 month of follow-up that included female only individuals who underwent lipectomy of the abdominal region and reported on body weight, body mass index (BMI), or fat mass. Ten studies were included in this systematic review with a total of 231 individuals. A significant weight loss and BMI improvement were reported in 4 out of 5 studies with a mean follow-up of 1-2 months, but in none of the 5 studies with a longer follow-up (3-20 months). Fat mass showed a similar to weight change. The risk of bias was low for the two clinical trials but high for the observational studies included in the review. This systematic review revealed only a transient effect of abdominal lipectomy in body fat and weight in women, which fades a few months after the operation. These results corroborate the evidence from experimental and clinical studies, which support fat redistribution and compensatory fat growth, as a result of feedback mechanisms, triggered by fat removal. Additional clinical studies, with adequate follow-up, may further elucidate the long-term effects of abdominal lipectomy in body weight and composition. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42015017564 ( www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO ). PMID:26210190

  5. Associations of birth weight, linear growth and relative weight gain throughout life with abdominal fat depots in adulthood: the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Araújo de França, G V; Lucia Rolfe, E De; Horta, B L; Gigante, D P; Yudkin, J S; Ong, K K; Victora, C G

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported on associations of size at birth and early growth with general and central obesity; however, few have examined the potential effects of birth weight and postnatal growth on separate abdominal fat compartments. We investigated the effects of size at birth, linear growth and relative weight gain from birth to adulthood on visceral (VFT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAFT) fat thicknesses at age 30 years. Methods: A total of 2663 participants from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study had complete information on ultrasound measures of abdominal fat at age 30 years, and anthropometric measurements for at least five visits (0/2/4/23/30 years). We estimated weight and height Z-score changes, conditional relative weight gain and conditional height at several ages. Results: In both men and women, VFT and SAFT showed positive associations with conditional relative weight gain during all age periods beyond 2 years and birth, respectively (all P⩽0.01). Women born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) had greater VFT than other women (difference=0.15 s.d., 95% CI: 0.01–0.29), and they showed a stronger positive influence of infant weight gain 0–2 years on VFT (IUGR: β=0.17 s.d., 95% CI: 0.05–0.29; non-IUGR: β=0.01 s.d., 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.06; Pinteraction=0.02). Stunting at 2 years was associated with lower SAFT but not VFT, and it modified the influence of weight gain 2–4 years on SAFT in both sexes (both Pinteraction<0.05). Conclusions: Our findings reinforce the advantages of being born with an appropriate birth weight, and the hazards of rapid postnatal gains in weight relative to linear growth, particularly after the critical window of the first 1000 days. PMID:26395747

  6. Nutritional Factors Affecting Abdominal Fat Deposition in Poultry: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, A. M.; El-Senousey, H. K.

    2014-01-01

    The major goals of the poultry industry are to increase the carcass yield and to reduce carcass fatness, mainly the abdominal fat pad. The increase in poultry meat consumption has guided the selection process toward fast-growing broilers with a reduced feed conversion ratio. Intensive selection has led to great improvements in economic traits such as body weight gain, feed efficiency, and breast yield to meet the demands of consumers, but modern commercial chickens exhibit excessive fat accumulation in the abdomen area. However, dietary composition and feeding strategies may offer practical and efficient solutions for reducing body fat deposition in modern poultry strains. Thus, the regulation of lipid metabolism to reduce the abdominal fat content based on dietary composition and feeding strategy, as well as elucidating their effects on the key enzymes associated with lipid metabolism, could facilitate the production of lean meat and help to understand the fat-lowering effects of diet and different feeding strategies. PMID:25050050

  7. Abdominal fat and metabolic risk in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Revenga-Frauca, J; González-Gil, E M; Bueno-Lozano, G; De Miguel-Etayo, P; Velasco-Martínez, P; Rey-López, J P; Bueno-Lozano, O; Moreno, L A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fat distribution, mainly abdominal fat, and its relationship with metabolic risk variables in a group of 126 children and adolescents (60 males and 66 females) aged 5.0 to 14.9. According to IOTF criteria, 46 were classified as normal weight, 28 overweight and 52 obese. Weight, height, waist (WC) and hip circumferences were measured. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Total body fat, trunkal and abdominal fat were also assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Glucose, insulin, HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), ferritine, homocystein and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Obesity status was related with insulin concentrations, CRP, TG and HDL. Obese patients had higher abdominal fat and higher CRP values than overweight and normal subjects. All markers of central body adiposity were related with insulin and lipid metabolism; however, they were not related with homocystein or ferritin. A simple anthropometric measurement, like waist circumference, seems to be a good predictor of the majority of the obesity related metabolic risk variables. PMID:20358355

  8. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  9. Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight & intra-abdominal adipose tissue loss or reduce adipocyte size & inflammatory markers in overweight & obese adults; Controlled feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Research on the role of dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective: A 15 week controlled feeding study to answer the question: do dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a mode...

  10. The effect of abdominal fat parameters on percutaneous nephrolithotomy success

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Ozgur; Tarhan, Huseyin; Cimen, Sertac; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Akarken, Ilker; Oztekin, Ozgur; Can, Ertan; Suelozgen, Tufan; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity has been suggested to lower the success of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). However, the relationship between abdominal fat parameters, such as visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, and PCNL success remained unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of abdominal fat parameters on PCNL success. Methods: A total of 150 patients who underwent PCNL were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Group 1 consisted of patients who had no residual stones or residual stone fragments <3 mm in diameter while group 2 included patients with residual stone fragments ≥3 mm. PCNL procedure was defined as successful if all stones were eliminated or if there were residual stone fragments <3 mm in diameter confirmed by non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) performed postoperatively. Preoperative NCCT was used to determine abdominal fat parameters. Results: Group 1 consisted of 117 (78.0%) patients while group 2 included 33 (22.0%) patients. On univariate analysis, stone number, stone surface area (SSA), visceral fat area (VFA), abdominal circumference on computerized tomography (ACCT), and duration of procedure were found to be predictive factors affecting PCNL success. Logistic regression analysis revealed that ACCT and SSA were independent prognostic factors for PCNL success. Conclusions: PCNL success was not affected by VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA) and body mass index (BMI) in our series. However, ACCT and SSA had negative associations with PCNL success. We conclude that both ACCT and SSA can be used as tools for predicting PCNL outcomes. PMID:27330587

  11. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model. PMID:27152424

  12. A Study of Physicochemical Properties of Subcutaneous Fat of the Abdomen and its Implication in Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pramod; Kodavoor, Srinivas Aithal; Kotian, Sushma Rama; Yathdaka, Sudhakar Narahari; Nayak, Dayanand; Souza, Anne D; Souza, Antony Sylvan D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The lower abdominal obesity is more resistant to absorption as compared to that of upper abdomen. Differences in the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of the upper and lower abdomen may be responsible for this variation. There is paucity of the scientific literature on the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of abdomen. Aim The present study was undertaken to create a database of physicochemical properties of abdominal subcutaneous fat. Materials and Methods The samples of subcutaneous fat from upper and lower abdomen were collected from 40 fresh autopsied bodies (males 33, females 7). The samples were prepared for physicochemical analysis using organic and inorganic solvents. Various physicochemical properties of the fat samples analysed were surface tension, viscosity, specific gravity, specific conductivity, iodine value and thermal properties. Data was analysed by paired and independent sample t-tests. Results There was a statistically significant difference in all the physicochemical parameters between males and females except surface tension (organic) and surface tension (inorganic) of upper abdominal fat, and surface tension (organic) of lower abdominal fat. In males, viscosity of upper abdominal fat was more compared to that of lower abdomen (both organic and inorganic) unlike the specific conductivity that was higher for the lower abdominal fat as compared to that of the upper abdomen. In females there were statistically significant higher values of surface tension (inorganic) and specific gravity (organic) of the upper abdomen fat as compared to that of lower abdomen. The initial and final weight loss of the lower abdominal fat as indicated by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was significantly more in males than in female Conclusion The difference in the physicochemical properties of subcutaneous fat between upper and lower abdomen and between males and females could be responsible for the variant behaviour of

  13. Multicollinearity in associations between multiple environmental features and body weight and abdominal fat: using matching techniques to assess whether the associations are separable.

    PubMed

    Leal, Cinira; Bean, Kathy; Thomas, Frédérique; Chaix, Basile

    2012-06-01

    Because of the strong correlations among neighborhoods' characteristics, it is not clear whether the associations of specific environmental exposures (e.g., densities of physical features and services) with obesity can be disentangled. Using data from the RECORD (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) Cohort Study (Paris, France, 2007-2008), the authors investigated whether neighborhood characteristics related to the sociodemographic, physical, service-related, and social-interactional environments were associated with body mass index and waist circumference. The authors developed an original neighborhood characteristic-matching technique (analyses within pairs of participants similarly exposed to an environmental variable) to assess whether or not these associations could be disentangled. After adjustment for individual/neighborhood socioeconomic variables, body mass index/waist circumference was negatively associated with characteristics of the physical/service environments reflecting higher densities (e.g., proportion of built surface, densities of shops selling fruits/vegetables, and restaurants). Multiple adjustment models and the neighborhood characteristic-matching technique were unable to identify which of these neighborhood variables were driving the associations because of high correlations between the environmental variables. Overall, beyond the socioeconomic environment, the physical and service environments may be associated with weight status, but it is difficult to disentangle the effects of strongly correlated environmental dimensions, even if they imply different causal mechanisms and interventions. PMID:22534206

  14. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  15. The effects of weight loss treatments on upper and lower body fat.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, P G

    1997-08-01

    The intra-abdominal visceral deposition of adipose tissue, which characterises upper body obesity, is a major contributor to the development of hypertension, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia. Conversely, individuals with lower body obesity may have comparable amounts of adipose tissue but remain relatively free from the metabolic consequences of obesity. This raises an obvious question-are there particular weight reducing treatments which specifically target intra-abdominal fat? In theory, surgical removal of upper body fat should be effective. In reality, neither liposuction nor apronectomy ('tummy tuck') have any beneficial metabolic effects, they simply remove subcutaneous adipose tissue which is often rapidly replaced. Vertical banded gastroplasty and gastric bypass operations may be dramatically effective in improving blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. However, these benefits result from a parallel reduction in visceral and total body fat. Studies of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women confirm that the marked decrease in adiposity, following a programme of very low calorie diet and exercise, reflects a comparable reduction in visceral and thigh fat. The reduction in waist circumference after a low fat/exercise programme suggests a similar situation in men. Exercise has an important role in treatment but, once again, the fat loss is generalised. Nevertheless, the improved metabolic parameters seen in exercising obese subjects, independent of weight loss, suggest other beneficial actions. Growth hormone (GH) has a marked lipolytic action. GH replacement treatment for GH deficient adults with pronounced abdominal fat deposition, has been shown to reduce intra-abdominal fat by 47% compared to 27% decrease in abdominal subcutaneous fat. Similar beneficial actions on abdominal fat have been reported following treatment with testosterone in obese men. The potential hazards of such treatments make them unsuitable therapy for

  16. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in genetically fat and lean chickens reveals adipokines, lipogenic genes and a link between hemostasis and leanness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This descriptive study of the abdominal fat transcriptome takes advantage of two experimental lines of meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus), which were selected over seven generations for a large difference in abdominal (visceral) fatness. At the age of selection (9 wk), the fat line (FL) and lean line (LL) chickens exhibit a 2.5-fold difference in abdominal fat weight, while their feed intake and body weight are similar. These unique avian models were originally created to unravel genetic and endocrine regulation of adiposity and lipogenesis in meat-type chickens. The Del-Mar 14K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray was used for a time-course analysis of gene expression in abdominal fat of FL and LL chickens during juvenile development (1–11 weeks of age). Results Microarray analysis of abdominal fat in FL and LL chickens revealed 131 differentially expressed (DE) genes (FDR≤0.05) as the main effect of genotype, 254 DE genes as an interaction of age and genotype and 3,195 DE genes (FDR≤0.01) as the main effect of age. The most notable discoveries in the abdominal fat transcriptome were higher expression of many genes involved in blood coagulation in the LL and up-regulation of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in FL chickens. Many of these DE genes belong to pathways controlling the synthesis, metabolism and transport of lipids or endocrine signaling pathways activated by adipokines, retinoid and thyroid hormones. Conclusions The present study provides a dynamic view of differential gene transcription in abdominal fat of chickens genetically selected for fatness (FL) or leanness (LL). Remarkably, the LL chickens over-express a large number of hemostatic genes that could be involved in proteolytic processing of adipokines and endocrine factors, which contribute to their higher lipolysis and export of stored lipids. Some of these changes are already present at 1 week of age before the divergence in fatness. In contrast, the FL chickens have

  17. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  18. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  19. Familial aggregation of abdominal visceral fat level: results from the Quebec family study.

    PubMed

    Pérusse, L; Després, J P; Lemieux, S; Rice, T; Rao, D C; Bouchard, C

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of familial aggregation in abdominal visceral fat (AVF) level as assessed by computed tomography (CT). Four measures of abdominal adipose tissue, obtained from an abdominal scan between the fourth and fifth Lumbar vertebrae (L4-L5) taken in 366 adult subjects from 100 French-Canadian nuclear families, were considered in this study. Total abdominal fat, AVF, subcutaneous abdominal fat, obtained by computing the difference between total and AVF tissue areas, and the visceral to total abdominal fat ratio were measured. Spouses, parent-offspring, and sibling correlations were computed by maximum likelihood methods after adjustment of the four phenotypes for age and for age and total fat mass (FM) derived from underwater weighing. Significant familial aggregation was found for all phenotypes, whether adjusted or not for body FM. However, after adjustment of data for body FM, in addition to age, all spouse correlations became nonsignificant, suggesting that the familial aggregation of abdominal fat is primarily genetic. Heritability estimates reached 42% and 56% for subcutaneous fat and AVF, respectively. These results suggest that genetic factors are major determinants of the familial aggregation observed in the amount of abdominal fat, irrespective of total body fat content, and that AVF seems more influenced by genetic factors than abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. These findings imply that some individuals are more at risk than others to exhibit the various metabolic complications associated with upper-body obesity because of their inherited tendency to store abdominal fat in the visceral depot rather than in the subcutaneous depot. PMID:8606647

  20. Change in Intra-Abdominal Fat Predicts the Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Americans.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Catherine A; Kahn, Steven E; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas. PMID:26063668

  1. Healthy Fats in Mediterranean Diet Won't Boost Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fats in Mediterranean Diet Won't Boost Weight Vegetable oils, nuts can be a part of a healthful ... health benefits and includes healthy fats, such as vegetable oils, fish and nuts," Estruch explained in a journal ...

  2. Selection Signature Analysis Implicates the PC1/PCSK1 Region for Chicken Abdominal Fat Content

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Yuandan; Wang, Shouzhi; Wang, Ning; Ma, Li; Leng, Li; Wang, Shengwen; Wang, Qigui; Wang, Yuxiang; Tang, Zhiquan; Li, Ning; Da, Yang; Li, Hui

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a selection signature analysis using the chicken 60k SNP chip in two chicken lines that had been divergently selected for abdominal fat content (AFC) for 11 generations. The selection signature analysis used multiple signals of selection, including long-range allele frequency differences between the lean and fat lines, long-range heterozygosity changes, linkage disequilibrium, haplotype frequencies, and extended haplotype homozygosity. Multiple signals of selection identified ten signatures on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 11, 15, 20, 26 and Z. The 0.73 Mb PC1/PCSK1 region of the Z chromosome at 55.43-56.16 Mb was the most heavily selected region. This region had 26 SNP markers and seven genes, Mar-03, SLC12A2, FBN2, ERAP1, CAST, PC1/PCSK1 and ELL2, where PC1/PCSK1 are the chicken/human names for the same gene. The lean and fat lines had two main haplotypes with completely opposite SNP alleles for the 26 SNP markers and were virtually line-specific, and had a recombinant haplotype with nearly equal frequency (0.193 and 0.196) in both lines. Other haplotypes in this region had negligible frequencies. Nine other regions with selection signatures were PAH-IGF1, TRPC4, GJD4-CCNY, NDST4, NOVA1, GALNT9, the ESRP2-GALR1 region with five genes, the SYCP2-CADH4 with six genes, and the TULP1-KIF21B with 14 genes. Genome-wide association analysis showed that nearly all regions with evidence of selection signature had SNP effects with genome-wide significance (P<10–6) on abdominal fat weight and percentage. The results of this study provide specific gene targets for the control of chicken AFC and a potential model of AFC in human obesity. PMID:22792402

  3. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS. PMID:23411176

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Changes in Abdominal Compartments in Obese Diabetics during a Low-Calorie Weight-Loss Program

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Lena J.; Steveling, Antje; Meffert, Peter J.; Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Kessler, Rebecca; Hosten, Norbert; Krüger, Janine; Gärtner, Simone; Aghdassi, Ali A.; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Kühn, Jens-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate changes in the fat content of abdominal compartments and muscle area during weight loss using confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in overweight diabetics. Methods Twenty-nine obese diabetics (10/19 men/women, median age: 59.0 years, median body mass index (BMI): 34.0 kg/m2) prospectively joined a standardized 15-week weight-loss program (six weeks of formula diet exclusively, followed by reintroduction of regular food with gradually increasing energy content over nine weeks) over 15 weeks. All subjects underwent a standardized MRI protocol including a confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded MR sequence with water/fat separation before the program as well at the end of the six weeks of formula diet and at the end of the program at 15 weeks. Fat fractions of abdominal organs and vertebral bone marrow as well as volumes of visceral and subcutaneous fat were determined. Furthermore, muscle area was evaluated using the L4/L5 method. Data were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples. Results Median BMI decreased significantly from 34.0 kg/m2 to 29.9 kg/m2 (p < 0.001) at 15 weeks. Liver fat content was normalized (14.2% to 4.1%, p < 0.001) and vertebral bone marrow fat (57.5% to 53.6%, p = 0.018) decreased significantly throughout the program, while fat content of pancreas (9.0%), spleen (0.0%), and psoas muscle (0.0%) did not (p > 0.15). Visceral fat volume (3.2 L to 1.6 L, p < 0.001) and subcutaneous fat diameter (3.0 cm to 2.2 cm, p < 0.001) also decreased significantly. Muscle area declined by 6.8% from 243.9 cm2 to 226.8 cm2. Conclusion MRI allows noninvasive monitoring of changes in abdominal compartments during weight loss. In overweight diabetics, weight loss leads to fat reduction in abdominal compartments, such as visceral fat, as well as liver fat and vertebral bone marrow fat while pancreas fat remains unchanged. PMID:27110719

  5. Single injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, into newly hatched chicks alters abdominal fat pad mass in growing birds.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ijiri, Daichi; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishitani, Kanae; Nojima, Tsutomu; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2015-01-15

    Excessive energy is stored in white adipose tissue as triacylglycerols in birds as well as in mammals. Although β2-adrenergic receptor agonists reduce adipose tissue mass in birds, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of a single intraperitoneal injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, on the abdominal fat pad tissue development. Thirty-three chicks at 1-day-old were given a single intraperitoneal injection of clenbuterol (0.1mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline. At 2 weeks post-dose, the weight of the abdominal fat tissue was decreased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, and small adipocyte-like cells were observed in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Then, the expression of mRNAs encoding genes related to avian adipogenesis was examined in the abdominal fat pat tissue. The expression of mRNAs encoding Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor 5 (KLF-5), KLF-15, and zinc finger protein 423 in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of the control chicks, while the expression of mRNA encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma was not affected. In addition, both mRNA expression (P<0.05) and enzymatic activity (P<0.05) of fatty acid synthase (FAS) were decreased in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks, while clenbuterol injection did not affect FAS activity in liver. These results suggested that a single injection with clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks reduces their abdominal fat pad mass possibly via disrupting adipocyte development during later growth stages. PMID:25513727

  6. Excess weight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal Brazilian women: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The menopause is associated with a tendency to gain weight. Several alterations in fat deposits occur, leading to changes in the distribution of body fat. There are strong indications that, in middle age, obesity is associated with increased mortality. This study set out to determine the factors associated with the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women in a population-based study in Brazil. Methods The sample included 456 women, aged 45–69 years, residing in the urban area of Maringa, Parana. Systematic sampling, with a probability proportional to the size of the census sector, was performed. Behavioral, economic, and sociodemographic data were collected, and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were determined. Results According to BMI criteria (≥25.0 kg/m2), 72.6% of the women were overweight, and according to WC (≥88 cm), 63.6% had abdominal obesity. Based on logistic regression analysis, the factors that were most closely associated with overweight were: having three or more children (odds ratio (OR): 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–3.00); and not taking hormone replacement therapy (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.06–2.63). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was positively associated with greater parity (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05–1.72) and age older than 65 years (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.03–2.19). Conclusions This study found that the prevalences of overweight and abdominal obesity were higher for postmenopausal women who had three or more children. Age over 65 years was also a risk factor for abdominal obesity and no use of hormonal replacement therapy was a risk factor for overweight. PMID:24228934

  7. Increased Depth of Subcutaneous Fat is Protective against Abdominal Injuries in Motor Vehicle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Stewart C.; Bednarski, Brian; Patel, Smita; Yan, Alice; Kohoyda-Inglis, Carla; Kennedy, Theresa; Link, Elizabeth; Rowe, Stephen; Sochor, Mark; Arbabi, Saman

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of differences in subcutaneous fat depth on adult injury patterns in motor vehicle collisions. Sixty-seven consecutive adult crash subjects aged 19–65 who received computed tomography of their chest, abdomen and pelvis as part of their medical evaluation and who consented to inclusion in the Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) study were included. Subcutaneous fat was measured just lateral to the rectus abdominus muscle in a transverse section taken through the subject at the level of L4. Women had significantly greater subcutaneous fat depth than men. Increased subcutaneous fat depth was associated with significantly decreased injury severity to the abdominal region of females. A similar trend was noted in males although it did not reach statistical significance. Our findings suggest that increased subcutaneous fat may be protective against injuries by cushioning the abdominal region against injurious forces in motor vehicle collisions. PMID:12941250

  8. KNEE-JOINT LOADING IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: INFLUENCE OF ABDOMINAL AND THIGH FAT

    PubMed Central

    Messier, Stephen P.; Beavers, Daniel P.; Loeser, Richard F.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Khajanchi, Shubham; Legault, Claudine; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Hunter, David J.; DeVita, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Using three separate models that included total body mass, total lean and total fat mass, and abdominal and thigh fat as independent measures, we determined their association with knee-joint loads in older overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Fat depots were quantified using computed tomography and total lean and fat mass determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 176 adults (age = 66.3 yr., BMI = 33.5 kg·m−2) with radiographic knee OA. Knee moments and joint bone-on-bone forces were calculated using gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. Results Higher total body mass was significantly associated (p ≤ 0.0001) with greater knee compressive and shear forces, compressive and shear impulses (p < 0.0001), patellofemoral forces (p< 0.006), and knee extensor moments (p = 0.003). Regression analysis with total lean and total fat mass as independent variables revealed significant positive associations of total fat mass with knee compressive (p = 0.0001), shear (p < 0.001), and patellofemoral forces (p = 0.01) and knee extension moment (p = 0.008). Gastrocnemius and quadriceps forces were positively associated with total fat mass. Total lean mass was associated with knee compressive force (p = 0.002). A regression model that included total thigh and total abdominal fat found both were significantly associated with knee compressive and shear forces (p ≤ 0.04). Thigh fat was associated with the knee abduction (p = 0.03) and knee extension moment (p = 0.02). Conclusions Thigh fat, consisting predominately of subcutaneous fat, had similar significant associations with knee joint forces as abdominal fat despite its much smaller volume and could be an important therapeutic target for people with knee OA. PMID:25133996

  9. DXA-derived abdominal fat mass, waist circumference, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Vatanparast, Hassanali; Chilibeck, Philip D; Cornish, Stephen M; Little, Jonathan P; Paus-Jenssen, Lisa S; Case, Allison M; Biem, H Jay

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived fat mass indices for predicting blood lipid profile in postmenopausal women. A secondary purpose was to determine whether waist circumference is comparable with DXA-derived measurements in predicting blood lipid profile. Subjects were 423 postmenopausal women (age 58.1 +/- 6.3 years). Fat mass was assessed at abdomen, trunk, and total body using DXA. Anthropometric measurements included BMI and waist circumference. Blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TAG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and cholesterol/HDL ratio. Of the DXA-derived measures, abdominal-fat mass was the best predictor of blood lipid profiles. DXA-derived abdominal fat mass and waist girth explained 20 and 16.5% of variation in TC/HDL ratio, respectively, in univariate analysis, with no difference between the slopes of the regression coefficients. Eighty-four percent of subjects were common to the top quartiles of waist circumference and abdominal fat mass, and blood lipid profiles generally worsened across increasing quartiles. DXA-derived abdominal fat mass and waist circumference are of equivalent utility for predicting alterations in blood lipids. Waist circumference is, therefore, ideal as an inexpensive means in primary health-care services for predicting risk of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. PMID:19343013

  10. Metabolic effects of intra-abdominal fat in GHRKO mice

    PubMed Central

    Masternak, Michal M.; Bartke, Andrzej; Wang, Feiya; Spong, Adam; Gesing, Adam; Fang, Yimin; Salmon, Adam B.; Hughes, Larry F.; Liberati, Teresa; Boparai, Ravneet; Kopchick, John J.; Westbrook, Reyhan

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Mice with targeted deletion of the growth hormone receptor (GHRKO mice) are GH resistant, small, obese, hypoinsulinemic, highly insulin sensitive and remarkably long-lived. To elucidate the unexpected coexistence of adiposity with improved insulin sensitivity and extended longevity, we examined effects of surgical removal of visceral (epididymal and perinephric) fat on metabolic traits related to insulin signaling and longevity. Comparison of results obtained in GHRKO mice and in normal animals from the same strain revealed disparate effects of visceral fat removal (VFR) on insulin and glucose tolerance, adiponectin levels, accumulation of ectopic fat, phosphorylation of insulin signaling intermediates, body temperature and respiratory quotient (RQ). Overall, VFR produced the expected improvements in insulin sensitivity and reduced body temperature and RQ in normal mice and had opposite effects in GHRKO mice. Some of the examined parameters were altered by VFR in opposite directions in GHRKO and normal mice, others were affected in only one genotype or exhibited significant genotype × treatment interactions. Functional differences between visceral fat of GHRKO and normal mice were confirmed by measurements of adipokine secretion, lipolysis and expression of genes related to fat metabolism. We conclude that in the absence of GH signaling the secretory activity of visceral fat is profoundly altered and unexpectedly promotes enhanced insulin sensitivity. The apparent beneficial effects of visceral fat in GHRKO mice may also explain why reducing adiposity by calorie restriction fails to improve insulin signaling or further extend longevity in these animals. PMID:22040032

  11. Metabolic effects of intra-abdominal fat in GHRKO mice.

    PubMed

    Masternak, Michal M; Bartke, Andrzej; Wang, Feiya; Spong, Adam; Gesing, Adam; Fang, Yimin; Salmon, Adam B; Hughes, Larry F; Liberati, Teresa; Boparai, Ravneet; Kopchick, John J; Westbrook, Reyhan

    2012-02-01

    Mice with targeted deletion of the growth hormone receptor (GHRKO mice) are growth hormone (GH) resistant, small, obese, hypoinsulinemic, highly insulin sensitive and remarkably long-lived. To elucidate the unexpected coexistence of adiposity with improved insulin sensitivity and extended longevity, we examined effects of surgical removal of visceral (epididymal and perinephric) fat on metabolic traits related to insulin signaling and longevity. Comparison of results obtained in GHRKO mice and in normal animals from the same strain revealed disparate effects of visceral fat removal (VFR) on insulin and glucose tolerance, adiponectin levels, accumulation of ectopic fat, phosphorylation of insulin signaling intermediates, body temperature, and respiratory quotient (RQ). Overall, VFR produced the expected improvements in insulin sensitivity and reduced body temperature and RQ in normal mice and had opposite effects in GHRKO mice. Some of the examined parameters were altered by VFR in opposite directions in GHRKO and normal mice, and others were affected in only one genotype or exhibited significant genotype × treatment interactions. Functional differences between visceral fat of GHRKO and normal mice were confirmed by measurements of adipokine secretion, lipolysis, and expression of genes related to fat metabolism. We conclude that in the absence of GH signaling, the secretory activity of visceral fat is profoundly altered and unexpectedly promotes enhanced insulin sensitivity. The apparent beneficial effects of visceral fat in GHRKO mice may also explain why reducing adiposity by calorie restriction fails to improve insulin signaling or further extend longevity in these animals. PMID:22040032

  12. Daily intake of rosehip extract decreases abdominal visceral fat in preobese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Nagatomo, Akifumi; Nishida, Norihisa; Fukuhara, Ikuo; Noro, Akira; Kozai, Yoshimichi; Sato, Hisao; Matsuura, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity has become a great problem all over the world. We repeatedly screened to find an effective food to treat obesity and discovered that rosehip extract shows potent anti-obesity effects. Investigations in mice have demonstrated that rosehip extract inhibits body weight gain and decreases visceral fat. Thus, the present study examined the effect of rosehip extract on human body fat in preobese subjects. Methods We conducted a 12-week, single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 32 subjects who had a body mass index of ≥25 but <30. The subjects were assigned to two random groups, and they received one tablet of placebo or rosehip that contained 100 mg of rosehip extract once each day for 12 weeks with no dietary intervention. Abdominal fat area and body fat percent were measured as primary outcomes. The other outcomes were body weight and body mass index. Results Abdominal total fat area, abdominal visceral fat area, body weight, and body mass index decreased significantly in the rosehip group at week 12 compared with their baseline levels (P<0.01) after receiving the rosehip tablet intake, and the decreases in these parameters were significantly higher when compared with those in the placebo group. Additionally, body fat percent tended to decrease compared with the placebo group and their baseline level. Moreover, the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was significantly lower in the rosehip group than in the placebo group at week 12 after the initiation of intake (P<0.05). In addition, there were no abnormalities, subjective symptoms, and findings that may indicate clinical problems during the study period. Conclusion These results suggest that rosehip extract may be a good candidate food material for preventing obesity. PMID:25834460

  13. Jejunal perforation after abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Coronado-Malagón, Martin; Tauffer-Carrion, Luis Tomas

    2012-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented to the emergency department 24 h after undergoing abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting at a private plastic surgery clinic. She presented with the classic evolution of a bowel perforation secondary to abdominal liposuction. A computed tomography (CT) scan found free air in her abdominal cavity. Based on the CT scan and the persistent pain experienced by the patient, an abdominal laparatomy was urgently performed. A jejunum perforation was found and was treated with a resection of the affected segment followed by intestinal anastomosis. The patient had a successful recovery and was discharged seven days later. The present article also reviews the classical presentation of a bowel perforation following abdominal liposuction. PMID:23997589

  14. Jejunal perforation after abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting

    PubMed Central

    Coronado-Malagón, Martin; Tauffer-Carrion, Luis Tomas

    2012-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented to the emergency department 24 h after undergoing abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting at a private plastic surgery clinic. She presented with the classic evolution of a bowel perforation secondary to abdominal liposuction. A computed tomography (CT) scan found free air in her abdominal cavity. Based on the CT scan and the persistent pain experienced by the patient, an abdominal laparatomy was urgently performed. A jejunum perforation was found and was treated with a resection of the affected segment followed by intestinal anastomosis. The patient had a successful recovery and was discharged seven days later. The present article also reviews the classical presentation of a bowel perforation following abdominal liposuction. PMID:23997589

  15. Familial clustering of abdominal visceral fat and total fat mass: the Québec Family Study.

    PubMed

    Rice, T; Pérusse, L; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

    1996-05-01

    The evidence for common familial factors underlying total fat mass (estimated from underwater weighing) and abdominal visceral fat (assessed from CT scan) was examined in families participating in phase 2 of the Québec Family Study (QFS) using a bivariate familial correlation model. Previous QFS investigations suggest that both genetic (major and polygenic) and familial environmental factors influence each phenotype, accounting for between 55% to 71% of the phenotypic variance in fat mass, and between 55% to 72% for abdominal visceral fat. The current study suggests that the bivariate familial effect ranges from 29% to 50%. This pattern suggests that there may be common familial determinants for abdominal visceral fat and total fat mass, as well as additional familial factors which are specific to each. The relatively high spouse cross-trait correlations usually suggest that a large percent of the bivariate familial effect may be environmental in origin. However, if mating is not random, then the spouse resemblance may reflect either genetic or environmental causes, depending on the source [i.e., through similar genes or cohabitation (environmental) effects]. Finally, there are significant sex differences in the magnitude of the familial cross-trait correlations involving parents, but not offspring, suggesting complex generation (i.e., age) and sex effects. For example, genes may turn on or off as a function of age and sex, and/or there may be an accumulation over time of effects due to the environment which may vary by sex. Whether the common familial factors are genetic (major and/or polygenic), environmental, or some combination of both, and whether the familial expression depends on sex and/or age warrants further investigation using more complex models. PMID:8732959

  16. Intra-abdominal fat. Part III. Neoplasms lesions of the adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2016-06-01

    This article focuses on various cancerous lesions that are found beyond organs in the intra-abdominal fat and can be visualized with ultrasonography. These lesions are divided into five groups. The first group includes primary benign tumors containing adipocytes, such as lipoma, lipoblastoma, hibernoma and other lesions with an adipose tissue component, such as myolipoma, angiomyolipoma, myelolipoma and teratoma. The second group comprises primary malignant adipocytecontaining tumors, including liposarcoma and immature teratoma. The third group contains primary benign tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. This is a numerous group of lesions represented by cystic and solid tumors. The fourth group encompasses primary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. These are rare lesions associated mainly with sarcomas: fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, hemangiopericytoma and leiomyosarcoma. An epithelioid tumor at this site is mesothelioma. The last but not least group includes secondary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component located in intra-abdominal fat. This is the most numerous group with prevailing carcinoma foci. For each of these groups, the authors present ultrasound features of individual lesions and discuss their differential diagnosis. In the vast majority of cases, the material for cytological and histological analysis can be obtained during ultrasound-guided procedures. This is the advantage of this imaging modality. PMID:27446599

  17. Intra-abdominal fat. Part III. Neoplasms lesions of the adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on various cancerous lesions that are found beyond organs in the intra-abdominal fat and can be visualized with ultrasonography. These lesions are divided into five groups. The first group includes primary benign tumors containing adipocytes, such as lipoma, lipoblastoma, hibernoma and other lesions with an adipose tissue component, such as myolipoma, angiomyolipoma, myelolipoma and teratoma. The second group comprises primary malignant adipocytecontaining tumors, including liposarcoma and immature teratoma. The third group contains primary benign tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. This is a numerous group of lesions represented by cystic and solid tumors. The fourth group encompasses primary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. These are rare lesions associated mainly with sarcomas: fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, hemangiopericytoma and leiomyosarcoma. An epithelioid tumor at this site is mesothelioma. The last but not least group includes secondary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component located in intra-abdominal fat. This is the most numerous group with prevailing carcinoma foci. For each of these groups, the authors present ultrasound features of individual lesions and discuss their differential diagnosis. In the vast majority of cases, the material for cytological and histological analysis can be obtained during ultrasound-guided procedures. This is the advantage of this imaging modality. PMID:27446599

  18. Effects of Aerobic Versus Resistance Exercise Without Caloric Restriction on Abdominal Fat, Intrahepatic Lipid, and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SoJung; Bacha, Fida; Hannon, Tamara; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Boesch, Chris; Arslanian, Silva

    2012-01-01

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and secretion in youth. Forty-five obese adolescent boys were randomly assigned to one of three 3-month interventions: AE, RE, or a nonexercising control. Abdominal fat was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, and intrahepatic lipid and intramyocellular lipid were assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were evaluated by a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and a 2-h hyperglycemic clamp. Both AE and RE prevented the significant weight gain that was observed in controls. Compared with controls, significant reductions in total and visceral fat and intrahepatic lipid were observed in both exercise groups. Compared with controls, a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity (27%) was observed in the RE group. Collapsed across groups, changes in visceral fat were associated with changes in intrahepatic lipid (r = 0.72) and insulin sensitivity (r = −0.47). Both AE and RE alone are effective for reducing abdominal fat and intrahepatic lipid in obese adolescent boys. RE but not AE is also associated with significant improvements in insulin sensitivity. PMID:22751691

  19. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  20. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Han, Juyoung; Kim, So Hun; Suh, Young Ju; Lim, Hyun Ae; Shin, Heekyoung; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Chei Won; Lee, Seung Youn; Lee, Dae Hyung; Hong, Seongbin; Kim, Yong Seong; Nam, Moon-Suk

    2016-06-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  1. Cocaine's appetite for fat and the consequences on body weight.

    PubMed

    Billing, Lawrence; Ersche, Karen D

    2015-03-01

    For many individuals in treatment for cocaine dependence, weight gain is a substantial problem during recovery. This weight gain causes significant distress and seems to increase the risk of relapse. The mechanisms underlying cocaine's effects on weight remain elusive. It is widely assumed that this weight gain reflects a metabolic or behavioural compensatory response to the cessation of cocaine use. Here we challenge this assumption and outline potential mechanisms by which chronic cocaine use produces disturbances in the regulation of fat intake and storage, through its effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, specifically the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesize that the cocaine-induced alteration in fat regulation results in cocaine users developing a pronounced appetite for fatty food but keeps their fat mass low. This altered fat appetite subsequently leads to excessive weight gain when individuals enter treatment and stop using cocaine. Our aim is to shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the alterations in eating and fat regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals, to open up potential new avenues to support these individuals in recovery. PMID:25321424

  2. Low-Fat Versus Low-Carbohydrate Weight Reduction Diets

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Una; Spence, Michelle; Courtney, C. Hamish; McKinley, Michelle C.; Ennis, Cieran N.; McCance, David R.; McEneny, Jane; Bell, Patrick M.; Young, Ian S.; Hunter, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Low-fat hypocaloric diets reduce insulin resistance and prevent type 2 diabetes in those at risk. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets are advocated as an alternative, but reciprocal increases in dietary fat may have detrimental effects on insulin resistance and offset the benefits of weight reduction. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We investigated a low-fat (20% fat, 60% carbohydrate) versus a low-carbohydrate (60% fat, 20% carbohydrate) weight reduction diet in 24 overweight/obese subjects ([mean ± SD] BMI 33.6 ± 3.7 kg/m2, aged 39 ± 10 years) in an 8-week randomized controlled trial. All food was weighed and distributed, and intake was calculated to produce a 500 kcal/day energy deficit. Insulin action was assessed by the euglycemic clamp and insulin secretion by meal tolerance test. Body composition, adipokine levels, and vascular compliance by pulse-wave analysis were also measured. RESULTS Significant weight loss occurred in both groups (P < 0.01), with no difference between groups (P = 0.40). Peripheral glucose uptake increased, but there was no difference between groups (P = 0.28), and suppression of endogenous glucose production was also similar between groups. Meal tolerance–related insulin secretion decreased with weight loss with no difference between groups (P = 0.71). The change in overall systemic arterial stiffness was, however, significantly different between diets (P = 0.04); this reflected a significant decrease in augmentation index following the low-fat diet, compared with a nonsignificant increase within the low-carbohydrate group. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates comparable effects on insulin resistance of low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets independent of macronutrient content. The difference in augmentation index may imply a negative effect of low-carbohydrate diets on vascular risk. PMID:19720791

  3. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  4. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  5. Effect of Gender on the Total Abdominal Fat, Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Abdominal Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue among Indian Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Abdominal obesity is a better marker of adverse metabolic profile than generalized obesity in hypertensive subjects. Further, gender has effect on adiposity and its distribution. Aim Effect of gender on obesity and the distribution of fat in different sub-compartments of abdomen among Indian hypertensive subjects. Materials and Methods This observational study included 278 adult subjects (Males-149 & Females-129) with essential hypertension from a tertiary care centre in north India over one year. A detailed history taking and physical examination including anthropometry were performed in all patients. Total Abdominal Fat (TAF) and abdominal adipose tissue sub-compartments like Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue (IAAT) and Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue (SCAT) were measured using the predictive equations developed for Asian Indians. Results Female hypertensive subjects had higher Body Mass Index (BMI) with more overweight (BMI ≥ 23kg/m2), and obesity (BMI≥ 25 kg/m2). Additionally, they had higher prevalence of central obesity based on both Waist Circumference (WC) criteria (WC≥ 90 cm in males and WC≥ 80 cm in females) and TAF criteria {≥245.6 cm2 (males) and ≥203.46 cm2 (females)} than male patients. But there was no difference in the prevalence of central obesity based on Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) criteria (WHR ≥0.90 in males and WHR ≥ 0.85 in females) between two genders. High TAF & IAAT were present in more females although there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT between two genders. Conclusion Female hypertensive subjects were more obese with higher abnormal TAF & IAAT compared to male patients. However, there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT among them. PMID:27190876

  6. Intra-abdominal fat is related to metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fat liver disease in obese youth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an association between adiposity, especially intra-abdominal adipose tissue, and hemodynamic/metabolic comorbidities in adults, however it is not clear in pediatric population. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) with values of intra-abdominal (IAAT) and subcutaneous (SCAT) adipose tissue in obese children and adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study. Subjects: 182 obese sedentary children and adolescents (aged 6 to 16 y), identified by the body mass index (BMI). Measurements: Body composition and trunk fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry- DXA; lipid profile, blood pressure and pubertal stage were also assessed. NAFLD was classified as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2) and severe (3), and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were identified by ultrasound. The MS was identified according to the cut offs proposed by World Health Organization adapted for children and adolescents. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables, and the binary logistic regression indicated the magnitude of the associations adjusted by potential cofounders (sex, age, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR). Results Higher quartile of SCAT was associated with elevated blood pressure (p = 0.015), but not associated with NAFLD (p = 0.665). Higher IAAT was positively associated with increased dyslipidemia (p = 0.001), MS (p = 0.013) and NAFLD (p = 0.005). Intermediate (p = 0.007) and highest (p = 0.001) quartile of IAAT were also associated with dyslipidemia, independently of age, sex, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance). Conclusion Obese children and adolescents, with higher IAAT are more prone to develop MS and NAFLD than those with higher values of SCAT, independent of possible confounding variables. PMID:23919592

  7. Mildly compromised tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor biosynthesis due to Pts variants leads to unusual body fat distribution and abdominal obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Korner, Germaine; Scherer, Tanja; Adamsen, Dea; Rebuffat, Alexander; Crabtree, Mark; Rassi, Anahita; Scavelli, Rossana; Homma, Daigo; Ledermann, Birgit; Konrad, Daniel; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Wolfrum, Christian; Horsch, Marion; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klingenspor, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; Wolf, Eckhard; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Blau, Nenad; Rozman, Jan; Thöny, Beat

    2016-03-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, alkylglycerol monooxygenase, and nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Inborn errors of BH4 metabolism lead to severe insufficiency of brain monoamine neurotransmitters while augmentation of BH4 by supplementation or stimulation of its biosynthesis is thought to ameliorate endothelial NOS (eNOS) dysfunction, to protect from (cardio-) vascular disease and/or prevent obesity and development of the metabolic syndrome. We have previously reported that homozygous knock-out mice for the 6-pyruvolytetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS; Pts-ko/ko) mice with no BH4 biosynthesis die after birth. Here we generated a Pts-knock-in (Pts-ki) allele expressing the murine PTPS-p.Arg15Cys with low residual activity (15% of wild-type in vitro) and investigated homozygous (Pts-ki/ki) and compound heterozygous (Pts-ki/ko) mutants. All mice showed normal viability and depending on the severity of the Pts alleles exhibited up to 90% reduction of PTPS activity concomitant with neopterin elevation and mild reduction of total biopterin while blood L-phenylalanine and brain monoamine neurotransmitters were unaffected. Yet, adult mutant mice with compromised PTPS activity (i.e., Pts-ki/ko, Pts-ki/ki or Pts-ko/wt) had increased body weight and elevated intra-abdominal fat. Comprehensive phenotyping of Pts-ki/ki mice revealed alterations in energy metabolism with proportionally higher fat content but lower lean mass, and increased blood glucose and cholesterol. Transcriptome analysis indicated changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes associated with obesity, weight loss, hepatic steatosis, and insulin sensitivity were consistent with the observed phenotypic alterations. We conclude that reduced PTPS activity concomitant with mildly compromised BH4-biosynthesis leads to abnormal body fat distribution and abdominal obesity at least in mice. This study associates a novel

  8. Estrogenic Plant Extracts Reverse Weight Gain and Fat Accumulation without Causing Mammary Gland or Uterine Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Saunier, Elise F.; Vivar, Omar I.; Rubenstein, Andrea; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Olshansky, Moshe; Baggett, Scott; Staub, Richard E.; Tagliaferri, Mary; Cohen, Isaac; Speed, Terence P.; Baxter, John D.; Leitman, Dale C.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term estrogen deficiency increases the risk of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Menopausal hormone therapy containing estrogens might prevent these conditions, but its prolonged use increases the risk of breast cancer, as wells as endometrial cancer if used without progestins. Animal studies indicate that beneficial effects of estrogens in adipose tissue and adverse effects on mammary gland and uterus are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). One strategy to improve the safety of estrogens to prevent/treat obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome is to develop estrogens that act as agonists in adipose tissue, but not in mammary gland and uterus. We considered plant extracts, which have been the source of many pharmaceuticals, as a source of tissue selective estrogens. Extracts from two plants, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (RG) and Pueraria montana var. lobata (RP) bound to ERα, activated ERα responsive reporters, and reversed weight gain and fat accumulation comparable to estradiol in ovariectomized obese mice maintained on a high fat diet. Unlike estradiol, RG and RP did not induce proliferative effects on mammary gland and uterus. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that RG and RP induced estradiol-like regulation of genes in abdominal fat, but not in mammary gland and uterus. The compounds in extracts from RG and RP might constitute a new class of tissue selective estrogens to reverse weight gain, fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. PMID:22163294

  9. The effect of reverse protein and low protein feeding regimens in the rearing period on pullet growth, subsequent performance, and liver and abdominal fat at end of lay.

    PubMed

    Maurice, D V; Hughes, B L; Jones, J E; Weber, J M

    1982-12-01

    Four brown egg strains were used to study the effect of rearing diets on growth and performance. The treatments were arranged in a 4 x 3 factorial with two replicates of 45 birds. The control diet was formulated and fed to National Research Council recommendations. Birds on reverse protein (RP) were fed diets with 13, 16, and 19% protein and those on low protein (LP) regimen received a 13.5% protein diet with amino acids adjusted on a megacalorie basis to approximate the control diet. At 20 weeks of age pullets were caged and fed a standard layer diet. Logistic curves were fitted to the growth data by a nonlinear least squares method and the parameters of each curve analyzed. No significant strain x diet interactions were observed. There were significant differences among strains in weight gain and feed intake. Dietary regimens had no significant effect on total gain and feed intake. However, diets significantly altered age at one-half maximum growth or inflection point (alpha) and mean growth rate (rho). Inflection point of the growth curve was significantly delayed in birds fed RP and LP diets. Although apparent conversion was not affected by diets, the partition coefficients at any time (t) for maintenance (beta mt) and gain (beta gt) were altered. Neither strain nor dietary regimens affected abdominal fat or organ weights at the end of the rearing period. No significant effect of rearing dietary regimens was detected in age at 50% production or peak production, feed conversion, feed intake, livability, liver fat, abdominal fat, or shell strength. The reverse-protein regimen significantly depressed egg weight. The results of the study indicate that 1) the rearing dietary regimens were adequate for strains of different body weight and egg output characteristics; 2) dietary alteration of growth curve parameters failed to influence production, feed intake, mortality, shell strength, livability, liver fat, or abdominal fat during the production period. PMID:6897679

  10. Fat substitutes promote weight gain in rats consuming high-fat diets

    PubMed Central

    Swithers, Susan E.; Ogden, Sean B.; Davidson, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    The use of food products designed to mimic the sensory properties of sweet and fat while providing fewer calories has been promoted as a method for reducing food intake and body weight. However, such products may interfere with one mechanism that animals use to regulate energy balance, a learned relationship between the sensory properites of food and the caloric consequences of consuming those foods. Consistent with this hypothesis, previous data have shown that providing rats with sweet tastes that are not associated with the delivery of calories using high-intensity sweeteners results in increased food intake, body weight and adiposity, but only if the diet on which they are maintained also tastes sweet. In the present experiment, we examined whether use of the fat substitute, olestra, would have similar consequences by comparing the effects of consuming high-fat, high-calorie potato chips to the effects of consuming potato chips that sometimes signalled high calories (using high-fat potato chips) and that sometimes signalled lower calories (using non-fat potato chips manufactured with the fat substitute olestra). The results demonstrated that food intake, body weight gain and adiposity were greater for rats that consumed both the high-calorie chips and the low-calorie chips with olestra compared to rats that consumed consuming only the high-calorie chips, but only if animals were also consuming a chow diet that was high in fat and calories. When animals were maintained on a low-fat chow diet, intake, weight gain, and adiposity did not differ significantly based on chip type. However, rats previously exposed to both the low-calorie chips with olestra and the high-calorie chips exhibited increased body weight gain, food intake and adiposity when they were provided with a high fat, high calorie chow diet, even though the potato chips were no longer available. This suggests that the experience with the chips containing olestra affected the ability to predict high

  11. Genome-wide association studies suggest sex-specific loci associated with abdominal and visceral fat

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yun Ju; Pérusse, Louis; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Fornage, Myriam; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rice, Treva; Terry, Gregg; Jacobs, David R.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Curran, Joanne E; Carr, John Jeffrey; Blangero, John; Ghosh, Sujoy; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D.C.; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify loci associated with abdominal fat and replicate prior findings, we performed genome-wide association (GWA) studies of abdominal fat traits: subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total adipose tissue (TAT) and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VSR). Subjects and Methods Sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses were performed on each trait with (TRAIT-BMI) or without (TRAIT) adjustment for BMI, and cohort-specific results were combined via a fixed effects meta-analysis. A total of 2,513 subjects of European descent were available for the discovery phase. For replication, 2,171 European Americans and 772 African Americans were available. Results A total of 52 SNPs encompassing 7 loci showed suggestive evidence of association (p < 1.0 × 10−6) with abdominal fat in the sex-combined analyses. The strongest evidence was found on chromosome 7p14.3 between a SNP near BBS9 gene and VAT (rs12374818; p= 1.10 × 10−7), an association that was replicated (p = 0.02). For the BMI-adjusted trait, the strongest evidence of association was found between a SNP near CYCSP30 and VAT-BMI (rs10506943; p= 2.42 × 10−7). Our sex-specific analyses identified one genome-wide significant (p < 5.0 × 10−8) locus for SAT in women with 11 SNPs encompassing the MLLT10, DNAJC1 and EBLN1 genes on chromosome 10p12.31 (p = 3.97 × 10−8 to 1.13 × 10−8). The THNSL2 gene previously associated with VAT in women was also replicated (p= 0.006). The six gene/loci showing the strongest evidence of association with VAT or VAT-BMI were interrogated for their functional links with obesity and inflammation using the Biograph knowledge-mining software. Genes showing the closest functional links with obesity and inflammation were ADCY8 and KCNK9, respectively. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for new loci influencing abdominal visceral (BBS9, ADCY8, KCNK9) and subcutaneous (MLLT10/DNAJC1/EBLN1) fat, and confirmed a locus (THNSL2

  12. The right weight: body fat, menarche and ovulation.

    PubMed

    Frisch, R E

    1990-09-01

    Women with moderate weight loss (10-15% of ideal weight), as well as women with the severe weight loss of anorexia nervosa (30% of ideal weight), have secondary or primary amenorrhoea. A high proportion of well-trained dancers and athletes also have amenorrhoea, though weight may be in the normal range, since muscles are heavy (80% water, compared to 5-10% water in adipose tissue). The amenorrhoea is usually reversible with weight gain, decreased exercise or both. The amenorrhoea is due to hypothalamic dysfunction; the pituitary-ovary axis is intact, suggesting that this type of amenorrhoea is adaptive, preventing an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Evidence is presented that the high percentage of body fat (26-28%) in mature women is necessary for regular ovulatory cycles. Target weights for height are given for the evaluation and treatment of primary and secondary amenorrhoea due to weight loss. The high percentage of body fat in women may influence reproductive ability directly: (1) as an extragonadal source of oestrogen by aromatization of androgen to oestrogen; (2) by influencing the direction of oestrogen metabolism to more potent or less potent forms; or (3) by changes in the binding properties of sex-hormone-binding globulin. Indirect signals may be of abnormal control of temperature and changes in energy metabolism, which accompany excessive leanness. PMID:2282736

  13. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Resnyk, Christopher W.; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H.; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J.; Cogburn, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5–2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  14. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Resnyk, Christopher W; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J; Cogburn, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  15. Effects of a multidisciplinary body weight reduction program on static and dynamic thoraco-abdominal volumes in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    LoMauro, Antonella; Cesareo, Ambra; Agosti, Fiorenza; Tringali, Gabriella; Salvadego, Desy; Grassi, Bruno; Sartorio, Alessandro; Aliverti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize static and dynamic thoraco-abdominal volumes in obese adolescents and to test the effects of a 3-week multidisciplinary body weight reduction program (MBWRP), entailing an energy-restricted diet, psychological and nutritional counseling, aerobic physical activity, and respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET), on these parameters. Total chest wall (VCW), pulmonary rib cage (VRC,p), abdominal rib cage (VRC,a), and abdominal (VAB) volumes were measured on 11 male adolescents (Tanner stage: 3-5; BMI standard deviation score: >2; age: 15.9 ± 1.3 years; percent body fat: 38.4%) during rest, inspiratory capacity (IC) maneuver, and incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer at baseline and after 3 weeks of MBWRP. At baseline, the progressive increase in tidal volume was achieved by an increase in end-inspiratory VCW (p < 0.05) due to increases in VRC,p and VRC,a with constant VAB. End-expiratory VCW decreased with late increasing VRC,p, dynamically hyperinflating VRC,a (p < 0.05), and progressively decreasing VAB (p < 0.05). After MBWRP, weight loss was concentrated in the abdomen and total IC decreased. During exercise, abdominal rib cage hyperinflation was delayed and associated with 15% increased performance and reduced dyspnea at high workloads (p < 0.05) without ventilatory and metabolic changes. We conclude that otherwise healthy obese adolescents adopt a thoraco-abdominal operational pattern characterized by abdominal rib cage hyperinflation as a form of lung recruitment during incremental cycle exercise. Additionally, a short period of MBWRP including RMET is associated with improved exercise performance, lung and chest wall volume recruitment, unloading of respiratory muscles, and reduced dyspnea. PMID:27175804

  16. Clear Depiction of Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Orta Kilickesmez, Kadriye; Kilickesmez, Ozgur

    2010-04-15

    We report the case of an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm incidentally detected clearly with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) during the examination of a patient with myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia that later converted to acute myeloid leukemia. DW-MRI revealed a hyperintense halo surrounding the abdominal aorta with aneurysmatic dilatation, establishing the diagnosis.

  17. Truncal and abdominal fat as determinants of high triglycerides and low HDL-cholesterol in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tresaco, Beatriz; Moreno, Luis A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Bueno, Gloria; González-Gross, Marcela; Wärnberg, Julia; Gutiérrez, Angel; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Marcos, Ascensión; Castillo, Manuel J; Bueno, Manuel

    2009-05-01

    We examined whether abdominal and truncal adiposity, assessed with simple anthropometric indices, determines serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels independently of total adiposity amount in adolescents. A total of 547 Spanish adolescents (284 males and 263 females) aged 13-18.5 years were included in this study. Measures of truncal adiposity included subscapular to triceps ratio, and trunk-to-total skinfolds ratio (TTS%). Waist circumference was used as a surrogate of abdominal adiposity, and BMI was used as a measure of total adiposity. The results of the regression models indicated that levels of triglycerides were positively associated with waist circumference and TTS% after controlling for age and Tanner stage in both sexes. Once BMI was entered in the model, these associations remained significant for waist circumference in females. HDL-cholesterol levels were negatively associated with waist circumference in both sexes, and with subscapular to triceps ratio and TTS% in males, after controlling for age and Tanner stage. Once BMI was entered in the model, these associations remained significant for subscapular to triceps ratio and for TTS% in males. The results of this study suggest that in male adolescents, truncal adiposity is negatively associated with levels of HDL-cholesterol, whereas in females, abdominal adiposity is positively associated with levels of triglycerides independently of total adiposity. These findings highlight the deleterious effect of both truncal and abdominal fat depots on the lipid profile already from the first decades of life. PMID:19180070

  18. The relationship between parental yolk cholesterol and yolk fat concentration to abdominal fat content and feed conversion ratio of their respective offspring.

    PubMed

    Suk, Y O; Washburn, K W

    1998-03-01

    The correlation of yolk cholesterol and yolk fat concentrations of egg from the pedigreed Athens-Canadian Randombred control population with the percentage of abdominal fat (AF) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of their progeny were studied. The average yolk cholesterol, yolk fat, and AF were 20.3 mg/g yolk, 244 mg/g yolk, and 1.64%, respectively. The phenotypic correlation of both yolk cholesterol and yolk fat content of eggs from the parental population with AF or FCR of their progeny were low and nonsignificant. PMID:9521446

  19. FDG PET/CT Findings in Abdominal Fat Necrosis After Treatment for Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, Julien; Moreau, Aurélie; Sarkozy, Clémentine; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Skanjeti, Andrea; Salles, Gilles; Giammarile, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    FDG PET/CT is now validated in non-Hodgkin lymphoma for response assessment in interim and posttreatment lymphoma. We report the case of a 62-year-old man followed by FDG PET/CT for a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with initial stage III. The interim FDG PET/CT examination concluded in complete metabolic and morphological response of subdiaphragmatic lymphadenopathy but a persistent abnormal subdiaphragmatic uptake (SUVmax at 9 and Deauville 5-point scale at 5). Therefore, an abdominal biopsy of the corresponding nodules was conducted with a final diagnosis of diffuse fat necrosis. PMID:26825213

  20. Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercised-induced weight loss. Methods: Participants (N=132) were randomly assigned to receive a 500 mL beverage containing approximately 625 mg of...

  1. Physical Activity and Reduced Intra-abdominal Fat in Midlife African-American and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Sheila A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Avery, Elizabeth F.; Wesley, Deidre E.; Powell, Lynda H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine whether self-reported physical activity (PA), including recreational, household, and exercise activities, is associated with intra-abdominal fat (IAF) in community-dwelling white and black midlife women. We performed a cross-sectional study of 369 women from the Chicago site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) ancillary study, the SWAN Fat Patterning Study. PA level was the independent variable, and IAF, assessed by computerized tomography (CT) scan, was the dependent variable. Measures were obtained at SWAN Fat Patterning Baseline visit between August 2002 and December 2005. Linear regression models explored the association between PA and IAF. The first model included IAF as the outcome and total score PA as the main predictor, adjusting for total percent fat mass, age, and ethnicity. The second model included education, parity, sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) level, and depressive symptoms, measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Each 1-point higher total PA score was associated with a 4.0 cm2 lower amount of IAF (P = 0.004), independent of total percent fat mass, age, ethnicity, SHBG level, educational level, CES-D, and parity. Associations did not differ between white and black women. This study demonstrates a significant negative association between PA and IAF independent of multiple covariates in midlife women. Our findings suggest that motivating white and black women to increase PA during midlife may lessen IAF, which may have a positive impact on subsequent development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19876007

  2. Unsaturated Oral Fat Load Test Improves Glycemia, Insulinemia and Oxidative Stress Status in Nondiabetic Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Navarro, Inmaculada; Real, Jose T.; Artero, Ana; Peiro, Marta; Gonzalez-Navarro, Herminia; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative stress markers during an oral fat load test in nondiabetic subjects with abdominal obesity and to analyze the association between postprandial oxidative stress markers and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Methods We included 20 subjects with abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women) and 20 healthy lean controls (waist circumference < 102 cm for men and < 88 cm for women). After 12 hours of fasting we performed a standardized fat load test (0–8 hours) with supracal® (50 g/m2). We determined metabolic parameters, oxidized and reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde. Results In both groups, insulin, HOMA, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and malondialdehyde significantly decreased in the postprandial state after the OFLT. All these parameters were significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group at baseline and during all the postprandial points, but the reduction from the baseline levels was significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group. Conclusion Unsaturated fat improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress status. It is possible that a consumption of unsaturated fat could be beneficial even in subjects with abdominal obesity in postprandial state. PMID:27537847

  3. Smoking Is Associated with More Abdominal Fat in Morbidly Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Daniela; Wagner, Mario; Mottin, Cláudio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While the association between cigarette smoking and abdominal fat has been well studied in normal and overweight patients, data regarding the influence of tobacco use in patients with morbid obesity remain scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate body fat distribution in morbidly obese smokers. Methods We employed a cross-sectional study and grouped severely obese patients (body mass index [BMI] >40 kg/m2 or >35 kg/m2 with comorbidities) according to their smoking habits (smokers or non-smokers). We next compared the anthropometrical measurements and body composition data (measured by electric bioimpedance) of both groups. We analyzed the effect of smoking on body composition variables using univariate and multiple linear regression (MLR); differences are presented as regression coefficients (b) and their respective 95% confidence intervals. Results We included 536 morbidly obese individuals, 453 (84.5%) non-smokers and 83 (15.5%) smokers. Male smokers had a higher BMI (b=3.28 kg/m2, p=0.036), larger waist circumference (b=6.07 cm, p=0.041) and higher percentage of body fat (b=2.33%, p=0.050) than non-smokers. These differences remained significant even after controlling for confounding factors. For females, the only significant finding in MLR was a greater muscle mass among smokers (b=1.34kg, p=0.028). No associations were found between tobacco load measured in pack-years and anthropometric measures or body composition. Discussion Positive associations between smoking and BMI, and waist circumference and percentage of body fat, were found among male morbidly obese patients, but not among females. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first investigation of these aspects in morbidly obese subjects. We speculate that our findings may indicate that the coexistence of morbid obesity and smoking helps to explain the more serious medical conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, seen in these patients. PMID:25978682

  4. Phantom for assessment of fat suppression in large field-of-view diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winfield, J. M.; Douglas, N. H. M.; deSouza, N. M.; Collins, D. J.

    2014-05-01

    We present the development and application of a phantom for assessment and optimization of fat suppression over a large field-of-view in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T and 3 T. A Perspex cylinder (inner diameter 185 mm, height 300 mm) which contains a second cylinder (inner diameter 140 mm) was constructed. The inner cylinder was filled with water doped with copper sulphate and sodium chloride and the annulus was filled with corn oil, which closely matches the spectrum and longitudinal relaxation times of subcutaneous abdominal fat. Placement of the phantom on the couch at 45° to the z-axis presented an elliptical cross-section, which was of a similar size and shape to axial abdominal images. The use of a phantom for optimization of fat suppression allowed quantitative comparison between studies without the differences introduced by variability between human subjects. We have demonstrated that the phantom is suitable for selection of inversion delay times, spectral adiabatic inversion recovery delays and assessment of combinatorial methods of fat suppression. The phantom is valuable in protocol development and the assessment of new techniques, particularly in multi-centre trials.

  5. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Abdominal Fat Partitioning in Healthy Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiantao; Sloan, Matthew; Fox, Caroline S.; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E.; Saltzman, Edward; Rogers, Gail T.; Jacques, Paul F.; McKeown, Nicola M.

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal adiposity, particularly visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is independently linked to the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may be associated with abnormal fat accumulation in VAT. We examined whether habitual SSB consumption and diet soda intakes are differentially associated with deposition of body fat. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using previously collected data in 2596 middle-aged adults (1306 men and 1290 women) from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. VAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured using multidetector computed tomography. Habitual intake of SSBs and diet soda was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. We observed that SSB consumption was positively associated with VAT after adjustment for SAT and other potential confounders (P-trend < 0.001). We observed an inverse association between SSB consumption and SAT (P-trend = 0.04) that persisted after additional adjustment for VAT (P-trend < 0.001). Higher SSB consumption was positively associated with the VAT-to-SAT ratio (P-trend < 0.001). No significant association was found between diet soda consumption and either VAT or the VAT-to-SAT ratio, but diet soda was positively associated with SAT (P-trend < 0.001). Daily consumers of SSBs had a 10% higher absolute VAT volume and a 15% greater VAT-to-SAT ratio compared with nonconsumers, whereas consumption of diet soda was not associated with either volume or distribution of VAT. PMID:24944282

  6. Epidemiology, assessment, and management of excess abdominal fat in persons with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Graeme; Moutschen, Michel; Martínez, Esteban; Domingo, Pere; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Raffi, François; Behrens, Georg; Reiss, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic and morphologic abnormalities in persons with HIV remain common contributors to stigma and morbidity. Increased abdominal circumference and visceral adiposity were first recognized in the late 1990s, soon after the advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy. Visceral adiposity is commonly associated with metabolic abnormalities including low HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, insulin resistance, and hypertension, a constellation of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus known as "the metabolic syndrome". Medline and conference abstracts were searched to identify clinical research on factors associated with visceral adiposity and randomized studies of management approaches. Data were critically reviewed by physicians familiar with the field. A range of host and lifestyle factors as well as antiretroviral drug choice were associated with increased visceral adiposity. Management approaches included treatment switching and metformin, both of which have shown benefit for insulin-resistant individuals with isolated fat accumulation. Testosterone supplements may also have benefits in a subset of individuals. Supra-physiological doses of recombinant human growth hormone and the growth hormone releasing hormone analog tesamorelin both significantly and selectively reduce visceral fat over 12-24 weeks; however, the benefits are only maintained if doping is continued. In summary, the prevention and management of visceral adiposity remains a substantial challenge in clinical practice. PMID:20216906

  7. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J.; Lee, William R.; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences. PMID:26295149

  8. Associations between Obesity, Body Fat Distribution, Weight Loss and Weight Cycling on Serum Pesticide Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Frugé, Andrew Dandridge; Cases, Mallory Gamel; Schildkraut, Joellen Martha; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preliminary studies suggest pesticides may be linked to increased cancer risk. Since most pesticides are lipophilic and stored within adipose tissue, serum levels of organochlorines are affected not only by environmental exposures, but also by factors related to lipid turnover and storage. Our objective was to investigate whether serum organochlorines are influenced by weight loss, body fat distribution, and weight cycling. Methods Ten overweight women were recruited upon entry into a weight loss program and surveyed regarding weight history, childbearing/lactation, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Anthropometric measures and phlebotomy were conducted at baseline and at four weeks (mean weight loss=5.1 kg). Serum was analyzed for 19 common polychlorinated pesticides and metabolites and 10 PCB congeners. Results Organochlorine levels were not significantly affected by weight loss nor associated with body mass index (BMI). Strong positive correlations were noted between levels of DDE/DDT and age (DDE β=0.6986/p=0.0246/DDT β=0.6536/p=0.0404) and between DDE/DDT and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (DDE β=0.4356/p=0.0447/DDT β=0.8108/p=0.0044). Trends were noted for decreased levels of DDT in women who reported more episodes of weight cycling. Conclusion Serum organochlorine levels may be affected not only by age, but also factors related to lipid turnover (i.e., episodes of weight cycling and WHR), and warrants further study. PMID:27478857

  9. Effect of inulin supplementation and dietary fat source on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, abdominal fat deposition, and tissue fatty acid composition in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Velasco, S; Ortiz, L T; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J; Rodríguez, M L

    2010-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding inulin to diets containing 2 different types of fat as energy sources on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, and fatty acids of abdominal adipose tissue and breast and thigh meat. A total of 240 one-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 1 of 6 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 5 chicks per pen. The experiment consisted of a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 3 concentrations of inulin (0, 5, and 10 g/kg of diet) and 2 types of fat [palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO)] at an inclusion rate of 90 g/kg of diet. The experimental period lasted from 1 to 34 d. Dietary fat type did not affect BW gain but impaired feed conversion (P < 0.001) in birds fed the PO diets compared with birds fed the SO diets. The diets containing PO increased abdominal fat deposition and serum lipid and glucose concentrations. Triacylglycerol contents in liver were higher in the birds fed PO diets. Dietary fat type also modified fatty acids of abdominal and i.m. fat, resulting in a higher concentration of C16:0 and C18:1n-9 and a lower concentration of C18:2n-6 in the birds fed PO diets. The addition of inulin to diets modified (P = 0.017) BW gain quadratically without affecting feed conversion. Dietary inulin decreased the total lipid concentration in liver (P = 0.003) and that of triacylglycerols and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (up to 31%) in blood serum compared with the control groups. The polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio increased in abdominal and i.m. fat when inulin was included in the SO-containing diets. The results from the current study suggest that the addition of inulin to broiler diets has a beneficial effect on blood serum lipids by decreasing triacylglyceride concentrations The results also support the use of inulin to increase the capacity of SO for enhancing polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio of i.m. fat

  10. Diagnosis and typing of systemic amyloidosis: The role of abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Halloush, Ruba A; Lavrovskaya, Elena; Mody, Dina R; Lager, Donna

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Systemic amyloidosis (SA) has a broad nonspecific clinical presentation. Its diagnosis depends on identifying amyloid in tissues. Abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration (FPFNA) has been suggested as a sensitive and specific test for diagnosing SA. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine FPFNA from 38 patients (16 women and 20 men, age range 40–88 years) during a 15-year period were reviewed. Smears and cell blocks were stained with Congo red (CR). A panel of antibodies (serum amyloid protein, serum amyloid A, albumin, transthyretin, kappa light chain and lambda light chain) was used on six cell blocks from five patients. The FNA findings were correlated with clinical and histological follow-up. Results: FPFNAs were positive, confirmed by CR in 5/39 (13%), suspicious in 1/39 (3%), negative in 28/39 (72%), and insufficient for diagnosis in 5/39 (13%) of cases. In all the positive cases, SA was confirmed within 2–16 weeks. Among the 28 negative cases, SA was diagnosed in 21, the rest were lost to follow-up. Among the insufficient cases, SA was diagnosed in four and one was lost to follow-up. Specificity was 100%, whereas sensitivity was 19%. SA typing using cell block sections was successful in three, un-interpretable in one, and negative in two cases. Conclusion: FPFNA for SA is not as good as previously reported. This may be due to different practice setting, level of experience, diagnostic technique, or absence of abdominal soft tissue involvement. A negative result of FPFNA does not exclude SA. Immune phenotyping of amyloid is possible on cell block. PMID:20165547

  11. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Powell, Elyse S; Avena, Nicole M; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2010-11-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 weeks) on (1) 12 h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12 h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24 h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories, but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity. PMID:20219526

  12. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels

    PubMed Central

    Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Powell, Elyse S.; Avena, Nicole M.; Hoebel, Bartley G.

    2010-01-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 wks) on (1) 12-h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12-h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24-h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity. PMID:20219526

  13. Metabolic syndrome and abdominal fat are associated with inflammation, but not with clinical outcomes, in peritoneal dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the general population, metabolic syndrome (MetS) is correlated with visceral fat and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, little is known about the significance of abdominal fat and its association with inflammation and medication use in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We investigated the relationship of visceral fat area (VFA) with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and medication use in PD patients and followed their clinical outcomes. Methods In a prospective study from February 2009 to February 2012, we assessed diabetes mellitus (DM) status, clinical and PD-associated characteristics, medication use, CRP levels, components of MetS, and VFA in 183 PD patients. These patients were categorized into 3 groups based on MetS and DM status: non-MetS (group 1, n = 73), MetS (group 2, n = 65), and DM (group 3, n = 45). VFA was evaluated by computed tomography (CT) and corrected for body mass index (BMI). Results Patients in group 1 had smaller VFAs than patients in groups 2 and 3 (3.2 ± 1.8, 4.6 ± 1.9, and 4.9 ± 2.0 cm2/[kg/m2], respectively, P < 0.05) and lower CRP levels (0.97 ± 2.31, 1.27 ± 2.57, and 1.11 ± 1.35 mg/dL, respectively, P < 0.05). VFA increased with the number of criteria met for MetS. After adjusting for age, body weight, and sex, CRP and albumin levels functioned as independent positive predictors of VFA; on other hand, the use of renin-angiotensin system blockers was inversely correlated with VFA in PD patients without DM. In the survival analysis, DM patients (group 3) had the poorest survival among the 3 groups, but no significant differences were found between groups 1 and 2. Conclusion This study showed that VFA and MetS are associated with CRP levels but cannot predict survival in PD patients without DM. The complex relationship of nutritional parameters to VFA and MetS may explain these results. The type of antihypertensive medication used was also associated

  14. Abdominal applications of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: Where do we stand

    PubMed Central

    Morani, Ajaykumar C; Elsayes, Khaled M; Liu, Peter S; Weadock, William J; Szklaruk, Janio; Dillman, Jonathan Russell; Khan, Asra; Chenevert, Thomas L; Hussain, Hero K

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is one of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences providing qualitative as well as quantitative information at a cellular level. It has been widely used for various applications in the central nervous system. Over the past decade, various extracranial applications of DWI have been increasingly explored, as it may detect changes even before signal alterations or morphological abnormalities become apparent on other pulse sequences. Initial results from abdominal MRI applications are promising, particularly in oncological settings and for the detection of abscesses. The purpose of this article is to describe the clinically relevant basic concepts of DWI, techniques to perform abdominal DWI, its analysis and applications in abdominal visceral MR imaging, in addition to a brief overview of whole body DWI MRI. PMID:23671743

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians: a cross-sectional study on association of per cent body fat and intra-abdominal fat mass

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jaspal Singh; Esht, Vandana; Shenoy, Shweta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of per cent total body fat (TBF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat with cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Hydrostatic Laboratory, Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, India. Participants: 51 subjects aged 30–55 years with a body mass index value 23 and above. Methodology In all the participants, TBF was estimated by underwater weighing machine and IAF and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasonography. Lipid profile was determined by a semiautomated analyser. Main outcome measures were: IAF, per cent body fat to TBF ratio, lipid profile and risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Results IAF was found to be significantly associated with lipid variables (95% CI, p<0.01) and risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (95% CI, p≤0.05) in both male and female subjects. TBF and subcutaneous fat thickness showed no significant results (95% CI, p>0.05) with either lipid variables or risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (tables 1 and 2). IAF mass showed significant association with age (95% CI, p<0.01) and significant negative association with physical activity (95% CI, p<0.05) in male subjects (tables 3 and 4). Conclusion An ultrasonic measurement of IAF is a better predictor of the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in middle aged Indian population. In male subjects, physical activity of 5 or more days a week showed lesser amount of IAF as compared with those with physical activity <5 days a week. PMID:27326015

  16. Effects of weight loss via high fat vs. low fat alternate day fasting diets on free fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Varady, Krista A; Dam, Vi T; Klempel, Monica C; Horne, Matthew; Cruz, Rani; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Santosa, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease risk is associated with excess body weight and elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. This study examines how an alternate-day fasting (ADF) diet high (HF) or low (LF) in fat affects plasma FFA profiles in the context of weight loss, and changes in body composition and lipid profiles. After a 2-week weight maintenance period, 29 women (BMI 30-39.9 kg/m(2)) 25-65 years old were randomized to an 8-week ADF-HF (45% fat) diet or an ADF-LF (25% fat) diet with 25% energy intake on fast days and ad libitum intake on feed days. Body weight, BMI and waist circumference were assessed weekly and body composition was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total and individual FFA and plasma lipid concentrations were measured before and after weight loss. Body weight, BMI, fat mass, total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglyceride concentrations decreased (P < 0.05) in both groups. Total FFA concentrations also decreased (P < 0.001). In the ADF-LF group, decreases were found in several more FFAs than in the ADF-HF group. In the ADF-HF group, FFA concentrations were positively correlated with waist circumference. Depending on the macronutrient composition of a diet, weight loss with an ADF diet decreases FFA concentrations through potentially different mechanisms. PMID:25557754

  17. Fat Christians and fit elites: negotiating class and status in Evangelical Christian weight-loss culture.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    As American culture has become increasingly concerned about fatness, the fat body and weight loss have become salient symbols for other social tensions. This article uses the case of evangelical Christian weight-loss culture to argue that class is one of those tensions. Drawing on ethnographic work in a Christian weight-loss program as well as on recent theories of class, I argue that certain recurring concerns in Christians’ weight-loss discourse, notably concerns about fat Christian leaders and appearing healthy, reflect tensions about class-based aspirations and class-based denigrations evangelicals face in negotiating their position in American society. PMID:22826895

  18. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. PMID:24958666

  19. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects.

    PubMed

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L; Arbuckle, Matthew D; Tidwell, Jaime M; Richards, Todd L; Craft, Suzanne

    2013-03-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23 % fat/7 % saturated fat/GI < 55) or a high-fat/high-saturated fat/high-GI (HSAT: 43 % fat/24 % saturated fat/GI>70) diet in older subjects. In the present study, twenty subjects (seven males/thirteen females; age 69.3 (SEM 1.6) years, BMI 26.9 (SEM 0.8) kg/m2) were randomised to the LSAT diet and fifteen subjects (six males/nine females; age 68.6 (SEM 1.8) years, BMI 28.1 (SEM 0.9) kg/m2) to the HSAT diet. Weight remained stable. Liver fat decreased significantly on the LSAT diet (median 2.2 (interquartile range (IQR) 3.1) to 1.7 (IQR 1.8) %, P= 0.002) but did not change on the HSAT diet (median 1.2 (IQR 4.1) to 1.6 (IQR 3.9) %). The LSAT diet lowered fasting glucose and total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and raised TAG (P< 0.05), while the HSAT diet had no effect on glucose or HDL-cholesterol but increased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (P< 0.05). Fasting insulin and homeostasis model of insulin resistance did not change significantly on either diet, but the Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity improved on the LSAT diet (P< 0.05). Assignment to the LSAT v. HSAT diet was a predictor of changes in lipid parameters but not liver fat. We conclude that diet composition may be an important factor in the accumulation of liver fat, with a low-fat/low-saturated fat/LGI diet being beneficial. PMID:22849970

  20. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects

    PubMed Central

    Utzschneider, Kristina M.; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L.; Arbuckle, Matthew D.; Tidwell, Jaime M.; Richards, Todd L.; Craft, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23% fat/7% saturated fat/GI < 55) or a high-fat/high-saturated fat/high-GI (HSAT: 43% fat/24% saturated fat/GI > 70) diet in older subjects. In the present study, twenty subjects (seven males/thirteen females; age 69·3 (sem 1·6) years, BMI 26·9 (sem 0·8) kg/m2) were randomised to the LSAT diet and fifteen subjects (six males/nine females; age 68·6 (sem 1·8) years, BMI 28·1 (sem 0·9) kg/m2) to the HSAT diet. Weight remained stable. Liver fat decreased significantly on the LSAT diet (median 2·2 (interquartile range (IQR) 3·1) to 1·7 (IQR 1·8) %, P=0·002) but did not change on the HSAT diet (median 1·2 (IQR 4·1) to 1·6 (IQR 3·9) %). The LSAT diet lowered fasting glucose and total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and raised TAG (P<0·05), while the HSAT diet had no effect on glucose or HDL-cholesterol but increased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (P<0·05). Fasting insulin and homeostasis model of insulin resistance did not change significantly on either diet, but the Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity improved on the LSAT diet (P<0·05). Assignment to the LSAT ν. HSAT diet was a predictor of changes in lipid parameters but not liver fat. We conclude that diet composition may be an important factor in the accumulation of liver fat, with a low-fat/low-saturated fat/LGI diet being beneficial. PMID:22849970

  1. Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Blood Flow in the Microvasculature of Abdominal Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truica, Loredana Sorina

    In this thesis, water diffusion in human liver and placenta is studied using diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging. For short, randomly oriented vascular segments, intravascular water motion is diffusion-like. For tissues with large vascular compartments the diffusion decay is bi-exponential with one component corresponding to diffusing water and the other to water in the microvasculature. This model, known as the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model, is seldom used with abdominal organs because of motion artifacts. This limitation was overcome for the experiments reported here by introducing: 1) parallel imaging, 2) navigator echo respiratory triggering (NRT), 3) a double echo diffusion sequence that inherently compensates for eddy current effects, 4) SPAIR fat suppression and 5) a superior approach to image analysis. In particular, the use of NRT allowed us to use a free breathing protocol instead of the previously required breath hold protocol. The resulting DWI images were of high quality and motion artifact free. Diffusion decays were measured over a larger portion of the decay than had previously been reported and the results are considerably better than those previously reported. For both studies, reliable measurements of the diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D) and perfusion fraction (f), were obtained using a region of interest analysis as well as a pixel-by-pixel approach. To within experimental error, all patients had the same values of D (1.10 mum 2/ms +/- 0.16 mum2/ms), D* (46 mum2/ms +/- 17 mum2/ms) and f (44.0% +/- 6.9%) in liver and D (1.8 mum 2/ms +/- 0.2 mum2/ms), D* (30 mum 2/ms +/- 12 mmu2/ms), and f (40% +/- 6%) in the placenta. No dependence on gestational age was found for the placental study. Parametric maps of f and D* were consistent with blood flow patterns in both systems. The model worked well for both investigated organs even though their anatomical structures are quite different. A method for

  2. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  3. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function in different ethnic groups in Kenya: the role of abdominal fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Christensen, D L; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Faerch, K; Mwaniki, D L; Boit, M K; Kilonzo, B; Tetens, I; Friis, H; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about the pathophysiology of diabetes in Africans. Thus, we assessed whether insulin resistance and beta-cell function differed by ethnicity in Kenya and whether differences were modified by abdominal fat distribution. A cross-sectional study in 1,087 rural Luo (n = 361), Kamba (n = 378), and Maasai (n = 348) was conducted. All participants had a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 120 min. Serum insulin was analysed at 0 and 30 min. From the OGTT, we assessed the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance by computer model, early phase insulin secretion, and disposition index (DI) dividing insulin secretion by insulin resistance. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) thickness were carried out by ultrasonography. Linear regression analyses were done to assess ethnic differences in insulin indices. The Maasai had 32 and 17% higher insulin resistance than the Luo and Kamba, respectively (p < 0.001). Early phase insulin secretion was 16% higher in the Maasai compared to the Luo (p < 0.001). DI was 12% (p = 0.002) and 10% (p = 0.015) lower in the Maasai compared to the Luo and Kamba, respectively. Adjustments of SAT (range 0.1-7.1 cm) and VAT (range 1.5-14.2 cm) largely explained these inter-group differences with the Maasai having the highest combined abdominal fat accumulation. The Maasai had the highest insulin resistance and secretion, but the lowest relative beta-cell function compared to the Luo and Kamba. These differences were primarily explained by abdominal fat distribution. PMID:23563691

  4. Effect of Body Mass Index and Intra-Abdominal Fat Measured by Computed Tomography on the Risk of Bowel Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Sakamoto, Kayo; Arai, Tomohiro; Niikura, Ryota; Shimbo, Takuro; Shinozaki, Masafumi; Ihana, Noriko; Sekine, Katsunori; Okubo, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakurai, Toshiyuki; Yokoi, Chizu; Yanase, Mikio; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) or intra-abdominal fat measured by computed tomography (CT) and bowel symptoms. Method A cohort of 958 Japanese adults who underwent colonoscopy and CT and completed questionnaires after excluding colorectal diseases was analyzed. Six symptoms (constipation, diarrhea, loose stools, hard stools, fecal urgency, and incomplete evacuation) using a 7-point Likert scale were evaluated between baseline and second questionnaire for test-retest reliability. Associations between BMI, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and symptom score were analyzed by a rank-ordered logistic model, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Results Some bowel symptom scores were significantly (p<0.05) different between the age groups, sexes, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In multivariate analysis, constipation was associated with low BMI (p<0.01), low VAT area (p = 0.01), and low SAT area (p<0.01). Moreover, hard stools was associated with low BMI (p<0.01) and low SAT area (p<0.01). The remaining symptoms were not significantly associated with BMI or intra-abdominal fat. Test-retest reliability of bowel symptom scores with a mean duration of 7.5 months was good (mean kappa, 0.672). Conclusions Both low BMI and low abdominal fat accumulation appears to be useful indicators of increased risk for constipation and hard stools. The long-term test-retest reliability of symptom score suggests that bowel symptoms relevant to BMI or visceral fat remain consistent over several months. PMID:25906052

  5. Intra-abdominal fat. Part II: Non-cancerous lesions of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2016-03-01

    Adipose tissue does not belong to the most favorite structures to be visualized by ultrasound. It is not, however, free from various pathologies. The aim of this paper is to make abdominal cavity examiners more familiar with non-cancerous lesions found in intra-abdominal fat. The main focus is lesions that are rarely discussed in the literature. Visceral adiposity is one of important pathogenetic factors contributing to cardiovascular events, metabolic syndrome and even certain neoplasms. That is why this article exposes sonographic features that are the most characteristic of these lesions. The value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of this pathology is underestimated, and a number of US scan reports do not reflect its presence in any way. Moreover, the article discusses more and more common mesenteritis, the lack of knowledge of which could pose difficulties in explaining the nature of symptoms reported by patients. Furthermore, this review presents lesions referred to in the literature as focal infarction of intra-abdominal fat. This section focuses on infarction of the greater and lesser omentum, epiploic appendagitis, mesenteric volvulus and focal fat necrosis resulting from pancreatitis. These lesions should be assessed with respect to the clinical context, and appropriate techniques of ultrasonography should be employed to allow careful determination of the size, shape, acoustic nature and location of lesions in relation to the integuments and large bowel, as well as their reaction to compression with an ultrasound transducer and behavior during deep inspiration. Moreover, each lesion must be obligatorily assessed in terms of blood flow. Doppler evaluation enables the differentiation between primary and secondary inflammation of intra-abdominal fat. The paper also draws attention to a frequent indirect sign of a pathological process, i.e. thickening and hyperechogenicity of fat, which sometimes indicates an ongoing pathology at a deeper site. This

  6. Intra-abdominal fat. Part II: Non-cancerous lesions of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue does not belong to the most favorite structures to be visualized by ultrasound. It is not, however, free from various pathologies. The aim of this paper is to make abdominal cavity examiners more familiar with non-cancerous lesions found in intra-abdominal fat. The main focus is lesions that are rarely discussed in the literature. Visceral adiposity is one of important pathogenetic factors contributing to cardiovascular events, metabolic syndrome and even certain neoplasms. That is why this article exposes sonographic features that are the most characteristic of these lesions. The value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of this pathology is underestimated, and a number of US scan reports do not reflect its presence in any way. Moreover, the article discusses more and more common mesenteritis, the lack of knowledge of which could pose difficulties in explaining the nature of symptoms reported by patients. Furthermore, this review presents lesions referred to in the literature as focal infarction of intra-abdominal fat. This section focuses on infarction of the greater and lesser omentum, epiploic appendagitis, mesenteric volvulus and focal fat necrosis resulting from pancreatitis. These lesions should be assessed with respect to the clinical context, and appropriate techniques of ultrasonography should be employed to allow careful determination of the size, shape, acoustic nature and location of lesions in relation to the integuments and large bowel, as well as their reaction to compression with an ultrasound transducer and behavior during deep inspiration. Moreover, each lesion must be obligatorily assessed in terms of blood flow. Doppler evaluation enables the differentiation between primary and secondary inflammation of intra-abdominal fat. The paper also draws attention to a frequent indirect sign of a pathological process, i.e. thickening and hyperechogenicity of fat, which sometimes indicates an ongoing pathology at a deeper site. This

  7. Fat embolism syndrome in a case of abdominal lipectomy with liposuction.

    PubMed

    Scroggins, C; Barson, P K

    1999-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is reported in a patient who underwent abdominoplasty and suction lipectomy for body contouring. Within 48 hours after surgery, she experienced adult respiratory distress syndrome, secondary to fat embolism syndrome. This was proven on bronchoscopy by evidence of fat laden macrophages. Aggressive respiratory support over 12 days resulted in patient survival. PMID:10394227

  8. Abdominal muscle response to a simulated weight-bearing task by elite Australian Rules football players.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Jodie; Stanton, Warren R; Hides, Julie A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the automatic recruitment of the deep abdominal muscles during a unilateral simulated weight-bearing task by elite Australian Rules football (AFL) players with and without low back pain (LBP). An observational cross-sectional study was conducted using ultrasound imaging to measure the thickness of the internal oblique (IO) and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles. Thirty-seven elite male AFL players participated. Repeated measures factors included 'force level' (rest, 25% and 45% of body weight), 'leg' (dominant or non-dominant kicking leg) and 'side' (ultrasound side ipsilateral or contralateral to the leg used for the weight-bearing task). The dependent variables were thickness of the IO and TrA muscles. The results of this study showed that thickness of the IO (p<.0001) and TrA (p<.0001) muscles increased in response to 'force level'. During the task, the thickness of the IO muscle on the contralateral side of the trunk relative to the leg being tested, increased more in participants with current LBP (p=.034). This pattern was more distinct on the non-dominant kicking leg. Altered abdominal muscle recruitment in elite athletes with low back pain may be an attempt by the central nervous system (CNS) to compensate for inadequate lumbo-pelvic stability. PMID:21840078

  9. Weight regain after sustained weight reduction is accompanied by suppressed oxidation of dietary fat and adipocyte hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Matthew R; Steig, Amy; Higgins, Janine A; Johnson, Ginger C; Fleming-Elder, Brooke K; Bessesen, Daniel H; MacLean, Paul S

    2008-04-01

    A dual-tracer approach (dietary 14C-palmitate and intraperitoneal 3H-H2O) was used to assess the trafficking of dietary fat and net retention of carbon in triglyceride depots during the first 24 h of weight regain. Obesity-prone male Wistar rats were allowed to mature under obesogenic conditions for 16 wk. One group was switched to ad libitum feeding of a low-fat diet for 10 wk (Obese group). The remaining rats were switched to an energy-restricted, low-fat diet for 10 wk that reduced body weight by 14% and were then assessed in energy balance (Reduced group), with free access to the low-fat diet (Relapse-Day1 group), or with a provision that induced a minor imbalance (+10 kcal) equivalent to that observed in obese rats (Gap-Matched group). Fat oxidation remained at a high, steady rate throughout the day in Obese rats, but was suppressed in Reduced, Gap-Matched, and Relapse-Day1 rats though 9, 18, and 24 h, respectively. The same caloric excess in Obese and Gap-Matched rats led to less fat oxidation over the day and greater trafficking of dietary fat to visceral depots in the latter. In addition to trafficking nutrients to storage, Relapse-Day1 rats had more small, presumably new, adipocytes at the end of 24 h. Dietary fat oxidation at 24 h was related to the phosphorylation of skeletal muscle acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid availability. These observations provide evidence of adaptations in the oxidation and trafficking of dietary fat that extend beyond the energy imbalance, which facilitate rapid, efficient regain during the relapse to obesity. PMID:18287221

  10. Are foods with fat-related claims useful for weight management?

    PubMed

    Schermel, Alyssa; Wong, Christina L; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2016-01-01

    Many consumers believe that foods labelled with fat claims (e.g. low fat) are lower in calories than comparable regular foods and are therefore helpful for weight management. However, it is unknown whether such foods are actually lower in calories. Our aims were to determine 1) the relative proportion of foods carrying fat claims among various food categories within the Canadian marketplace; and 2) whether foods with fat claims are actually lower in calories than comparable foods without claims. The Food Label Information Program 2010, a database of Canadian foods developed at the University of Toronto, was used to compare the calorie content of products with and without fat claims within a given food subcategory, as defined by Schedule M of the Food and Drug Regulations. Median differences of 25% or greater were deemed nutritionally significant, as that is the minimum difference required for comparative claims such as "reduced" and "lower" in the Food and Drug Regulations. Fat claims were present on up to 68% of products in a given food subcategory. Products with fat claims were not significantly lower in both fat and calories compared to comparable products without fat claims in more than half of the subcategories (24 out of 40) analyzed. Conversely, in 16 subcategories, foods with fat claims were at least 25% lower in calories; however, for many of these foods, the absolute difference in calories was small, i.e., for 9 of the 16 subcategories, the absolute difference between foods with and without fat claims was <50 calories, even though the relative percent difference was high. This research suggests that foods with fat claims may be misleading consumers and undermining their efforts to manage body weight or prevent obesity. PMID:26362994

  11. Whether depositing fat or losing weight, fish maintain a balance.

    PubMed

    Brix, Ole; Grüner, Renate; Rønnestad, Ivar; Gemballa, Sven

    2009-11-01

    In fish, the relative amount of tissues of different densities changes significantly over short periods throughout the year, depending on the availability of food, nutrition and their developmental status, such as sexual maturation. If a land-living animal accumulates fat it influences not only its general state of health, but also markedly increases its energy expenditure for locomotion owing to the force of gravity. On a body submerged in water, this force, which acts on the centre of gravity (COG), is counterbalanced by a lifting force that is negligible in air and which acts on the centre of buoyancy (COB). Any difference in the longitudinal positions of the two centres will therefore result in pitching moments that must be counteracted by body or fin movements. The displacement of the COG away from the COB is a result of tissues of different density (e.g. bones and fat) not being distributed homogeneously along the body axis. Moreover, the proportions of tissues of different densities change significantly with feeding status. It is still unknown whether these changes produce a displacement of the COG and thus affect the hydrostatic stability of fish. Analysis of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging images of Atlantic herring, Atlantic salmon and Atlantic mackerel reveals that the COG is fairly constant in each species, although we recorded major interspecies differences in the relative amount of fat, muscle and bone. We conclude that the distribution of different tissues along the body axis is very closely adjusted to the swimming mode of the fish by keeping the COG constant, independent of the body fat status, and that fish can cope with large variations in energy intake without jeopardizing their COG and thus their swimming performance. PMID:19675008

  12. Changes in weight, total fat, percent body fat, and central-to-peripheral fat ratio associated with injectable and oral contraceptive use

    PubMed Central

    BERENSON, Abbey B.; RAHMAN, Mahbubur

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine changes in body weight and composition resulting from hormonal contraception. Study design Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed at baseline and every 6 months for 3 years on 703 women (200 Black, 247 White, 256 Hispanic) initiating use of oral contraception (OC, n = 245), depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA, n = 240), or nonhormonal contraception (NH, n = 218). DMPA discontinuers were followed for up to 2 years to examine the reversibility of observed changes. Results Over 36 months, DMPA users increased their weight (+5.1 kg), body fat (+4.1 kg), percent body fat (+3.4%), and central-to-peripheral fat ratio (+0.1) more than OC and NH users (P<.01). OC use did not cause weight gain. After DMPA discontinuation, NH users lost 0.42 kg/6 months while OC users gained 0.43 kg/6 months. Conclusions Body weight and fat significantly increase while using DMPA. After discontinuation, some decrease occurs when NH is used. PMID:19254592

  13. Healthy Fats in Mediterranean Diet Won't Boost Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as olive oil and nuts had little effect on body weight or waist circumference compared to people on ... of Health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Diets Weight Control Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diets ...

  14. Fat Bias and Weight-Related Teasing Prevention among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyairi, Maya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement a weight-related teasing prevention program and evaluate the effectiveness of the program among adolescents. One hundred forty-three students in 7th-grade in health classes at the middle school were asked to participate in the study. The weight-related teasing prevention program was implemented as part of…

  15. Optimization of abdominal fat quantification on CT imaging through use of standardized anatomic space: A novel approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The quantification of body fat plays an important role in the study of numerous diseases. It is common current practice to use the fat area at a single abdominal computed tomography (CT) slice as a marker of the body fat content in studying various disease processes. This paper sets out to answer three questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. At what single anatomic slice location do the areas of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) estimated from the slice correlate maximally with the corresponding fat volume measures? How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? Are there combinations of multiple slices (not necessarily contiguous) whose area sum correlates better with volume than does single slice area with volume? Methods: The authors propose a novel strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. The authors then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. To address the third issue, the authors carry out similar correlation studies by utilizing two and three slices for calculating area sum. Results: Based on 50 abdominal CT data sets, the proposed mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized currently for single slice area estimation as a marker. Conclusions: The maximum area-to-volume correlation achieved is quite high, suggesting that it may be reasonable to estimate body fat by measuring the area of fat from a single anatomic slice at the site of maximum correlation and use this as a marker. The site of maximum correlation is not at L4-L5 as commonly assumed

  16. Pancreas segmentation from 3D abdominal CT images using patient-specific weighted subspatial probabilistic atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasawa, Kenichi; Oda, Masahiro; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Rueckert, Daniel; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal organ segmentations from CT volumes are now widely used in the computer-aided diagnosis and surgery assistance systems. Among abdominal organs, the pancreas is especially difficult to segment because of its large individual differences of the shape and position. In this paper, we propose a new pancreas segmentation method from 3D abdominal CT volumes using patient-specific weighted-subspatial probabilistic atlases. First of all, we perform normalization of organ shapes in training volumes and an input volume. We extract the Volume Of Interest (VOI) of the pancreas from the training volumes and an input volume. We divide each training VOI and input VOI into some cubic regions. We use a nonrigid registration method to register these cubic regions of the training VOI to corresponding regions of the input VOI. Based on the registration results, we calculate similarities between each cubic region of the training VOI and corresponding region of the input VOI. We select cubic regions of training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region. We subspatially construct probabilistic atlases weighted by the similarities in each cubic region. After integrating these probabilistic atlases in cubic regions into one, we perform a rough-to-precise segmentation of the pancreas using the atlas. The results of the experiments showed that utilization of the training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region led good results of the pancreas segmentation. The Jaccard Index and the average surface distance of the result were 58.9% and 2.04mm on average, respectively.

  17. [Low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet for weight loss--which is better?].

    PubMed

    Hauner, H

    2004-10-01

    Several recent clinical studies show that a low-carbohydrate diet produces a greater initial weight loss than conventional low-fat diets, and is associated with a greater reduction of elevated serum triglycerides. After one year, however, weight loss is similar with both diets. Since the intake of saturated fat is higher on a low-carbohydrate diet, there may be an increased risk of elevated levels of LDL cholesterol, thus furthering atherosclerosis, over the long term. Before low-carbohydrate diets can be considered an equivalent alternative to low-fat diets for the treatment of obesity, long-term clinical trials are urgently required. The greater weight loss under low-carbohydrate diets would appear to be due to a lower caloric intake. Successful weight loss largely depends on restricting the intake of calories, but the supply of essential nutrients should be guaranteed. PMID:15532735

  18. Identification, expression and variation of the GNPDA2 gene, and its association with body weight and fatness traits in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Zhang, Huan; Li, Weimin; Liang, Sisi; Jebessa, Endashaw; Abdalla, Bahareldin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The GNPDA2 (glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 2) gene is a member of Glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) deaminase subfamily, which encoded an allosteric enzyme of GlcN6P. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that variations of human GNPDA2 are associated with body mass index and obesity risk, but its function and metabolic implications remain to be elucidated.The object of this study was to characterize the gene structure, expression, and biological functions of GNPDA2 in chickens. Methods. Variant transcripts of chicken GNPDA2 and their expression were investigated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) system and real-time quantitative PCR technology. We detected the GNPDA2 expression in hypothalamic, adipose, and liver tissue of Xinghua chickens with fasting and high-glucose-fat diet treatments, and performed association analysis of variations of GNPDA2 with productive traits in chicken. The function of GNPDA2 was further studied by overexpression and small interfering RNA (siRNA) methods in chicken preadipocytes. Results.Four chicken GNPDA2 transcripts (cGNPDA2-a∼cGNPDA2-d) were identified in this study. The complete transcript GNPDA2-a was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat), hypothalamus, and duodenum. In fasting chickens, the mRNA level of GNPDA2 was decreased by 58.8% (P < 0.05) in hypothalamus, and returned to normal level after refeeding. Chicken fed a high-glucose-fat diet increased GNPDA2 gene expression about 2-fold higher in adipose tissue (P < 0.05) than that in the control (fed a basal diet), but decreased its expression in hypothalamus. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the GNPDA2 gene were significantly associated with body weight and a number of fatness traits in chicken (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our findings indicated that the GNPDA2 gene has a potential role in the regulation of body weight, fat and energy metabolism in chickens. PMID:27326383

  19. Identification, expression and variation of the GNPDA2 gene, and its association with body weight and fatness traits in chicken.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Zhang, Huan; Li, Weimin; Liang, Sisi; Jebessa, Endashaw; Abdalla, Bahareldin A; Nie, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Background. The GNPDA2 (glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 2) gene is a member of Glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) deaminase subfamily, which encoded an allosteric enzyme of GlcN6P. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that variations of human GNPDA2 are associated with body mass index and obesity risk, but its function and metabolic implications remain to be elucidated.The object of this study was to characterize the gene structure, expression, and biological functions of GNPDA2 in chickens. Methods. Variant transcripts of chicken GNPDA2 and their expression were investigated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) system and real-time quantitative PCR technology. We detected the GNPDA2 expression in hypothalamic, adipose, and liver tissue of Xinghua chickens with fasting and high-glucose-fat diet treatments, and performed association analysis of variations of GNPDA2 with productive traits in chicken. The function of GNPDA2 was further studied by overexpression and small interfering RNA (siRNA) methods in chicken preadipocytes. Results.Four chicken GNPDA2 transcripts (cGNPDA2-a∼cGNPDA2-d) were identified in this study. The complete transcript GNPDA2-a was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat), hypothalamus, and duodenum. In fasting chickens, the mRNA level of GNPDA2 was decreased by 58.8% (P < 0.05) in hypothalamus, and returned to normal level after refeeding. Chicken fed a high-glucose-fat diet increased GNPDA2 gene expression about 2-fold higher in adipose tissue (P < 0.05) than that in the control (fed a basal diet), but decreased its expression in hypothalamus. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the GNPDA2 gene were significantly associated with body weight and a number of fatness traits in chicken (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our findings indicated that the GNPDA2 gene has a potential role in the regulation of body weight, fat and energy metabolism in chickens. PMID:27326383

  20. DXA estimates of fat in abdominal, trunk and hip regions varies by ethnicity in men

    PubMed Central

    Stults-Kolehmainen, M A; Stanforth, P R; Bartholomew, J B; Lu, T; Abolt, C J; Sinha, R

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether the quantity of fat is different across the central (that is, android, trunk) and peripheral (that is, arm, leg and gynoid) regions among young African-American (AA), Asian (AS), Hispanic (HI) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) men. Subjects and Methods: A cohort of 852 men (18–30 years; mean total body fat percent (TBF%)=18.8±7.9, range=3.7–45.4) were assessed for body composition in five body regions via dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results: HI men (21.8±8.3) had higher TBF% than AA (17.0±10.0), NHW (17.9±7.2) and AS (18.9±8.0) groups (P-values <0.0001). AS had a lower BMI (23.9±3.4) than all other groups, and NHW (24.7±3.2) had a lower BMI than HI (25.7±3.9) and AA (26.5±4.7; P-values<0.0001). A linear mixed model (LMM) revealed a significant ethnicity by region fat% interaction (P<0.0001). HI men had a greater fat% than NHW for every region (adjusted means (%); android: 29.6 vs 23.3; arm: 13.3 vs 10.6; gynoid: 27.2 vs 23.8; leg: 21.2 vs 18.3; trunk: 25.5 vs 20.6) and a greater fat% than AA for every region except the arm. In addition, in the android and trunk regions, HI had a greater fat% than AS, and AS had a higher fat% than AA. Finally, the android fat% for AS was higher than that of NHW. When comparing the region fat% within ethnicities, the android region was greater than the gynoid region for AS and HI, but did not differ for AA and NHW, and the arm region had the least fat% in all ethnicities. Conclusions: Fat deposition and body fat patterning varies by ethnicity. PMID:23507968

  1. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    PubMed Central

    Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

  2. An evidence-based review of fat modifying supplemental weight loss products.

    PubMed

    Egras, Amy M; Hamilton, William R; Lenz, Thomas L; Monaghan, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

  3. Strategies to increase vegetable or reduce energy and fat intake induce weight loss in adults.

    PubMed

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Valentine, Ashley R; Zhang, Zhumin; Whigham, Leah D; Lai, HuiChuan J; Atkinson, Richard L

    2009-05-01

    For obese individuals seeking to optimize health and well-being, healthy dietary strategies are important. Vegetables and fruits contribute to a healthy diet, and increased consumption may cause weight reduction by displacing foods high in energy and fat. The objective of this study was to determine if advising high vegetable (8 servings) and moderate fruit (2-3 servings) consumption would result in weight reduction in obese individuals. We compared this to advising a more traditional strategy of reducing daily energy intake by 500 kcal (2.1 MJ)/d and limiting energy from fat to Weight and body composition were measured at baseline and after 3, 12, and 18 mo. Fasting serum lipid panel, insulin, glucose, hematocrit, and C-reactive protein were measured at baseline, 3, and 12 mo. Both groups lost weight after 3 mo (P=0.0087 for high vegetable diet and P<0.0001 for energy reduction diet), and the energy and fat reduction diet resulted in lower weight over time (P<0.0001, treatment effect). Total cholesterol and cholesterol:HDL decreased after 3 mo in both groups (Pweight loss at 3 mo, but only the group following the caloric and fat reduction advice maintained weight loss at the 12- and 18-mo follow-up assessments. Nonetheless, the group following the high vegetable advice did not regain weight above baseline. In conclusion, traditional messages to reduce calories and fat are important, and increasing vegetable intake can assist individuals to maintain weight. PMID:19234056

  4. Prior exercise training blunts short-term high-fat diet-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2016-08-01

    High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet. PMID:27101294

  5. Spatially-constrained probability distribution model of incoherent motion (SPIM) for abdominal diffusion-weighted MRI.

    PubMed

    Kurugol, Sila; Freiman, Moti; Afacan, Onur; Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M; Callahan, Michael J; Warfield, Simon K

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MRI) of the body enables characterization of the tissue microenvironment by measuring variations in the mobility of water molecules. The diffusion signal decay model parameters are increasingly used to evaluate various diseases of abdominal organs such as the liver and spleen. However, previous signal decay models (i.e., mono-exponential, bi-exponential intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and stretched exponential models) only provide insight into the average of the distribution of the signal decay rather than explicitly describe the entire range of diffusion scales. In this work, we propose a probability distribution model of incoherent motion that uses a mixture of Gamma distributions to fully characterize the multi-scale nature of diffusion within a voxel. Further, we improve the robustness of the distribution parameter estimates by integrating spatial homogeneity prior into the probability distribution model of incoherent motion (SPIM) and by using the fusion bootstrap solver (FBM) to estimate the model parameters. We evaluated the improvement in quantitative DW-MRI analysis achieved with the SPIM model in terms of accuracy, precision and reproducibility of parameter estimation in both simulated data and in 68 abdominal in-vivo DW-MRIs. Our results show that the SPIM model not only substantially reduced parameter estimation errors by up to 26%; it also significantly improved the robustness of the parameter estimates (paired Student's t-test, p < 0.0001) by reducing the coefficient of variation (CV) of estimated parameters compared to those produced by previous models. In addition, the SPIM model improves the parameter estimates reproducibility for both intra- (up to 47%) and inter-session (up to 30%) estimates compared to those generated by previous models. Thus, the SPIM model has the potential to improve accuracy, precision and robustness of quantitative abdominal DW-MRI analysis for clinical applications. PMID

  6. Predicting anti-fat attitudes: individual differences based on actual and perceived body size, weight importance, entity mindset, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Scott, Shannon Rich; Rosen, Lisa H

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relative impact of actual and perceived weight, weight importance, entity mindset, and ethnicity on anti-fat attitudes as well as to examine whether certain variables play the role of mediator. Participants included a multiethnic U.S. sample of 923 female undergraduates who completed a series of measures online. Lower BMI, higher perceived weight, higher importance of weight, endorsement of an entity mindset, and identification as White as compared to Black, Hispanic, or Asian predicted higher overall anti-fat attitudes. Examination of the individual Antifat Attitudes Questionnaire subscales (i.e. dislike, fear of fat, and willpower) using Relative Weight Analysis suggested that weight importance is an important predictor of multiple aspects of anti-fat attitudes. In addition, weight importance mediated the relationship between perceived weight and fear of fat as well as the relationship between ethnicity and dislike. Implications of findings and future research directions are discussed. PMID:25326878

  7. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and fatness is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight gain and fat deposit a...

  8. Total body fat and abdominal visceral fat response to exercise training in the HERITAGE Family Study: evidence for major locus but no multifactorial effects.

    PubMed

    Rice, T; Hong, Y; Pérusse, L; Després, J P; Gagnon, J; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

    1999-10-01

    The familial etiology of the response in total fat mass (FM) and abdominal visceral fat (AVF) to 20 weeks of exercise training was investigated in families participating in the HERITAGE Family Study. AVF (measured by computed tomographic scanning) and FM (measured by underwater weighing techniques) were assessed at baseline (in a sedentary state) and after 20 weeks of exercise training. The response AVF (AVFdelta) and response FM (FMdelta) were computed as the simple delta values (posttraining - baseline) and adjusted for the effects of sex, generation, and a polynomial in age using multiple regression analysis. To index the AVF response independently of the response in FM and the initial level of visceral fat, the AVFdelta was also adjusted for age and baseline AVF (AVFB) and FMdelta. Familial correlation analysis was used to investigate the multifactorial familial effects (polygenic and/or familial environmental), and segregation analysis was used to search for major gene effects. For the age-adjusted AVFdelta, a putative recessive locus accounting for 18% of the variance (q2 = 1%) was detected. Adjusting AVFdelta for AVFB and FMdelta slightly increased the percentage of variance accounted for (to 26%, q2 = 3%) but did not radically alter the pattern of the parameter estimates. For FMdelta, a putative dominant locus accounting for 31% of the variance (q2 = 49%) was noted. In conclusion, the results were consistent across methods in suggesting that there is little evidence of a multifactorial heritability for either AVFdelta or FMdelta. Rather, the familial etiology of the response to exercise training appears to be primarily due to putative major genes (a recessive locus for AVFdelta and a dominant locus for FMdelta). In addition, a pleiotropic/oligogenic system underlying these variables was inferred. That is, the putative loci for FMdelta and/or AVFB also may impact the AVFdelta, with an additional independent major locus effect on AVFdelta after the former

  9. Reduction of weight loss and tumour size in a cachexia model by a high fat diet.

    PubMed Central

    Tisdale, M. J.; Brennan, R. A.; Fearon, K. C.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt has been made to reverse cachexia and to selectively deprive the tumour of metabolic substrates for energy production by feeding a ketogenic regime, since ketone bodies are considered important in maintaining homeostasis during starvation. As a model we have used a transplantable mouse adenocarcinoma of the colon (MAC 16) which produces extensive weight loss without a reduction in food intake. When mice bearing the MAC16 tumour were fed on diets in which up to 80% of the energy was supplied as medium chain triglycerides (MCT) with or without arginine 3-hydroxybutyrate host weight loss was reduced in proportion to the fat content of the diet, and there was also a reduction in the percentage contribution of the tumour to the final body weight. The increase in carcass weight in tumour-bearing mice fed high levels of MCT was attributable to an increase in both the fat and the non-fat carcass mass. Blood levels of free fatty acids (FFA) were significantly reduced by MCT addition. The levels of both acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate were elevated in mice fed the high fat diets, and tumour-bearing mice fed the normal diet did not show increased plasma levels of ketone bodies over the non-tumour-bearing group despite the loss of carcass lipids. Both blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were reduced in mice bearing the MAC16 tumour and this was not significantly altered by feeding the high fat diets. The elevation in ketone bodies may account for the retention of both the fat and the non-fat carcass mass. This is the first example of an attempt to reverse cachexia by a diet based on metabolic differences between tumour and host tissues, which aims to selectively feed the host at the expense of the tumour. PMID:3620317

  10. Expression Profiling of Preadipocyte MicroRNAs by Deep Sequencing on Chicken Lines Divergently Selected for Abdominal Fatness

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weishi; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Cheng, Bohan; Wang, Yuxiang; Yao, Jing; Li, Yumao; Cao, Zhiping; Luan, Peng; Wang, Ning; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Through posttranscriptional gene regulation, microRNA (miRNA) is linked to a wide variety of biological processes, including adipogenesis and lipid metabolism. Although miRNAs in mammalian adipogenesis have been worked on extensively, their study in chicken adipogenesis is still very limited. To find miRNAs potentially important for chicken preadipocyte development, we compared the preadipocyte miRNA expression profiles in two broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content, by sequencing two small RNA libraries constructed for primary preadipocytes isolated from abdominal adipose tissues. After bioinformatics analyses, from chicken miRNAs deposited in miRBase 20.0, we identified 225 miRNAs to be expressed in preadipocytes, 185 in the lean line and 200 in the fat line (derived from 208 and 203 miRNA precursors, respectively), which corresponds to 114 miRNA families. The let-7 family miRNAs were the most abundant. Furthermore, we validated the sequencing results of 15 known miRNAs by qRT-PCR, and confirmed that the expression levels of most miRNAs correlated well with those of Solexa sequencing. A total of 33 miRNAs was significantly differentially expressed between the two chicken lines (P<0.05). Gene ontology analysis revealed that they could target genes enriched in the regulation of gene transcription and chromatin function, response to insulin stimulation, and IGF-1 signaling pathways, which could have important roles in preadipocyte development. Therefore, a valuable information and resource of miRNAs on chicken adipogenesis were provided in this study. Future functional investigations on these miRNAs could help explore related genes and molecular networks fundamental to preadipocyte development. PMID:25675096

  11. Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Udry, J. Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath; Campbell, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Investigated implications of body-fat differences for dating and sexual activity and implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns in adolescent girls. Found that among white girls, and blacks with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with lower dating probability, even among non-obese girls. Body fat was…

  12. Genetic parameters for carcass weight, conformation and fat in five beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Kause, A; Mikkola, L; Strandén, I; Sirkko, K

    2015-01-01

    Profitability of beef production can be increased by genetically improving carcass traits. To construct breeding value evaluations for carcass traits, breed-specific genetic parameters were estimated for carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat in five beef cattle breeds in Finland (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin). Conformation and fat were visually scored using the EUROP carcass classification. Each breed was separately analyzed using a multitrait animal model. A total of 6879-19 539 animals per breed had phenotypes. For the five breeds, heritabilities were moderate for carcass weight (h 2=0.39 to 0.48, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and slightly lower for conformation (h 2=0.30 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and carcass fat (h 2=0.29 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04). The genetic correlation between carcass weight and conformation was favorable in all breeds (r G=0.37 to 0.53, s.e.=0.04 to 0.05), heavy carcasses being genetically more conformed. The phenotypic correlation between carcass weight and carcass fat was moderately positive in all breeds (r P=0.21 to 0.32), implying that increasing carcass weight was related to increasing fat levels. The respective genetic correlation was the strongest in Hereford (r G=0.28, s.e.=0.05) and Angus (r G=0.15, s.e.=0.05), the two small body-sized British breeds with the lowest conformation and the highest fat level. The correlation was weaker in the other breeds (r G=0.08 to 0.14). For Hereford, Angus and Simmental, more conformed carcasses were phenotypically fatter (r P=0.11 to 0.15), but the respective genetic correlations were close to zero (r G=-0.05 to 0.04). In contrast, in the two large body-sized and muscular French breeds, the genetic correlation between conformation and fat was negative and the phenotypic correlation was close to zero or negative (Charolais: r G=-0.18, s.e.=0.06, r P=0.02; Limousin: r G=-0.56, s.e.=0.04, r P=-0.13). The results indicate genetic variation for the genetic

  13. Whole-body electromyostimulation as a means to impact muscle mass and abdominal body fat in lean, sedentary, older female adults: subanalysis of the TEST-III trial

    PubMed Central

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 months of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) exercise on appendicular muscle mass and abdominal fat mass in subjects specifically at risk for sarcopenia and abdominal obesity, but unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally. Methods Forty-six lean, nonsportive (<60 minutes of exercise per week), elderly women (aged 75 ± 4 years) with abdominal obesity according to International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n=23) which performed 18 minutes of intermittent, bipolar WB-EMS (85 Hz) three sessions in 14 days or an “active” control group (n=23). Whole-body and regional body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine appendicular muscle mass, upper leg muscle mass, abdominal fat mass, and upper leg fat mass. Maximum strength of the leg extensors was determined isometrically by force plates. Results After 12 months, significant intergroup differences were detected for the primary end-points of appendicular muscle mass (0.5% ± 2.0% for the WB-EMS group versus −0.8% ± 2.0% for the control group, P=0.025) and abdominal fat mass (−1.2% ± 5.9% for the WB-EMS group versus 2.4% ± 5.8% for the control group, P=0.038). Further, upper leg lean muscle mass changed favorably in the WB-EMS group (0.5% ± 2.5% versus −0.9% ± 1.9%, in the control group, P=0.033), while effects for upper leg fat mass were borderline nonsignificant (−0.8% ± 3.5% for the WB-EMS group versus 1.0% ± 2.6% for the control group, P=0.050). With respect to functional parameters, the effects for leg extensor strength were again significant, with more favorable changes in the WB-EMS group (9.1% ± 11.2% versus 1.0% ± 8.1% in the control group, P=0.010). Conclusion In summary, WB-EMS showed positive effects on the parameters of sarcopenia and regional fat accumulation. Further, considering the good acceptance of this technology by

  14. A genome-wide scan of selective sweeps in two broiler chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic regions controlling abdominal fatness (AF) were studied in the Northeast Agricultural University broiler line divergently selected for AF. In this study, the chicken 60KSNP chip and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) test were used to detect genome-wide signatures of AF. Results A total of 5357 and 5593 core regions were detected in the lean and fat lines, and 51 and 57 reached a significant level (P<0.01), respectively. A number of genes in the significant core regions, including RB1, BBS7, MAOA, MAOB, EHBP1, LRP2BP, LRP1B, MYO7A, MYO9A and PRPSAP1, were detected. These genes may be important for AF deposition in chickens. Conclusions We provide a genome-wide map of selection signatures in the chicken genome, and make a contribution to the better understanding the mechanisms of selection for AF content in chickens. The selection for low AF in commercial breeding using this information will accelerate the breeding progress. PMID:23241142

  15. Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Seki, Emi; Aitani, Michio

    2006-01-01

    Background An epidemiological study conducted in Italy indicated that coffee has the greatest antioxidant capacity among the commonly consumed beverages. Green coffee bean is rich in chlorogenic acid and its related compounds. The effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE) on fat accumulation and body weight in mice was assessed with the objective of investigating the effect of GCBE on mild obesity. Methods Male ddy mice were fed a standard diet containing GCBE and its principal constituents, namely, caffeine and chlorogenic acid, for 14 days. Further, hepatic triglyceride (TG) level was also investigated after consecutive administration (13 days) of GCBE and its constituents. To examine the effect of GCBE and its constituents on fat absorption, serum TG changes were evaluated in olive oil-loaded mice. In addition, to investigate the effect on hepatic TG metabolism, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity in mice was evaluated after consecutive ingestion (6 days) of GCBE and its constituents (caffeine, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and feruloylquinic acid mixture). Results It was found that 0.5% and 1% GCBE reduced visceral fat content and body weight. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid showed a tendency to reduce visceral fat and body weight. Oral administration of GCBE (100 and 200 mg/kg· day) for 13 days showed a tendency to reduce hepatic TG in mice. In the same model, chlorogenic acid (60 mg/kg· day) reduced hepatic TG level. In mice loaded with olive oil (5 mL/kg), GCBE (200 and 400 mg/kg) and caffeine (20 and 40 mg/kg) reduced serum TG level. GCBE (1%), neochlorogenic acid (0.028% and 0.055%) and feruloylquinic acid mixture (0.081%) significantly enhanced hepatic CPT activity in mice. However, neither caffeine nor chlorogenic acid alone was found to enhance CPT activity. Conclusion These results suggest that GCBE is possibly effective against weight gain and fat accumulation by inhibition of fat absorption and activation of fat metabolism in the

  16. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P < .05), and so did body fat mass (placebo vs ASE; bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity. PMID:27333958

  17. Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weight gain in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jørgensen, Henry; Oomah, David; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2013-08-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17-21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p < 0.05). The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats. PMID:23966109

  18. Linseed Dietary Fibers Reduce Apparent Digestibility of Energy and Fat and Weight Gain in Growing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Mette; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Jørgensen, Henry; Oomah, David; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p < 0.05). The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats. PMID:23966109

  19. Androgen Inhibits Abdominal Fat Accumulation and Negatively Regulates the PCK1 Gene in Male Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yonggang; Li, Junying; Ling, Yao; Teng, Kedao; Li, Hongwei; Wu, Changxin

    2013-01-01

    Capons are male chickens whose testes have been surgically incised. Capons show a significant increase in fat accumulation compared to intact male chickens. However, while caponization leads to a significant reduction in androgen levels in roosters, little is known about the molecular mechanisms through which androgen status affects lipogenesis in avian species. Therefore, investigation of the influence of androgens on fat accumulation in the chicken will provide insights into this process. In this study, Affymetrix microarray technology was used to analyze the gene expression profiles of livers from capons and intact male chickens because the liver is the major site of lipogenesis in avian species. Through gene ontology, we found that genes involved in hepatic lipogenic biosynthesis were the most highly enriched. Interestingly, among the upregulated genes, the cytosolic form of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) gene showed the greatest fold change. Additionally, in conjunction with quantitative real-time PCR data, our results suggested that androgen status negatively regulated the PCK1 gene in male chickens. PMID:23544081

  20. Increased vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss effort correlates with increased weight and fat loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recommendations to increase vegetable and fruit consumption often accompany guidelines for weight loss. A previous study indicated that people who were instructed to count calories lost more weight than those simply instructed to increase vegetable and fruit intake. The objective was to determine if...

  1. Vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss is positively correlated with weight and fat loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Recommendations to increase vegetable and fruit consumption often accompany guidelines for weight loss. A previous study indicated that people who were instructed to count calories lost more weight than those simply instructed to increase vegetable and fruit intake. Objective: The object...

  2. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities. PMID:25314375

  3. Animal models of sugar and fat bingeing: relationship to food addiction and increased body weight.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating is a behavior that occurs in some eating disorders, as well as in obesity and in nonclinical populations. Both sugars and fats are readily consumed by human beings and are common components of binges. This chapter describes animal models of sugar and fat bingeing, which allow for a detailed analysis of these behaviors and their concomitant physiological effects. The model of sugar bingeing has been used successfully to elicit behavioral and neurochemical signs of dependence in rats; e.g., indices of opiate-like withdrawal, increased intake after abstinence, cross-sensitization with drugs of abuse, and the repeated release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens following repeated bingeing. Studies using the model of fat bingeing suggest that it can produce some, but not all, of the signs of dependence that are seen with sugar binge eating, as well as increase body weight, potentially leading to obesity. PMID:22231826

  4. Effect of recreational exercise on pregnancy weight gain and subcutaneous fat deposition.

    PubMed

    Clapp, J F; Little, K D

    1995-02-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that continuing a regular regimen of recreational endurance exercise alters the time-specific rate of maternal weight gain and subcutaneous fat deposition during pregnancy. Serial measurements of body mass and 5-site skinfold thickness were obtained from 44 women before and during pregnancy who continued their preconceptional exercise regimen throughout pregnancy and from women who voluntarily stopped their preconceptional exercise regimen either before conception (N = 31) or reduced it below baseline fitness levels in very early pregnancy (N = 4). In the first and second trimester, the rate of weight gain and change in skinfold thicknesses were unrelated to exercise performance. However, those who continued exercise had a reduced rate of weight gain and change in skinfold thickness at specific sites in the last trimester of pregnancy. Overall weight gains were (mean +/- SEM) 13.0 +/- 0.5 kg and 16.3 +/- 0.7 kg in the exercise and control groups, respectively, and the increases in the sum of skinfolds were 22 +/- 2 mm and 31 +/- 2 mm, respectively. We conclude that continuing a regular exercise regimen throughout pregnancy does not influence the rate of early pregnancy weight gain or subcutaneous fat deposition but decreases both in late pregnancy. However, overall pregnancy weight gain remains well within the normal range. PMID:7723638

  5. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW). Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  6. The relationship of weight-height indices of obesity to body fat content.

    PubMed

    Strain, G W; Zumoff, B

    1992-12-01

    The measurement called desirable body weight (DBW) was derived by actuaries to indicate that weight which is associated with the lowest mortality. Percent deviation from DBW has become a standard measure of fatness. A different obesity index, body mass index (BMI), is weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. Many workers consider both measures inferior to the measurement of body fat content (BFC). We compared the three measures of fatness in 40 men aged 18-50 and 48 women aged 21-47, ranging from nonobese to extremely obese. Total BFC was determined by isotope dilution of 3H-labeled water. DBWs used were those listed in the US Air Force Examination Manual of 1971; these approximate the midpoint of the range of medium-frame values in the 1959 Metropolitan Life Insurance Tables, but have the advantage of providing a single value for each height. We found nearly perfect correlation (r = 0.99, p < 0.001) between BMI and percent deviation from DBW in both men and women ranging from 14% below to 305% above DBW. Correlations between percent deviation from DBW and total BFC were extremely high: 0.95 (p < 0.001) for the men and 0.94 (p < 0.001) for the women, essentially the same as correlations between BMI and BFC, which were 0.96 (p < 0.001) for the men and 0.95 (p < 0.001) for the women. It appears that the two technically simple weight-height indices, BMI and percent deviation from DBW, give just as accurate a measurement of fatness as the technically complex measurement of total BFC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1460187

  7. Establishment of Rabbit Abdominal Aortic Atherosclerosis Model by Pancreatic Elastase Infiltration Associated with High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Song-Nian; Xu, Ke; Zhong, Hong-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a high fat diet (HFD) associated with pancreatic elastase (PE) infiltration, in establishing the rabbit aortic atherosclerosis model. Methods The HFD+PE method and the HFD+saccule injury (SI) method were simultaneously used to prepare the rabbit atherosclerosis model; the control group was established with the normal diet. Biochemical indicators, radiological imaging, pathomorphology and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the HFD+PE modeling results. Results There were significant changes in the blood lipid contents, as well as the pathomorphological and immunohistochemical results between the two experimental groups and the control group (p < 0.05). However, there was no difference between the two experimental groups. The rabbit aortic atherosclerosis model prepared by the HFD+PE method had no significant difference in the local vascular pathomorphological and immunohistochemical results with the traditional HFD+SI method. Conclusions The use of HFD with PE infiltration is feasible in establishing the rabbit aortic atherosclerosis model. PMID:27122900

  8. Effects of peroxidized corn oil on performance, AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a trend to use more alternative lipids in poultry diets, either through animal-vegetable blends, distillers corn oil, or yellow grease. This has resulted in the use of lipids in poultry diets with a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids which have a greater potential for peroxidat...

  9. Concordant lipoprotein and weight responses to dietary fat changein identical twins with divergent exercise levels

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Rawlings, Robin; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2004-06-01

    Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to testthe extent that individual lipoprotein responses to diet can beattributed to genes in the presence of divergent exercise levels.Design:Twenty-eight pairs of male monozygotic twins (one mostly sedentary, theother running an average of 50 km/week more than the sedentary twin) wentfrom a 6-week 40 percent fat diet to a 6-week 20 percent fat diet in acrossover design. The diets reduced fat primarily by reducing saturatedand polyunsaturated fat (both from 14 percent to 4 percent), whileincreasing carbohydrate intake from 45 percent to 65 percent. Results:Despite the twins' differences in physical activity, the dietarymanipulation produced significantly correlated changes (P<0.05) in thetwin's total cholesterol (r=0.56), low-density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol (r=0.70), large, buoyant LDL (Sf7-12, r=0.52), apo A-I(r=0.49), Lp(a) (r=0.49), electrophoresis measurements of LDL-I (LDLsbetween 26 and 28.5 nm diameter, r=0.48), LDL-IIB (25.2-24.6 nm, r=0.54),LDL-IV (22-24.1 nm, r=0.50), and body weights (r=0.41). Replacing fatswith carbohydrates significantly decreased the size and ultracentrifugeflotation rate of the major LDL, the LDL mass concentrations of Sf7-12,LDL-I, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apo A-I, andsignificantly increased LDL-IIIA (24.7-25.5 nm diameter) and Lp(a).Conclusions: Even in the presence of extreme exercise difference, genessignificantly affect changes in LDL, apo A-I, Lp(a) and body weight whendietary fats are replaced with carbohydrates.

  10. Effect of a High-Fructose Weight-Maintaining Diet on Lipogenesis and Liver Fat

    PubMed Central

    Noworolski, Susan M.; Wen, Michael J.; Dyachenko, Artem; Prior, Jessica L.; Weinberg, Melissa E.; Herraiz, Laurie A.; Tai, Viva W.; Bergeron, Nathalie; Bersot, Thomas P.; Rao, Madhu N.; Schambelan, Morris; Mulligan, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Context: Consumption of high-fructose diets promotes hepatic fatty acid synthesis (de novo lipogenesis [DNL]) and an atherogenic lipid profile. It is unclear whether these effects occur independent of positive energy balance and weight gain. Objectives: We compared the effects of a high-fructose, (25% of energy content) weight-maintaining diet to those of an isocaloric diet with the same macronutrient distribution but in which complex carbohydrate (CCHO) was substituted for fructose. Design, Setting, and Participants: Eight healthy men were studied as inpatients for consecutive 9-day periods. Stable isotope tracers were used to measure fractional hepatic DNL and endogenous glucose production (EGP) and its suppression during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Liver fat was measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results: Weight remained stable. Regardless of the order in which the diets were fed, the high-fructose diet was associated with both higher DNL (average, 18.6 ± 1.4% vs 11.0 ± 1.4% for CCHO; P = .001) and higher liver fat (median, +137% of CCHO; P = .016) in all participants. Fasting EGP and insulin-mediated glucose disposal did not differ significantly, but EGP during hyperinsulinemia was greater (0.60 ± 0.07 vs 0.46 ± 0.06 mg/kg/min; P = .013) with the high-fructose diet, suggesting blunted suppression of EGP. Conclusion: Short-term high-fructose intake was associated with increased DNL and liver fat in healthy men fed weight-maintaining diets. PMID:25825943

  11. The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous and abdominal fat in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum.

    PubMed

    Hostens, M; Fievez, V; Leroy, J L M R; Van Ranst, J; Vlaeminck, B; Opsomer, G

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fatty acid (FA) profile and assess desaturase indices of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the blood, as well as in the abdominal (ABD) and subcutaneous (SUBC) fat stores, in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Blood, ABD, and SUBC samples were taken from 50 Holstein cows offered for surgery to correct LDA. The FA profile of the 3 compartments was determined by gas chromatography after lipid extraction, methylation, and, in the case of blood plasma, separation of lipid classes. The most abundant FA in all 3 compartments were 16:0, 18:0, and 18:1 cis-9, with a total proportion of 82.5, 68.0, and 74.1g/100 g of FA in ABD, NEFA, and SUBC, respectively. A principal component analysis was performed on the entire FA profile as well as on the Δ(9)-desaturase indices (14:1 cis-9/14:0, 16:1 cis-9/16:0, 18:1 cis-9/18:0). The principal component analysis extracted 2 principal components (PC), representing 51.6% (PC1) and 21.1% (PC2) of the total variance in FA composition of the 3 compartments. The loading plot for the regression factors revealed a strong positive correlation between PC1 with the Δ(9)-desaturase indices and the proportions of 14:1 cis-9 and 16:1 cis-9, and revealed a negative correlation with the proportion of 18:0 and saturated FA. The correlation with PC2 was positive for the proportion of unsaturated FA, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3, and negative for the proportion of 14:0, 16:0, and saturated FA. The SUBC could be distinguished from the NEFA and ABD by a positive score for PC1, whereas differentiation among the latter 2 compartments could be made by a positive (NEFA) or negative (ABD) score for PC2. The Δ(9)-desaturase indices for C14 and C16 differed between all compartments but were numerically closer for NEFA and ABD versus NEFA and SUBC. The desaturase indices of the main FA (18:1 cis-9 and 18:0) did not differ between NEFA and ABD. These results support the existence of a different FA

  12. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene-ablation Exacerbates Weight Gain in High-Fat Fed Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Avery L.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Landrock, Danilo; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Martin, Gregory G.; Storey, Stephen M.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    Loss of liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) decreases long chain fatty acid uptake and oxidation in primary hepatocytes and in vivo. On this basis, L-FABP gene ablation would potentiate high-fat diet-induced weight gain and weight gain/energy intake. While this was indeed the case when L-FABP null (−/−) mice on the C57BL/6NCr background were pair-fed high fat diet, whether this would also be observed under high-fat diet fed ad libitum was not known. Therefore, this possibility was examined in female L-FABP (−/−) mice on the same background. L-FABP (−/−) mice consumed equal amounts of defined high-fat or isocaloric control diets fed ad libitum. However, on the ad libitum fed high-fat diet the L-FABP (−/−) mice exhibited: 1) Decreased hepatic long chain fatty acid (LCFA) β-oxidation as indicated by lower serum β–hydroxybutyrate level; 2) Decreased hepatic protein levels of key enzymes mitochondrial (rate limiting carnitine palmitoyl acyltransferase A1, CPT1A; HMG-CoA synthase) and peroxisomal (acyl CoA oxidase 1, ACOX1) LCFA β-oxidation; 3) Increased fat tissue mass (FTM) and FTM/energy intake to the greatest extent; and 4) Exacerbated body weight gain, weight gain/energy intake, liver weight, and liver weight/body weight to the greatest extent. Taken together, these findings showed that L-FABP gene-ablation exacerbated diet-induced weight gain and fat tissue mass gain in mice fed high-fat diet ad libitum—consistent with the known biochemistry and cell biology of L-FABP. PMID:23539345

  13. Abdominal adiposity, insulin and bone quality in young male rats fed a high-fat diet containing soybean or canola oil

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Carlos, Aluana Santana; de Sousa dos Santos, Aline; Monteiro, Alexandra Maria Vieira; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Nascimento-Saba, Celly Cristina Alves

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with healthy bone properties. However, fatty diets can induce obesity. Our objective was to evaluate intra-abdominal adiposity, insulin, and bone growth in rats fed a high-fat diet containing low ratios of omega-6/omega-3 provided in canola oil. METHODS: After weaning, rats were grouped and fed either a control diet (7S), a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S) or a high-fat diet of canola oil (19C) until they were 60 days old. Differences were considered to be significant if p<0.05. RESULTS: After 60 days, the 19S and 19C groups showed more energy intake, body density growth and intra-abdominal fat mass. However, the 19S group had a higher area (200%) and a lower number (44%) of adipocytes, while the 7S and 19C groups did not differ. The serum concentrations of glucose and insulin and the insulin resistance index were significantly increased in the 19C group (15%, 56%, and 78%, respectively) compared to the 7S group. Bone measurements of the 19S and 19C groups showed a higher femur mass (25%) and a higher lumbar vertebrae mass (11%) and length (5%). Computed tomography analysis revealed more radiodensity in the proximal femoral epiphysis and lumbar vertebrae of 19C group compared to the 7S and 19S groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the amount and source of fat used in the diet after weaning increase body growth and fat depots and affect insulin resistance and, consequently, bone health. PMID:22012056

  14. Socio-Demographic and Dietary Factors Associated with Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity among Resettled Bhutanese Refugee Women in Northeast Ohio, United States

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Madhav P.; Assad, Lori; Shakya, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm) in a community-based sample of 18–65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary factors. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to define excess body weight and abdominal obesity. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the 108 participants was 36.5 (±12.2) years and length of time in the U.S. was 19.4 (±11.9) months. Overall, 64.8% and 69.4% of the women had excess body weight and abdominal obesity, respectively. Age was significantly associated with both excess body weight (odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.05–1.16) and abdominal obesity (1.09; 1.04–1.14). Consuming meat (4.01; 1.14–14.60) was significantly associated with excess body weight but not abdominal obesity. These findings suggest the need for lifestyle and dietary change education programs among this new and vulnerable group to reduce the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity and their health consequences. PMID:24968209

  15. Socio-demographic and dietary factors associated with excess body weight and abdominal obesity among resettled Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio, United States.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Madhav P; Assad, Lori; Shakya, Sunita

    2014-07-01

    Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm) in a community-based sample of 18-65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary factors. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to define excess body weight and abdominal obesity. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the 108 participants was 36.5 (±12.2) years and length of time in the U.S. was 19.4 (±11.9) months. Overall, 64.8% and 69.4% of the women had excess body weight and abdominal obesity, respectively. Age was significantly associated with both excess body weight (odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.16) and abdominal obesity (1.09; 1.04-1.14). Consuming meat (4.01; 1.14-14.60) was significantly associated with excess body weight but not abdominal obesity. These findings suggest the need for lifestyle and dietary change education programs among this new and vulnerable group to reduce the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity and their health consequences. PMID:24968209

  16. Ethanolic extract of Taheebo attenuates increase in body weight and fatty liver in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Hee; Um, Min Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Park, Myung Kyu; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE) from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against body weight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w) for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD) mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage); the diet of experimental (TBE) mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage). Mice administered TBE had significantly reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and fat pad weight, compared to HFD mice. Reduced hypertrophy of fat cells was also observed in TBE mice. Mice administered TBE also showed significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, insulin, and leptin. Lipid profiles and levels of mRNAs and proteins related to lipid metabolism were determined in liver and white adipose tissue of the mice. Expression of mRNA and proteins related to lipogenesis were decreased in TBE-administered mice compared to mice fed HFD alone. These results suggest that TBE inhibits obesity and fat accumulation by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obesity in mice. PMID:25299819

  17. Changes in Skeletal Integrity and Marrow Adiposity during High-Fat Diet and after Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Scheller, Erica L; Khoury, Basma; Moller, Kayla L; Wee, Natalie K Y; Khandaker, Shaima; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Abrishami, Simin H; Zamarron, Brian F; Singer, Kanakadurga

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity, there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) and subsequent weight loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND) or 60% HFD at 6 weeks of age for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12 weeks and then on ND for 8 weeks to mimic weight loss. After these dietary challenges, the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by micro computed-tomography for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity, and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) volume in the tibia increased after 16 weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20 weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse

  18. Changes in Skeletal Integrity and Marrow Adiposity during High-Fat Diet and after Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Scheller, Erica L.; Khoury, Basma; Moller, Kayla L.; Wee, Natalie K. Y.; Khandaker, Shaima; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Abrishami, Simin H.; Zamarron, Brian F.; Singer, Kanakadurga

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity, there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) and subsequent weight loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND) or 60% HFD at 6 weeks of age for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12 weeks and then on ND for 8 weeks to mimic weight loss. After these dietary challenges, the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by micro computed-tomography for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity, and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) volume in the tibia increased after 16 weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20 weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse

  19. Restricted selection index in mice designed to change body fat without changing body weight: correlated responses.

    PubMed

    Eisen, E J

    1992-07-01

    Correlated responses were studied in lines of mice selected for eight generations based on the criterion of a restricted selection index. Two replicate lines were selected in each treatment as follows: HE, high epididymal fat pad weight (EF) with zero change in body weight (BW) at 12 weeks of age; LE; low EF with zero change in BW; and RS, randomly. Correlated responses showed considerable variation between replicates, suggesting that genetic drift was important. Further, correlated responses for most traits were relatively small, probably because of low selection intensity. The HE line responded as expected in component traits of the restricted index. Associated compositional traits in HE responded as predicted since traits correlated with adiposity increased and hind carcass weight did not change significantly. Feed intake increased and feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) decreased in HE, as predicted. In contrast, the LE line did not respond in component traits as predicted since EF did not decrease and BW increased. Consequently, LE exhibited little change in traits associated with adiposity, but hind carcass weight, feed intake and feed efficiency increased. Of the correlated responses scored for fitness traits (littering rate, number of days from pairing of mate to littering, litter size and preweaning pup survival rate), significant effects were found for decreased littering rate in LE and increased prenatal survival rate in HE. In summary, correlated responses to restricted index selection generally agreed with expectation when responses in component traits of the index were considered. PMID:24203189

  20. CALORIC INTAKE AND DIETARY FAT TO CARBOHYDRATE RATIO INFLUENCE BODY WEIGHT ACCRETION AND ADIPOSITY IN RATS FED BY TOTAL ENTERAL NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of high energy high-fat diets leads to weight gain and adiposity in rodents. However the relative roles of higher caloric intake vs. increased dietary fat remain unclear. Low carbohydrate high fat diets, like the Atkins diet, claim to promote weight loss. We employed a total enteral nutr...

  1. FGF21, energy expenditure and weight loss – How much brown fat do you need?

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Leon; Wolfrum, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) belongs to the large family of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). Even though FGF signaling has been mainly implicated in developmental processes, recent studies have demonstrated that FGF21 is an important regulator of whole body energy expenditure and metabolism, in obesity. Scope of review Given the fact that obesity has developed epidemic proportions, not just in industrialized countries, FGF21 has emerged as a novel therapeutic avenue to treat obesity as well as associated metabolic disorders. While the metabolic effects of FGF21 are undisputed, the mechanisms by which FGF21 regulate weight loss have not yet been fully resolved. Until recently it was believed that FGF21 induces brown fat activity, thereby enhancing energy expenditure, which concomitantly leads to weight loss. Novel studies have challenged this concept as they could demonstrate that a part of the FGF21 mediated effects are retained in a mouse model of impaired brown adipose tissue function. Major conclusions The review illustrates the recent advances in FGF21 research and discusses the role of FGF21 in the regulation of energy expenditure linked to brown fat activity. PMID:26413466

  2. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2) recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32]) and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86]) than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]). A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]). Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that contribute to metabolic status

  3. Reducing effect of feeding powdered nacre of Pinctada maxima on the visceral fat of rats.

    PubMed

    Shono, Masayuki; Shimizu, Ichiro; Aoyagi, Eriko; Taniguchi, Tatsuya; Takenaka, Hidetaka; Ishikawa, Momoko; Urata, Mari; Sannomiya, Katsutaka; Tamaki, Katsuyoshi; Harada, Nagakatsu; Nakaya, Yutaka; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2008-10-01

    An abdominal fat accumulation complicated by high blood triglycerides is regarded as a risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Feeding powdered nacre, mother of pearl, from Pinctada maxima, resulted in reduced body weight, visceral fat amount, and blood triglyceride level without influencing the food intake, body length, or amount of muscular tissue, suggesting that nacre powder specifically could decrease visceral fat. PMID:18838791

  4. Differential expression of six chicken genes associated with fatness traits in a divergently selected broiler population.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianwen; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Songsong; Jin, Pengcheng; Luan, Peng; Li, Yumao; Cao, Zhiping; Leng, Li; Wang, Yuxiang; Wang, Shouzhi

    2016-02-01

    A genome-wide association study has shown a number of chicken (Gallus gallus) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to be significantly associated with abdominal fat content in Northeast Agricultural University (NEAU) broiler lines selected divergently for abdominal fat content (NEAUHLF). The six significant SNPs are located in the kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), tumor suppressor candidate 3 (TUSC3), phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase (PPAT), exocyst complex component 1 (EXOC1), v-myb myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (avian)-like 2 (MYBL2) and KIAA1211 (undefined) genes. In this study, the expression levels of these genes were investigated in both abdominal fat and liver tissues using 32 14th generation chickens from the NEAUHLF. The levels of expression of KDR in abdominal fat and KDR and TUSC3 in liver differed significantly between the two lines. The expression level of KDR in the abdominal fat was significantly correlated with the abdominal fat weight (AFW) and abdominal fat percentage (AFP). The expression levels of KDR, TUSC3 and PPAT in liver were significantly correlated with AFW and AFP, indicating that the six genes, especially KDR and TUSC3, could be associated with fat traits in domestic chickens. This study could provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the formation of abdominal fat in chickens. PMID:26746358

  5. Abdominal Fat and Sarcopenia in Women Significantly Alter Osteoblasts Homeostasis In Vitro by a WNT/β-Catenin Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wannenes, Francesca; Papa, Vincenza; Greco, Emanuela A.; Fornari, Rachele; Marocco, Chiara; Di Luigi, Luigi; Donini, Lorenzo M.; Lenzi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and sarcopenia have been associated with mineral metabolism derangement and low bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated whether imbalance of serum factors in obese or obese sarcopenic patients could affect bone cell activity in vitro. To evaluate and characterize potential cellular and molecular changes of human osteoblasts, cells were exposed to sera of four groups of patients: (1) affected by obesity with normal BMD (O), (2) affected by obesity with low BMD (OO), (3) affected by obesity and sarcopenia (OS), and (4) affected by obesity, sarcopenia, and low BMD (OOS) as compared to subjects with normal body weight and normal BMD (CTL). Patients were previously investigated and characterized for body composition, biochemical and bone turnover markers. Then, sera of different groups of patients were used to incubate human osteoblasts and evaluate potential alterations in cell homeostasis. Exposure to OO, OS, and OOS sera significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and BMP4 expression compared to cells exposed to O and CTL, indicating a detrimental effect on osteoblast differentiation. Interestingly, sera of all groups of patients induced intracellular alteration in Wnt/β-catenin molecular pathway, as demonstrated by the significant alteration of specific target genes expression and by altered β-catenin cellular compartmentalization and GSK3β phosphorylation. In conclusion our results show for the first time that sera of obese subjects with low bone mineral density and sarcopenia significantly alter osteoblasts homeostasis in vitro, indicating potential detrimental effects of trunk fat on bone formation and skeletal homeostasis. PMID:24963291

  6. Gender Differences in Body Fat Utilization During Weight Gain, Loss, or Maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter outlines the known gender differences in fat gain, loss, and maintenance, and perhaps more importantly, highlights how little is known about the subject. The effects of gender differences on body fat distribution, fat use as an energy source, and exercise-related fat loss are discussed...

  7. The effect of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on body weight gain and fat accrual in C57Bl/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel L; Nagy, Tim R; Wilson, Landon S; Dong, Shengli; Barnes, Stephen; Allison, David B

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity in industrialized societies has become markedly elevated. In contrast, model organism research shows that reducing caloric intake below ad libitum levels provides many health and longevity benefits. Despite these benefits, few people are willing and able to reduce caloric intake over prolonged periods. Prior research suggests that mannooligosaccharide (MOS or mannan) supplementation can increase lifespan of some livestock and in rodents can reduce visceral fat without reducing caloric intake. Hence, we tested the effect of MOS supplementation as a possible calorie restriction (CR) mimetic (CRM) in mice. C57Bl/6J male mice were fed a high-fat "western" type diet with or without 1% MOS (by weight) supplementation (n = 24/group) from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Animals were housed individually and provided 95% of ad libitum food intake throughout the study. Body weight was measured weekly and body composition (lean and fat mass) measured noninvasively every 3 weeks. Individual fat depot weights were acquired by dissection at study completion. Supplementation of a high-fat diet with 1% MOS tended to reduce total food intake (mean +/- s.d.; control (CON): 293.69 +/- 10.53 g, MOS: 288.10 +/- 11.82 g; P = 0.09) during the study. Moreover, MOS supplementation had no significant effect on final body weight (CON: 25.21 +/- 2.31 g, MOS: 25.28 +/- 1.49 g; P = 0.91), total fat (CON: 4.72 +/- 0.90 g, MOS: 4.82 +/- 0.83 g; P = 0.69), or visceral fat (CON: 1.048 +/- 0.276 g, MOS: 1.004 +/- 0.247 g; P = 0.57). Contrary to previous research, MOS supplementation had no discernable effect on body weight gain or composition during this 12-week study, challenging the potential use of MOS as a CRM or body composition enhancer. PMID:19798073

  8. ROBUST FAT SUPPRESSION AT 3T IN HIGH-RESOLUTION DIFFUSION-WEIGHTED SINGLE-SHOT EPI OF HUMAN BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Sarlls, Joelle E.; Pierpaoli, Carlo; Talagala, S. Lalith; Luh, Wen-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Single-shot EPI is the most common acquisition technique for whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in vivo. Higher field MRI systems are readily available and advantageous for acquiring DTI due to increased signal. One of the practical issues for DTI with single-shot EPI at high field is incomplete fat suppression resulting in a chemically-shifted fat artifact within the brain image. Unsuppressed fat is especially detrimental in DTI because the diffusion coefficient of fat is two orders of magnitude lower than that of parenchyma, producing brighter appearing fat artifacts with greater diffusion weighting. In this work, several fat suppression techniques were tested alone and in combination with the goal of finding a method that provides robust fat suppression and can be utilized in high-resolution single-shot EPI DTI studies. Combination of chemical shift saturation with slice-select gradient reversal within a dual-spin-echo diffusion preparation period was found to provide robust fat suppression at 3T. PMID:21604298

  9. Antagonism of T-type calcium channels inhibits high-fat diet–induced weight gain in mice

    PubMed Central

    Uebele, Victor N.; Gotter, Anthony L.; Nuss, Cindy E.; Kraus, Richard L.; Doran, Scott M.; Garson, Susan L.; Reiss, Duane R.; Li, Yuxing; Barrow, James C.; Reger, Thomas S.; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Ballard, Jeanine E.; Tang, Cuyue; Metzger, Joseph M.; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Koblan, Kenneth S.; Renger, John J.

    2009-01-01

    The epidemics of obesity and metabolic disorders have well-recognized health and economic burdens. Pharmacologic treatments for these diseases remain unsatisfactory with respect to both efficacy and side-effect profiles. Here, we have identified a potential central role for T-type calcium channels in regulating body weight maintenance and sleep. Previously, it was shown that mice lacking CaV3.1 T-type calcium channels have altered sleep/wake activity. We found that these mice were also resistant to high-fat diet–induced weight gain, without changes in food intake or sensitivity to high-fat diet–induced disruptions of diurnal rhythm. Administration of a potent and selective antagonist of T-type calcium channels, TTA-A2, to normal-weight animals prior to the inactive phase acutely increased sleep, decreased body core temperature, and prevented high-fat diet–induced weight gain. Administration of TTA-A2 to obese rodents reduced body weight and fat mass while concurrently increasing lean muscle mass. These effects likely result from better alignment of diurnal feeding patterns with daily changes in circadian physiology and potentially an increased metabolic rate during the active phase. Together, these studies reveal what we believe to be a previously unknown role for T-type calcium channels in the regulation of sleep and weight maintenance and suggest the potential for a novel therapeutic approach to treating obesity. PMID:19451696

  10. Normal weight individuals who develop type 2 diabetes: the personal fat threshold.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Roy; Holman, Rury R

    2015-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is frequently regarded as a disease of obesity and its occurrence in individuals of normal body mass index (BMI) is often regarded as indicating a non-obesity-related subtype. However, the evidence for such a distinct, common subtype is lacking. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) cohort of people diagnosed with T2DM in the 1970s and 1980s had a median BMI of only 28 kg/m2. UKPDS data form the basis of current understanding of the condition even though one in three of those studied had a BMI of less than 25 kg/m2. BMI, though, is a population measure and not a rigid personal guide. Weight loss is considered de rigueur for treating obese diabetic individuals, but it is not usually considered for those deemed to have a normal BMI. Given the new evidence that early T2DM can be reversed to normal glucose tolerance by substantial weight loss, it is important to explain why non-overweight people respond to this intervention as well as obese individuals. We hypothesize that each individual has a personal fat threshold (PFT) which, if exceeded, makes likely the development of T2DM. Subsequent weight loss to take the individual below their level of susceptibility should allow return to normal glucose control. Crucially, the hypothesized PFT is independent of BMI. It allows both understanding of development of T2DM in the non-obese and remission of diabetes after substantial weight loss in people who remain obese by definition. To illustrate this concept, we present the distribution curve of BMI at diagnosis for the UKPDS cohort, together with a diagram explaining individual behaviour within the population. The concept of PFT is of practical benefit in explaining the onset of diabetes and its logical management to the non-obese majority of people with T2DM. PMID:25515001

  11. Loss of Body Weight and Fat and Improved Lipid Profiles in Obese Rats Fed Apple Pomace or Apple Juice Concentrate

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats. PMID:23909905

  12. Use of prediction equations to determine the accuracy of whole-body fat and fat-free mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass measurements from a single abdominal image using computed tomography in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, Robert D; Cardiff, Katrina; Rosenthall, Leonard; Lucar, Enriqueta; Trutschnigg, Barbara; Vigano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single abdominal images from computed tomography (CT) in advanced cancer patients (ACP) have important diagnostic and prognostic value. The question arises as to whether CT scans can serve as surrogates for DXA in terms of whole-body fat-free mass (FFM), whole-body fat mass (FM), and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) mass. Predictive equations to estimate body composition for ACP from CT images have been proposed (Mourtzakis et al. 2008; Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metabol. 33(5): 997-1006); however, these equations have yet to be validated in an independent cohort of ACP. Thus, this study evaluated the accuracy of these equations in estimating FFM, FM, and ASM mass using CT images at the level of the third lumbar vertebrae and compared these values with DXA measurements. FFM, FM, and ASM mass were estimated from the prediction equations proposed by Mourtzakis and colleagues (2008) using single abdominal CT images from 43 ACP and were compared with whole-body DXA scans using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman analyses. Despite a moderate to high correlation between the actual (DXA) and predicted (CT) values for FM (rho = 0.93; p ≤ 0.001), FFM (rho = 0.78; p ≤ 0.001), and ASM mass (rho = 0.70; p ≤ 0.001), Bland-Altman analyses revealed large range-of-agreement differences between the 2 methods (29.39 kg for FFM, 15.47 kg for FM, and 3.99 kg for ASM mass). Based on the magnitude of these differences, we concluded that prediction equations using single abdominal CT images have poor accuracy, cannot be considered as surrogates for DXA, and may have limited clinical utility. PMID:26695688

  13. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  14. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Reduces Body Weight and Fat Mass in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Marrosu, Francesco; Puligheddu, Monica; Floris, Gabriele; Asuni, Gino Paolo; Cappai, Angela Letizia; Deriu, Silvia; Follesa, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Among the manifold effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) delivered as an add-on treatment to patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, a moderate loss of body weight has been observed in some individuals. We have now investigated this effect in rats. Exposure of rats to VNS for 4 weeks reduced feed conversion efficiency as well as body weight gain (by ∼25%) and the amount of mesenteric adipose tissue (by ∼45%) in comparison with those in sham-operated control animals. A pair-fed experiment showed that both lower dietary intake and increase energy expenditure independently contributed to the reduction of body weight and mesenteric adipose tissue. Moreover, VNS increased the level of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and mesenteric adipose tissue by ∼50 and 80%, respectively, without affecting that in the liver. In addition, VNS reduced the amounts of endocannabinoids and increased N-palmitoylethanolamide, an endogenous ligand of the transcription factor PPARα (peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α) in mesenteric adipose tissue but not in the hypothalamus. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of the gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hypothalamus and up-regulation of the abundance of PPARα in the liver. Our results suggest that the reduction in body fat induced by VNS in rats may result from the action of both central and peripheral mediators. The reduced feed conversion efficiency associated with VNS may be mediated by hypothalamic BDNF, down-regulation of endocannabinoid tone in mesenteric adipose tissue and a PPARα-dependent increase in fatty acid oxidation in the liver, which in concerted action may account for the anorexic effect and increased energy expenditure. PMID:23028630

  15. [Fat-emulsions and acid-base balance in neonates of low weight at birth (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Melichar, V; Wolf, H; Jirsová, V; Vondrácek, J

    1975-09-01

    The influence of a single intravenous infusion of triglycerides (1 g triglyceride per kg body weight) on the acid base equilibrium was investigated in 16 newborn infants with low birth weight during the first days of age. No changes of pH, PCO2 and standard bicarbonate, base excess, buffer base and actuelle bicarbonate, respectively, were observed. Fat emulsions can be used, therefore, without hazards in the parenteral feeding of newborn infants. PMID:240960

  16. Inhibitory effects of Leonurus sibiricus on weight gain after menopause in ovariectomized and high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jangseon; Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Hong, Jongki; Yang, Woong Mo

    2016-07-01

    Leonurus sibiricus, also called motherwort, is a well-known functional food and medicinal herb. It has been known to possess beneficial properties for women's health, especially for aged women. Estrogen deficiency in the menopause could induce lipid metabolic abnormalities in body fat, resulting in obesity. In this study, the inhibitory effects of L. sibiricus on obesity after the menopause were investigated. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Following an induction period, aqueous extracts of L. sibiricus (LS) were orally administrated for 6 weeks. The body, uterine, and visceral fat weights were measured immediately after the animals were killed. Histological analysis was performed to monitor fat and liver. Serum levels of glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were evaluated. In addition, the expression of lipases was analyzed. Total body weight was significantly decreased by LS treatment. Histological changes in adipocyte size were shown along with a decrease of visceral fat weight in the LS-treated group. In addition, the fat infiltration of liver was reduced by LS administration. LS-treated mice experienced decreases of serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol levels. The expression of HSL and ATGL was significantly increased by LS treatment. These results suggest that LS could regulate the lipid metabolism via an increase of lipases expression in ovariectomized and HFD-fed mice. LS might be a novel candidate for a functional food to inhibit weight gain after the menopause. PMID:26899238

  17. Fat-soluble vitamin status in response to non-surgical weight loss in overweight post-menopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of fat soluble vitamin (FSV) deficiencies. The effect of dietary weight loss on FSV status is uncertain. We measured plasma concentrations of carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, retinol, phylloquinone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in 112 overweight post-...

  18. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  19. Transgenic Rescue of Adipocyte Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptor Expression Restores High Fat Diet-induced Body Weight Gain*

    PubMed Central

    Ugleholdt, Randi; Pedersen, Jens; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Jørgensen, Signe Marie; Kissow, Hanne-Louise; Nytofte, Nikolaj; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie; Seino, Yutaka; Thams, Peter; Holst, Peter Johannes; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPr) has been implicated in high fat diet-induced obesity and is proposed as an anti-obesity target despite an uncertainty regarding the mechanism of action. To independently investigate the contribution of the insulinotropic effects and the direct effects on adipose tissue, we generated transgenic mice with targeted expression of the human GIPr to white adipose tissue or beta-cells, respectively. These mice were then cross-bred with the GIPr knock-out strain. The central findings of the study are that mice with GIPr expression targeted to adipose tissue have a similar high fat diet -induced body weight gain as control mice, significantly greater than the weight gain in mice with a general ablation of the receptor. Surprisingly, this difference was due to an increase in total lean body mass rather than a gain in total fat mass that was similar between the groups. In contrast, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-mediated insulin secretion does not seem to be important for regulation of body weight after high fat feeding. The study supports a role of the adipocyte GIPr in nutrient-dependent regulation of body weight and lean mass, but it does not support a direct and independent role for the adipocyte or beta-cell GIPr in promoting adipogenesis. PMID:22027838

  20. Effects of Dietary Fibers on Weight Gain, Carbohydrate Metabolism and Gastric Ghrelin Gene Expression in High Fat Diet Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhong Q.; Zuberi, Aamir; Zhang, Xian H.; Macgowan, Jacalyn; Qin, Jianhua; Ye, Xin; Son, Leslie; Wu, Qinglin; Lian, Kun; Cefalu, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Diets that are high in dietary fiber are reported to have substantial health benefits. We sought to compare the metabolic effects for three types of dietary fibers, i.e. sugar cane fiber (SCF), psyllium (PSY) and cellulose (CEL) on body weight, carbohydrate metabolism and stomach ghrelin gene expression in a high-fat diet fed mouse model. Thirty-six male mice (C57BL/6) were randomly divided into four groups that consumed high fat-diets or high fat diet containing 10% SCF, PSY, and CEL respectively. After baseline measurements were assessed for body weight, plasma insulin, glucose, leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), animals were treated for 12 weeks. Parameters were re-evaluated at end of study. Whereas there was no difference at the baseline, body weight gains in the PSY and SCF groups were significantly lower than in CEL group at end of study, No difference in body weight was observed between the PSY and SCF animals. Body composition analysis demonstrated that fat mass in the SCF group was considerably lower than in the CEL and HFD groups. In addition, fasting plasma glucose and insulin and areas under curve of IPGTT were also significantly lower in the SCF and PSY groups than in the CEL and HFD groups. Moreover, fasting plasma concentrations of leptin were significantly lower and GLP-1 level was two-fold higher in the SCF and PSY mice than in the HFD and CEL mice. Ghrelin mRNA levels of stomach in SCF groups were significantly lower than in CEL and HFD groups as well. These results suggest differences in response to dietary fiber intake in this animal model as high fat diets incorporating dietary fibers such as SCF and PSY appeared to attenuate weight gain, enhance insulin sensitivity, and modulate leptin and GLP-1 secretion and gastric ghrelin gene expression. PMID:17998014

  1. Sweetening yoghurt with glucose, but not with saccharin, promotes weight gain and increased fat pad mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Boakes, Robert A; Kendig, Michael D; Martire, Sarah I; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-10-01

    The claim that non-nutritive sweeteners accelerate body weight gain by disrupting sweet-calorie associations was tested in two experiments using rats. The experiments were modelled on a key study from a series of experiments reporting greater body weight gain in rats fed yoghurt sweetened with saccharin than with glucose (Swithers & Davidson, 2008). Both of the current experiments likewise compared groups fed saccharin- or glucose-sweetened yoghurt in addition to chow and water, while Experiment 1 included a third group (Control) given unsweetened yoghurt. In Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2, rats were initially exposed to both saccharin- and glucose-sweetened yoghurts to assess their relative palatability. We also tested whether the provision of an energy-dense sweet biscuit would augment any effects of saccharin on food intake and weight gain, as seemingly predicted by Swithers and Davidson (2008). In Experiment 1 there were no differences in body weight gain or fat pad mass between the Saccharin and Control group, whereas the Glucose group was the heaviest by the final 5 weeks and at cull had the largest fat pads. Greater acceptance of saccharin predicted more weight gain over the whole experiment. Consistent with past reports, fasting blood glucose and insulin measures did not differ between the Saccharin and Control groups, but suggested some impairment of insulin sensitivity in the Glucose group. Experiment 2 found similar effects of glucose on fat mass, but not on body weight gain. In summary, adding saccharin had no detectable effects on body-weight regulation, whereas the effects of glucose on fat pad mass were consistent with previous studies reporting more harmful effects of sugars compared to non-nutritive sweeteners. PMID:27189382

  2. Lower "awake and fed thermogenesis" predicts future weight gain in subjects with abdominal adiposity.

    PubMed

    Piaggi, Paolo; Krakoff, Jonathan; Bogardus, Clifton; Thearle, Marie S

    2013-12-01

    Awake and fed thermogenesis (AFT) is the energy expenditure (EE) of the nonactive fed condition above the minimum metabolic requirement during sleep and is composed of the thermic effect of food and the cost of being awake. AFT was estimated from whole-room 24-h EE measures in 509 healthy subjects (368 Native Americans and 141 whites) while subjects consumed a eucaloric diet. Follow-up data were available for 290 Native Americans (median follow-up time: 6.6 years). AFT accounted for ~10% of 24-h EE and explained a significant portion of deviations from expected energy requirements. Energy intake was the major determinant of AFT. AFT, normalized as a percentage of intake, was inversely related to age and fasting glucose concentration and showed a nonlinear relationship with waist circumference and BMI. Spline analysis demonstrated that AFT becomes inversely related to BMI at an inflection point of 29 kg/m(2). The residual variance of AFT, after accounting for covariates, predicted future weight change only in subjects with a BMI >29 kg/m(2). AFT may influence daily energy balance, is reduced in obese individuals, and predicts future weight gain in these subjects. Once central adiposity develops, a blunting of AFT may occur that then contributes to further weight gain. PMID:23974925

  3. Marrow fat composition in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Daley, Scott M.; Miller, Karen K.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Klibanski, Anne; Torriani, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have increased marrow fat despite severe depletion of body fat. Recent studies have suggested that marrow fat composition may serve as a biomarker for bone quality. The purpose of our study was to investigate marrow fat composition of the femur using proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and the relationship between measures of marrow fat composition and BMD and body composition in women with AN and normal-weight controls. Materials and Methods 14 women with AN (29.5±1.9 years) and 12 age-matched normal-weight controls underwent 1H-MRS to determine total marrow fat content and marrow fat composition of the femoral diaphysis and soleus intramyocellular lipids und unsaturated muscle lipids. MRI was performed to quantify abdominal fat, thigh fat and muscle. Lumbar spine BMD, fat and lean mass were assessed by DXA. Results Subjects with AN had higher marrow fat content (p<0.05), but similar marrow fat composition (p >0.05) compared to normal-weight controls. There was an inverse association between marrow methylene protons, an estimate of fatty acid (FA) saturated bonds, and lumbar spine BMD (r= -0.52, p=0.008) independent of %ideal body weight (%IBW). Olefinic protons at 5.3 ppm, an estimate of FA unsaturated bonds, were inversely associated with body fat depots, independent of %IBW, and positively associated with soleus unsaturation (p≤0.05). Conclusion Women with AN have higher total femoral marrow fat but similar composition compared to normal-weight controls. The degree of marrow FA saturation correlates inversely with BMD, suggesting that saturated lipids may have negative effects on BMD. The degree of marrow FA unsaturation correlates positively with soleus unsaturation, suggesting that marrow fat composition may be influenced by the same factors as ectopic lipid composition in muscle. PMID:24953711

  4. Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Li, Shengxu; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Prokopenko, Inga; Inouye, Michael; Freathy, Rachel M; Attwood, Antony P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Berndt, Sonja I; Bergmann, Sven; Bennett, Amanda J; Bingham, Sheila A; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Cauchi, Stéphane; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian; Dina, Christian; De, Subhajyoti; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Doney, Alex S F; Elliott, Katherine S; Elliott, Paul; Evans, David M; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Froguel, Philippe; Ghori, Jilur; Groves, Christopher J; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hebebrand, Johannes; Heid, Iris M; Herrera, Blanca; Hinney, Anke; Hunt, Sarah E; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johnson, Toby; Jolley, Jennifer D M; Karpe, Fredrik; Keniry, Andrew; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; Marchini, Jonathan; McArdle, Wendy L; McGinnis, Ralph; Meyre, David; Munroe, Patricia B; Morris, Andrew D; Ness, Andrew R; Neville, Matthew J; Nica, Alexandra C; Ong, Ken K; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Owen, Katharine R; Palmer, Colin N A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Potter, Simon; Pouta, Anneli; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Rayner, Nigel W; Ring, Susan M; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Scherag, André; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Soranzo, Nicole; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Syddall, Holly E; Teichmann, Sarah A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tobias, Jonathan H; Uda, Manuela; Vogel, Carla I Ganz; Wallace, Chris; Waterworth, Dawn M; Weedon, Michael N; Willer, Cristen J; Wraight, Vicki L; Yuan, Xin; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Strachan, David P; Ouwehand, Willem H; Caulfield, Mark J; Samani, Nilesh J; Frayling, Timothy M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Deloukas, Panos; McCarthy, Mark I; Wareham, Nicholas J; Barroso, Inês; Jacobs, Kevin B; Chanock, Stephen J; Hayes, Richard B; Lamina, Claudia; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Hunter, David J; Hu, Frank B; Lyon, Helen N; Voight, Benjamin F; Ridderstrale, Martin; Groop, Leif; Scheet, Paul; Sanna, Serena; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Albai, Giuseppe; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Schlessinger, David; Jackson, Anne U; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Collins, Francis S; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L

    2009-01-01

    To identify common variants influencing body mass index (BMI), we analyzed genome-wide association data from 16,876 individuals of European descent. After previously reported variants in FTO, the strongest association signal (rs17782313, P = 2.9 × 10−6) mapped 188 kb downstream of MC4R (melanocortin-4 receptor), mutations of which are the leading cause of monogenic severe childhood-onset obesity. We confirmed the BMI association in 60,352 adults (per-allele effect = 0.05 Z-score units; P = 2.8 × 10−15) and 5,988 children aged 7–11 (0.13 Z-score units; P = 1.5 × 10−8). In case-control analyses (n = 10,583), the odds for severe childhood obesity reached 1.30 (P = 8.0 × 10−11). Furthermore, we observed overtransmission of the risk allele to obese offspring in 660 families (P (pedigree disequilibrium test average; PDT-avg) = 2.4 × 10−4). The SNP location and patterns of phenotypic associations are consistent with effects mediated through altered MC4R function. Our findings establish that common variants near MC4R influence fat mass, weight and obesity risk at the population level and reinforce the need for large-scale data integration to identify variants influencing continuous biomedical traits. PMID:18454148

  5. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In; Park, Sang-Joon; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Inkyu; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yoon, Duhak; Ryoo, Zae Young

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.

  6. Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity.

    PubMed

    Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Li, Shengxu; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Prokopenko, Inga; Inouye, Michael; Freathy, Rachel M; Attwood, Antony P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Berndt, Sonja I; Jacobs, Kevin B; Chanock, Stephen J; Hayes, Richard B; Bergmann, Sven; Bennett, Amanda J; Bingham, Sheila A; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Cauchi, Stéphane; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian; Dina, Christian; De, Subhajyoti; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Doney, Alex S F; Elliott, Katherine S; Elliott, Paul; Evans, David M; Sadaf Farooqi, I; Froguel, Philippe; Ghori, Jilur; Groves, Christopher J; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hebebrand, Johannes; Heid, Iris M; Lamina, Claudia; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Herrera, Blanca; Hinney, Anke; Hunt, Sarah E; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johnson, Toby; Jolley, Jennifer D M; Karpe, Fredrik; Keniry, Andrew; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; Marchini, Jonathan; McArdle, Wendy L; McGinnis, Ralph; Meyre, David; Munroe, Patricia B; Morris, Andrew D; Ness, Andrew R; Neville, Matthew J; Nica, Alexandra C; Ong, Ken K; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Owen, Katharine R; Palmer, Colin N A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Potter, Simon; Pouta, Anneli; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Rayner, Nigel W; Ring, Susan M; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Scherag, André; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Soranzo, Nicole; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Syddall, Holly E; Teichmann, Sarah A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tobias, Jonathan H; Uda, Manuela; Vogel, Carla I Ganz; Wallace, Chris; Waterworth, Dawn M; Weedon, Michael N; Willer, Cristen J; Wraight; Yuan, Xin; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Strachan, David P; Ouwehand, Willem H; Caulfield, Mark J; Samani, Nilesh J; Frayling, Timothy M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Deloukas, Panos; McCarthy, Mark I; Wareham, Nicholas J; Barroso, Inês; Jacobs, Kevin B; Chanock, Stephen J; Hayes, Richard B; Lamina, Claudia; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Hunter, David J; Hu, Frank B; Lyon, Helen N; Voight, Benjamin F; Ridderstrale, Martin; Groop, Leif; Scheet, Paul; Sanna, Serena; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Albai, Giuseppe; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Schlessinger, David; Jackson, Anne U; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Collins, Francis S; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L

    2008-06-01

    To identify common variants influencing body mass index (BMI), we analyzed genome-wide association data from 16,876 individuals of European descent. After previously reported variants in FTO, the strongest association signal (rs17782313, P = 2.9 x 10(-6)) mapped 188 kb downstream of MC4R (melanocortin-4 receptor), mutations of which are the leading cause of monogenic severe childhood-onset obesity. We confirmed the BMI association in 60,352 adults (per-allele effect = 0.05 Z-score units; P = 2.8 x 10(-15)) and 5,988 children aged 7-11 (0.13 Z-score units; P = 1.5 x 10(-8)). In case-control analyses (n = 10,583), the odds for severe childhood obesity reached 1.30 (P = 8.0 x 10(-11)). Furthermore, we observed overtransmission of the risk allele to obese offspring in 660 families (P (pedigree disequilibrium test average; PDT-avg) = 2.4 x 10(-4)). The SNP location and patterns of phenotypic associations are consistent with effects mediated through altered MC4R function. Our findings establish that common variants near MC4R influence fat mass, weight and obesity risk at the population level and reinforce the need for large-scale data integration to identify variants influencing continuous biomedical traits. PMID:18454148

  7. Germinated Waxy Black Rice Suppresses Weight Gain in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Won-Chul; Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Lee, Hee-Seop; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the antiobesity effect of germinated waxy black rice (GWBR) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. The mice were divided into a normal diet (ND) group, HFD group, and 2 test groups for 8 weeks: 2.5% GWBR-supplemented (GWBR-2.5) group and 5% GWBR-supplemented (GWBR-5) group. Supplementing with GWBR significantly reduced body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver and adipose tissue compared to the HFD control group. Triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in serum were decreased by GWBR supplementation, whereas high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level significantly increased. In addition, mRNA levels of transcriptional factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-α, C/EBP-β, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and related genes, including adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, fatty acid synthase, and lipoprotein lipase, were significantly lower in the GWBR groups. However, lipolytic enzymes, such as hormone-sensitive lipase, adipose TG lipase, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, and uncoupling protein 2 mRNA levels were significantly higher in GWBR-supplemented mice. These results suggest that GWBR exerts antiobesity effects by decreasing lipid accumulation and promoting lipolysis in HFD-induced obese mice. PMID:27022689

  8. The Effect of Mannan Oligosaccharide Supplementation on Body Weight Gain and Fat Accrual in C57Bl/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel L.; Nagy, Tim R.; Wilson, Landon S.; Dong, Shengli; Barnes, Stephen; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in industrialized societies has become markedly elevated. In contrast, model organism research shows that reducing caloric intake below ad libitum levels provides many health and longevity benefits. Despite these benefits, few people are willing and able to reduce caloric intake over prolonged periods. Prior research suggests that mannooligosaccharide (MOS or Mannan) supplementation can increase lifespan of some livestock and in rodents can reduce visceral fat without reducing caloric intake. Hence, we tested the effect of MOS supplementation as a possible calorie restriction mimetic in mice. C57Bl/6J male mice were fed a high-fat “western” type diet with or without 1% MOS (by weight) supplementation (n=24/group) from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Animals were housed individually and provided 95% of ad libitum food intake throughout the study. Body weight was measured weekly and body composition (lean and fat mass) measured non-invasively every 3 weeks. Individual fat depot weights were acquired by dissection at study completion. Supplementation of a high-fat diet with 1% MOS tended to reduce total food intake (mean±s.d.; CON: 293.69±10.53g, MOS: 288.10±11.82g; p=0.09) during the study. Moreover, MOS supplementation had no significant effect on final body weight (CON: 25.21±2.31g, MOS: 25.28±1.49g; p=0.91), total fat (CON: 4.72±0.90g, MOS: 4.82±0.83g; p=0.69) or visceral fat (CON: 1.048±0.276g, MOS: 1.004±0.247g; p=0.57). Contrary to previous research, MOS supplementation had no discernable effect on body weight gain or composition during this 12-week study, challenging the potential use of MOS as a calorie restriction mimetic or body composition enhancer. PMID:19798073

  9. Sleeve Gastrectomy Induces Loss of Weight and Fat Mass in Obese Rats, but Does Not Affect Leptin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Stefater, Margaret A; Pérez-Tilve, Diego; Chambers, Adam P; Wilson-Pérez, Hilary E; Sandoval, Darleen A; Berger, José; Toure, Mouhamadoul; Tschöep, Matthias; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Surgical intervention produces sustainable weight loss and metabolic improvement in obese individuals. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) produces dramatic, sustained weight loss; we investigated whether these changes result from improved sensitivity to leptin. Methods VSG was performed in Long-Evans rats with diet-induced obesity. Naïve or sham-operated rats, fed either ad libitum or pair-fed with the VSG group, were used as controls. Following surgery, body weights and food intake were monitored. We investigated energy expenditure, meal patterns, leptin sensitivity, and expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)/agouti-related peptide (AgRP)/neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus of the rats. Results We observed sustained losses in weight and body fat in male and female rats after VSG. Weight loss persisted after the disappearance of a transient, post-surgical food intake reduction. Resting energy expenditure was similar between control and VSG rats. VSG rats maintained their reduced body weights. However, they responded to a chronic food restriction challenge by overeating, which resulted in pre-restriction, rather than pre-VSG, body weights. Consistent with lower adiposity, VSG decreased plasma leptin levels. Although VSG slightly improved leptin’s anorectic action, the response was comparable to that observed in controls matched for adiposity by caloric restriction. Changes in hypothalamic neuropeptide expression were consistent with the lower body weight and lower leptin levels but cannot account for the sustained weight loss. Conclusions VSG causes sustained reduction in body weight, which results from loss of fat mass. The maintenance of weight loss observed did not result from changes in sensitivity to leptin. PMID:20226189

  10. "They Are Weighted with Authority": Fat Female Professors in Academic and Popular Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisanick, Christina

    2007-01-01

    The images of fat professors encountered in popular culture are few in number and negative in depiction. In this article, the author discusses on how will the professorial body affect the way in which students perceive the professor's teaching abilities. The author concludes that bias against fat professors, professors of color, and other…

  11. DXA, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography and biometry for the estimation of fat and lean mass in cats during weight loss

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few equations have been developed in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine to predict body composition. The present study was done to evaluate the influence of weight loss on biometry (BIO), bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and ultrasonography (US) in cats, proposing equations to estimate fat (FM) and lean (LM) body mass, as compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the referenced method. For this were used 16 gonadectomized obese cats (8 males and 8 females) in a weight loss program. DXA, BIO, BIA and US were performed in the obese state (T0; obese animals), after 10% of weight loss (T1) and after 20% of weight loss (T2). Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (FM, LM) determined by DXA and the independent variables obtained by BIO, BIA and US. The better models chosen were evaluated by a simple regression analysis and means predicted vs. determined by DXA were compared to verify the accuracy of the equations. Results The independent variables determined by BIO, BIA and US that best correlated (p < 0.005) with the dependent variables (FM and LM) were BW (body weight), TC (thoracic circumference), PC (pelvic circumference), R (resistance) and SFLT (subcutaneous fat layer thickness). Using Mallows’Cp statistics, p value and r2, 19 equations were selected (12 for FM, 7 for LM); however, only 7 equations accurately predicted FM and one LM of cats. Conclusions The equations with two variables are better to use because they are effective and will be an alternative method to estimate body composition in the clinical routine. For estimated lean mass the equations using body weight associated with biometrics measures can be proposed. For estimated fat mass the equations using body weight associated with bioimpedance analysis can be proposed. PMID:22781317

  12. IQP-GC-101 Reduces Body Weight and Body Fat Mass: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-01-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24797657

  13. Weight cycling promotes fat gain and altered clock gene expression in adipose tissue in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Dankel, S N; Degerud, E M; Borkowski, K; Fjære, E; Midtbø, L K; Haugen, C; Solsvik, M H; Lavigne, A M; Liaset, B; Sagen, J V; Kristiansen, K; Mellgren, G; Madsen, L

    2014-01-15

    Repeated attempts to lose weight by temporary dieting may result in weight cycling, eventually further gain of body fat, and possible metabolic adaptation. We tested this with a controlled experiment in C57BL/6J mice subjected to four weight cycles (WC), continuous hypercaloric feeding (HF), or low-fat feeding (LF). To search for genes involved in an adaptive mechanism to former weight cycling and avoid acute effects of the last cycle, the last hypercaloric feeding period was prolonged by an additional 2 wk before euthanization. Total energy intake was identical in WC and HF. However, compared with HF, the WC mice gained significantly more total body mass and fat mass and showed increased levels of circulating leptin and lipids in liver. Both the HF and WC groups showed increased adipocyte size and insulin resistance. Despite these effects, we also observed an interesting maintenance of circulating adiponectin and free fatty acid levels after WC, whereas changes in these parameters were observed in HF mice. Global gene expression was analyzed by microarrays. Weight-cycled mice were characterized by a downregulation of several clock genes (Dbp, Tef, Per1, Per2, Per3, and Nr1d2) in adipose tissues, which was confirmed by quantitative PCR. In 3T3-L1 cells, we found reduced expression of Dbp and Tef early in adipogenic differentiation, which was mediated via cAMP-dependent signaling. Our data suggest that clock genes in adipose tissue may play a role in metabolic adaptation to weight cycling. PMID:24302006

  14. The blunted effect of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects is partly reversed by weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Asmar, M; Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L; Asmar, A; Nordby, P; Holst, J J; Bülow, J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have impaired effect on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to examine whether weight loss may reverse the impaired effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects. Methods: Five obese males participated in a 12-week weight loss program, which consisted of caloric restriction (800 Cal day−1) followed by 4 weeks of weight-maintenance diet. Before and after weight loss, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied by conducting regional measurements of arterio-venous plasma concentrations of metabolites and blood flow (adipose tissue blood flow, ATBF) across a segment of the abdominal adipose tissue in the fasting state and during GIP infusion (1.5 pmol kg−1 min−1) in combination with a hyperinsulinemic–hyperglycemic clamp. Results: After weight loss (7.5±0.8 kg), glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity increased significantly as expected. No significant differences were seen in basal ATBF before (1.3±0.4 ml min−1 100 g tissue−1) and after weight loss (2.1±0.4 ml min−1 100 g tissue)−1; however, a tendency to increase was seen. After weight loss, GIP infusion increased ATBF significantly (3.2±0.1 ml min−1 100 g tissue−1) whereas there was no increase before weight loss. Triacylglycerol (TAG) uptake did not change after weight loss. Baseline free fatty acid (FFA) and glycerol output increased significantly after weight loss, P<0.001. During the clamp period, FFA and glycerol output declined significantly, P<0.05, with no differences before and after weight loss. Weight loss increased glucose uptake and decreased FFA/glycerol ratio during the clamp period, P<0.05. Conclusions: In obese subjects, weight loss, induced by calorie restriction, improves the blunted effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism. PMID:27136446

  15. Consumption of Clarified Grapefruit Juice Ameliorates High-Fat Diet Induced Insulin Resistance and Weight Gain in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chudnovskiy, Rostislav; Thompson, Airlia; Tharp, Kevin; Hellerstein, Marc; Napoli, Joseph L.; Stahl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    To determine the metabolic effects of grapefruit juice consumption we established a model in which C57Bl/6 mice drank 25–50% sweetened GFJ, clarified of larger insoluble particles by centrifugation (cGFJ), ad libitum as their sole source of liquid or isocaloric and sweetened water. cGFJ and control groups consumed similar amounts of liquids and calories. Mice fed a high-fat diet and cGFJ experienced a 18.4% decrease in weight, a 13–17% decrease in fasting blood glucose, a three-fold decrease in fasting serum insulin, and a 38% decrease in liver triacylglycerol values, compared to controls. Mice fed a low-fat diet that drank cGFJ experienced a two-fold decrease in fasting insulin, but not the other outcomes observed with the high-fat diet. cGFJ consumption decreased blood glucose to a similar extent as the commonly used anti-diabetic drug metformin. Introduction of cGFJ after onset of diet-induced obesity also reduced weight and blood glucose. A bioactive compound in cGFJ, naringin, reduced blood glucose and improved insulin tolerance, but did not ameliorate weight gain. These data from a well-controlled animal study indicate that GFJ contains more than one health-promoting neutraceutical, and warrant further studies of GFJ effects in the context of obesity and/or the western diet. PMID:25296035

  16. Consumption of clarified grapefruit juice ameliorates high-fat diet induced insulin resistance and weight gain in mice.

    PubMed

    Chudnovskiy, Rostislav; Thompson, Airlia; Tharp, Kevin; Hellerstein, Marc; Napoli, Joseph L; Stahl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    To determine the metabolic effects of grapefruit juice consumption we established a model in which C57Bl/6 mice drank 25-50% sweetened GFJ, clarified of larger insoluble particles by centrifugation (cGFJ), ad libitum as their sole source of liquid or isocaloric and sweetened water. cGFJ and control groups consumed similar amounts of liquids and calories. Mice fed a high-fat diet and cGFJ experienced a 18.4% decrease in weight, a 13-17% decrease in fasting blood glucose, a three-fold decrease in fasting serum insulin, and a 38% decrease in liver triacylglycerol values, compared to controls. Mice fed a low-fat diet that drank cGFJ experienced a two-fold decrease in fasting insulin, but not the other outcomes observed with the high-fat diet. cGFJ consumption decreased blood glucose to a similar extent as the commonly used anti-diabetic drug metformin. Introduction of cGFJ after onset of diet-induced obesity also reduced weight and blood glucose. A bioactive compound in cGFJ, naringin, reduced blood glucose and improved insulin tolerance, but did not ameliorate weight gain. These data from a well-controlled animal study indicate that GFJ contains more than one health-promoting neutraceutical, and warrant further studies of GFJ effects in the context of obesity and/or the western diet. PMID:25296035

  17. Abdominal Fat Is Associated With Lower Bone Formation and Inferior Bone Quality in Healthy Premenopausal Women: A Transiliac Bone Biopsy Study

    PubMed Central

    Dempster, David W.; Recker, Robert R.; Lappe, Joan M.; Zhou, Hua; Zwahlen, Alexander; Müller, Ralph; Zhao, Binsheng; Guo, Xiaotao; Lang, Thomas; Saeed, Isra; Liu, X. Sherry; Guo, X. Edward; Cremers, Serge; Rosen, Clifford J.; Stein, Emily M.; Nickolas, Thomas L.; McMahon, Donald J.; Young, Polly; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Context: The conventional view that obesity is beneficial for bone strength has recently been challenged by studies that link obesity, particularly visceral obesity, to low bone mass and fractures. It is controversial whether effects of obesity on bone are mediated by increased bone resorption or decreased bone formation. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate bone microarchitecture and remodeling in healthy premenopausal women of varying weights. Design: We measured bone density and trunk fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 40 women and by computed tomography in a subset. Bone microarchitecture, stiffness, remodeling, and marrow fat were assessed in labeled transiliac bone biopsies. Results: Body mass index (BMI) ranged from 20.1 to 39.2 kg/m2. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-trunk fat was directly associated with BMI (r = 0.78, P < .001) and visceral fat by computed tomography (r = 0.79, P < .001). Compared with women in the lowest tertile of trunk fat, those in the highest tertile had inferior bone quality: lower trabecular bone volume (20.4 ± 5.8 vs 29.1 ± 6.1%; P = .001) and stiffness (433 ± 264 vs 782 ± 349 MPa; P = .01) and higher cortical porosity (8.8 ± 3.5 vs 6.3 ± 2.4%; P = .049). Bone formation rate (0.004 ± 0.002 vs 0.011 ± 0.008 mm2/mm · year; P = .006) was 64% lower in the highest tertile. Trunk fat was inversely associated with trabecular bone volume (r = −0.50; P < .01) and bone formation rate (r = −0.50; P < .001). The relationship between trunk fat and bone volume remained significant after controlling for age and BMI. Conclusions: At the tissue level, premenopausal women with more central adiposity had inferior bone quality and stiffness and markedly lower bone formation. Given the rising levels of obesity, these observations require further investigation. PMID:23515452

  18. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

    PubMed Central

    Toubro, S.; Astrup, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare importance of rate of initial weight loss for long term outcome in obese patients and to compare efficacy of two different weight maintenance programmes. DESIGN: Subjects were randomised to either rapid or slow initial weight loss. Completing patients were re-randomised to one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib diet or fixed energy intake diet. Patients were followed up one year later. SETTING: University research department in Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 43 (41 women) obese adults (body mass index 27-40) who were otherwise healthy living in or around Copenhagen. INTERVENTIONS: 8 weeks of low energy diet (2 MJ/day) or 17 weeks of conventional diet (5 MJ/day), both supported by an anorectic compound (ephedrine 20 mg and caffeine 200 mg thrice daily); one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet or fixed energy intake diet (< or = 7.8 MJ/day), both with reinforcement sessions 2-3 times monthly. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean initial weight loss and proportion of patients maintaining a weight loss of > 5 kg at follow up. RESULTS: Mean initial weight loss was 12.6 kg (95% confidence interval 10.9 to 14.3 kg) in rapid weight loss group and 12.6 (9.9 to 15.3) kg in conventional diet group. Rate of initial weight loss had no effect on weight maintenance after 6 or 12 months of weight maintenance or at follow up. After weight maintenance programme, the ad lib group had maintained 13.2 (8.1 to 18.3) kg of the initial weight loss of 13.5 (11.4 to 15.5) kg, and the fixed energy intake group had maintained 9.7 (6.1 to 13.3) kg of the initial 13.8 (11.8 to 15.7) kg weight loss (group difference 3.5 (-2.4 to 9.3) kg). Regained weight at follow up was greater in fixed energy intake group than in ad lib group (11.3 (7.1 to 15.5) kg v 5.4 (2.3 to 8.6) kg, group difference 5.9 (0.7 to 11.1) kg, P < 0.03). At follow up, 65% of ad lib group and 40% of fixed energy intake group had maintained a weight loss of > 5 kg (P

  19. Weight loss on an energy-restricted, low-fat, sugar-containing diet in overweight sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Sandra; Dixon, Kathryn; Griffin, Jane; De Looy, Anne

    2004-06-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity in the United Kingdom, the search for an effective weight reducing diet is a priority in helping to reverse this trend. A 12-week dietary intervention study was carried out to test the effectiveness of an energy-restricted, low-fat, sugar-containing diet on weight loss in sedentary overweight men. The study also aimed to assess eating behaviour, to measure change in attitude towards sugar-containing foods and to measure the impact of the study on perceived quality of life. Subjects were recruited from three UK cities; Edinburgh, Birmingham and London. Seventy-six men, aged between 25 and 60 years, completed the study. Baseline diets were assessed by a 7-day diet diary. Compliance to the subsequent dietary advice was measured on four occasions post intervention, by 4-day diaries. Measures of body weight status were also monitored. Eating behaviour, attitudes towards sugar-containing foods and quality of life were assessed by questionnaire. Significant reductions in body weight (5.2%), body fat (11.2%) and waist:hip ratio (3%) were observed following reported dietary changes that included a reduction in reported energy intake of 3.2 MJ/day (770 kcal/day), a reduction in the percent energy from fat (from 38.1% to 26.2%), an increase in the percent energy from total carbohydrate (from 44.4% to 54%) and from protein (from 17.3% to 20.6%). Subjects scored relatively highly for dietary restraint and emotional eating, and were strongly influenced by external eating cues. On completion of the 12-week study, subjects had a more positive attitude towards sugar-containing foods and perceived an improved quality of life. It is concluded, therefore, that including sugar-containing foods in a weight-reducing diet may be an effective strategy to achieve a palatable, low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, which promotes weight loss in overweight individuals. PMID:15369982

  20. Carrying a biological "backpack": Quasi-experimental effects of weight status and body fat change on perceived steepness.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Covill, Guy A H; Eves, Frank F

    2016-03-01

    The apparent steepness of hills and stairs is overestimated in explicit perception. These overestimations are malleable in that when physiological resources are compromised, apparent steepness is further overestimated. An alternative explanation of these experimental findings attributes them to demand characteristics. This article tests the relationship between estimated steepness and naturally occurring differences in body composition. A quasi-experimental field study revealed more exaggerated reports of staircase steepness in overweight than in healthy-weight participants in a situation where experimental demand would be an implausible explanation for any differences. A longitudinal follow-up study used dual X-ray absorptiometry to objectively measure participants' body composition at the beginning and end of a weight-loss program (N = 52). At baseline, higher levels of body fat were associated with steeper explicit estimates of staircase steepness. At follow-up, changes in body fat were associated with changes in estimated steepness such that a loss of fat mass co-occurred with shallower estimates. Discussion focuses on the malleability of perceived steepness at an individual level and the implication of these findings for the debate surrounding "embodied" models of perception. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26414167

  1. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Orta-Flores, Z.; Nolasco-Hipólito, C.; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses were similar to SD15, with the exception of food consumption. In both SDC and SD5 groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents. PMID:19756159

  2. Maternal dietary fat affects milk fatty acid profile and impacts on weight gain and thermogenic capacity of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Priego, Teresa; Sánchez, Juana; García, Ana Paula; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of maternal supplementation with the main fat sources used in the human Western diet (olive oil, butter, margarine) on milk FA composition and on plasma FA profile of offspring, and to determine whether it may influence body-weight-gain (BWG) and adiposity of offspring during the suckling period. Wistar rats were supplemented with the different fat sources from day 14 of gestation and throughout lactation. Olive oil-supplemented dams showed the highest proportion of oleic-acid in milk, with no changes in plasma. Their offspring also showed the highest proportion of this FA in plasma, lower BWG during the suckling period, and higher levels of UCP1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) at weaning. Margarine-supplemented dams showed the highest percentage of PUFA in milk, and a similar tendency was found in plasma of their offspring. Butter-supplemented dams displayed higher proportion of saturated FA (SFA) in milk compared to other fat-supplemented dams, but lower than controls. Control offspring also showed higher proportion of SFA in plasma and greater BWG during the suckling period than fat-supplemented groups. Significant correlations were found between the relative content of some milk FA and BWG of offspring, in particular, oleic-acid levels correlated negatively with BWG and positively with UCP1 levels. These results show that maternal dietary source of fat affects milk FA composition and circulating FA profile, as could be expected, but also BWG and thermogenic capacity of offspring during the suckling period. An effect of oleic-acid stimulating BAT thermogenic capacity of suckling pups is proposed. PMID:23417844

  3. Quantitative trait Loci influencing abdominal fat deposition and functional variability of the HPA axis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Marissal-Arvy, N; Heliès, J-M; Tridon, C; Moisan, M-P; Mormède, P

    2014-08-01

    With the aim to reveal common genomic regions influencing phenotypes related to HPA axis function and metabolism, we did a quantitative trait loci (QTL) study in a F2 population obtained from the cross-breeding between 2 contrasted rat strains, LOU/C and Fischer 344. QTL determining phenotypes related first to corticotropic function were searched: plasma corticosterone (Cort) in control and stress conditions, after a dexamethasone suppression treatment (glucocorticoid receptor related-effect), and mineralocorticoid receptor-mediated urinary response to aldosterone. Then, phenotypes related to metabolism were studied on the same animals: body composition, basal and post-insulin plasma glucose, plasma free fatty acids, leptin, and insulin. Finally, we analyzed the overlapping regions between these QTL and looked for candidate genes within these regions. The gene NR3C1 encoding the glucocorticoid receptor was confirmed to be central in the link between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and fat deposition, and its metabolic consequences. Among the other candidate genes detected, most contain a glucocorticoid responsive element, strengthening our hypothesis of common genetic determinism between HPA axis and metabolism. PMID:25003539

  4. Arctigenin Inhibits Adipogenesis by Inducing AMPK Activation and Reduces Weight Gain in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Dae-Seung; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Shin, Soyoung; Kim, Su-Jin; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-09-01

    Although arctigenin (ARC) has been reported to have some pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and antioxidant, there have been no reports on the anti-obesity effect of ARC. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ARC has an anti-obesity effect and mediates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. We investigated the anti-adipogenic effect of ARC using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, whether ARC can inhibit weight gain was investigated. We found that ARC reduced weight gain, fat pad weight, and triglycerides in HFD-induced obese mice. ARC also inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) in in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ARC induced the AMPK activation resulting in down-modulation of adipogenesis-related factors including PPARγ, C/EBPα, fatty acid synthase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase. This study demonstrates that ARC can reduce key adipogenic factors by activating the AMPK in vitro and in vivo and suggests a therapeutic implication of ARC for obesity treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2067-2077, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26852013

  5. [Fast food promotes weight gain].

    PubMed

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne V

    2007-05-01

    The total amounts of fat in a fast food menu consisting of French fries and fried Chicken Nuggets from McDonald's and KFC, respectively, bought in 35 different countries vary from 41 to 71 gram. In most countries the menu contained unacceptably high amounts of industrially-produced trans fat which contributes to an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease, weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation and type 2 diabetes. The quality of the ingredients in fast food ought to be better and the size of the portions smaller and less energy-dense so that frequent fast food meals do not increase the risk of obesity and diseases among customers. PMID:17537359

  6. Rice koji reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation, and blood glucose level in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Kawasaki, Chihiro; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Ushikai, Miharu; Amitani, Haruka; Asakawa, Akihiro; Okutsu, Kayu; Sameshima, Yoshihiro; Takamine, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Rice koji is considered a readily accessible functional food that may have health-promoting effects. We investigated whether white, yellow, and red koji have the anti-obesity effect in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), which is a model for obesity. Mice were fed HFD containing 10% (w/w) of rice koji powder or steamed rice for 4 weeks. Weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue, and total adipose tissue weight were significantly lower in all rice koji groups than in the HFD-rice group after 4 weeks. Feed efficiency was significantly reduced in the yellow koji group. Blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the white and red koji groups with HOMA-R and leptin levels being reduced in the white koji group. White and red koji increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 protein expression in L6 myotube cells. These results showed that all rice koji have the anti-obesity or anti-diabetes effects although the mechanisms may differ depending on the type of rice koji consumed. PMID:25237599

  7. Sire carcass breeding values affect body composition in lambs--2. Effects on fat and bone weight and their distribution within the carcass as measured by computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Anderson, F; Williams, A; Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of paternal Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post weaning c-site eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT), and post weaning weight (PWWT) on the composition of lamb carcasses. Composition was measured using computed tomography scans of 1665 lambs which were progeny of 85 Maternal, 115 Merino and 155 Terminal sires. Reducing sire PFAT decreased carcass fat weight by 4.8% and increased carcass bone by 1.3% per unit of PFAT (range 5.1 mm). Increasing sire PEMD reduced carcass fat weight by 3.8% in Maternal and 2% in Terminal sired lambs per unit of PEMD (range 4.3 and 7.8 mm), with no impact on bone. Increasing sire PWWT reduced carcass fat weight, but only at some experimental locations. Differences in composition varied between sire types with Maternal sired lambs having the most fat and Merino sired lambs the greatest bone weight. Genetic effects on fatness were greater than the environmental or production factor effects, with the converse true of bone. PMID:26914513

  8. Born Fat: The Relations Between Weight Changeability Beliefs and Health Behaviors and Physical Health.

    PubMed

    Parent, Mike C; Alquist, Jessica L

    2016-06-01

    Although some popular press and nonscholarly sources have claimed that weight is largely unchangeable, the relationship between this belief and objective measures of health remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that people who believe weight is unchangeable will have poorer objective and subjective health, and fewer exercise behaviors and poorer eating habits, than people who believe weight is changeable. Participants were 4,166 men and 4,655 women enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the 2007 to 2010 iterations. Believing that weight was uncontrollable was negatively related to exercise and healthful dietary practices and positively related to unhealthful eating. Lack of exercise and unhealthful eating were, in turn, associated with poor physical health. Age, but not gender, moderated the relationships between belief in weight changeability and exercise behaviors, healthful eating, and unhealthful eating. This study suggests that believing weight is unchangeable is associated with poor health behaviors and poorer physical health. PMID:26351266

  9. High fat diet and body weight have different effects on cannabinoid CB1 receptor expression in rat nodose ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Cluny, N.L.; Baraboi, E.D.; Mackie, K; Burdyga, G.; Richard, D.; Dockray, G.J.; Sharkey, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance is regulated, in part, by orexigenic signaling pathways of the vagus nerve. Fasting-induced modifications in the expression of orexigenic signaling systems have been observed in vagal afferents of lean animals. Altered basal cannabinoid (CB)1 receptor expression in the nodose ganglia in obesity has been reported. Whether altered body weight or a high fat diet modifies independent or additive changes in CB1 expression is unknown. We investigated the expression of CB1 and orexin 1 receptor (OX-1R) in nodose ganglia of rats fed ad libitum or food deprived (24h), maintained on low or high fat diets (HFD), with differing body weights. Male Wistar rats were fed chow or HFD (diet-induced obese: DIO or diet-resistant: DR) or were body weight matched to the DR group but fed chow (wmDR). CB1 and OX-1R immunoreactivity were investigated and CB1 mRNA density was determined using in situ hybridization. CB1 immunoreactivity was measured in fasted rats after sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8s) administration. In chow rats, fasting did not modify the level of CB1 mRNA. More CB1 immunoreactive cells were measured in fed DIO, DR and wmDR rats than chow rats; levels increased after fasting in chow and wmDR rats but not in DIO or DR rats. In HFD fasted rats CCK8s did not reduce CB1 immunoreactivity. OX-1R immunoreactivity was modified by fasting only in DR rats. These data suggest that body weight contributes to the proportion of neurons expressing CB1 immunoreactivity in the nodose ganglion, while HFD blunts fasting-induced increases, and CCK-induced suppression of, CB1-immunoreactivity. PMID:24145047

  10. Born Fat: The Relations between Weight Changeability Beliefs and Health Behaviors and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Mike C.; Alquist, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    Although some popular press and nonscholarly sources have claimed that weight is largely unchangeable, the relationship between this belief and objective measures of health remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that people who believe weight is unchangeable will have poorer objective and subjective health, and fewer exercise behaviors and…

  11. SU-F-18C-12: On the Relationship of the Weighted Dose to the Surface Dose In Abdominal CT - Patient Size Dependency

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y; Scott, A; Allahverdian, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: It is possible to measure the patient surface dose non-invasively using radiolucent dosimeters. However, the patient size specific weighted dose remains unknown. We attempted to study the weighted dose to surface dose relationship as the patient size varies in abdominal CT. Methods: Seven abdomen phantoms (CIRS TE series) simulating patients from an infant to a large adult were used. Size specific doses were measured with a 100 mm CT chamber under axial scans using a Siemens Sensation 64 (mCT) and a GE 750 HD. The scanner settings were 120 kVp, 200 mAs with fully opened collimations. Additional kVps (80, 100, 140) were added depending on the phantom sizes. The ratios (r) of the weighted CT dose (Dw) to the surface dose (Ds) were related to the phantom size (L) defined as the diameter resulting the equivalent cross-sectional area. Results: The Dw versus Ds ratio (r) was fitted to a linear relationship: r = 1.083 − 0.007L (R square = 0.995), and r = 1.064 − 0.007L (R square = 0.953), for Siemens Sensation 64 and GE 750 HD, respectively. The relationship appears to be independent of the scanner specifics. Conclusion: The surface dose to the weighted dose ratio decreases linearly as the patient size increases. The result is independent of the scanner specifics. The result can be used to obtain in vivo CT dosimetry in abdominal CT.

  12. Alleviation of weight-gain in mice by an ethanolic extract from Rubus coreanus under conditions of a high-fat diet and exercise.

    PubMed

    Chung, Changsik; You, Yanghee; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmin; Chung, Jin Woong; Chung, Hyunjung; Yang, Soojin; Jun, Woojin

    2013-01-01

    The administration of an ethanolic extract (RCE) from Rubus coreanus significantly reduced the body weight and epididymal fat tissue of mice under conditions of a high-fat diet (HFD) and exercise. The mice also displayed enhanced muscular carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) expression and increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels. These results suggest that RCE exerted an anti-obesity effect by up-regulating CPT1 and elevating the level of antioxidants. PMID:24096653

  13. Exposure to Common Food Additive Carrageenan Alone Leads to Fasting Hyperglycemia and in Combination with High Fat Diet Exacerbates Glucose Intolerance and Hyperlipidemia without Effect on Weight

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Feferman, Leo; Unterman, Terry; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared. Results. Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state. Conclusions. Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse. PMID:25883986

  14. The effects of a high-fat, high-fructose, and combination diet on learning, weight, and glucose regulation in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Messier, Claude; Whately, Katie; Liang, Jacky; Du, Lei; Puissant, David

    2007-03-12

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of a high-fructose diet, a high-fat diet and a combination high-fructose/high-fat diet on weight gain, blood glucose regulation, and cognitive function in C57BL/6 mice. Thirty-eight male mice aged 7 weeks were placed on one of four different diets for 3 months: standard chow and water (n=8), standard diet and access to a fructose solution as the only intake of water (n=8), high-fat diet and water (n=11), and high-fat diet and fructose solution (n=11). Weights were measured 10 times over a 3-month period. Blood glucose regulation was measured using a glucose tolerance test. Cognitive testing consisted of learning an operant bar-pressing task and was performed in the absence of fructose intake. At the end of the experiment, the density of the fructose-specific glucose transporter GLUT5 was measured in the hippocampus, frontal cortex, sensori-motor cortex and cerebellum. The high-fat and the combined high-fat/high-fructose groups gained significantly more weight than the control group. The high-fat group and combined group had significantly higher levels of blood glucose than the control group. The high-fructose group learned the operant task faster than the control group, but the high-fat/high-fructose group was not different from control indicating that the facilitative effect of prior fructose intake was abolished when a high-fat diet was added. Addition of fructose to the diet did not result in an increase of brain GLUT5 density suggesting that the learning improvement were not dependent on plastic upregulation of GLUT5 fructose transporter. The results show that, contrary to high-fat diets, access to fructose in mice did not lead to increased weight and impaired glucose tolerance. The present experiment confirm the deleterious impact of high-fat diets on glucose regulation and weight but suggest that high-fructose diets, contrary to what has been observed in hamsters, do not have the same effect. PMID

  15. Neuromedin U receptor 2 knockdown in the paraventricular nucleus modifies behavioral responses to obesogenic high-fat food and leads to increased body weight.

    PubMed

    Benzon, C R; Johnson, S B; McCue, D L; Li, D; Green, T A; Hommel, J D

    2014-01-31

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved neuropeptide which regulates food intake and body weight. Transgenic mice lacking NMU are hyperphagic and obese, making NMU a novel target for understanding and treating obesity. Neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2) is a high-affinity receptor for NMU found in discrete regions of the central nervous system, in particular the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), where it may be responsible for mediating the anorectic effects of NMU. We hypothesized that selective knock down of NMUR2 in the PVN of rats would increase their sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of food resulting in increased intake and preference for high-fat obesogenic food. To this end, we used viral-mediated RNAi to selectively knock down NMUR2 gene expression in the PVN. In rats fed a standard chow, NMUR2 knockdown produced no significant effect on food intake or body weight. However, when the same rats were fed a high-fat diet (45% fat), they consumed significantly more food, gained more body weight, and had increased feed efficiency relative to controls. Furthermore, NMUR2 knockdown rats demonstrated significantly greater binge-type food consumption of the high-fat diet and showed a greater preference for higher-fat food. These results demonstrate that NMUR2 signaling in the PVN regulates consumption and preference for high-fat foods without disrupting feeding behavior associated with non-obesogenic standard chow. PMID:24269937

  16. Fat Chance in a Slim World or a Behavioral Weight Program for Trainable Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotatori, Anthony F.

    The study involving 18 moderately retarded adolescents attending a public high school program assessed the usefulness of a behavioral weight reduction program. The behavior treatment involved exposure of Ss to external and self-reinforcement, stimulus control, simplified self monitoring and exercise over a 14-week active training period. Behavior…

  17. Evaluation of body weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage changes in early stages of fixed orthodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, K. Sai; Singaraju, Gowri Sankar; Reddy, V. Karunakar; Mandava, Prasad; Bhavikati, Venkata N.; Reddy, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage (BFP) during the initial stages of fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample for this observational prospective study included 68 individuals with fixed orthodontic appliance in the age group of 18–25 years of both the sexes (25 males and 43 females). The control group consisted of 60 individuals (24 males and 36 females). The weight, BMI, and BFP were measured using a Body Composition Monitor at three points of time “T1” initial; “T2” after 1 month; and “T2” after 3 months. The results were tabulated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The mean changes between different parameters in both the study and control groups and between males and females in the study group was compared by using two-tailed unpaired student's t-test. The statistical significance is set atP ≤ 0.05. Results: There was an overall decrease in the body weight, BMI, and BFP after 1 month in the study cohort, which was statistically significant compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). This was followed by an increase in the parameters after the end of the 3rd month. Comparison of the parameters between the study and control group at the start of the treatment and at the end of the 3rd month had no statistical significance. There was a marked variation in the changes of these parameters between males and females of the study group, which is statistically significant (<0.0001). Conclusion: There is a definite reduction in the weight, BMP, and BMI at the end of the first month followed by a gain of weight, but not at the initial point by the end of the 3rd month. PMID:27583224

  18. Gut microbiota composition correlates with changes in body fat content due to weight loss.

    PubMed

    Remely, M; Tesar, I; Hippe, B; Gnauer, S; Rust, P; Haslberger, A G

    2015-01-01

    Genetics, lifestyle, and dietary habits contribute to metabolic syndrome, but also an altered gut microbiota has been identified. Based on this knowledge it is suggested that host bacterial composition tends to change in response to dietary factors and weight loss. The aim of this study was to identify bacteria affecting host metabolism in obesity during weight loss and to correlate them with changes of the body composition obtained from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). We recruited obese individuals receiving a dietary intervention according DACH (German, Austrian, and Swiss Society of Nutrition) reference values and guidelines for 'prevention and therapy of obesity' of DAG e.V., DDG, DGE e.V., and DGEM e.V. over three months. Faecal microbiota and BIA measurements were conducted at three time points, before, during, and after the intervention. Gut microbiota was analysed on the basis of 16S rDNA with quantitative real time PCR. Additionally, a food frequency questionnaire with questions to nutritional behaviour, lifestyle, and physical activity was administered before intervention. After weight reduction, obese individuals showed a significant increase of total bacterial abundance. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes significantly decreased during intervention. Lactobacilli significantly increased between the first and the second time point. These differences also correlated with differences in weight percentage. During the intervention period Clostridium cluster IV increased significantly between the second and the third time point. In contrast Clostridium cluster XIVa showed a decreased abundance. The dominant butyrate producer, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, significantly increased as did the abundance of the butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene. Archaea and Akkermansia were significantly more prevalent after weight reduction. Our results show a clear difference in the gut bacterial composition before and after dietary intervention with a rapid

  19. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... J. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also ... URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  20. Immune Priming, Fat Reserves, Muscle Mass and Body Weight of the House Cricket is Affected by Diet Composition.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Nava-Sánchez, A; González-Tokman, D M; Munguía-Steyer, R; Gutiérrez-Cabrera, A E

    2016-08-01

    Some insect species are capable of producing an enhanced immune response after a first pathogenic encounter, a process called immune priming. However, whether and how such ability is driven by particular diet components (protein/carbohydrate) have not been explored. Such questions are sound given that, in general, immune response is dietary dependent. We have used adults of the house cricket Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) and exposed them to the bacteria Serratia marcescens. We first addressed whether survival rate after priming and nonpriming treatments is dietary dependent based on access/no access to proteins and carbohydrates. Second, we investigated how these dietary components affected fat reserves, muscle mass, and body weight, three key traits in insect fitness. Thus, we exposed adult house crickets to either a protein or a carbohydrate diet and measured the three traits. After being provided with protein, primed animals survived longer compared to the other diet treatments. Interestingly, this effect was also sex dependent with primed males having a higher survival than primed females when protein was supplemented. For the second experiment, protein-fed animals had more fat, muscle mass, and body weight than carbohydrate-fed animals. Although we are not aware of the immune component underlying immune priming, our results suggest that its energetic demand for its functioning and/or consequent survival requires a higher demand of protein with respect to carbohydrate. Thus, protein shortage can impair key survival-related traits related to immune and energetic condition. Further studies varying nutrient ratios should verify our results. PMID:27037705

  1. Transgenic Expression of n-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase (fat-1) in C57/BL6 Mice: Effects on Glucose Homeostasis and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Shaonin; Hardy, Robert W.; Wood, Philip A.

    2009-01-01

    The fat-1 gene, derived from C. elegans, encodes for a fatty acid n-3 desaturase. In order to study the potential metabolic benefits of n-3 fatty acids, independent of dietary fatty acids, we developed 7 lines of fat-1 transgenic mice (C57/BL6) controlled by the regulatory sequences of the adipocyte protein-2 (aP2) gene for adipocyte specific expression (AP-lines). We were unable to obtain homozygous fat-1 transgenic offspring from the two highest expressing lines, suggesting that excessive expression of this enzyme may be lethal during gestation. Serum fatty acid analysis of fat-1 transgenic mice (AP-3) fed a high n-6 unsaturated fat (HUSF) diet had an n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio reduced by 23% (p< 0.025) and the n-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration increased by 61% (p< 0.020). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was increased by 19 % (p< 0.015) in white adipose tissue. Male AP-3-fat-1 line of mice had improved glucose tolerance and reduced body weight with no change in insulin sensitivity when challenged with a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet. In contrast, the female AP-3 mice had reduced glucose tolerance and no change in insulin sensitivity or body weight. These findings indicate that male transgenic fat-1 mice have improved glucose tolerance likely due to increased insulin secretion while female fat-1 mice have reduced glucose tolerance compared to wild-type mice. Finally the inability of fat-1 transgenic mice to generate homozygous offspring suggests that prolonged exposure to increased concentrations of n-3 fatty acids may be detrimental to reproduction. PMID:19396841

  2. Effects of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside lignan-enriched flaxseed powder on body weight, visceral fat, lipid profile, adipokines, and blood pressure in rats fed a high-fructose and high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential effects of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) lignan-enriched flaxseed powder LEFP) on body weight, visceral fat, lipid profile, adipokines, and blood pressure were investigated using Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into three groups (n=8) that were fed either a norm...

  3. Predictors of Treatment Response to Tesamorelin, a Growth Hormone-Releasing Factor Analog, in HIV-Infected Patients with Excess Abdominal Fat

    PubMed Central

    Mangili, Alexandra; Falutz, Julian; Mamputu, Jean-Claude; Stepanians, Miganush; Hayward, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Background Tesamorelin, a synthetic analog of human growth hormone-releasing factor, decreases visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy. Objectives 1) To evaluate the utility of patient characteristics and validated disease-risk scores, namely indicator variables for the metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation (MetS-IDF) or the National Cholesterol Education Program (MetS-NCEP) and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), as predictors of VAT reduction during tesamorelin therapy at 3 and 6 months, and 2) To explore the characteristics of patients who reached a threshold of VAT <140 cm2, a level associated with lower risk of adverse health outcomes, after 6 months of treatment with tesamorelin. Methods Data were analyzed from two Phase 3 studies in which HIV-infected patients with excess abdominal fat were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive tesamorelin 2 mg (n = 543) or placebo (n = 263) subcutaneously daily for 6 months, using ANOVA and ANCOVA models. Results Metabolic syndrome (MetS-IDF or MetS-NCEP) and FRS were significantly associated with VAT at baseline. Presence of metabolic syndrome ([MetS-NCEP), triglyceride levels >1.7 mmol/L, and white race had a significant impact on likelihood of response to tesamorelin after 6 months of therapy (interaction p-values 0.054, 0.063, and 0.025, respectively). No predictive factors were identified at 3 months. The odds of a VAT reduction to <140 cm2 for subjects treated with tesamorelin was 3.9 times greater than that of subjects randomized to placebo after controlling for study, gender, baseline body mass index (BMI) and baseline VAT (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.03; 7.44). Conclusions Individuals with baseline MetS-NCEP, elevated triglyceride levels, or white race were most likely to experience reductions in VAT after 6 months of tesamorelin treatment. The odds of response of VAT <140 cm2 was 3.9 times greater for tesamorelin

  4. Altered Body Weight Regulation in CK1ε Null and tau Mutant Mice on Regular Chow and High Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lili; Summa, Keith C.; Olker, Christopher; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W.

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of circadian rhythms results in metabolic dysfunction. Casein kinase 1 epsilon (CK1ε) is a canonical circadian clock gene. Null and tau mutations in CK1ε show distinct effects on circadian period. To investigate the role of CK1ε in body weight regulation under both regular chow (RC) and high fat (HF) diet conditions, we examined body weight on both RC and HF diets in CK1ε−/− and CK1εtau/tau mice on a standard 24 hr light-dark (LD) cycle. Given the abnormal entrainment of CK1εtau/tau mice on a 24 hr LD cycle, a separate set of CK1εtau/tau mice were tested under both diet conditions on a 20 hr LD cycle, which more closely matches their endogenous period length. On the RC diet, both CK1ε−/− and CK1εtau/tau mutants on a 24 hr LD cycle and CK1εtau/tau mice on a 20 hr LD cycle exhibited significantly lower body weights, despite similar overall food intake and activity levels. On the HF diet, CK1εtau/tau mice on a 20 hr LD cycle were protected against the development of HF diet-induced excess weight gain. These results provide additional evidence supporting a link between circadian rhythms and energy regulation at the genetic level, particularly highlighting CK1ε involved in the integration of circadian biology and metabolic physiology. PMID:27144030

  5. Effects of Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-I/IGF-Binding Protein-3 Treatment on Glucose Metabolism and Fat Distribution in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients with Abdominal Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Madhu N.; Mulligan, Kathleen; Tai, Viva; Wen, Michael J.; Dyachenko, Artem; Weinberg, Melissa; Li, Xiaojuan; Lang, Thomas; Grunfeld, Carl; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Schambelan, Morris

    2010-01-01

    Context: HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for excess visceral adiposity and insulin resistance. Treatment with GH decreases visceral adiposity but worsens glucose metabolism. IGF-I, which mediates many of the effects of GH, improves insulin sensitivity in HIV-negative individuals. Objective: Our objective was to determine whether IGF-I, complexed to its major binding protein, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), improves glucose metabolism and alters body fat distribution in HIV-infected patients with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. Methods: We conducted a pilot, open-label study in 13 HIV-infected men with excess abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance to assess the effect of 3 months of treatment with IGF-I/IGFBP-3 on glucose metabolism and fat distribution. Glucose metabolism was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Endogenous glucose production (EGP), gluconeogenesis, whole-body lipolysis, and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were measured with stable isotope infusions. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scan. Results: Glucose tolerance improved and insulin-mediated glucose uptake increased significantly during treatment. EGP increased under fasting conditions, and suppression of EGP by insulin was blunted. Fasting triglycerides decreased significantly in association with a decrease in hepatic DNL. Lean body mass increased and total body fat decreased, whereas visceral adipose tissue did not change. Conclusions: Treatment with IGF-I/IGFBP-3 improved whole-body glucose uptake and glucose tolerance, while increasing hepatic glucose production. Fasting triglycerides improved, reflecting decreased DNL, and visceral adiposity was unchanged. PMID:20610601

  6. 'Fat girls' and 'big guys': gendered meanings of weight loss surgery.

    PubMed

    Newhook, Julia Temple; Gregory, Deborah; Twells, Laurie

    2015-06-01

    Over 80% of weight loss surgery (WLS) patients are women, yet gender is overwhelmingly absent in WLS research. This article discusses the findings of 54 interviews with twenty-one women and six men waiting for WLS in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. We critically examine the ways that gender shapes the meaning of WLS in these narratives. We explore gendered meanings in participants' perspectives on their embodied experiences before surgery, social support as they decided to undergo the procedure, and their expectations for their lives after WLS. We draw on feminist theory to explain how these findings counter the dominant gender-neutral medical model of obesity. PMID:25677753

  7. Both Food Restriction and High-Fat Diet during Gestation Induce Low Birth Weight and Altered Physical Activity in Adult Rat Offspring: The “Similarities in the Inequalities” Model

    PubMed Central

    Portella, André Krumel; Benetti, Carla da Silva; Noschang, Cristie; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2015-01-01

    We have previously described a theoretical model in humans, called “Similarities in the Inequalities”, in which extremely unequal social backgrounds coexist in a complex scenario promoting similar health outcomes in adulthood. Based on the potential applicability of and to further explore the “similarities in the inequalities” phenomenon, this study used a rat model to investigate the effect of different nutritional backgrounds during gestation on the willingness of offspring to engage in physical activity in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were time mated and randomly allocated to one of three dietary groups: Control (Adlib), receiving standard laboratory chow ad libitum; 50% food restricted (FR), receiving 50% of the ad libitum-fed dam’s habitual intake; or high-fat diet (HF), receiving a diet containing 23% fat. The diets were provided from day 10 of pregnancy until weaning. Within 24 hours of birth, pups were cross-fostered to other dams, forming the following groups: Adlib_Adlib, FR_Adlib, and HF_Adlib. Maternal chow consumption and weight gain, and offspring birth weight, growth, physical activity (one week of free exercise in running wheels), abdominal adiposity and biochemical data were evaluated. Western blot was performed to assess D2 receptors in the dorsal striatum. The “similarities in the inequalities” effect was observed on birth weight (both FR and HF groups were smaller than the Adlib group at birth) and physical activity (both FR_Adlib and HF_Adlib groups were different from the Adlib_Adlib group, with less active males and more active females). Our findings contribute to the view that health inequalities in fetal life may program the health outcomes manifested in offspring adult life (such as altered physical activity and metabolic parameters), probably through different biological mechanisms. PMID:25738800

  8. Weight loss composition is one-fourth fat-free mass: a critical review and critique of this widely cited rule.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, S B; Gonzalez, M C C; Shen, W; Redman, L; Thomas, D

    2014-04-01

    Maximizing fat loss while preserving lean tissue mass and function is a central goal of modern obesity treatments. A widely cited rule guiding expected loss of lean tissue as fat-free mass (FFM) states that approximately one-fourth of weight loss will be FFM (i.e. ΔFFM/ΔWeight = ∼0.25), with the remaining three-fourths being fat mass. This review examines the dynamic relationships between FFM, fat mass and weight changes that follow induction of negative energy balance with hypocaloric dieting and/or exercise. Historical developments in the field are traced with the 'Quarter FFM Rule' used as a framework to examine evolving concepts on obesity tissue, excess weight and what is often cited as 'Forbes' Rule'. Temporal effects in the fractional contribution of FFM to changes in body weight are examined as are lean tissue moderating effects such as ageing, inactivity and exercise that frequently accompany structured low-calorie diet weight loss protocols. Losses of lean tissue with dieting typically tend to be small, raising questions about study design, power and applied measurement method reliability. Our review elicits important questions related to the fractional loss of lean tissues with dieting and provides a foundation for future research on this topic. PMID:24447775

  9. Diet Quality, Nutrient Intake, Weight Status, and Feeding Environments of Girls Meeting or Exceeding Recommendations for Total Dietary Fat of the American Academy of Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoonna; Mitchell, Diane C.; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To compare the diet quality and weight status of girls consuming diets meeting the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics for dietary fat with those of girls consuming >30% of energy from fat and to examine relationships between girls’ dietary fat intake, mothers’ nutrient intakes, and mothers’ child-feeding practices. Design Participants were 192 white girls and their mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: >30% of energy from fat (high fat [HF]) or ≤30% of energy from fat (low fat [LF]), based on girls’ 3-day dietary recalls. Girls’ food group and nutrient intakes, Healthy Eating Index, body mass index, and mothers’ nutrient intakes and child-feeding practices were compared. Results Girls with HF diets consumed fewer fruits, more meat, and more fats and sweets and had lower Healthy Eating Index scores than did the girls in the LF group. Mothers of girls in the HF group had higher fat intakes than did those in the LF group. Girls and mothers in the HF group had lower intakes of fiber and vitamins A, C, B6, folate, and riboflavin. Mothers in the HF group reported using more restriction and pressure to eat in feeding their daughters. Girls in the HF group showed greater increase in body mass index and skinfold thickness from age 5 to 7 years. Conclusion These findings provide additional support for the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics to limit total dietary fat. Findings reveal that mothers’ use of controlling feeding practices are not effective in fostering healthier diets among girls and that mothers’ own eating may be more influential than their attempts to control the intake of their daughters. PMID:11389293

  10. Cheonggukjang, a soybean paste fermented with B. licheniformis-67 prevents weight gain and improves glycemic control in high fat diet induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joo-Hee; Pichiah, P.B.Tirupathi; Kim, Min-Jung; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of soybean paste—Cheonggukjang, fermented with poly gamma glutamic acid producing Bacillus licheniformis-67 in diet induced obese C57BL/6J mice. Forty male C57BL/6J mice aged 4 weeks were divided into four dietary groups; normal diet control, high fat diet control, high fat diet containing 30% of unfermented soybean and high fat diet containing 30% Cheonggukjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis-67. After 13 weeks of dietary intervention the mice were sacrificed; serum and tissue samples were examined. Serum and hepatic lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin, leptin level were lower (<0.05) along with the body weight and epididymal fat pad weight in the 30% Cheonggukjang supplemented group compared with the high fat diet control group. The expression level of lipid anabolic gene was significantly decreased; whereas the expression level of lipid catabolic genes were significantly increased in the 30% Cheonggukjang supplemented group compared to the high fat diet control group. Collectively, these results suggested that intake of Cheonggukjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis-67 significantly prevents obesity related parameters. PMID:27499576

  11. Identification of a food pattern characterized by high-fiber and low-fat food choices associated with low prospective weight change in the EPIC-Potsdam cohort.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Mandy; Nöthlings, Ute; Hoffmann, Kurt; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the study was to identify a dietary pattern predictive of subsequent annual weight change by using dietary composition information. Study subjects were 24,958 middle-aged men and women of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam cohort. To derive dietary patterns, we used the reduced rank regression method with 3 response variables presumed to affect weight change: fat density, carbohydrate density, and fiber density. Annual weight change was computed by fitting a linear regression line to each person's body weight data (baseline, and 2- and 4-y follow-up) and determining the slope. In linear regression models, the pattern score was related to annual weight change. We identified a food pattern of high consumption of whole-grain bread, fruits, fruit juices, grain flakes/cereals, and raw vegetables, and of low consumption of processed meat, butter, high-fat cheese, margarine, and meat to be predictive of subsequent weight change. Mean annual weight gain gradually decreased with increasing pattern score (P for trend < 0.0001), i.e., subjects scoring high for the pattern maintained their weight or gained significantly less weight over time compared with subjects with an opposite pattern. However, the prediction of annual weight change by the food pattern was significant only in nonobese subjects. In this study population, we identified a food pattern characterized by high-fiber and low-fat food choices that can help to maintain body weight or at least prevent excess body weight gain. PMID:15867301

  12. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

    PubMed Central

    Volek, JS; Sharman, MJ; Gómez, AL; Judelson, DA; Rubin, MR; Watson, G; Sokmen, B; Silvestre, R; French, DN; Kraemer, WJ

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK) and low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE) in overweight/obese men and women. Design Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day) diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%). Subjects 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean ± s.e.m.: age 33.2 ± 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 ± 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 ± 1.1 kg/m2) and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 ± 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 ± 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2). Measurements Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and resting energy expenditure (REE) were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. Results Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28%) and the LF (~58:22:20%) were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day) compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day) diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake). The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during the VLCK diet in

  13. Abundant macroscopic fat in intra-abdominal lymph nodes involved in the course of a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: presentation of imaging findings with biopsy correlation

    PubMed Central

    Karaosmanoglu, A D; Blake, M A; Lennerz, J K

    2012-01-01

    The presence of a small amount of macroscopic fat is not unusual in the hilar region of normal lymph nodes. However, abundant replacement of the lymph node with fat is highly unusual and may appear as metastatic lymph node disease in the course of fat-predominant liposarcomas or in the case of coeliac disease complicated by cavitating lymph node syndrome. In this case report, a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma who demonstrated an increasing abundance of macroscopic fat in the diseased lymph nodes is presented. To the best of our knowledge, the imaging findings of abundant fat in lymph nodes in the course of lymphoma have not been reported before. The presence of macroscopic fat may be seen in the presence of actively involved lymph nodes in the presence of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. PMID:22457415

  14. Differential effects of natural palm oil, chemically- and enzymatically-modified palm oil on weight gain, blood lipid metabolites and fat deposition in a pediatric pig model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight in the Western world, continue to be a major health threat and is responsible for increased health care costs. Dietary intervention studies show a strong positive association between saturated fat intake and the development of obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of positional distribution of palmitic acid (Sn-1, 2 & 3) of palm oil on cardiovascular health and development of obesity, using weaner pigs as a model for young children. Methods Male and female weaner piglets were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatment groups: 1) pork lard (LRD); 2) natural palm olein (NPO); 3) chemically inter-esterified PO (CPO) and 4) enzymatically inter-esterified PO (EnPO) as the fat source. Diets were formulated with 11% lard or with palm olein in order to provide 31% of digestible energy from fat in the diet and were balanced for cholesterol, protein and energy across treatments. Results From 8 weeks onwards, pigs on EnPO diet gained (P < 0.05) more weight than all other groups. Feed conversion efficiency (feed to gain) over the 12 week experimental period did not vary between treatment groups. Plasma LDL-C content and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio in pigs fed natural PO tended to be lower compared to all other diets. The natural PO lowered (P < 0.02) the plasma triglyceride (TG) content relative to the lard or EnPO diets, but was not different from the CPO diet. The natural PO diet was associated with lower (P < 0.05) saturated fat levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue than the CPO and EnPO diets that had lower saturated fat levels than the lard diet. Female pigs had lower lean and higher fat and fat:lean ratio in the body compared with male pigs. No difference in weight gain or blood lipid parameters was observed between sexes. Conclusions The observations on plasma TG, muscle and adipose tissue saturated fatty acid contents and back fat (subcutaneous) thickness suggest that natural palm oil may

  15. A high-fat, ketogenic diet causes hepatic insulin resistance in mice, despite increasing energy expenditure and preventing weight gain.

    PubMed

    Jornayvaz, François R; Jurczak, Michael J; Lee, Hui-Young; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Frederick, David W; Zhang, Dongyang; Zhang, Xian-Man; Samuel, Varman T; Shulman, Gerald I

    2010-11-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diets (KD) have been suggested to be more effective in promoting weight loss than conventional caloric restriction, whereas their effect on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism and the mechanisms by which they may promote weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to explore the role of KD on liver and muscle insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid metabolism, energy expenditure, and food intake. Using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, we studied insulin action in mice fed a KD or regular chow (RC). Body composition was assessed by ¹H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Despite being 15% lighter (P < 0.001) than RC-fed mice because of a 17% increase in energy expenditure (P < 0.001), KD-fed mice manifested severe hepatic insulin resistance, as reflected by decreased suppression (0% vs. 100% in RC-fed mice, P < 0.01) of endogenous glucose production during the clamp. Hepatic insulin resistance could be attributed to a 350% increase in hepatic diacylglycerol content (P < 0.001), resulting in increased activation of PKCε (P < 0.05) and decreased insulin receptor substrate-2 tyrosine phosphorylation (P < 0.01). Food intake was 56% (P < 0.001) lower in KD-fed mice, despite similar caloric intake, and could partly be attributed to a more than threefold increase (P < 0.05) in plasma N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine concentrations. In conclusion, despite preventing weight gain in mice, KD induces hepatic insulin resistance secondary to increased hepatic diacylglycerol content. Given the key role of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the development of type 2 diabetes and the widespread use of KD for the treatment of obesity, these results may have potentially important clinical implications. PMID:20807839

  16. Long-Term High Fat Diet Has a Profound Effect on Body Weight, Hormone Levels, and Estrous Cycle in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Tandra R.; Donthireddy, Laxminarasimha; Adhikary, Debasis; Chakraborty, Sanjoy

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity causes several health complications along with disruption of the reproductive system. The aim of the current study was to determine how long-term intake of very high fat diet (VHFD) changes the hormonal milieu, affecting the cellular morphology and reproductive cycle in female mice. Material/Methods Mice were fed on normal diet (ND) and VHFD for 2 weeks, 12 weeks, and 25–27 weeks. We assessed changes in body weight, food consumption, energy intake, cellular and tissue morphology, hormonal levels (leptin, insulin, and estradiol), and vaginal smears were performed at various time points to determine the length and cellularity at each stage of the estrous cycle. Results Mice fed on VHFD showed a significant increase in weight gain, reduction in food intake, and increase in energy intake compared to animals fed on ND, indicating that the caloric density of the diet is responsible for the differences in weight gain. Hormonal analysis showed hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, and increases in estrogen levels, along with increases in size of the islet of Langerhans and adipocytes. After 25–27 weeks, all animals fed on VHFD showed complete acyclicity; elongation of phases (e.g., diestrous), skipping of phases (e.g., metestrous), or a combination of both, indicating disruption in the reproductive cycle. Quantitative analysis showed that in the diestrous phase there was a 70% increase in cell count in VHFD compared to animals fed on ND. Conclusions The above results show that morphological and hormonal changes caused by VHFD probably act via negative feedback to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to shut down reproduction, which has a direct effect on the estrous cycle, causing acyclicity in mice. PMID:27171231

  17. Long-Term High Fat Diet Has a Profound Effect on Body Weight, Hormone Levels, and Estrous Cycle in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Tandra R; Donthireddy, Laxminarasimha; Adhikary, Debasis; Chakraborty, Sanjoy

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity causes several health complications along with disruption of the reproductive system. The aim of the current study was to determine how long-term intake of very high fat diet (VHFD) changes the hormonal milieu, affecting the cellular morphology and reproductive cycle in female mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS Mice were fed on normal diet (ND) and VHFD for 2 weeks, 12 weeks, and 25-27 weeks. We assessed changes in body weight, food consumption, energy intake, cellular and tissue morphology, hormonal levels (leptin, insulin, and estradiol), and vaginal smears were performed at various time points to determine the length and cellularity at each stage of the estrous cycle. RESULTS Mice fed on VHFD showed a significant increase in weight gain, reduction in food intake, and increase in energy intake compared to animals fed on ND, indicating that the caloric density of the diet is responsible for the differences in weight gain. Hormonal analysis showed hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, and increases in estrogen levels, along with increases in size of the islet of Langerhans and adipocytes. After 25-27 weeks, all animals fed on VHFD showed complete acyclicity; elongation of phases (e.g., diestrous), skipping of phases (e.g., metestrous), or a combination of both, indicating disruption in the reproductive cycle. Quantitative analysis showed that in the diestrous phase there was a 70% increase in cell count in VHFD compared to animals fed on ND. CONCLUSIONS The above results show that morphological and hormonal changes caused by VHFD probably act via negative feedback to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to shut down reproduction, which has a direct effect on the estrous cycle, causing acyclicity in mice. PMID:27171231

  18. Clinical Implications of Non-Steatotic Hepatic Fat Fractions on Quantitative Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Hildebrand; Handayani, Astri; Kappert, Peter; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Sijens, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is an important diagnostic tool in the assessment of focal liver lesions and diffuse liver diseases such as cirrhosis and fibrosis. Quantitative DWI parameters such as molecular diffusion, microperfusion and their fractions, are known to be affected when hepatic fat fractions (HFF) are higher than 5.5% (steatosis). However, less is known about the effect on DWI for HFF in the normal non-steatotic range below 5.5%, which can be found in a large part of the population. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the diagnostic implications of non-steatotic HFF on quantitative DWI parameters in eight liver segments. For this purpose, eleven healthy volunteers (2 men, mean-age 31.0) were prospectively examined with DWI and three series of in-/out-of-phase dual-echo spoiled gradient-recalled MRI sequences to obtain the HFF and T2*. DWI data were analyzed using the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model. Four circular regions (ø22.3 mm) were drawn in each of eight liver segments and averaged. Measurements were divided in group 1 (HFF≤2.75%), group 2 (2.75< HFF ≤5.5%) and group 3 (HFF>5.5%). DWI parameters and T2* were compared between the three groups and between the segments. It was observed that the molecular diffusion (0.85, 0.72 and 0.49 ×10−3 mm2/s) and T2* (32.2, 27.2 and 21.0 ms) differed significantly between the three groups of increasing HFF (2.18, 3.50 and 19.91%). Microperfusion and its fraction remained similar for different HFF. Correlations with HFF were observed for the molecular diffusion (r = −0.514, p<0.001) and T2* (−0.714, p<0.001). Similar results were obtained for the majority of individual liver segments. It was concluded that fat significantly decreases molecular diffusion in the liver, also in absence of steatosis (HFF≤5.5%). Also, it was confirmed that fat influences T2*. Determination of HFF prior to quantitative DWI is therefore crucial. PMID:24505333

  19. Carnosic acid-rich rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaf extract limits weight gain and improves cholesterol levels and glycaemia in mice on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Alvin; Cases, Julien; Roller, Marc; Chiralt-Boix, Amparo; Coussaert, Aurélie; Ripoll, Christophe

    2011-10-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts (RE) are natural antioxidants that are used in food, food supplements and cosmetic applications; exert anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycaemic effects; and promote weight loss, which can be exploited to develop new preventive strategies against metabolic disorders. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventive effects of rosemary leaf extract that was standardised to 20 % carnosic acid (RE) on weight gain, glucose levels and lipid homeostasis in mice that had begun a high-fat diet (HFD) as juveniles. The animals were given a low-fat diet, a HFD or a HFD that was supplemented with 500 mg RE/kg body weight per d (mpk). Physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored for 16 weeks. Body and epididymal fat weight in animals on the HFD that was supplemented with RE increased 69 and 79 % less than those in the HFD group. Treatment with RE was associated with increased faecal fat excretion but not with decreased food intake. The extract also reduced fasting glycaemia and plasma cholesterol levels. In addition, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of RE in vitro on pancreatic lipase and PPAR-γ agonist activity; the in vitro findings correlated with our observations in the animal experiments. Thus, the present results suggest that RE that is rich in carnosic acid can be used as a preventive treatment against metabolic disorders, which merits further examination at physiological doses in randomised controlled trials. PMID:21676274

  20. Effects of dietary fibers on weight gain, carbohydrate metabolism, and gastric ghrelin gene expression in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong Q; Zuberi, Aamir R; Zhang, Xian H; Macgowan, Jacalyn; Qin, Jianhua; Ye, Xin; Son, Leslie; Wu, Qinglin; Lian, Kun; Cefalu, William T

    2007-12-01

    Diets that are high in dietary fiber are reported to have substantial health benefits. We sought to compare the metabolic effects of 3 types of dietary fibers -- sugarcane fiber (SCF), psyllium (PSY), and cellulose (CEL) -- on body weight, carbohydrate metabolism, and stomach ghrelin gene expression in a high-fat diet-fed mouse model. Thirty-six male mice (C57BL/6) were randomly divided into 4 groups that consumed high-fat diet alone (HFD) or high-fat diet containing 10% SCF, PSY, and CEL, respectively. After baseline measurements were assessed for body weight, plasma insulin, glucose, leptin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), animals were treated for 12 weeks. Parameters were reevaluated at the end of study. Whereas there was no difference at the baseline, body weight gains in the PSY and SCF groups were significantly lower than in the CEL group at the end of study. No difference in body weight was observed between the PSY and SCF animals. Body composition analysis demonstrated that fat mass in the SCF group was considerably lower than in the CEL and HFD groups. In addition, fasting plasma glucose and insulin and areas under the curve of intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test were also significantly lower in the SCF and PSY groups than in the CEL and HFD groups. Moreover, fasting plasma concentrations of leptin were significantly lower and GLP-1 level was 2-fold higher in the SCF and PSY mice than in the HFD and CEL mice. Ghrelin messenger RNA levels of stomach in the SCF group were significantly lower than in the CEL and HFD groups as well. These results suggest differences in response to dietary fiber intake in this animal model because high-fat diets incorporating dietary fibers such as SCF and PSY appeared to attenuate weight gain, enhance insulin sensitivity, and modulate leptin and GLP-1 secretion and gastric ghrelin gene expression. PMID:17998014

  1. Effect of Weight-Reduction in Obese Mice Lacking Toll-Like Receptor 5 and C57BL/6 Mice Fed a Low-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shao-Chun; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Lu, Tsu-Hsiang; Tzeng, Siou-Ling; Wu, Yi-Chan; Wu, Chia-Jung; Lin, Chia-Wei; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study aims to investigate the effect of feeding low-fat diet (LFD) to diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice lacking TLR5 (TLR5−/−), which have a tendency to develop glucose intolerance with increased adiposity, compared to that in C57BL/6 mice. Results. TLR5−/− and C57BL/6 male mice were divided into three subgroups: (1) control, mice were fed a standard AIN-76A (fat: 11.5 kcal%) diet for 12 weeks; (2) DIO, mice were fed a 58 kcal% high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks; and (3) diet, mice were fed a HFD for 8 weeks to induce obesity and then switched to a 10.5 kcal% LFD for 4 weeks. The glucose intolerance in DIO TLR5−/− mice was more significant than that in DIO C57BL/6 mice and was not attenuated by a switch to the LFD. Weight-reduction with LFD had significantly decreased the epididymal fat mass in C57BL/6 mice but not in TLR5−/− mice. In addition, the LFD-fed TLR5−/− mice showed significantly higher expression of ghrelin in the serum and resistin in the epididymal fat than that in C57BL/6 mice. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that TLR5 gene knockout impairs some effects of weight-reduction in DIO. PMID:26681840

  2. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abdominal Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91– ... are abdominal adhesions and intestinal obstructions ... generally do not require treatment. Surgery is the only way to treat abdominal ...

  3. Effect of an environmental school-based obesity prevention program on changes in body fat and body weight: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Donald A; Champagne, Catherine M; Harsha, David W; Han, Hongmei; Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L; Sothern, Melinda S; Stewart, Tiffany M; Webber, Larry S; Ryan, Donna H

    2012-08-01

    This study tested the efficacy of two school-based programs for prevention of body weight/fat gain in comparison to a control group, in all participants and in overweight children. The Louisiana (LA) Health study utilized a longitudinal, cluster randomized three-arm controlled design, with 28 months of follow-up. Children (N = 2,060; mean age = 10.5 years, SD = 1.2) from rural communities in grades 4-6 participated in the study. Seventeen school clusters (mean = 123 children/cluster) were randomly assigned to one of three prevention arms: (i) primary prevention (PP), an environmental modification (EM) program, (ii) primary + secondary prevention (PP+SP), the environmental program with an added classroom and internet education component, or (iii) control (C). Primary outcomes were changes in percent body fat and BMI z scores. Secondary outcomes were changes in behaviors related to energy balance. Comparisons of PP, PP+SP, and C on changes in body fat and BMI z scores found no differences. PP and PP+SP study arms were combined to create an EM arm. Relative to C, EM decreased body fat for boys (-1.7 ± 0.38% vs. -0.14 ± 0.69%) and attenuated fat gain for girls (2.9 ± 0.22% vs. 3.93 ± 0.37%), but standardized effect sizes were relatively small (<0.30). In conclusion, this school-based EM programs had modest beneficial effects on changes in percent body fat. Addition of a classroom/internet program to the environmental program did not enhance weight/fat gain prevention, but did impact physical activity and social support in overweight children. PMID:22402733

  4. Changes in fat free mass in overweight patients with rheumatoid arthritis on a weight reducing regimen. A comparison of eight different body composition methods.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, B L; Kondrup, J; Engelhart, M; Kristensen, J H; Pødenphant, J; Høie, H; Andersen, V

    1994-12-01

    The aim of this work was to compare and validate seven different methods for estimating changes in fat free mass, in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Measurements were made of fat and fat free mass before and after 12 weeks on an energy restricted, protein rich diet and physical training. The subjects were sixteen female and three male overweight out-patients (mean body mass index at baseline: 30 kg/m2) suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, according to the criteria of the American Rheumatism Association. Fat free mass was estimated by eight different body composition methods (a four-compartment model, total body water, total body potassium, impedance, near infrared interactance, creatinine excretion, body mass index and skinfold measurements). Mean weight loss was 2.7 kg fat and 1.7 kg fat free mass. There was no difference between measurements of mean change in fat free mass by the four-compartment model and the other methods, except for the creatinine method (P = 0.03). Compared to the four-compartment method, the total body water method gave the most accurate estimate of individual fat free mass changes (residual Mean Square: 0.4 kg), second to this method, the impedance method, seemed most valid (residual Mean Square: 0.8 kg). Accuracies of the other methods were lower (residual Mean Square between 4.2 and 8.2 kg [corrected]). Of eight methods for estimating changes in FFM, the TBW method gave the most accurate estimate of individual FFM changes, compared to a four-compartment model used as reference.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7894520

  5. Effects of lowering dietary fiber before marketing on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights.

    PubMed

    Asmus, M D; Derouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Houser, T A; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D

    2014-01-01

    A total of 264 pigs (initially 41.0 kg BW) were used in a 90-d study to determine the effects of lowering dietary fiber before market on pigs fed high dietary fiber [provided by wheat middlings (midds) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)] on growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights of growing-finishing pigs. Pens of pigs were randomly allotted by initial BW and sex to 1 of 6 treatments with 6 replications per treatment and 7 or 8 pigs per pen. A positive control (corn-soybean meal-based) diet containing no DDGS or midds (9.3% NDF) and a negative control diet with 30% DDGS and 19% midds (19% NDF) were fed throughout the entire trial (d 0 to 90). The other 4 treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with the main effects of length of fiber reduction (23 or 47 d before marketing) and fiber level fed during the reduction period (low or medium). Pigs on these treatments were fed the negative control before the reduction treatment. The medium-fiber diet contained 15% DDGS and 9.5% midds (14.2% NDF) with the low-fiber diet was the positive control diet. Increasing the feeding duration of the low-fiber diets lowered overall ADFI (linear, P = 0.03) and improved G:F (linear, P < 0.01). Lowering the fiber level for the last 23 d did not influence growth performance; however, lowering the fiber level improved carcass yield (P = 0.002), with a greater response (P < 0.001) when the low-fiber diet was fed for 23 d. Jowl fat iodine value (IV) decreased when the longer lower fiber diets were fed (linear, P < 0.01) and was lower (P < 0.001) for pigs fed the low-fiber diet during the fiber reduction period than pigs fed the medium-fiber diet during the same time period; however, increasing the time lower fiber diets were fed from 23 to 47 d further reduced (P < 0.01) jowl IV. Increasing the duration that the control diet was fed by increasing the reduction time from 23 to 47 d increased (P < 0.01) backfat depth

  6. Resistance Training Preserves Fat-free Mass Without Impacting Changes in Protein Metabolism After Weight Loss in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Wayne W.; Haub, Mark D.; Wolfe, Robert R.; Ferrando, Arny A.; Sullivan, Dennis H.; Apolzan, John W.; Iglay, Heidi B.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of resistance training (RT) on energy restriction–induced changes in body composition, protein metabolism, and the fractional synthesis rate of mixed muscle proteins (FSRm) in postmenopausal, overweight women. Sixteen women (age 68 ± 1 years, BMI 29 ± 1 kg/m2, mean ± s.e.m.) completed a 16-week controlled diet study. Each woman consumed 1.0 g protein/kg/day. At baseline (weeks B1–B3) and poststudy (weeks RT12–RT13), energy intake matched each subject’s need and during weeks RT1–RT11 was hypoenergetic by 2,092 kJ/day (500 kcal/day). From weeks RT1 to RT13, eight women performed RT 3 day/week (RT group) and eight women remained sedentary (SED group). RT did not influence the energy restriction–induced decrease in body mass (SED −5.8 ± 0.6 kg; RT −5.0 ± 0.2 kg) and fat mass (SED −4.1 ± 0.9 kg; RT −4.7 ± 0.5 kg). Fat-free mass (FFM) and total body water decreased in SED (−1.6 ± 0.4 and −2.1 ± 0.5 kg) and were unchanged in RT (−0.3 ± 0.4 and −0.4 ± 0.7 kg) (group-by-time, P ≤ 0.05 and P = 0.07, respectively). Protein–mineral mass did not change in either group (SED 0.4 ± 0.2 kg; RT 0.1 ± 0.4 kg). Nitrogen balance, positive at baseline (2.2 ± 0.3 g N/day), was unchanged poststudy. After body mass loss, postabsorptive (PA) and postprandial (PP) leucine turnover, synthesis, and breakdown decreased. Leucine oxidation and balance were not changed. PA and total (PA + PP) FSRm in the vastus lateralis were higher after weight loss. RT did not influence these protein metabolism responses. In summary, RT helps older women preserve FFM during body mass loss. The comparable whole-body nitrogen retentions, leucine kinetics, and FSRm between groups are consistent with the lack of differential protein–mineral mass change. PMID:19247271

  7. Quantification of cervical spine muscle fat: a comparison between T1-weighted and multi-echo gradient echo imaging using a variable projection algorithm (VARPRO)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous data using T1-weighted MRI demonstrated neck muscle fat infiltration (MFI) in patients with poor functional recovery following whiplash. Such findings do not occur in those with milder symptoms of whiplash, chronic non-traumatic neck pain or healthy controls, suggesting traumatic factors play a role. Muscle degeneration could potentially represent a quantifiable marker of poor recovery, but the temporal constraints of running a T1-weighted sequence and performing the subsequent analysis for muscle fat may be a barrier for clinical translation. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate, quantify and compare MFI for the cervical multifidus muscles with T1-weighted imaging and a more rapid quantitative 3D multi-echo gradient echo (GRE) Dixon based method in healthy subjects. Methods 5 asymptomatic participants with no history of neck pain underwent cervical spine MRI with a Siemens 3 Tesla system. The muscle and fat signal intensities on axial spin-echo T1-weighted images were quantitatively classified for the cervical multifidii from C3-C7, bilaterally. Additional axial GRE Dixon based data for fat and water quantification were used for comparison via paired t-tests. Inter-tester reliability for fat and water measures with GRE images were examined using 1) Pearson’s Intra-class correlation coefficient 2) Bland-Altman Plots and 3) Lin’s-Concordance Coefficient. P < 0.05 was used to indicate significance. Results Total mean (SD) MFI (C3-C7) for the multifidii obtained with T1-weighted imaging and GRE were 18.4% (3.3) (range 14-22%) and 18.8% (2.9) (range 15-22%), respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients for inter-tester reliability on the GRE sequences for the C3-C7 multifidii ranged from .83 - .99, indicating high levels of agreement with segmental MFI measures. Bland-Altman Plots revealed all data points were within 2 SDs and concordance was established between 2-blinded raters, suggesting good agreement between two

  8. Effects of Low-Fat High-Fibre Diet and Mitratapide on Body Weight Reduction, Blood Pressure and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Dogs

    PubMed Central

    PEÑA, Cristina; SUAREZ, Lourdes; BAUTISTA-CASTAÑO, Inmaculada; JUSTE, M. Candelaria; CARRETÓN, Elena; MONTOYA-ALONSO, José Alberto

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to compare the impact on blood pressure and different metabolic parameters of a weight-loss program on obese dogs fed on a low-fat high-fibre diet and treated with and without mitratapide. The study sample consisted of 36 obese dogs, randomly assigned to a control group (n=17), which were fed on a low-fat high-fibre diet, and an intervention group (n=19), fed on the same diet and treated with mitratapide. Variables measured included body condition score, body weight, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures; total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels; alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity, measured both at baseline (day 0) and at the end of the weight loss program (day 85). All the studied parameters had decreased in both groups at the end of the study; these being diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and alanine aminotransferase, significantly lower in dogs treated with mitratapide. The use of mitrapide in addition to low-fat high-fibre diet does not seem to offer any further useful effect in the loss of weight during the treatment of canine obesity. On the other hand, mitratapide seems to present certain beneficial effects on pathologies associated with obesity, these being mainly related to blood pressure, lipids and hepatic parameters. PMID:24920548

  9. Trans fatty acids adversely affect blood lipids but not intra-abdominal and liver fat deposition - a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFA) is, according to observational studies, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the causal mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Besides inducing dyslipidemia, TFA intake is suspected of promoting abdominal and liv...

  10. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles in abdominal adipose tissues in chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, H Y; Liu, R R; Zhao, G P; Li, Q H; Zheng, M Q; Zhang, J J; Li, S F; Liang, Z; Wen, J

    2015-01-01

    Excessive fat accretion is a crucial problem during broiler production. Abdominal fat weight (AbFW) and abdominal fat percentage (AbFP) are major phenotypic indices of fat traits. The present study used F2 females derived from a cross between Beijing-You and Cobb-Vantress chickens. Cohorts with extreme AbFP and AbFW phenotypes were chosen to construct high- and low-abdominal fat libraries (HAbF and LAbF, respectively) to investigate the expression profiles by RNA-sequencing and microRNA (miRNA)-sequencing. Compared with the LAbF library, 62 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and 303 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the HAbF birds. Integrated analysis of DEMs and DEGs showed that a total of 106 DEGs were identified as target genes for the 62 DEMs. These genes were designated as intersection genes, and 11 of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism pathways. The miRNA gga-miR-19b-3p accelerated the proliferation of preadipocytes, as well as adipocyte differentiation, by down- regulating ACSL1. These findings suggest that some strong candidate miRNAs and genes, important in relation to abdominal adipose deposition, were identified by the integrated analysis of DEMs and DEGs. These findings add to our current understanding of the molecular genetic controls underlying abdominal adipose accumulation in chickens. PMID:26531148

  11. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles in abdominal adipose tissues in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Huang, H. Y.; Liu, R. R.; Zhao, G. P.; Li, Q.H.; Zheng, M. Q.; Zhang, J. J.; Li, S. F.; Liang, Z.; Wen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive fat accretion is a crucial problem during broiler production. Abdominal fat weight (AbFW) and abdominal fat percentage (AbFP) are major phenotypic indices of fat traits. The present study used F2 females derived from a cross between Beijing-You and Cobb-Vantress chickens. Cohorts with extreme AbFP and AbFW phenotypes were chosen to construct high- and low-abdominal fat libraries (HAbF and LAbF, respectively) to investigate the expression profiles by RNA-sequencing and microRNA (miRNA)-sequencing. Compared with the LAbF library, 62 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and 303 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the HAbF birds. Integrated analysis of DEMs and DEGs showed that a total of 106 DEGs were identified as target genes for the 62 DEMs. These genes were designated as intersection genes, and 11 of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism pathways. The miRNA gga-miR-19b-3p accelerated the proliferation of preadipocytes, as well as adipocyte differentiation, by down- regulating ACSL1. These findings suggest that some strong candidate miRNAs and genes, important in relation to abdominal adipose deposition, were identified by the integrated analysis of DEMs and DEGs. These findings add to our current understanding of the molecular genetic controls underlying abdominal adipose accumulation in chickens. PMID:26531148

  12. Staging of Primary Abdominal Lymphomas: Comparison of Whole-Body MRI with Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 18F-FDG-PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Stecco, Alessandro; Buemi, Francesco; Quagliozzi, Martina; Lombardi, Mariangela; Santagostino, Alberto; Sacchetti, Gian Mauro; Carriero, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of whole-body MRI with diffusion-weighted sequences (WB-DW-MRI) with that of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the staging of patients with primary gastrointestinal lymphoma. Methods. This retrospective study involved 17 untreated patients with primary abdominal gastrointestinal lymphoma. All patients underwent 18F-FDG-PET/CT and WB-DW-MRI. Histopathology findings or at least 6 months of clinical and radiological follow-up was the gold standard. The Musshoff-modified Ann Arbor system was used for staging, and diagnostic accuracy was evaluated on a per-node basis. Results. WB-DW-MRI exhibited 100% sensitivity, 96.3% specificity, and 96.1% and 100% positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and PPV and NPV of PET/CT were 95.9%, 100%, and 100% and 96.4%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two techniques (p = 0.05). The weighted kappa agreement statistics with a 95% confidence interval were 0.97 (0.95–0.99) between the two MRI readers and 0.87 (0.82–0.92) between the two methods. Conclusions. WB-DW-MRI appears to have a comparable diagnostic value to 18F-FDG-PET/CT in staging patients with gastrointestinal lymphoma. PMID:26798331

  13. EFFECT OF PROTEIN SOURCE DURING WEIGHT LOSS ON BODY COMPOSITION, CARDIOMETABOLIC RISK AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN ABDOMINALLY OBESE, OLDER ADULTS: A PILOT FEEDING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    BEAVERS, K.M.; GORDON, M.M.; EASTER, L.; BEAVERS, D.P.; HAIRSTON, K.G.; NICKLAS, B.J.; VITOLINS, M.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study was to begin to examine the effect of dietary protein source (soy protein versus non-soy protein) during weight loss on body composition, and cardiometabolic and functional decline risk factors in older, abdominally obese adults. Design Two-arm, single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Setting Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem NC 27157, USA. Participants 25 older (68.4±5.5 years, 88% female), abdominally obese (BMI: 35.1±4.3 kg/m2; WC: 101.4±13.1 cm) men and women were randomized to participate in the study. Intervention A 12-week weight loss intervention, with participants randomized to consume soy protein-based meal replacements (S; n=12) or non-soy protein-based meal replacements (NS; n=12), in addition to prepared meals, and all participants targeted to receive an individualized caloric deficit of 500 kcal/day. Measurements Body weight and composition (assessed via DXA and CT), conventional biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, and physical performance measures were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Additional endpoints of feasibility (accrual, participation, retention, compliance, and safety) are reported. Results A total of 24 participants (87% female) completed the study (96% retention) and lost an average of 7.8±3.0 kg over the 12-week period, with no difference seen between groups (p=0.83). Although nearly all measures of global and regional body composition were significantly reduced following the 12-week intervention, differences were not observed between groups. Among cardiometabolic risk factors and physical performance measures, only diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the NS group compared to the S group (66.7±2.7 mmHg vs 73.5±2.7 mmHg, respectively; p=0.04). Interestingly, in groups combined, despite significant reductions in body weight and lean mass, no significant changes in 400-meter walk time (+5.3±43.4 s), short physical performance battery score (+0.1±1

  14. Chrysobalanus icaco L. Leaves Normalizes Insulin Sensitivity and Blood Glucose and Inhibits Weight Gain in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    White, Pollyanna A S; Araújo, Jessica M D; Cercato, Luana M; Souza, Lucas A; Barbosa, Ana Paula Oliveira; Quintans-Junior, Lucindo José; Machado, Ubiratan F; Camargo, Enilton A; Brito, Luciana C; Santos, Marcio Roberto V

    2016-02-01

    Chrysobalanus icaco L. is a medicinal plant present in the Brazilian coastline and known for its hypoglicemic and antioxidant properties. Here, we assessed the beneficial metabolic effects of the aqueous extract of C. icaco (AECI) leaves in diet-induced obese mice. Swiss mice were fed standard chow (SC used as controls) or high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. After 10 weeks, mice on each diet were divided into two groups with one group used as control while the other group treated with AECI for 4 weeks resulting in four groups of mice: SC; SC treated with AECI (SC + AECI); HFD; and HFD treated with AECI (HFD + AECI). AECI was administered drinking water at about 200 mg/kg. AECI was able to normalize insulin (13,682 ± 1090 vs. 9828 ± 485 AU, P < .05) and fasting blood glucose (192.8 ± 14.2 vs. 132.3 ± 6.4 mg/dL, P < .05) and inhibit weight gain (39 ± 5.7%) and fat storage in liver (72.60 ± 3.83%, P < .0001), despite the high-fat intake. These findings reinforce the use of AECI in hyperglycemia and highlight the potential extract's effect in preventing weight gain and fat accumulation in liver of diet-induced obese mice. PMID:26854845

  15. Limited Weight Loss or Simply No Weight Gain following Lifestyle-Only Intervention Tends to Redistribute Body Fat, to Decrease Lipid Concentrations, and to Improve Parameters of Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether lifestyle-only intervention in obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight redistributes parameters of body composition and reverses metabolic abnormalities. Study Design. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were assessed in 111 overweight or obese children (CA of 11.3 ± 2.8 years; 63 females and 48 males), during 8 months of lifestyle intervention. Patients maintained or lost weight (1–5%) (group A; n: 72) or gained weight (group B). Results. Group A patients presented with a decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ( and , resp.), BMI (), z-score BMI (), waist circumference (), fat mass (), LDL-C (), Tg/HDL-C ratio (), fasting and postprandial insulin (), and HOMA (), while HDL-C () and QUICKI increased (). Conversely, group B patients had an increase in BMI (), waist circumference (), SBP (), and in QUICKI (), while fat mass (), fasting insulin (), and HOMA () decreased. Lean mass, DBP, lipid concentrations, fasting and postprandial glucose, postprandial insulin, and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) remained stable. Conclusions. Obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight following lifestyle-only intervention tend to redistribute their body fat, decrease blood pressure and lipid levels, and to improve parameters of insulin sensitivity. PMID:21603203

  16. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  17. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    ... Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  18. Administration of Hwang-Ryun-Haedok-tang, a Herbal Complex, for Patients With Abdominal Obesity: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seungwon; Jung, WooSang; Byun, A Ri; Moon, SangKwan; Cho, KiHo; Shin, KyoungHo

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicines have received attention as antiabdominal obesity agents. We present a series of 13 cases that demonstrate the positive effect of the herbal complex Hwang-Ryun-Haedok-Tang (HRHT; Tsumura, Tokyo, Japan) on weight and abdominal fat control in patients with abdominal obesity. We treated 13 patients with abdominal obesity treated for 54.46 ± 18.07 days with 5.0 g of HRHT daily. To evaluate the treatment, the morphometric (i.e., waist circumstance, weight, body fat) and biochemical parameters were measured once monthly. After HRHT therapy, the waist circumstance decreased from 91.96 ± 7.99 cm to 87.12 ± 8.09 cm (paired t test, P < .001) and the weight decreased from 78.09 ± 14.35 kg (average ± standard deviation) to 75.72 ± 14.60 kg (paired t test, P < .001). All 13 (100%) patients had low waist circumstances after treatment. Overall, 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients had a lower weight and body mass index. In the present study, we showed the clinical effects of HRHT on waist circumstance, weight, body mass index, and body fat in patients with abdominal obesity. Further clinical studies investigating the effects of HRHT are needed. PMID:26256500

  19. Early metabolic adaptation in C57BL/6 mice resistant to high fat diet induced weight gain involves an activation of mitochondrial oxidative pathways.

    PubMed

    Boulangé, Claire L; Claus, Sandrine P; Chou, Chieh J; Collino, Sebastiano; Montoliu, Ivan; Kochhar, Sunil; Holmes, Elaine; Rezzi, Serge; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Dumas, Marc E; Martin, François-Pierre J

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the short-term (7 days) and long-term (60 days) metabolic effect of high fat diet induced obesity (DIO) and weight gain in isogenic C57BL/6 mice and examined the specific metabolic differentiation between mice that were either strong-responders (SR), or non-responders (NR) to weight gain. Mice (n = 80) were fed a standard chow diet for 7 days prior to randomization into a high-fat (HF) (n = 56) or a low-fat (LF) (n = 24) diet group. The (1)H NMR urinary metabolic profiles of LF and HF mice were recorded 7 and 60 days after the diet switch. On the basis of the body weight gain (BWG) distribution of HF group, we identified NR mice (n = 10) and SR mice (n = 14) to DIO. Compared with LF, HF feeding increased urinary excretion of glycine conjugates of β-oxidation intermediate (hexanoylglycine), branched chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism intermediates (isovalerylglycine, α-keto-β-methylvalerate and α-ketoisovalerate) and end-products of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism (N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide, N1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide) suggesting up-regulation of mitochondrial oxidative pathways. In the HF group, NR mice excreted relatively more hexanoylglycine, isovalerylglycine, and fewer tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate (succinate) in comparison to SR mice. Thus, subtle regulation of ketogenic pathways in DIO may alleviate the saturation of the TCA cycle and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. PMID:23473242

  20. Rhein Reduces Fat Weight in db/db Mouse and Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity in C57Bl/6 Mouse through the Inhibition of PPARγ Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Fan, Shengjie; Hu, Na; Gu, Ming; Chu, Chunxiao; Li, Yiming; Lu, Xiong; Huang, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Rheum palmatum has been used most frequently in the weight-reducing formulae in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the components of Rheum palmatum that play the antiobesity role are still uncertain. Here, we tested the weight-reducing effect of two major Rheum palmatum compounds on db/db mouse. We found that rhein (100 mg kg−1 day−1), but not emodin, reduced the fat weight in db/db mouse. Using diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6 mice, we identified that rhein blocked high-fat diet-induced obesity, decreased fat mass and the size of white and brown adipocytes, and lowered serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose levels in the mice. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we used reporter assay and gene expression analysis and found that rhein inhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) transactivity and the expression of its target genes, suggesting that rhein may act as a PPARγ antagonist. Our data indicate that rhein may be a promising choice for antiobesity therapy. PMID:23049539

  1. Theaflavin Synthesized in a Selective, Domino-Type, One-Pot Enzymatic Biotransformation Method with Camellia sinensis Cell Culture Inhibits Weight Gain and Fat Accumulation to High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Masumi; Takemoto, Hiroaki; Saijo, Ryoyasu

    2016-08-01

    The polyphenolic compound theaflavin, which is the main red pigment present in black tea, is reported to elicit various physiological effects. Because of the extremely low concentration of theaflavin present in black tea, its extraction from black tea leaves in quantities sufficient for use in medical studies has been difficult. We have developed a simple, inexpensive, selective, domino-type, one-pot enzymatic biotransformation method for the synthesis of theaflavin that is suitable for use in medical studies. Subsequent administration of this synthetic theaflavin to high-fat diet-induced obese mice inhibited both body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation, with no significant difference in the amount of faeces between the experimental and control mice. PMID:27237789

  2. Body Fat Measurement Tools

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cyberkitchen Fitness Center Shape Up & Drop 10 Body Fat Lab BMI Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Children Assessing ... Contact List Request for Support Measurement Tools Body fat has many important functions. It is: a "storage ...

  3. Impact of Korean pine nut oil on weight gain and immune responses in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soyoung; Lim, Yeseo; Shin, Sunhye

    2013-01-01

    Korean pine nut oil (PNO) has been reported to have favorable effects on lipid metabolism and appetite control. We investigated whether PNO consumption could influence weight gain, and whether the PNO-induced effect would result in an improvement of immune function in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed control diets with 10% energy fat from either PNO or soybean oil (SBO), or HFDs with 45% energy fat from 10% PNO or SBO and 35% lard, 20% PNO or SBO and 25% lard, or 30% PNO or SBO and 15% lard for 12 weeks. The proliferative responses of splenocytes upon stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Con A-stimulated production of interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ, and LPS-stimulated production of IL-6, IL-1β, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by splenocytes were determined. Consumption of HFDs containing PNO resulted in significantly less weight gain (17% less, P < 0.001), and lower weight gain was mainly due to less white adipose tissue (18% less, P = 0.001). The reduction in weight gain did not result in the overall enhancement in splenocyte proliferation. Overall, PNO consumption resulted in a higher production of IL-1β (P = 0.04). Replacement of SBO with PNO had no effect on the production of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-6, or PGE2 in mice fed with either the control diets or HFDs. In conclusion, consumption of PNO reduced weight gain in mice fed with HFD, but this effect did not result in the overall improvement in immune responses. PMID:24133613

  4. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, soy protein, and their hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Bartley, Glenn E; Mitchell, Cheryl R; Zhang, Hui; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-10-26

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates of white rice protein (WRP), brown rice protein (BRP), and soy protein (SP) hydrolyzed by the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L, were compared to the original protein source. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% extracted proteins or their hydrolysates as the protein source for 3 weeks. The brown rice protein hydrolysate (BRPH) diet group reduced weight gain 76% compared with the control. Animals fed the BRPH supplemented diet also had lower final body weight, liver weight, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver cholesterol, and higher fecal fat and bile acid excretion than the control. Expression levels of hepatic genes for lipid oxidation, PPARα, ACOX1, and CPT1, were highest for hamsters fed the BRPH supplemented diet. Expression of CYP7A1, the gene regulating bile acid synthesis, was higher in all test groups. Expression of CYP51, a gene coding for an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, was highest in the BRPH diet group. The results suggest that BRPH includes unique peptides that reduce weight gain and hepatic cholesterol synthesis. PMID:21913675

  5. Increases in weight during chronic stress are partially associated with a switch in food choice towards increased carbohydrate and saturated fat intake.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Clifford J; Campbell, Iain C; Troop, Nick

    2014-01-01

    We examined if stress associated changes in weight and dietary restraint are associated with changes in the composition of foods consumed. Participants were 38 healthy women on a taught postgraduate university course. Data were obtained at the beginning of the semester and 15 weeks later just prior to a written course exam (the stressor). By using a within subject design, we measured the composition of food consumed, body mass index (BMI), levels of dietary restraint and salivary cortisol. In the larger study from which these data were obtained, it was shown that the effect of increased cortisol secretion on weight gain was mediated by a reduction in dietary restraint. The present data show that increased cortisol secretion, reduced dietary restraint and increased caloric intake, account for 73% of the variance in change in BMI. Further regression analysis indicated that the change in dietary restraint mediated the effect of change in cortisol on change in BMI. Final analysis revealed that the effect of these changes in dietary restraint on weight are partially mediated by increased caloric intake from carbohydrate and saturated fat, that is, a change in dietary composition partially accounts for the link between increased cortisol secretion through heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity resulting in weight gain. These data are consistent with a 'comfort food hypothesis', as they suggest that chronic stress can promote reward associated behaviour through reduced dietary restraint and consumption of food containing more carbohydrate and saturated fat. PMID:24123563

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of fat-saturated T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of perforation of the articular disc of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Yura, Shinya; Nobata, Koji; Shima, Tsuyoshi

    2012-06-01

    The accuracy of diagnosing a perforation of the articular disc of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is poor with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We recently reported that a high signal-intensity area is usually found on fat-saturated T2-weighted MRI in the joint space between the articular disc and cartilage surface in joints in which the disc is displaced. A discrete image with an area of high signal-intensity in the middle of the articular disc may indicate perforation or rupture. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of diagnosis of a perforated articular disc by fat-saturated T2-weighted MRI with that of arthroscopy. We studied 50 joints in 50 patients with closed lock of the TMJ who were examined with MRI and then by arthroscopy using an ultra-thin arthroscope. The agreement between the two methods of diagnosis was assessed using the κ coefficient. Evidence of perforation of the disc on MRI and arthroscopically was found in the same 7 joints; there was complete concordance (κ=1.00, p<0.001). The accuracy of diagnosis of perforation of a disc by fat-saturated MRI was therefore the same as that by arthroscopy using an ultra-thin arthroscope. PMID:21723011

  7. Pericardial Fat Loss in Postmenopausal Women under Conditions of Equal Energy Deficit

    PubMed Central

    BRINKLEY, TINA E.; DING, JINGZHONG; CARR, J. JEFFREY; NICKLAS, BARBARA J.

    2013-01-01

    Weight loss induced by caloric restriction (CR) or aerobic exercise can reduce pericardial fat, and these reductions may help improve cardiovascular health. Purpose We examined whether combining CR with aerobic exercise enhances pericardial fat loss compared with a CR-only intervention designed to elicit equivalent reductions in body weight. We also examined the relationship between changes in pericardial fat and changes in maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max), a measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods Thirty-two abdominally obese postmenopausal women (mean age = 58 yr; 78% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to one of three interventions of equal energy deficit (~2800 kcal·wk−1) for 20 wk: CR only (n = 8), CR + moderate-intensity exercise (n = 15), or CR + vigorous-intensity exercise (n = 9). The volume of pericardial fat around the coronary arteries was measured by computed tomography. Results Women in the CR, CR + moderate-intensity, and CR + vigorous-intensity groups had similar baseline characteristics. The mean ± SD value for pericardial fat before weight loss was 79.07 ± 32.90 cm3 (range = 34.04–152.74 cm3), with no difference among groups (P = 0.89). All three interventions significantly reduced body weight (15%), waist circumference (10%), and abdominal visceral fat (28%) to a similar degree. There was also a 17% reduction in pericardial fat (−12.75 ± 6.29 cm3, P < 0.0001), which did not differ among groups (P = 0.84). Changes in pericardial fat were inversely correlated with changes in V̇O2max (r = −0.37, P = 0.05), but not after adjusting for intervention group and change in body weight. Conclusions Weight loss interventions of equal energy deficit have similar effects on pericardial fat in postmenopausal women, regardless of whether the energy deficit is due to CR alone or CR plus aerobic exercise. PMID:20881884

  8. Pregnancy Complicated by Obesity Induces Global Transcript Expression Alterations in Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J.; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H.; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet little is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n=4/group) at time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations lead to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT), tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), and ephrin type-B receptor 6 (EPHB6), not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity. PMID:24696292

  9. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Watson, Nerylee; Dyer, Kathryn; Buckley, Jonathan; Brinkworth, Grant; Coates, Alison; Parfitt, Gaynor; Howe, Peter; Noakes, Manny; Murphy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP) diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat) to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23%) on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction) followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index) 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m², aged 55 ± 8 years) with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8) who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: -7.8 ± 0.6 kg), there were significant reductions in HbA1c (-1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001) and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance. PMID:27187457

  10. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nerylee; Dyer, Kathryn; Buckley, Jonathan; Brinkworth, Grant; Coates, Alison; Parfitt, Gaynor; Howe, Peter; Noakes, Manny; Murphy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP) diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat) to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23%) on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction) followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index) 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2, aged 55 ± 8 years) with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8) who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: −7.8 ± 0.6 kg), there were significant reductions in HbA1c (−1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001) and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance. PMID:27187457

  11. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Stookey, Jodi J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. PMID:26729162

  12. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review.

    PubMed

    Stookey, Jodi J D

    2016-01-01

    Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. PMID:26729162

  13. Burdock fermented by Aspergillus awamori elevates cecal Bifidobacterium, and reduces fecal deoxycholic acid and adipose tissue weight in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Sitanggang, Novita Vivi; Sato, Satoko; Ohnishi, Nanae; Inoue, Junji; Iguchi, Takafumi; Watanabe, Toshiro; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Harada, Kazuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with burdock powder and Aspergillus awamori-fermented burdock powder at 5% on the intestinal luminal environment and body fat in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Food intake and growth were unaffected by dietary manipulation. Consumption of the burdock and fermented burdock diets significantly elevated fecal IgA and mucins (indices of intestinal immune and barrier functions) and reduced fecal lithocholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) (p<0.05). The fermented burdock diet markedly elevated cecal Bifidobacterium and organic acids, including lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and reduced fecal deoxycholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) and perirenal adipose tissue weight (p<0.05), but the burdock diet did not. These results suggest that consumption of fermented burdock improves the intestinal luminal environment and suppresses obesity in rats fed a HF diet. PMID:23291748

  14. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation. PMID:27058555

  15. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation. PMID:27058555

  16. [Ultrasound measurement of visceral fat in obese patients (changes in certain parameters during an outpatient reducing program)].

    PubMed

    Urbánek, R; Simek, J

    2000-01-01

    Abdominal type of obesity is linked to risk factors of metabolic diseases. The determination of visceral fat with the ultrasound assessment by Armellini is a very simple method. 55 obese patients were such examined including other parameters during the weight reduction. The results of our small experimental group are shown in the Tab. 1 and 2. PMID:10953641

  17. A mitochondrial-targeted coenzyme q analog prevents weight gain and ameliorates hepatic dysfunction in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Fink, Brian D; Herlein, Judith A; Guo, Deng Fu; Kulkarni, Chaitanya; Weidemann, Benjamin J; Yu, Liping; Grobe, Justin L; Rahmouni, Kamal; Kerns, Robert J; Sivitz, William I

    2014-12-01

    We hypothesized that the mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant, mitoquinone (mitoQ), known to have mitochondrial uncoupling properties, might prevent the development of obesity and mitigate liver dysfunction by increasing energy expenditure, as opposed to reducing energy intake. We administered mitoQ or vehicle (ethanol) to obesity-prone C57BL/6 mice fed high-fat (HF) or normal-fat (NF) diets. MitoQ (500 µM) or vehicle (ethanol) was added to the drinking water for 28 weeks. MitoQ significantly reduced total body mass and fat mass in the HF-fed mice but had no effect on these parameters in NF mice. Food intake was reduced by mitoQ in the HF-fed but not in the NF-fed mice. Average daily water intake was reduced by mitoQ in both the NF- and HF-fed mice. Hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, and the long form of the leptin receptor were reduced in the HF but not in the NF mice. Hepatic total fat and triglyceride content did not differ between the mitoQ-treated and control HF-fed mice. However, mitoQ markedly reduced hepatic lipid hydroperoxides and reduced circulating alanine aminotransferase, a marker of liver function. MitoQ did not alter whole-body oxygen consumption or liver mitochondrial oxygen utilization, membrane potential, ATP production, or production of reactive oxygen species. In summary, mitoQ added to drinking water mitigated the development of obesity. Contrary to our hypothesis, the mechanism involved decreased energy intake likely mediated at the hypothalamic level. MitoQ also ameliorated HF-induced liver dysfunction by virtue of its antioxidant properties without altering liver fat or mitochondrial bioenergetics. PMID:25301169

  18. Does This Make Me Look Fat? Peer Crowd and Peer Contributions to Adolescent Girls' Weight Control Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Eleanor Race; La Greca, Annette M.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action, this study evaluated a "socialization" model linking girls' peer crowd affiliations (e.g., Jocks, Populars) with their own weight concern, perceived peer weight norms, and weight control behaviors. An alternative "selection" model was also evaluated. Girls (N = 236; M age = 15.95 years) from diverse ethnic…

  19. Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  20. The positive effects of growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 on weight gain and fat mass accrual depend on the insulin/glucose status.

    PubMed

    Granado, Miriam; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Frago, Laura M; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2010-05-01

    Ghrelin and GH secretagogues, including GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-6, stimulate food intake and adiposity. Because insulin modulates the hypothalamic response to GH secretagogues and acts synergistically with ghrelin on lipogenesis in vitro, we analyzed whether insulin plays a role in the metabolic effects of GHRP-6 in vivo. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats received saline, GHRP-6, insulin, or insulin plus GHRP-6 once daily for 8 wk. Rats receiving saline suffered hyperglycemia, hyperphagia, polydipsia, and weight loss. Insulin, but not GHRP-6, improved these parameters (P < 0.001 for all), as well as the diabetes-induced increase in hypothalamic mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide and decrease in proopiomelanocortin. Cocaine amphetamine-related transcript mRNA levels were also reduced in diabetic rats, with GHRP-6 inducing a further decrease (P < 0.03) and insulin an increase. Diabetic rats receiving insulin plus GHRP-6 gained more weight and had increased epididymal fat mass and serum leptin levels compared with all other groups (P < 0.001). In epididymal adipose tissue, diabetic rats injected with saline had smaller adipocytes (P < 0.001), decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS; P < 0.001), and glucose transporter-4 (P < 0.001) and increased hormone sensitive lipase (P < 0.001) and proliferator-activated receptor-gamma mRNA levels (P < 0.01). Insulin normalized these parameters to control values. GHRP-6 treatment increased FAS and glucose transporter-4 gene expression and potentiated insulin's effect on epididymal fat mass, adipocyte size (P < 0.001), FAS (P < 0.001), and glucose transporter-4 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, GHRP-6 and insulin exert an additive effect on weight gain and visceral fat mass accrual in diabetic rats, indicating that some of GHRP-6's metabolic effects depend on the insulin/glucose status. PMID:20219977

  1. Effect of trans-fat, fructose and monosodium glutamate feeding on feline weight gain, adiposity, insulin sensitivity, adipokine and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Collison, Kate S; Zaidi, Marya Z; Saleh, Soad M; Inglis, Angela; Mondreal, Rhea; Makhoul, Nadine J; Bakheet, Razan; Burrows, Joey; Milgram, Norton W; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A

    2011-07-01

    The incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing, and new experimental models are required to investigate the diverse aspects of these polygenic diseases, which are intimately linked in terms of aetiology. Feline T2DM has been shown to closely resemble human T2DM in terms of its clinical, pathological and physiological features. Our aim was to develop a feline model of diet-induced weight gain, adiposity and metabolic deregulation, and to examine correlates of weight and body fat change, insulin homeostasis, lipid profile, adipokines and clinical chemistry, in order to study associations which may shed light on the mechanism of diet-induced metabolic dysregulation. We used a combination of partially hydrogenated vegetable shortening and high-fructose corn syrup to generate a high-fat-high-fructose diet. The effects of this diet were compared with an isoenergetic standard chow, either in the presence or absence of 1.125 % dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body imaging and a glucose tolerance test were performed. The present results indicate that dietary MSG increased weight gain and adiposity, and reduced insulin sensitivity (P < 0.05), whereas high-fat-high-fructose feeding resulted in elevated cortisol and markers of liver dysfunction (P < 0.01). The combination of all three dietary constituents resulted in lower insulin levels and elevated serum β-hydroxybutyrate and cortisol (P < 0.05). This combination also resulted in a lower first-phase insulin release during glucose tolerance testing (P < 0.001). In conclusion, markers of insulin deregulation and metabolic dysfunction associated with adiposity and T2DM can be induced by dietary factors in a feline model. PMID:21429276

  2. Disentangling the Effects of Migration, Selection and Acculturation on Weight and Body Fat Distribution: Results from a Natural Experiment involving Vietnamese Americans, Returnees, and Never-leavers

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hongyun; VanLandingham, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We distinguish between selection and true migration effects on weight and body fat for Vietnamese immigrants; and examine the role of acculturation on these outcomes. Methods Data (n=703) were collected among three population-based samples of working-age Vietnamese immigrants, repatriated emigrants and never-migrated Vietnamese nationals. This allows for a decomposition exercise to separate the effects of migration effects from selection effects on body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). Results Immigrants are more likely to be overweight and to have high WHR, relative to both never-leavers and returnees, a pattern reflecting the importance of migration over selection. Among immigrants, coming to the US at a younger age is associated with higher BMI and WHR levels. And longer length of residence in the US is related to higher BMI. While higher Vietnamese language proficiency is related to a lower BMI level, being bilingual (proficient in both English and Vietnamese) is associated with lower risks for being overweight. Conclusions The distinct pattern of results suggests that more problematic weight status and fat distribution among Vietnamese immigrants relative to Vietnamese nationals are not artifacts of the types of persons choosing to emigrate, but rather are due to acculturation to American diet and lifestyles. While efforts to promote and maintain traditional patterns of diet and lifestyle are likely to help Vietnamese and other immigrants avoid the perils of American patterns, facilitating a bi-cultural orientation is perhaps the most realistic approach for preserving protective features of the culture of origin with regard to body weight and fat distribution. PMID:22427069

  3. Differential Effects of Bariatric Surgery Versus Exercise on Excessive Visceral Fat Deposits.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fu-Zong; Huang, Yi-Luan; Wu, Carol C; Wang, Yen-Chi; Pan, Hsiang-Ju; Huang, Chin-Kun; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Wu, Ming-Ting

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare differential impacts of bariatric surgery and exercise-induced weight loss on excessive abdominal and cardiac fat deposition.Excessive fat accumulation around the heart may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Recent evidences have suggested that bariatric surgery results in relatively less decrease in epicardial fat compared with abdominal visceral fat and paracardial fat.Sixty-four consecutive overweight or obese subjects were enrolled in the study. Clinical characteristics and metabolic profiles were recorded. The volumes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (AVAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), epicardial (EAT), and paracardial adipose tissue (PAT) were measured by computed tomography in the bariatric surgery group (N = 25) and the exercise group (N = 39) at baseline and 3 months after intervention. Subjects in both the surgery and exercise groups showed significant reduction in body mass index (15.97%, 7.47%), AVAT (40.52%, 15.24%), ASAT (31.40, 17.34%), PAT (34.40%, 12.05%), and PAT + EAT (22.31%, 17.72%) (all P < 0.001) after intervention compared with baseline. In both the groups, the decrease in EAT was small compared with the other compartments (P < 0.01 in both groups). Compared with the exercise group, the surgery group had greater loss in abdominal and cardiac visceral adipose tissue (AVAT, ASAT, PAT, EAT+PAT) (P < 0.001), but lesser loss in EAT (P = 0.037).Compared with the exercise group, bariatric surgery results in significantly greater percentage loss of excessive fat deposits except for EAT. EAT, but not PAT, was relatively preserved despite weight reduction in both the groups. The physiological impact of persistent EAT deserves further investigation. PMID:26844473

  4. Estimating carcass fat and protein in northern pintails during the nonbreeding season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    I used northern pintails (Anas acuta) collected from August through March 1979-82 in the Sacramento Valley, California to derive equations to predict ether-extracted carcass fat, carcass protein, and skeletal lean dry weight. Ether-extracted carcass fat was best predicted by total fat depot weight (wet skin, abdominal fat, and intestinal fat) (r2 = 0.94) and estimates based on carcass water content (r2 = 0.93-0.98). Measured carcass protein was best predicted by a multiple regression including total protein depot weight (breast muscles, leg muscles, and gizzard) and tarsus length (R2 = 0.79). I predicted skeletal lean dry weight by a multiple regression incorporating culmen, tarsus, and wing length (R2 = 0.77). Predicted carcass fat agreed well with measured carcass fat in an independent data set of 30 pintails using total fat depot (r2 = 0.92-0.96) and carcass water (r2 = 0.97-0.99), but predicted carcass protein agreed less well with measured protein.

  5. Effects of age, weight, and fat slaughter end points on estimates of breed and retained heterosis effects for carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Utrera, A; Cundiff, L V; Gregory, K E; Koch, R M; Dikeman, M E; Koohmaraie, M; Van Vleck, L D

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different levels of adjusted fat thickness (AFT) and HCW slaughter end points (covariates) on estimates of breed and retained heterosis effects was studied for 14 carcass traits from serially slaughtered purebred and composite steers from the US Meat Animal Research Center (MARC). Contrasts among breed solutions were estimated at 0.7, 1.1, and 1.5 cm of AFT, and at 295.1, 340.5, and 385.9 kg of HCW. For constant slaughter age, contrasts were adjusted to the overall mean (432.5 d). Breed effects for Red Poll, Hereford, Limousin, Braunvieh, Pinzgauer, Gelbvieh, Simmental, Charolais, MARC I, MARC II, and MARC III were estimated as deviations from Angus. In addition, purebreds were pooled into 3 groups based on lean-to-fat ratio, and then differences were estimated among groups. Retention of combined individual and maternal heterosis was estimated for each composite. Mean retained heterosis for the 3 composites also was estimated. Breed rankings and expression of heterosis varied within and among end points. For example, Charolais had greater (P < 0.05) dressing percentages than Angus at the 2 largest levels of AFT and smaller (P < 0.01) percentages at the 2 largest levels of HCW, whereas the 2 breeds did not differ (P > or = 0.05) at a constant age. The MARC III composite produced 9.7 kg more (P < 0.01) fat than Angus at AFT of 0.7 cm, but 7.9 kg less (P < 0.05) at AFT of 1.5 cm. For MARC III, the estimate of retained heterosis for HCW was significant (P < 0.05) at the lowest level of AFT, but at the intermediate and greatest levels estimates were nil. The pattern was the same for MARC I and MARC III for LM area. Adjustment for age resulted in near zero estimates of retained heterosis for AFT, and similarly, adjustment for HCW resulted in nil estimates of retained heterosis for LM area. For actual retail product as a percentage of HCW, the estimate of retained heterosis for MARC III was negative (-1.27%; P < 0.05) at 0.7 cm but was significantly

  6. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; de Melo, Ingrid Sofia Vieira; de Oliveira, Suzana Lima; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

    2013-10-01

    The role of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in the long-term management of obesity is not well established. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether individuals assigned to a VLCKD (i.e. a diet with no more than 50 g carbohydrates/d) achieve better long-term body weight and cardiovascular risk factor management when compared with individuals assigned to a conventional low-fat diet (LFD; i.e. a restricted-energy diet with less than 30% of energy from fat). Through August 2012, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ScienceDirect,Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, ClinicalTrials.gov and grey literature databases were searched, using no date or language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials that assigned adults to a VLCKD or a LFD, with 12 months or more of follow-up. The primary outcome was bodyweight. The secondary outcomes were TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure,glucose, insulin, HbA1c and C-reactive protein levels. A total of thirteen studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. In the overall analysis,five outcomes revealed significant results. Individuals assigned to a VLCKD showed decreased body weight (weighted mean difference 20·91 (95% CI 21·65, 20·17) kg, 1415 patients), TAG (weighted mean difference 20·18 (95% CI 20·27, 20·08) mmol/l, 1258 patients)and diastolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference 21·43 (95% CI 22·49, 20·37) mmHg, 1298 patients) while increased HDL-C(weighted mean difference 0·09 (95% CI 0·06, 0·12) mmol/l, 1257 patients) and LDL-C (weighted mean difference 0·12 (95% CI 0·04,0·2) mmol/l, 1255 patients). Individuals assigned to a VLCKD achieve a greater weight loss than those assigned to a LFD in the longterm; hence, a VLCKD may be an alternative tool against obesity. PMID:23651522

  7. ELBW survivors in early adulthood have higher hepatic, pancreatic and subcutaneous fat.

    PubMed

    Crane, Justin D; Yellin, Samuel A; Ong, Frank J; Singh, Nina P; Konyer, Norman; Noseworthy, Michael D; Schmidt, Louis A; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M

    2016-01-01

    Premature birth in conjunction with extremely low birth weight (<1 kg, ELBW) is associated with insulin resistance and increased cardiometabolic health risk compared to birth at full term with normal birth weight (NBW). However, little is known regarding the biologic mediators of these effects. Abdominal and ectopic lipid accumulation is linked to insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction, yet whether ELBW survivors are predisposed to aberrant lipid deposition in adulthood is unknown. We used magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of 16 NBW and 29 ELBW participants to determine if ELBW survivors have differences in pancreatic, hepatic, subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution compared to NBW participants. ELBW individuals had a higher proportion of liver and pancreatic fat compared to NBW subjects (P < 0.05). Abdominal subcutaneous fat, but not visceral fat, area was higher in ELBW survivors compared to NBW individuals. In multivariate analyses, tissue fat measures were most highly related to BMI and sex, but not preterm birth. This work highlights that fat deposition is enhanced in adults born preterm and suggests that ectopic fat accretion driven by their relatively greater adiposity may contribute to the higher rates of metabolic dysfunction seen in ELBW survivors. PMID:27530702

  8. ELBW survivors in early adulthood have higher hepatic, pancreatic and subcutaneous fat

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Justin D.; Yellin, Samuel A.; Ong, Frank J.; Singh, Nina P.; Konyer, Norman; Noseworthy, Michael D.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Premature birth in conjunction with extremely low birth weight (<1 kg, ELBW) is associated with insulin resistance and increased cardiometabolic health risk compared to birth at full term with normal birth weight (NBW). However, little is known regarding the biologic mediators of these effects. Abdominal and ectopic lipid accumulation is linked to insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction, yet whether ELBW survivors are predisposed to aberrant lipid deposition in adulthood is unknown. We used magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of 16 NBW and 29 ELBW participants to determine if ELBW survivors have differences in pancreatic, hepatic, subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution compared to NBW participants. ELBW individuals had a higher proportion of liver and pancreatic fat compared to NBW subjects (P < 0.05). Abdominal subcutaneous fat, but not visceral fat, area was higher in ELBW survivors compared to NBW individuals. In multivariate analyses, tissue fat measures were most highly related to BMI and sex, but not preterm birth. This work highlights that fat deposition is enhanced in adults born preterm and suggests that ectopic fat accretion driven by their relatively greater adiposity may contribute to the higher rates of metabolic dysfunction seen in ELBW survivors. PMID:27530702

  9. A low-carbohydrate high-fat diet increases weight gain and does not improve glucose tolerance, insulin secretion or β-cell mass in NZO mice

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, B J; Waters, M F; Andrikopoulos, S

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Dietary guidelines for the past 20 years have recommended that dietary fat should be minimized. In contrast, recent studies have suggested that there could be some potential benefits for reducing carbohydrate intake in favor of increased fat. It has also been suggested that low-carbohydrate diets be recommended for people with type 2 diabetes. However, whether such diets can improve glycemic control will likely depend on their ability to improve β-cell function, which has not been studied. The objective of the study was to assess whether a low-carbohydrate and therefore high-fat diet (LCHFD) is beneficial for improving the endogenous insulin secretory response to glucose in prediabetic New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice. Methods: NZO mice were maintained on either standard rodent chow or an LCHFD from 6 to 15 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake and blood glucose were assessed weekly. Blood glucose and insulin levels were also assessed after fasting and re-feeding and during an oral glucose tolerance test. The capacity of pancreatic β-cells to secrete insulin was assessed in vivo with an intravenous glucose tolerance test. β-Cell mass was assessed in histological sections of pancreata collected at the end of the study. Results: In NZO mice, an LCHFD reduced plasma triglycerides (P=0.001) but increased weight gain (P<0.0001), adipose tissue mass (P=0.0015), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.044) and exacerbated glucose intolerance (P=0.013). Although fasting insulin levels tended to be higher (P=0.08), insulin secretory function in LCHFD-fed mice was not improved (P=0.93) nor was β-cell mass (P=0.75). Conclusions: An LCHFD is unlikely to be of benefit for preventing the decline in β-cell function associated with the progression of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. PMID:26878317

  10. Dietary galacto-oligosaccharides and calcium: effects on energy intake, fat-pad weight and satiety-related, gastrointestinal hormones in rats.

    PubMed

    Overduin, Joost; Schoterman, Margriet H C; Calame, Wim; Schonewille, Arjan J; Ten Bruggencate, Sandra J M

    2013-04-14

    Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are carbohydrates that are fermented by colonic microbiota. The present study examined effects of a 3-week dietary enrichment with 6 % (w/w) GOS on parameters of energy balance in forty-three male Wistar rats. GOS was tested with two doses of calcium phosphate (30 and 100 mmol/kg), known to differently affect colonic fermentation. After 17 d, isoenergetic test meals were presented and plasma responses of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) were measured. On day 21 (study termination) epididymal fat pads and caecum were weighed. Additionally, gastrointestinal mucosal samples and proximal colonic contents were analysed for gene expression (ghrelin, proglucagon and PYY) and fermentation metabolites (SCFA and lactate), respectively. GOS reduced energy intake most prominently during the first week, without provoking compensatory overeating later on (average intake reduction: 14 %). The GOS-fed rats showed increased caecal and reduced fat-pad weight and increased gene expression of the satiety-related peptides, PYY (1.7-fold) and proglucagon (3.5-fold). Pre-meal baseline and post-meal plasma levels of PYY, but not of ghrelin or GLP-1, were higher in GOS-fed rats than in control rats. Ca enrichment resulted in higher energy intake (average 4.5 %). GOS diets increased lactic acid levels and slightly reduced butyric acid in proximal colonic contents. Ca abolished the GOS-related elevation of lactic acid, while increasing propionic acid levels, but did not inhibit GOS-related effects on energy intake, fat-pad weight or gene expression. These results indicate that dietary GOS stimulate a number of physiological mechanisms that can reduce energy intake, regardless of the calcium phosphate content of the diet. PMID:22850280

  11. Defatted avocado pulp reduces body weight and total hepatic fat but increases plasma cholesterol in male rats fed diets with cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Naveh, Einat; Werman, Moshe J; Sabo, Edmond; Neeman, Ishak

    2002-07-01

    The potential use of avocado as a fiber source was evaluated. The total dietary fiber content of fresh avocado fruit of the Ettinger variety was 5.2 g/100 g. Approximately 75% was insoluble, and 25% soluble. The water-holding capacity of dry defatted avocado pulp was similar to that of cellulose, and trypsin inhibitors were not detected. The dietary and metabolic consequences of the avocado pulp were studied in male rats fed normal and hypercholesterolemic diets. Rats consumed semipurified diets containing either avocado pulp as the dietary fiber source or cellulose (control) with or without 10 g/kg cholesterol and 5 g/kg cholic acid. Food consumption and body weight gain were lower in rats fed avocado compared with those fed cellulose. Relative cecum weight was higher in avocado-fed rats. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels did not differ in rats fed diets without cholesterol, but plasma cholesterol was greater in avocado-fed than in cellulose-fed rats that consumed cholesterol. Regardless of dietary cholesterol, hepatic total fat levels, as evaluated histologically, but not directly, were lower in avocado-fed rats. These data suggest the presence of an appetite depressant in avocado and that avocado pulp interferes with hepatic fat metabolism. PMID:12097685

  12. Abdominal body composition differences in NFL football players.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Weir, Nate L; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weston, Todd D; Dengel, Donald R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine visceral fat mass as well as other measures abdominal body composition in National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the season. Three hundred and seventy NFL football players were measured before the start of the season using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Regional fat and lean mass was measured for each player. Players were categorized into 3 groups based on positions that mirror each other: linemen; linebackers/tight ends/running backs and wide receivers/defensive backs. Significant differences were observed between the position groups for both lean and fat regional measurements. However, the magnitude of difference was much greater for fat measures than lean measures. Additionally, a threshold was observed (∼114 kg) at which there is a greater increase in fat accumulation than lean mass accumulation. The increase in fat accumulation is distributed to the abdominal region where thresholds were observed for subcutaneous abdominal fat accumulation (12.1% body fat) and visceral abdominal fat accumulation (20.1% body fat), which likely explains the regional fat differences between groups. The results of this study suggest that as players get larger, there is more total fat than total lean mass accumulation and more fat is distributed to the abdominal region. This is of importance as increased fat mass may be detrimental to performance at certain positions. The thresholds observed for increased abdominal fat accumulation should be monitored closely given recent research observed that abdominal obesity predicts lower extremity injury risk and visceral adipose tissue's established association with cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25187247

  13. Impact of changes in weight, fat depth, and loin muscle depth on carcass yield and value and implications for selection and pricing of rams from terminal-sire sheep breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding objectives and selection indexes are necessary to support comprehensive genetic improvement programs. This study used off-test body weights (OTBW) or chilled carcass weights (CCW), ultrasonic measurements of fat depth (USFD, mm), and predicted ultrasound loin muscle depths (USLMD, mm) from ...

  14. Abdominal sounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... during sleep. They also occur normally for a short time after the use of certain medicines and after abdominal surgery. Decreased or absent bowel sounds often indicate constipation. Increased ( hyperactive ) bowel sounds ...

  15. Abdominal MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider if you have: Artificial heart valves Brain aneurysm clips Heart defibrillator or pacemaker Inner ear (cochlear) ... which the test may be performed: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Atheroembolic renal disease Carcinoma of the renal pelvis ...

  16. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... threatening conditions, such as colon cancer or early appendicitis , may only cause mild pain or no pain. ... Food poisoning Stomach flu Other possible causes include: Appendicitis Abdominal aortic aneurysm (bulging and weakening of the ...

  17. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... can help the overall situation for the child. Teaching kids self-hypnosis [8] or guided imagery [8a] ... related topics? Functional Abdominal Pain (English, French or Spanish)—from The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, ...

  18. Recombinant Human Growth Hormone and Rosiglitazone for Abdominal Fat Accumulation in HIV-Infected Patients with Insulin Resistance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Factorial Trial

    PubMed Central

    Glesby, Marshall J.; Albu, Jeanine; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Ham, Kirsis; Engelson, Ellen; He, Qing; Muthukrishnan, Varalakshmi; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Donovan, Daniel; Ernst, Jerry; Lesser, Martin; Kotler, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume in HIV-infected patients but can worsen glucose homeostasis and lipoatrophy. We aimed to determine if adding rosiglitazone to rhGH would abrogate the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity (SI) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume. Methodology/Principal Findings Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial using a 2×2 factorial design in which HIV-infected subjects with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were randomized to rhGH 3 mg daily, rosiglitazone 4 mg twice daily, combination rhGH + rosiglitazone, or double placebo (control) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in SI by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test from entry to week 12. Body composition was assessed by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual Xray absorptiometry (DEXA). Seventy-seven subjects were randomized of whom 72 initiated study drugs. Change in SI from entry to week 12 differed across the 4 arms by 1-way ANCOVA (P = 0.02); by pair-wise comparisons, only rhGH (decreasing SI; P = 0.03) differed significantly from control. Changes from entry to week 12 in fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve on 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test differed across arms (1-way ANCOVA P = 0.004), increasing in the rhGH arm relative to control. VAT decreased significantly in the rhGH arms (−17.5% in rhGH/rosiglitazone and −22.7% in rhGH) but not in the rosiglitazone alone (−2.5%) or control arms (−1.9%). SAT did not change significantly in any arm. DEXA results were consistent with the MRI data. There was no significant rhGH x rosiglitazone interaction for any body composition parameter. Conclusions/Significance The addition of rosiglitazone abrogated the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance while not significantly modifying the lowering effect of rhGH on VAT. Trial Registration

  19. Influence of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) on reduction of local fat and body weight by physical exercise

    PubMed Central

    Möckel, Frank; Hoffmann, Gerd; Obermüller, Roy; Drobnik, Wolfgang; Schmitz, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    Aim of the study: Investigation, whether water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) irradiation during moderate bicycle ergometer endurance exercise has effects especially on local fat reduction and on weight reduction beyond the effects of ergometer exercise alone. Methods: Randomised controlled study with 40 obese females (BMI 30-40 (median: 34.5), body weight 76-125 (median: 94.9) kg, age 20-40 (median: 35.5) years, isocaloric nutrition), 20 in the wIRA group and 20 in the control group. In both groups each participant performed 3 times per week over 4 weeks for 45 minutes bicycle ergometer endurance exercise with a constant load according to a lactate level of 2 mmol/l (aerobic endurance load, as determined before the intervention period). In the wIRA group in addition large parts of the body (including waist, hip, and thighs) were irradiated during all ergometries of the intervention period with visible light and a predominant part of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA), using the irradiation unit “Hydrosun® 6000” with 10 wIRA radiators (Hydrosun® Medizintechnik, Müllheim, Germany, radiator type 500, 4 mm water cuvette, yellow filter, water-filtered spectrum 500-1400 nm) around a speed independent bicycle ergometer. Main variable of interest: change of “the sum of circumferences of waist, hip, and both thighs of each patient” over the intervention period (4 weeks). Additional variables of interest: body weight, body mass index BMI, body fat percentage, fat mass, fat-free mass, water mass (analysis of body composition by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis), assessment of an arteriosclerotic risk profile by blood investigation of variables of lipid metabolism (cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins HDL, low density lipoproteins LDL, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B), clinical chemistry (fasting glucose, alanin-aminotransferase ALT (= glutamyl pyruvic transaminase GPT), gamma-glutamyl-transferase GGT, creatinine, albumin), endocrinology (leptin

  20. Aerobic exercise training improves insulin sensitivity without changes in body weight, body fat, adiponectin, and inflammatory markers in overweight and obese girls.

    PubMed

    Nassis, George P; Papantakou, Katerina; Skenderi, Katerina; Triandafillopoulou, Maria; Kavouras, Stavros A; Yannakoulia, Mary; Chrousos, George P; Sidossis, Labros S

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise training on insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese girls. Nineteen overweight and obese girls (mean +/- SD: age, 13.1+/-1.8 years; body mass index, 26.8+/-3.9 kg/m(2)) volunteered for this study. Body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity (oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance; n=15), adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL) 6, insulin-like growth factor-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 serum levels, and blood lipids and lipoproteins were assessed before and after 12 weeks of aerobic training. Cardiorespiratory fitness increased by 18.8% (P<.05) as a result of training. The area under the insulin concentration curve (insulin area under the curve) decreased by 23.3% (12781.7+/-7454.2 vs 9799.0+/-4918.6 microU.min/mL before and after intervention, respectively; P=.03). Insulin sensitivity was improved without changes in body weight (pre-intervention, 67.9+/-14.5 kg; post-intervention, 68.3+/-14.0 kg) or percent body fat (pre-intervention, 41.4% +/- 4.8%; post-intervention, 40.7%+/-5.2%). The lower limb fat-free mass increased by 6.2% (P<.01) as a result of training, and changes in lower limb fat-free mass were correlated with changes in the insulin area under the curve (r= -.68; P< .01). Serum adiponectin, IL-6, and CRP concentrations did not change (pre-intervention vs post-intervention: adiponectin, 9.57+/-3.01 vs 9.08+/-2.32 microg/mL; IL-6, 1.67+/-1.29 vs 1.65+/-1.25 pg/mL, CRP, 3.21+/-2.48 vs 2.73+/-1.88 mg/L) whereas insulin-like growth factor-1 was lower after training (pre-intervention, 453.8 +/- 159.3 ng/mL; post-intervention, 403.2+/- 155.1 ng/mL; P<.05). In conclusion, 12 weeks of aerobic training improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese girls without change in body weight, percent body fat, and circulating

  1. Reduced alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity of subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes as a modulator of fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels in men.

    PubMed

    Imbeault, P; Couillard, C; Tremblay, A; Després, J P; Mauriège, P

    2000-09-01

    This study examined the postprandial lipemia of two groups of men displaying similar age, body weight, and regional fat distribution, but characterized by either low (n = 11) or high (n = 15) alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity of subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes. In addition to fat cell lipolysis, adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (AT-LPL) as well as postheparin plasma LPL activities were measured in the fasting state. Fasting AT-LPL and PH-LPL activities were similar in both groups. Maximal adipose cell lipolysis induced by isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic agonist) as well as the beta-adrenergic sensitivity did not differ between both groups of men. The selective alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist UK-14304 promoted a similar antilipolytic response in subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes from both groups. However, the alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity, defined as the dose of UK-14304 that produced half-maximal inhibition of lipolysis (IC(50)), was significantly different between groups (P < 0.0001). Men with low versus high subcutaneous abdominal fat cell alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity showed higher fasting TG levels. In the whole group, a positive relationship was observed between log-transformed IC(50) UK-14304 values of subcutaneous adipocytes and fasting TG levels (r = 0.39, P < 0.05), suggesting that a low abdominal adipose cell alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity is associated with high TG levels. After the consumption of a high-fat meal, subjects with low subcutaneous abdominal adipose cell alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity showed higher TG levels in total, medium, and small triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions at 0- to 6-h time points than men with high adipocyte alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity (P values ranging from 0.01 to 0.05). Stepwise regression analysis showed that the fasting TG concentration was the only variable retained as a significant predictor of the area under the curve of TG levels in total TRL fractions (73% of variance) among independent variables

  2. High Discrepancy in Abdominal Obesity Prevalence According to Different Waist Circumference Cut-Offs and Measurement Methods in Children: Need for Age-Risk-Weighted Standardized Cut-Offs?

    PubMed Central

    Prodam, Flavia; Fuiano, Nicola; Diddi, Giuliana; Petri, Antonella; Bellone, Simonetta; Bona, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Background Waist circumference (WC) is a good proxy measure of central adiposity. Due to the multiplicity of existing WC cut-offs and different measurement methods, the decision to use one rather than another WC chart may lead to different prevalence estimates of abdominal obesity in the same population. Aim of our study was to assess how much the prevalence of abdominal obesity varies in Italian schoolchildren using the different available WC cut-offs. Methods We measured WC at just above the uppermost lateral border of the right ilium in 1062 Italian schoolchildren aged 7–14 years, 499 living in Northern Italy and 563 in Southern Italy. Abdominal obesity was defined as WC ≥90th percentile for gender and age according to nine WC charts. Results We found an extremely high variability in the prevalence of abdominal obesity detected in our study-populations according to the different WC charts, ranging in the overall group from 9.1% to 61.4%. In Northern Italy children it varied from 2.4% to 35.7%, and in Southern ones from 15.1% to 84.2%. Conclusions On the basis of the chosen WC cut-offs the prevalence of abdominal obesity varies widely, because percentile-charts are strongly influenced by the population status in a particular moment. A further rate of variability may lay on the site of WC measurement and on the statistical method used to calculate WC cut-offs. Risk-weighted WC cut-offs measured in a standardized anatomic site and calculated by the appropriate method are needed to simply identify by WC measurement those children at high risk of cardio-metabolic complications to whom specific and prompt health interventions should be addressed. PMID:26745148

  3. Effects of Dietary Fibre (Pectin) and/or Increased Protein (Casein or Pea) on Satiety, Body Weight, Adiposity and Caecal Fermentation in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Clare L.; Gratz, Silvia W.; Peinado, Diana I.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Garden, Karen E.; Williams, Patricia A.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary constituents that suppress appetite, such as dietary fibre and protein, may aid weight loss in obesity. The soluble fermentable dietary fibre pectin promotes satiety and decreases adiposity in diet-induced obese rats but effects of increased protein are unknown. Adult diet-induced obese rats reared on high fat diet (45% energy from fat) were given experimental diets ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group): high fat control, high fat with high protein (40% energy) as casein or pea protein, or these diets with added 10% w/w pectin. Dietary pectin, but not high protein, decreased food intake by 23% and induced 23% body fat loss, leading to 12% lower final body weight and 44% lower total body fat mass than controls. Plasma concentrations of satiety hormones PYY and total GLP-1 were increased by dietary pectin (168% and 151%, respectively) but not by high protein. Plasma leptin was decreased by 62% on pectin diets and 38% on high pea (but not casein) protein, while plasma insulin was decreased by 44% on pectin, 38% on high pea and 18% on high casein protein diets. Caecal weight and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the caecum were increased in pectin-fed and high pea protein groups: caecal succinate was increased by pectin (900%), acetate and propionate by pectin (123% and 118%, respectively) and pea protein (147% and 144%, respectively), and butyrate only by pea protein (309%). Caecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased by pectin (down 78%) but increased by pea protein (164%). Therefore, the soluble fermentable fibre pectin appeared more effective than high protein for increasing satiety and decreasing caloric intake and adiposity while on high fat diet, and produced a fermentation environment more likely to promote hindgut health. Altogether these data indicate that high fibre may be better than high protein for weight (fat) loss in obesity. PMID:27224646

  4. Dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and dietary fat intake in obese and normal weight adolescents: the role of uncoupling protein 2 -866G/A gene polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Huriyati, Emy; Luglio, Harry F; Ratrikaningtyas, Prima D; Tsani, Ahmad FA; Sadewa, Ahmad H; Juffrie, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Obesity in adolescents has been associated with increased cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Several factors have been proposed to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents including dietary habit, physical activity and genetic. This study was aimed to evaluate the interaction between genetic variation and dietary intake on cardiovascular metabolic risk factors in obese and normal weight adolescents. The UCP2 gene was chosen because it was previously correlated with dietary intake and cardiovascular risk factors. This study is a case control study done in 10 senior high school in Yogyakarta. Subjects were obese and normal weight adolescents taken from an obesity screening with age ranged between 16 and 18 years old. Dyslipidemia was observed by measuring total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL dan HDL level while insulin resistance was determined by calculating fasting glucose and insulin level. Lipid profile, glucose and insulin level were measured after 8 hours of fasting. UCP2 -866G/A gene polymorphism were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The results show that obese adolescents had significantly higher blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL, triglyceride, insulin level and lower HDL level than their normal weight counterparts (all p<0.001). In obese adolescents, UCP2 -866G/A was associated with blood pressure (p=0.025), total cholesterol level (p=0.025), LDL (p=0.024) level and HOMA IR (p<0.001) but not with dietary fat intake (p=0.386). Additionally, subjects with UCP2 -866G/A gene polymorphism and high dietary fat intake had lower risk on obesity compared to those without UCP2 -866G/A gene polymorphism and low dietary fat intake. We conclude that the UCP2 -866G/A was associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance in obese adolescents. Additionally, we also observed the interaction between UCP2 -866G/A gene polymorphism and dietary intake on

  5. Dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and dietary fat intake in obese and normal weight adolescents: the role of uncoupling protein 2 -866G/A gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Huriyati, Emy; Luglio, Harry F; Ratrikaningtyas, Prima D; Tsani, Ahmad Fa; Sadewa, Ahmad H; Juffrie, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Obesity in adolescents has been associated with increased cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Several factors have been proposed to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents including dietary habit, physical activity and genetic. This study was aimed to evaluate the interaction between genetic variation and dietary intake on cardiovascular metabolic risk factors in obese and normal weight adolescents. The UCP2 gene was chosen because it was previously correlated with dietary intake and cardiovascular risk factors. This study is a case control study done in 10 senior high school in Yogyakarta. Subjects were obese and normal weight adolescents taken from an obesity screening with age ranged between 16 and 18 years old. Dyslipidemia was observed by measuring total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL dan HDL level while insulin resistance was determined by calculating fasting glucose and insulin level. Lipid profile, glucose and insulin level were measured after 8 hours of fasting. UCP2 -866G/A gene polymorphism were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The results show that obese adolescents had significantly higher blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL, triglyceride, insulin level and lower HDL level than their normal weight counterparts (all p<0.001). In obese adolescents, UCP2 -866G/A was associated with blood pressure (p=0.025), total cholesterol level (p=0.025), LDL (p=0.024) level and HOMA IR (p<0.001) but not with dietary fat intake (p=0.386). Additionally, subjects with UCP2 -866G/A gene polymorphism and high dietary fat intake had lower risk on obesity compared to those without UCP2 -866G/A gene polymorphism and low dietary fat intake. We conclude that the UCP2 -866G/A was associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance in obese adolescents. Additionally, we also observed the interaction between UCP2 -866G/A gene polymorphism and dietary intake on

  6. Very low birth weight infants who are fed human milk have decreased body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to evaluate body composition in infants have recently been enhanced. There are few data regarding body composition in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Our objective was to evaluate body composition in VLBW infants consuming human milk or formula using novel techniques. Using air-displac...

  7. An adipose segmentation and quantification scheme for the intra abdominal region on minipigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engholm, Rasmus; Dubinskiy, Aleksandr; Larsen, Rasmus; Hanson, Lars G.; Christoffersen, Berit Østergaard

    2006-03-01

    This article describes a method for automatic segmentation of the abdomen into three anatomical regions: subcutaneous, retroperitoneal and visceral. For the last two regions the amount of adipose tissue (fat) is quantified. According to recent medical research, the distinction between retroperitoneal and visceral fat is important for studying metabolic syndrome, which is closely related to diabetes. However previous work has neglected to address this point, treating the two types of fat together. We use T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetic resonance data of the abdomen of obese minipigs. The pigs were manually dissected right after the scan, to produce the "ground truth" segmentation. We perform automatic segmentation on a representative slice, which on humans has been shown to correlate with the amount of adipose tissue in the abdomen. The process of automatic fat estimation consists of three steps. First, the subcutaneous fat is removed with a modified active contour approach. The energy formulation of the active contour exploits the homogeneous nature of the subcutaneous fat and the smoothness of the boundary. Subsequently the retroperitoneal fat located around the abdominal cavity is separated from the visceral fat. For this, we formulate a cost function on a contour, based on intensities, edges, distance to center and smoothness, so as to exploit the properties of the retroperitoneal fat. We then globally optimize this function using dynamic programming. Finally, the fat content of the retroperitoneal and visceral regions is quantified based on a fuzzy c-means clustering of the intensities within the segmented regions. The segmentation proved satisfactory by visual inspection, and closely correlated with the manual dissection data. The correlation was 0.89 for the retroperitoneal fat, and 0.74 for the visceral fat.

  8. Effects of low-carbohydrate diets v. low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Nadia; Vinknes, Kathrine J; Veierød, Marit B; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2016-02-14

    The effects of low-carbohydrate (LC) diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk are unclear, and previous studies have found varying results. Our aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT), assessing the effects of LC diets v. low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss and risk factors of CVD. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Trials. Studies had to fulfil the following criteria: a RCT; the LC diet was defined in accordance with the Atkins diet, or carbohydrate intake of <20% of total energy intake; twenty subjects or more per group; the subjects were previously healthy; and the dietary intervention had a duration of 6 months or longer. Results from individual studies were pooled as weighted mean difference (WMD) using a random effect model. In all, eleven RCT with 1369 participants met all the set eligibility criteria. Compared with participants on LF diets, participants on LC diets experienced a greater reduction in body weight (WMD -2·17 kg; 95% CI -3·36, -0·99) and TAG (WMD -0·26 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·37, -0·15), but a greater increase in HDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·14 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·09, 0·19) and LDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·16 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·003, 0·33). This meta-analysis demonstrates opposite change in two important cardiovascular risk factors on LC diets--greater weight loss and increased LDL-cholesterol. Our findings suggest that the beneficial changes of LC diets must be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of increased LDL-cholesterol. PMID:26768850

  9. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy. PMID:27363829

  10. Effects of Visceral Fat Accumulation Awareness on a Web-Based Weight-Loss Program: Japanese Study of Visceral Adiposity and Lifestyle Information—Utilization and Evaluation (J-VALUE)

    PubMed Central

    Sakane, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro; Sakata, Koichi; Hagiwara, Shin-ichi; Uchida, Takanobu; Katashima, Mitsuhiro; Yasumasu, Takeshi; Study Group, J-VALUE

    2013-01-01

    A reduction of visceral fat is important for improvement of metabolic risk. This study was designed to compare the effects of a web-based program alone or together with measurement and self-awareness of accumulated visceral fat in Japanese workers. A new noninvasive device to measure visceral fat accumulation was introduced, and efficacy on weight-loss and improvement of healthy behaviors were examined. This study was conducted according to Helsinki declaration and approved by the ethical committee of Japan Hospital Organization, National Kyoto Hospital. Two-hundred and sixteen overweight and obese males with BMI of more than 23 participated from 8 healthcare offices of 3 Japanese private companies. Subjects were randomly allocated into control group, Web-based weight-loss program (Web), or Web + Visceral fat measurement group (Web + VFA). Eighty-one percent of participants completed the study. Reductions of body weight, waist circumference, and BMI were the largest in Web + VFA group, and the differences between groups were significant by ANOVA. Improvements of healthy behaviors were the largest in Web + VFA group, and the differences of healthy eating improvement scores between Web + VFA and control groups were significant. Our findings suggest that measurement and awareness of visceral fat are effective in weight reduction in overweight and obese males in the workplace. PMID:24555144

  11. Whey-reduced weight gain is associated with a temporary growth reduction in young mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Tranberg, Britt; Madsen, Andreas N; Hansen, Axel K; Hellgren, Lars I

    2015-01-01

    Whey protein consumption reportedly alleviates parameters of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in young mice fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that whey as the sole protein source reduced early weight gain associated with retarded growth and decreased concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1. Moreover, we hypothesized that these changes were explained by increased nitrogen loss via elevated urea production and/or increased energy expenditure. Male 5-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diets with the protein source being either whey, casein or a combination of both for 5 weeks. After 1, 3 or 5 weeks, respectively, the mice were subjected to a meal challenge with measurements of blood and urinary urea before and 1 and 3 h after eating a weighed meal of their respective diets. In a subset of mice, energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry during the first week of dietary intervention. Observed exclusively during the first week of intervention, whey significantly reduced body length (P<.01) and weight gain (P<.001) correlating positively with plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1. The combination diet displayed intermediate results indicating an interactive effect. Urea production, urea cycle activity, food intake and energy expenditure were unaffected by protein source. In conclusion, whey decreased growth-related parameters exclusively during the first week of dietary intervention. The early effect of whey could not be explained by food intake, energy expenditure, urea production or urea cycle activity but was correlated with plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1. PMID:25315863

  12. AgRP Neuron-Specific Deletion of Glucocorticoid Receptor Leads to Increased Energy Expenditure and Decreased Body Weight in Female Mice on a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Miyuki; Banno, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Mariko; Tominaga, Takashi; Onoue, Takeshi; Tsunekawa, Taku; Azuma, Yoshinori; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Lu, Wenjun; Ito, Yoshihiro; Goto, Motomitsu; Suga, Hidetaka; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Oiso, Yutaka; Arima, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Agouti-related protein (AgRP) expressed in the arcuate nucleus is a potent orexigenic neuropeptide, which increases food intake and reduces energy expenditure resulting in increases in body weight (BW). Glucocorticoids, key hormones that regulate energy balance, have been shown in rodents to regulate the expression of AgRP. In this study, we generated AgRP-specific glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-deficient (knockout [KO]) mice. Female and male KO mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) showed decreases in BW at the age of 6 weeks compared with wild-type mice, and the differences remained significant until 16 weeks old. The degree of resistance to diet-induced obesity was more robust in female than in male mice. On a chow diet, the female KO mice showed slightly but significantly attenuated weight gain compared with wild-type mice after 11 weeks, whereas there were no significant differences in BW in males between genotypes. Visceral fat pad mass was significantly decreased in female KO mice on HFD, whereas there were no significant differences in lean body mass between genotypes. Although food intake was similar between genotypes, oxygen consumption was significantly increased in female KO mice on HFD. In addition, the uncoupling protein-1 expression in the brown adipose tissues was increased in KO mice. These data demonstrate that the absence of GR signaling in AgRP neurons resulted in increases in energy expenditure accompanied by decreases in adiposity in mice fed HFD, indicating that GR signaling in AgRP neurons suppresses energy expenditure under HFD conditions. PMID:26889940

  13. Effects of gender on locomotor sensitivity to amphetamine, body weight, and fat mass in regulator of G protein signaling 9 (RGS9) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Walker, Paul D; Jarosz, Patricia A; Bouhamdan, Mohamad; MacKenzie, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein 9-2 is enriched in the striatum where it modulates dopamine and opioid receptor-mediated signaling. RGS9 knockout (KO) mice show increased psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization, as well as exhibit higher body weights and greater fat accumulation compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. In the present study, we found gender influences on each of these phenotypic characteristics. Female RGS9 KO mice exhibited greater locomotor sensitization to amphetamine (1.0mg/kg) treatment as compared to male RGS9 KO mice. Male RGS9 KO mice showed increased body weights as compared to male WT littermates, while no such differences were detected in female mice. Quantitative magnetic resonance showed that male RGS9 KO mice accumulated greater fat mass vs. WT littermates at 5months of age. Such observations could not be explained by increased caloric consumption since male and female RGS9 KO mice demonstrated equivalent daily food intake as compared to their respective WT littermates. Although indirect calorimetry methods found decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during the 12-hour dark phase in male RGS9 KO vs. WT mice which are indicative of less energy expenditure, male RGS9 KO mice exhibited lower levels of locomotor activity during this period. Genotype had no effect on metabolic activities when KO and WT groups were compared under fasting vs. feeding treatments. In summary, these results highlight the importance of factoring gender into the experimental design since many studies conducted in RGS9 KO mice utilize locomotor activity as a measured outcome. PMID:25455864

  14. Postmortem Study of Validation of Low Signal on Fat-Suppressed T1-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging as Marker of Lipid Core in Middle Cerebral Artery Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Jie; Zhao, Hai-Lu; Niu, Chun-Bo; Zhang, Bing; Xu, Yun; Wong, Ka-Sing; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— High signal on T1-weighted fat-suppressed images in middle cerebral artery plaques on ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging was verified to be intraplaque hemorrhage histologically. However, the underlying plaque component of low signal on T1-weighted fat-suppressed images (LST1) has never been explored. Based on our experience, we hypothesized that LST1 might indicate the presence of lipid core within intracranial plaques. Methods— 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging was performed in the postmortem brains to scan the cross sections of bilateral middle cerebral arteries. Then middle cerebral artery specimens were removed for histology processing. LST1 presence was identified on magnetic resonance images, and lipid core areas were measured on the corresponding histology sections. Results— Total 76 middle cerebral artery locations were included for analysis. LST1 showed a high specificity (96.9%; 95% confidence interval, 82.0%–99.8%) but a low sensitivity (38.6%; 95% confidence interval, 24.7%–54.5%) for detecting lipid core of all areas. However, the sensitivity increased markedly (81.2%; 95% confidence interval, 53.7%–95.0%) when only lipid cores of area ≥0.80 mm2 were included. Mean lipid core area was 5× larger in those with presence of LST1 than in those without (1.63±1.18 mm2 versus 0.32±0.31 mm2; P=0.003). Conclusions— LST1 is a promising imaging biomarker of identifying intraplaque lipid core, which may be useful to distinguish intracranial atherosclerotic disease from other intracranial vasculopathies and to assess plaque vulnerability for risk stratification of patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease. In vivo clinical studies are required to explore the correlation between LST1 and clinical outcomes of patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease. PMID:27462119

  15. The Eat Smart Study: A randomised controlled trial of a reduced carbohydrate versus a low fat diet for weight loss in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the recognition of obesity in young people as a key health issue, there is limited evidence to inform health professionals regarding the most appropriate treatment options. The Eat Smart study aims to contribute to the knowledge base of effective dietary strategies for the clinical management of the obese adolescent and examine the cardiometablic effects of a reduced carbohydrate diet versus a low fat diet. Methods and design Eat Smart is a randomised controlled trial and aims to recruit 100 adolescents over a 2 1/2 year period. Families will be invited to participate following referral by their health professional who has recommended weight management. Participants will be overweight as defined by a body mass index (BMI) greater than the 90th percentile, using CDC 2000 growth charts. An accredited 6-week psychological life skills program 'FRIENDS for Life', which is designed to provide behaviour change and coping skills will be undertaken prior to volunteers being randomised to group. The intervention arms include a structured reduced carbohydrate or a structured low fat dietary program based on an individualised energy prescription. The intervention will involve a series of dietetic appointments over 24 weeks. The control group will commence the dietary program of their choice after a 12 week period. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, week 12 and week 24. The primary outcome measure will be change in BMI z-score. A range of secondary outcome measures including body composition, lipid fractions, inflammatory markers, social and psychological measures will be measured. Discussion The chronic and difficult nature of treating the obese adolescent is increasingly recognised by clinicians and has highlighted the need for research aimed at providing effective intervention strategies, particularly for use in the tertiary setting. A structured reduced carbohydrate approach may provide a dietary pattern that some families will find more

  16. Carcass characteristics and fat depots in Iberian and F Large White × Landrace pigs intensively finished or raised outdoors in oak-tree forests.

    PubMed

    Bressan, M C; Almeida, J; Santos Silva, J; Bettencourt, C; Francisco, A; Gama, L T

    2016-06-01

    A factorial experiment was performed with 117 barrows belonging to the Iberian (IB) and crossbred F Large White × Landrace (F) genetic groups, either intensively finished (IN) or finished outdoors on pasture in an oak and cork tree forest (EX). Information was collected on carcass weight, yield, and dimensions; weight of organs, carcass cuts, and abdominal fat depots; backfat depth; measurements of the longissimus thoracis (LT); and yield of different leg tissues. For the 41 slaughter and carcass traits analyzed, the interaction between genetic group and finishing system was significant ( < 0.05) in 18 traits, and overall, there was a more pronounced influence of genetic group than of finishing system. In most variables, particularly those related with fat deposition, the interaction reflected mostly changes in mean differences among genetic groups rather than in their ranking, where IB pigs consistently produced fatter carcasses, regardless of the finishing system. Liver weight in IB-EX pigs was lower by nearly 8% when compared with F-EX or IB-IN pigs, but the opposite pattern was found in F pigs, where liver weight in F-EX pigs was higher by 16% relative to IB-EX pigs or to F-IN pigs. The deposition of adipose tissue was much larger ( < 0.05) in IB pigs compared with F pigs, with means for fat depots in IB pigs that were higher by about 25% in total abdominal fat, 94% in dorsal fat depth, 72% in intermuscular plus subcutaneous fat in the leg, and over 300% in intramuscular fat (IMF). The deposition of lean tissue was much lower in IB pigs ( < 0.05), with means for trimmed loin weight corresponding to about one-half of the means obtained in F pigs, whereas lean percentage in the leg of IB pigs was about two-thirds of the mean in F pigs and the mean area of the LT was nearly one-half of that observed in F pigs in the same finishing system ( < 0.05). A strong correlation was observed between the various fat depots when the full data set was considered (correlations

  17. Anti-Obesity Effects of Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn in Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Karupiah, Sundram; Ismail, Zhari

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide and it is generally associated with many diseases. Although synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of obesity, herbal remedies may provide safe, natural, and cost-effective alternative to synthetic drugs. One example of such drugs is Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn (MM). Although several studies have been reported for the pharmacological activities of MM, there is no report on the anti-obesity effect of MM. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-obesity potential of methanolic extract of MM. The anti-obesity effect of MM on rats fed with a high-fat diet was investigated through determination of the changes in body weight, fat weight, organ weights, and blood biochemicals. The animals in this study were divided into three groups: a normal group with a standard diet (N), a control group fed with high-fat diet (C), and a MM treatment group fed with high-fat (HFD + MM) diet for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in the amount of food intake between control and HFD + MM treatments. These results also suggest that MM does not induce a dislike for the diet due to its smell or taste. The study shows that MM significantly prevented increases in body weight, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and total lipids that resulted from the high-fat diet. MM also decreased the epididymal fat (E-fat) and retroperitoneal fat (R-fat) weights and phospholipid concentrations induced by the high-fat diet. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that MM had anti-obesity effects by suppressing body weight gain and abdominal fat formation. PMID:25374344

  18. Arctiin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and decreases adiposity and body weight in mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Min, Byulchorong; Lee, Heejin; Song, Ji Hye; Han, Myung Joo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to examine the effects and associated mechanisms of arctiin, a lignan compound found in burdock, on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Also, the effects of arctiin supplementation in obese mice fed a high-fat diet on adiposity were examined. MATERIALS/METHODS 3T3-L1 cells were treated with arctiin (12.5 to 100 µM) during differentiation for 8 days. The accumulation of lipid droplets was determined by Oil Red O staining and intracellular triglyceride contents. The expressions of genes related to adipogenesis were measured by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. For in vivo study, C57BL/6J mice were first fed either a control diet (CON) or high-fat diet (HF) to induce obesity, and then fed CON, HF, or HF with 500 mg/kg BW arctiin (HF + AC) for four weeks. RESULTS Arctiin treatment to 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes markedly decreased adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The arctiin treatment significantly decreased the protein levels of the key adipogenic regulators PPARγ and C/EBPα, and also significantly inhibited the expression of SREBP-1c, fatty acid synthase, fatty acid-binding protein and lipoprotein lipase. Also, arctiin greatly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream target phosphorylated-acetyl CoA carboxylase. Furthermore, administration of arctiin significantly decreased the body weight in obese mice fed with the high-fat diet. The epididymal, perirenal or total visceral adipose tissue weights of mice were all significantly lower in the HF + AC than in the HF. Arctiin administration also decreased the sizes of lipid droplets in the epididymal adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS Arctiin inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the inhibition of PPARγ and C/EBPα and the activation of AMPK signaling pathways. These findings suggest that arctiin has a potential benefit in preventing obesity. PMID:25489405

  19. Stacked and bipedicled abdominal free flaps for breast reconstruction: considerations for shaping

    PubMed Central

    Rozen, Warren Matthew; Chow, Whitney T.H.; Chowdhry, Muhammad; Fitzgerald O’Connor, Edmund; Sharma, Hrsikesa; Griffiths, Matthew; Ramakrishnan, Venkat V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Stacked and bipedicled abdominal flaps are useful in women who require a large breast reconstruction but have relative paucity of abdominal tissue. A new classification system is described to assist the surgeon in achieving the best possible aesthetic outcome. Methods A retrospective review of 25 consecutive stacked and/or bipedicled deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap reconstructions was assessed from 2009 to 2014. Demographic data and key variables were prospectively collected in our breast reconstruction database and an aesthetic classification devised. There are four main subtypes, (I) folded; (II) divided; (III) coned; and (IV) divided and folded. Each of these subtypes can be moulded in a symmetrically or asymmetrically fashion depending on the contralateral breast shape together with distribution and consistency of fat within the abdominal flap. Results Of the 25 patients, three-quarter were immediate reconstruction, with an average age of 48 years and a median follow-up of 2 years 10 months. Just over half the patients (57%) had bipedicle flaps with two recipient donor vessels with the remaining 43% had stacked flaps. The most common recipient sites are the thoracodorsal vessels (62%) and intercostal perforators (26%). The average abdominal pannus weight was 610 grams (SD: 320 grams), with a hemi-abdominal weight of 305 grams. Two patients had haematomas, of which one lost their reconstruction. Another patient had a venous congestion flap which was salvaged. Conclusions Bipedicled or stacked abdominal flaps allow the all four zones of the abdominal tissue to be used in unilateral breast reconstruction. The approach of tailoring the abdominal flaps to match the contralateral breast reconstruction is largely an art form. The paper aims to bring some meaningful system to aid the surgeon to achieve the best possible outcome with the components presented to them. PMID:27047780

  20. Independent and Combined Effects of Lactitol, Polydextrose, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron on Postprandial Metabolism and Body Weight in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Olli, Kaisa; Saarinen, Markku T.; Forssten, Sofia D.; Madetoja, Mari; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is related to the consumption of energy-dense foods in addition to changes in the microbiome where a higher abundance of gut Bacteroidetes can be found in lean subjects or after weight loss. Lactitol, a sweet-tasting sugar alcohol, is a common sugar-replacement in foods. Polydextrose (PDX), a highly branched glucose polymer, is known to reduce energy intake. Here, we test if the combined effects of lactitol or PDX in combination with Bacteroides species will have a beneficial metabolic response in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. A total of 175 male Wistar rats were fed either a LF or HF diet. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (1010 bacteria/animal/day) was orally administered with or without lactitol (1.6−2 g/animal/day) or PDX (2 g/animal/day) for 8 days. Postprandial blood samples, cecal digesta, and feces were collected on the last day. Measurements included: body weight, feed consumption, cecal short-chain fatty acids, fecal dry matter and heat value, blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and satiety hormone concentrations. Lactitol and PDX decreased the mean body weight when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron or when lactitol was administered alone. Levels of postprandial plasma triglycerides declined with lactitol and PDX when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron. For intestinal hormone release, lactitol – alone or with B. thetaiotaomicron – increased the release of gastrointestinal peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) as well as the area under the curve (AUC) measured for PYY (0–8 h). In addition, levels of insulin AUC (0–8 h) decreased in the lactitol and PDX-supplemented groups. Lactitol and PDX may both provide additional means to regulate postprandial metabolism and weight management, whereas the addition of B. thetaiotaomicron in the tested doses had only minor effects on the measured parameters. PMID:27376068

  1. Independent and Combined Effects of Lactitol, Polydextrose, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron on Postprandial Metabolism and Body Weight in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Olli, Kaisa; Saarinen, Markku T; Forssten, Sofia D; Madetoja, Mari; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is related to the consumption of energy-dense foods in addition to changes in the microbiome where a higher abundance of gut Bacteroidetes can be found in lean subjects or after weight loss. Lactitol, a sweet-tasting sugar alcohol, is a common sugar-replacement in foods. Polydextrose (PDX), a highly branched glucose polymer, is known to reduce energy intake. Here, we test if the combined effects of lactitol or PDX in combination with Bacteroides species will have a beneficial metabolic response in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. A total of 175 male Wistar rats were fed either a LF or HF diet. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (10(10) bacteria/animal/day) was orally administered with or without lactitol (1.6-2 g/animal/day) or PDX (2 g/animal/day) for 8 days. Postprandial blood samples, cecal digesta, and feces were collected on the last day. Measurements included: body weight, feed consumption, cecal short-chain fatty acids, fecal dry matter and heat value, blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and satiety hormone concentrations. Lactitol and PDX decreased the mean body weight when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron or when lactitol was administered alone. Levels of postprandial plasma triglycerides declined with lactitol and PDX when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron. For intestinal hormone release, lactitol - alone or with B. thetaiotaomicron - increased the release of gastrointestinal peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) as well as the area under the curve (AUC) measured for PYY (0-8 h). In addition, levels of insulin AUC (0-8 h) decreased in the lactitol and PDX-supplemented groups. Lactitol and PDX may both provide additional means to regulate postprandial metabolism and weight management, whereas the addition of B. thetaiotaomicron in the tested doses had only minor effects on the measured parameters. PMID:27376068

  2. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePlus

    ... call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing abdominal thrusts, ... American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ... Red Cross; 2014. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, et al. Part 5: ...

  3. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91–111. Seek Help for ... and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website ... Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders 700 West Virginia ...

  4. Catch-up growth and catch-up fat in children born small for gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of perinatal morbidity, persistent short stature, and metabolic alterations in later life. Recent studies have focused on the association between birth weight (BW) and later body composition. Some reports suggest that fetal nutrition, as reflected by BW, may have an inverse programing effect on abdominal adiposity later in life. This inverse association between BW and abdominal adiposity in adults may contribute to insulin resistance. Rapid weight gain during infancy in SGA children seemed to be associated with increased fat mass rather than lean mass. Early catch-up growth after SGA birth rather than SGA itself has been noted as a cardiovascular risk factor in later life. Children who are born SGA also have a predisposition to accumulation of fat mass, particularly intra-abdominal fat. It is not yet clear whether this predisposition is due to low BW itself, rapid postnatal catch-up growth, or a combination of both. In this report, we review the published literature on central fat accumulation and metabolic consequences of being SGA, as well as the currently popular research area of SGA, including growth aspects. PMID:26893597

  5. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  6. Fructose containing sugars modulate mRNA of lipogenic genes ACC and FAS and protein levels of transcription factors ChREBP and SREBP1c with no effect on body weight or liver fat.

    PubMed

    Janevski, Mile; Ratnayake, Sunil; Siljanovski, Svetlana; McGlynn, Maree A; Cameron-Smith, David; Lewandowski, Paul

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-glucose, high-fructose and high-sucrose diets on weight gain, liver lipid metabolism and gene expression of proteins involved with hepatic fat metabolism. Rats were fed a diet containing either 60% glucose, 60% fructose, 60% sucrose, or a standard chow for 28 days. Results indicated that high-fructose and high-sucrose diets were associated with higher mRNA levels of gene transcripts involved with fat synthesis; ACC, FAS and ChREBP, with no change in SREBP-1C mRNA. The protein level of ChREBP and SREBP1c was similar in liver homogenates from all groups, but were higher in nuclear fractions from the liver of high-fructose and high-sucrose fed rats. The mRNA level of gene transcripts involved with fat oxidation was the same in all three diets, whilst a high-fructose diet was associated with greater amount of mRNA of the fat transporter CD36. Despite the changes in mRNA of lipogenic proteins, the body weight of animals from each group was the same and the livers from rats fed high-fructose and high-sucrose diets did not contain more fat than control diet livers. In conclusion, changing the composition of the principal monosaccharide in the diet to a fructose containing sugar elicits changes in the level of hepatic mRNA of lipogenic and fat transport proteins and protein levels of their transcriptional regulators; however this is not associated with any changes in body weight or liver fat content. PMID:22159273

  7. Oral Administration of Oleuropein and Its Semisynthetic Peracetylated Derivative Prevents Hepatic Steatosis, Hyperinsulinemia, and Weight Gain in Mice Fed with High Fat Cafeteria Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lepore, Saverio Massimo; Morittu, Valeria Maria; Celano, Marilena; Trimboli, Francesca; Oliverio, Manuela; Procopio, Antonio; Di Loreto, Carla; Damante, Giuseppe; Britti, Domenico; Bulotta, Stefania; Russo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The high consumption of olive tree products in the Mediterranean diet has been associated with a lower incidence of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In particular, the protective effects of olive oil have been attributed to the presence of polyphenols such as oleuropein (Ole) and its derivatives. We have synthesized a peracetylated derivative of Ole (Ac-Ole) which has shown in vitro antioxidant and growth-inhibitory activity higher than the natural molecule. In this study, male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice were fed with a standard (std), cafeteria (caf) diet, and caf diet supplemented with Ole (0.037 mmol/kg/day) and Ac-Ole (0.025 mmol/kg/day) for 15 weeks. We observed a significant reduction in the caf diet-induced body weight gain and increase of abdominal adipose tissue. Also, Ole and Ac-Ole prevented the development of hepatic steatosis. Finally, Ole and Ac-Ole determined a lower increase of HDL and LDL-cholesterol levels and corrected caf diet-induced elevation of plasma glucose concentrations by improving insulin sensitivity. The observed beneficial properties of Ole and Ac-Ole make these compounds and in particular Ac-Ole promising candidates for a potential pharmaceutic use in metabolic disorders. PMID:26798341

  8. Analysis of Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat After Gastric Balloon Treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Gustavo L.; de Melo, Rayssa A. B.; de Moura, Fernanda M.; Leite, Ana Paula D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: This project is a continuation of a larger project entitled “Treatment with intragastric balloon (IGB) in patients with overweight and obesity in Recife” developed by Professor Dr. Gustavo Lopes de Carvalho. It is a project studying the effectiveness of treatment with IGB evaluating the loss of weight and body mass index and its impact on blood pressure, blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions. It also assesses the lifestyle of patients studying whether treatment with IGB interferes in smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and physical exercises performed by patients. The present study added a larger project, the separate evaluation of the different types of abdominal fat—visceral fat and subcutaneous cell tissue fat — and was conducted to discover which of the 2 types of fat undergoes the greater reduction after IGB treatment. To measure these 2 types of fat, we used the ultrasonography technique, because it has been shown to be accurate and noninvasive. Methods: Twenty-five patients were evaluated before and after 6 months of IGB treatment. Results: The patients' ages ranged from 20 to 61 years, with 60% being 40 years of age or older. The majority (72%) were women. All variables (weight, body mass index [BMI], VF, and SCTF) showed a significant reduction (P < .05) in mean values after treatment. The difference was highest in the SCTF (17.5%) and ranged from an 11.4% to an 11.6% reduction in all other variables. The average loss of SCTF was highest among the patients who had lost up to 10.0% of their initial weight (19.2% for the ≤10.0% group vs 15.9% for the >10.0% group); however, the difference was not significant (P = .66). The average loss of VF was higher in the subgroup of patients who had lost >10.0% of their initial weight (16.2% vs 6.3%; P = .003). The Pearson correlation between the reductions in SCTF vs VF was negative, low, and nonsignificant (−0.17; P = .41). Conclusions: After 6

  9. Green tea extract with polyethylene glycol-3350 reduces body weight and improves glucose tolerance in db/db and high-fat diet mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Choi, Yoon Jung; Kim, Yong Woon; Kim, Sang Pyo; Cho, Ho-Chan; Ahn, Shinbyoung; Bae, Ki-Cheor; Im, Seung-Soon; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Song, Dae-Kyu

    2013-08-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) is regarded to be effective against obesity and type 2 diabetes, but definitive evidences have not been proven. Based on the assumption that the gallated catechins (GCs) in GTE attenuate intestinal glucose and lipid absorption, while enhancing insulin resistance when GCs are present in the circulation through inhibiting cellular glucose uptake in various tissues, this study attempted to block the intestinal absorption of GCs and prolong their residence time in the lumen. We then observed whether GTE containing the nonabsorbable GCs could ameliorate body weight (BW) gain and glucose intolerance in db/db and high-fat diet mice. Inhibition of the intestinal absorption of GCs was accomplished by co-administering the nontoxic polymer polyethylene glycol-3350 (PEG). C57BLKS/J db/db and high-fat diet C57BL/6 mice were treated for 4 weeks with drugs as follows: GTE, PEG, GTE+PEG, voglibose, or pioglitazone. GTE mixed with meals did not have any ameliorating effects on BW gain and glucose intolerance. However, the administration of GTE plus PEG significantly reduced BW gain, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance, without affecting food intake and appetite. The effect was comparable to the effects of an α-glucosidase inhibitor and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ/α agonist. These results indicate that prolonging the action of GCs of GTE in the intestinal lumen and blocking their entry into the circulation may allow GTE to be used as a prevention and treatment for both obesity and obesity-induced type 2 diabetes. PMID:23620335

  10. Effects of microalgal polyunsaturated fatty acid oil on body weight and lipid accumulation in the liver of C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Geon-Tae; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-05-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in marine fish oils, have recently received global attention for their prominent anti-obesogenic effects. Among PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which are n-3 long-chain PUFAs widely referred to as omega-3 oils, were reported to prevent the development of obesity in rodents and humans. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil on high-fat induced obese C57BL/6 mice, compared with commercial omega-3 fish oil and vegetable corn oil. Microalgal oil is an inherent mixture of several PUFAs, including EPA, DHA and other fatty acids produced from a marine microalgal strain of Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant. It was found to contain more PUFAs (>80%) and more omega-3 oils than commercial omega-3 fish oil (PUFAs >31%) and corn oil (PUFAs 59%). All three types of oils induced weight loss in high-fat-induced obese mice, with the loss induced by microalgal oil being most significant at 9 weeks (10% reduction). However, the oils tested did not improve blood lipid levels, although microalgal oil showed an apparent inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in the liver. These findings may be attributed to the higher PUFA content, including omega-3 oils of microalgal oil than other oils. Collectively, these findings suggest that microalgal oil, derived from Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant, is a prominent candidate for replacement of omega-3 fish oils based on its apparent anti-obesity effect in vivo. PMID:27533934

  11. Reduced intestinal lipid absorption and body weight-independent improvements in insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed Park2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Costa, Diana K; Huckestein, Brydie R; Edmunds, Lia R; Petersen, Max C; Nasiri, Ali; Butrico, Gina M; Abulizi, Abudukadier; Harmon, Daniel B; Lu, Canying; Mantell, Benjamin S; Hartman, Douglas J; Camporez, João-Paulo G; O'Doherty, Robert M; Cline, Gary W; Shulman, Gerald I; Jurczak, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with many human diseases and results from mismatch of damage and repair over the life of the organelle. PARK2 is a ubiquitin E3 ligase that regulates mitophagy, a repair mechanism that selectively degrades damaged mitochondria. Deletion of PARK2 in multiple in vivo models results in susceptibility to stress-induced mitochondrial and cellular dysfunction. Surprisingly, Park2 knockout (KO) mice are protected from nutritional stress and do not develop obesity, hepatic steatosis or insulin resistance when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). However, these phenomena are casually related and the physiological basis for this phenotype is unknown. We therefore undertook a series of acute HFD studies to more completely understand the physiology of Park2 KO during nutritional stress. We find that intestinal lipid absorption is impaired in Park2 KO mice as evidenced by increased fecal lipids and reduced plasma triglycerides after intragastric fat challenge. Park2 KO mice developed hepatic steatosis in response to intravenous lipid infusion as well as during incubation of primary hepatocytes with fatty acids, suggesting that hepatic protection from nutritional stress was secondary to changes in energy balance due to altered intestinal triglyceride absorption. Park2 KO mice showed reduced adiposity after 1-wk HFD, as well as improved hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. These studies suggest that changes in intestinal lipid absorption may play a primary role in protection from nutritional stress in Park2 KO mice by preventing HFD-induced weight gain and highlight the need for tissue-specific models to address the role of PARK2 during metabolic stress. PMID:27166280

  12. Effects of microalgal polyunsaturated fatty acid oil on body weight and lipid accumulation in the liver of C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Geon-Tae; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in marine fish oils, have recently received global attention for their prominent anti-obesogenic effects. Among PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which are n-3 long-chain PUFAs widely referred to as omega-3 oils, were reported to prevent the development of obesity in rodents and humans. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil on high-fat induced obese C57BL/6 mice, compared with commercial omega-3 fish oil and vegetable corn oil. Microalgal oil is an inherent mixture of several PUFAs, including EPA, DHA and other fatty acids produced from a marine microalgal strain of Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant. It was found to contain more PUFAs (>80%) and more omega-3 oils than commercial omega-3 fish oil (PUFAs >31%) and corn oil (PUFAs 59%). All three types of oils induced weight loss in high-fat-induced obese mice, with the loss induced by microalgal oil being most significant at 9 weeks (10% reduction). However, the oils tested did not improve blood lipid levels, although microalgal oil showed an apparent inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in the liver. These findings may be attributed to the higher PUFA content, including omega-3 oils of microalgal oil than other oils. Collectively, these findings suggest that microalgal oil, derived from Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant, is a prominent candidate for replacement of omega-3 fish oils based on its apparent anti-obesity effect in vivo. PMID:27533934

  13. Ciliary neurotrophic factor activates leptin-like pathways and reduces body fat, without cachexia or rebound weight gain, even in leptin-resistant obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, P. D.; Anderson, K. D.; Sleeman, M. W.; Wong, V.; Tan, J.; Hijarunguru, A.; Corcoran, T. L.; Murray, J. D.; Thabet, K. E.; Yancopoulos, G. D.; Wiegand, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) was first characterized as a trophic factor for motor neurons in the ciliary ganglion and spinal cord, leading to its evaluation in humans suffering from motor neuron disease. In these trials, CNTF caused unexpected and substantial weight loss, raising concerns that it might produce cachectic-like effects. Countering this possibility was the suggestion that CNTF was working via a leptin-like mechanism to cause weight loss, based on the findings that CNTF acts via receptors that are not only related to leptin receptors, but also similarly distributed within hypothalamic nuclei involved in feeding. However, although CNTF mimics the ability of leptin to cause fat loss in mice that are obese because of genetic deficiency of leptin (ob/ob mice), CNTF is also effective in diet-induced obesity models that are more representative of human obesity, and which are resistant to leptin. This discordance again raised the possibility that CNTF might be acting via nonleptin pathways, perhaps more analogous to those activated by cachectic cytokines. Arguing strongly against this possibility, we now show that CNTF can activate hypothalamic leptin-like pathways in diet-induced obesity models unresponsive to leptin, that CNTF improves prediabetic parameters in these models, and that CNTF acts very differently than the prototypical cachectic cytokine, IL-1. Further analyses of hypothalamic signaling reveals that CNTF can suppress food intake without triggering hunger signals or associated stress responses that are otherwise associated with food deprivation; thus, unlike forced dieting, cessation of CNTF treatment does not result in binge overeating and immediate rebound weight gain. PMID:11259650

  14. Dietary fibers and crude protein content alleviate hepatic fat deposition and obesity in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Shivazad, M; Zaghari, M; Aminzadeh, S; Rezaian, M; Mateos, G G

    2012-12-01

    The effects of inclusion of cellulose or inulin as a source of dietary fiber and CP content of the diet on hepatic fat deposition were investigated in hens fed restricted or close to ad libitum consumption. There were 12 dietary treatments forming a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial with 2 feeding regimens [restricted and liberal (close to ad libitum consumption; LIB)], 3 fiber sources (control, 3% inulin, and 3% cellulose), and 2 levels of CP (14.5 and 17.4%). Hens were assigned in groups of 6 to 60 floor pens. From 43 to 55 wk of age, hens fed LIB showed increased activity of the hepatic malic enzyme (MalE; P < 0.01), which led to an increase (P < 0.001) in liver weight and hepatic lipid deposition and was associated with enhancements (P < 0.05) in plasma levels of glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Abdominal fat deposition and BW of the hens increased (P < 0.001) with liberal feeding. Inclusion of inulin in the diet reduced (P < 0.05) liver and abdominal fat weight, whereas cellulose inclusion decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake, abdominal fat, and BW. An increase in CP content of the diet from 14.5 to 17.4% reduced MalE activity (P < 0.001), liver weight (P < 0.001), and the accumulation of lipids and cholesterol in the liver, as well as plasma triglyceride concentration and abdominal fat pad weight (P < 0.05). It is concluded that fiber inclusion reduced abdominal fat and liver weight, with effects being more pronounced with cellulose than with inulin. An increase in dietary CP reduced MalE activity and alleviated hepatic and plasma lipid concentration; therefore, it might be a practical approach to reduce the incidence of obesity-linked problems in broiler breeder hens. The combination of high-CP diets and the inclusion of a fiber source did not suppress liver lipid content over that observed with the high-CP diet, exclusively. PMID:23155020

  15. Perirenal fat promotes renal arterial endothelial dysfunction in obese swine through tumor necrosis factor-α

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shuangtao; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Eirin, Alfonso; Woollard, John R.; Jordan, Kyra L.; Tang, Hui; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Perirenal fat is associated with poor blood pressure control and chronic kidney disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We tested the hypothesis that perirenal fat impairs renal arterial endothelial function in pigs with obesity-metabolic derangements (ObM). Material and Methods Fourteen domestic pigs were studied after 16 weeks of a high-fat/high-fructose diet (ObM) or standard chow (Lean). Renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and visceral fat volumes were studied in-vivo with CT. Renal arterial endothelial function was also studied ex-vivo in the organ bath. Results ObM pigs demonstrated increased body weight, blood pressure, cholesterol, and intra-abdominal fat compared to lean pigs, and perirenal fat volume was significantly larger. RBF and GFR were markedly elevated, while urinary protein level was preserved. Ex-vivo acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent vasodilation of renal artery rings was substantially impaired in ObM compared to Lean. Endothelial function was further blunted in both ObM and Lean arterial rings by incubation with perirenal fat harvested from ObM, but not from Lean pigs, and was restored by inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. ObM perirenal fat also showed increased pro-inflammatory macrophage infiltration and TNF-α expression. Conclusions ObM perirenal fat directly causes renal artery endothelial dysfunction, partly mediated by TNF-α. PMID:26417644

  16. Identification and characterization of genes that control fat deposition in chickens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fat deposits in chickens contribute significantly to meat quality attributes such as juiciness, flavor, taste and other organoleptic properties. The quantity of fat deposited increases faster and earlier in the fast-growing chickens than in slow-growing chickens. In this study, Affymetrix Genechip® Chicken Genome Arrays 32773 transcripts were used to compare gene expression profiles in liver and hypothalamus tissues of fast-growing and slow-growing chicken at 8 wk of age. Real-time RT-PCR was used to validate the differential expression of genes selected from the microarray analysis. The mRNA expression of the genes was further examined in fat tissues. The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of four lipid-related genes with fat traits was examined in a F2 resource population. Results Four hundred genes in the liver tissues and 220 genes hypothalamus tissues, respectively, were identified to be differentially expressed in fast-growing chickens and slow-growing chickens. Expression levels of genes for lipid metabolism (SULT1B1, ACSBG2, PNPLA3, LPL, AOAH) carbohydrate metabolism (MGAT4B, XYLB, GBE1, PGM1, HKDC1)cholesttrol biosynthesis (FDPS, LSS, HMGCR, NSDHL, DHCR24, IDI1, ME1) HSD17B7 and other reaction or processes (CYP1A4, CYP1A1, AKR1B1, CYP4V2, DDO) were higher in the fast-growing White Recessive Rock chickens than in the slow-growing Xinghua chickens. On the other hand, expression levels of genes associated with multicellular organism development, immune response, DNA integration, melanin biosynthetic process, muscle organ development and oxidation-reduction (FRZB, DMD, FUT8, CYP2C45, DHRSX, and CYP2C18) and with glycol-metabolism (GCNT2, ELOVL 6, and FASN), were higher in the XH chickens than in the fast-growing chickens. RT-PCR validated high expression levels of nine out of 12 genes in fat tissues. The G1257069A and T1247123C of the ACSBG2 gene were significantly associated with abdominal fat weight. The G4928024A of the FASN gene

  17. Fat tissue and inflammation in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Rincón Bello, Abraham; Bucalo, Laura; Abad Estébanez, Soraya; Vega Martínez, Almudena; Barraca Núñez, Daniel; Yuste Lozano, Claudia; Pérez de José, Ana; López-Gómez, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Body weight has been increasing in the general population and is an established risk factor for hypertension, diabetes, and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) gain weight, mainly during the first months of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between body composition and metabolic and inflammatory status in patients undergoing PD. Methods This was a prospective, non-interventional study of prevalent patients receiving PD. Body composition was studied every 3 months using bioelectrical impedance (BCM®). We performed linear regression for each patient, including all BCM® measurements, to calculate annual changes in body composition. Thirty-one patients in our PD unit met the inclusion criteria. Results Median follow-up was 26 (range 17–27) months. Mean increase in weight was 1.8 ± 2.8 kg/year. However, BCM® analysis revealed a mean increase in fat mass of 3.0 ± 3.2 kg/year with a loss of lean mass of 2.3 ± 4.1 kg/year during follow-up. The increase in fat mass was associated with the conicity index, suggesting that increases in fat mass are based mainly on abdominal adipose tissue. Changes in fat mass were directly associated with inflammation parameters such as C-reactive protein (r = 0.382, P = 0.045) and inversely associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=−0.50, P = 0.008). Conclusions Follow-up of weight and body mass index can underestimate the fat mass increase and miss lean mass loss. The increase in fat mass is associated with proinflammatory state and alteration in lipid profile. PMID:27274820

  18. MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Dieckmeyer, Michael; Ruschke, Stefan; Franz, Daniela; Hauner, Hans; Kirschke, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using magnetic resonance (MR) methods has recently gained significant attention as it further extends our pathophysiological understanding of diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, or type 2 diabetes mellitus, and allows more detailed insights into treatment response and effects of lifestyle interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review the current literature on MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. PubMed search was performed to identify relevant studies on the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using MR methods. T1-, T2-weighted MR Imaging (MRI), Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), and chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI have been successfully used for the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. The relationship of insulin resistance and serum lipids with abdominal adipose tissue (i.e. subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue), liver, muscle, and bone marrow fat content have been extensively investigated and may help to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the multifaceted obese phenotype. MR methods have also been used to monitor changes of body fat distribution and characteristics after interventions (e.g. diet or physical activity) and revealed distinct, adipose tissue-specific properties. Lastly, chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI can detect brown adipose tissue which is currently the focus of intense research as a potential treatment target for obesity. In conclusion, MR methods reliably allow the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. Irrespective of the promising findings based on these MR methods the clinical usefulness remains to be established. PMID:26905521

  19. Preferences Predict Food Intake From 5 to 11 Years, but Not in Girls With Higher Weight Concerns, Dietary Restraint, and % Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Brandi Y.; Loken, Eric; Birch, Leann L.

    2012-01-01

    Food preferences (FP) predict food intake in childhood; however, the predictive power of FP may decline among girls as weight concerns (WC) and dietary restraint (DR) increase during preadolescence. To examine longitudinal change in the preference–intake (P–I) relation and assess whether this relation weakens among non-Hispanic white girls (n = 197) with a history of WC and DR from age 5 to 11. Girls’ preferences for and intake (kcal) of 10 palatable snack foods were assessed biennially. Height, weight, percent body fat (%BF), WC, and DR were measured. Individual correlation coefficients were calculated per girl to capture within-person P–I correlations at each time of measurement. Overall, FP predicted girls’ snack food calorie intakes between 5 and 11 years, but latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed three distinct patterns of change in P–I correlations over time: “strong/stable” P–I correlations were relatively high and became stronger with age; “increasing/later null” P–I correlations were initially weak and became stronger between 5 and 9 years, but dropped to near 0 at 11 years; “initially weak/later strong” P–I correlations were initially null and increased with age. Mixed models revealed that the “increasing/later null” group had greater increases in %BF, and higher WC, DR, and BMI percentiles from 5 to 11 years, compared to the other groups. In summary, FP predicted snack food calorie intake among most girls during childhood, but waned as a predictor of calorie intake at age 11 for a subset of girls with increasing %BF, and higher WC, DR, and BMIs. PMID:21350438

  20. Chylous Ascites after Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ohki, Shinichi; Kurumisawa, Soki

    2015-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was transferred for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. He had no history of abdominal surgeries. Grafting between the infra-renal abdominal aorta and the bilateral common iliac arteries was performed. Proximal and distal cross clamps were applied for grafting. He developed chylous ascites on the 5th post-operative day, 2 days after initiation of oral intake. Fortunately, he responded to treatment with total parenteral hyper-alimentation for 10 days, followed by a low-fat diet. There was no recurrence of ascites. PMID:27087873

  1. Chylous Ascites after Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Ohki, Shinichi; Kurumisawa, Soki; Misawa, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was transferred for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. He had no history of abdominal surgeries. Grafting between the infra-renal abdominal aorta and the bilateral common iliac arteries was performed. Proximal and distal cross clamps were applied for grafting. He developed chylous ascites on the 5th post-operative day, 2 days after initiation of oral intake. Fortunately, he responded to treatment with total parenteral hyper-alimentation for 10 days, followed by a low-fat diet. There was no recurrence of ascites. PMID:27087873

  2. Increased Consumption of Dairy Foods and Protein during Diet- and Exercise-Induced Weight Loss Promotes Fat Mass Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Overweight and Obese Premenopausal Women1234

    PubMed Central

    Josse, Andrea R.; Atkinson, Stephanie A.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss can have substantial health benefits for overweight or obese persons; however, the ratio of fat:lean tissue loss may be more important. We aimed to determine how daily exercise (resistance and/or aerobic) and a hypoenergetic diet varying in protein and calcium content from dairy foods would affect the composition of weight lost in otherwise healthy, premenopausal, overweight, and obese women. Ninety participants were randomized to 3 groups (n = 30/group): high protein, high dairy (HPHD), adequate protein, medium dairy (APMD), and adequate protein, low dairy (APLD) differing in the quantity of total dietary protein and dairy food-source protein consumed: 30 and 15%, 15 and 7.5%, or 15 and <2% of energy, respectively. Body composition was measured by DXA at 0, 8, and 16 wk and MRI (n = 39) to assess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume at 0 and 16 wk. All groups lost body weight (P < 0.05) and fat (P < 0.01); however, fat loss during wk 8–16 was greater in the HPHD group than in the APMD and APLD groups (P < 0.05). The HPHD group gained lean tissue with a greater increase during 8–16 wk than the APMD group, which maintained lean mass and the APLD group, which lost lean mass (P < 0.05). The HPHD group also lost more VAT as assessed by MRI (P < 0.05) and trunk fat as assessed by DXA (P < 0.005) than the APLD group. The reduction in VAT in all groups was correlated with intakes of calcium (r = 0.40; P < 0.05) and protein (r = 0.32; P < 0.05). Therefore, diet- and exercise-induced weight loss with higher protein and increased dairy product intakes promotes more favorable body composition changes in women characterized by greater total and visceral fat loss and lean mass gain. PMID:21775530

  3. Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Growth Performance Responses and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Poorghasemi, Mohammadreza; Seidavi, Alireza; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of three different fat sources and their combination on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal measurements of broiler chickens reared to 42 d of age. Two hundred day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to one of five treatments with four replicates of 10 chicks based on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 4% added fat from three different sources and their combination as follows: T, diet containing 4% tallow; CO, diet containing 4% canola oil; SFO, diet containing 4% sunflower oil; TCO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% canola oil; TSFO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% sunflower oil. Dietary fat type affected significantly BW and gain as well as feed efficiency in birds fed the TCO diets compared with those fed the other diets. Dietary fat type also modified meat yield, resulting in a higher breast and drumstick yields in the birds fed TCO and TSFO diets, respectively. Most of internal organ relative weights and small intestine measurements were not influenced by dietary treatments, except for the abdominal fat pad weight that was lower in birds fed SFO and for small intestinal length that was influenced by fat source. Results from the current study suggested that the supplementation with a combination of vegetable and animal fat sources in broiler diet supported positively growth performance and carcass parameters. PMID:25049842

  4. Water-induced thermogenesis and fat oxidation: a reassessment

    PubMed Central

    Charrière, N; Miles-Chan, J L; Montani, J-P; Dulloo, A G

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Drinking large amounts of water is often recommended for weight control. Whether water intake stimulates energy and fat metabolism is, however, controversial with some studies reporting that drinking half a litre or more of water increases resting energy expenditure (REE) by 10–30% and decreases respiratory quotient (RQ), whereas others report no significant changes in REE or RQ. The aim here was to reassess the concept of water-induced thermogenesis and fat oxidation in humans, with particular focus on interindividual variability in REE and RQ responses, comparison with a time-control Sham drink, and on the potential impact of gender, body composition and abdominal adiposity. Subjects/Methods: REE and RQ were measured in healthy young adults (n=27; body mass index range: 18.5–33.9 kg m−2), by ventilated hood indirect calorimetry for at least 30 min before and 130 min after ingesting 500 ml of purified (distilled) water at 21–22 °C or after Sham drinking, in a randomized cross-over design. Body composition and abdominal fat were assessed by bioimpedance techniques. Results: Drinking 500 ml of distilled water led to marginal increases in REE (<3% above baseline), independently of gender, but which were not significantly different from Sham drinking. RQ was found to fall after the water drink, independently of gender, but it also diminished to a similar extent in response to sham drinking. Interindividual variability in REE and RQ responses was not associated with body fatness, central adiposity or fat-free mass. Conclusions: This study conducted in young men and women varying widely in adiposity, comparing the ingestion of distilled water to Sham drinking, suggests that ingestion of purified water per se does not result in the stimulation of thermogenesis or fat oxidation. PMID:26690288

  5. The effects of leptin in combination with a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, AM 251, or cannabidiol on food intake and body weight in rats fed a high-fat or a free-choice high sugar diet.

    PubMed

    Wierucka-Rybak, M; Wolak, M; Bojanowska, E

    2014-08-01

    High intake of fats and sugars has prompted a rapid growth in the number of obese individuals worldwide. To further investigate whether simultaneous pharmacological intervention in the leptin and cannabinoid system might change food and water intake, preferences for palatable foods, and body weight, we have examined the effects of concomitant intraperitoneal administration of leptin and AM 251, a cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, or cannabidiol (CBD), a plant cannabinoid, in rats maintained on either a high-fat (HF) diet (45% energy from fat) or free-choice (FC) diet consisting of high-sucrose and normal rat chow (83% and 61% energy from carbohydrates, respectively). Leptin at a dose of 100 μg/kg injected individually for 3 subsequent days to rats fed a HF diet reduced significantly the daily caloric intake and inhibited body weight gain. The hormone had no significant effects, however, on either caloric intake, body weight or food preferences in rats fed an FC diet. Co-injection of leptin and 1 mg/kg AM 251 resulted in a further significant decrease in HF diet intake and a profound reduction in body weight gain both in HF diet- and FC diet-fed rats. This drug combination, however, had no effect on the consumption of high-sucrose chow. In contrast, 3mg/kg of CBD co-injected with leptin did not modify leptin effects on food intake in rats maintained on an FC or HF diet. None of the drug combinations affected water consumption. It is concluded that the concomitant treatment with leptin and AM 251 attenuated markedly body weight gain in rats maintained on high-calorie diets rich in fat and carbohydrates but did not affect preferences for sweet food. PMID:25179081

  6. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  7. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... results may also be due to: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abscesses Appendicitis Bowel wall thickening Retroperitoneal fibrosis Renal ... Livingstone; 2014:chap 4. Read More Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open Abscess Acute cholecystitis ...

  8. Invisible fat on CT: making it visible by MRI

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Emre; Karaosmanoğlu, Ali Devrim; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2016-01-01

    Presence of fat in a lesion significantly narrows the differential diagnosis. Small quantities of macroscopic fat and intracellular fat are invisible on computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reveal any fatty change in a lesion and can also differentiate macroscopic fat from intracellular and intravoxel fat. Hypodensity on CT may be a sign of invisible fat and MRI can help to diagnose even minute amounts of fat in liver, pancreas, adrenal, musculoskeletal, and omental pseudolesions and lesions. This article will review the superiority of MRI over CT in demonstrating fat in abdominal lesions. PMID:26782156

  9. Purple Tea and Its Extract Suppress Diet-induced Fat Accumulation in Mice and Human Subjects by Inhibiting Fat Absorption and Enhancing Hepatic Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Expression.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2015-06-01

    A number of clinical trials have been completed using green tea and black tea to investigate their effect in controlling weight in overweight adults. The results of these investigations, however, have often been contradictory, with some trials reporting positive effects of tea supplementation and some trials reporting no effect. As a result, the use of these teas for weight loss is controversial. Purple tea is a variety of green tea developed in Kenya (called TRFK306), which in addition to certain tea constituents found in green tea, also contains anthocyanins. The major constituents in the leaves of purple tea are caffeine, theobromine, epigallocatechin (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and 1,2-di-O-galloyl-4,6-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-D-glucose (GHG). We investigated the efficacy of purple tea extract (PTE) on diet-induced fat accumulation in mice. PTE administration (200 mg/kg) significantly suppressed body weight gain, liver weight, abdominal fat and triglycerides in serum and liver. Protein expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1A was also enhanced. In olive oil loaded mice, PTE (100 mg/kg) and caffeine (25 mg/kg) suppressed fat absorption. PTE (10 μg/mL) and GHG (10 μg/mL) also enhanced protein expression of CPT1A in HepG2 hepatoma. Moreover, 4-week daily consumption of purple tea drink in humans improved obesity parameters compared to baseline, including body weight (79.9 ± 3.1 kg vs 80.8 ± 3.2, p<0.05), body mass index (BMI) (26.8 ± 0.6 vs 27.0 ± 0.6, p<0.05) and body fat mass (21.0 ± 1.4 kg vs 21.8 ± 1.5, p<0.01). In conclusion, PTE could control diet-induced weight gain by suppression of fat absorption and enhancement of hepatic fat metabolism. PMID:26199579

  10. Purple Tea and Its Extract Suppress Diet-induced Fat Accumulation in Mice and Human Subjects by Inhibiting Fat Absorption and Enhancing Hepatic Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    A number of clinical trials have been completed using green tea and black tea to investigate their effect in controlling weight in overweight adults. The results of these investigations, however, have often been contradictory, with some trials reporting positive effects of tea supplementation and some trials reporting no effect. As a result, the use of these teas for weight loss is controversial. Purple tea is a variety of green tea developed in Kenya (called TRFK306), which in addition to certain tea constituents found in green tea, also contains anthocyanins. The major constituents in the leaves of purple tea are caffeine, theobromine, epigallocatechin (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and 1,2-di-O-galloyl-4,6-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-D-glucose (GHG). We investigated the efficacy of purple tea extract (PTE) on diet-induced fat accumulation in mice. PTE administration (200 mg/kg) significantly suppressed body weight gain, liver weight, abdominal fat and triglycerides in serum and liver. Protein expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1A was also enhanced. In olive oil loaded mice, PTE (100 mg/kg) and caffeine (25 mg/kg) suppressed fat absorption. PTE (10 μg/mL) and GHG (10 μg/mL) also enhanced protein expression of CPT1A in HepG2 hepatoma. Moreover, 4-week daily consumption of purple tea drink in humans improved obesity parameters compared to baseline, including body weight (79.9 ± 3.1 kg vs 80.8 ± 3.2, p<0.05), body mass index (BMI) (26.8 ± 0.6 vs 27.0 ± 0.6, p<0.05) and body fat mass (21.0 ± 1.4 kg vs 21.8 ± 1.5, p<0.01). In conclusion, PTE could control diet-induced weight gain by suppression of fat absorption and enhancement of hepatic fat metabolism PMID:26199579

  11. Exercise and Fat Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This document analyzes the problems encountered by the obese individual and the effects of regular exercise on weight loss and fat reduction. Part one compares the psychological traits of obese children with age groups of normal weight and discusses the organic disorders and social attitudes which plague the overweight individual. Part two states…

  12. Hypertension and abnormal fat distribution but not insulin resistance in mice with P465L PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yau-Sheng; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Hagaman, John R.; Kim, Jason K.; Maeda, Nobuyo

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ (PPARγ), the molecular target of a class of insulin sensitizers, regulates adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. A dominant negative P467L mutation in the ligand-binding domain of PPARγ in humans is associated with severe insulin resistance and hypertension. Homozygous mice with the equivalent P465L mutation die in utero. Heterozygous mice grow normally and have normal total adipose tissue weight. However, they have reduced interscapular brown adipose tissue and intra-abdominal fat mass, and increased extra-abdominal subcutaneous fat, compared with wild-type mice. They have normal plasma glucose levels and insulin sensitivity, and increased glucose tolerance. However, during high-fat feeding, their plasma insulin levels are mildly elevated in association with a significant increase in pancreatic islet mass. They are hypertensive, and expression of the angiotensinogen gene is increased in their subcutaneous adipose tissues. The effects of P465L on blood pressure, fat distribution, and insulin sensitivity are the same in both male and female mice regardless of diet and age. Thus the P465L mutation alone is sufficient to cause abnormal fat distribution and hypertension but not insulin resistance in mice. These results provide genetic evidence for a critical role for PPARγ in blood pressure regulation that is not dependent on altered insulin sensitivity. PMID:15254591

  13. Body Fat Patterning, Hepatic Fat and Pancreatic Volume of Non-Obese Asian Indians with Type 2 Diabetes in North India: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Anoop; Anoop, Shajith; Gulati, Seema; Mani, Kalaivani; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate body fat patterning and phenotype including hepatic fat and pancreatic volume of non-obese (BMI: < 25 kg/m2) Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes residing in North India. Methods Non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 93) and non-obese, normo-glycemic subjects (n = 40) were recruited. BMI, waist & hip circumferences, skinfold thickness at 8 sites, body fat, lean mass and detailed abdominal fat evaluation [total abdominal fat, total subcutaneous fat (superficial, deep, anterior, and posterior), total intra-abdominal fat (intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal)], liver span, grades of fatty liver and pancreatic volume were compared. Results Waist circumference, subscapular skinfolds and total truncal fat (on DEXA) were higher whereas calf, total peripheral skinfolds and total leg fat (on DEXA) lower in patients. Specifically, the following volumes were higher in cases as compared to controls; total abdominal fat (19.4%), total intra-abdominal fat (49.7%), intra-peritoneal fat (47.7%), retroperitoneal fat (70.7%), pancreatic volume (26.6%), pancreatic volume index (21.3%) and liver span (10.8%). In cases, significant positive correlations were observed for pancreatic volume with BMI, waist and hip circumferences, W-HR, subscapular, abdominal and total truncal skinfolds, truncal, total subcutaneous, total intra-abdominal, intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal fat depots, liver span and fatty liver. Conclusions In non-obese Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal obesity, including fatty liver, and pancreatic volume were higher and peripheral subcutaneous adiposity was lower than BMI matched non-diabetic subjects. Importantly, increased pancreatic volume in patients was highly correlated with multiple measures of abdominal obesity and liver fat. PMID:26474415

  14. Intra-Individual, Inter-Vendor Comparison of Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging of Upper Abdominal Organs at 3.0 Tesla with an Emphasis on the Value of Normalization with the Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seung Bae; Chung, Gyung Ho; Jin, Gong Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of upper abdominal organs with 2 different 3.0 tesla MR systems and to investigate the usefulness of normalization using the spleen. Materials and Methods Forty-one patients were enrolled in this prospective study, of which, 35 patients (M:F, 27:8; mean age ± standard deviation, 62.3 ± 12.3 years) were finally analyzed. In addition to the routine liver MR protocol, single-shot spin-echo echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging using b values of 0, 50, 400, and 800 s/mm2 in 2 different MR systems was performed. ADC values of the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney and liver lesion (if present) were measured and analyzed. ADC values of the spleen were used for normalization. The Pearson correlation, Spearman correlation, paired sample t test, Wilcoxon signed rank test and Bland-Altman method were used for statistical analysis. Results For all anatomical regions and liver lesions, both non-normalized and normalized ADC values from 2 different MR systems showed significant correlations (r = 0.5196–0.8488). Non-normalized ADC values of both MR systems differed significantly in all anatomical regions and liver lesions (p < 0.001). However, the normalized ADC of all anatomical regions and liver lesions did not differ significantly (p = 0.065–0.661), with significantly lower coefficient of variance than that of non-normalized ADC (p < 0.009). Conclusion Normalization of the abdominal ADC values using the spleen as a reference organ reduces differences between different MR systems, and could facilitate consistent use of ADC as an imaging biomarker for multi-center or longitudinal studies. PMID:26957905

  15. A high-fat diet negatively affects rat sperm mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, A; Conte, A; Moscatelli, N; Zara, V

    2016-05-01

    Recent evidences have linked abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia to male infertility. Since a defective energy metabolism may play an important role in the impairment of sperm quality, the aim of this study is to investigate the sperm energetic metabolism in rats fed with a high-fat diet, an animal model associated with metabolic syndrome development. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups and fed for 4 weeks a standard diet (control group) or a diet enriched in 35% of fat (high fat group). Liver and adipose tissue weight, plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid concentrations were determined. Activities of enzymes involved in sperm energetic metabolism were evaluated by spectrophotometric assays. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption. The administration of a high-fat diet caused a significant increase in body weight of rats and provoked hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia. In these animals, we also observed a reduction in sperm concentration and motility. The investigation of sperm energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet revealed an impairment in the activity of pyruvate and lactate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and respiratory chain complexes. A parallel reduction in the cellular levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and an increase in oxidative damage were also observed. A defective energy metabolism may play an important role in the impairment of sperm quality in the high-fat diet fed rats. PMID:27062222

  16. Association of Waist Circumference and Body Fat Weight with Insulin Resistance in Male Subjects with Normal Body Mass Index and Normal Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ryoma; Yano, Yutaka; Yasuma, Taro; Onishi, Yuki; Suzuki, Toshinari; Maruyama-Furuta, Noriko; Gabazza, Esteban C; Sumida, Yasuhiro; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the relationship of the waist circumference (WC) and body fat weight (BF) with insulin resistance in subjects with normal body mass index (BMI) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during a routine medical check-up. Methods We categorized 167 male subjects in three groups as follows: a group with normal BMI but high WC (normal-BMI/high-WC group; 22≤BMI<25 kg/m(2), waist ≥85 cm; n=31), a group with normal BMI and normal WC (normal-BMI/normal-WC group, waist <85 cm; n=68), and a group with low normal BMI and normal WC (low normal-BMI/normal-WC group; 18.5≤BMI<22 kg/m(2) and waist<85 cm; n=68). We measured the plasma glucose and serum insulin levels before glucose loading and after 30 and 120 minutes and calculated several indexes of insulin secretion and sensitivity. Results Subjects from the normal-BMI/high-WC group showed significantly decreased Matsuda index and increased homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) compared with normal-BMI/normal-WC group. Univariate regression analyses showed significant correlation of HOMA-IR with WC (r=0.39) and BF (r=0.37). Matsuda index was significantly correlated with WC (r=-0.39) and BF (r=-0.47). The multiple regression analysis showed that the BF is significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (p<0.05) and Masuda index (p<0.005) among the clinical variables and with HOMA-IR (p<0.05) and Masuda index (p<0.0001) among the anthropometric variables but not with WC in either analysis. Conclusion Decreased Matsuda index and increased HOMA-IR were observed in subjects from the normal-BMI/high-WC group. Multivariate analysis showed that BF is associated with decreased Matsuda index and increased HOMA-IR and that WC is not associated with either factors. PMID:27250047

  17. Internal Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Following a Meal-Replacement Regimen vs. Comprehensive Lifestyle Changes in Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    König, Daniel; Zdzieblik, Denise; Deibert, Peter; Berg, Aloys; Gollhofer, Albert; Büchert, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a meal-replacement regimen vs. comprehensive lifestyle changes in overweight or obese subjects on intra-abdominal fat stores (Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurements) and cardiometabolic risk factors. Forty-two obese men (n = 18) and women (n = 24) (age 49 ± 8 years; weight 96.3 ± 12.1 kg; BMI 32.7 ± 2.3 kg/m2) were selected for this randomized parallel-group design investigation. Subjects in the lifestyle group (LS-G; n = 22) received dietary counselling sessions and instructions how to increase physical activity. In the meal replacement group (MR-G; n = 20) meals were replaced by a low-calorie drink high in soy protein. After six months, subjects in the LS-G lost 8.88 ± 6.24 kg and subjects in the MR-G lost 7.1 ± 2.33 kg; p < 0.01 for changes within groups; no significant differences were found between the groups. Lean body mass remained constant in both intervention groups. MRI analyses showed that internal fat was significantly reduced in both groups to a comparable amount; the higher fat loss in the LS-G in the abdominal area was due to a higher reduction in subcutaneous fat. Both interventions significantly reduced components of the cardiometabolic risk profile and leptin levels. The decrease in the adipokines fetuin A and resistin was more pronounced in the MR-G. In conclusion, both interventions significantly reduced body weight, total fat mass and internal abdominal fat while preserving lean body mass. The reduction in the adipokines fetuin A and resistin was more pronounced in the meal replacement group suggesting an additional effect of soy protein components. PMID:26633473

  18. A high-fat diet increases body weight and circulating estradiol levels but does not improve bone structural properties in ovariectomized mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovariectomy-induced estrogen deficiency increases adiposity and induces substantial bone loss by increasing osteoclast activity. Diet-induced obesity is detrimental to bone mass by increasing bone resorption in various animal models. This study investigated whether obesity induced by a high-fat diet...

  19. Association between the APOA2 promoter polymorphism and body weight in Mediterranean and Asia populations: replication of a gene-saturated fat interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The APOA2 gene has been associated with obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in animal and human studies with controversial results. We have reported an APOA2–saturated fat interaction determining body mass index (BMI) and obesity in American populations. This work aims to extend our findi...

  20. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, and soy protein and their hydrolysates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates from white rice, brown rice, and soy isolate were compared to the original protein source. White rice, brown rice, and soy protein were hydrolyzed with the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L®. Male Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing eithe...

  1. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ... blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most often seen in males over age ...

  2. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abdominal pain Acute cholecystitis Acute kidney failure Addison disease Adenomyosis Annular pancreas Aplastic anemia Appendicitis Ascariasis Atheroembolic renal disease Biliary atresia Blind loop syndrome Cholangitis Chronic ...

  3. Body Fat May Be Bigger Health Danger Than Body Size

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_157631.html Body Fat May Be Bigger Health Danger Than Body Size Study finds fat levels ... Body Weight Obesity Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Body Weight Obesity About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  4. Fats and oils: An overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary fat is a macronutrient that has historically engendered considerable controversy and continues to do so. Contentious areas include optimal amount and type for cardiovascular disease risk reduction, and role in body weight regulation. Dietary fats and oils are unique in modern times in that ...

  5. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  6. High-carbohydrate high-fat diet–induced metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular remodeling in rats.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Sunil K; Poudyal, Hemant; Iyer, Abishek; Nazer, Reeza; Alam, Ashraful; Diwan, Vishal; Kauter, Kathleen; Sernia, Conrad; Campbell, Fiona; Ward, Leigh; Gobe, Glenda; Fenning, Andrew; Brown, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome including central obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia is increasing. Development of adequate therapy for metabolic syndrome requires an animal model that mimics the human disease state. Therefore, we have characterized the metabolic, cardiovascular, hepatic, renal, and pancreatic changes in male Wistar rats (8-9 weeks old) fed on a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet including condensed milk (39.5%), beef tallow (20%), and fructose (17.5%) together with 25% fructose in drinking water; control rats were fed a cornstarch diet. During 16 weeks on this diet, rats showed progressive increases in body weight, energy intake, abdominal fat deposition, and abdominal circumference along with impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and increased plasma leptin and malondialdehyde concentrations. Cardiovascular signs included increased systolic blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction together with inflammation, fibrosis, hypertrophy, increased stiffness, and delayed repolarization in the left ventricle of the heart. The liver showed increased wet weight, fat deposition, inflammation, and fibrosis with increased plasma activity of liver enzymes. The kidneys showed inflammation and fibrosis, whereas the pancreas showed increased islet size. In comparison with other models of diabetes and obesity, this diet-induced model more closely mimics the changes observed in human metabolic syndrome. PMID:20966763

  7. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular remodeling in rats.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Sunil K; Poudyal, Hemant; Iyer, Abishek; Nazer, Reeza; Alam, Md Ashraful; Diwan, Vishal; Kauter, Kathleen; Sernia, Conrad; Campbell, Fiona; Ward, Leigh; Gobe, Glenda; Fenning, Andrew; Brown, Lindsay

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome including central obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia is increasing. Development of adequate therapy for metabolic syndrome requires an animal model that mimics the human disease state. Therefore, we have characterized the metabolic, cardiovascular, hepatic, renal, and pancreatic changes in male Wistar rats (8-9 weeks old) fed on a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet including condensed milk (39.5%), beef tallow (20%), and fructose (17.5%) together with 25% fructose in drinking water; control rats were fed a cornstarch diet. During 16 weeks on this diet, rats showed progressive increases in body weight, energy intake, abdominal fat deposition, and abdominal circumference along with impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and increased plasma leptin and malondialdehyde concentrations. Cardiovascular signs included increased systolic blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction together with inflammation, fibrosis, hypertrophy, increased stiffness, and delayed repolarization in the left ventricle of the heart. The liver showed increased wet weight, fat deposition, inflammation, and fibrosis with increased plasma activity of liver enzymes. The kidneys showed inflammation and fibrosis, whereas the pancreas showed increased islet size. In comparison with other models of diabetes and obesity, this diet-induced model more closely mimics the changes observed in human metabolic syndrome. PMID:21572266

  8. Ghrelin Suppression and Fat Loss after Left Gastric Artery Embolization in Canine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bawudun, Dilmurat; Xing Yan; Liu Wenya Huang Yujie; Ren Weixin; Ma Mei; Xu Xiaodong; Teng Gaojun

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of left gastric artery embolization (LGAE) on plasma ghrelin levels, abdominal fat, and body weight in beagles. Methods: The institutional animal care and use committee approved this study. Fifteen healthy adult beagles (12 male and three female animals) were randomly divided into three experimental groups: LGAE was proceeded with mixed emulsion of bleomycin A{sub 5} hydrochloride and lipiodol (group A), and polyvinyl alcohol particles (group B). Transcatheter saline injections in the left gastric artery were performed as a control. Weight and fasting plasma ghrelin levels were obtained at baseline and at weekly intervals for 8 weeks after the procedure in all animals. All animals were scanned and measured by multidetector computed tomography at baseline and at week 8 for evaluation of abdominal fat. Results: In LGAE-treated animals, plasma ghrelin and body weight significantly decreased compared to control animals (group A: P = 0.007 and P = 0.000; group B: P = 0.004 and P = 0.000, respectively). Subcutaneous fat size was also significantly reduced (P = 0.011 and P = 0.027 for groups A and B, respectively). The decreasing percentage in ghrelin levels at week 6 (peak of recovery) of LGAE-treated animals were negatively correlated with the size of area supplied by left gastric artery (r = -0.693, P = 0.026). Conclusion: LGAE could suppress the plasma concentration of ghrelin, which results in subcutaneous fat size reduction and weight loss. Compensatory ghrelin production might occur in the remnant gastric fundus after LGAE.

  9. Does the Effect of Supervised Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs on Body Fat Distribution Remained Long Time?

    PubMed Central

    Nalini, Mehdi; Moradi, Bahieh; Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Maleki, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An increased accumulation of fat in the intra-abdominal cavity is highly correlated with adverse coronary risk profiles. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) produces a host of health benefits related to modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. Further research is needed to define better program for weight loss and risk improvement in coronary patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supervised and unsupervised cardiac rehabilitation program on body composition and body fat distribution in a population with coronary artery disease. Methods: The study investigated 167 patients with coronary artery disease (73% males; mean age = 52.67±9.11 years) before and after a supervised protocol cardiac rehabilitation program, and 12-months later. Target variables included body fat distribution indices (waist and hip circumference and waist to hip ratio), weight and body mass index. Results: Weight, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio and body mass index significantly decreased with 2 month supervised program (P<0.001), but hip circumference was not significantly changed. Males improved to a greater extent than the female patients. All of measurements relatively returned to baseline at the end of program (after 12 months). Conclusion: Supervised cardiac rehabilitation program results in improvements in body composition and body fat distribution. The effects of non-supervised program were minimal and the program needed to be reviewed. PMID:24404342

  10. Correlation of epicardial fat and anthropometric measurements in Asian-Indians: A community based study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Ranjan; Vivek, G.; Naha, Kushal; Nayak, Krishnananda; Goyal, Amit; Dias, Lorraine S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is increasingly evident that visceral adipose tissue plays a leading role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Unfortunately, accurate quantification of intra-abdominal visceral fat is cumbersome and expensive. Epicardial fat represents the component of visceral fat distributed around the heart, and is readily and non-invasively assessed by echocardiography. AIMS: To determine the correlation of epicardial fat with anthropometric parameters in a healthy population of Asian-Indians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a community outreach program from December to March 2011. Individuals over 18 years of age were included in the study. Anthropometric data was collected for all patients. Epicardial fat was assessed in parasternal long and short axes. RESULTS: 350 healthy individuals were included in the study. Of them, 66.7% were males. Mean age was 42.7 ± 15.3 years (range 18-84). Mean body-mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were 23.3 ± 4.5 kg/m2 (range 15.2-34.3) and 80.2 ± 13.3 cm (range 43-115) respectively. Mean epicardial fat in both axes was 2.6 ± 1.3 mm (range 0.3-7.0). Epicardial fat measured in both axes correlated well with weight (r = 0.399, P < 0.001), waist circumference (r = 0.522, P < 0.001) and BMI (r = 0.471, P < 0.001). Epicardial fat also correlated with age (r = 0.559, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There is an excellent correlation between epicardial fat measured by echocardiography and anthropometric parameters of metabolic syndrome. PMID:23826555

  11. Abdominal Compartment Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maluso, Patrick; Olson, Jody; Sarani, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare but potentially morbid diagnoses. Clinical index of suspicion for these disorders should be raised following massive resuscitation, abdominal wall reconstruction/injury, and in those with space-occupying disorders in the abdomen. Gold standard for diagnosis involves measurement of bladder pressure, with a pressure greater than 12 mm Hg being consistent with IAH and greater than 25 mm Hg being consistent with ACS. Decompressive laparotomy is definitive therapy but paracentesis can be equally therapeutic in properly selected patients. Left untreated, ACS can lead to multisystem organ failure and death. PMID:27016163

  12. Varying protein source and quantity does not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This pilot study tested whether varying protein source and quantity in a reduced energy diet would result in significant differences in weight, body composition, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5 month weight reduction study, invol...

  13. Effects of high protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: The benefits of high protein diets for sparing lean body mass and sustaining skeletal muscle protein metabolism during short-term weight loss in normal-weight adults are not well described. Objective: Determine the effects of varying levels of dietary protein intake on body compos...

  14. Comparison of two fat-suppressed magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences to standard t2-weighted images for brain parenchymal contrast and lesion detection in dogs with inflammatory intracranial disease.

    PubMed

    Young, Benjamin D; Mankin, Joseph M; Griffin, John F; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Fowler, Jennifer L; Levine, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    T2-weighted (T2w) sequences are commonly relied upon in magnetic resonance imaging protocols for the detection of brain lesions in dogs. Previously, the effect of fluid suppression via fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) has been compared to T2-weighting with mixed results. Short tau inversion recovery (STIR) has been reported to increase the detection of some CNS lesions in people. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of fat suppression on brain parenchymal contrast resolution and lesion detection in dogs. We compared three sequences: T2w images, STIR, and T2w FLAIR with chemical fat suppression (T2-FLAIR-FS) in dogs with meningoencephalitis. Dogs with meningoencephalitis and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy were retrospectively identified and anonymized. Evaluators recorded the presence or absence of lesions within 12 predetermined brain regions on randomized sequences, viewing and scoring each sequence individually. Additionally, signal-to-noise ratios, contrast-to-noise ratios, and relative contrast (RC) were measured in a reference population. Short tau inversion recovery sequences had the highest RC between gray and white matter. While descriptively more lesions were identified by evaluators on T2-FLAIR-FS images, there was no statistical difference in the relative sensitivity of lesion detection between the sequences. Nor was there a statistical difference in false lesion detection within our reference population. Short tau inversion recovery may be favored for enhanced anatomic contrast depiction in brain imaging. No benefit of the inclusion of a fat-suppressed T2-FLAIR sequence was found. PMID:25395066

  15. Does this book make me look fat? The effect of protagonist body weight and body esteem on female readers' body esteem.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Melissa J; Magee, Robert G

    2013-03-01

    Effects of visual representations of the thin ideal in the media have been widely explored, but textual representations of the thin ideal in novels have received scant attention. The chick literature genre has been criticized for depicting characters who worry about their body weight and who have poor body esteem. Excerpts from two chick lit novels were used to examine the effect of a protagonist's body weight and body esteem on college women's (N=159) perceptions of their sexual attractiveness and weight concern. Two narratives were used to minimize the possibility that idiosyncratic characteristics of one excerpt might influence the study's results. Underweight (vs. healthy weight) protagonists predicted readers' lower perceived sexual attractiveness. Protagonists with low body esteem (vs. control) predicted readers' increased weight concern. Scholars and health officials should be concerned about the effect chick lit novels might have on women's body image. PMID:23219006

  16. Fat Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Sean F.; Pike, Oscar A.

    Methods for characterizing edible lipids, fats, and oils can be separated into two categories: those developed to analyze bulk oils and fats, and those focusing on analysis of foodstuffs and their lipid extracts. In evaluating foodstuffs, it is usually necessary to extract the lipids prior to analysis. In these cases, if sufficient quantities of lipids are available, methods developed for bulk fats and oils can be utilized.

  17. Abdominal Circulatory Interactions.

    PubMed

    Dagar, Gaurav; Taneja, Amit; Nanchal, Rahul S

    2016-04-01

    The abdominal compartment is separated from the thoracic compartment by the diaphragm. Under normal circumstances, a large portion of the venous return crosses the splanchnic and nonsplanchnic abdominal regions before entering the thorax and the right side of the heart. Mechanical ventilation may affect abdominal venous return independent of its interactions at the thoracic level. Changes in pressure in the intra-abdominal compartment may have important implications for organ function within the thorax, particularly if there is a sustained rise in intra-abdominal pressure. It is important to understand the consequences of abdominal pressure changes on respiratory and circulatory physiology. This article elucidates important abdominal-respiratory-circulatory interactions and their clinical effects. PMID:27016167

  18. Susceptibility variants for waist size in relation to abdominal, visceral, and hepatic adiposity in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R; Albright, Cheryl L; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants that can contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist-size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women was selected among study participants of The Multiethnic Cohort, who were aged 60 to 65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with a body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) between 18.5 and 40. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity, and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (P=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (P=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (P=0.03) and percent liver fat (P=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent of leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size might also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants can be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution. PMID:22889634

  19. Susceptibility Variants for Waist Size in Relation to Abdominal, Visceral and Hepatic Adiposity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Albright, Cheryl L.; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D.; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common genetic variants that may contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women were selected among study participants of Multiethnic Cohort, who were of ages 60–65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 40 kg/m2. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (p=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (p=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (p=0.03) and percent liver fat (p=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size may also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants may be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution. PMID:22889634

  20. A study of abdominal ultrasound therapy combined with complex exercise for effective obesity management among shift work employees

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Seop; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Yeon-Seop; Lee, Byoung-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of abdominal ultrasound accompanied by complex exercise in shift work employees working in industry. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty shift work employees were randomly assigned to either a complex exercise group (control group) or a complex exercise and ultrasound treatment group (experimental group). The control group carried out complex exercise five times per week for 4 weeks, while the experimental group performed complex exercise twice per week and received deep ultrasound three times per week for 4 weeks. [Results] The results showed that there were no significant differences in body composition between the two groups. There were significant changes in weight, lean body mass, body fat mass, and body mass index in the control group; meanwhile, significant changes in weight and body fat mass were observed in the experimental group. There were no significant differences in blood lipids between the two groups. There was a significant decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the control group; furthermore, a significant decrease in total cholesterol was observed in the experimental group, along with significant increases in HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study concerning short-term obesity management programs, complex exercise was effective for improving of body composition and weight loss, while complex exercise combined with abdominal ultrasound had a good effect on blood lipids and secondary complication prevention. PMID:25642080

  1. A moderate fat, low-energy dry expanded diet reduces gain in body condition score when fed as part of a post neutering weight-control regimen in growing pet cats.

    PubMed

    Spofford, Nathaniel; Mougeot, Isabelle; Elliott, Denise A; Addleman, Ashlee; Lefebvre, Sandra L; Wang, Mansen; Yang, Mingyin; Feugier, Alexandre; Biourge, Vincent; Lund, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    Neutering of cats has been associated with significant weight gain in the weeks following surgery. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a moderate fat, low-energy dry expanded diet in reducing weight gain in growing pet cats when fed as part of a weight-control regimen over the 6 months post-neutering. Cats in participating primary care veterinary hospitals were enrolled at neutering and assigned to receive one of the two dietary treatments based on the hospital of origin. Owners of cats in the treatment group were instructed to feed the trial diet at maintenance (324·7 kJ/kg BW(0·711) per d). Instructions for the control group were to feed the cat's regular diet according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Body weight and condition were evaluated by veterinarians at enrolment, 2-weeks, and 1-4 and 6 months after surgery. Body condition score (five-point scale) was compared between enrolment and each subsequent visit, controlling for enrolment age and sex. Percentage change in body weight was evaluated via multivariate mixed modelling to account for repeated measures. A total of 187 cats (eighty-seven females and 100 males) with a mean age of 5·2 (sd 0·8) months and mean weight of 2·8 (sd 0·6) kg from fifty-one hospitals completed the trial. The odds of being scored as overweight were 4·1 times as great for cats in the control v. treatment groups (95 % CI 2·1, 8·2). Percentage change in body weight differed significantly with enrolment age (P = 0·007) and approached significance between diet groups (P = 0·08). Cats fed the trial diet had a significantly reduced incidence of overweight in the 6 months following neutering. PMID:26101609

  2. Circulating Sclerostin Associated With Vertebral Bone Marrow Fat in Older Men But Not Women

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yu-Heng Vivian; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hue, Trisha F.; Lang, Thomas F.; Harris, Tamara B.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Hauksdottir, Alda M.; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Oskarsdottir, Diana; Napoli, Nicola; Palermo, Lisa; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Li, Xiaojuan

    2014-01-01

    Context: Osteocyte activity is crucial to the maintenance of bone quality. Sclerostin, an osteocyte product, inhibits bone formation, yet higher circulating sclerostin is associated with higher bone density. Bone marrow fat (MF) is associated with osteoporosis, but little is known about the relationship between osteocyte activity and MF. Objective: Our objective was to assess the relationships between circulating sclerostin, vertebral MF, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and other fat depots in older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik cohort. Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures included vertebral MF (L1-L4) measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and vBMD (spine and hip) and abdominal fat measured with quantitative computed tomography. Results: After excluding subjects with bone-active medication use (n = 50), inadequate serum (n = 2), or inadequate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (n = 1), analyses included 115 men and 134 women (mean age 79 y, mean body mass index 27.7 kg/m2). In men, but not women, vertebral MF was greater in those with higher serum sclerostin levels. MF was 52.2 % in the lowest tertile of serum sclerostin and 56.3% in the highest tertile in men (P for trend <.01) in models adjusted for age, body mass index, and diabetes. Sclerostin was positively associated with cortical and trabecular total hip vBMD, weight in men and women, and total fat mass in men but was not associated with total lean mass or abdominal fat depots. Conclusion: Circulating sclerostin levels are associated with higher vertebral marrow fat in men, suggesting a relationship between osteocyte function and marrow adipogenesis. PMID:25144629

  3. The Effects of Combined Exercise on Health-Related Fitness, Endotoxin, and Immune Function of Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Mo; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Ji, Jin-Goo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of combined exercise on health-related fitness, endotoxin concentrations, and immune functions of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. 20 voluntary participants were recruited and they were randomly allocated to the combined exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio ≥0.4 based on computed tomography (CT) results. Body composition, exercise stress testing, fitness measurement, CT scan, and blood variables were analyzed to elucidate the effects of combined exercise. The SPSS Statistics 18.0 program was used to calculate means and standard deviations for all variables. Significant differences between the exercise group and control group were determined with 2-way ANOVA and paired t-tests. The exercise group's abdominal obesity was mitigated due to visceral fat reduction; grip strength, push-ups, and oxygen uptake per weight improved; and HDL-C and IgA level also increased, while TNF-α, CD14, and endotoxin levels decreased. Lowered TNF-α after exercise might have an important role in the obesity reduction. Therefore, we can conclude that combined exercise is effective in mitigating abdominal obesity, preventing metabolic diseases, and enhancing immune function. PMID:26075288

  4. Comparisons of obesity assessments in over-weight elementary students using anthropometry, BIA, CT and DEXA

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ok-Kyeong; Rhee, Yang-Keun; Park, Tae-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Obesity was characterized in Korean elementary students using different obesity assessment tests on 103 overweight elementary students from three schools of Jeonbuk Province. The body mass index (BMI) and obesity index (OI) were compared, and the data using DEXA and CT were compared with the data using BIA and a tape measure. The results of this study are as follows: first, 27 students who were classified as obese by OI were classified as overweight by BMI, and 3 students who were classified as standard weight by BMI were classified as overweight by OI. Secondly, by DEXA and BIA measurements, there was 1.51% difference in body fat percentage (boys 1.66%, girls 1.17%) and the difference in body fat mass between boys and girls was 0.77 kg (boys 0.85 kg, girls 0.59 kg), but those differences in body fat percentage and mass were not statistically significant. Thirdly, the average total abdominal fat (TAF) measured by CT scans of obese children was more significantly related with subcutaneous fat (r = 0.983, P < 0.01) than visceral fat (r = 0.640, P < 0.01). Also, TAF were highest significant with waist circumference by a tape measure (r = 0.744, P < 0.01). In summary, as there are some differences of assessment results between two obesity test methods (BMI, OI), we need more definite standards to determine the degree of obesity. The BIA seems to be the most simple and effective way to measure body fat mass, whereas waist/hip ratio (WHR) using a tape measurer is considered to be the most effective method for assessing abdominal fat in elementary students. PMID:20461201

  5. Multiecho water-fat separation and simultaneous R2* estimation with multifrequency fat spectrum modeling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huanzhou; Shimakawa, Ann; McKenzie, Charles A; Brodsky, Ethan; Brittain, Jean H; Reeder, Scott B

    2008-11-01

    Multiecho chemical shift-based water-fat separation methods are seeing increasing clinical use due to their ability to estimate and correct for field inhomogeneities. Previous chemical shift-based water-fat separation methods used a relatively simple signal model that assumes both water and fat have a single resonant frequency. However, it is well known that fat has several spectral peaks. This inaccuracy in the signal model results in two undesired effects. First, water and fat are incompletely separated. Second, methods designed to estimate T(2) (*) in the presence of fat incorrectly estimate the T(2) (*) decay in tissues containing fat. In this work, a more accurate multifrequency model of fat is included in the iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) water-fat separation and simultaneous T(2) (*) estimation techniques. The fat spectrum can be assumed to be constant in all subjects and measured a priori using MR spectroscopy. Alternatively, the fat spectrum can be estimated directly from the data using novel spectrum self-calibration algorithms. The improvement in water-fat separation and T(2) (*) estimation is demonstrated in a variety of in vivo applications, including knee, ankle, spine, breast, and abdominal scans. PMID:18956464

  6. Get the fat out!

    PubMed

    Ignatenko, Natalia A; Gerner, Eugene W

    2013-03-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of a number of cancers in humans, but the mechanism(s) responsible for these associations have not been established. It is estimated that 68% of adults are overweight or obese and that obesity may be causative in 4% to 7% of cancers in the United States. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the association between obesity and cancer including adipose-directed signaling (e.g., mTOR, AMPK), production of factors (e.g., insulin growth factor 1, fibroblast growth factor 1, and/or chronic inflammation associated with obesity. Huffman and colleagues used surgical methods to determine if visceral fat was causally related to intestinal tumorigenesis in the Apc(1638/N+) mouse in a manner independent of confounding factors such as caloric restriction. They found that caloric restriction could extend survival in both male and female Apc(1638/N+) mice but found that surgical removal of visceral fat was only effective in reducing macroadenomas in females. The results of this study do not identify the specific mechanism of association between visceral fat and intestinal carcinogenesis in female mice but do support the rationale for future cancer prevention trials that evaluate pharmacologic and behavioral strategies to reduce abdominal obesity in humans. Cancer Prev Res; 6(3); 161-4. ©2013 AACR. PMID:23466814

  7. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors, including cancer Infections or injury Kidney stones Appendicitis ... also be due to: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abscesses Appendicitis Bowel wall thickening Retroperitoneal fibrosis Renal artery stenosis ...

  8. Changes in Body Weight and Fat Mass of Men and Women in the First Year of College: A Study of the "Freshman 15"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Daniel J.; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Lee, Soo-Kyung

    2006-01-01

    Students entering their first year of college are faced with many stresses and changes, including changes in eating and exercise behavior. A common but often undocumented myth among college students is that there is a high risk of gaining 15 pounds of weight during freshman year. The objective of this study was to measure changes in body weight…

  9. Pharmacological and Genetic Manipulation of p53 in Brown Fat at Adult But Not Embryonic Stages Regulates Thermogenesis and Body Weight in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Massadi, Omar; Porteiro, Begoña; Kuhlow, Doreen; Köhler, Markus; Gonzalez-Rellan, María J; Garcia-Lavandeira, Montserrat; Díaz-Rodríguez, Esther; Quiñones, Mar; Senra, Ana; Alvarez, Clara V; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos; Schulz, Tim J; Nogueiras, Rubén

    2016-07-01

    p53 is a well-known tumor suppressor that plays multiple biological roles, including the capacity to modulate metabolism at different levels. However, its metabolic role in brown adipose tissue (BAT) remains largely unknown. Herein we sought to investigate the physiological role of endogenous p53 in BAT and its implication on BAT thermogenic activity and energy balance. To this end, we generated and characterized global p53-null mice and mice lacking p53 specifically in BAT. Additionally we performed gain-and-loss-of-function experiments in the BAT of adult mice using virogenetic and pharmacological approaches. BAT was collected and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, thermography, real-time PCR, and Western blot. p53-deficient mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity due to increased energy expenditure and BAT activity. However, the deletion of p53 in BAT using a Myf5-Cre driven p53 knockout did not show any changes in body weight or the expression of thermogenic markers. The acute inhibition of p53 in the BAT of adult mice slightly increased body weight and inhibited BAT thermogenesis, whereas its overexpression in the BAT of diet-induced obese mice reduced body weight and increased thermogenesis. On the other hand, pharmacological activation of p53 improves body weight gain due to increased BAT thermogenesis by sympathetic nervous system in obese adult wild-type mice but not in p53(-/-) animals. These results reveal that p53 regulates BAT metabolism by coordinating body weight and thermogenesis, but these metabolic actions are tissue specific and also dependent on the developmental stage. PMID:27183316

  10. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Keisler, Brian; Carter, Chuck

    2015-04-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm refers to abdominal aortic dilation of 3.0 cm or greater. The main risk factors are age older than 65 years, male sex, and smoking history. Other risk factors include a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery disease, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, and previous myocardial infarction. Diagnosis may be made by physical examination, an incidental finding on imaging, or ultrasonography. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released updated recommendations for abdominal aortic aneurysm screening in 2014. Men 65 to 75 years of age with a history of smoking should undergo one-time screening with ultrasonography based on evidence that screening will improve abdominal aortic aneurysm-related mortality in this population. Men in this age group without a history of smoking may benefit if they have other risk factors (e.g., family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, other vascular aneurysms, coronary artery disease). There is inconclusive evidence to recommend screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in women 65 to 75 years of age with a smoking history. Women without a smoking history should not undergo screening because the harms likely outweigh the benefits. Persons who have a stable abdominal aortic aneurysm should undergo regular surveillance or operative intervention depending on aneurysm size. Surgical intervention by open or endovascular repair is the primary option and is typically reserved for aneurysms 5.5 cm in diameter or greater. There are limited options for medical treatment beyond risk factor modification. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is a medical emergency presenting with hypotension, shooting abdominal or back pain, and a pulsatile abdominal mass. It is associated with high prehospitalization mortality. Emergent surgical intervention is indicated for a rupture but has a high operative mortality rate. PMID:25884861

  11. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...

  12. The "love hormone" oxytocin regulates the loss and gain of the fat-bone relationship.

    PubMed

    Colaianni, Graziana; Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone; Zallone, Alberta

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of oxytocin (OT) in bone metabolism is an interesting area of research that recently achieved remarkable results. Moreover, several lines of evidence have largely demonstrated that OT also participates in the regulation of energy metabolism. Hence, it has recently been determined that the posterior pituitary hormone OT directly regulates bone mass: mice lacking OT or OT receptor display severe osteopenia, caused by impaired bone formation. OT administration normalizes ovariectomy-induced osteopenia, bone marrow adiposity, body weight, and intra-abdominal fat depots in mice. This effect is mediated through inhibition of adipocyte precursor differentiation and reduction of adipocyte size. The exquisite role of OT in regulating the bone-fat connection adds another milestone to the biological evidence supporting the existence of a tight relationship between the adipose tissue and the skeleton. PMID:26042088

  13. Safety and Health Benefits of Novel Dietary Supplements Consisting Multiple Phytochemicals, Vitamins, Minerals and Essential Fatty Acids in High Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine safety and efficacy of health supplements "Beyond Tangy Tangerine," a multivitamin/mineral complex and combination of multivitamin/mineral complex, "Osteofx," a bone healthy supplement and "Ultimate Essential Fatty Acids" in Sprague Dawley rats consuming high-fat diets. Initially a pilot study was conducted which confirmed palatability and acceptability of supplements. In a second study, rats (n = 15/group) were randomized to Control; Multivitamin/mineral complex (2 g/kg BW) or Combination (2 g Multivitamin/mineral complex, 1.5 g Bone healthy supplement and 0.34 g Essential fatty acids/kg BW). No differences were observed in BW change, feed intake, organ weights or bone mineral composition with supplementations compared to control. Multivitamin/mineral complex supplementation decreased abdominal white adipose tissue weights (WAT) (p = .005), total (p = .033) and fat mass (p = .040), plasma IL-6 (p = .016) and ALKP (p = .038) and elevated plasma calcium (p < .001), phosphorus (p = .038), total protein (p = .002), albumin (p = .014) and globulin (p = .018), compared to control. Similarly, combination supplementation reduced WAT (p < .001), total (p = .023) and fat mass (p = .045), plasma triglycerides (p = .018), IL-6 (p = .002) and ALKP (p < .001) with increases in plasma calcium (p = .031), phosphorus (p < .001) compared to control. Results indicate that consuming either supplement can be considered safe and improves overall health by reducing inflammation, abdominal fat mass and plasma triglycerides, as well as promote bone health. PMID:26317447

  14. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:9737070

  15. Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…

  16. Molecular cloning of the perilipin gene and its association with carcass and fat traits in Chinese ducks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H L; Fan, H J; Liu, X L; Wu, Y; Hou, S S

    2013-01-01

    The perilipin (PLIN) gene is a candidate gene of carcass and fat traits in ducks. In order to study the molecular character of the PLIN gene and its function in different breeds of Chinese ducks, samples were obtained from the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Research Center for Birds, including 95 Peking ducks of the Z2 series, 91 Peking ducks of the Z4 series, 82 hybrid systems (Z2 x Z4), and 93 Cherry Valley ducks. We used RT-PCR and 3'-RACE to clone the duck PLIN gene, detect SNPs and analyze their associations with carcass and fat traits. A 2212-bp sequence was cloned with the complete coding region and a 3'-untranslated region. We found a nucleotide mutation (C → T) in exon 2 of the PLIN gene. There were no significant correlations between the 3 genotypes (CC, CT, TT) in breast muscle weight (BMW), leg muscle weight (LMW), subcutaneous fat weight (SFW), and intramuscular fat (IMF) in the Cherry Valley duck. The CC and CT genotypes had significant differences in carcass weight (CW), carcass net weight (CNW), and percentage of abdominal fat weight (AFW); there were significant differences in AFW and percentage of SFW. In Z4, there were no significant correlations between the 3 genotypes (TT, CC, and CT) in CW, BMW, LMW, SFW, AFW, the percentage of SFW and AFW, and IMF. CNW was significantly different between TT, CC, and CT genotypes. In Z2 x Z4, there were no significant correlations between the 3 genotypes in CW, BMW, LMW, SFW, AFW, the percentage of SFW and AFW, and IMF, while the CC and CT genotypes had significant differences in CNW. In Z2, there were no significant differences between the 3 genotypes in all traits. We deduced that the PLIN gene is a potential major gene. It is linked to a major gene affecting meat quality traits. This SNP has potential as a molecular marker for marker-assisted selection. PMID:23765965

  17. Indices using external measurements for assessing fat deposition of adult feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takuya; Uno, Taiki; Fujioka, Yoshiyuki; Hayama, Shin-Ichi

    2012-02-01

    We examined the use of external measurements and relative fat deposition of adult feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) to develop relative indices of body fat deposition in post-growth feral raccoons. From March 2006 to March 2010, 288 adult raccoon carcasses (110 males, 178 females) collected in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, which were determined to be 24 months old, were subjected to external measurements of body weight (BW), girth measurement (GM), and body mass index (BMI). To assess relative body fat deposition, we visually classified abdominal subcutaneous fat into three grades (Visible Fat Index [VFI]: I-III). Significant differences in the means of BW (both sexes:P<0.01), GM (females: P<0.05, males: P<0.01), and BMI (both sexes: P<0.01) were detected between seasons. Notably, the means of BW, GM, and BMI (all, both sexes: P<0.01) differed significantly between VFI grades. However, by discriminant analysis with BW, GM, and BMI as independent variables, we obtained a significant discriminant function (both sexes: P<0.01) for distinguishing VFI I from higher VFI grades, but no significant equation was obtained for distinguishing between VFI II and VFI III. Based on the obtained structure matrix of discriminant analysis, BMI was the most valuable component for the discrimination of VFI grades. Thus, we conclude that BMI is a suitable complementary index for assessing relative body fat deposition of adult feral raccoons in Kanagawa Prefecture and may be generalizable to populations in other areas. PMID:21979454

  18. Effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin administration and high-fat diet on the body weight and hepatic estrogen metabolism in female C3H/HeN mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Baoting Gallo, Michael A. Burger, Conney W.; Meeker, Robert J.; Cai, May Xiaoxin; Xu Shiyao; Conney, Allan H.

    2008-01-15

    We studied the effect of administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) by i.p. injection once every 2 weeks in combination with a high-fat (HF) diet for 8 or 16 weeks on the body and organ weight changes as well as on the hepatic enzyme activity for estrogen metabolism in C3H/HeN female mice. Administration of TCDD at 100 {mu}g/kg b.w. once every 2 weeks for 8 weeks increased the body weight by 46% in the HF diet-fed animals, but not in the regular diet-fed animals. This is the first observation suggesting that TCDD at a high dose (100 {mu}g/kg b.w.), but not at lower doses (1 or 10 {mu}g/kg b.w.), may have a strong obesity-inducing effect in C3H/HeN mice fed an HF diet. While TCDD increased liver weight and decreased thymus weight in animals, these effects were enhanced by feeding animals an HF diet. Metabolism studies showed that TCDD administration for 8 or 16 weeks increased the liver microsomal activity for the 2- and 4-hydroxylation of 17{beta}-estradiol in animals fed a control diet, but surprisingly not in animals fed an HF diet. Treatment with TCDD dose-dependently increased the hepatic activity for the O-methylation of catechol estrogens in both control and HF diet-fed animals, and it also decreased the levels of liver microsomal sulfatase activity for hydrolysis of estrone-3-sulfate. TCDD did not significantly affect the hepatic enzyme activity for the glucuronidation or esterification of endogenous estrogens. It is suggested that enhanced metabolic inactivation of endogenous estrogens by hepatic estrogen-metabolizing enzymes in TCDD-treated, control diet-fed animals contributes importantly to the reduced incidence of estrogen-associated tumors in animals treated with TCDD.

  19. Resisting body dissatisfaction: fat women who endorse fat acceptance.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Nita Mary

    2004-05-01

    Fat women who endorsed fat acceptance (N=128) were recruited from Radiance Magazine. Relationships between objectified body consciousness (OBC), body esteem, and psychological well-being for the mostly European American sample were similar to those found in other samples. OBC was independently related to body esteem when weight dissatisfaction was controlled. Those who endorsed the need for social change in attitudes towards fat people had higher body esteem and self-acceptance, and lower body shame, than those who endorsed personal acceptance of body size only. PMID:18089154

  20. Neonatal anthropometry: thin-fat phenotype in fourth to fifth generation South Asian neonates in Surinam.

    PubMed

    van Steijn, L; Karamali, N S; Kanhai, H H H; Ariëns, G A M; Fall, C H D; Yajnik, C S; Middelkoop, B J C; Tamsma, J T

    2009-11-01

    We assessed whether the earlier described 'thin-fat phenotype' is present in Surinam South Asian babies of the fourth to fifth generation after migration from India. In this observational study we collected data from 39 South Asian term neonates and their mothers in Paramaribo, Surinam. We compared the following data with data from an earlier study in Southampton, UK (338 neonates) and in Pune, India (631 neonates): maternal body mass index, neonatal weight, length, head, mid-upper arm and abdominal circumferences and subscapular skinfold thickness. The mothers in Paramaribo were older than the Southampton mothers; their body mass index was comparable. Mean birth weight was 3159 g (Southampton: 3494 g; Pune: 2666 g). Compared with Southampton babies, the Paramaribo babies were smaller in nearly all body measurements, the smallest being abdominal circumference at the umbilicus level (s.d. score: -1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): -2.07 to -1.16) and mid-upper arm circumference (s.d. score: -1.08; 95% CI: -1.46 to -0.69). In contrast, subscapular skinfold thickness was similar (s.d. score: +0.08; 95% CI: -0.24 to +0.55). Except for subscapular skinfold thickness and length, all neonatal measurements were intermediate between those from Southampton and Pune. The thin-fat phenotype is preserved in Surinam South Asian neonates of the fourth to fifth generation after migration from India. PMID:19636321

  1. Intake of Tibetan Hull-Less Barley is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Metabolic Related Syndrome in Rats Fed High-Fat-Sucrose Diets

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lingxiao; Gong, Lingyun; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of whole grain Tibetan hull-less barley on metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets in rats. The diets were designed to reflect the dietary patterns of Chinese individuals (>30% energy fat) with refined wheat flour (HFS-W) or Tibetan hull-less barley (HFS-THB) as the main carbohydrate sources. Rats fed HFS-W had increased body weight, abdominal fat deposition, liver weight, liver fat deposition, triglyceride (TG), fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum fasting insulin (FINS), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores, and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels compared to rats fed a basal diet (BD). However, rats fed HFS-THB had reduced body weight gain, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. These findings indicate that whole Tibetan hull-less barley is a functional food that can reduce the prevalence of metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets. PMID:24763110

  2. Association of Fat Density With Subclinical Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Alvey, Nicholas J.; Pedley, Alison; Rosenquist, Klara J.; Massaro, Joseph M.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ectopic fat density is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors above and beyond fat volume. Volumetric measures of ectopic fat have been associated with CVD risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between fat density and subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods and Results Participants were drawn from the Multi‐Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) substudy of the Framingham Heart Study (n=3079; mean age, 50.1 years; 49.2% women). Fat density was indirectly estimated by computed tomography attenuation (Hounsfield Units [HU]) on abdominal scan slices. Visceral fat (VAT), subcutaneous fat (SAT), and pericardial fat HU and volumes were quantified using standard protocols; coronary and abdominal aortic calcium (CAC and AAC, respectively) were measured radiographically. Multivariable‐adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between adipose tissue HU and the presence of CAC and AAC. Overall, 17.1% of the participants had elevated CAC (Agatston score [AS]>100), and 23.3% had elevated AAC (AS>age‐/sex‐specific cutoffs). Per 5‐unit decrement in VAT HU, the odds ratio (OR) for elevated CAC was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.89; P=0.0005), even after adjustment for body mass index or VAT volume. Results were similar for SAT HU. With decreasing VAT HU, we also observed an OR of 0.79 (95% CI, 0.67 to 0.92; P=0.004) for elevated AAC after multivariable adjustment. We found no significant associations between SAT HU and AAC. There was no significant association between pericardial fat HU and either CAC or AAC. Conclusions Lower VAT and SAT HU, indirect estimates of fat quality, are associated with a lower risk of subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:25169793

  3. Fat and Bone: An Odd Couple

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Richard; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we will first discuss the concept of bone strength and introduce how fat at different locations, including the bone marrow, directly or indirectly regulates bone turnover. We will then review the current literature supporting the mechanistic relationship between marrow fat and bone and our understanding of the relationship between body fat, body weight, and bone with emphasis on its hormonal regulation. Finally, we will briefly discuss the importance and challenges of accurately measuring the fat compartments using non-invasive methods. This review highlights the complex relationship between fat and bone and how these new concepts will impact our diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in the very near future. PMID:27014187

  4. DIEP breast reconstruction following multiple abdominal liposuction procedures

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Simon; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Akali, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Previous abdominal wall surgery is viewed as a contraindication to abdominal free tissue transfer. We present two patients who underwent multiple abdominal liposuction procedures, followed by successful free deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. We review the literature pertaining to reliability of abdominal free flaps in those with previous abdominal surgery. Methods: Review of case notes and radiological investigations of two patients, and a PubMed search using the terms “DIEP”, “deep inferior epigastric”, “TRAM”, “transverse rectus abdominis”, “perforator” and “laparotomy”, “abdominal wall”, “liposuction”, “liposculpture”, “fat graft”, “pfannenstiel”, with subsequent appraisal of relevant papers by the first and second authors. Results: Patient 1 had 3 episodes of liposuction from the abdomen for fat grafting to a reconstructed breast. Subsequent revision reconstruction of the same breast with DIEP flap was preceded by CT angiography, which demonstrated normal perforator anatomy. The reconstruction healed well with no ischaemic complications. Patient 2 had 5 liposuction procedures from the abdomen to graft fat to a wide local excision defect. Recurrence of cancer led to mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with free DIEP flap. Preoperative MR angiography demonstrated a large perforator right of the umbilicus, with which the intraoperative findings were consistent. The patient had an uneventful recovery and good healing with no fat necrosis or wound dehiscence. Conclusions: We demonstrate that DIEP flaps can safely be raised without perfusion-related complications following multiple liposuction procedures to the abdomen. The safe interval between procedures is difficult to quantify, but we demonstrate successful free flap after 16 months. PMID:25671046

  5. SOCS3 expression within leptin receptor-expressing cells regulates food intake and leptin sensitivity but does not affect weight gain in pregnant mice consuming a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Thais Tessari; da Silva, Tiago Eugênio Oliveira; de Paula Romeu, Deborah; da Silva Torrão, Andréa; Donato, Jose

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy induces transitory metabolic changes including increases in food intake and body fat deposition, as well as leptin and insulin resistance. Recent findings have suggested that increased hypothalamic expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) is a key mechanism responsible for triggering those metabolic adaptations. Because obesity is a risk factor for gestational metabolic imbalances, we aimed to study the role of SOCS3 during pregnancy in obese mice. Female mice carrying a deletion of SOCS3 in leptin receptor-expressing cells (SOCS3 KO mice) were exposed to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD), and we then studied their energy balance and glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. SOCS3 deletion did not prevent diet-induced obesity or changes in body weight and adiposity observed during pregnancy. However, the typical increase in food intake during mid- and late-pregnancy was blunted in SOCS3 KO females. We also observed a slight improvement in glucose homeostasis and increased leptin sensitivity in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in pregnant SOCS3 KO mice on HFD. Despite this, SOCS3 KO mice had an increased number of uterine reabsorptions and fewer fetuses compared to the controls. Compared to control animals, a reduction in proopiomelanocortin and an increase in oxytocin mRNA levels were observed in the hypothalamus of pregnant SOCS3 KO mice. In contrast to previous studies using lean animals, conditional SOCS3 ablation did not prevent major gestational metabolic changes in diet-induced obese mice. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the role of SOCS3 in mediating pregnancy-induced metabolic adaptations. PMID:26828039

  6. High-Fat, High-Calorie Diet Enhances Mammary Carcinogenesis and Local Inflammation in MMTV-PyMT Mouse Model of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cowen, Sarah; McLaughlin, Sarah L; Hobbs, Gerald; Coad, James; Martin, Karen H; Olfert, I Mark; Vona-Davis, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence that obesity and the associated adipose tissue inflammation are risk factors for breast cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of a high-fat/high-calorie diet on mammary carcinogenesis in the immunocompetent MMTV-PyMT murine model. Four-week old female mice (20/group) were randomized to receive either a high-fat (HF; 60% kcal as fat) or a low-fat (LF; 16% kcal) diet for eight weeks. Body weights were determined, and tumor volumes measured by ultrasound, each week. At necropsy, the tumors and abdominal visceral fat were weighed and plasma collected. The primary mammary tumors, adjacent mammary fat, and lungs were preserved for histological and immunohistochemical examination and quantification of infiltrating macrophages, crown-like structure (CLS) formation, and microvessel density. The body weight gains, visceral fat weights, the primary mammary tumor growth rates and terminal weights, were all significantly greater in the HF-fed mice. Adipose tissue inflammation in the HF group was indicated by hepatic steatosis, pronounced macrophage infiltration and CLS formation, and elevations in plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), leptin and proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. HF intake was also associated with higher tumor-associated microvascular density and the proangiogenic factor MCP-1. This study provides preclinical evidence in a spontaneous model of breast cancer that mammary adipose tissue inflammation induced by diet, enhances the recruitment of macrophages and increases tumor vascular density suggesting a role for obesity in creating a microenvironment favorable for angiogenesis in the progression of breast cancer. PMID:26132316

  7. High-Fat, High-Calorie Diet Enhances Mammary Carcinogenesis and Local Inflammation in MMTV-PyMT Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cowen, Sarah; McLaughlin, Sarah L.; Hobbs, Gerald; Coad, James; Martin, Karen H.; Olfert, I. Mark; Vona-Davis, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence that obesity and the associated adipose tissue inflammation are risk factors for breast cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of a high-fat/high-calorie diet on mammary carcinogenesis in the immunocompetent MMTV-PyMT murine model. Four-week old female mice (20/group) were randomized to receive either a high-fat (HF; 60% kcal as fat) or a low-fat (LF; 16% kcal) diet for eight weeks. Body weights were determined, and tumor volumes measured by ultrasound, each week. At necropsy, the tumors and abdominal visceral fat were weighed and plasma collected. The primary mammary tumors, adjacent mammary fat, and lungs were preserved for histological and immunohistochemical examination and quantification of infiltrating macrophages, crown-like structure (CLS) formation, and microvessel density. The body weight gains, visceral fat weights, the primary mammary tumor growth rates and terminal weights, were all significantly greater in the HF-fed mice. Adipose tissue inflammation in the HF group was indicated by hepatic steatosis, pronounced macrophage infiltration and CLS formation, and elevations in plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), leptin and proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. HF intake was also associated with higher tumor-associated microvascular density and the proangiogenic factor MCP-1. This study provides preclinical evidence in a spontaneous model of breast cancer that mammary adipose tissue inflammation induced by diet, enhances the recruitment of macrophages and increases tumor vascular density suggesting a role for obesity in creating a microenvironment favorable for angiogenesis in the progression of breast cancer. PMID:26132316

  8. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

  9. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  10. Abdominal exploration - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgical exploration of the abdomen, also called an exploratory laparotomy, may be recommended when there is abdominal ... blunt trauma"). Diseases that may be discovered by exploratory laparotomy include: inflammation of the appendix (acute appendicitis) ...

  11. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... main blood vessel that supplies blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs ... dissection). Symptoms of rupture include: Pain in the abdomen or back. The pain may be severe, sudden, ...

  12. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    An abdominal x-ray is an imaging test to look at organs and structures in the abdomen. Organs include the spleen, stomach, and intestines. When the test is done to look at the bladder and kidney structures, ...

  13. The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal adiposity in postmenopausal, physically inactive South Asian women.

    PubMed

    Lesser, I A; Dick, T J M; Guenette, J A; Hoogbruin, A; Mackey, D C; Singer, J; Lear, S A

    2015-01-01

    In South Asians, a unique obesity phenotype of high abdominal fat is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with abdominal fat and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether CRF as assessed by VO2 peak, in post-menopausal South Asian women, was associated with body fat distribution and abdominal fat. Physically inactive post-menopausal South Asian women (n = 55) from the Greater Vancouver area were recruited and assessed from January to August 2014. At baseline, VO2 peak was measured with the Bruce Protocol, abdominal fat with CT imaging, and body composition with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. ANOVA was used to assess differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT) between tertiles of CRF. Bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses explored the association between VO2 peak with SAAT, VAT, TAAT and body composition. Models were further adjusted for body fat and body mass index (BMI). Compared to women in the lowest tertile of VO2 peak (13.8-21.8 mL/kg/min), women in the highest tertile (25.0-27.7 mL/kg/min) had significantly lower waist circumference, BMI, total body fat, body fat percentage, lean mass, SAAT, VAT and TAAT (p < 0.05). We found VO2 peak to be negatively associated with SAAT, VAT and TAAT, independent of age and body fatness but not independent of BMI. Further research is necessary to assess whether exercise and therefore improvements in CRF would alter SAAT, VAT and TAAT in post-menopausal South Asian women. PMID:26844150

  14. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Setacci, Francesco; Galzerano, Giuseppe; De Donato, Gianmarco; Benevento, Domenico; Guerrieri, Massimiliano W; Ruzzi, Umberto; Borrelli, Maria P; Setacci, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms has become a milestone in the treatment of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. Technological improvement allows treatment in more and more complex cases. This review summarizes all grafts available on the market. A complete review of most important trial on this topic is provided to the best of our knowledge, and technical tips and tricks for standard cases are also included. PMID:26771730

  15. Dietary fat restriction increases fat taste sensitivity in people with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Lisa P.; Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P.; Torres, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Individuals with obesity may be less sensitive to the taste of fat, and it is hypothesized that this is due to excess dietary fat intake. This study assessed the effect of a 6‐week low‐fat (LF) or portion control (PC) diet matched for weight loss on fat taste thresholds, fat perception, and preference in people with overweight/obesity. Methods Participants (n = 53) completed a randomized dietary intervention and consumed either a LF diet (25% fat) or PC diet (33% fat) for 6 weeks. Fat taste thresholds (lowest detectable fat concentration), fat perception (discrimination ability), preference, and anthropometry were assessed at baseline and week 6. Results Consumption of a LF diet (n = 26) and PC diet (n = 27) reduced participants' weight (P < 0.001), with no significant differences between groups (LF, −2.9%, PC, −2.7%). Both diets resulted in a decrease in fat taste thresholds (P = 0.014), and the effect tended to be stronger in the LF diet vs. the PC diet (P = 0.060). The ability to perceive different fat concentrations in foods was increased after the LF diet only (P = 0.017); however, food preference did not change on either diet. Conclusions A PC and LF diet both increase fat taste sensitivity in people with overweight/obesity, with the strongest effect after the LF diet. PMID:26813525

  16. Fat Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Michael C.; Pike, Oscar A.

    Lipids in food are subjected to many chemical reactions during processing and storage. While some of these reactions are desirable, others are undesirable; so, efforts are made to minimize the reactions and their effects. The laboratory deals with the characterization of fats and oils with respect to composition, structure, and reactivity.

  17. Chylous complications after abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Haug, E S; Saether, O D; Odegaard, A; Johnsen, G; Myhre, H O

    1998-12-01

    Two patients developed chylous complications following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. One patient had chylous ascitis and was successfully treated by a peritoneo-caval shunt. The other patient developed a lymph cyst, which gradually resorbed after puncture. Chylous complications following aortic surgery are rare. Patients in bad a general condition should be treated by initial paracentesis and total parenteral nutrition, supplemented by medium-chain triglyceride and low-fat diet. If no improvement is observed on this regimen, the next step should be implementation of a peritoneo-venous shunt, whereas direct ligation of the leak should be reserved for those who are not responding to this treatment. PMID:10204656

  18. Thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Toribio, R E; Kohn, C W; Lawrence, A E; Hardy, J; Hutt, J A

    1999-05-01

    A 5-year-old Quarter Horse mare was examined because of lethargy, fever, and weight loss of 1 month's duration. Thoracic auscultation revealed decreased lung sounds cranioventrally. Thoracic ultrasonography revealed bilateral anechoic areas with hyperechoic strands, consistent with pleural effusion and fibrin tags. A large amount of free fluid was evident during abdominal ultrasonography. Abnormalities included anemia, hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Thoracic radiography revealed alveolar infiltrates in the cranial and caudoventral lung fields. A cavitary mass, consistent with an abscess, could be seen caudodorsal to the crura of the diaphragm. Ultrasonographic evaluation of this area revealed a hypoechoic mass with septations. Bilateral thoracocentesis was performed. Bacterial culture of the pleural fluid did not yield growth, but Blastomyces dermatitidis was isolated from pleural fluid, abdominal fluid, and an aspirate of the abscess. The mare was euthanatized, and a diagnosis of thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis was confirmed at necropsy. PMID:10319179

  19. Measurements of body fat distribution: assessment of collinearity with body mass, adiposity and height in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and height, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. METHODS : A controlled cross-sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 with normal weight, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 with normal weight and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central (CS) and peripheral skinfolds (PS). The BF% was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. RESULTS : The increase in central fat, represented by WC, UC, WHtR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase in peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh circumference were proportional to the increase in BMI and BF%. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The height showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being fair or weak with waist measurements. CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, as it showed the highest capacity to predict adiposity in each group, and also showed fair or weak correlation with height. PMID:25623729

  20. Fecal Fat: The Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Fecal Fat Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Qualitative or Quantitative Stool Fat; Stool Lipids; 72 Hour Fecal Fat; Fat Stain ...

  1. Fats and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fats and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Fats and ... an important part of a healthy diet. About Fat Fats are nutrients in food that the body ...

  2. Learning about Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Learning About Fats KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning About Fats Print A ... over each gram of fat. continue Types of Fat You might see ads for foods that say ...

  3. Know Your Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Know Your Fats Updated:Mar 28,2016 LDL cholesterol is affected ... eat for a period of time. Know Your Fats Saturated fat The majority of saturated fat comes ...

  4. Saturated fat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food ...

  5. The effect of abdominal massage in reducing malignant ascites symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsae-Jyy; Wang, Hung-Ming; Yang, Tsai-Sheng; Jane, Sui-Whi; Huang, Tse-Hung; Wang, Chao-Hui; Lin, Yi-Hsin

    2015-02-01

    As many as 50% of end-stage cancer patients will develop ascites and associated symptoms, including pain, tiredness, nausea, depression, anxiety, drowsiness, loss of appetite, dyspnea, perceived abdominal bloating, and immobility. Abdominal massage may stimulate lymph return to the venous system and reduce ascites-related symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of abdominal massage in reducing these symptoms and reducing ascites itself as reflected in body weight. For a randomized controlled design using repeated measures, a sample of 80 patients with malignant ascites was recruited from gastroenterology and oncology units of a medical center in northern Taiwan and randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. A 15-minute gentle abdominal massage, using straight rubbing, point rubbing, and kneading, was administered twice daily for 3 days. The control group received a twice-daily 15-minute social interaction contact with the same nurse. Symptoms and body weight were measured in the morning for 4 consecutive days from pre- to post-test. In generalized estimation equation modeling, a significant group-by-time interaction on depression, anxiety, poor wellbeing, and perceived abdominal bloating, indicated that abdominal massage improved these four symptoms, with the greatest effect on perceived bloating. The intervention had no effect on pain, tiredness, nausea, drowsiness, poor appetite, shortness of breath, mobility limitation, or body weight. Abdominal massage appears useful for managing selected symptoms of malignant ascites. PMID:25558030

  6. Quantification of hepatic and visceral fat by CT and MR imaging: relevance to the obesity epidemic, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Graffy, Peter M; Pickhardt, Perry J

    2016-06-01

    Trends in obesity have continued to increase in the developed world over the past few decades, along with related conditions such as metabolic syndrome, which is strongly associated with this epidemic. Novel and innovative methods to assess relevant obesity-related biomarkers are needed to determine the clinical significance, allow for surveillance and intervene if appropriate. Aggregations of specific types of fat, specifically hepatic and visceral adiposity, are now known to be correlated with these conditions, and there are a variety of imaging techniques to identify and quantify their distributions and provide diagnostic information. These methods are particularly salient for metabolic syndrome, which is related to both hepatic and visceral adiposity but currently not defined by it. Simpler non-specific fat measurements, such as body weight, abdominal circumference and body mass index are more frequently used but lack the ability to characterize fat location. In addition, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a related condition that carries relevance not only for obesity-related diseases but also for the progression of the liver-specific disease, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis, albeit at a much lower frequency. Recent CT and MRI techniques have emerged to potentially optimize diagnosing metabolic syndrome and NAFLD through non-invasive quantification of visceral fat and hepatic steatosis with high accuracy. These imaging modalities should aid us in further understanding the relationship of hepatic and visceral fat to the obesity-related conditions such as metabolic syndrome, NAFLD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26876880

  7. Effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the fat and meat fatty acid profile of rabbits fed diets with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed supplements.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, P G; Meineri, G

    2008-12-01

    The effects of three levels (0%, 10%, or 15%) of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed (SHS) included in the diet on the growth performance, some carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat and perirenal fat was studied. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences among the groups in live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, carcass yield or the percentages of edible organs. The percentage values of hind legs, fore legs, loin and abdominal wall, breast and ribs, skin and limbs, and head were not affected by the inclusion level of SHS. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat was significantly increased with increasing SHS inclusion, while the saturated fatty acid (SFA) decreased. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of the rabbit meat decreased from 4.55 in the control group, to 1.03 in the 15% SHS group. PMID:22063845

  8. Weight Loss Alone Improves Conduit and Resistance Artery Endothelial Function in Young and Older Overweight/Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Gary L.; Beske, Stacy D.; Lawson, Brooke R.; Southall, Kara L.; Benay, Francoise J.; Donato, Anthony J.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction, as indicated by impaired endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD). Presently there is no direct evidence that energy intake restricted weight loss alone improves conduit or resistance artery EDD, the mechanisms involved, or if improvements differ with patient age. A total of 40 overweight or obese (body mass index ≥ 25<40 kg/m2) non-diabetic men and women aged 21–69 years completed 12 weeks of reduced energy intake (n=26, 15M) or attention control (n=14, 9M) and 4 weeks of weight maintenance (randomized trial). Energy intake restriction reduced estimated total energy intake (33%), body weight (10.5%), total and abdominal body fat, plasma leptin, oxidized LDL, and improved some metabolic risk factors. Brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD) was increased by 30% (6.0 ± 0.7 vs. 7.9 ± 0.7 % Δ, P=0.01, n=17). Peak forearm blood flow during intra-brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine was increased by 26% (16.8 ± 1.4 vs. 21.1± 1.9 ml/100ml/min, P<0.05, n=15); this was inversely related to the reduction in abdominal visceral:subcutaneous fat ratio (r=−0.46, P<0.05) and was abolished by inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis with Ng-monomethyl L-arginine. Improvements in EDD were not related to age: mean increases in subjects >50 years were similar to or greater than those <50. Energy intake restricted weight loss alone is an effective intervention for improving peripheral conduit and resistance artery endothelial function in young and older overweight/obese adults. The improvements in resistance artery function are mediated by an increase in nitric oxide bioavailability and are related to reductions in abdominal visceral fat. PMID:18504322

  9. Fat Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  10. Factors associated with visceral fat accumulation in the general population in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Arakaki, Shingo; Maeshiro, Tatsuji; Hokama, Akira; Hoshino, Kunikazu; Maruwaka, Shuichi; Higashiarakawa, Miwa; Parrott, Gretchen; Hirata, Tetsuo; Kinjo, Kozen; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical and biochemical factors associated with visceral fat accumulation in the general population. METHODS: We enrolled 1004 subjects who underwent a medical health checkup between April 2008 and March 2009. The medical health checkup included the following tests: Height, body weight, waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, urinalysis, blood-cell counts, blood chemistry, electrocardiography, chest radiography, and abdominal computed tomography (CT) for visceral fat accumulation. The patients’ medical history and lifestyle factors were collected privately by nurses using a self-administered questionnaire, and they included questions regarding physical activity, sleep duration, dietary habits, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Visceral fat area (VFA) was defined as the sum of the intraperitoneal fat area at the level of the umbilicus with CT density in the range of -150 to -50 Hounsfield units. RESULTS: The mean age and body mass index (BMI) of the study subjects were 57.0 years and 24.4 kg/m2. In both male and females, VFA was significantly and positively correlated with WC (r = 0.532, P < 0.01; r = 0.612, P < 0.01). Subjects with high levels of VFA were primarily male with significantly higher age, height, body weight, BMI, systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and hemoglobin in all subjects (P < 0.05). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that VFA had a positive relationship with age ≥ 56, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, and triglyceride level ≥ 149 in males (P < 0.05), whereas it had a positive relationship with age ≥ 58, BMI ≥ 24.4 kg/m2, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level < 40 mg/dL, and current drinking in females (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that gender differences exist in the clinical and biochemical parameters associated with visceral fat accumulation. PMID:27158542

  11. Multiple giant intra abdominal lipomas: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, Ashok Y.; Nangare, Nitin R.; Gupta, Vaibhav; Vekariya, Mayank A.; Patankar, Ritvij; Mahna, Abhishek; Wader, J.V.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Solitary or multiple lipomas, composed of mature fat, represents by far the most common benign mesenchymal neoplasm occurring throughout the whole body, but they rarely originate in the intestinal mesentery. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 60-year-old male presented with left sided abdominal distension and pain since 4 months, ultrasonography and computerized tomography abdomen was suggestive of multiple well-defined fat density lesions in the lower abdomen and pelvis. USG guided fine needle aspiration cytology was conclusive of a spindle cell lesion. Exploratory laparotomy was performed and multiple major fat tissue swellings were excised. Histopathology confirmed it to be spindle cell type of lipoma. DISCUSSION Because of the silent nature the exact prevalence of lipomas is unknown. It can arise in any location in which fat is normally present, reported intra abdominal lipomas have been very rare. Clinical manifestations depend on the size and location of the growth. In most patients, symptoms are few or absent. USG and CT scan abdomen are used for the diagnosis. Complete surgical excision being the only treatment. CONCLUSION Intra abdominal lipoma is a very rare entity, and many cases might be ignored due to their silent nature. They might or might not present with any symptoms. Complete surgical excision being the only treatment, with a very good prognosis. PMID:24862028

  12. Effects of flavones of sea buckthorn fruits on growth performance, carcass quality, fat deposition and lipometabolism for broilers.

    PubMed

    Ma, J S; Chang, W H; Liu, G H; Zhang, S; Zheng, A J; Li, Y; Xie, Q; Liu, Z Y; Cai, H Y

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of flavones of sea buckthorn fruits (FSBF) on growth performance, carcass quality, fat deposition, and lipometabolism for broilers. 240 one-day-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments (0, 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.15% FSBF) with 6 replicates of 10 birds. Broilers were reared for 42 d. Results showed FSBF quadratically improved average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and final body weight (BW) (P = 0.002, P = 0.019 and P = 0.018, respectively). The abdominal fat percentage in 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.15% FSBF supplementation groups was decreased by 21.08%, 19.12%, and 19.61% with respect to the control group, respectively (P < 0.05). The intramuscular fat (IMF) content in the breast muscle of the broilers was increased by 7.21%, 23.42% and 6.30% in 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.15% FSBF groups, and that in the thigh meat was raised by 4.43%, 24.63% and 12.32%, compared with the control group, respectively (P < 0.05). FSBF had a quadratic effect on the abdominal fat percentage and IMF in the breast muscle (P < 0.05). Dietary FSBF also modified fatty acids of muscular tissues, resulting in a higher ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). Supplementing FSBF in the diet greatly decreased the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.05). Moreover, the quadratic responses were also observed in the levels of insulin and adiponectin in serum (P = 0.020 and P = 0.037, respectively). Abdominal fat percentage was correlated negatively with insulin and positively with adiponectin (P < 0.05). IMF content in the breast and thigh muscles were correlated positively with insulin, and negatively with adiponectin (P < 0.05). A positive correlation existed between breast muscle, IMF, and leptin (P < 0.05). In conclusion, adding FSBF into the diets affected growth performance and fat deposition of broilers by

  13. Platycodin D inhibits lipogenesis through AMPKα-PPARγ2 in 3T3-L1 cells and modulates fat accumulation in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jeong; Kang, Minseok; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2012-09-01

    Platycodin D (PD) has been reported to control obesity in vivo. This study investigated the molecular mechanism of PD, focusing on its ability to decrease the expression of adipogenic factors through AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) in adipocytes and its ability to prevent abdominal fat accumulation in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. The inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells was measured by Oil Red O staining, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blotting. To determine the antiobesity effect in vivo, one group of mice were given a normal diet and the others were fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. The high-fat diet mice were then assigned to one of three subgroups: aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR), vehicle, and PD. PD significantly reduced fat accumulation by inhibiting adipogenic signal transcriptional factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), which functions via AMPK signaling, in vitro. PD reduced both body weight and fat volume; consequently, lipid metabolism was improved by increasing AMPKα, similar to AICAR, and reduced PPARγ2 and C/EBPα expression in adipose tissue. The results suggested that PD could be used to decrease the expression of adipogenic factors related to the AMPK pathway. Hence, PD could be an alternative treatment for controlling obesity by downregulating lipid accumulation. PMID:22872592

  14. Abdominal Dual Energy Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, F. Graham; Brody, William R.; Cassel, Douglas M.; Macovski, Albert

    1981-11-01

    Dual energy scanned projection radiography of the abdomen has been performed using an experimental line-scanned radiographic system. Digital images simultaneously obtained at 85 and 135 kVp are combined, using photoelectric/Compton decomposition algorithms to create images from which selected materials are cancelled. Soft tissue cancellation images have proved most useful in various abdominal imaging applications, largely due to the elimination of obscuring high-contrast bowel gas shadows. These techniques have been successfully applied to intravenous pyelography, oral cholecystography, intravenous abdominal arteriog-raphy and the imaging of renal calculi.

  15. The Acute Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Heiken, Jay P

    2015-11-01

    Acute disorders of the abdominal aorta are potentially lethal conditions that require prompt evaluation and treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging method for evaluating these conditions because of its availability and speed. Volumetric CT acquisition with multiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional analysis is now the standard technique for evaluating the aorta. MR imaging may be useful for select applications in stable patients in whom rupture has been excluded. Imaging is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment planning, because management has shifted toward endoluminal repair. Acute abdominal aortic conditions most commonly are complications of aneurysms and atherosclerosis. PMID:26526434

  16. Abdominal Vascular Catastrophes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manpreet; Koyfman, Alex; Martinez, Joseph P

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal vascular catastrophes are among the most challenging and time sensitive for emergency practitioners to recognize. Mesenteric ischemia remains a highly lethal entity for which the history and physical examination can be misleading. Laboratory tests are often unhelpful, and appropriate imaging must be quickly obtained. A multidisciplinary approach is required to have a positive impact on mortality rates. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm likewise may present in a cryptic fashion. A specific type of ruptured aneurysm, the aortoenteric fistula, often masquerades as the more common routine gastrointestinal bleed. The astute clinician recognizes that this is a more lethal variant of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. PMID:27133247

  17. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Fortner, George; Johansen, Kaj

    1984-01-01

    Aneurysms are common in our increasingly elderly population, and are a major threat to life and limb. Until the advent of vascular reconstructive techniques, aneurysm patients were subject to an overwhelming risk of death from exsanguination. The first successful repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm using an interposed arterial homograft was reported by Dubost in 1952. A milestone in the evolution of vascular surgery, this event and subsequent diagnostic, operative and prosthetic graft refinements have permitted patients with an unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm to enjoy a better prognosis than patients with almost any other form of major systemic illness. Images PMID:6702193

  18. Abdominal organs (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... small intestine further digests food and begins the absorption of nutrients. Secretions from the pancreas in the ... gallbladder and liver emulsify fat and enhance the absorption of fatty acids. The large intestine temporarily stores ...

  19. Abdominal radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... of low-fiber foods, such as white rice, bananas, applesauce, mashed potatoes, low-fat cottage cheese, and ... toast. Eat foods that are high in potassium (bananas, potatoes, and apricots) when you have diarrhea. Eat ...

  20. Ultrasonography and computed tomography of inflammatory abdominal wall lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Rabinowitz, J.G.

    1982-09-01

    Twenty-four patients with inflammatory lesions of the abdominal wall were examined by ultrasonography. Nine of these patients underwent computed tomographic (CT) scanning as well. Both ultrasonography and CT clearly delineated the exact location and extent of abdominal wall abscesses. Abscesses were easily differentiated from cellulitis or phlegmon with ultrasound. The peritoneal line was more clearly delineated on ultrasonograms than on CT scans; abscesses were also more distinct on the ultrasonograms because of their low echogenicity compared with the surrounding structures. Gas bubbles, fat density with specific low attenuation values, and underlying inflamed bowel loops in obese patients with Crohn's disease were better delineated by CT.

  1. Abdominal Adiposity Distribution in Diabetic/Prediabetic and Nondiabetic Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J.; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Excess fat in the abdomen can be classified generally as visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Evidence suggests that visceral adiposity has greater implications for diabetes than other fat depots. The purpose of this study is to explore the disparities in the distribution of abdominal adiposity in diabetic/prediabetic and nondiabetic populations and to identify moderators that influence the pattern of central obesity via a meta-analysis technique. The Hedges' g was used as a measure of effect size and 95% confidence interval was computed. A total of 41 relevant studies with 101 effect sizes were retrieved. Pooled effect sizes for visceral and subcutaneous adiposity were 0.69 and 0.42, respectively. Diabetic/prediabetic populations exhibited greater visceral and subcutaneous adiposity compared to nondiabetic populations (Z = 10.35, P < 0.05). Significant moderator effects of gender (Z = −2.90) and assessment method of abdominal adiposity (Z = −2.17) were found for visceral fat (P < 0.05), but not for subcutaneous fat. Type of health condition influenced both visceral (Z = −5.10) and subcutaneous (Z = −7.09) abdominal adiposity volumes (P < 0.05). Abdominal adiposity distributions were significantly altered in the diabetic/prediabetic population compared to the nondiabetic population. Gender, assessment method of abdominal adiposity, and type of health conditions (diabetic/prediabetics) were identified as crucial moderators that influence the degree of abdominal adiposity. PMID:25525511

  2. A mirccroarray analysis of sexual dimorphism of adipose tissues in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: A sexual dimorphism exists in body fat distribution; females deposit relatively more fat in subcutaneous/inguinal depots whereas males deposit more fat in the intra-abdominal/gonadal depot. Our objective was to systematically document depot- and sex-related differences in the accumulatio...

  3. A mircroarray analysis of sexual dimorphism of adipose tissues in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sexual dimorphism exists in body fat distribution; females deposit relatively more fat in subcutaneous/inguinal depots whereas males deposit more fat in the intra-abdominal/gonadal depot. Our objective was to systematically document depot- and sex-related differences in the accumulation of adipose...

  4. Links between ectopic fat and vascular disease in humans.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo; Meigs, James B

    2014-09-01

    The average of overweight individual can have differential fat depots in target organs or specific compartments of the body. This ectopic fat distribution may be more of a predictive factor for cardiovascular risk than obesity. Abdominal visceral obesity, a representative ectopic fat, is robustly associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. Fat depots in the liver and muscle tissue cause adverse cardiometabolic risk by affecting glucose and lipid metabolism. Pericardial fat and perivascular fat affect coronary atherosclerosis, cardiac function, and hemodynamics. Fat around the neck is associated with systemic vascular resistance. Fat around the kidney may increase blood pressure and induce albuminuria. Fat accumulation in or around the pancreas alters glucose metabolism, conferring cardiovascular risk. Ectopic fat may act as an active endocrine and paracrine organ that releases various bioactive mediators that influence insulin resistance, glucose and lipid metabolism, coagulation, and inflammation, which all contribute to cardiovascular risk. Because both obese and apparently lean individuals can have ectopic fat, regional fat distribution may play an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases in both nonobese and obese people. PMID:25035342

  5. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  6. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation statement applies to adults ages ...

  7. Beneficial effects of weight loss associated with moderate calorie/carbohydrate restriction, and increased proportional intake of protein and unsaturated fat on serum urate and lipoprotein levels in gout: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dessein, P; Shipton, E; Stanwix, A; Joffe, B; Ramokgadi, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Insulin resistance (IR) has been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of gout. The lipoprotein abnormalities described in hyperuricaemic subjects are similar to those associated with IR, and insulin influences renal urate excretion. In this study it was investigated whether dietary measures, reported to be beneficial in IR, have serum uric acid (SU) and lipid lowering effects in gout.
METHODS—Thirteen non-diabetic men (median age 50, range 38-62) were enrolled. Each patient had had at least two gouty attacks during the four months before enrolment. Dietary recommendations consisted of calorie restriction to 6690 kJ (1600 kcal) a day with 40% derived from carbohydrate, 30% from protein, and 30% from fat; replacement of refined carbohydrates with complex ones and saturated fats with mono- and polyunsaturated ones. At onset and after 16 weeks, fasting blood samples were taken for determination of SU, serum cholesterol (C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TGs). Results were expressed as median (SD).
RESULTS—At onset, the body mass index (BMI) was 30.5 (8.1) kg/m2. Dietary measures resulted in weight loss of 7.7 (5.4) kg (p=0.002) and a decrease in the frequency of monthly attacks from 2.1 (0.8) to 0.6 (0.7) (p=0.002). The SU decreased from 0.57 (0.10) to 0.47 (0.09) mmol/l (p=0.001) and normalised in 7 (58%) of the 12 patients with an initially raised level. Serum cholesterol decreased from 6.0 (1.7) to 4.7 (0.9) mmol/l (p=0.002), LDL-C from 3.5 (1.2) to 2.7 (0.8) mmol/l (p=0.004), TGs from 4.7 (4.2) to 1.9 (1.0) mmol/l (p=0.001), and C:HDL-C ratios from 6.7 (1.7) to 5.2 (1.0) (p=0.002). HDL-C levels increased insignificantly. High baseline SU, frequency of attacks, total cholesterol, LDL-C and TG levels, and total C:HDL-C ratios correlated with higher decreases in the respective variables upon dietary intervention (p<0.05).

  8. High-fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin injections induces metabolic syndrome in Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Li, Linzhao; Liao, Guangneng; Yang, Guang; Lu, Yanrong; Du, Xiaojiong; Liu, Jingping; Li, Lan; Wang, Chengshi; Li, Li; Ren, Yan; Zhong, Zhihui; Cheng, Jingqiu; Chen, Younan

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with abdominal obesity, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Given the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of MetS, qualified animal models are currently seriously limited for researchers. The aim of our study was to develop a MetS model in juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Rhesus monkeys (1-year-old) fed a high-fat diet (15 % fat, 2 % cholesterol) were used as the HF group (n = 6), and those on a normal diet (5 % fat) were used as the control group (n = 4). After being fed a high-fat diet for approximately 12 months, 2 monkeys (HF + STZ group) were injected with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ, 25 mg/kg) twice, with a 7 days interval, and were then fed the same diet continuously for another 24 months. After 36 months of treatment, the high-fat diet monkeys, including the HF and HF + STZ groups, had acquired increased body weights, abnormal serum lipids, and impaired glucose tolerance compared to the control group. In addition, much more marked metabolic changes were observed in the two monkeys of the HF + STZ group, particularly in terms of high-blood glucose level and insulin resistance. Morphological observation of biopsies of liver and pancreatic tissues showed decreased islet number and mass and decreased insulin staining in the monkeys of the HF + STZ group. In addition, Oil red O staining suggested remarkable accumulation of lipid droplets in the hepatocytes. Our study suggested that a long-term high-fat diet followed with a low-dose STZ was able to induce MetS in juvenile rhesus monkeys with faster pathophysiological progress compared with high-fat diet induction alone. Our primary data showed that this method may have potentials to develop MetS animal model in non-human primates. PMID:25672777

  9. A mixture of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) aqueous extract and cyclodextrin reduces body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, and total cholesterol and insulin increases in male Wistar fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Kishino, Eriko; Ito, Tetsuya; Fujita, Koki; Kiuchi, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a mixture of an aqueous extract of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) and cyclodextrin (SRCD) on various metabolic parameters and cecal fermentation in obese fa/fa male Wistar fatty rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Wistar fatty rats were fed 0% (control group) or 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diets and weighed weekly. The plasma glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, insulin, and adiponectin concentrations were measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 5. SRCD supplementation suppressed the time-dependent increase in the plasma total cholesterol and insulin concentrations. After 6 weeks of a 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diet, the body weight gain, food intake, visceral fat mass, liver mass, and liver triacylglycerol content of the rats were significantly lower, whereas the plasma adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher than those of the control group. SRCD supplementation had no significant effect on plasma glucose and triacylglycerol concentrations. SRCD supplementation significantly increased cecum mass, whereas it significantly decreased the cecal butyrate and short-chain fatty acid (sum of the acetate, butyrate, and propionate) concentrations. All of the rats were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test at the beginning of week 6. The area under the curve for insulin was significantly smaller with SRCD supplementation and showed no change in glucose tolerance compared to that of the control group. These results suggest that bioactive compounds in SRCD may suppress the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus by influencing glucose and lipid metabolism in male Wistar fatty rats and that SRCD may influence cecal fermentation. PMID:19185778

  10. Body Fat Accumulation in Zebrafish Is Induced by a Diet Rich in Fat and Reduced by Supplementation with Green Tea Extract

    PubMed Central

    Meguro, Shinichi; Hasumura, Takahiro; Hase, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents) are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat) volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight) of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets. PMID:25785691

  11. Making Fat Work*

    PubMed Central

    Sargis, Robert M.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The burgeoning obesity and metabolic disease epidemics in the developed world are exerting a terrible toll on society, yet the precise mechanisms responsible for the emergence of these dramatic trends over a relatively short period of time remain poorly understood. Philip A. Wood’s book How Fat Works provides important insights into cellular lipid metabolism, as well as discussing some of the important external contributors to the development of human obesity. The foundation provided by this book allows for the exploration of how body fat has gone from hero during the millennia when starvation was the paramount nutritional risk to its current role as villain in our period of caloric excess. With the incredible personal and societal costs brought about by excess body weight, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms responsible for obesity is fundamentally necessary if we are to reverse these dire trends. Here, we delve deeper into some of the forces contributing to the obesity epidemic and discuss some individual measures as well as public policy decisions that may help reverse weight trends, while specifically focusing on the growing problem of pediatric obesity. PMID:21037416

  12. Correlates, causes, and consequences of fat talk: A review.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Amy; Mills, Jennifer S

    2015-09-01

    Fat talk is a term used to describe self-disparaging remarks made to other people about one's weight or body. Fat talk has been both causally and correlationally linked to a number of negative body image-related variables including low body esteem, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, body-related cognitive distortions, and perceived sociocultural pressure to be thin. As such, body image researchers and clinicians would benefit from increased awareness of the current literature concerning fat talk. A narrative synthesis approach is used to summarize all research containing the keywords fat talk, body talk, or weight talk that was published from 1994 to 2014 inclusive. The measures used to study fat talk, outcomes and correlates associated with fat talk, theories that may help explain these findings, and the purpose served by fat talk are reviewed and discussed. In addition, directions for future research on fat talk, including intervention strategies, are examined. PMID:26479947

  13. Body composition analyses in normal weight obese women.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, L; Del Gobbo, V; Bigioni, M; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify new indexes of body composition that characterize the normal weight obese (NWO) women. We measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry in a cohort of seventy-five healthy Italian women, subdivided into three groups (nonobese/controls, NWO, preobese-obese women). Despite a normal body mass index (BMI), the NWO women have a higher body fat mass percentage (FAT %) (38.99 +/- 6.03) associated to a significant (p = 0.02) lower amount of lean mass of legs (12.24 +/- 1.31) and lean mass of left leg (6.07 +/- 0.64) with respect to the control group. The NWO group showed a significant (p = 0.043) lower RMR (1201.25 +/- 349.02) in comparison with nonobese and preobese-obese women. To classify NWO individuals among general population, we identified three significant body composition indexes: abdominal index, leg index and trunk index. The NWO women showed significant increased value in the three indexes (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that, despite a normal BMI, the NWO women displayed a cluster of anthropometric characteristics (body fat mass percentage, leg indexes) not different to obese women ones. An appropriate diet-therapy and physical activity may be protecting NWO individuals from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases associated to preobese-obese women. PMID:16910350

  14. Anti-obesity effects of Rapha diet® preparation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihyun; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Bang, Paul; Park, Dongsun; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2012-12-01

    The anti-obesity activities of Rapha diet® preparation containing silkworm pupa peptide, Garcinia cambogia, white bean extract, mango extract, raspberry extract, cocoa extract, and green tea extract were investigated in mice with dietary obesity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 3% Rapha diet® preparation for 8 weeks, and blood and tissue parameters of obesity were analyzed. The HFD markedly enhanced body weight gain by increasing the weights of epididymal, perirenal, and mesenteric adipose tissues. The increased body weight gain induced by HFD was significantly reduced by feeding Rapha diet® preparation, in which decreases in the weight of abdominal adipose tissue and the size of abdominal adipocytes were confirmed by microscopic examination. Long-term feeding of HFD increased blood triglycerides and cholesterol levels, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation. However, Rapha diet® preparation not only reversed the blood lipid levels, but also attenuated hepatic steatosis. The results indicate that Rapha diet® preparation could improve HFD-induced obesity by reducing both lipid accumulation and the size of adipocytes. PMID:23326287

  15. Component separation in abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Rawstorne, Edward; Smart, Christopher J; Fallis, Simon A; Suggett, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Component separation is established for complex hernia repairs. This case presents early component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath to facilitate closure of the abdominal wall following emergency laparotomy, reinforcing the repair with a biological mesh. On Day 11 following an emergency laparotomy for penetrating trauma, this patient underwent component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath. An intra-abdominal biological mesh was secured, and the fascia and skin closed successfully. Primary abdominal closure can be achieved in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma with the use of component separation and insertion of intra-abdominal biological mesh, where standard closure is not possible. PMID:24876334

  16. Total and Abdominal Adiposity and Hypertension in Indigenous Women in Midwest Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Rosangela Costa; de Souza, Maria Cristina Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension, and abdominal fat in particular has been more strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases and its prevalence has increased in Brazilian indigenous populations. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hypertension among indigenous women and its association with total and abdominal obesity after adjustment for confounding factors. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated indigenous non-pregnant women aged 20–59 years living in two villages of the indigenous reserve of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected by trained interviewers. Households were visited and were selected by simple random sampling using SPSS software version 21. The casting of lots was performed from a list of households located on a map of villages. To locate the selected households, a Global Positioning System device was used. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demographic, lifestyle and health-related variables and to obtain anthropometric data on weight, height, and waist circumference (WC). Blood pressure was measured twice during home visits. Results Data were collected between June and October 2013 with 362 women. Most of them were aged <40 years (66.3%) and had low educational level (≤4 years of schooling, 82.0%), had overweight/obesity (74.0%), WC ≥80 cm (83.7%), and family history of hypertension (60.5%). The prevalence of hypertension was 42.0% (CI 95%: 37.0–47.2). In the multivariable analysis, respondents with WC 80–87 cm and ≥88 cm showed approximately 2 times higher prevalence rates of hypertension compared with those with WC <80 cm after adjusting for confounding factors. There was no association between body mass index (BMI) and hypertension in this study. Conclusions The overall prevalence of hypertension was high and associated only with abdominal adiposity but not with BMI. PMID:27294870

  17. Sagittal abdominal diameter shows better correlation with cardiovascular risk factors than waist circumference and BMI

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity (abdominal adiposity) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and the most used methods to measure the adiposity are body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). Objective To correlate BMI, WC, and SAD with biochemical parameters and blood pressure in adults. Methods A non-experimental exploratory/descriptive and cross sectional study was developed and it was assessed 133 subjects (59 men and 74 women) aging between 18 and 87 years. It was registered the patients’ weight (kg), height (m), BMI (kg/m2), WC (cm) and SAD (cm), and these parameters were correlated with glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and blood pressure. Results After adjustment for gender and age, it was observed a positive correlation between SAD and systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.20), glycemia (r = 0.20), triglycerides (r = 0.32), LDL (r = 0.26), total cholesterol (TC) (r = 0.33), and a negative correlation with HDL-c (r = −0.21) (p < 0.05). It was observed a positive correlation between WC and systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.14), triglycerides (r = 0.31), total cholesterol (r = 0.21), and a negative correlation with HDL-c (r = −0.24) (p < 0.05). BMI showed a positive correlation with systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.22), total cholesterol (r = 0.20), and triglycerides (r = 0.23) (p < 0.05). Conclusion SAD correlated with almost all the cardiovascular risk factors analyzed and it might be considered the best predictor of abdominal fat and cardiovascular risk. PMID:23856008

  18. Human biology of weight maintenance after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Mariman, Edwin C M

    2012-01-01

    One year after losing weight, most people have regained a significant part of the lost weight. As such, weight regain after weight loss has a negative impact on human health. The risk for weight regain is determined by psychosocial and behavioral factors as well as by various physiological and molecular parameters. Here, the latter intrinsic factors are reviewed and assembled into four functional modules, two related to the energy balance and two related to resistance against weight loss. Reported genetic factors do not reveal additional functional processes. The modules form nodes in a network describing the complex interactions of intrinsically determined weight maintenance. This network indicates that after an initial weight loss persons with a high baseline fat mass will most easily succeed in maintaining weight, because they can lose fat without raising stress in adipocytes and at the same time spare fat-free mass. However, continued weight loss and weight maintenance requires extra measures like increased physical activity, limited energy intake and a fat-free sparing composition of the diet. Eventually, this network may help to design novel therapeutic measures based on preventing the return effect of specific plasma factors or by preventing the accumulation of adipocyte cellular stress. PMID:22472972

  19. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 ... warm What are the different types of dietary fat? The four main types of fat found in ...

  20. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000747.htm Facts about polyunsaturated fats To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative names Polyunsaturated fatty acid; PUFA How Polyunsaturated Fats Affect Your Health Polyunsaturated fats can help lower ...

  1. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... plant foods, such as nuts, avocados, and vegetable oils. Eating moderate amounts of monounsaturated (and polyunsaturated) fats ... amounts of healthy fats than others. Foods and oils with higher amounts of monounsaturated fats include: Nuts ...

  2. Facts about trans fats

    MedlinePlus

    Trans fatty acids; Partially hydrogenated oils (PHOs); Cholesterol-trans fats; Hyperlipidemia-trans fats ... partially hydrogenated" in the ingredient list. It means oils have been turned to solids and trans fats. ...

  3. Saturated fat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol and can put you at risk for heart disease and stroke. You should ... limit any foods that are high in saturated fat. Sources of saturated fat include whole-milk dairy ...

  4. Dietary fat and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... These include fats found in fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Limit foods with saturated and trans fats (such as meats, full-fat dairy products, and processed foods). Fruits and vegetables are healthy snack foods. Children should be taught ...

  5. Dietary fat and children

    MedlinePlus

    Children and fat-free diets; Fat-free diet and children ... Some fat in the diet is needed for normal growth and development. However, many conditions such as obesity, heart disease, and diabetes are linked to ...

  6. Does an expanding fetal abdominal mass produce pulmonary hypoplasia?

    PubMed

    Sauer, L; Harrison, M R; Flake, A W; Krummel, T R

    1987-06-01

    Fetal pulmonary hypoplasia has been related to multiple factors. In an effort to define which fetuses may benefit from prenatal intervention to prevent or reverse pulmonary hypoplasia, we studied the relative contribution of an enlarging abdominal mass in the fetus. We produced abdominal masses in fetal rabbits at 24 days gestation by two methods. In one group, a small cylindrical chip of Takasen, (a synthetic polymer that expands to 50 times its size in 1 week; Grobeast, Pop Art Co, Cleveland, OH) was inserted into the peritoneal cavity of the fetal rabbit; in another group, the bladder neck was obstructed with a surgical clip. Amniotic fluid volume was restored at the surgical procedure. Sham-operated littermates served as controls. At cesarean delivery on day 30, fetal lung, liver, and body weights were measured, and the abdominal masses were quantitated by volume displacement of the removed mass or bladder. In both groups large abdominal masses of comparable size were produced. Newborns with the synthetic abdominal mass did not have significant pulmonary hypoplasia, but often had a prune belly deformity of the abdominal wall, whereas newborns with bladder obstruction had significant pulmonary hypoplasia. Liver weight was not significantly affected. We conclude that a fetal abdominal mass does not independently produce pulmonary hypoplasia, possibly because the "mass effect" is relieved by distension of the abdominal wall rather than elevation of the diaphragm; the pulmonary hypoplasia that occurs in bladder outlet obstruction is probably due to the associated oligohydramnios rather than the mass effect of the dilated urinary tract; and prenatal decompression of an abdominal mass or dilated urinary tract is not justified to prevent pulmonary hypoplasia in the absence of oligohydramnios. PMID:3612441

  7. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  8. Intermuscular adipose tissue and thigh muscle area dynamics during an 18-month randomized weight loss trial.

    PubMed

    Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Tene, Lilac; Zelicha, Hila; Tsaban, Gal; Bilitzky, Avital; Komy, Oded; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Zeller, Lior; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Thiery, Joachim; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2016-08-01

    It remains unclear whether intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) has any metabolic influence or whether it is merely a marker of abnormalities, as well as what are the effects of specific lifestyle strategies for weight loss on the dynamics of both IMAT and thigh muscle area (TMA). We followed the trajectory of IMAT and TMA during 18-mo lifestyle intervention among 278 sedentary participants with abdominal obesity, using magnetic resonance imaging. We measured the resting metabolic rate (RMR) by an indirect calorimeter. Among 273 eligible participants (47.8 ± 9.3 yr of age), the mean IMAT was 9.6 ± 4.6 cm(2) Baseline IMAT levels were directly correlated with waist circumference, abdominal subdepots, C-reactive protein, and leptin and inversely correlated with baseline TMA and creatinine (P < 0.05 for all). After 18 mo (86.3% adherence), both IMAT (-1.6%) and TMA (-3.3%) significantly decreased (P < 0.01 vs. baseline). The changes in both IMAT and TMA were similar across the lifestyle intervention groups and directly corresponded with moderate weight loss (P < 0.001). IMAT change did not remain independently associated with decreased abdominal subdepots or improved cardiometabolic parameters after adjustments for age, sex, and 18-mo weight loss. In similar models, 18-mo TMA loss remained associated with decreased RMR, decreased activity, and with increased fasting glucose levels and IMAT (P < 0.05 for all). Unlike other fat depots, IMAT may not represent a unique or specific adipose tissue, instead largely reflecting body weight change per se. Moderate weight loss induced a significant decrease in thigh muscle area, suggesting the importance of resistance training to accompany weight loss programs. PMID:27402560

  9. DDE in brown and white fat of hibernating bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of brown and white fat from hibernating bats (big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus; little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus; and eastern pipistrelle, Pipistrellus subflavus) collected in western Maryland, USA, were analysed to determine lipid and DDE content. Amounts of brown fat, expressed as percentages of total bat weight, were the same for all three species. Lipid content of brown fat was significantly less than that of white fat. Lipids of brown fat contained significantly higher (28%) concentrations of DDE than did lipids of white fat. In our mixed-species sample of 14 bats, concentrations of DDE increased exponentially in both brown and white fat as white fat reserves declined. Brown fat facilitates arousal from hibernation by producing heat through rapid metabolism of triglycerides. The question is raised whether organochlorine residues, such as DDE, may be concentrated and then liberated in lethal amounts by the processes of hibernation and arousal.

  10. Ulcerative colitis associated with the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut

    PubMed Central

    Sivarajah, Vernon; Abdul, Quddus; Pardoe, Helen; Lunniss, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old Iranian gentleman was admitted to hospital with severe bloody diarrhoea and abdominal pain. He had similar episodes in the past. On each occasion his symptoms developed following the consumption of the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut Hardcore X. On this admission, a (CT) scan demonstrated bowel wall thickening and peri-colonic fat stranding in the sigmoid colon. On flexible sigmoidoscopy, a continuous length of congested mucosa with multiple small ulcers was seen extending up to the mid-transverse colon, in keeping with ulcerative colitis. Histological analysis of biopsies was taken at the time and confirmed this. He was started on steroids early during his admission but this only provided a transient clinical improvement. The addition of cyclosporine, which was later changed to azathioprine, did not improve his condition either. He therefore underwent an open subtotal colectomy with end ileostomy. He made a slow but steady recovery and was discharged 3 weeks later. PMID:23291814

  11. Exercise associated hormonal signals as powerful determinants of an effective fat mass loss.

    PubMed

    Bajer, B; Vlcek, M; Galusova, A; Imrich, R; Penesova, A

    2015-07-01

    Obesity management for achieving an effective weight loss includes dietary modification and exercise [resistance (strength), endurance (cardiovascular) or intervals training (high-intensity intermittent exercise)]. Regular exercise acutely increases fat oxidation, which induces loss of fat mass and increases energy expenditure. Moreover, it has a positive effect on the physical (improved insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, etc.) and mental health (mood, cognition, memory, sleep, etc.). Endocrine responses to muscle actions are affected by many factors, including the exercise muscle groups (lower and upper body), load/volume, time-under tension, and rest-period intervals between sets, training status, gender, and age. The aim of this review is to summarize, evaluate, and clarify the literature data focusing on the endocrine responses to different types of exercise, including the frequency, intensity, and type of movement with regard to the fat loss strategies. Many studies have investigated anabolic [growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), testosterone] and gluco- and appetite- regulatory (insulin, cortisol, ghrelin) hormone responses and adaptations of skeletal muscles to exercise. Muscle tissue is a critical endocrine organ, playing important role in the regulation of several physiological and metabolic events. Moreover, we are also describing the response of some other substances to exercise, such as myokines [irisin, apelin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), myostatin, and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)]. It is proposed that reducing intra-abdominal fat mass and increasing cardiorespiratory fitness through improving nutritional quality, reducing sedentary behavior, and increase the participation in physical activity/exercise, might be associated with clinical benefits, sometimes even in the absence of weight loss. PMID:26238498

  12. Inclusion levels of sweet potato root meal in the diet of broilers I. Effect on performance, organ weights, and carcass quality

    PubMed Central

    Beckford, R. C.; Bartlett, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The amount of corn available for animal and poultry feed has been unpredictable in recent years due to the increased use of corn for ethanol production. As a consequence, there has been an increase in the price of feed, chicken, and chicken products. Researchers are exploring alternative feed sources to substitute for corn in poultry ration. This study evaluated the performance and carcass quality of broilers fed diets containing sweet potato root meal (SPRM). After a complete nutrient analysis of the SPRM, diets were formulated where 0, 10, 20, and 30% of corn was substituted with SPRM. The study utilized 360 1-d-old Cornish X Rock male broiler chickens randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments; 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% SPRM. Body weights and feed intake (FI) were monitored weekly for 7 wk. Birds were slaughtered on d 50 and FI, BW gain, ADG, ADFI, abdominal fat, dressing percentage, and organ weights measured. White (breast) and dark (leg and thigh) meat were evaluated for nutrient content (protein, moisture, fat, and ash). Results showed birds fed 20% SPRM had lower (P < 0.03) final BW, BW gain and ADG than those fed the 30% SPRM diet. There were no differences in FI and ADFI among treatments. Feed conversion ratio was lowest (P < 0.02) in birds fed 10, 20, and 30% SPRM than the control. There were no differences in dressing percentage among treatments. Abdominal fat was highest (P < 0.05) in birds fed 30% SPRM. Organ weights were similar across treatments except for gizzard which weighed highest (P < 0.05) in the control. For white meat; moisture, protein, fat, and ash were similar across treatments. For dark meat, moisture (P < 0.004) and fat (P < 0.03) were highest in the control, while protein and ash were similar among treatments. Birds fed the SPRM diets compared well with those fed the control for both performance and nutrient content of meat. PMID:25840965

  13. Inclusion levels of sweet potato root meal in the diet of broilers I. Effect on performance, organ weights, and carcass quality.

    PubMed

    Beckford, R C; Bartlett, J R

    2015-06-01

    The amount of corn available for animal and poultry feed has been unpredictable in recent years due to the increased use of corn for ethanol production. As a consequence, there has been an increase in the price of feed, chicken, and chicken products. Researchers are exploring alternative feed sources to substitute for corn in poultry ration. This study evaluated the performance and carcass quality of broilers fed diets containing sweet potato root meal (SPRM). After a complete nutrient analysis of the SPRM, diets were formulated where 0, 10, 20, and 30% of corn was substituted with SPRM. The study utilized 360 1-d-old Cornish X Rock male broiler chickens randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments; 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% SPRM. Body weights and feed intake (FI) were monitored weekly for 7 wk. Birds were slaughtered on d 50 and FI, BW gain, ADG, ADFI, abdominal fat, dressing percentage, and organ weights measured. White (breast) and dark (leg and thigh) meat were evaluated for nutrient content (protein, moisture, fat, and ash). Results showed birds fed 20% SPRM had lower (P<0.03) final BW, BW gain and ADG than those fed the 30% SPRM diet. There were no differences in FI and ADFI among treatments. Feed conversion ratio was lowest (P<0.02) in birds fed 10, 20, and 30% SPRM than the control. There were no differences in dressing percentage among treatments. Abdominal fat was highest (P<0.05) in birds fed 30% SPRM. Organ weights were similar across treatments except for gizzard which weighed highest (P<0.05) in the control. For white meat; moisture, protein, fat, and ash were similar across treatments. For dark meat, moisture (P<0.004) and fat (P<0.03) were highest in the control, while protein and ash were similar among treatments. Birds fed the SPRM diets compared well with those fed the control for both performance and nutrient content of meat. PMID:25840965

  14. Effects of abhydrolase domain containing 5 gene (ABHD5) expression and variations on chicken fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Liu, Qing; Xu, Jiguo; Zeng, Fang; Pang, Xiaolin; Jebessa, Endashaw; Liang, Shaodong; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    Abhydrolase domain containing 5 gene (ABHD5), also known as comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58), is a member of the α/β-hydrolase family as a protein cofactor of ATGL stimulating its triacylglycerol hydrolase activity. In this study, we aim to characterize the expression and variations of ABHD5 and to study their functions in chicken fat metabolism. We compared the ABHD5 expression level in various tissues and under different nutrition conditions, identified the variations of ABHD5, and associated them with production traits in an F2 resource population of chickens. Overexpression analysis with two different genotypes and siRNA interfering analysis of ABHD5 were performed in chicken preadipocytes. Chicken ABDH5 was expressed widely and most predominantly in adipose tissue. Five SNPs of the ABHD5 gene were identified and genotyped in the F2 resource population. The c.490C > T SNP was associated with subcutaneous fat thickness (P < 0.01), carcass weight (P < 0.05), body weight (P < 0.05), shank diameter (P < 0.05), and shank length (P < 0.05). The c.423T > C SNP was also associated with chicken body weight (P < 0.05) and shank diameter (P < 0.05). In chicken preadipocytes, overexpression of wild type ABDH5 did not affect the mRNA level of ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) but markedly decreased (P < 0.05) the TG (triglyceride) content of the cell, whereas overexpression of mutation type ABHD5 did not affect either ATGL expression or TG content of the cell. The expression of ATGL and TG content of the cell were decreased (P < 0.05) after ABHD5 knockdown in preadipocytes. The mRNA level of ABHD5 was regulated by both feeding and fasting, and by consumption of a high fat diet. It was increased greatly by fasting (P < 0.05) and was returned to control levels after re-feeding in the adipose tissues, and down-regulated in abdominal fat (P < 0.05) and the liver (P < 0.01) of chickens with a high fat diet. These results suggest that expression and variations

  15. The Role of Resistance Exercise in Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jeffrey L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the role of weight training in weight loss, noting how weight training contributes to the creation of a negative energy balance and explaining how resistance exercise can cause an increase in fat oxidation, both acutely and chronically. Resistance exercise has an indirect impact on weight and fat loss through increasing resting metabolic…

  16. Ghrelin receptor controls obesity by fat burning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence show that brown fat in the body produces heat to burn energy, thus prompting weight loss. Ghrelin is the only known hormone which increases appetite and promotes weight gain. We have reported that mice that lack the receptor which mediates the functions of ghrelin are lean. Our fu...

  17. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Figuring Out Fat and Calories KidsHealth > For Teens > Figuring Out Fat ... the truth on fat and calories? What Are Fat and Calories? Fats, or lipids , are nutrients in ...

  18. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain. PMID:26331201

  19. Abdominal imaging: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, M.P.; Feinberg, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    This nine-chapter book gives an overview of the integrated approach to abdominal imaging. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the physics used in medical imaging; chapter 2 is on the selection of imaging modalities. These are followed by four chapters that deal, respectively, with plain radiography, computed tomographic scanning, sonography, and nuclear imaging, as applied to the abdomen. Two chapters then cover contrast material-enhanced studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: one focusing on technical considerations; the other, on radiologic study of disease processes. The final chapter is a brief account of different interventional procedures.

  20. Lower Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Carlberg, David J; Lee, Stephen D; Dubin, Jeffrey S

    2016-05-01

    Although most frequently presenting with lower abdominal pain, appendicitis, colitis, and diverticulitis can cause pain throughout the abdomen and can cause peritoneal and retroperitoneal symptoms. Evaluation and management of lower intestinal disease requires a nuanced approach by the emergency physician, sometimes requiring computed tomography, ultrasonography, MRI, layered imaging, shared decision making, serial examination, and/or close follow-up. Once a presumed or confirmed diagnosis is made, appropriate treatment is initiated, and may include surgery, antibiotics, and/or steroids. Appendicitis patients should be admitted. Diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease can frequently be managed on an outpatient basis, but may require admission and surgical consultation. PMID:27133242

  1. Impact of high fat diets on bone strength and metabolism in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review is on the effect of high fat diets on poultry growth and metabolism. Results from our lab and in the literature show that high fat diets do not cause increase body weights but reduce lean meat percentage. High fat diets containing up to 15% animal fats did not cause femoral head separati...

  2. Body fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes in pregnant women are associated with gestational insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, H; Wetterling, L; Bosaeus, M; Odén, B; Odén, A; Jennische, E; Edén, S; Holmäng, A; Lönn, M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Pregnancy is accompanied by fat gain and insulin resistance. Changes in adipose tissue morphology and function during pregnancy and factors contributing to gestational insulin resistance are incompletely known. We sought to characterize adipose tissue in trimesters 1 and 3 (T1/T3) in normal weight (NW) and obese pregnant women, and identify adipose tissue-related factors associated with gestational insulin resistance. Subjects/Methods: Twenty-two NW and 11 obese women were recruited early in pregnancy for the Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study. Examinations and sampling of blood and abdominal adipose tissue were performed longitudinally in T1/T3 to determine fat mass (air-displacement plethysmography); insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR); size, number and lipolytic activity of adipocytes; and adipokine release and density of immune cells and blood vessels in adipose tissue. Results: Fat mass and HOMA-IR increased similarly between T1 and T3 in the groups; all remained normoglycemic. Adipocyte size increased in NW women. Adipocyte number was not influenced, but proportions of small and large adipocytes changed oppositely in the groups. Lipolytic activity and circulating adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein increased in both groups. Adiponectin release was reduced in NW women. Fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes were most strongly associated with T3 HOMA-IR by multivariable linear regression (R2=0.751, P<0.001). Conclusions: During pregnancy, adipose tissue morphology and function change comprehensively. NW women accumulated fat in existing adipocytes, accompanied by reduced adiponectin release. In comparison with the NW group, obese women had signs of adipocyte recruitment and maintained adiponectin levels. Body fat and large adipocytes may contribute significantly to gestational insulin resistance. PMID:26563815

  3. Effects of an intensive behavioral weight loss intervention consisting of caloric restriction with or without physical activity on common carotid artery remodeling in severely obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jennifer N.; Columbus, Mindy L.; Shields, Kelly J.; Asubonteng, Julius; Meyer, Michelle L.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Goodpaster, Bret H.; DeLany, James P.; Jakicic, John M.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Objective Obesity increases cardiovascular disease risk and adversely affects vascular structure and function. Few studies have evaluated the vascular effects of non-surgical weight reduction in the severely obese. We hypothesized that weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic factors would reduce common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and inter-adventitial diameter (AD) in severely obese adults. Methods We performed carotid ultrasound and measured cardiometabolic factors in 90 severely obese participants (body mass index (BMI)≥35 kg/m2, age 30–55) at baseline and 6 months in a randomized clinical trial of dietary intervention with (n=45) or without (n=45) physical activity. Results The achieved weight loss (mean=8%) did not differ significantly by intervention group (P=0.10) and resulted in a 0.07 mm mean decrease in AD (P=0.001). AD change was positively correlated with changes in BMI, waist circumference, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat, and body fat mass, and AD decreased more in men (P<0.05 for all). After multivariable adjustment, changes in BMI (P=0.03) and abdominal subcutaneous fat (P=0.04) were significant determinants of AD change. Although CIMT did not decrease significantly overall (−0.008 mm, P=0.16), individuals who lost at least 5% of their body weight experienced a significant mean reduction in CIMT of 0.02 mm (P=0.002). CIMT change was positively correlated with changes in BMI, waist circumference, fat-free mass, leptin, and insulin (P<0.05 for all). After multivariable adjustment, insulin reduction remained a significant determinant of CIMT decrease (P=0.03). Conclusion A6 month intensive behavioral intervention can significantly reverse metabolic and vascular abnormalities in severely obese adults. PMID:22579053

  4. Hypnosis for functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Gottsegen, David

    2011-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other somatic symptoms are easily adaptable for use with functional abdominal pain. The author discusses 2 contrasting hypnotic approaches to functional abdominal pain and provides implications for further research. These approaches may provide new insights into this common and complex disorder. PMID:21922712

  5. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... sick, but in time they can regain weight. "Dumping syndrome" is a problem associated mainly with gastric ... nausea, weakness, sweating, abdominal cramping, and diarrhea. Because dumping can be made worse by eating high-sugar ...

  6. Overall body fat and regional fat distribution in young women: quantification with MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Gerard, E L; Snow, R C; Kennedy, D N; Frisch, R E; Guimaraes, A R; Barbieri, R L; Sorensen, A G; Egglin, T K; Rosen, B R

    1991-07-01

    Overall body fat and its distribution in different regions are important predispositions to known aberrations in lipid and glucose metabolism. The accuracy of MR imaging in estimating overall body fatness and regional fat distribution at individual landmarks was determined by comparing it with well-accepted measures by deuterium-oxide (D2O) dilution and bioimpedance analysis. Fourteen normal young women (athletes and control subjects) were studied. A total of 308 axial, T1-weighted, spin-echo MR images over a specific region in the trunk (21-24 scans per subject) were obtained. Morphometric computer image analysis was performed to determine the subcutaneous, internal, and total fat volumes in each image. The data were analyzed in two ways: data from all slices were summed to assess overall body fatness, and six anatomic landmarks were chosen for regional comparisons. MR-determined estimates of overall body fatness strongly correlated with total body fat measures by D2O dilution in both total fat (r = .91) and subcutaneous fat (r = .92) determinations. Athletes in both the low- and high-intensity training phases had significantly lower values of MR-determined total body fatness than did control subjects. Parallel to total body fatness, athletes had significantly lower MR-determined ratios of total fat/total volume in four of six individual landmarks compared with control subjects. Our experience suggests that MR is an accurate method to quantify overall body fatness, when compared with D2O dilution and bioimpedance analysis. MR could also discriminate regional components of subcutaneous and internal body fat at individual landmarks. PMID:1646564