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Sample records for abdominal gas insufflation

  1. Heated insufflation with or without humidification for laparoscopic abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Birch, Daniel W; Dang, Jerry T; Switzer, Noah J; Manouchehri, Namdar; Shi, Xinzhe; Hadi, Ghassan; Karmali, Shahzeer

    2016-10-19

    Intraoperative hypothermia during both open and laparoscopic abdominal surgery may be associated with adverse events. For laparoscopic abdominal surgery, the use of heated insufflation systems for establishing pneumoperitoneum has been described to prevent hypothermia. Humidification of the insufflated gas is also possible. Past studies on heated insufflation have shown inconclusive results with regards to maintenance of core temperature and reduction of postoperative pain and recovery times. To determine the effect of heated gas insufflation compared to cold gas insufflation on maintaining intraoperative normothermia as well as patient outcomes following laparoscopic abdominal surgery. We searched Cochrane Colorectal Cancer Specialised Register (September 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 8), Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to September 2016), Ovid Embase (1974 to September 2016), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) (September 2016), Web of Science (1985 to September 2016), Scopus, www.clinicaltrials.gov and the National Research Register (1956 to September 2016). We also searched grey literature and cross references. Searches were limited to human studies without language restriction. Only randomised controlled trials comparing heated (with or without humidification) with cold gas insufflation in adult and paediatric populations undergoing laparoscopic abdominal procedures were included. We assessed study quality in regards to relevance, design, sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, possibility of incomplete data and selective reporting. Two review authors independently selected studies for the review, with any disagreement resolved in consensus with a third co-author. Two review authors independently performed screening of eligible studies, data extraction and methodological quality assessment of the trials. We classified a study as low-risk of bias if all of the first six main

  2. Compliance of the abdominal wall during laparoscopic insufflation.

    PubMed

    Becker, Chuck; Plymale, Margaret A; Wennergren, John; Totten, Crystal; Stigall, Kyle; Roth, J Scott

    2017-04-01

    To provide adequate workspace between the viscera and abdominal wall, insufflation with carbon dioxide is a common practice in laparoscopic surgeries. An insufflation pressure of 15 mmHg is considered to be safe in patients, but all insufflation pressures create perioperative and postoperative physiologic effects. As a composition of viscoelastic materials, the abdominal wall should distend in a predictable manner given the pressure of the pneumoperitoneum. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between degree of abdominal distention and the insufflation pressure, with the goal of determining factors which impact the compliance of the abdominal wall. A prospective, IRB-approved study was conducted to video record the abdomens of patients undergoing insufflation prior to a laparoscopic surgery. Photo samples were taken every 5 s, and the strain of the patient's abdomen in the sagittal plane was determined, as well as the insufflator pressure (stress) at bedside. Patients were insufflated to 15 mmHg. The relationship between the stress and strain was determined in each sample, and compliance of the patient's abdominal wall was calculated. Subcutaneous fat thickness and rectus abdominus muscle thickness were obtained from computed tomography scans. Correlations between abdominal wall compliances and subcutaneous fat and muscle content were determined. Twenty-five patients were evaluated. An increased fat thickness in the abdominal wall had a direct exponential relationship with abdominal wall compliance (R 2  = 0.59, p < 0.05). There was no correlation between muscle and fat thickness. All insufflation pressures create perioperative and postoperative complications. The compliance of patients' abdominal body walls differs, and subcutaneous fat thickness has a direct exponential relationship with abdominal wall compliance. Thus, insufflation pressures can be better tailored per the patient. Future studies are needed to demonstrate the

  3. Effect of abdominal insufflation for laparoscopy on intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Kamine, Tovy Haber; Papavassiliou, Efstathios; Schneider, Benjamin E

    2014-04-01

    Increased abdominal pressure may have a negative effect on intracranial pressure (ICP). Human data on the effects of laparoscopy on ICP are lacking. We retrospectively reviewed laparoscopic operations for ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement to determine the effect of insufflation on ICP. Nine patients underwent insufflation with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) at pressures ranging from 8 to 15 mm Hg and ICP measured through a ventricular catheter. We used a paired t test to compare ICP with insufflation and desufflation. Linear regression correlated insufflation pressure with ICP. The mean ICP increase with 15-mm Hg insufflation is 7.2 (95% CI, 5.4-9.1 [P < .001]) cm H(2)O. The increase in ICP correlated with increasing insufflation pressure (P = .04). Maximum ICP recorded was 25 cm H(2)O. Intracranial pressure significantly increases with abdominal insufflation and correlates with laparoscopic insufflation pressure. The maximum ICP measured was a potentially dangerous 25 cm H(2)O. Laparoscopy should be used cautiously in patients with a baseline elevated ICP or head trauma.

  4. Abdominal functional electrical stimulation to enhance mechanical insufflation-exsufflation

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Alan N.; Allan, David B.; Gollee, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Context Respiratory complications, attributed to the build-up of secretions in the airway, are a leading cause of rehospitalisation for the tetraplegic population. Previously, we observed that the application of Abdominal Functional Electrical Stimulation (AFES) improved cough function and increased demand for secretion removal, suggesting AFES may aid secretion clearance. Clinically, secretion clearance is commonly achieved by using Mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) to simulate a cough. In this study the feasibility of combining AFES with MI-E is evaluated. Findings AFES was successfully combined with MI-E at eight fortnightly assessment sessions conducted with one sub-acute participant with tetraplegia. By using the signal from a pressure sensor, integrated with the MI-E device, AFES was correctly applied in synchrony with MI-E with an accuracy of 96.7%. Acute increases in exhaled volume and peak flow were observed during AFES assisted MI-E, compared to MI-E alone, at six of eight assessment sessions. Conclusion The successful integration of AFES with MI-E at eight assessment sessions demonstrates the feasibility of this technique. The acute increases in respiratory function observed at the majority of assessment sessions generate the hypothesis that AFES assisted MI-E may be more effective for secretion clearance than MI-E alone. PMID:26689243

  5. Abdominal insufflation for laparoscopy increases intracranial and intrathoracic pressure in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kamine, Tovy Haber; Elmadhun, Nassrene Y; Kasper, Ekkehard M; Papavassiliou, Efstathios; Schneider, Benjamin E

    2016-09-01

    Laparoscopy has emerged as an alternative to laparotomy in select trauma patients. In animal models, increasing abdominal pressure is associated with an increase in intrathoracic and intracranial pressures. We conducted a prospective trial of human subjects who underwent laparoscopic-assisted ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement (lap VPS) with intraoperative measurement of intrathoracic, intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures. Ten patients undergoing lap VPS were recruited. Abdominal insufflation was performed using CO2 to 0, 8, 10, 12 and 15 mmHg. ICP was measured through the ventricular catheter simultaneously with insufflation and with desufflation using a manometer. Peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) were measured through the endotracheal tube. Blood pressure was measured using a noninvasive blood pressure cuff. End-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) was measured for each set of abdominal pressure level. Pressure measurements from all points of insufflation were compared using a two-way ANOVA with a post hoc Bonferroni test. Mean changes in pressures were compared using t test. ICP and PIP increased significantly with increasing abdominal pressure (both p < 0.01), whereas cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and mean arterial pressure did not significantly change with increasing abdominal pressure over the range tested. Higher abdominal pressure values were associated with decreased ETCO2 values. Increased ICP and PIP appear to be a direct result of increasing abdominal pressure, since ETCO2 did not increase. Though CPP did not change over the range tested, the ICP in some patients with 15 mmHg abdominal insufflation reached values as high as 32 cmH2O, which is considered above tolerance, regardless of the CPP. Laparoscopy should be used cautiously, in patients who present with baseline elevated ICP or head trauma as abdominal insufflation affects intracranial pressure.

  6. Cardiopulmonary, blood and peritoneal fluid alterations associated with abdominal insufflation of carbon dioxide in standing horses.

    PubMed

    Latimer, F G; Eades, S C; Pettifer, G; Tetens, J; Hosgood, G; Moore, R M

    2003-05-01

    Abdominal insufflation is performed routinely during laparoscopy in horses to improve visualisation and facilitate instrument and visceral manipulations during surgery. It has been shown that high-pressure pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide (CO2) has deleterious cardiopulmonary effects in dorsally recumbent, mechanically ventilated, halothane-anaesthetised horses. There is no information on the effects of CO2 pneumoperitoneum on cardiopulmonary function and haematology, plasma chemistry and peritoneal fluid (PF) variables in standing sedated horses during laparoscopic surgery. To determine the effects of high pressure CO2 pneumoperitoneum in standing sedated horses on cardiopulmonary function, blood gas, haematology, plasma chemistry and PF variables. Six healthy, mature horses were sedated with an i.v. bolus of detomidine (0.02 mg/kg bwt) and butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg bwt) and instrumented to determine the changes in cardiopulmonary function, haematology, serum chemistry and PF values during and after pneumoperitoneum with CO2 to 15 mmHg pressure for standing laparoscopy. Each horse was assigned at random to either a standing left flank exploratory laparoscopy (LFL) with CO2 pneumoperitoneum or sham procedure (SLFL) without insufflation, and instrumented for measurement of cardiopulmonary variables. Each horse underwent a second procedure in crossover fashion one month later so that all 6 horses had both an LFL and SLFL performed. Cardiopulmonary variables and blood gas analyses were obtained 5 mins after sedation and every 15 mins during 60 mins baseline (BL), insufflation (15 mmHg) and desufflation. Haematology, serum chemistry analysis and PF analysis were performed at BL, insufflation and desufflation, and 24 h after the conclusion of each procedure. Significant decreases in heart rate, cardiac output and cardiac index and significant increases in mean right atrial pressure, systemic vascular resistance and pulmonary vascular resistance were recorded

  7. Tracheal gas insufflation combined with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dolan, S; Derdak, S; Solomon, D; Farmer, C; Johanningman, J; Gelineau, J; Smith, R B

    1996-03-01

    To determine the efficacy of tracheal insufflation delivered by two different catheter designs on CO2 elimination when used in conjunction with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. A nonrandomized before and after trial. Each animal served as his own control. Ten mongrel dogs weighing 20.9 +/- 1.9 kg. Four animals were assigned to a normal lung group and six animals underwent lung injury by large volume saline lavage. Permissive hypercapnia was allowed to occur by selecting oscillator settings that would lead to alveolar hypoventilation. Proximal mean airway pressure was kept constant. Tracheal gas was insufflated at 1 cm above the carina for 30 min periods at gas flows of 5 to 15 L/min. Carinal pressure, hemodynamic parameters (cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure), and gas exchange parameters (PaCO2, PaO2, PaO2/FIO2, shunt fraction, D O2) were measured. For the normal dogs, at catheter flow of 15 L/min; the forward thrust catheter increased carinal pressure and Pao2/FIO2 BY 30% (p<.003) and 105% (p<.005), respectively. The forward thrust catheter reduced Paco2 by 40% (p<.04). The reverse thrust catheter increased PaO2/FIO2 by 102% (p<.001) and decreased pressure and PaCO2 by 44% (p<.001) and 34% (p<.003), respectively. For the injured dogs, at catheter flow rate of 15 L/min, the forward thrust catheter increased carinal pressure, PaO2, and PaO2/FIO2 by 6% (p<.001), 23% (p<.001), and 24% (p<.02), respectively. The forward thrust catheter reduced PaCO2 by 29% (p<.002). The reverse thrust catheter increased PaO2 and PaO2/FIO2 both by 11% (p<.02) and reduced carinal pressure and PaCO2 by 23% (p<.001) and 18% (p<.002), respectively. Tracheal gas insufflation is capable of improving oxygenation and ventilation in acute lung injury when combined with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. The addition of this second gas flow at the level of the carina raises or lowers distal airway pressure, the magnitude of which is dependent

  8. Increased visceral tissue perfusion with heated, humidified carbon dioxide insufflation during open abdominal surgery in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Robson, Jonathan P; Kokhanenko, Pavlo; Marshall, Jean K; Phillips, Anthony R; van der Linden, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Tissue perfusion during surgery is important in reducing surgical site infections and promoting healing. This study aimed to determine if insufflation of the open abdomen with heated, humidified (HH) carbon dioxide (CO2) increased visceral tissue perfusion and core body temperature during open abdominal surgery in a rodent model. Using two different rodent models of open abdominal surgery, visceral perfusion and core temperature were measured. Visceral perfusion was investigated using a repeated measures crossover experiment with rodents receiving the same sequence of two alternating treatments: exposure to ambient air (no insufflation) and insufflation with HH CO2. Core body temperature was measured using an independent experimental design with three treatment groups: ambient air, HH CO2 and cold, dry (CD) CO2. Visceral perfusion was measured by laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) and core body temperature was measured with a rectal thermometer. Insufflation with HH CO2 into a rodent open abdominal cavity significantly increased visceral tissue perfusion (2.4 perfusion units (PU)/min (95% CI 1.23-3.58); p<0.0001) compared with ambient air, which significantly reduced visceral blood flow (-5.20 PU/min (95% CI -6.83- -3.58); p<0.0001). Insufflation of HH CO2 into the open abdominal cavity significantly increased core body temperature (+1.15 ± 0.14°C) compared with open cavities exposed to ambient air (-0.65 ± 0.52°C; p = 0.037), or cavities insufflated with CD CO2 (-0.73 ± 0.33°C; p = 0.006). Abdominal visceral temperatures also increased with HH CO2 insufflation compared with ambient air or CD CO2, as shown by infrared thermography. This study reports for the first time the use of LASCA to measure visceral perfusion in open abdominal surgery and shows that insufflation of open abdominal cavities with HH CO2 significantly increases visceral tissue perfusion and core body temperature.

  9. CO2 insufflation versus air insufflation for endoscopic submucosal dissection: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Dong, Hao; Zhang, Yifeng; Zhang, Guoxin

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation is increasingly used for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) owing to the faster absorption of CO2 as compared to that of air. Studies comparing CO2 insufflation and air insufflation have reported conflicting results. This meta-analysis is aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of use of CO2 insufflation for ESD. Clinical trials of CO2 insufflation versus air insufflation for ESD were searched in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database. We performed a meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Eleven studies which compared the use of CO2 insufflation and air insufflation, with a combined study population of 1026 patients, were included in the meta-analysis (n = 506 for CO2 insufflation; n = 522 for air insufflation). Abdominal pain and VAS scores at 6h and 24h post-procedure in the CO2 insufflation group were significantly lower than those in the air insufflation group, but not at 1h and 3h after ESD. The percentage of patients who experienced pain 1h and 24h post-procedure was obviously decreased. Use of CO2 insufflation was associated with lower VAS scores for abdominal distention at 1h after ESD, but not at 24h after ESD. However, no significant differences were observed with respect to postoperative transcutaneous partial pressure carbon dioxide (PtcCO2), arterial blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), oxygen saturation (SpO2%), abdominal circumference, hospital stay, white blood cell (WBC) counts, C-Reactive protein (CRP) level, dosage of sedatives used, incidence of dysphagia and other complications. Use of CO2 insufflation for ESD was safe and effective with regard to abdominal discomfort, procedure time, and the residual gas volume. However, there appeared no significant differences with respect to other parameters namely, PtcCO2, PaCO2, SpO2%, abdominal circumference, hospital stay, sedation dosage, complications, WBC, CRP, and dysphagia.

  10. A comparison of the effects of carbon dioxide and medical air for abdominal insufflation on respiratory parameters in xylazine-sedated sheep undergoing laparoscopic artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Haan, J D; Hay Kraus, B L; Sathe, S R

    2018-07-01

    To determine if abdominal insufflation with medical air will improve oxygenation and ventilation parameters when compared to insufflation with CO 2 in xylazine-sedated sheep undergoing laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI). Forty-seven sheep underwent oestrus synchronisation and were fasted for 24 hours prior to laparoscopic AI. Each animal was randomised to receive either CO 2 or medical air for abdominal insufflation. An auricular arterial catheter was placed and utilised for serial blood sampling. Respiratory rates (RR) and arterial blood samples were collected at baseline, after xylazine (0.1 mg/kg I/V) sedation, 2 minutes after Trendelenburg positioning, 5 minutes after abdominal insufflation, and 10 minutes after being returned to a standing position. Blood samples were collected in heparinised syringes, stored on ice, and analysed for arterial pH, partial pressure of arterial O 2 (PaO 2 ), and CO 2 (PaCO 2 ). The number of ewes conceiving to AI was also determined. Repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated temporal effects on RR, PaO 2 , PaCO 2 and arterial pH during the laparoscopic AI procedure (p<0.001), but no difference between insufflation groups (p>0.01). No sheep experienced hypercapnia (PaCO 2 >50 mmHg) or acidaemia (pH<7.35). Hypoxaemia (PaO 2 <70 mmHg) was diagnosed during the procedure in 14/22 (64%) ewes in the CO 2 group compared with 8/23 (35%) ewes in the medical air group (p=0.053). Overall, 15/20 (75%) ewes in the CO 2 group conceived to AI compared with 16/22 (72.7%) in the medical air group (p=0.867). There were no statistical or clinical differences in RR, PaO 2 , PaCO 2 , pH, or conception to AI when comparing the effects of CO 2 and medical air as abdominal insufflation gases. None of the sheep experienced hypercapnia or acidaemic, yet 42% (19/45) of sheep developed clinical hypoxaemia, with a higher percentage of ewes in the CO 2 group developing hypoxaemia than in the medical air group. Based on the overall analysis, medical air

  11. Gas insufflation of minimal preparation CT of the colon reduces false-positives

    PubMed Central

    Slater, A; North, M; Hart, M; Ferrett, C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Minimal preparation CT of the colon (MPCT colon) is used for investigation of suspected colorectal cancer in frail and/or elderly patients who would be expected to tolerate laxative bowel preparation poorly. Although it has good sensitivity for colorectal cancer it has a poor specificity. We wished to investigate whether distension of the colon with carbon dioxide alone would reduce the number of false-positives, but without making the test arduous or excessively uncomfortable. Methods 134 patients were recruited and underwent MPCT colon with gas insufflation and antispasmodics. Results were compared with a cohort of 134 patients undergoing standard protocol MPCT colon. The numbers of false-positives were compared, as was reader confidence. All trial patients were given a questionnaire documenting their experience. Results The number of false-positives was 15% in the control group and 5% in the trial group; this difference was statistically significant, (p=0.01). Reader confidence was increased in the trial group. Patient tolerance was good, with 95% saying they would have the test again. Conclusion Use of gas insufflation and antispasmodics reduces the false-positives from 15% to 5% without adversely affecting patient tolerance. PMID:21224295

  12. Efficacy and tolerability of medical ozone gas insufflations in patients with osteonecrosis of the jaw treated with bisphosphonates-Preliminary data: Medical ozone gas insufflation in treating ONJ lesions.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, C I; Maniezzo, M; Boldini, S; Pessi, M A; Mariani, L; Cislaghi, E

    2012-12-01

    Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ) is an adverse event reported especially in patients receiving cancer treatments regimen, bisphosphonates (BPs), and denosumab. We performed an open-label, prospective study in patients treated with zoledronic acid who developed ONJ lesions >2.5 cm, and had no benefit after the treatment with the standard therapy, to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of medical ozone (O3) treatment delivered as gas insufflations on each ONJ lesions. Twenty-four patients (mean age 62.5, range 41-80; 12 female) with bone metastases due to breast (11), prostate (4)and lung (4)cancers, myeloma (2), or osteoporosis (3), previously treated with zoledronic acid and not underwent dental preventive measures and with ONJ lesions >2.5 cm, were observed and treated with topical O3 gas insufflation every third day for a minimum of 10 for each pathological area or till necrotic bone sequestrum or surgery. We used a special insufflation bell-shaped device adjusted to the specific characteristics of the patient, capable of eliminating any residue of O3 diffusion by degrading it and releasing O2 into the air. Azithromicin 500 mg/day was administered for 10 days in all patients before the first three gas insufflation although they had previously received various cycles of antibiotics. Ten patients required more than 10 O3 gas insufflations due to multiple lesions and/or purulent sovrainfections; one patient received two further O3 insufflations while waiting the day of surgery. Six of 24 patients interrupted the O3 gas therapy for oncological disease progression (five patients) and for fear of an experimental therapy (one patient). Six patients had the sequestrum and complete or partial (one patient) spontaneous expulsion of the necrotic bone followed by oral mucosa re-epithelization after a range of 4-27 of O3 gas insufflations. No patient reported adverse events. In 12 patients with the largest and deeper ONJ lesions, O3 gas therapy produced the sequestrum of

  13. Fetal blood gas values during fetoscopic myelomeningocele repair performed under carbon dioxide insufflation.

    PubMed

    Baschat, Ahmet A; Ahn, Edward S; Murphy, Jamie; Miller, Jena L

    2018-05-10

    Fetoscopic myelomeningocele (MMC) repair is performed with intrauterine carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) insufflation. While lamb experiments have shown significant fetal acidemia following CO 2 insufflation corresponding information for human pregnancies is not available. We performed umbilical venous cord blood sampling in three patients during fetoscopic MMC repair at 25+1, 25+3 and 24+1 weeks gestation. Fetal venous pH at the beginning of CO 2 insufflation were 7.36, 7.46 and 7.37; repeat values were 7.28, 7.35, 7.36 after 181, 159 and 149 minutes respectively. The partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide was maintained in the normal range at these times and pH decrease was less in patient 3 receiving humidified CO2 insufflation. Our observations suggest that in contrast to sheep experiments, CO2 insufflation during fetoscopic myelomeningocele repair does not cause fetal acidemia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon Dioxide Insufflation Increases Colonoscopic Adenoma Detection Rate Compared With Air Insufflation.

    PubMed

    Mills, Christopher D; McCamley, Chere; Swan, Michael P

    2018-03-07

    To determine the effect of carbon dioxide insufflation on the most important outcome measure of colonoscopic quality: adenoma detection rate (ADR). Bowel cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in males and females in Australia. Carbon dioxide has in recent times become the insufflation methodology of choice for screening colonoscopy for bowel cancer, as this has been shown to have significant advantages when compared with traditional air insufflation. Endoscopies performed over a period of 9 months immediately before and after the implementation of carbon dioxide insufflation at endoscopy centers were eligible for inclusion. The difference in ADR between the carbon dioxide and air insufflation methods was statistically significant, with an increased ADR in the carbon dioxide group. The superiority of carbon dioxide insufflation was sustained with a logistic regression model, which showed ADR was significantly impacted by insufflation method. Carbon dioxide insufflation is known to reduce abdominal pain, postprocedural duration of abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and analgesic requirements. This study represents for the first time the beneficial effect of carbon dioxide insufflation upon the key quality colonoscopy indicator of ADR.

  15. Carbon dioxide insufflation during colonoscopy in deeply sedated patients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajvinder; Neo, Eu Nice; Nordeen, Nazree; Shanmuganathan, Ganesananthan; Ashby, Angelie; Drummond, Sharon; Nind, Garry; Murphy, Elizabeth; Luck, Andrew; Tucker, Graeme; Tam, William

    2012-07-07

    To compare the impact of carbon dioxide (CO₂) and air insufflation on patient tolerance/safety in deeply sedated patients undergoing colonoscopy. Patients referred for colonoscopy were randomized to receive either CO₂ or air insufflation during the procedure. Both the colonoscopist and patient were blinded to the type of gas used. During the procedure, insertion and withdrawal times, caecal intubation rates, total sedation given and capnography readings were recorded. The level of sedation and magnitude of patient discomfort during the procedure was assessed by a nurse using a visual analogue scale (VAS) (0-3). Patients then graded their level of discomfort and abdominal bloating using a similar VAS. Complications during and after the procedure were recorded. A total of 142 patients were randomized with 72 in the air arm and 70 in the CO₂ arm. Mean age between the two study groups were similar. Insertion time to the caecum was quicker in the CO₂ group at 7.3 min vs 9.9 min with air (P = 0.0083). The average withdrawal times were not significantly different between the two groups. Caecal intubation rates were 94.4% and 100% in the air and CO₂ groups respectively (P = 0.012). The level of discomfort assessed by the nurse was 0.69 (air) and 0.39 (CO₂) (P = 0.0155) and by the patient 0.82 (air) and 0.46 (CO₂) (P = 0.0228). The level of abdominal bloating was 0.97 (air) and 0.36 (CO₂) (P = 0.001). Capnography readings trended to be higher in the CO₂ group at the commencement, caecal intubation, and conclusion of the procedure, even though this was not significantly different when compared to readings obtained during air insufflation. There were no complications in both arms. CO₂ insufflation during colonoscopy is more efficacious than air, allowing quicker and better cecal intubation rates. Abdominal discomfort and bloating were significantly less with CO₂ insufflation.

  16. Correlation between CO2 storage at the last minute of gas insufflation and area of retroperitoneal lacuna during retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Ya-Hua; Yu, Chan-Juan; Jialielihan, Nuerbolati

    2016-07-22

    Adequate operation interspace is the premise of laparoscopy, and carbon dioxide (CO2) was an ideal gas for forming lacuna. A retroperitoneal space is used to form operation interspace in retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy by making ballooning, and the retroperitoneal space has no relative complete and airtight serous membrane, therefore CO2 absorption may be greater in retroperitoneal than transperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. Excess CO2 absorption may induce hypercapnemia and further cause physiopathological change of respiratory and circulatory system. Therefore, exact evaluation of amount of CO2 which is eliminated from body via minute ventilation is important during retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. The aim of the paper is to study the correlation between CO2 storage at the last minute of gas insufflation and area of retroperitoneal lacuna during retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. Forty ASA I/II patients undergoing retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy were enrolled. CO2 storage at the last minute of gas insufflation and area of a retroperitoneal lacuna were observed. Linear correlation and regression were performed to determine the correlation between them. There was positive correlation between CO2 storage at the last minute of gas insufflation and area of retroperitoneal lacuna (r = 0.880, P = 0.000), and the equation of linear regression was y = -83.097 + 0.925x (R(2) = 0.780, t = 11.610, P = 0.000). Amount of CO2 which is eliminated from body via mechanical ventilation could be calculated by measuring the area of retroperitoneal lacuna during retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy, and an anesthetist should be aware of the size of lacuna to predict high CO2 storage at the last minute of gas insufflation.

  17. Wireless Insufflation of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Santina; Smith, Byron F.; Ciuti, Gastone; Gerding, Jason; Menciassi, Arianna; Obstein, Keith L.; Valdastri, Pietro; Webster, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite clear patient experience advantages, low specificity rates have thus far prevented swallowable capsule endoscopes from replacing traditional endoscopy for diagnosis of colon disease. One explanation for this is that capsule endoscopes lack the ability to provide insufflation, which traditional endoscopes use to distend the intestine for a clear view of the internal wall. To provide a means of insufflation from a wireless capsule platform, in this paper we use biocompatible effervescent chemical reactions to convert liquids and powders carried onboard a capsule into gas. We experimentally evaluate the quantity of gas needed to enhance capsule visualization and locomotion, and determine how much gas can be generated from a given volume of reactants. These experiments motivate the design of a wireless insufflation capsule, which is evaluated in ex vivo experiments. These experiments illustrate the feasibility of enhancing visualization and locomotion of endoscopic capsules through wireless insufflation. PMID:23212312

  18. Carbon dioxide insufflation during colonoscopy in deeply sedated patients

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajvinder; Neo, Eu Nice; Nordeen, Nazree; Shanmuganathan, Ganesananthan; Ashby, Angelie; Drummond, Sharon; Nind, Garry; Murphy, Elizabeth; Luck, Andrew; Tucker, Graeme; Tam, William

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compare the impact of carbon dioxide (CO2) and air insufflation on patient tolerance/safety in deeply sedated patients undergoing colonoscopy. METHODS: Patients referred for colonoscopy were randomized to receive either CO2 or air insufflation during the procedure. Both the colonoscopist and patient were blinded to the type of gas used. During the procedure, insertion and withdrawal times, caecal intubation rates, total sedation given and capnography readings were recorded. The level of sedation and magnitude of patient discomfort during the procedure was assessed by a nurse using a visual analogue scale (VAS) (0-3). Patients then graded their level of discomfort and abdominal bloating using a similar VAS. Complications during and after the procedure were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 142 patients were randomized with 72 in the air arm and 70 in the CO2 arm. Mean age between the two study groups were similar. Insertion time to the caecum was quicker in the CO2 group at 7.3 min vs 9.9 min with air (P = 0.0083). The average withdrawal times were not significantly different between the two groups. Caecal intubation rates were 94.4% and 100% in the air and CO2 groups respectively (P = 0.012). The level of discomfort assessed by the nurse was 0.69 (air) and 0.39 (CO2) (P = 0.0155) and by the patient 0.82 (air) and 0.46 (CO2) (P = 0.0228). The level of abdominal bloating was 0.97 (air) and 0.36 (CO2) (P = 0.001). Capnography readings trended to be higher in the CO2 group at the commencement, caecal intubation, and conclusion of the procedure, even though this was not significantly different when compared to readings obtained during air insufflation. There were no complications in both arms. CONCLUSION: CO2 insufflation during colonoscopy is more efficacious than air, allowing quicker and better cecal intubation rates. Abdominal discomfort and bloating were significantly less with CO2 insufflation. PMID:22783048

  19. Five Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial on Warming and Humidification of Insufflation Gas in Laparoscopic Colonic Surgery—Impact on Small Bowel Obstruction and Oncologic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sammour, Tarik; Hill, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Warming and humidification of insufflation gas has been shown to reduce adhesion formation and tumor implantation in the laboratory setting, but clinical evidence is lacking. We aimed to test the hypothesis that warming and humidification of insufflation CO2 would lead to reduced adhesion formation, and improve oncologic outcomes in laparoscopic colonic surgery. This was a 5-year follow-up of a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial investigating warming and humidification of insufflation gas. The study group received warmed (37°C), humidified (98%) insufflation carbon dioxide, and the control group received standard gas (19°C, 0%). All other aspects of patient care were standardized. Admissions for small bowel obstruction were recorded, as well as whether management was operative or nonoperative. Local and systemic cancer recurrence, 5-year overall survival, and cancer specific survival rates were also recorded. Eighty two patients were randomized, with 41 in each arm. Groups were well matched at baseline. There was no difference between the study and control groups in the rate of clinical small bowel obstruction (5.7% versus 0%, P 0.226); local recurrence (6.5% versus 6.1%, P 1.000); overall survival (85.7% versus 82.1%, P 0.759); or cancer-specific survival (90.3% versus 87.9%, P 1.000). Warming and humidification of insufflation CO2 in laparoscopic colonic surgery does not appear to confer a clinically significant long term benefit in terms of adhesion reduction or oncological outcomes, although a much larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) would be required to confirm this. ClinicalTrials.gov Trial identifier: NCT00642005; US National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA. PMID:25875541

  20. Five year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial on warming and humidification of insufflation gas in laparoscopic colonic surgery--impact on small bowel obstruction and oncologic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sammour, Tarik; Hill, Andrew G

    2015-04-01

    Warming and humidification of insufflation gas has been shown to reduce adhesion formation and tumor implantation in the laboratory setting, but clinical evidence is lacking. We aimed to test the hypothesis that warming and humidification of insufflation CO2 would lead to reduced adhesion formation, and improve oncologic outcomes in laparoscopic colonic surgery. This was a 5-year follow-up of a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial investigating warming and humidification of insufflation gas. The study group received warmed (37°C), humidified (98%) insufflation carbon dioxide, and the control group received standard gas (19°C, 0%). All other aspects of patient care were standardized. Admissions for small bowel obstruction were recorded, as well as whether management was operative or nonoperative. Local and systemic cancer recurrence, 5-year overall survival, and cancer specific survival rates were also recorded. Eighty two patients were randomized, with 41 in each arm. Groups were well matched at baseline. There was no difference between the study and control groups in the rate of clinical small bowel obstruction (5.7% versus 0%, P 0.226); local recurrence (6.5% versus 6.1%, P 1.000); overall survival (85.7% versus 82.1%, P 0.759); or cancer-specific survival (90.3% versus 87.9%, P 1.000). Warming and humidification of insufflation CO2 in laparoscopic colonic surgery does not appear to confer a clinically significant long term benefit in terms of adhesion reduction or oncological outcomes, although a much larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) would be required to confirm this. ClinicalTrials.gov Trial identifier: NCT00642005; US National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA.

  1. Difficult colonoscopy: air, carbon dioxide, or water insufflation?

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Vikas; Patel, Ruchir; Poddar, Prateik; Phadke, Aniruddha; Ingle, Meghraj; Sawant, Prabha

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aims This study aimed to compare tolerance to air, carbon dioxide, or water insufflation in patients with anticipated difficult colonoscopy (young, thin, obese individuals, and patients with prior abdominal surgery or irradiation). Methods Patients with body mass index (BMI) less than 18 kg/m2 or more than 30 kg/m2, or who had undergone previous abdominal or pelvic surgeries were randomized to air, carbon dioxide, or water insufflation during colonoscopy. The primary endpoint was cecal intubation with mild pain (less than 5 on visual analogue scale [VAS]), without use of sedation. Results The primary end point was achieved in 32.7%, 43.8%, and 84.9% of cases with air, carbon dioxide and water insufflation (P<0.001). The mean pain scores were 5.17, 4.72, and 3.93 on the VAS for air, carbon dioxide, and water insufflation (P<0.001). The cecal intubation rate or procedure time did not differ significantly between the 3 groups. Conclusions Water insufflation was superior to air or carbon dioxide for pain tolerance. This was seen in the subgroups with BMI <18 kg/m2 and the post-surgical group, but not in the group with BMI >30 kg/m2. PMID:29743844

  2. Difficult colonoscopy: air, carbon dioxide, or water insufflation?

    PubMed

    Chaubal, Alisha; Pandey, Vikas; Patel, Ruchir; Poddar, Prateik; Phadke, Aniruddha; Ingle, Meghraj; Sawant, Prabha

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to compare tolerance to air, carbon dioxide, or water insufflation in patients with anticipated difficult colonoscopy (young, thin, obese individuals, and patients with prior abdominal surgery or irradiation). Patients with body mass index (BMI) less than 18 kg/m 2 or more than 30 kg/m 2 , or who had undergone previous abdominal or pelvic surgeries were randomized to air, carbon dioxide, or water insufflation during colonoscopy. The primary endpoint was cecal intubation with mild pain (less than 5 on visual analogue scale [VAS]), without use of sedation. The primary end point was achieved in 32.7%, 43.8%, and 84.9% of cases with air, carbon dioxide and water insufflation ( P <0.001). The mean pain scores were 5.17, 4.72, and 3.93 on the VAS for air, carbon dioxide, and water insufflation ( P <0.001). The cecal intubation rate or procedure time did not differ significantly between the 3 groups. Water insufflation was superior to air or carbon dioxide for pain tolerance. This was seen in the subgroups with BMI <18 kg/m 2 and the post-surgical group, but not in the group with BMI >30 kg/m 2 .

  3. Fulminant abdominal gas gangrene in metastatic colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    BOZKURT, MUSTAFA; OKUTUR, KEREM; AYDIN, KÜBRA; NAMAL, ESAT; ÖZTÜRK, AKIN; BALCI, CEM; DEMIR, GÖKHAN

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of fulminant abdominal gas gangrene in a patient with metastatic colon cancer. A 39-year-old patient with descending colon, high-grade adenocarcinoma and coexisting liver and lymph node metastases received two courses of chemotherapy. The patient developed sudden acute abdominal symptoms accompanied by septic shock parameters. The imaging findings on computed tomography were characteristic for abdominal gas gangrene, involving liver metastases, portal vein and lymph nodes with associated pneumoperitoneum. The patient succumbed to the disease within hours following the onset of symptoms. PMID:22740933

  4. Fulminant abdominal gas gangrene in metastatic colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Mustafa; Okutur, Kerem; Aydin, Kübra; Namal, Esat; Oztürk, Akin; Balci, Cem; Demir, Gökhan

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of fulminant abdominal gas gangrene in a patient with metastatic colon cancer. A 39-year-old patient with descending colon, high-grade adenocarcinoma and coexisting liver and lymph node metastases received two courses of chemotherapy. The patient developed sudden acute abdominal symptoms accompanied by septic shock parameters. The imaging findings on computed tomography were characteristic for abdominal gas gangrene, involving liver metastases, portal vein and lymph nodes with associated pneumoperitoneum. The patient succumbed to the disease within hours following the onset of symptoms.

  5. High-frequency oscillation and tracheal gas insufflation in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and traumatic brain injury: an interventional physiological study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), combined high-frequency oscillation (HFO) and tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) improves gas exchange compared with conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV). We evaluated the effect of HFO-TGI on PaO2/fractional inspired O2 (FiO2) and PaCO2, systemic hemodynamics, intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and concurrent severe ARDS. Methods We studied 13 TBI/ARDS patients requiring anesthesia, hyperosmolar therapy, and ventilation with moderate-to-high CMV-tidal volumes for ICP control. Patients had PaO2/FiO2 <100 mm Hg at end-expiratory pressure ≥10 cm H2O. Patients received consecutive, daily, 12-hour rescue sessions of HFO-TGI interspersed with 12-hour periods of CMV. HFO-TGI was discontinued when the post-HFO-TGI PaO2/FiO2 exceeded 100 mm Hg for >12 hours. Arterial/central-venous blood gases, hemodynamics, and ICP were recorded before, during (every 4 hours), and after HFO-TGI, and were analyzed by using repeated measures analysis of variance. Respiratory mechanics were assessed before and after HFO-TGI. Results Each patient received three to four HFO-TGI sessions (total sessions, n = 43). Pre-HFO-TGI PaO2/FiO2 (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 83.2 ± 15.5 mm Hg) increased on average by approximately 130% to163% during HFO-TGI (P < 0.01) and remained improved by approximately 73% after HFO-TGI (P < 0.01). Pre-HFO-TGI CMV plateau pressure (30.4 ± 4.5 cm H2O) and respiratory compliance (37.8 ± 9.2 ml/cm H2O), respectively, improved on average by approximately 7.5% and 20% after HFO-TGI (P < 0.01 for both). During HFO-TGI, systemic hemodynamics remained unchanged. Transient improvements were observed after 4 hours of HFO-TGI versus pre-HFO-TGI CMV in PaCO2 (37.7 ± 9.9 versus 41.2 ± 10.8 mm Hg; P < 0.01), ICP (17.2 ± 5.4 versus 19.7 ± 5.9 mm Hg; P < 0.05), and CPP (77.2 ± 14.6 versus 71.9 ± 14.8 mm Hg; P < 0.05). Conclusions

  6. Heated CO(2) with or without humidification for minimally invasive abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Birch, Daniel W; Manouchehri, Namdar; Shi, Xinzhe; Hadi, Ghassan; Karmali, Shahzeer

    2011-01-19

    Intraoperative hypothermia during both open and laparoscopic abdominal surgery may be associated with adverse events. For laparoscopic abdominal surgery, the use of heated insufflation systems for establishing pneumoperitoneum has been described to prevent hypothermia. Humidification of the insufflated gas is also possible. Past studies have shown inconclusive results with regards to maintenance of core temperature and reduction of postoperative pain and recovery times. To determine the effect of heated gas insufflation on patient outcomes following minimally invasive abdominal surgery. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA), Web of Science, Scopus, www.clinicaltrials.gov and the National Research Register were searched (1956 to 14 June 2010). Grey literature and cross-references were also searched. Searches were limited to human studies without language restriction. All included studies were randomized trials comparing heated (with or without humidification) gas insufflation with cold gas insufflation in adult and pediatric populations undergoing minimally invasive abdominal procedures. Study quality was assessed in regards to relevance, design, sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, possibility of incomplete data and selective reporting. The selection of studies for the review was done independently by two authors, with any disagreement resolved in consensus with a third co-author. Screening of eligible studies, data extraction and methodological quality assessment of the trials were performed by the authors. Data from eligible studies were collected using data sheets. Results were presented using mean differences for continuous outcomes and relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for dichotomous outcomes. The estimated effects were calculated using the latest version of RevMan software. Publication bias was taken into

  7. 21 CFR 884.5920 - Vaginal insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5920 Vaginal insufflator. (a) Identification. A vaginal insufflator is a device used to treat...

  8. Benchtop evaluation of pressure barrier insufflator and standard insufflator systems.

    PubMed

    Nepple, Kenneth G; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Bhayani, Sam B

    2013-01-01

    Previous experimental research has reported minimal differences in pressure maintenance between different versions of standard insufflators (SI). However, a recent report identified potential clinical benefits with a valveless pressure barrier insufflator (PBI). We sought to perform a benchtop objective evaluation of SI and PBI systems. A rigid box system with continuous pressure manometry was used to evaluate a PBI (Surgiquest Airseal) and two SIs (SI1 = Stryker PneumoSure High Flow Insufflator and SI2 = Storz SCB Thermoflator). Pressure maintenance of 15 mmHg was evaluated during experimental conditions of leakage from a 5 mm port site, leakage from a 12 mm port site, and continuous suction. With leakage from the 5 mm port site, the PBI maintained pressure of >13 mmHg whereas the pressures dropped moderately with the SI1 (7-13 mmHg) and SI2 insufflators (3-7 mmHg) and did not regain goal pressure until leakage was stopped. With leakage from 12 mm port site, the PBI pressure decreased to 9-11 mmHg, whereas the SI1 and SI2 lost insufflation pressures completely. The PBI maintained pressure of >11 mmHg during continuous suction while the SI1 and SI2 lost pressure entirely, and actually showed negative pressure from air suction into the rigid box system. When evaluated statistically with the mixed model repeated measures ANOVA, the SI1 and SI2 performed similarly while the PBI maintained increased pressure. In the experimental rigid box system, the PBI more successfully maintained pressure in response to leakage and suction than SIs.

  9. Laparoscopy Using Room Air Insufflation in a Rural African Jungle Hospital: The Bongolo Hospital Experience, January 2006 to December 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Zachary; Faniriko, Marco; Thelander, Keir; O'Connor, Jennifer; Thompson, David; Park, Adrian

    2017-06-01

    Carbon dioxide is the standard insufflation gas for laparoscopy. However, in many areas of the world, bottled carbon dioxide is not available. Laparoscopy offers advantages over open surgery and has been practiced using filtered room air insufflation since 2006 at Bongolo Hospital in Gabon, Africa. Our primary goal was to evaluate the safety of room air insufflation related to intraoperative and postoperative complications. Our secondary aim was to review the types of cases performed laparoscopically at our institution. This retrospective review evaluates laparoscopic cases performed at Bongolo Hospital between January 2006 and December 2013. Demographic and perioperative information for patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures was collected. Insufflation was achieved using a standard, oil-free air compressor using filtered air and a standard insufflation regulator. A total of 368 laparoscopic procedures were identified within the time period. The majority of cases were gynecologic (43%). There was a 2% (8/368) complication rate with one perioperative death. The 2 complications related to insufflation were episodes of hypotension responsive to standard corrective measures. No intracorporeal combustion events were observed in any cases in which the use of diathermy and room air insufflation were combined. The other complications and the death were unrelated to the use of insufflation with air. Insufflation complications with room air occurred in our study. However, the complications related to insufflation with room air in our study were no different than those described in the literature using carbon dioxide. As room air is less costly than carbon dioxide and readily available, confirming the safety of room air insufflation in prospective studies is warranted. Room air appears to be safe for establishing and maintaining pneumoperitoneum, making laparoscopic surgery more accessible to patients in low-resource settings.

  10. Accidental overdose of insufflated colchicine.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, L R; Talbert, R L; Samples, R

    1990-01-01

    An accidental overdose of colchicine by nasal insufflation occurred when the colchicine was mistaken for methamphetamine. Colchicine insufflation is not believed to be a common practice among drug abusers; however, its physical appearance was similar enough to methamphetamine for it to be mistaken for that drug of abuse. In this case a 29-year-old White man presented to the emergency room 3 days after he 'snorted' approximately 200mg of colchicine powder. The colchicine was used as a 'root stimulator' in gardening by the patient's brother and stored in the same cabinet as the methamphetamine. Within 24 hours of exposure the patient began experiencing gastrointestinal distress and myalgia, which eventually prompted him to seek medical attention. The clinical course included hypocalcaemia (69 mg/L--day 5), hypophosphataemia (10 mg/L--day 5) and thrombocytopenia (19 X 10(3)/mm3 - day 8), all of which are consistent with colchicine toxicity. The patient improved with supportive care and electrolyte replacement, and was discharged after an 8-day hospitalisation.

  11. Randomized, double-blind trial of CO2 versus air insufflation in children undergoing colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Homan, Matjaž; Mahkovic, Dora; Orel, Rok; Mamula, Petar

    2016-05-01

    Studies in adults have shown that postprocedural abdominal pain is reduced with the use of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) instead of air for insufflation during colonoscopy. The aim of our study was to compare postprocedural abdominal pain and girth in children undergoing colonoscopy using CO(2) or air for insufflation. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study that included 76 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing colonoscopy for various indications. Patients were randomly assigned to either CO(2) or air insufflation. At 2, 4, and 24 hours after the examination, the patients' pain was assessed by using the 11-point numerical rating scale. The waist circumference was measured 10 minutes and 2 and 4 hours after colonoscopy. A significantly higher proportion of patients had no pain after colonoscopy in the CO(2) group compared with the air group (82 vs 37% at 2 hours and 95% vs. 63% at 4 hours, P < .001). Mean abdominal pain scores 2 and 4 hours after the procedure were statistically significantly lower in the CO(2) group compared with the control air group (0.5 vs 2.6 at 2 hours and 0.1 vs 1.2 at 4 hours, P < .001). There was no difference in waist circumference between the 2 groups at all time intervals. The results of this randomized trial show clear benefits of CO(2) insufflation for colonoscopy in reducing postprocedural discomfort. ( NCT02407639.). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of carbon dioxide and air insufflation during consecutive EGD and colonoscopy in moderate-sedation patients: a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Young; Chung, Jun-Won; Park, Dong Kyun; Kwon, Kwang An; Kim, Kyoung Oh; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Jung Ho

    2017-06-01

    Endoscopy is performed with air insufflation and is usually associated with abdominal pain. It is well recognized that carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is absorbed more quickly into the body than air; however, to date, few studies have investigated the use of CO 2 insufflation during consecutive EGD and colonoscopy (CEC). Thus, this study evaluated the efficacy of CO 2 insufflation compared with air insufflation in CEC. From March 2014 to April 2016, a total of 215 consecutive patients were randomly assigned to receive CO 2 insufflation (CO 2 group, n = 108) or air insufflation (air group, n = 107). Abdominal pain after CEC was recorded on a visual analogue scale (VAS). The amount of sedatives administered, use of analgesics, polyp detection rate (PDR), adenoma detection rate (ADR), abdominal circumference, and adverse events were also analyzed. Baseline patient characteristics were not significantly different between the groups. Abdominal pain on the VAS in the CO 2 group and air group 1 hour after CEC was, respectively, 13.8 and 20.1 (P = .010), 3 hours after CEC was 8.3 and 12.5 (P = .056), 6 hours after CEC was 3.5 and 5.3 (P = .246), and 1 day after CEC was 1.8 and 3.4 (P = .192). The dose of sedative administered, analgesic usage, PDR, ADR, and adverse events were not statistically different between the groups. However, the increase in abdominal circumference was significantly higher in the air group than in the CO 2 group. CO 2 insufflation was superior to air insufflation with regard to the pain score on the VAS in the hour after CEC. (Clinical trial registration number: KCT0001491.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Gas gangrene of the abdominal wall due to underlying GI pathology: seven cases].

    PubMed

    Monneuse, O; Gruner, L; Barth, X; Malick, P; Timsit, M; Gignoux, B; Tissot, E

    2007-01-01

    Gas gangrene of the abdominal wall is a rare clinical occurrence with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The primary source of the infection is often unknown. To analyze the primary underlying intestinal etiologies and diagnostic approaches of gas gangrene of the abdominal wall, and to highlight specific treatment problems, particularly that of constructing a colostomy exteriorized through a massively infected abdominal wall. Seven cases of abdominal wall gas gangrene due to a gastrointestinal etiology were identified. (Cases arising from proctologic sources or related to recent abdominal surgery were excluded.) During the same period, 39 other patients presenting with abdominal wall gangrene from non-intestinal sources were treated. The etiologies were: perforated sigmoid diverticulitis (n=2), perforated appendicitis (n=1), acute pancreatitis with associated cecal perforation (n=1), and perforated colorectal cancer (n=3). Four of the seven patients died despite treatment (mortality of 57%). The clinical presentations of these seven cases demonstrate that a GI source must be suspected whenever a patient presents with abdominal wall gas gangrene, even when there are no specific GI symptoms. Imaging, particularly with CT scan, is essential both to visualize the extent of tissue necrosis and to reveal underlying primary GI pathology. This optimizes the surgical approach both by allowing for complete debridement and drainage of infected tissue, and by focussing the intervention on correction of the underlying primary GI source of infection.

  14. 21 CFR 884.5920 - Vaginal insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices...

  15. 21 CFR 884.5920 - Vaginal insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices...

  16. 21 CFR 884.5920 - Vaginal insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices...

  17. 21 CFR 884.5920 - Vaginal insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices...

  18. Impact of Extraperitoneal Dioxyde Carbon Insufflation on Respiratory Function in Anesthetized Adults: A Preliminary Study Using Electrical Impedance Tomography and Wash-out/Wash-in Technic

    PubMed Central

    Bordes, Julien; Mazzeo, Cecilia; Gourtobe, Philippe; Cungi, Pierre Julien; Antonini, Francois; Bourgoin, Stephane; Kaiser, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background: Extraperitoneal laparoscopy has become a common technique for many surgical procedures, especially for inguinal hernia surgery. Investigations of physiological changes occurring during extraperitoneal carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation mostly focused on blood gas changes. To date, the impact of extraperitoneal CO2 insufflation on respiratory mechanics remains unknown, whereas changes in respiratory mechanics have been extensively studied in intraperitoneal insufflation. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of extraperitoneal CO2 insufflation on respiratory mechanics. Patients and Methods: A prospective and observational study was performed on nine patients undergoing laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Anesthetic management and intraoperative care were standardized. All patients were mechanically ventilated with a tidal volume of 8 mL/kg using an Engström Carestation ventilator (GE Healthcare). Ventilation distribution was assessed by electrical impedance tomography (EIT). End-expiratory lung volume (EELV) was measured by a nitrogen wash-out/wash-in method. Ventilation distribution, EELV, ventilator pressures and hemodynamic parameters were assessed before extraperitoneal insufflation, and during insufflation with a PEEP of 0 cmH2O, 5 cmH20 and of 10 cmH20. Results: EELV and thoracopulmonary compliance were significantly decreased after extraperitoneal insufflation. Ventilation distribution was significantly higher in ventral lung regions during general anesthesia and was not modified after insufflation. A 10 cmH20 PEEP application resulted in a significant increase in EELV, and a shift of ventilation toward the dorsal lung regions. Conclusions: Extraperitoneal insufflation decreased EELV and thoracopulmonary compliance. Application of a 10 cmH20 PEEP increased EELV and homogenized ventilation distribution. This preliminary clinical study showed that extraperitoneal insufflation worsened respiratory mechanics, which may

  19. A prospective randomized trial of postoperative pain following different insufflation pressures during gynecologic laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Topçu, H O; Cavkaytar, S; Kokanalı, K; Guzel, A I; Islimye, M; Doganay, M

    2014-11-01

    To determine the effects of different intra-abdominal pressure values on visceral pain following gynecologic laparoscopic surgery in the Trendelenburg position. This randomized, controlled prospective trial was conducted at a tertiary education hospital and included 150 patients who underwent gynecologic laparoscopy with different abdominal insufflation pressures. There were 54 patients in the 8 mmHg low pressure group (LPG), 45 in the 12 mmHg standard pressure group (SPG), and 51 in the 15 mmHg high pressure group (HPG). We assessed mean age, body mass index (BMI), duration of surgery, analgesic consumption, length of hospital stay, amount of CO2 expended and volume of hemorrhage. Visceral pain and referred visceral pain were assessed 6, 12, and 24 h postoperatively using a visual analog scale (VAS). There was no significant difference in age, BMI, analgesic consumption or length of hospital stay among groups. The mean operative time and total CO2 expended during surgery were higher in the LPG compared with the SPG and HPG. The mean intensity of postoperative pain assessed by the VAS score at 6 and 12 h was less in the LPG than in the SPG and HPG and was reduced significantly at 12 h. VAS scores at 24 h in the LPG and SPG were lower than in the HPG. Pain is reduced by low insufflation pressure compared with standard and high insufflation pressure following gynecologic laparoscopic surgery in the Trendelenburg position. However, low insufflation pressure may result in longer operation times and increased hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Humidification during laparoscopic surgery: overview of the clinical benefits of using humidified gas during laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Binda, Maria Mercedes

    2015-11-01

    The peritoneum is the serous membrane that covers the abdominal cavity and most of the intra-abdominal organs. It is a very delicate layer highly susceptible to damage and it is not designed to cope with variable conditions such as the dry and cold carbon dioxide (CO2) during laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effects caused by insufflating dry and cold gas into the abdominal cavity after laparoscopic surgery. A literature search using the Pubmed was carried out. Articles identified focused on the key issues of laparoscopy, peritoneum, morphology, pneumoperitoneum, humidity, body temperature, pain, recovery time, post-operative adhesions and lens fogging. Insufflating dry and cold CO2 into the abdomen causes peritoneal damage, post-operative pain, hypothermia and post-operative adhesions. Using humidified and warm gas prevents pain after surgery. With regard to hypothermia due to desiccation, it can be fully prevented using humidified and warm gas. Results relating to the patient recovery are still controversial. The use of humidified and warm insufflation gas offers a significant clinical benefit to the patient, creating a more physiologic peritoneal environment and reducing the post-operative pain and hypothermia. In animal models, although humidified and warm gas reduces post-operative adhesions, humidified gas at 32 °C reduced them even more. It is clear that humidified gas should be used during laparoscopic surgery; however, a question remains unanswered: to achieve even greater clinical benefit to the patient, at what temperature should the humidified gas be when insufflated into the abdomen? More clinical trials should be performed to resolve this query.

  1. Clostridial Gas Gangrene of the Abdominal Wall After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Harmsen, Annelieke M K; van Tol, Erik; Giannakopoulos, Georgios F; de Brauw, L Maurits

    2016-08-01

    Clostridial gas gangrene is a rare, yet severe, complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We present a case report of a 48-year-old man with obesity, coronary artery disease, and diabetes, who developed clostridial gas gangrene of the abdominal wall after an uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Although the diagnosis was missed initially, successful radical surgical debridement was performed and the patient survived. Pathogenesis, symptoms, prognostic factors, and the best treatment are discussed.

  2. Single-port thoracoscopic surgery for pneumothorax under two-lung ventilation with carbon dioxide insufflation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kook Nam; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, Dong Kyu; Kim, Heezoo; Lim, Sang Ho; Choi, Young Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of single-port thoracoscopic surgery and two-lung ventilation reduced the invasiveness of minor thoracic surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of single-port thoracoscopic bleb resection for primary spontaneous pneumothorax using two-lung ventilation with carbon dioxide insufflation. Methods Between February 2009 and May 2014, 130 patients underwent single-port thoracoscopic bleb resection under two-lung ventilation with carbon dioxide insufflation. Access was gained using a commercial multiple-access single port through a 2.5-cm incision; carbon dioxide gas was insufflated through a port channel. A 5-mm thoracoscope, articulating endoscopic devices, and flexible endoscopic staplers were introduced through a multiple-access single port for bulla resection. Results The mean time from endotracheal intubation to incision was 29.2±7.8 minutes, the mean operative time was 30.9±8.2 minutes, and the mean total anesthetic time was 75.5±14.4 minutes. There were no anesthesia-related complications or wound problems. The chest drain was removed after a mean of 3.7±1.4 days and patients were discharged without complications 4.8±1.5 days from the operative day. During a mean 7.5±10.1 months of follow-up, there were five recurrences (3.8%) in operated thorax. Conclusions The anesthetic strategy of single-lumen intubation with carbon dioxide gas insufflation can be a safe and feasible option for single-port thoracoscopic bulla resection as it represents the least invasive surgical option with the potential advantages of reducing operative time and one-lung ventilation-related complications without diminishing surgical outcomes. PMID:27293823

  3. Warmed, humidified CO2 insufflation benefits intraoperative core temperature during laparoscopic surgery: A meta‐analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Meara; Ramsay, Robert; Heriot, Alexander; Mackay, John; Hiscock, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Intraoperative hypothermia is linked to postoperative adverse events. The use of warmed, humidified CO2 to establish pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopy has been associated with reduced incidence of intraoperative hypothermia. However, the small number and variable quality of published studies have caused uncertainty about the potential benefit of this therapy. This meta‐analysis was conducted to specifically evaluate the effects of warmed, humidified CO2 during laparoscopy. Methods An electronic database search identified randomized controlled trials performed on adults who underwent laparoscopic abdominal surgery under general anesthesia with either warmed, humidified CO2 or cold, dry CO2. The main outcome measure of interest was change in intraoperative core body temperature. Results The database search identified 320 studies as potentially relevant, and of these, 13 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. During laparoscopic surgery, use of warmed, humidified CO2 is associated with a significant increase in intraoperative core temperature (mean temperature change, 0.3°C), when compared with cold, dry CO2 insufflation. Conclusion Warmed, humidified CO2 insufflation during laparoscopic abdominal surgery has been demonstrated to improve intraoperative maintenance of normothermia when compared with cold, dry CO2. PMID:27976517

  4. Warmed, humidified CO2 insufflation benefits intraoperative core temperature during laparoscopic surgery: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dean, Meara; Ramsay, Robert; Heriot, Alexander; Mackay, John; Hiscock, Richard; Lynch, A Craig

    2017-05-01

    Intraoperative hypothermia is linked to postoperative adverse events. The use of warmed, humidified CO 2 to establish pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopy has been associated with reduced incidence of intraoperative hypothermia. However, the small number and variable quality of published studies have caused uncertainty about the potential benefit of this therapy. This meta-analysis was conducted to specifically evaluate the effects of warmed, humidified CO 2 during laparoscopy. An electronic database search identified randomized controlled trials performed on adults who underwent laparoscopic abdominal surgery under general anesthesia with either warmed, humidified CO 2 or cold, dry CO 2 . The main outcome measure of interest was change in intraoperative core body temperature. The database search identified 320 studies as potentially relevant, and of these, 13 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. During laparoscopic surgery, use of warmed, humidified CO 2 is associated with a significant increase in intraoperative core temperature (mean temperature change, 0.3°C), when compared with cold, dry CO 2 insufflation . CONCLUSION: Warmed, humidified CO 2 insufflation during laparoscopic abdominal surgery has been demonstrated to improve intraoperative maintenance of normothermia when compared with cold, dry CO 2. © 2016 The Authors. Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery published by Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Japan Society of Endoscopic Surgery and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Warming and humidification of insufflation carbon dioxide in laparoscopic colonic surgery: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sammour, Tarik; Kahokehr, Arman; Hayes, Julian; Hulme-Moir, Mike; Hill, Andrew G

    2010-06-01

    We aimed to test the hypothesis that warming and humidification of insufflation CO2 would lead to reduced postoperative pain and improved recovery by reducing peritoneal inflammation in laparoscopic colonic surgery. Warming and humidification of insufflation gas is thought be beneficial in laparoscopic surgery, but evidence in prolonged laparoscopic procedures is lacking. We used a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized controlled design. The Study Group received warmed (37 degrees C), humidified (98% RH) insufflation carbon dioxide, and the Control Group received standard gas (19 degrees C, 0% RH). Anesthesia and analgesia were standardized. Intraoperative oesophageal temperature was measured at 15 minutes intervals. At the conclusion of surgery, the primary surgeon was asked to rate camera fogging on a Likert scale. Postoperative opiate usage was determined using Morphine Equivalent Daily Dose (MEDD), and pain was measured using visual analogue scores. Peritoneal and plasma cytokine concentrations were measured at 20 hours postoperatively. Postoperative recovery was measured using defined discharge and complication criteria, and the Surgical Recovery Score. Eighty-two patients were randomized, with 41 in each arm. Groups were well matched at baseline. Intraoperative core temperature was similar in both groups. Median camera fogging score was significantly worse in the Study group (4 vs. 2, P = 0.040). There were marginal differences in pain scores, but no significant differences were detected in MEDD usage, cytokine concentrations, or any recovery parameters measured. Warming and humidification of insufflation CO2 does not attenuate the early inflammatory cytokine response, and confers no clinically significant benefit in laparoscopic colonic surgery.

  6. Intricate but tight coupling of spiracular activity and abdominal ventilation during locust discontinuous gas exchange cycles.

    PubMed

    Talal, Stav; Gefen, Eran; Ayali, Amir

    2018-03-15

    Discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) is the best studied among insect gas exchange patterns. DGE cycles comprise three phases, which are defined by their spiracular state: closed, flutter and open. However, spiracle status has rarely been monitored directly; rather, it is often assumed based on CO 2 emission traces. In this study, we directly recorded electromyogram (EMG) signals from the closer muscle of the second thoracic spiracle and from abdominal ventilation muscles in a fully intact locust during DGE. Muscular activity was monitored simultaneously with CO 2 emission, under normoxia and under various experimental oxic conditions. Our findings indicate that locust DGE does not correspond well with the commonly described three-phase cycle. We describe unique DGE-related ventilation motor patterns, coupled to spiracular activity. During the open phase, when CO 2 emission rate is highest, the thoracic spiracles do not remain open; rather, they open and close rapidly. This fast spiracle activity coincides with in-phase abdominal ventilation, while alternating with the abdominal spiracle and thus facilitating a unidirectional air flow along the main trachea. A change in the frequency of rhythmic ventilation during the open phase suggests modulation by intra-tracheal CO 2 levels. A second, slow ventilatory movement pattern probably serves to facilitate gas diffusion during spiracle closure. Two flutter-like patterns are described in association with the different types of ventilatory activity. We offer a modified mechanistic model for DGE in actively ventilating insects, incorporating ventilatory behavior and changes in spiracle state. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. [Effect of subglottic air insufflation on subglottic pressure during swallowing].

    PubMed

    Clarett, M; Andreu, M F; Salvati, I G; Donnianni, M C; Montes, G S; Rodríguez, M G

    2014-04-01

    To determine whether there are differences between subglottic pressure during swallowing with and without air insufflation via a subglottic catheter in tracheostomized patients. A prospective, randomized cross-over study was made. Adult Intensive Care Units. Patients requiring mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy with a subglottic catheter, and with tolerance to deflation of the balloon and a speaking valve placed over the opening of the tracheostomy tube. Subglottic pressure was measured during swallowing of a thickened solution with and without the delivery of airflow through the subglottic catheter. Subglottic pressure during swallowing. Twelve out of 14 patients showed higher subglottic pressure values during swallowing with air insufflation. Two patients showed no differences between both conditions. Median (Med) values of subglottic pressure for the first, second and third swallow were 5, 4 and 4.5 cmH2O (Med 4.5 cmH2O) without air insufflation, and 8, 5.5 and 7.5 cmH2O (Med 5.5 cmH2O) with air insufflation, respectively (Wilcoxon, Z=-3.078; p=.002). In a group of tracheostomized patients, air insufflation via a subglottic catheter increased subglottic pressure levels measured during swallowing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbon dioxide insufflation deflects airborne particles from an open surgical wound model.

    PubMed

    Kokhanenko, P; Papotti, G; Cater, J E; Lynch, A C; van der Linden, J A; Spence, C J T

    2017-01-01

    Surgical site infections remain a significant burden on healthcare systems and may benefit from new countermeasures. To assess the merits of open surgical wound CO 2 insufflation via a gas diffuser to reduce airborne contamination, and to determine the distribution of CO 2 in and over a wound. An experimental approach with engineers and clinical researchers was employed to measure the gas flow pattern and motion of airborne particles in a model of an open surgical wound in a simulated theatre setting. Laser-illuminated flow visualizations were performed and the degree of protection was quantified by collecting and characterizing particles deposited in and outside the wound cavity. The average number of particles entering the wound with a diameter of <5μm was reduced 1000-fold with 10L/min CO 2 insufflation. Larger and heavier particles had a greater penetration potential and were reduced by a factor of 20. The degree of protection was found to be unaffected by exaggerated movements of hands in and out of the wound cavity. The steady-state CO 2 concentration within the majority of the wound cavity was >95% and diminished rapidly above the wound to an atmospheric level (∼0%) at a height of 25mm. Airborne particles were deflected from entering the wound by the CO 2 in the cavity akin to a protective barrier. Insufflation of CO 2 may be an effective means of reducing intraoperative infection rates in open surgeries. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the patency...

  10. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the patency...

  11. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the patency...

  12. Intraoral Air Pressure of Alaryngeal Speakers during a No-Air Insufflation Maneuver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Mary M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Intraoral air pressure was recorded during the production of consonant cognate pairs by 8 esophageal speakers (mean age 67 years) under 2 experimental conditions: after the insufflation of air and without air insufflation. Results revealed that peak intraoral air pressure magnitudes were significantly greater following the insufflation of air than…

  13. Impact of valve-less vs. standard insufflation on pneumoperitoneum volume, inflammation, and peritoneal physiology in a laparoscopic sigmoid resection experimental model.

    PubMed

    Diana, Michele; Noll, Eric; Legnèr, Andras; Kong, Seong-Ho; Liu, Yu-Yin; Schiraldi, Luigi; Marchegiani, Francesco; Bano, Jordan; Geny, Bernard; Charles, Anne-Laure; Dallemagne, Bernard; Lindner, Véronique; Mutter, Didier; Diemunsch, Pierre; Marescaux, Jacques

    2018-07-01

    Standard insufflators compensate for intra-abdominal pressure variations with pressure spikes. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of a stable, low-pressure pneumoperitoneum induced by a valve-less insufflator, on working space, hemodynamics, inflammation, and peritoneal physiology, in a model of laparoscopic sigmoid resection. Twelve pigs (47 ± 3.3 kg) were equipped for invasive hemodynamic monitoring and randomly assigned to Standard (n = 6) vs. valve-less (n = 6) insufflation. Animals were positioned in a 30° Trendelenburg on a CT scan bed. A low-pressure pneumoperitoneum (8 mmHg) was started and duration was set for 180 min. Abdominal CT scans were performed, under neuromuscular blockade, before, immediately after, and 1 and 3 h after insufflation. Pneumoperitoneum volumes were calculated on 3D reconstructed CT scans. After creation of a mesenteric window, capillary blood was obtained by puncturing the sigmoid serosa and local lactatemia (mmol/L) was measured using a handheld analyzer. Surgical resection was performed according to the level of lactates, in order to standardize bowel stump perfusion. IL-1 and IL-6 (ng/mL) were measured repeatedly. The peritoneum was sampled close to the surgical site and distantly for the oxygraphic assessment of mitochondrial respiration. A pathologist applied a semi-quantitative score to evaluate the anastomosis. Mean arterial pressure, pulse, body temperature, oximetry, systemic lactatemia, and local lactates were similar. IL-6 was lower in the valve-less group, reaching a statistically significant difference after 3 h of insufflation (64.85 ± 32.5 vs. 133.95 ± 59.73; p = 0.038) and 48 h (77.53 ± 68.4 vs. 190.74 ± 140.79; p = 0.029). Peritoneal mitochondrial respiration was significantly increased after the survival period, with no difference among the groups. The anastomoses in the valve-less group demonstrated a lower acute (p = 0.04) inflammatory infiltration. The mean

  14. Clostridial abdominal gas gangrene masquerading as a bowel perforation in an advanced-stage ovarian cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Abaid, L N; Thomas, R H; Epstein, H D; Goldstein, B H

    2013-08-01

    The coexistence of clostridial gas gangrene and a gynecologic malignancy is extremely rare, with very few cases involving ovarian cancer. A patient originally presented to our gynecologic oncology service with stage IV ovarian cancer; she underwent a diagnostic laparoscopy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. On postoperative day 6, the patient developed severe abdominal pain, nausea, and emesis, suggestive of a bowel perforation. Further evaluation confirmed that her symptoms were attributed to Clostridium perfringens-related gas gangrene. Despite immediate surgical intervention, the patient succumbed to her disease. Clostridial gas gangrene is associated with an extremely high mortality rate. Therefore, accurate detection and prompt management are indispensable to ensuring a favorable patient outcome.

  15. Small-Incision Laparoscopy-Assisted Surgery Under Abdominal Cavity Irrigation in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Takuro; Aoe, Tomohiko; Yu, Wen-Wei; Ebihara, Yuma; Kawahira, Hiroshi; Isono, Shiro; Naya, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgeries are performed under carbon dioxide insufflation. Switching from gas to an isotonic irrigant introduces several benefits and avoids some adverse effects of gas insufflation. We developed an irrigating device and apparatus designed for single-incision laparoscopic surgery and tested its advantages and drawbacks during surgery in a porcine model. Materials and Methods: Six pigs underwent surgical procedures under general anesthesia. A 30-cm extracorporeal cistern was placed over a 5–6-cm abdominal incision. The abdomen was irrigated with warm saline that was drained via a suction tube placed near the surgical field and continuously recirculated through a closed circuit equipped with a hemodialyzer as a filter. Irrigant samples from two pigs were cultured to check for bacterial and fungal contamination. Body weight was measured before and after surgery in four pigs that had not received treatments affecting hemodynamics or causing diuresis. Results: One-way flow of irrigant ensured laparoscopic vision by rinsing blood from the surgical field. Through a retroperitoneal approach, cystoprostatectomy was successfully performed in three pigs, nephrectomy in two, renal excision in two, and partial nephrectomy in one, under simultaneous ultrasonographic monitoring. Through a transperitoneal approach, liver excision and hemostasis with a bipolar sealing device were performed in three pigs, and bladder pedicle excision was performed in one pig. Bacterial and fungal contamination of the irrigant was observed on the draining side of the circuit, but the filter captured the contaminants. Body weight increased by a median of 2.1% (range, 1.2–4.4%) of initial weight after 3–5 hours of irrigation. Conclusions: Surgery under irrigation is feasible and practical when performed via a cistern through a small abdominal incision. This method is advantageous, especially in the enabling of continuous and free

  16. Uterine Perforation with Intra-Abdominal Clostridium perfringens Gas Gangrene: A Rare and Fatal Infection.

    PubMed

    Kashan, David; Muthu, Nagarajan; Chaucer, Benjamin; Davalos, Fidencio; Bernstein, Michael; Chendrasekhar, Akella

    2016-06-01

    Background: Clostridium perfringens gas gangrene is an extremely rare and fatal infection. Necrosis of the myometrium is rarely seen and has only been recorded in 18 cases to date. Of these 18 reported cases, only 5 have occurred in nonpregnant women. This article presents the 6th case of myometrium necrosis from C. perfringens. Case: A 72-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 2, presented with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. After examinations, laboratory testing, and several surgical interventions, she was found to have C. perfringens infection and advanced high-grade serous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with >50% invasion into the myometrium. Results: Despite the surgical interventions and use of several antibiotics, this patient did not improve. She was weaned from treatment per her advance directive and died after weaning. Conclusions: Awareness of the many etiologies for peritonitis is of great importance when a fatal infection may be the cause of the condition. Correct diagnosis and proper treatment is essential for the survival of patients infected with C. perfringens . (J GYNECOL SURG 32:182).

  17. Insufflation with Humidified and Heated Carbon Dioxide in Short-Term Laparoscopy: A Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Anja; De Wilde, Rudy Leon

    2015-01-01

    Background. We tested the hypothesis that warm-humidified carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation would reduce postoperative pain and morphine requirement compared to cold-dry CO2 insufflation. Methods. A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to compare warm, humidified CO2 and cold-dry CO2. Patients with benign uterine diseases were randomized to either treatment (n = 48) or control (n = 49) group during laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy. Primary endpoints of the study were rest pain, movement pain, shoulder-tip pain, and cough pain at 2, 4, 6, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively, measured by visual analogue scale. Secondary outcomes were morphine consumption, rejected boli, temperature change, recovery room stay, and length of hospital stay. Results. There were no significant differences in all baseline characteristics. Shoulder-tip pain at 6 h postoperatively was significantly reduced in the intervention group. Pain at rest, movement pain, and cough pain did not differ. Total morphine consumption and rejected boli at 24 h postoperatively were significantly higher in the control group. Temperature change, recovery room stay, and length of hospital were similar. Conclusions. Warm, humidified insufflation gas significantly reduces postoperative shoulder-tip pain as well as morphine demand. This trial is registered with Clinical Trial Registration Number   DRKS00003853 (German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS)). PMID:25722977

  18. [Combined inflating lung and insufflating calf pulmonary surfactant under general anesthesia in the treatment of postoperative intractable atelectasis].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ya-ping; Hu, Yi; Shi, Gu-ping; Yao, Ming; Huang, Bing; Zhou, Xu-yan; Sun, Jian-liang; DU, Jian-long; Xie, Guo-hao; Fang, Xiang-ming

    2013-06-18

    To explore the efficacy and safety of combined inflating lung and insufflating calf pulmonary surfactant under general anesthesia for treating postoperative intractable atelectasis. From August 2006 to January 2013, 15 patients with obstinate postoperative atelectasis receiving pressure control lung expansion were enrolled. The bronchial cannula was intubated into the affected side to assist the expanding of the lung, and the calf pulmonary surfactant was insufflated selectively. The chest auscultation and computed tomography (CT) scan was performed at 1 d and 5 d after the procedure respectively, to evaluation the effect. The airway pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded before the treatment, during the treatment and after the treatment.Monitoring arterial blood gas before and after treatment. After the expansion of the lung and insufflation of calf pulmonary surfactants, the iconographic scan showed that collapsed alveolar was reinflated in 12 (80.0%) patients at 1 d after the treatment and in 14 patients(93.3%) at 5 d after the procedure.There were not notable vital sign change and complications during the treatment.At after the treatment, 1, 3, 5 and 7 d after the treatment, PaO2 was higher (P < 0.05), and there were not significantly difference in the PaCO2 and pH (P > 0.05) . Combined pressure control lung expansion with selectively insufflating calf pulmonary surfactant under general anesthesia may be an effective therapy for postoperative intractable atelectasis.

  19. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using abdominal wall retraction. Hemodynamics and gas exchange, a comparison with conventional pneumoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Meijer, D W; Rademaker, B P; Schlooz, S; Bemelman, W A; de Wit, L T; Bannenberg, J J; Stijnen, T; Gouma, D F

    1997-06-01

    Disadvantages related to CO2 pneumoperitoneum have led to development of the abdominal wall retractor (AWR), a device designed to facilitate laparoscopic surgery without conventional pneumoperitoneum (15 mmHg CO2). We investigated the effects of the AWR on hemodynamics and gas exchange in humans. We also investigated whether the use of an AWR imposed extra technical difficulties for the surgeon. A pilot study revealed that cholecystectomy without low-pressure pneumoperitoneum was technically impossible. A prospective randomized controlled trial: Twenty patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated into group 1: AWR with low-pressure pneumoperitoneum (5 mmHg), or group 2: conventional pneumoperitoneum (15 mmHg). Surgery using the AWR lasted longer, 72 +/- 16 min (mean +/- SD) vs 50 +/- 18 min compared with standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There were no differences between the groups with respect to hemodynamic parameters, although a small reduction of the cardiac output was observed using conventional pneumoperitoneum (from 3.9 +/- 0.7 to 3. 2 +/- 1.1 l/min) and an increase during AWR (from 4.2 +/- 0.9 to 5.2 +/- 1.5 l/min). Peak inspiratory pressures were significantly higher during conventional pneumoperitoneum compared to AWR. A slight decrease in pH accompanied by an increase in CO2 developed during pneumoperitoneum and during the use of the AWR. In both groups arterial PO2 decreased. The results indicate that the view was impaired during use of the AWR and therefore its use was difficult and time-consuming. Possible advantages of this devices' effects on hemodynamics and ventilatory parameters could not be confirmed in this study.

  20. Alpha-galactosidase versus active charcoal for improving sonographic visualization of abdominal organs in patients with excessive intestinal gas

    PubMed Central

    Maconi, G.; Bolzacchini, E.; Radice, E.; Marzocchi, M.; Badini, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Intestinal gas is a frequent cause of poor visualization during gastrointestinal ultrasound (US). The enzyme alpha-galactosidase may reduce intestinal gas production, thereby improving abdominal US visualization. We compared the efficacies of alpha-galactosidase and active charcoal in improving US visualization in patients with previous unsatisfactory abdominal US scans caused by excessive intestinal gas. Materials and methods: 45 patients with poor visualization of at least one target organ: pancreas, hepatic lobes (score 0–2) or common bile duct (CBD) (score 0–1) were enrolled in a prospective randomized, crossover, observer-blinded study. The patients received alpha-galactosidase (Sinaire Forte, Promefarm, Milan, Italy) 600 GalU t.i.d. for 2 days before abdominal US plus 900 GalU the morning of exam or active charcoal 448 mg t.i.d., for 2 days before the exam plus 672 mg the morning of the exam. Visualization was graded as follows: 0 = none (complete gas interference); 1 = severe interference, 2 = moderate interference, 3 = mild interference; 4 = complete (no gas interference). Results: 42 patients completed the study. Both alpha-galactosidase and active charcoal improved the visualization of target organs. Visualization of the right hepatic lobe, CBD and pancreatic tail was significantly improved (vs. baseline) only by alpha-galactosidase (p < 0.01). Scores ≥3 for all parts of the pancreas and both hepatic lobes were achieved in only 12.5% of the patients after both treatments. Both products were well tolerated. Conclusion: Alpha-galactosidase and active charcoal can improve US visualization of abdominal organs in patients whose scans are frequently unsatisfactory due to excessive intestinal gas. Visualization of the pancreatic tail and right hepatic lobe was significantly improved only by alpha-galactosidase. However, both treatments allowed adequate visualization of all target organs during the same examination only

  1. Massive gas insufflation without effect on esophageal reflectometry profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raphael, David T.; Arnaudov, Dimiter; Benbassat, Maxim

    2003-10-01

    Time-domain acoustic reflectometry generates a ``one-dimensional'' image of the interior of a cavity in the form of an area-distance profile. After patient intubation with a breathing tube, the characteristic reflectometry profile consists of a constant-area segment corresponding to the length of the tube, followed either by a rapid increase in the area beyond the carina (lung) or by a sudden decrease in the area to zero (esophagus). In the cardiac arrest setting, during mistaken placement of the breathing tube into the esophagus, followed by aggressive manual ventilation, is it possible to markedly distend the esophagus, such that the esophageal profile looks like a tracheal profile? With approval of the USC IUCAC Committee, an animal study was conducted with anesthetized, tracheally intubated, and mechanically ventilated dogs. With a separate breathing tube in the esophagus, aggressive esophageal ventilation (comparable to that seen in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation setting) was accomplished with a manual resuscitation bag. A Benson Hood Labs two-microphone reflectometer was used to obtain esophageal profiles with and without the above ventilation. In this pilot study, there was no significant esophageal distention as a result of the above ventilation. [Research supported by the Alfred E. Mann Institute.

  2. Loperamide-simethicone vs loperamide alone, simethicone alone, and placebo in the treatment of acute diarrhea with gas-related abdominal discomfort. A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, M A; Prior, M J; Ash, R R; McKonly, K I; Helzner, E C; Nelson, E B

    1999-01-01

    Acute diarrhea with gas-related abdominal discomfort is a common, usually self-limited disorder with substantial social and economic impact. To compare the efficacy and safety of a loperamide hydrochloride-simethicone combination product with those of loperamide alone, simethicone alone, and placebo in treating acute diarrhea with gas-related abdominal discomfort. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of 48 hours' duration. A primary care, ambulatory practice in Acapulco, Mexico. A total of 493 outpatient adults aged 18 to 63 years, with acute nonspecific diarrhea with at least moderately severe abdominal discomfort. Each patient was randomly assigned to receive 2 chewable tablets containing loperamide hydrochloride, 2 mg, and simethicone, 125 mg (n = 124); loperamide hydrochloride, 2 mg (n = 123); simethicone, 125 mg (n = 123); or placebo (n = 123). This was followed by 1 tablet after each unformed stool, up to 4 tablets in any 24-hour period. Time to last unformed stool and time to complete relief of gas-related abdominal discomfort were the protocol-specified primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included time to complete relief of diarrhea, number of unformed stools, and patient-assessed variables at the end of the study (overall illness relief, diarrhea relief, and abdominal discomfort relief). Patients who received loperamide-simethicone had significantly (P < .001) shorter time to last unformed stool and faster relief of gas-related abdominal discomfort than patients who received loperamide, simethicone, or placebo alone. Loperamide-simethicone was significantly (P < or = .01) more effective than the other 3 treatments for all end-of-study patient-assessed outcomes and all clinically important secondary outcomes. No significant differences in adverse events were found among treatment groups. The loperamide-simethicone combination chewable product provides faster and more complete relief of acute nonspecific diarrhea and associated gas

  3. Gas gangrene of the abdominal wall due to late-onset enteric fistula after polyester mesh repair of an incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Moussi, A; Daldoul, S; Bourguiba, B; Othmani, D; Zaouche, A

    2012-04-01

    The occurrence of enteric fistulae after wall repair using a prosthetic mesh is a serious but, fortunately, rare complication. We report the case of a 66-year-old diabetic man who presented with gas gangrene of the abdominal wall due to an intra-abdominal abscess caused by intestinal erosion six years after an incisional hernia repair using a polyester mesh. The aim of this case report is to illustrate the seriousness of enteric fistula after parietal repair using a synthetic material.

  4. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clearinghouse What are abdominal adhesions? Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ... Esophagus Stomach Large intestine Adhesion Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ...

  5. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Recurrent or Functional Abdominal Pain (RAP or FAP) What is abdominal pain? Abdominal pain , or stomachache, ... recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) or functional abdominal pain (FAP)? If your health care provider has ruled out ...

  6. Mechanical Insufflation-Exsufflation Device Prescription for Outpatients With Tetraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Crew, James D; Svircev, Jelena N; Burns, Stephen P

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MIE) is an option for secretion mobilization in outpatients with spinal cord injury (SCI) who lack an effective cough and are at high risk for developing pneumonia. Objective: To describe characteristics of persons with SCI who received MIE devices for outpatient use and compare respiratory hospitalizations before and after MIE prescription. Design: Retrospective cohort study of all persons who were prescribed MIE devices for outpatient use during 2000 to 2006 by a Veterans Affairs SCI service. Results: We identified 40 patients with tetraplegia (4.5% of population followed by the SCI service) who were prescribed MIE devices. Of these, 30 (75%) had neurologic levels of C5 or rostral, and 33 (83%) had motor-complete injuries. For chronically injured patients who were prescribed MIE for home use, there was a nonsignificant reduction in respiratory hospitalization rates by 34% (0.314/y before MIE vs 0.208/y after MIE; P  =  0.21). A posthoc subgroup analysis showed a significant decline in respiratory hospitalizations for patients with significant tobacco smoking histories. Conclusions: Mechanical insufflation-exsufflation was typically prescribed for people with motor-complete tetraplegia. Outpatient MIE usage may reduce respiratory hospitalizations in smokers with SCI. Further research of this alternative, noninvasive method is warranted in the outpatient SCI population. PMID:20486531

  7. Optimizing working space in porcine laparoscopy: CT measurement of the effects of intra-abdominal pressure.

    PubMed

    Vlot, John; Wijnen, Rene; Stolker, Robert Jan; Bax, Klaas

    2013-05-01

    Several factors may affect volume and dimensions of the working space in laparoscopic surgery. The precise impact of these factors has not been well studied. In a porcine model, we used computed tomographic (CT) scanning for measuring working space volume and distances. In a first series of experiments, we studied the relationship between intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and working space. Eleven 20 kg pigs were studied under standardized anesthesia and volume-controlled ventilation. Cardiorespiratory parameters were monitored continuously, and blood gas samples were taken at different IAP levels. Respiratory rate was increased when ETCO₂ exceeded 7 kPa. Breath-hold CT scans were made at IAP levels of 0, 5, 10, and 15 mmHg. Insufflator volumes were compared to CT-measured volumes. Maximum dimensions of pneumoperitoneum were measured on reconstructed CT images. Respiratory rate had to be increased in three animals. Mild hypercapnia and acidosis occurred at 15 mmHg IAP. Peak inspiratory pressure rose significantly at 10 and 15 mmHg. CT-measured volume increased relatively by 93 % from 5 to 10 mmHg IAP and by 19 % from 10 to 15 mmHg IAP. Comparing CT volumes to insufflator volumes gave a bias of 76 mL. The limits of agreement were -0.31 to +0.47, a range of 790 mL. The internal anteroposterior diameter increased by 18 % by increasing IAP from 5 to 10 mmHg and by 5 % by increasing IAP from 10 to 15 mmHg. At 15 mmHg, the total relative increase of the pubis-diaphragm distance was only 6 %. Abdominal width did not increase. CT allows for precise calculation of the actual CO₂ pneumoperitoneum volume, whereas the volume of CO₂ released by the insufflator does not. Increasing IAP up to 10 mmHg achieved most gain in volume and in internal anteroposterior diameter. At an IAP of 10 mmHg, higher peak inspiratory pressure was significantly elevated.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Versus Air Insufflation for Elective Colonoscopy: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Memon, Muhammed A; Memon, Breda; Yunus, Rossita M; Khan, Shahjahan

    2016-04-01

    effects were noted for cecal/ileal intubation rate (WMD=0.86; 95% CI, 0.61, 1.22; P=0.3975), cecal/ileal intubation time (WMD=-0.64; 95% CI, -1.38, 0.09; P=0.0860), and total examination time (WMD=-0.20; 95% CI, -0.96, 0.57; P=0.6133). On the basis of our meta-analysis and systematic review, we conclude that CO2 insufflation significantly reduces abdominal pain during and following the procedure lasting up to 24 hours. There is no difference in the cecal/ileal intubation rate and time and total examination time between the 2 methods. CO2 retention with CO2 insufflation during and after the colonoscopy shows inconsequential variation compared with air insufflation and has no adverse effect on patients. CO2 instead of air should be routinely utilized for colonoscopy.

  9. Ozone therapy as add-on treatment in fibromyalgia management by rectal insufflation: an open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Tallón, Javier; Menéndez-Cepero, Silvia; Vilchez, Juan S; Rodríguez-López, Carmen M; Calandre, Elena P

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of ozone therapy by rectal insufflation as add-on therapy in fibromyalgia management. Patients with fibromyalgia received 24 sessions of ozone therapy during a 12-week period. At each session, the administered dose of ozone was 8 mg (200 mL of gas, at a concentration of 40 μg/mL). Ozone sessions were given 5 days a week during the first 2 weeks, twice a week from weeks 3-6, and weekly from weeks 7-12. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) was the main outcome measure, and was administered at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. Secondary outcome measures, administered at baseline and at endpoint, were the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the SF-12, the abbreviated form of the Short Form Health Survey. Emergent adverse reactions to treatment were recorded. FIQ total scores decreased significantly during the study period, with the decrease being observed in the first 4 weeks of the study. Significant improvement was also seen both in depression scores and in the Physical Summary Score of the SF-12. Transient meteorism after ozone therapy sessions was the most frequently reported side-effect. At the dose and number of sessions used in this study, ozone therapy by rectal insufflation seems to be beneficial for physical symptoms and depression of fibromyalgia.

  10. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... abdominal cavity ( most often cancer of the ovaries ) Cirrhosis of the liver Damaged bowel Heart disease Infection ...

  11. Ultra-modified rapid sequence induction with transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange: Challenging convention.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Ketan Sakharam; Dave, Nandini; Saran, Shriyam; Garasia, Madhu; Parelkar, Sandesh

    2018-04-01

    During positive pressure ventilation, gastric inflation and subsequent pulmonary aspiration can occur. Rapid sequence induction (RSI) technique is an age-old formula to prevent this. We adopted a novel approach of RSI for patients with high risk of aspiration and evaluated it further in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgeries. We believe that, in patients with risk of gastric insufflation and pulmonary aspiration, transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange can be useful in facilitating pre- and apnoeic oxygenation till tracheal isolation is achieved.

  12. CLOSTRIDIAL PARAPROCTITIS WITH GAS GANGRENE OF FRONT-LATERAL ABDOMINAL WALLS AND NECROTIC FASCIO-MYOSITIS (CASE REPORT).

    PubMed

    Didbaridze, N; Lomidze, N; Abuladze, T; Qiliptari, G; Didbaridze, T; Gvasalia, I; Mkervalishvili, Z; Gogokhia, N

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic clostridial infection is the most severe form of paraproctitis. The incubation period is very short, from 3 to 6 hours, sometimes lasting for 1-2 days. Clostridial infection spreads rapidly and induces gas gangrene, causes destruction of cells and other intermediate substances, and impedes blood circulation. This paper presents a case study of an extremely severe form of anaerobic infection with spontaneous gas gangrene, cellulitis, fasciomyositic necrosis, severe intoxication and septic shock on the abdominal front and lateral surfaces. This patient presented as infected with Clostridium septicum, a rare and highly toxic Gram-positive, spore-forming, obligate anaerobic bacillus that progresses and migrates rapidly, affecting all soft tissues (muscle, fascia), and produces four toxins which cause gas gangrene, intravascular hemolysis, tissue necrosis, and septic shock. The mortality rate is typically 80%. In this case study, a positive clinical outcome was achieved by aggressive identification of the microbe, appropriate and immediate therapy, and vigorous surgical intervention. Specifically, immediate surgery was conducted to ensure a wide excision of damaged tissues, necrectomy, curettage, wide drainage, readjustment, oxygenation through drainages, further additional surgical corrections through CT control with wide bandages in the operating area. Further, the diagnostic workup was thorough, identifying the microbe through a properly constructed diagnostic algorithm, ultrasound and CT studies, infectious agent assessments, and bacteriological monitoring carried out on the 1st-2nd-5th-7th-12th-15th-21st-25th days. Rational antibiotic therapy with permanent susceptibility testing informed the selection of an appropriate agent. Finally, markers for the evaluation of severity (Apache scale) were assessed, as they were for stage of infection (prokalcitonin), inflammation (CRP) and other indicators.

  13. [Thoracoscopic thymectomy with carbon dioxide insufflation in the mediastinum].

    PubMed

    Ferrero-Coloma, C; Navarro-Martinez, J; Bolufer, S; Rivera-Cogollos, M J; Alonso-García, F J; Tarí-Bas, M I

    2015-02-01

    The case is presented of a 71 year-old male, diagnosed with a thymoma. A thoracoscopic thymectomy was performed using the carbon dioxide insufflation technique in the mediastinum. During the procedure, while performing one-lung ventilation, the patient's respiration worsened. The contralateral lung had collapsed, as carbon dioxide was travelling from the mediastinum to the thorax through the opened pleura. Two-lung ventilation was decided upon, which clearly improved oxygenation in the arterial gases and airway pressures. Both pH and pCO2 stabilized. The surgical approach and the carbon dioxide technique were continued because 2-lung ventilation did not affect the surgical procedure. This technique has many serious complications and it should always be performed using 2-lung ventilation. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Air-insufflated high-definition dacryoendoscopy yields significantly better image quality than conventional dacryoendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tsugihisa; Sounou, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Hideki; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    To facilitate the analysis of lacrimal conditions, we utilized high-definition dacryoendoscopy (HDD) and undertook observations with a pressure-controlled air-insufflation system. We report the safety and performance of HDD. In this retrospective, non-randomized clinical trial, 46 patients (14 males and 32 females; age range 39-91 years; mean age ± SD 70.3±12.0 years) who had lacrimal disorders were examined with HDD and conventional dacryoendoscopy (CD). The high-definition dacryoendoscope had 15,000 picture element image fibers and an advanced objective lens. Its outer diameter was 0.9-1.2 mm. Air insufflation was controlled at 0-20 kPa with a digital manometer-based pressure-controlled air-insufflation system to evaluate the quality of the image. The HDD had an air/saline irrigation channel between the outer sheath (outer diameter =1.2 mm) and the metal inner sheath of the endoscope. We used it and the CD in air, saline, and diluted milk saline with and without manual irrigation to quantitatively evaluate the effect of air pressure and saline irrigation on image quality. In vivo, the most significant improvement in image quality was demonstrated with air-insufflated (5-15 kPa) HDD, as compared with saline-irrigated HDD and saline-irrigated CD. No emphysema or damage was noted under observation with HDD. In vitro, no significant difference was demonstrated between air-insufflated HDD and saline-irrigated HDD. In vitro, the image quality of air-insufflated HDD was significantly improved as compared with that of saline-irrigated CD. Pressure-controlled (5-15 kPa) air-insufflated HDD is safe, and yields significantly better image quality than CD and saline-irrigated HDD.

  15. [Difference in time of bowel sounds and passing of gas in abdominal hysterectomy patients having San-Yin-Jia (SP-6) acupressure].

    PubMed

    Chang, Soon Bok; Kim, Young Ran; Yoon, Mi Hee; Shim, Joung Un; Ko, Eun Hui; Kim, Min Ok

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare differences in the time when bowel sounds were heard and gas was passed in women who had an abdominal hysterectomy and were treated for 5 minutes (experimental group A) or 10 minutes (experimental group B) with San-Yin-Jiao (SP-6) acupressure. The design of this study was a nonequivalent control group non-synchronized post test only design. The participants included 142 women, 39 in experimental group A, 30 in experimental group B, and 73 in the control group. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire which included items on general characteristics and a self report of time when gas was passed. Differences for the three groups as to time when bowel sounds were heard and gas was passed were analyzed using ANOVA. The time when bowel sounds were heard was statistically significantly shorter in both experimental groups compared to the control group(F=10.29, p=.000). The time when gas was passed was statistically significantly shorter in experimental group B(10 min) compared to the control group(F=4.68, p=.011). It could be concluded that SP-6 acupressure of 10 minutes was effective in shortening the time until bowel sounds were heard and gas was passed for women who had had an abdominal hysterectomy. Replication of the study with a larger number of participants is necessary in order to be able to generalize the results.

  16. Randomized trial of low versus high carbon dioxide insufflation pressures in posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Sheila; Norlén, Olov; Bender, Kyle; Davidson, Joanne; Bajenov, Sonya; Fahey, David; Li, Shawn; Sidhu, Stan; Sywak, Mark

    2018-05-01

    Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy has gained widespread acceptance for the removal of benign adrenal tumors. Higher insufflation pressures using carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) are required, although the ideal starting pressure is unclear. This prospective, randomized, single-blinded, study aims to compare physiologic differences with 2 different CO 2 insufflation pressures during posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy. Participants were randomly assigned to a starting insufflation pressure of 20 mm Hg (low pressure) or 25 mm Hg (high pressure). The primary outcome measure was partial pressure of arterial CO 2 at 60 minutes. Secondary outcomes included end-tidal CO 2 , arterial pH, blood pressure, and peak airway pressure. Breaches of protocol to change insufflation pressure were permitted if required and were recorded. A prospective randomized trial including 31 patients (low pressure: n = 16; high pressure: n = 15) was undertaken. At 60 minutes, the high pressure group had greater mean partial pressure of arterial CO 2 (64 vs 50 mm Hg, P = .003) and end-tidal CO 2 (54 vs 45 mm Hg, P = .008) and a lesser pH (7.21 vs 7.29, P = .0005). There were no significant differences in base excess, peak airway pressure, operative time, or duration of hospital stay. Clinically indicated protocol breaches were more common in the low pressure than the high pressure group (8 vs 3, P = .03). In posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy, greater insufflation pressures are associated with greater partial pressure of arterial CO 2 and end-tidal CO 2 and lesser pH at 60 minutes, be significant. Commencing with lesser CO 2 insufflation pressures decreases intraoperative acidosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [A case of petrous ridge meningioma manifested as pneumocephalus followed by Eustachian tube insufflation].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shinya; Gi, Hidefuku; Uno, Jyunji; Ikai, Yoshiaki; Inoha, Satoshi; Nagaoka, Shintarou; Nishio, Shunji

    2009-05-01

    A 50-year-old female, who had a headache after Eustachian tube insufflation for her ear congestion, came to our hospital. CT and MRI revealed pneumocephalus and petrous ridge meningioma which destroyed petrous bone and air cells. Eustachian tube insufflation was considered to make the air coming into the middle ear, mastoid air cell and then into the intracranial space destroying the tumor. At surgery, there was subdural hematoma around the tumor. Total removal of the tumor and the hematoma membrane was performed. Histologically, the tumor was transitional meningioma and the cluster of meningioma cells were noted in the subdural hematoma membrane.

  18. Elimination of CT-detected gas bubbles derived from decompression illness with abdominal symptoms after a short hyperbaric oxygen treatment in a monoplace chamber: a case report.

    PubMed

    Oyaizu, Takuya; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Tsujimoto, Toshihide; Kojima, Yasushi; Okawa, Atsushi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a 54-year-old male compressed-air worker with gas bubbles detected by computed tomography (CT). He had complained of strong abdominal pain 30 minutes after decompression after working at a pressure equivalent to 17 meters of sea water for three hours. The initial CT images revealed gas bubbles in the intrahepatic portal vein, pulmonary artery and bilateral femoral vein. After the first hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO₂ at 2.5 atmospheres absolute/ATA for 150 minutes), no bubbles were detected on repeat CT examination. The patient still exhibited abdominal distension, mild hypesthesia and slight muscle weakness in the upper extremities. Two sessions of U.S. Navy Treatment Table 6 (TT6) were performed on Days 6 and 7 after onset. The patient recovered completely on Day 7. This report describes the important role of CT imaging in evaluating intravascular gas bubbles as well as eliminating the diagnosis of other conditions when divers or compressed-air workers experience uncommon symptoms of decompression illness. In addition, a short treatment table of HBO₂ using non-TT6 HBO₂ treatment may be useful to reduce gas bubbles and the severity of decompression illness in emergent cases. Copyright© Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society.

  19. Inhibition of peritoneal dissemination of colon cancer by hyperthermic CO2 insufflation: A novel approach to prevent intraperitoneal tumor spread

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Houming; Zheng, Minhua

    2017-01-01

    Background The increasing use of laparoscopic surgery for advanced gastrointestinal cancer raises concerns about intra-peritoneal tumor spread. Prevention of peritoneal dissemination is extremely important but a preventive modality is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine a novel approach (hyperthermic CO2 insufflation, HT-CO2) for preventing peritoneal dissemination during laparoscopic surgery. Methods A peritoneal dissemination model was established in Balb/c nu/nu mice by intraperitoneal injection of human colon cancer cells (SW1116, 1×106). The mice (n = 48) were subsequently randomized into two groups and subjected to hyperthermic CO2 (43°C, >95% humidity, HT-CO2 group) or standard normothermic CO2 (21°C, <1% relative humidity, NT-CO2 group) insufflation for 3 hours. The mice were sacrificed 28 days later. The peritoneal dissemination was quantitatively analyzed by counting and weighing the peritoneal nodules. The port sites and ascites volume were measured. The peritoneal damage of HT-CO2 was histologically examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Intra-abdominal adhesions were evaluated 4 weeks later. Results The number of peritoneal nodules in the HT-CO2 group was significantly less than that in the NT-CO2 group (10.21±3.72 vs. 67.12±5.49, P<0.01). The mean weight of metastatic tumors in the HT-CO2 group was significantly lower than that in the NT-CO2 group (0.31±0.10g vs. 2.16±0.31g, P<0.01). Massive ascites were found in the NT-CO2 group while significantly less ascites developed in HT-CO2- treated mice (8.26±0.31ml vs. 1.27±0.28ml, P<0.01). No port-site metastases were detected in the HT-CO2 group while the incidence of the NT-CO2 group was 12.5% (3/24). HT-CO2 subjection resulted in slight peritoneal damage; the peritoneum returned to normal within five days. No adhesions formed after HT-CO2 treatment. Conclusions HT-CO2 can suppress peritoneal dissemination of colon cancer cells and only causes slight and

  20. Inhibition of peritoneal dissemination of colon cancer by hyperthermic CO2 insufflation: A novel approach to prevent intraperitoneal tumor spread.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuanfei; Yang, Hua; Ye, Qing; Zhou, Houming; Zheng, Minhua; Shi, Yinghong

    2017-01-01

    The increasing use of laparoscopic surgery for advanced gastrointestinal cancer raises concerns about intra-peritoneal tumor spread. Prevention of peritoneal dissemination is extremely important but a preventive modality is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine a novel approach (hyperthermic CO2 insufflation, HT-CO2) for preventing peritoneal dissemination during laparoscopic surgery. A peritoneal dissemination model was established in Balb/c nu/nu mice by intraperitoneal injection of human colon cancer cells (SW1116, 1×106). The mice (n = 48) were subsequently randomized into two groups and subjected to hyperthermic CO2 (43°C, >95% humidity, HT-CO2 group) or standard normothermic CO2 (21°C, <1% relative humidity, NT-CO2 group) insufflation for 3 hours. The mice were sacrificed 28 days later. The peritoneal dissemination was quantitatively analyzed by counting and weighing the peritoneal nodules. The port sites and ascites volume were measured. The peritoneal damage of HT-CO2 was histologically examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Intra-abdominal adhesions were evaluated 4 weeks later. The number of peritoneal nodules in the HT-CO2 group was significantly less than that in the NT-CO2 group (10.21±3.72 vs. 67.12±5.49, P<0.01). The mean weight of metastatic tumors in the HT-CO2 group was significantly lower than that in the NT-CO2 group (0.31±0.10g vs. 2.16±0.31g, P<0.01). Massive ascites were found in the NT-CO2 group while significantly less ascites developed in HT-CO2- treated mice (8.26±0.31ml vs. 1.27±0.28ml, P<0.01). No port-site metastases were detected in the HT-CO2 group while the incidence of the NT-CO2 group was 12.5% (3/24). HT-CO2 subjection resulted in slight peritoneal damage; the peritoneum returned to normal within five days. No adhesions formed after HT-CO2 treatment. HT-CO2 can suppress peritoneal dissemination of colon cancer cells and only causes slight and transient peritoneal damage. HT-CO2 may serve

  1. Emulation of the laparoscopic environment for image-guided liver surgery via an abdominal phantom system with anatomical ligamenture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiselman, Jon S.; Collins, Jarrod A.; Clements, Logan W.; Weis, Jared A.; Simpson, Amber L.; Geevarghese, Sunil K.; Jarnagin, William R.; Miga, Michael I.

    2017-03-01

    In order to rigorously validate techniques for image-guided liver surgery (IGLS), an accurate mock representation of the intraoperative surgical scene with quantifiable localization of subsurface targets would be highly desirable. However, many attempts to reproduce the laparoscopic environment have encountered limited success due to neglect of several crucial design aspects. The laparoscopic setting is complicated by factors such as gas insufflation of the abdomen, changes in patient orientation, incomplete organ mobilization from ligaments, and limited access to organ surface data. The ability to accurately represent the influences of anatomical changes and procedural limitations is critical for appropriate evaluation of IGLS methodologies such as registration and deformation correction. However, these influences have not yet been comprehensively integrated into a platform usable for assessment of methods in laparoscopic IGLS. In this work, a mock laparoscopic liver simulator was created with realistic ligamenture to emulate the complexities of this constrained surgical environment for the realization of laparoscopic IGLS. The mock surgical system reproduces an insufflated abdominal cavity with dissectible ligaments, variable levels of incline matching intraoperative patient positioning, and port locations in accordance with surgical protocol. True positions of targets embedded in a tissue-mimicking phantom are measured from CT images. Using this setup, image-to-physical registration accuracy was evaluated for simulations of laparoscopic right and left lobe mobilization to assess rigid registration performance under more realistic laparoscopic conditions. Preliminary results suggest that non-rigid organ deformations and the region of organ surface data collected affect the ability to attain highly accurate registrations in laparoscopic applications.

  2. Effect of Ergothioneine on Acute Lung Injury and Inflammation in Cytokine Insufflated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Repine, John E.; Elkins, Nancy D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), the most severe form of Acute Lung Injury (ALI), is a highly-fatal, diffuse non-cardiogenic edematous lung disorder. The pathogenesis of ARDS is unknown but lung inflammation and lung oxidative stress are likely contributing factors. Since no specific pharmacologic intervention exists for ARDS, our objective was to determine the effect of treatment with ergothioneine---a safe agent with multiple anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties on the development of lung injury and inflammation in rats insufflated with cytokines found in lung lavages of ARDS patients. Method Sprague-Dawley rats (3-10/group) were given 15 mg/kg or 150 mg/kg L-ergothioneine intravenously 1 hour before or 18 hours after cytokine (IL-1 and IFNγ) insufflation. Lung injury (lavage LDH levels) and lung inflammation (lavage neutrophil numbers) were measured 24 hours after cytokine insufflation. Results Ergothioneine pre- and post- treatment generally decreased lung injury and lung inflammation in cytokine insufflated rats. Conclusion Ergothioneine should be considered for additional testing as a potential therapy for treating and preventing ARDS. PMID:22197759

  3. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. 884.1300 Section 884.1300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300...

  4. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. 884.1300 Section 884.1300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300...

  5. Abdominal Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Deborah; Weilitz, Pamela Becker

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints by patients, and assessment of abdominal pain and associated symptoms can be challenging for home healthcare providers. Reasons for abdominal pain are related to inflammation, organ distention, and ischemia. The history and physical examination are important to narrow the source of acute or chronic problems, identify immediate interventions, and when necessary, facilitate emergency department care.

  6. An assessment by calorimetric calculations of the potential thermal benefit of warming and humidification of insufflated carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jonathan V; Sea, Stephanie

    2014-06-01

    Heat transfer from a patient to warm and humidify insufflated carbon dioxide (CO2) during laparoscopic surgery may contribute to perioperative hypothermia. The magnitude of this effect was calculated using calorimetric calculations. Warming to 37°C and humidifying to 100%, each 100 L of insufflated CO2 would prevent a heat transfer of 3220 calories, which would result in a decrease of temperature by 0.06°C in a 70 kg patient after total body distribution of heat. We conclude that the thermal benefit of warming and humidifying insufflated CO2 is minor, particularly in comparison with other effective and inexpensive perioperative technologies, some of which are not always used out could easily be used. The decision to use heating and humidification of insufflated CO2 should be based on its other risks, benefits, and costs.

  7. A microprocessor-controlled tracheal insufflation-assisted total liquid ventilation system.

    PubMed

    Parker, James Courtney; Sakla, Adel; Donovan, Francis M; Beam, David; Chekuri, Annu; Al-Khatib, Mohammad; Hamm, Charles R; Eyal, Fabien G

    2009-09-01

    A prototype time cycled, constant volume, closed circuit perfluorocarbon (PFC) total liquid ventilator system is described. The system utilizes microcontroller-driven display and master control boards, gear motor pumps, and three-way solenoid valves to direct flow. A constant tidal volume and functional residual capacity (FRC) are maintained with feedback control using end-expiratory and end-inspiratory stop-flow pressures. The system can also provide a unique continuous perfusion (bias flow, tracheal insufflation) through one lumen of a double-lumen endotracheal catheter to increase washout of dead space liquid. FRC and arterial blood gases were maintained during ventilation with Rimar 101 PFC over 2-3 h in normal piglets and piglets with simulated pulmonary edema induced by instillation of albumin solution. Addition of tracheal insufflation flow significantly improved the blood gases and enhanced clearance of instilled albumin solution during simulated edema.

  8. Peritoneal Tumorigenesis and Inflammation are Ameliorated by Humidified-Warm Carbon Dioxide Insufflation in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Carpinteri, Sandra; Sampurno, Shienny; Bernardi, Maria-Pia; Germann, Markus; Malaterre, Jordane; Heriot, Alexander; Chambers, Brenton A; Mutsaers, Steven E; Lynch, Andrew C; Ramsay, Robert G

    2015-12-01

    Conventional laparoscopic surgery uses CO2 that is dry and cold, which can damage peritoneal surfaces. It is speculated that disseminated cancer cells may adhere to such damaged peritoneum and metastasize. We hypothesized that insufflation using humidified-warm CO2, which has been shown to reduce mesothelial damage, will also ameliorate peritoneal inflammation and tumor cell implantation compared to conventional dry-cold CO2. Laparoscopic insufflation was modeled in mice along with anesthesia and ventilation. Entry and exit ports were introduced to maintain insufflation using dry-cold or humidified-warm CO2 with a constant flow and pressure for 1 h; then 1000 or 1 million fluorescent-tagged murine colorectal cancer cells (CT26) were delivered into the peritoneal cavity. The peritoneum was collected at intervals up to 10 days after the procedure to measure inflammation, mesothelial damage, and tumor burden using fluorescent detection, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy. Rapid temperature control was achieved only in the humidified-warm group. Port-site tumors were present in all mice. At 10 days, significantly fewer tumors on the peritoneum were counted in mice insufflated with humidified-warm compared to dry-cold CO2 (p < 0.03). The inflammatory marker COX-2 was significantly increased in the dry-cold compared to the humidified-warm cohort (p < 0.01), while VEGFA expression was suppressed only in the humidified-warm cohort. Significantly less mesothelial damage and tumor cell implantation was evident from 2 h after the procedure in the humidified-warm cohort. Mesothelial cell damage and inflammation are reduced by using humidified-warm CO2 for laparoscopic oncologic surgery and may translate to reduce patients' risk of developing peritoneal metastasis.

  9. Intra-oral ignition of monopolar diathermy during transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE).

    PubMed

    Onwochei, D; El-Boghdadly, K; Oakley, R; Ahmad, I

    2017-06-01

    We present the case of unanticipated airway ignition during hard palate biopsy. Transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE) and monopolar diathermy were utilised for the procedure, during which an arc arose from the diathermy tip to a titanium implant, causing a brief ignition on the monopolar diathermy grip. This case highlights the need for maintained awareness of fire risk when using diathermy in the presence of THRIVE during airway surgery. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Transpulmonary pressures and lung mechanics with glossopharyngeal insufflation and exsufflation beyond normal lung volumes in competitive breath-hold divers.

    PubMed

    Loring, Stephen H; O'Donnell, Carl R; Butler, James P; Lindholm, Peter; Jacobson, Francine; Ferrigno, Massimo

    2007-03-01

    Throughout life, most mammals breathe between maximal and minimal lung volumes determined by respiratory mechanics and muscle strength. In contrast, competitive breath-hold divers exceed these limits when they employ glossopharyngeal insufflation (GI) before a dive to increase lung gas volume (providing additional oxygen and intrapulmonary gas to prevent dangerous chest compression at depths recently greater than 100 m) and glossopharyngeal exsufflation (GE) during descent to draw air from compressed lungs into the pharynx for middle ear pressure equalization. To explore the mechanical effects of these maneuvers on the respiratory system, we measured lung volumes by helium dilution with spirometry and computed tomography and estimated transpulmonary pressures using an esophageal balloon after GI and GE in four competitive breath-hold divers. Maximal lung volume was increased after GI by 0.13-2.84 liters, resulting in volumes 1.5-7.9 SD above predicted values. The amount of gas in the lungs after GI increased by 0.59-4.16 liters, largely due to elevated intrapulmonary pressures of 52-109 cmH(2)O. The transpulmonary pressures increased after GI to values ranging from 43 to 80 cmH(2)O, 1.6-2.9 times the expected values at total lung capacity. After GE, lung volumes were reduced by 0.09-0.44 liters, and the corresponding transpulmonary pressures decreased to -15 to -31 cmH(2)O, suggesting closure of intrapulmonary airways. We conclude that the lungs of some healthy individuals are able to withstand repeated inflation to transpulmonary pressures far greater than those to which they would normally be exposed.

  11. [Abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Sido, B; Grenacher, L; Friess, H; Büchler, M W

    2005-09-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma is much more frequent than penetrating abdominal trauma in Europe. As a consequence of improved quality of computed tomography, even complex liver injuries are increasingly being treated conservatively. However, missed hollow viscus injuries still remain a problem, as they considerably increase mortality in multiply injured patients. Laparoscopy decreases the rate of unnecessary laparotomies in perforating abdominal trauma and helps to diagnose injuries of solid organs and the diaphragm. However, the sensitivity in detecting hollow viscus injuries is low and the role of laparoscopy in blunt abdominal injury has not been defined. If intra-abdominal bleeding is difficult to control in hemodynamically unstable patients, damage control surgery with packing of the liver, total splenectomy, and provisional closure of hollow viscus injuries is of importance. Definitive surgical treatment follows hemodynamic stabilization and restoration of hemostasis. Injuries of the duodenum and pancreas after blunt abdominal trauma are often associated with other intra-abdominal injuries and the treatment depends on their location and severity.

  12. Acute myelopathy selectively involving lumbar anterior horns following intranasal insufflation of ecstasy and heroin

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Nilo; Riva, Nilo; Morana, Paolo; Cerri, Federica; Gerevini, Simonetta; Amadio, Stefano; Formaglio, Fabio; Comi, Giancarlo; Comola, Mauro; Del Carro, Ubaldo

    2009-01-01

    We report a patient who developed acute myelopathy after intranasal insufflation of amphetamines and heroin. The functional prognosis was very poor; after 4 months, she remained paraplegic. MRI imaging showed selective T2 hyperintensity and intense enhancement confined to the spinal anterior horns and lumbar nerve roots and plexus. This unique MRI pattern, together with neurophysiological data, suggests that the pathological process at the first primary affected spinal anterior horns (SAH), conditioning motoneuron cell death, and then nerve roots and lumbar plexus as a consequence of wallerian degeneration PMID:21686691

  13. Gases for establishing pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianwu; Cheng, Yao; Wang, Xiaomei; Tu, Bing; Cheng, Nansheng; Gong, Jianping; Bai, Lian

    2017-06-21

    This is an update of the review published in 2013.Laparoscopic surgery is now widely performed to treat various abdominal diseases. Currently, carbon dioxide is the most frequently used gas for insufflation of the abdominal cavity (pneumoperitoneum). Although carbon dioxide meets most of the requirements for pneumoperitoneum, the absorption of carbon dioxide may be associated with adverse events. People with high anaesthetic risk are more likely to experience cardiopulmonary complications and adverse events, for example hypercapnia and acidosis, which has to be avoided by hyperventilation. Therefore, other gases have been introduced as alternatives to carbon dioxide for establishing pneumoperitoneum. To assess the safety, benefits, and harms of different gases (i.e. carbon dioxide, helium, argon, nitrogen, nitrous oxide, and room air) used for establishing pneumoperitoneum in participants undergoing laparoscopic general abdominal or gynaecological pelvic surgery. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to September 2016), Ovid Embase (1974 to September 2016), Science Citation Index Expanded (1970 to September 2016), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) (1978 to September 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov (September 2016), and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (September 2016). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different gases for establishing pneumoperitoneum in participants (irrespective of age, sex, or race) undergoing laparoscopic abdominal or gynaecological pelvic surgery under general anaesthesia. Two review authors identified the trials for inclusion, collected the data, and assessed the risk of bias independently. We performed the meta-analyses using Review Manager 5. We calculated risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes (or Peto odds ratio for very rare outcomes), and mean difference (MD) or standardised

  14. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  15. An autopsy case of acetyl fentanyl intoxication caused by insufflation of 'designer drugs'.

    PubMed

    Takase, Izumi; Koizumi, Takako; Fujimoto, Ihoko; Yanai, Aya; Fujimiya, Tatsuya

    2016-07-01

    We present a fatal case of intoxication due to insufflation of acetyl fentanyl. His blood concentration of acetyl fentanyl was 270ng/mL, and the manner of death was classified as an accident. This is the first report of an autopsy case of acetyl fentanyl delivered by insufflation, rather than intravenous administration. He had been snoring loudly for at least 12h prior to death, and transport to a hospital during this time and treatment with naloxone may have saved his life. In this sense, it can be said that his death was preventable. This case reemphasizes the risk of death associated with drug overdose and the narrow range of acetyl fentanyl between the effective dose (ED50) and lethal dose (LD50). The case should also raise awareness among medical professionals of the effectiveness of naloxone and the need to establish a comprehensive system for toxicological analysis while keeping the possibility of use of 'designer drugs' in mind. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Newborn With Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Alwan, Riham; Drake, Meredith; Gurria Juarez, Juan; Emery, Kathleen H; Shaaban, Aimen F; Szabo, Sara; Sobolewski, Brad

    2017-11-01

    A previously healthy 3-week-old boy presented with 5 hours of marked fussiness, abdominal distention, and poor feeding. He was afebrile and well perfused. His examination was remarkable for localized abdominal tenderness and distention. He was referred to the emergency department in which an abdominal radiograph revealed gaseous distention of the bowel with a paucity of gas in the pelvis. Complete blood cell count and urinalysis were unremarkable. His ongoing fussiness and abnormal physical examination prompted consultation with surgery and radiology. Our combined efforts ultimately established an unexpected diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Abdominal rigidity

    MedlinePlus

    ... other symptoms do you have at the same time? For example, do you have abdominal pain ? You may have the following tests: Barium studies of the stomach and intestines (such as an upper GI series ) Blood tests Colonoscopy Gastroscopy Peritoneal lavage Stool studies ...

  18. [Comparative studies of the quality of the esophageal voice following laryngectomy: the insufflation test and reverse speech audiometry].

    PubMed

    Böhme, G; Clasen, B

    1989-09-01

    We carried out a transnasal insufflation test according to Blom and Singer on 27 laryngectomy patients as well as a speech communications test with the help of reverse speech audiometry, i.e. the post laryngectomy telephone test according to Zenner and Pfrang. The combined evaluation of both tests provided basic information on the quality of the esophagus voice and functionability of the speech organs. Both tests can be carried out quickly and easily and allow a differentiated statement to be made on the application possibilities of a esophagus voice, electronic speech aids and voice prothesis. Three groups could be identified from our results: 1. Insufflation test and reverse speech test provided conformable good or very good results. The esophagus voice was well understood. 2. Complete failure in the insufflation and telephone tests calls for further examinations to exclude any spasm, stricture, divertical and scarred membrane stenosis as well as tumor relapse in the region of the pharyngo-esophageal segments. 3. Organic causes must be looked for in the area of the nozzle as well as cranial nerve failure and social-determined causes in the case of normal insufflation and considerably reduced speech communication in the telephone test.

  19. Heat loss during carbon dioxide insufflation: comparison of a nebulization based humidification device with a humidification and heating system.

    PubMed

    Noll, Eric; Schaeffer, Roland; Joshi, Girish; Diemunsch, Sophie; Koessler, Stefanie; Diemunsch, Pierre

    2012-12-01

    This study compared the heat loss observed with the use of MR860 AEA Humidifier™ system (Fisher & Paykel Healthcare, New Zealand), which humidifies and heats the insufflated CO(2), and the use of the AeronebPro™ device (Aerogen, Ireland), which humidifies but does not heat the insufflated CO(2). With institutional approval, 16 experiments were conducted in 4 pigs. Each animal, acting as its own control, was studied at 8-day intervals in randomized sequence with the following four conditions: (1) control (C) no pneumoperitoneum; (2) standard (S) insufflation with nonhumidified, nonheated CO(2); (3) Aeroneb™ (A): insufflation with humidified, nonheated CO(2); and (4) MR860 AEA humidifier™ (MR): insufflation with humidified and heated CO(2). The measured heat loss after 720L CO(2) insufflation during the 4 h was 1.03 ± 0.75 °C (mean ± SEM) in group C; 3.63 ± 0.31 °C in group S; 3.03 ± 0.39 °C in group A; and 1.98 ± 0.09 °C in group MR. The ANOVA showed a significant difference with time (p = 0.0001) and with the insufflation technique (p = 0.024). Heat loss in group C was less than in group S after 60 min (p = 0.03), less than in group A after 70 min (p = 0.03), and less than in group MR after 150 min (p = 0.03). The heat loss in group MR was less than in group S after 50 min (p = 0.04) and less than in group A after 70 min (p = 0.02). After 160 min, the heat loss in group S was greater than in group A (p = 0.03). As far as heat loss is concerned, for laparoscopic procedures of less than 60 min, there is no benefit of using any humidification with or without heating. However, for procedures greater than 60 min, use of heating along with humidification, is superior.

  20. Effects of guar gum, ispaghula and microcrystalline cellulose on abdominal symptoms, gastric emptying, orocaecal transit time and gas production in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, M; Capurso, L

    2002-09-01

    Dietary fibres are carbohydrates that resist hydrolysis by human intestinal enzymes but are fermented by colonic microflora. Soluble dietary fibres are fermented by anaerobic bacteria with production of gases, short chain fatty acids and other metabolic products believed to cause symptoms such as bloating, abdominal distension, flatulence. Insoluble fibres are only partially fermented, serving almost exclusively as bulking agents that result in shorter transit time and increased faecal mass. To evaluate effect of a supplementation of a single 5 g dose of dietary fibre to a solid meal on gastric emptying, orocaecal transit time, gas production and symptom genesis, in healthy volunteers. Three different dietary fibres were tested, two soluble (guar gum and ispaghula] and one insoluble (microcrystalline cellulose). After a 24-hour low fibre diet, 10 healthy subjects had a standard meal consisting of white bread and one 70 g egg the yolk of which was mixed with 100 mg of 13C octanoic acid and fried. Breath samples were collected for 13CO2 measurements with a mass spectrophotometer and excretion curve (Tlag, T1/2) evaluation. Further breath samples were collected and analysed with a gas chromatograph for the evaluation of H2 and CH4 production and orocaecal transit time. Each evaluation was repeated adding to standard meal, diluted in 300 ml tap water, respectively: a single 5 g dose of microcrystalline cellulose, guar gum or ispaghula. Subjects were asked to report all symptoms experienced from time of meal ingestion over 24 hours, evaluating the intensity. Dietary fibres did not significantly change gastric emptying (Tlag, T1/2) and orocaecal transit time of standard meal. Subjects experienced more symptoms when meals were supplemented with guar gum (p=0.009 vs standard meal) and ispaghula (p=0.048 vs standard meal). There was a poor, but significant, correlation between gas production and symptoms (r=0. 38, p=0. 01). Addition of different dietary fibres to a solid

  1. Variations in dynamic lung compliance during endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy with CO2 insufflation.

    PubMed

    El-Dawlatly, Abdelazeem Ali; Al-Dohayan, Abdullah; Abdel-Meguid, Mohamed Essam; Turkistani, Ahmed; Alotaiby, Wadha Mubarak; Abdelaziz, Emad Mansoor

    2003-12-01

    Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) is the preferred surgery for treatment of intractable palmar hyperhidrosis (PH). General anesthesia with onelung collapsed ventilation (OLCV) using single-lumen tracheal tube (SLT), is our preferred anesthetic technique for ETS. Intrapleural CO(2) insufflation (capnothorax) was used to ensure lung collapse. The current study examined the effects of capnothorax on dynamic lung compliance (DLC) of the ventilated lung during ETS. After obtaining written informed consent, 10 adult male patients ASA I&II undergoing ETS were studied. Their average age and weight were 25 +/- 7 yr and 67 +/- 8 kg. General anesthesia with SLT and OLCV technique was used. Capnothorax with intrapleural pressure (IPP) of 10 mmHg was initially used, then it was reduced and maintained at 5 mmHg throughout the operation. Anesthesia delivery unit (Datex Ohmeda type A_Elec, Promma, Sweden) was used where airway pressures and DLC were displayed during OLCV. A computer program (SPSS 9.0 for Windows; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) was used for statistical analysis of the data obtained. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for analysis of data before, during and after OLCV. P<0.05 was considered significant. The mean values of the DLC were 52 +/- 6, 30 +/- 3, 39 +/- 5 and 53 +/- 9 ml/cmH(2)O before, during (at 10 and 5 mmHg IPP) and after OLCV respectively with significant differences before and at 10 and 5mmHg IPP. In conclusions, during OLCV and capnothorax for ETS, DLC tends to decrease with increasing of intrapleural CO(2) insufflation pressure. However, in short procedures it has no deleterious postoperative effect. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study performed to investigate DLC changes during OLCV with capnothorax.

  2. Abdominal bloating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some other medicines or foods containing lactulose or sorbitol, may cause bloating. More serious disorders that may ... from foods with high levels of fructose or sorbitol. Avoid foods that can produce gas, such as ...

  3. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life ... familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: abdominal aorta, abdominal aortic aneurysm, abdominal pain, ...

  4. Local insufflation of warm humidified CO₂increases open wound and core temperature during open colon surgery: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Frey, Joana M; Janson, Martin; Svanfeldt, Monika; Svenarud, Peter K; van der Linden, Jan A

    2012-11-01

    The open surgical wound is exposed to cold and dry ambient air resulting in heat loss through radiation, evaporation, and convection. Also, general and neuraxial anesthesia decrease the patient's core temperature. Despite routine preventive measures mild intraoperative hypothermia is still common and contributes to postoperative morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that local insufflation of warm fully humidified CO(2) would increase both the open surgical wound and core temperature. Eighty-three patients undergoing open colon surgery were equally and parallelly randomized to either standard warming measures including forced-air warming, warm fluids, and insulation of limbs and head, or to additional local wound insufflation of warm (37°C) humidified (100% relative humidity) CO(2) at a laminar flow (10 L/min) via a gas diffuser. Wound surface and core temperatures were followed with a heat-sensitive infrared camera and a tympanic thermometer. The mean wound area temperature during surgery was 31.3°C in the warm humidified CO(2) group compared with 29.6°C in the control group (P < 0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2°C to 2.3°C). Also, the mean wound edge temperature during surgery was 30.1°C compared with 28.5°C in the control group (P < 0.001, 95% CI, 0.2°C to 0.7°C). Mean core temperature before start of surgery was similar with 36.7°C ± 0.5°C in the warm humidified CO(2) group versus 36.6°C ± 0.5°C in the control group (95% CI, 0.4 to -0.1°C). At end of surgery, the 2 groups differed significantly with 36.9 ± 0.5°C in the warm humidified CO(2) group versus 36.3 ± 0.5°C in the control group (P < 0.001, 95% CI, 0.38°C to 0.82°C). Moreover, only 8 patients of 40 in the warm humidified CO(2) group had a core temperature <36.5°C (20%, 95% CI, 7 to 33%), whereas in the control group this was the case in 24 of 39 (62%, 95% CI, 46% to 78%, P = 0.001) patients (difference of the percentages between the groups 42%, 95% CI, 22% to 61%, P < 0

  5. Abdomino-phrenic dyssynergia in patients with abdominal bloating and distension.

    PubMed

    Villoria, Albert; Azpiroz, Fernando; Burri, Emanuel; Cisternas, Daniel; Soldevilla, Alfredo; Malagelada, Juan-R

    2011-05-01

    The abdomen normally accommodates intra-abdominal volume increments. Patients complaining of abdominal distension exhibit abnormal accommodation of colonic gas loads (defective contraction and excessive protrusion of the anterior wall). However, abdominal imaging demonstrated diaphragmatic descent during spontaneous episodes of bloating in patients with functional gut disorders. We aimed to establish the role of the diaphragm in abdominal distension. In 20 patients complaining of abdominal bloating and 15 healthy subjects, we increased the volume of the abdominal cavity with a colonic gas load, while measuring abdominal girth and electromyographic activity of the anterior abdominal muscles and of the diaphragm. In healthy subjects, the colonic gas load increased girth, relaxed the diaphragm, and increased anterior wall tone. With the same gas load, patients developed significantly more abdominal distension; this was associated with paradoxical contraction of the diaphragm and relaxation of the internal oblique muscle. In this experimental provocation model, abnormal accommodation of the diaphragm is involved in abdominal distension.

  6. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of loperamide plus simethicone versus loperamide alone and simethicone alone in the treatment of acute diarrhea with gas-related abdominal discomfort.

    PubMed

    Hanauer, Stephen B; DuPont, Herbert L; Cooper, Kimberly M; Laudadio, Charles

    2007-05-01

    To compare efficacy and tolerability of a loperamide/simethicone (LOP/SIM) combination product with that of loperamide (LOP) alone, simethicone (SIM) alone, and placebo (PBO) for acute nonspecific diarrhea with gas-related abdominal discomfort. In this multicenter, double-blind, 48-h study, patients were randomly assigned to receive two tablets, each containing either LOP/SIM 2 mg/125 mg (n = 121), LOP 2 mg (n = 120), SIM 125 mg (n = 123), or PBO (n = 121), followed by one tablet after each unformed stool, up to four tablets in any 24-h period. The primary outcome measures were time to last unformed stool and time to complete relief of gas-related abdominal discomfort. For time to last unformed stool, an unformed stool after a 24-h period of formed stools or no stools was considered a continuance of the original episode (stricter definition) or a new episode (alternate definition). A total of 483 patients were included in the intent-to-treat analysis. The median time to last unformed stool for LOP/SIM (7.6 h) was significantly shorter than that of LOP (11.5 h), SIM (26.0 h), and PBO (29.4 h) (p < or = 0.0232 in comparison with survival curves) using the alternate definition; it was numerically but not significantly shorter than that of LOP (p = 0.0709) and significantly shorter than that of SIM and PBO (p = 0.0001) using the stricter definition. LOP/SIM-treated patients had a shorter time to complete relief of gas-related abdominal discomfort than patients who received either ingredient alone or placebo (all p = 0.0001). Few patients reported adverse events in the four treatment groups, none of which were serious in nature. Potential study limitations include the ability to generalize study results to the population at large, variability in total dose consumed, and subjectivity of patient diary data. LOP/SIM was well-tolerated and more efficacious than LOP alone, SIM alone, or placebo for acute nonspecific diarrhea and gas-related abdominal discomfort.

  7. Abdominal Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... asked to drink four to six glasses of liquid about an hour before the test to fill your bladder. You may be asked to avoid eating for eight to 12 hours before the test to avoid gas buildup in the intestines. For ultrasound of the ...

  8. Gas exchange and intrapulmonary distribution of ventilation during continuous-flow ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Vettermann, J.; Brusasco, V.; Rehder, K.

    1988-05-01

    In 12 anesthetized paralyzed dogs, pulmonary gas exchange and intrapulmonary inspired gas distribution were compared between continuous-flow ventilation (CFV) and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV). Nine dogs were studied while they were lying supine, and three dogs were studied while they were lying prone. A single-lumen catheter for tracheal insufflation and a double-lumen catheter for bilateral endobronchial insufflation (inspired O2 fraction = 0.4; inspired minute ventilation = 1.7 +/- 0.3 (SD) 1.kg-1.min-1) were evaluated. Intrapulmonary gas distribution was assessed from regional 133Xe clearances. In dogs lying supine, CO2 elimination was more efficient with endobronchial insufflation than with tracheal insufflation, but themore » alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressure difference was larger during CFV than during CMV, regardless of the type of insufflation. By contrast, endobronchial insufflation maintained both arterial PCO2 and alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressure difference at significantly lower levels in dogs lying prone than in dogs lying supine. In dogs lying supine, the dependent lung was preferentially ventilated during CMV but not during CFV. In dogs lying prone, gas distribution was uniform with both modes of ventilation. The alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressure difference during CFV in dogs lying supine was negatively correlated with the reduced ventilation of the dependent lung, which suggests that increased ventilation-perfusion mismatching was responsible for the increase in alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressure difference. The more efficient oxygenation during CFV in dogs lying prone suggests a more efficient matching of ventilation to perfusion, presumably because the distribution of blood flow is also nearly uniform.« less

  9. An observational study: Effects of tenting of the abdominal wall on peak airway pressure in robotic radical prostatectomy surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kakde, Avinash Sahebarav; Wagh, Harshal D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP) is associated with various anesthetic challenges due to pneumoperitoneum and deep Trendelenburg position. Tenting of the abdominal wall done in RRP surgery causes decrease in peak airway pressure leading to better ventilation. Herein, we aimed to describe the effects of tenting of the abdominal wall on peak airway pressure in RRP surgery performed in deep Trendelenburg position. Methods: One hundred patients admitted for RRP in Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital of American Society of Anesthesiologists 1 and 2 physical status were included in the study. After undergoing preanesthesia work-up, patients received general anesthesia. Peak airway pressures were recorded after induction of general anesthesia, after insufflation of CO2, after giving Trendelenburg position, and after tenting of the abdominal wall with robotic arms. Results: Mean peak airway pressure recording after induction in supine position was 19.5 ± 2.3 cm of H2O, after insufflation of CO2 in supine position was 26.3 ± 2.6 cm of H2O, after giving steep head low was 34.1 ± 3.4 cm of H2O, and after tenting of the abdominal wall with robotic arms was 29.5 ± 2.5 cm of H2O. P value is highly statistically significant (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Tenting of the abdominal wall during RRP is beneficial as it decreases peak airway pressure and helps in better ventilation and thus reduces the ill effects of raised peak airway pressure and intra-abdominal pressures. PMID:28757826

  10. Acute effects of glossopharyngeal insufflation in people with cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Nygren-Bonnier, Malin; Schiffer, Tomas A; Lindholm, Peter

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate acute effects of glossopharyngeal insufflation (GI) on lung function, airway pressure (P aw ), blood pressure and heart rate (HR) in people with cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI). Case-control design. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Ten participants with CSCI suffering from lesions between C4 and C8, and ASIA classification of A or B were recruited. Ten healthy particpants familiar with GI were recruited as a reference group. Spirometry, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), P aw, and HR were measured in a sitting and a supine position before, during, and after GI. GI in the study group in a sitting position increased total lung capacity (TLC) by 712 ml: P < 0.001, vital capacity (VC) by 587 ml: P < 0.0001, P aw by 13 cm H 2 O: P < 0.01, and HR by 10 beats/min: P < 0.001. MAP decreased by 25 mmHg, P < 0.0001. Significant differences were observed between groups comparing baseline with GI. The reference group had a higher increase in; TLC (P < 0.01), VC (P < 0.001), P aw (P < 0.001) and HR (P < 0.05) and a higher decrease in MAP (P < 0.001). With GI in a sitting compared to a supine position, TLC, MAP, HR, P aw remained unchanged in the study group, while residual volume decreased in the supine position (P < 0.01). There was a difference between the groups in the increase in TLC; VC; P aw, HR and in the decrease in MAP with GI, however MAP, HR and P aw responded in similar way in both groups in a sitting as well as a supine position. If performed correctly, the risks of GI resulting in clinically significant hemodynamic changes is low, although syncope may still occur.

  11. Lung injury following thoracoscopic talc insufflation: experience of a single North American center.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Anne V; Bezwada, Vishnu; Beamis, John F; Villanueva, Andrew G

    2010-06-01

    Thoracoscopic talc insufflation (TTI) has been used to obliterate the pleural space and prevent recurrent pleural effusions or pneumothorax. Reports of acute pneumonitis and ARDS after the use of talc raised concern about its safety. Differences in particle size of various talc preparations may explain the variable occurrence of pneumonitis. We sought to determine the incidence of lung injury after TTI over a 13-year period at our institution. Patients who underwent TTI between January 1994 and July 2007 were identified from a prospectively maintained logbook. The talc used was commercially available sterile talc (Sclerosol). The hospital course was reviewed in detail, and all cases of respiratory insufficiency were examined with regard to onset, suspected cause, and outcome. Talc-related lung injury was defined as the presence of new infiltrates on chest radiograph and increased oxygen requirements, with no other identifiable trigger than talc exposure. A total of 138 patients underwent 142 TTIs for recurrent pleural effusions or spontaneous pneumothorax. TTI was performed most frequently for malignant pleural effusions (75.5% of effusions). The median dose of talc was 6 g (range, 2-8 g). Dyspnea with increased oxygen requirements developed within 72 h postprocedure for 12 patients. Four patients (2.8%) had talc-related lung injury, and talc exposure may have contributed to the respiratory deterioration in four additional patients. We report the occurrence of lung injury after TTI using the only talc approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. These results reinforce previous concerns regarding the talc used for pleurodesis in North America.

  12. Optimizing working space in laparoscopy: CT measurement of the effect of pre-stretching of the abdominal wall in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Vlot, John; Wijnen, René; Stolker, Robert Jan; Bax, Klaas N

    2014-03-01

    Determinants of working space in minimal access surgery have not been well studied. Using computed tomography (CT) to measure volumes and linear dimensions, we are studying the effect of a number of determinants of CO2 working space in a porcine laparoscopy model. Here we report the effects of pre-stretching of the abdominal wall. Earlier we had noted an increase in CO2 pneumoperitoneum volume at repeat insufflation with an intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) of 5 mmHg after previous stepwise insufflation up to an IAP of 15 mmHg. We reviewed the data of this serendipity group; data of 16 pigs were available. In a new group of eight pigs, we also explored this effect at repeat IAPs of 10 and 15 mmHg. Volumes and linear dimensions of the CO2 pneumoperitoneum were measured on reconstructed CT images and compared between the initial and repeat insufflation runs. Previous stepwise insufflation of the abdomen with CO2 up to 15 mmHg significantly (p < 0.01) increased subsequent working-space volume at a repeat IAP of 5 mmHg by 21 %, 7 % at a repeat IAP of 10 mmHg and 3 % at a repeat IAP of 15 mmHg. The external anteroposterior diameter significantly (p < 0.01) increased by 0.5 cm (14 %) at repeat 5 mmHg. Other linear dimensions showed a much smaller change. There was no statistically significant correlation between the duration of the insufflation run and the volume increase after pre-stretching at all IAP levels. Pre-stretching of the abdominal wall allows for the same surgical-field exposure at lower IAPs, reducing the negative effects of prolonged high-pressure CO2 pneumoperitoneum on the cardiorespiratory system and microcirculation. Pre-stretching has important scientific consequences in studies addressing ways of increasing working space in that its effect may confound the possible effects of other interventions aimed at increasing working space.

  13. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... plaque buildup causes the walls of the abdominal aorta to become weak and bulge outward like a ... treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, is a ...

  14. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  15. Use of a Supraglottic Airway to Relieve Ventilation-Impeding Gastric Insufflation During Emergency Airway Management in an Infant.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Kenneth W; Strobel, Ashley M; Driver, Brian E; Reardon, Robert F

    2016-10-01

    Positive-pressure bag-valve-mask ventilation during emergency airway management often results in significant gastric insufflation, which may impede adequate ventilation and oxygenation. Current-generation supraglottic airways have beneficial features, such as channels for gastric decompression while ventilation is ongoing. A 5-week-old female infant required resuscitation for hypoxemic respiratory failure caused by rhinovirus with pneumonia. Bag-valve-mask ventilation led to gastric insufflation that compromised ventilation, thereby interfering with intubation because of precipitous oxygen desaturation during laryngoscopy. A current-generation supraglottic airway (LMA Supreme; Teleflex Inc, Morrisville, NC) was used to facilitate gastric decompression while ventilation and oxygenation was ongoing. After gastric decompression, ventilation was markedly improved and the pulse oxygen saturation improved to 100%. Intubation was successful on the next attempt, without oxygen desaturation. Current-generation supraglottic airways have 3 distinct advantages compared with first-generation supraglottic airways, which make them better devices for emergency airway management: gastric decompression ports, conduits for intubation, and higher oropharyngeal leak pressures. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Meta-analysis of warmed versus standard temperature CO2 insufflation for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Hakeem, Abdul R; Birks, Theodore; Azeem, Qasim; Di Franco, Filippo; Gergely, Szabolcs; Harris, Adrian M

    2016-06-01

    There is conflicting evidence for the use of warmed, humidified carbon dioxide (CO2) for creating pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Few studies have reported less post-operative pain and analgesic requirement when warmed CO2 was used. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to analyse the literature on the use of warmed CO2 in comparison to standard temperature CO2 during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Systematic review and meta-analysis carried out in line with the PRISMA guidelines. Primary outcomes of interest were post-operative pain at 6 h, day 1 and day 2 following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Secondary outcomes were analgesic usage and drop in intra-operative core body temperature. Standard Mean Difference (SMD) was calculated for continuous variables. Six randomised controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria (n = 369). There was no significant difference in post-operative pain at 6 h [3 RCTs; SMD = -0.66 (-1.33, 0.02) (Z = 1.89) (P = 0.06)], day 1 [4 RCTs; SMD = -0.51 (-1.47, 0.44) (Z = 1.05) (P = 0.29)] and day 2 [2 RCTs; SMD = -0.96 (-2.30, 0.37) (Z = 1.42) (P = 0.16)] between the warmed CO2 and standard CO2 group. There was no difference in analgesic usage between the two groups, but pooled analysis was not possible. Two RCTs reported significant drop in intra-operative core body temperature, but there were no adverse events related to this. This review showed no difference in post-operative pain and analgesic requirements between the warmed and standard CO2 insufflation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Currently there is not enough high quality evidence to suggest routine usage of warmed CO2 for creating pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Copyright © 2015 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevention of Hypoxemia During Apnea Testing: A Comparison of Oxygen Insufflation And Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Andreas H; Couillard, Philippe; Bader, Ryan; Dhillon, Peter; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios J; Doig, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    Apnea testing is an essential step in the clinical diagnosis of brain death. Current international guidelines recommend placement of an oxygen (O 2 ) insufflation catheter into the endotracheal tube to prevent hypoxemia, but use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) valve may be more effective at limiting arterial partial pressure of O 2 (PO 2 ) reduction. We performed a multicenter study assessing consecutive apnea tests in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in two cities utilizing differing protocols. In one city, O 2 catheters are placed and arterial blood gases (ABGs) performed at intervals determined by the attending physician. In the other city, a resuscitation bag with CPAP valve is attached to the endotracheal tube, and ABGs performed every 3-5 min. We assessed arterial PO 2 , partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO 2 ), pH, and blood pressure at the beginning and termination of each apnea test. Thirty-six apnea tests were performed using an O 2 catheter and 50 with a CPAP valve. One test per group was aborted because of physiological instability. There were no significant differences in the degree of PO 2 reduction (-59 vs. -32 mmHg, p = 0.72), rate of PCO 2 rise (3.2 vs. 3.9 mmHg per min, p = 0.22), or pH decline (-0.02 vs. -0.03 per min, p = 0.06). Performance of ABGs at regular intervals was associated with shorter test duration (10 vs. 7 min, p < 0.0001), smaller PCO 2 rise (30 vs. 26 mmHg, p = 0.0007), and less pH reduction (-0.20 vs. -0.17, p = 0.0012). Lower pH at completion of the apnea test was associated with greater blood pressure decline (p = 0.006). Both methods of O 2 supplementation are associated with similar changes in arterial PO 2 and PCO 2 . Performance of ABGs at regular intervals shortens apnea test duration and may avoid excessive pH reduction and consequent hemodynamic effects.

  18. Sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to glossopharyngeal insufflation in trained apnea divers

    PubMed Central

    Dzamonja, Gordan; Breskovic, Toni; Steinback, Craig D.; Diedrich, André; Tank, Jens; Jordan, Jens; Dujic, Zeljko

    2010-01-01

    Glossopharyngeal insufflation (lung packing) is a common maneuver among experienced apnea divers by which additional air is pumped into the lungs. It has been shown that packing may compromise cardiovascular homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that the packing-mediated increase in intrathoracic pressure enhances the baroreflex-mediated increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in response to an exaggerated drop in cardiac output (CO). We compared changes in hemodynamics and MSNA (peroneal microneurography) during maximal breath-holds without and with prior moderate packing (0.79 ± 0.40 liters) in 14 trained divers (12 men, 2 women, 26.7 ± 4.5 yr, body mass index 24.8 ± 2.4 kg/m2). Packing did not change apnea time (3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 3.8 ± 1.2 min), hemoglobin oxygen desaturation (−17.6 ± 12.3 vs. −18.7 ± 12.8%), or the reduction in CO (1 min: −3.65 ± 1.83 vs. −3.39 ± 1.96 l/min; end of apnea: −2.44 ± 1.33 vs. −2.16 ± 1.44 l/min). On the other hand, packing dampened the early, i.e., 1-min increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP, 1 min: 9.2 ± 8.3 vs. 2.4 ± 11.0 mmHg, P < 0.01) and in total peripheral resistance (relative TPR, 1 min: 2.1 ± 0.5 vs. 1.9 ± 0.5, P < 0.05) but it augmented the concomitant rise in MSNA (1 min: 28.0 ± 11.7 vs. 39.4 ± 12.7 bursts/min, P < 0.001; 32.8 ± 16.4 vs. 43.9 ± 14.8 bursts/100 heart beats, P < 0.01; 3.3 ± 2.1 vs. 4.8 ± 3.2 au/min, P < 0.05). We conclude that the early sympathoactivation 1 min into apnea after moderate packing is due to mechanisms other than excessive reduction in CO. We speculate that lower MAP despite increased MSNA after packing might be explained by vasodilator substances released by the lungs. This idea should be addressed in future studies. PMID:20864558

  19. Child with Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Rajalakshmi; Nallasamy, Karthi

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the common symptoms reported by children in urgent care clinics. While most children tend to have self-limiting conditions, the treating pediatrician should watch out for underlying serious causes like intestinal obstruction and perforation peritonitis, which require immediate referral to an emergency department (ED). Abdominal pain may be secondary to surgical or non-surgical causes, and will differ as per the age of the child. The common etiologies for abdominal pain presenting to an urgent care clinic are acute gastro-enteritis, constipation and functional abdominal pain; however, a variety of extra-abdominal conditions may also present as abdominal pain. Meticulous history taking and physical examination are the best tools for diagnosis, while investigations have a limited role in treating benign etiologies.

  20. Effect of Increased Intra-abdominal Pressure on Liver Histology and Hemodynamics: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    ANTONIOU, EFSTATHIOS A; KAIRI, EVI; MARGONIS, GEORGIOS A; ANDREATOS, NIKOLAOS; SASAKI, KAZUNARI; DAMASKOS, CHRISTOS; GARMPIS, NIKOLAOS; SAMAHA, MARIO; ARGYRA, ERIPHYLI; POLYMENEAS, GEORGE; WEISS, MATTHEW J; PAWLIK, TIMOTHY M; VOROS, DIONYSIOS; KOURAKLIS, GREGORY

    2018-01-01

    Background: While reduction of portal venous (PV) blood flow has been described in animal models of intra-abdominal hypertension, reports on compensatory changes in hepatic arterial (HA) flow, known as the hepatic arterial buffer response are controversial. Materials and Methods: Pneumoperitoneum with helium was induced in 13 piglets. Hemodynamic measurements and pathological assessment were conducted at baseline and during the three subsequent phases: Phase A: 45 minutes with a stable intra-abdominal pressure of 25 mmHg; phase B: 45 minutes with a stable intra-abdominal pressure of 40 mmHg; and phase C during which the abdomen was re-explored and reperfusion of the liver was allowed to take place. Results: Phase B pressure was significantly greater than phase A pressure in both the PV and the inferior vena cava, demonstrating a positive association between escalating intra-abdominal hypertension and the pressure in these two vessels (all p<0.001). In contrast, HA pressure was comparable between baseline and phase A, while it tended to decrease in phase B. Regarding histology, the most notable abnormality was the presence of inflammatory infiltrates and hepatocyte necrosis. Conclusion: Helium-insufflation increased PV pressure with a partial compensatory decrease of HA pressure. Nonetheless, findings consistent with hepatic ischemia were observed on pathology. PMID:29275303

  1. Effect of Increased Intra-abdominal Pressure on Liver Histology and Hemodynamics: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Efstathios A; Kairi, Evi; Margonis, Georgios A; Andreatos, Nikolaos; Sasaki, Kazunari; Damaskos, Christos; Garmpis, Nikolaos; Samaha, Mario; Argyra, Eriphyli; Polymeneas, George; Weiss, Matthew J; Pawlik, Timothy M; Voros, Dionysios; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    While reduction of portal venous (PV) blood flow has been described in animal models of intra-abdominal hypertension, reports on compensatory changes in hepatic arterial (HA) flow, known as the hepatic arterial buffer response are controversial. Pneumoperitoneum with helium was induced in 13 piglets. Hemodynamic measurements and pathological assessment were conducted at baseline and during the three subsequent phases: Phase A: 45 minutes with a stable intra-abdominal pressure of 25 mmHg; phase B: 45 minutes with a stable intra-abdominal pressure of 40 mmHg; and phase C during which the abdomen was re-explored and reperfusion of the liver was allowed to take place. Phase B pressure was significantly greater than phase A pressure in both the PV and the inferior vena cava, demonstrating a positive association between escalating intra-abdominal hypertension and the pressure in these two vessels (all p<0.001). In contrast, HA pressure was comparable between baseline and phase A, while it tended to decrease in phase B. Regarding histology, the most notable abnormality was the presence of inflammatory infiltrates and hepatocyte necrosis. Helium-insufflation increased PV pressure with a partial compensatory decrease of HA pressure. Nonetheless, findings consistent with hepatic ischemia were observed on pathology. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Abdominal exploration - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100049.htm Abdominal exploration - series—Normal ... intestine (jejunum and ileum), the large intestine (colon), the liver, the spleen, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the uterus, ...

  3. Subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, and pneumoretroperitoneum by insufflation of compressed air at the external genitalia in a child.

    PubMed

    Muramori, Katsumi; Takahashi, Yukiko; Handa, Noritoshi; Aikawa, Hisayuki

    2009-04-01

    A 7-year-old girl with concurrent subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, and pneumoretroperitoneum arrived at our facility. Compressed air at 5 atm of pressure was insufflated through the nozzle of a spray gun over her external genitalia. She was admitted for a small amount of genital bleeding and significant subcutaneous emphysema extending from the cheek to the upper body. Radiographic examination of the abdomen was suggestive of a visceral perforation, but she was managed conservatively and discharged in satisfactory condition without surgical intervention. The female genitalia possibly served as the entry point for air into the retroperitoneum and peritoneal cavity, with subsequent migration of air through the esophageal hiatus that resulted in pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and extensive subcutaneous emphysema.

  4. [Abdominal bloating: an up-to-date].

    PubMed

    Ducrotté, P

    2009-10-01

    Bloating is a common symptom, especially in women. In the clinical practice, it remains a therapeutic challenge. Since recently, its pathophysiology is better understood: an impaired transit of gas (particularly in the small bowel) or a visceral hypersensitivity leading to the induction of an abdominal discomfort despite a normal volume of gas are two of the main causes, far more frequent than an excessive production of gas. Moreover, bloating can be related to abnormal viscera-somatic reflexes promoting both an abdomino-phrenic dyssynergia and the relaxation of the muscles of the abdominal wall. From a therapeutic point of view, the efficacy of the gas absorbants remains to be more documented. Besides the treatment of a constipation and the avoidance of nutrients either highly fermentable or rich in fructose, other therapeutic options include prokinetics and drugs acting on visceral sensitivity. Probiotics are another promising option. In some centers, a non pharmacological therapeutic approach, mainly based on hypnosis, is discussed.

  5. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome after Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: Quaternary Syndromes?

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, A W; Nickerson, D; Roberts, D J; Rosen, M J; McBeth, P B; Petro, C C; Berrevoet, Frederik; Sugrue, M; Xiao, Jimmy; Ball, C G

    2017-06-01

    Reconstruction with reconstitution of the container function of the abdominal compartment is increasingly being performed in patients with massive ventral hernia previously deemed inoperable. This situation places patients at great risk of severe intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome if organ failure ensues. Intra-abdominal hypertension and especially abdominal compartment syndrome may be devastating systemic complications with systematic and progressive organ failure and death. We thus reviewed the pathophysiology and reported clinical experiences with abnormalities of intra-abdominal pressure in the context of abdominal wall reconstruction. Bibliographic databases (1950-2015), websites, textbooks, and the bibliographies of previously recovered articles for reports or data relating to intra-abdominal pressure, intra-abdominal hypertension, and the abdominal compartment syndrome in relation to ventral, incisional, or abdominal hernia repair or abdominal wall reconstruction. Surgeons should thus consider and carefully measure intra-abdominal pressure and its resultant effects on respiratory parameters and function during abdominal wall reconstruction. The intra-abdominal pressure post-operatively will be a result of the new intra-peritoneal volume and the abdominal wall compliance. Strategies surgeons may utilize to ameliorate intra-abdominal pressure rise after abdominal wall reconstruction including temporizing paralysis of the musculature either temporarily or semi-permanently, pre-operative progressive pneumoperitoneum, permanently removing visceral contents, or surgically releasing the musculature to increase the abdominal container volume. In patients without complicating shock and inflammation, and in whom the abdominal wall anatomy has been so functionally adapted to maximize compliance, intra-abdominal hypertension may be transient and tolerable. Intra-abdominal hypertension/abdominal compartment syndrome in the specific setting of

  6. Cerebral Arterial Gas Embolism During Upper Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Eoh, Eun J; Derrick, Bruce; Moon, Richard

    2015-09-15

    Arterial gas embolism can be caused by direct entry of gas into systemic arteries or indirectly by venous-to-arterial shunting. Although arterial gas embolism is rare, most documented cases are iatrogenic, resulting from the entry of gas during procedures that involve direct vascular cannulation or intracavitary air insufflation. Of the 18 identified case reports of air embolism during endoscopy, 11 cases describe findings of cerebral arterial gas embolism during upper endoscopy. Only 1 of these occurred during endoscopic balloon dilation of an esophageal stricture. We report a rare case of cerebral arterial gas embolism in a 64-year-old woman, which occurred during endoscopic dilation of an esophageal stricture and was subsequently treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. In this case report, we explore the possible etiologies, clinical workup, and therapeutic management of cerebral artery gas embolisms. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the treatment of choice for cerebral arterial gas embolism, with earlier treatments resulting in better outcomes.

  7. Abdominal Aortic Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Borioni, Raoul; Garofalo, Mariano; De Paulis, Ruggero; Nardi, Paolo; Scaffa, Raffaele; Chiariello, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    Isolated abdominal aortic dissections are rare events. Their anatomic and clinical features are different from those of atherosclerotic aneurysms. We report 4 cases of isolated abdominal aortic dissection that were successfully treated with surgical or endovascular intervention. The anatomic and clinical features and a review of the literature are also presented. PMID:15902826

  8. Abdominal Trauma Revisited.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, David V

    2017-11-01

    Although abdominal trauma has been described since antiquity, formal laparotomies for trauma were not performed until the 1800s. Even with the introduction of general anesthesia in the United States during the years 1842 to 1846, laparotomies for abdominal trauma were not performed during the Civil War. The first laparotomy for an abdominal gunshot wound in the United States was finally performed in New York City in 1884. An aggressive operative approach to all forms of abdominal trauma till the establishment of formal trauma centers (where data were analyzed) resulted in extraordinarily high rates of nontherapeutic laparotomies from the 1880s to the 1960s. More selective operative approaches to patients with abdominal stab wounds (1960s), blunt trauma (1970s), and gunshot wounds (1990s) were then developed. Current adjuncts to the diagnosis of abdominal trauma when serial physical examinations are unreliable include the following: 1) diagnostic peritoneal tap/lavage, 2) surgeon-performed ultrasound examination; 3) contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis; and 4) diagnostic laparoscopy. Operative techniques for injuries to the liver, spleen, duodenum, and pancreas have been refined considerably since World War II. These need to be emphasized repeatedly in an era when fewer patients undergo laparotomy for abdominal trauma. Finally, abdominal trauma damage control is a valuable operative approach in patients with physiologic exhaustion and multiple injuries.

  9. Abdominal hernias: Radiological features

    PubMed Central

    Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

  10. Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Koop, Herbert; Koprdova, Simona; Schürmann, Christine

    2016-01-29

    Chronic abdominal wall pain is a poorly recognized clinical problem despite being an important element in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. This review is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and EMBASE employing the terms "abdominal wall pain" and "cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. In 2% to 3% of patients with chronic abdominal pain, the pain arises from the abdominal wall; in patients with previously diagnosed chronic abdominal pain who have no demonstrable pathological abnormality, this likelihood can rise as high as 30% . There have only been a small number of clinical trials of treatment for this condition. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, with the aid of Carnett's test. The characteristic clinical feature is strictly localized pain in the anterior abdominal wall, which is often mischaracterized as a "functional" complaint. In one study, injection of local anesthesia combined with steroids into the painful area was found to relieve pain for 4 weeks in 95% of patients. The injection of lidocaine alone brought about improvement in 83-91% of patients. Long-term pain relief ensued after a single lidocaine injection in 20-30% of patients, after repeated injections in 40-50% , and after combined lidocaine and steroid injections in up to 80% . Pain that persists despite these treatments can be treated with surgery (neurectomy). Chronic abdominal wall pain is easily diagnosed on physical examination and can often be rapidly treated. Any physician treating patients with abdominal pain should be aware of this condition. Further comparative treatment trials will be needed before a validated treatment algorithm can be established.

  11. Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Resection of a Noninvasive Thymoma in a Cat with Myasthenia Gravis Using Low-Pressure Carbon Dioxide Insufflation.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Maureen A; Sutton, Jessie S; Hunt, Geraldine B; Pypendop, Bruno H; Mayhew, Philipp D

    2016-11-01

    To report the use of low-pressure carbon dioxide insufflation during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for resection of a noninvasive thymoma in a cat with secondary myasthenia gravis. Clinical case report. Client-owned cat. An 11-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was examined for generalized weakness, voice change, hypersalivation, hyporexia, vomiting, coughing, and gagging. Thoracic ultrasound revealed a cranial mediastinal mass for which cytology was consistent with a thymoma (or lymphoid tissue). Acetylcholine receptor antibody concentration was elevated at 3.16 mmol/L (reference interval < 0.3 mmol/L). Thoracic computed tomography showed two round, contrast-enhancing structures in the cranioventral mediastinum identified as the sternal lymph node and a cranial mediastinal mass (11 × 17 × 24 mm). A presumptive diagnosis of thymoma with paraneoplastic myasthenia gravis was made and surgical resection of both mediastinal masses was recommended. Video-assisted thoracoscopic resection of the cranial mediastinal mass and sternal lymph node were performed with low-pressure carbon dioxide insufflation maintained at an intrathoracic pressure of 2-3 mmHg. The cat recovered from surgery without serious complications. Nineteen months after surgery, the cat developed hind limb stiffness. Thoracic radiographs ruled out a cranial mediastinal mass or megaesophagus. Acetylcholine receptor antibody concentration remained elevated at 2.72 mmol/L. Low-pressure thoracic insufflation facilitated video-assisted thoracoscopic resection of cranial mediastinal masses in this cat. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  12. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... are, or may be, pregnant. Alternative Names Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, ...

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... this problem include: Smoking High blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most ... body from an aortic aneurysm, you will need surgery right away. If the aneurysm is small and ...

  14. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... An abdominal CT scan makes detailed pictures of the structures inside your belly very quickly. This test may be used to look ...

  15. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood clots to the lungs) Abdominal or chest wall pain: Shingles (herpes zoster infection) Costochondritis (inflammation of ... or tumors), fat (evidence of impaired digestion and absorption of food), and the presence of germs. X- ...

  16. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  17. Abdominal cocoon: sonographic features.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, S Boopathy; Palanivelu, Chinnusamy; Sendhilkumar, Karuppusamy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan

    2003-07-01

    An abdominal cocoon is a rare condition in which the small bowel is encased in a membrane. The diagnosis is usually established at surgery. Here we describe the sonographic features of this condition.

  18. Is intra-bladder pressure measurement a reliable indicator for raised intra-abdominal pressure? A prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Al-Abassi, Abdulla Ahmed; Al Saadi, Azan Saleh; Ahmed, Faisal

    2018-06-19

    Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) can be measured by several indirect methods; however, the urinary bladder is largely preferred. The aim of this study was to compare intra-bladder pressure (IBP) at different levels of IAPs and assess its reliability as an indirect method for IAP measurement. We compared IBP with IAP in twenty-one patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. Measurements were recorded at increasing levels of insufflation pressures to approximately 22 mmHg. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to establish the relationship between the two pressure measurements and Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the limits of agreement between the two methods of measurements. The urinary bladder pressures reflected well the pressures in the abdominal cavity. Pearson correlation coefficient showed a good correlation between the two measurement techniques (r = 0.966, p < 0.0001) and Bland-Altman analysis indicated that the 95% limits of agreement between the two methods ranged from - 2.83 to 2.64. This range is accepted both clinically and according to the recommendations of the World Society of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS). Our study showed that IBP measurement is a simple, minimally invasive method that may reliably estimates IAP in patients placed in supine position. Measurements for pressures higher than 12 mmHg may be less reliable. When applied clinically, this should alert the clinician to take safety measures to avoid abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS).

  19. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation.

    PubMed

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, I A; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated.

  1. Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ser Yee; Pormento, James G; Koong, Heng Nung

    2009-04-01

    Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis are common bedside procedures with diagnostic, therapeutic and palliative roles. We describe a useful and familiar a useful and familiar technique with the use of a multiple lumen catheter commonly used for central venous line insertion for drainage of ascites or moderate to large pleural effusions. The use of a multiple lumen catheter allows easier and more rapid aspiration of fluid with a smaller probability of the side holes being blocked as compared to the standard needle or single catheter methods. This is particularly useful in situations where the dedicated commercial kits for thoracocentesis and abdominal paracentesis are not readily available.

  2. Staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Taviloglu, Korhan

    2003-07-01

    To review the current developments in staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma. To overview the steps of damage control laparotomy. The ever increasing importance of the resuscitation phase with current intensive care unit (ICU) support techniques should be emphasized. General surgeons should be familiar to staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma and collaborate with ICU teams, interventional radiologists and several other specialties to overcome this entity.

  3. [Effects of carbon dioxide insufflation on regional cerebral oxygenation during laparoscopic surgery in children: a prospective study].

    PubMed

    Tuna, Ayca Tas; Akkoyun, Ibrahim; Darcin, Sevtap; Palabiyik, Onur

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has become a popular surgical tool when compared to traditional open surgery. There are limited data on pediatric patients regarding whether pneumoperitoneum affects cerebral oxygenation although end-tidal CO2 concentration remains normal. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the changes of cerebral oxygen saturation using near-infrared spectroscope during laparoscopic surgery in children. The study comprised forty children who were scheduled for laparoscopic (Group L, n=20) or open (Group O, n=20) appendectomy. Hemodynamic variables, right and left regional cerebral oxygen saturation (RrSO2 and LrSO2), fraction of inspired oxygen, end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PETCO2), peak inspiratory pressure (Ppeak), respiratory minute volume, inspiratory and end-tidal concentrations of sevoflurane and body temperature were recorded. All parameters were recorded after anesthesia induction and before start of surgery (T0, baseline), 15min after start of surgery (T1), 30min after start of surgery (T2), 45min after start of surgery (T3), 60min after start of surgery (T4) and end of the surgery (T5). There were progressive decreases in both RrSO2 and LrSO2 levels in both groups, which were not statistically significant at T1, T2, T3, T4. The RrSO2 levels of Group L at T5 were significantly lower than that of Group O. One patient in Group L had an rSO2 value <80% of the baseline value. Carbon dioxide insufflation during pneumoperitoneum in pediatric patients may not affect cerebral oxygenation under laparoscopic surgery. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of carbon dioxide insufflation on regional cerebral oxygenation during laparoscopic surgery in children: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tuna, Ayca Tas; Akkoyun, Ibrahim; Darcin, Sevtap; Palabiyik, Onur

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has become a popular surgical tool when compared to traditional open surgery. There are limited data on pediatric patients regarding whether pneumoperitoneum affects cerebral oxygenation although end-tidal CO2 concentration remains normal. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the changes of cerebral oxygen saturation using near-infrared spectroscope during laparoscopic surgery in children. The study comprised forty children who were scheduled for laparoscopic (Group L, n=20) or open (Group O, n=20) appendectomy. Hemodynamic variables, right and left regional cerebral oxygen saturation (RrSO2 and LrSO2), fraction of inspired oxygen, end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PETCO2), peak inspiratory pressure (Ppeak), respiratory minute volume, inspiratory and end-tidal concentrations of sevoflurane and body temperature were recorded. All parameters were recorded after anesthesia induction and before start of surgery (T0, baseline), 15min after start of surgery (T1), 30min after start of surgery (T2), 45min after start of surgery (T3), 60min after start of surgery (T4) and end of the surgery (T5). There were progressive decreases in both RrSO2 and LrSO2 levels in both groups, which were not statistically significant at T1, T2, T3, T4. The RrSO2 levels of Group L at T5 were significantly lower than that of Group O. One patient in Group L had an rSO2 value <80% of the baseline value. Carbon dioxide insufflation during pneumoperitoneum in pediatric patients may not affect cerebral oxygenation under laparoscopic surgery. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing adenoma detection rate in colonoscopy using water exchange, water immersion, and air insufflation.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Hu, Chi-Tan; Koo, Malcolm; Leung, Felix W

    2017-07-01

    Adenoma detection rate (ADR), defined as the proportion of patients with at least one adenoma of any size, is a quality indicator. We tested the hypothesis that water exchange (WE) improves ADR but water immersion (WI) has no adverse effect on ADR compared with air insufflation (AI). A prospective study was conducted at the Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital in southern Taiwan and the Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital in eastern Taiwan on patients randomly assigned to WE, WI, or AI with stratification by the 3 study colonoscopists. The primary outcome was ADR. From July 2013 to December 2015, 651 patients were recruited and randomized into 3 groups with a 1:1:1 ratio (217 patients per group). Overall, ADR met quality standards: WE 49.8% (95% CI, 43.2%-56.4%), AI 37.8% (95% CI, 31.6%-44.4%), and WI 40.6% (95% CI, 34.2%-47.2%). Compared with AI, WE significantly increased ADR (P = .016). There was no difference between WI and WE. ADRs of WI and AI were comparable. Compared with AI, WE confirmed a longer insertion time, higher cleanliness score, but similar adenoma per positive colonoscopy (APPC) and withdrawal time with polypectomy. Subgroup analysis found WE significantly increased ADR in propofol-sedated patients. Multivariate generalized linear mixed model analysis revealed that age ≥50 years, WE (vs AI), colonoscopy indication, no previous history of colonoscopy, and withdrawal time >8 minutes were significant predictors of increased ADR. Confirmation of prior reports showing WE, but not WI, increased ADR further strengthened the validity of our observations. WE significantly increased ADR in propofol-sedated patients. The outcome differences justify assessment of the role of WE in colorectal cancer prevention. Similar APPC and withdrawal times suggest that adequate inspection was performed on colonoscope withdrawal in each of the study arms. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT01894191.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Grover, Madhusudan; Drossman, Douglas A

    2010-10-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a relatively less common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder defined by the presence of constant or frequently recurring abdominal pain that is not associated with eating, change in bowel habits, or menstrual periods (Drossman Gastroenterology 130:1377-1390, 2006), which points to a more centrally targeted (spinal and supraspinal) basis for the symptoms. However, FAPS is frequently confused with irritable bowel syndrome and other functional GI disorders in which abdominal pain is associated with eating and bowel movements. FAPS also differs from chronic abdominal pain associated with entities such as chronic pancreatitis or chronic inflammatory bowel disease, in which the pain is associated with peripherally acting factors (eg, gut inflammation or injury). Given the central contribution to the pain experience, concomitant psychosocial disturbances are common and strongly influence the clinical expression of FAPS, which also by definition is associated with loss of daily functioning. These factors make it critical to use a biopsychosocial construct to understand and manage FAPS, because gut-directed treatments are usually not successful in managing this condition.

  7. [Statistical analysis of body and lung mass of animals subjected to a single experimental insufflation of soil dust and electro-energetic ashes].

    PubMed

    Matysiak, W; Królikowska-Prasał, I; Staszyc, J; Kifer, E; Romanowska-Sarlej, J

    1989-01-01

    The studies were performed on 44 white female Wistar rats which were intratracheally administered the suspension of the soil dust and the electro-energetic ashes. The electro-energetic ashes were collected from 6 different local heat and power generating plants while the soil dust from several random places of our country. The statistical analysis of the body and the lung mass of the animals subjected to the single dust and ash insufflation was performed. The applied variants proved the statistically significant differences between the body and the lung mass. The observed differences are connected with the kinds of dust and ash used in the experiment.

  8. Abdominal Wall Endometriosis Mimicking Metastases.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Rakul; Anoop, T M; Mony, Rari P

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal wall lesions can be broadly divided into nontumorous and tumorous conditions. Nontumorous lesions include congenital lesion, abdominal wall hernia, inflammation and infection, vascular lesions, and miscellaneous conditions like hematoma. Tumorous lesions include benign and malignant neoplasms. Here, we report an unusual case of abdominal wall endometriosis mimicking metastases in a patient with breast carcinoma.

  9. Mobile in vivo camera robots provide sole visual feedback for abdominal exploration and cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Rentschler, M E; Dumpert, J; Platt, S R; Ahmed, S I; Farritor, S M; Oleynikov, D

    2006-01-01

    The use of small incisions in laparoscopy reduces patient trauma, but also limits the surgeon's ability to view and touch the surgical environment directly. These limitations generally restrict the application of laparoscopy to procedures less complex than those performed during open surgery. Although current robot-assisted laparoscopy improves the surgeon's ability to manipulate and visualize the target organs, the instruments and cameras remain fundamentally constrained by the entry incisions. This limits tool tip orientation and optimal camera placement. The current work focuses on developing a new miniature mobile in vivo adjustable-focus camera robot to provide sole visual feedback to surgeons during laparoscopic surgery. A miniature mobile camera robot was inserted through a trocar into the insufflated abdominal cavity of an anesthetized pig. The mobile robot allowed the surgeon to explore the abdominal cavity remotely and view trocar and tool insertion and placement without entry incision constraints. The surgeon then performed a cholecystectomy using the robot camera alone for visual feedback. This successful trial has demonstrated that miniature in vivo mobile robots can provide surgeons with sufficient visual feedback to perform common procedures while reducing patient trauma.

  10. Real-time detection of gastric insufflation related to facemask pressure-controlled ventilation using ultrasonography of the antrum and epigastric auscultation in nonparalyzed patients: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Lionel; Albert, Marie-Laure; Augris, Caroline; Boselli, Emmanuel; Ecochard, René; Rabilloud, Muriel; Chassard, Dominique; Allaouchiche, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    The authors sought to determine the level of inspiratory pressure minimizing the risk of gastric insufflation while providing adequate pulmonary ventilation. The primary endpoint was the increase in incidence of gastric insufflation detected by ultrasonography of the antrum while inspiratory pressure for facemask pressure-controlled ventilation increased from 10 to 25 cm H2O. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, patients were allocated to one of the four groups (P10, P15, P20, and P25) defined by the inspiratory pressure applied during controlled-pressure ventilation: 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm H2O. Anesthesia was induced using propofol and remifentanil; no neuromuscular-blocking agent was administered. Once loss of eyelash reflex occurred, facemask ventilation was started for a 2-min period while gastric insufflation was detected by auscultation and by real-time ultrasonography of the antrum. The cross-sectional antral area was measured using ultrasonography before and after facemask ventilation. Respiratory parameters were recorded. Sixty-seven patients were analyzed. The authors registered statistically significant increases in incidences of gastric insufflation with inspiratory pressure, from 0% (group P10) to 41% (group P25) according to auscultation, and from 19 to 59% according to ultrasonography. In groups P20 and P25, detection of gastric insufflation by ultrasonography was associated with a statistically significant increase in the antral area. Lung ventilation was insufficient for group P10. Inspiratory pressure of 15 cm H2O allowed for reduced occurrence of gastric insufflation with proper lung ventilation during induction of anesthesia with remifentanil and propofol in nonparalyzed and nonobese patients. (Anesthesiology 2014; 120:326-34).

  11. Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Transnasal Humidified Rapid-Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange (THRIVE): a physiological method of increasing apnoea time in patients with difficult airways.

    PubMed

    Patel, A; Nouraei, S A R

    2015-03-01

    Emergency and difficult tracheal intubations are hazardous undertakings where successive laryngoscopy-hypoxaemia-re-oxygenation cycles can escalate to airway loss and the 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' scenario. Between 2013 and 2014, we extended the apnoea times of 25 patients with difficult airways who were undergoing general anaesthesia for hypopharyngeal or laryngotracheal surgery. This was achieved through continuous delivery of transnasal high-flow humidified oxygen, initially to provide pre-oxygenation, and continuing as post-oxygenation during intravenous induction of anaesthesia and neuromuscular blockade until a definitive airway was secured. Apnoea time commenced at administration of neuromuscular blockade and ended with commencement of jet ventilation, positive-pressure ventilation or recommencement of spontaneous ventilation. During this time, upper airway patency was maintained with jaw-thrust. Transnasal Humidified Rapid-Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange (THRIVE) was used in 15 males and 10 females. Mean (SD [range]) age at treatment was 49 (15 [25-81]) years. The median (IQR [range]) Mallampati grade was 3 (2-3 [2-4]) and direct laryngoscopy grade was 3 (3-3 [2-4]). There were 12 obese patients and nine patients were stridulous. The median (IQR [range]) apnoea time was 14 (9-19 [5-65]) min. No patient experienced arterial desaturation < 90%. Mean (SD [range]) post-apnoea end-tidal (and in four patients, arterial) carbon dioxide level was 7.8 (2.4 [4.9-15.3]) kPa. The rate of increase in end-tidal carbon dioxide was 0.15 kPa.min(-1) . We conclude that THRIVE combines the benefits of 'classical' apnoeic oxygenation with continuous positive airway pressure and gaseous exchange through flow-dependent deadspace flushing. It has the potential to transform the practice of anaesthesia by changing the nature of securing a definitive airway in emergency and difficult intubations from a pressured stop-start process to a smooth and unhurried undertaking

  14. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-02

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain.

  15. Abdominal Aortic Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Lech, Christie; Swaminathan, Anand

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses abdominal aortic emergencies. There is a common thread of risk factors and causes of these diseases, including age, male gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and connective tissue disorders. The most common presenting symptom of these disorders is pain, usually in the chest, flank, abdomen, or back. Computed tomography scan is the gold standard for diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the aorta in the hemodynamically stable patient. Treatment consists of a combination of blood pressure and heart rate control and, in many cases, emergent surgical intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Abdominal Complications after Severe Burns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    abdominal compartment syndrome, schemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic ulcer disease and astritis requiring laparotomy, small bowel obstruction, rimary fungal...abdominal complications was 25%, with Curl- ng’s ulcer the most common malady (54% of the total), ollowed by esophageal lesions (17%), hemorrhagic...complications in- luded trauma exploratory laparotomy, abdominal com- artment syndrome, ischemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic lcer disease and gastritis, large

  17. Chronic abdominal wall pain misdiagnosed as functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    van Assen, Tijmen; de Jager-Kievit, Jenneke W A J; Scheltinga, Marc R; Roumen, Rudi M H

    2013-01-01

    The abdominal wall is often neglected as a cause of chronic abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to identify chronic abdominal wall pain syndromes, such as anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES), in a patient population diagnosed with functional abdominal pain, including irritable bowel syndrome, using a validated 18-item questionnaire as an identification tool. In this cross-sectional analysis, 4 Dutch primary care practices employing physicians who were unaware of the existence of ACNES were selected. A total of 535 patients ≥18 years old who were registered with a functional abdominal pain diagnosis were approached when they were symptomatic to complete the questionnaire (maximum 18 points). Responders who scored at least the 10-point cutoff value (sensitivity, 0.94; specificity, 0.92) underwent a diagnostic evaluation to establish their final diagnosis. The main outcome was the presence and prevalence of ACNES in a group of symptomatic patients diagnosed with functional abdominal pain. Of 535 patients, 304 (57%) responded; 167 subjects (31%) recently reporting symptoms completed the questionnaire. Of 23 patients who scored above the 10-point cutoff value, 18 were available for a diagnostic evaluation. In half of these subjects (n = 9) functional abdominal pain (including IBS) was confirmed. However, the other 9 patients were suffering from abdominal wall pain syndrome, 6 of whom were diagnosed with ACNES (3.6% prevalence rate of symptomatic subjects; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.6), whereas the remaining 3 harbored a painful lipoma, an abdominal herniation, and a painful scar. A clinically relevant portion of patients previously diagnosed with functional abdominal pain syndrome in a primary care environment suffers from an abdominal wall pain syndrome such as ACNES.

  18. Randomized Study Comparing the Effect of Carbon Dioxide Insufflation on Veins Using 2 Types of Endoscopic and Open Vein Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Bhuvaneswari; Critchley, William R; Nair, Janesh; Malagon, Ignacio; Carey, John; Barnard, James B; Waterworth, Paul D; Venkateswaran, Rajamiyer V; Fildes, James E; Caress, Ann L; Yonan, Nizar

    The aim of the study was to assess whether the use of carbon dioxide insufflation has any impact on integrity of long saphenous vein comparing 2 types of endoscopic vein harvesting and traditional open vein harvesting. A total of 301 patients were prospectively randomized into 3 groups. Group 1 control arm of open vein harvesting (n = 101), group 2 closed tunnel (carbon dioxide) endoscopic vein harvesting (n = 100) and Group 3 open tunnel (carbon dioxide) endoscopic vein harvesting (open tunnel endoscopic vein harvesting) (n = 100). Each group was assessed to determine the systemic level of partial arterial carbon dioxide, end-tidal carbon dioxide, and pH. Three blood samples were obtained at baseline, 10 minutes after start of endoscopic vein harvesting, and 10 minutes after the vein was retrieved. Vein samples were taken immediately after vein harvesting without further surgical handling to measure the histological level of endothelial damage. A modified validated endothelial scoring system was used to compare the extent of endothelial stretching and detachment. The level of end-tidal carbon dioxide was maintained in the open tunnel endoscopic vein harvesting and open vein harvesting groups but increased significantly in the closed tunnel endoscopic vein harvesting group (P = 0.451, P = 0.385, and P < 0.001). Interestingly, partial arterial carbon dioxide also did not differ over time in the open tunnel endoscopic vein harvesting group (P = 0.241), whereas partial arterial carbon dioxide reduced significantly over time in the open vein harvesting group (P = 0.001). A profound increase in partial arterial carbon dioxide was observed in the closed tunnel endoscopic vein harvesting group (P < 0.001). Consistent with these patterns, only the closed tunnel endoscopic vein harvesting group demonstrated a sudden drop in pH over time (P < 0.001), whereas pH remained stable for both open tunnel endoscopic vein harvesting and open vein harvesting groups (P = 0.105 and P

  19. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  20. CT of abdominal tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, B.M.; Mann, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms ofmore » peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.« less

  1. Functional abdominal pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Clouse, Ray E; Mayer, Emeran A; Aziz, Qasim; Drossman, Douglas A; Dumitrascu, Dan L; Mönnikes, Hubert; Naliboff, Bruce D

    2006-04-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) differs from the other functional bowel disorders; it is less common, symptoms largely are unrelated to food intake and defecation, and it has higher comorbidity with psychiatric disorders. The etiology and pathophysiology are incompletely understood. Because FAPS likely represents a heterogeneous group of disorders, peripheral neuropathic pain mechanisms, alterations in endogenous pain modulation systems, or both may be involved in any one patient. The diagnosis of FAPS is made on the basis of positive symptom criteria and a longstanding history of symptoms; in the absence of alarm symptoms, an extensive diagnostic evaluation is not required. Management is based on a therapeutic physician-patient relationship and empirical treatment algorithms using various classes of centrally acting drugs, including antidepressants and anticonvulsants. The choice, dose, and combination of drugs are influenced by psychiatric comorbidities. Psychological treatment options include psychotherapy, relaxation techniques, and hypnosis. Refractory FAPS patients may benefit from a multidisciplinary pain clinic approach.

  2. Mechanisms of postprandial abdominal bloating and distension in functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Burri, Emanuel; Barba, Elizabeth; Huaman, Jose Walter; Cisternas, Daniel; Accarino, Anna; Soldevilla, Alfredo; Malagelada, Juan-R; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome and abdominal bloating exhibit abnormal responses of the abdominal wall to colonic gas loads. We hypothesised that in patients with postprandial bloating, ingestion of a meal triggers comparable abdominal wall dyssynergia. Our aim was to characterise abdominal accommodation to a meal in patients with postprandial bloating. A test meal (0.8 kcal/ml nutrients plus 27 g/litre polyethylenglycol 4000) was administered at 50 ml/min as long as tolerated in 10 patients with postprandial bloating (fulfilling Rome III criteria for postprandial distress syndrome) and 12 healthy subjects, while electromyographic (EMG) responses of the anterior wall (upper and lower rectus, external and internal oblique via bipolar surface electrodes) and the diaphragm (via six ring electrodes over an oesophageal tube in the hiatus) were measured. Means +/- SD were calculated. Healthy subjects tolerated a meal volume of 913±308 ml; normal abdominal wall accommodation to the meal consisted of diaphragmatic relaxation (EMG activity decreased by 15±6%) and a compensatory contraction (25±9% increase) of the upper abdominal wall muscles (upper rectus and external oblique), with no changes in the lower anterior muscles (lower rectus and internal oblique). Patients tolerated lower volume loads (604±310 ml; p=0.030 vs healthy subjects) and developed a paradoxical response, that is, diaphragmatic contraction (14±3% EMG increment; p<0.01 vs healthy subjects) and upper anterior wall relaxation (9±4% inhibition; p<0.01 vs healthy subjects). In functional dyspepsia, postprandial abdominal distension is produced by an abnormal viscerosomatic response to meal ingestion that alters normal abdominal accommodation.

  3. A novel technique: Carbon dioxide gas-assisted total peritonectomy, diaphragm and intestinal meso stripping in open surgery for advanced ovarian cancer (Çukurova technique).

    PubMed

    Khatib, Ghanim; Guzel, Ahmet Baris; Gulec, Umran Kucukgoz; Vardar, Mehmet Ali

    2017-09-01

    Most of the ovarian cancers are diagnosed at advanced stages. As peritoneal carcinomatosis increases, especially when it extends to the diaphragm and intestinal mesos, probability of obtaining complete cytoreduction is reduced. Complete cytoreduction (residue zero: R0) is one of the main factors affecting survival [1-3]. Here we present a novel technique of stripping the peritoneal surfaces as a part of cytoreductive surgery in such cases. A 55year-old woman diagnosed with peritoneal carcinomatosis was considered appropriate for primary cytoreduction after assessment of her thorax-abdominopelvic tomography, which revealed resectable intra-abdominal disease. Upon laparotomy, omental cake adherent to pelvis-filling mass, disseminated implants on the diaphragm, meso of the descending colon and small intestine were observed. The mass invaded the rectosigmoid colon, uterus, adnexa and the bladder resulting in frozen pelvis. Palpable retroperitoneal pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes were detected. On the other side, stomach, anti-mesenteric surfaces and mesentery root of the small bowel were tumor-free. Hence, upon these perioperative and preoperative imaging findings, complete cytoreduction was thought to be achievable. Therefore, primary cytoreduction was performed. Total omentectomy, hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, rectosigmoid low anterior resection and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy were performed. With the assistance of an injector needle connected to the insufflator tube (as in laparoscopic surgery), carbon dioxide gas was blown into the right retroperitoneal area and subsequently peritoneum was rapidly stripped up to the right diaphragm. The same procedure was then applied to the diaphragm and meso of the bowels, respectively. Owing to this technique, total stripping of all involved peritoneal surfaces was clearly facilitated and R0 goal was reached. Gas insufflation caused convenient detachment of the peritoneal surfaces along their

  4. Abdominal elephantiasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Dominique; Cloutier, Richard; Lapointe, Roch; Desgagné, Antoine

    2004-01-01

    Elephantiasis is a well-known condition in dermatology usually affecting the legs and external genitalia. It is characterized by chronic inflammation and obstruction of the lymphatic channels and by hypertrophy of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. The etiology is either idiopathic or caused by a variety of conditions such as chronic filarial disease, leprosy, leishmaniasis, and chronic recurrent cellulites. Elephantiasis of the abdominal wall is very rare. A complete review of the English and French literature showed only two cases reported in 1966 and 1973, respectively. We report a third case of abdominal elephantiasis and we briefly review this entity. We present the case of a 51-year-old woman who had progressively developed an enormous pediculated abdominal mass hanging down her knees. The skin was thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured. She had a history of multiple abdominal cellulites. She underwent an abdominal lipectomy. Histopathology of the specimen confirmed the diagnosis of abdominal elephantiasis. Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare disease that represents end-stage failure of lymph drainage. Lipectomy should be considered in the management of this condition.

  5. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  6. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Micromanaging Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Maegdefessel, Lars; Spin, Joshua M.; Adam, Matti; Raaz, Uwe; Toh, Ryuji; Nakagami, Futoshi; Tsao, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease to human morbidity and mortality has increased in the aging, industrialized world. In response, extraordinary efforts have been launched to determine the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of the diseased aorta. This work aims to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to limit AAA expansion and, ultimately, rupture. Contributions from multiple research groups have uncovered a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory milieu, which is believed to be essential for maintaining aortic vascular homeostasis. Recently, novel small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, have been identified as important transcriptional and post-transcriptional inhibitors of gene expression. MicroRNAs are thought to “fine tune” the translational output of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. With the discovery that microRNAs act as powerful regulators in the context of a wide variety of diseases, it is only logical that microRNAs be thoroughly explored as potential therapeutic entities. This current review summarizes interesting findings regarding the intriguing roles and benefits of microRNA expression modulation during AAA initiation and propagation. These studies utilize disease-relevant murine models, as well as human tissue from patients undergoing surgical aortic aneurysm repair. Furthermore, we critically examine future therapeutic strategies with regard to their clinical and translational feasibility. PMID:23852016

  8. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-11-14

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Abdominal aortic feminism

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. PMID:25398912

  10. Incentive spirometry after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, Suja P

    Patients face various possible complications after abdominal surgery. This article examines best practice in guiding and teaching them how to use an incentive spirometer to facilitate recovery and prevent respiratory complications.

  11. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... signs or symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The final recommendation statement summarizes what the Task ... the potential benefits and harms of screening for AAA: (1) Men ages 65 to 75 who smoke ...

  12. Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo, Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    COW 03 PUBLICATION REPORT 94-30227 * ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS IN CAIRO, BY RWIavni 0. IHibbs6 M. Kuanmm ad Z. Fun .Y .~ ... W I Form ApprovedREPORT...Fever Hospital, Cairo, In the past, abdominal tuberculous ýileocaecal: was Egypt, are prospectively evaluated by the US Naval one of the commonest forms...8217. females of child-bearing age) indicated that 9 of 20 40%, were diagnosed as extrapulmonary tuberculosis. isolates from 91 tuberculous peritonitis

  13. Blunt abdominal trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, Deborah; Lee, Lois K

    2012-06-01

    This review will examine the current evidence regarding pediatric blunt abdominal trauma and the physical exam findings, laboratory values, and radiographic imaging associated with the diagnosis of intra-abdominal injuries (IAI), as well as review the current literature on pediatric hollow viscus injuries and emergency department disposition after diagnosis. The importance of the seat belt sign on physical examination and screening laboratory data remains controversial, although screening hepatic enzymes are recommended in the evaluation of nonaccidental trauma to identify occult abdominal organ injuries. Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) has modest sensitivity for hemoperitoneum and IAI in the pediatric trauma patient. Patients with concern for undiagnosed IAI, including bowel injury, may be considered for hospital admission and serial abdominal exams without an increased risk of complications, if an exploratory laparotomy is not performed emergently. Although the FAST exam is not recommended as the sole screening tool to rule out IAI in hemodynamically stable trauma patients, it may be used in conjunction with the physical exam and laboratory findings to identify children at risk for IAI. Children with a normal physical exam and normal abdominal CT may not require routine hospitalization after blunt abdominal trauma.

  14. Endogenous gas gangrene after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Zelić, M; Kunisek, L; Mendrila, D; Gudelj, M; Abram, M; Uravić, M

    2011-01-01

    Clostridial gas gangrene of the abdominal wall is rare, and it is usually associated with organ perforation, immunosuppression or gastrointestinal malignancies. In this paper we present a case of fulminant, endogenous gas gangrene in a 58-year old diabetic female with arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis, following uneventful laparoscopic cholecystectomy. She developed gas gangrene of the abdominal wall 12-hours after cholecystectomy and died 24-hours after the onset of the first symptoms, in spite of treatment.

  15. Effects of intra-abdominal pressure increase on intestinal ischemia and bacterial translocation in experimental sepsis model.

    PubMed

    Kesici, Ugur; Kesici, Sevgi; Polat, Erdal; Agca, Birol; Turkmen, Ulku A; Ozcan, Deniz; Sari, Musa K

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the safety of laparoscopic intervention for diagnosis and treatment at 8 mm Hg pressure in one-hour period on acute peritonitis related intra-abdominal sepsis model. In this study, we included 32 female Wistar-Albino rats, weighing 250 +/- 20 g, and divided them into 4 groups. This study was conducted in Istanbul University Experimental Medical Research Institution (DETAE) laboratory from April to May 2009. Intra-abdominal sepsis was created with intraperitoneal (i.p.) one mL (109 CFU/mL) Escherichia coli (E. coli) injection, and pneumoperitoneum was formed with CO2 insufflation at 8 mm Hg pressure for one hour i.p. The rats were administered with: Group 1 - one mL i.p. isotonic saline; Group 2 - one mL i.p. isotonic saline + pneumoperitoneum; Group 3 - i.p E. coli; and Group 4 - i.p. E.coli + pneumoperitoneum. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 15 for Windows (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Fever and leukocyte values were considered high in Groups 3 and 4 compared with Groups 1 and 2 (p=0.001). The administered reproduction ratio of the E. coli strain was determined as 0% in Groups 1 and 2, and 100% in Groups 3 and 4. In this study, as pneumoperitoneum was formed for one hour at 8 mm Hg pressure, in case of intra-abdominal derived sepsis where emergency intervention is needed, we consider that laparoscopic approaches with low pressure may be used safely for diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Tension gastrothorax in a child presenting with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Hooker, Ross; Claudius, Ilene; Truong, Anh

    2012-02-01

    A 4-year-old girl was brought to our hospital by her parents because of abdominal pain. She had suffered minor trauma after rolling from her standard-height bed 2 days prior. Vital signs were appropriate for age. Physical examination was remarkable for decreased breath sounds to the left side of the chest. A chest radiograph (Figure) demonstrated a large gas-filled structure in the left side of the chest with mediastinal shift.

  17. Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy.

  18. Abdominal surgery in neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Bryant, James E; Gaughan, Earl M

    2005-08-01

    Abdominal surgery in foals under 30 days old has become more common with improved neonatal care. Early recognition of a foal at risk and better nursing care have increased the survival rates of foals that require neonatal care. The success of improved neonatal care also has increased the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal, umbilical, and bladder disorders in these foals. This chapter focuses on the early and accurate diagnosis of specific disorders that require abdominal exploratory surgery and the specific treatment considerations and prognosis for these disorders.

  19. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    PubMed Central

    Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761

  20. Splanchnic and renal deterioration during and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a comparison of the carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum and the abdominal wall lift method.

    PubMed

    Koivusalo, A M; Kellokumpu, I; Ristkari, S; Lindgren, L

    1997-10-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum together with an increased intraabdominal pressure (IAP) induces a hemodynamic stress response, diminishes urine output, and may compromise splanchnic perfusion. A new retractor method may be less traumatic. Accordingly, 30 ASA physical status I or II patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to a CO2 pneumoperitoneum (IAP 12-13 mm Hg) (control) or to a gasless abdominal wall lift method (retractor) group. Anesthesia and intravascular fluids were standardized. Direct mean arterial pressure (MAP), urine output, urine-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (U-NAG), arterial blood gases, gastric mucosal PCO2, and intramucosal pH (pHi) were measured. Normoventilation was instituted in all patients. MAP increased (P < 0.001) only with CO2 pneumoperitoneum. Minute volume of ventilation had to be increased by 35% with CO2 insufflation. PaCO2 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for 3 h postoperatively in the control group. Diuresis was less (P < 0.01) and U-NAG levels (P < 0.01) higher in the control group. The pHi decreased after induction of pneumoperitoneum up to three hours postoperatively and remained intact in the retractor group. We conclude that the retractor method for laparoscopic cholecystectomy ensures stable hemodynamics, prevents respiratory acidosis, and provides protection against biochemical effects, which reveal the renal and splanchic ischemia caused by CO2 insufflation. A mechanical retractor method (gasless) was compared with conventional CO2 pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic cholestectomy. The gasless method ensured stable hemodynamics, prevented respiratory acidosis, and provided protection against the renal and splanchnic ischemia seen with CO2 pneumoperitoneum.

  1. Diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate in a patient with hypoproteinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.K.; Gobuty, A.; Guiterrez, C.

    1983-06-01

    A 3-wk-old male, with abdominal distention and severe hypoproteinemia from poor nutrition, underwent a study that showed a persistent diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate, indicating pyogenic or tuberculous peritonitis. However, there were no corresponding clinical or laboratory findings. After a 1-wk course of hyperalimentation with albumin, furosemide, and protein, repeat radiographs showed reduction in bowel gas. It is suggested that hypoproteinemia should be considered as a possibility in the differential diagnosis when there is diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate, with careful clinical correlation. Possible mechanism of Ga-67 uptake in the peritoneal cavity is suggested.

  2. Abdominal ultrasound and medical education.

    PubMed

    García de Casasola Sánchez, G; Torres Macho, J; Casas Rojo, J M; Cubo Romano, P; Antón Santos, J M; Villena Garrido, V; Diez Lobato, R

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasound is a very versatile diagnostic modality that permits real-time visualization of multiple internal organs. It is of invaluable help for the physical examination of the patients. To assess if ultrasound can be incorporated into medical education and if the students can perform a basic abdominal ultrasound examination without the necessity of a long period of training. Twelve medical students were trained in basic abdominal ultrasound during a 15-h training program including a 5-h theoretical and practical course and supervised practice in 20 selected patients. Subsequently, we conducted an evaluation test that assessed the ability of students to obtain the ultrasound views and to detect various pathologies in five different patients. The students were able to correctly identify the abdominal views more than 90% of the times. This percentage was only lower (80%) in the right subcostal view to locate the gallbladder. The accuracy or global efficiency of the ultrasound for the diagnosis of relevant pathological findings of the patients was greater than 90% (91.1% gallstones, abdominal aortic aneurysm 100%; splenomegaly 98.3%, ascites 100%; dilated inferior vena cava 100%; acute urinary retention 100%). The ultrasound may be a feasible learning tool in medical education. Ultrasound can help students to improve the physical examination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe it to you. Here are different kinds of pain: ...

  4. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-03-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study I was a systematic review of the existing standardized methods for assessing quality of life after incisional hernia repair. After a systematic search in the electronic databases Embase and PubMed, a total of 26 studies using standardized measures for assessment of quality of life after incisional hernia repair were found. The most commonly used questionnaire was the generic Short-Form 36, which assesses overall health-related quality of life, addressing both physical and mental health. The second-most common questionnaire was the Carolinas Comfort Scale, which is a disease specific questionnaire addressing pain, movement limitation and mesh sensation in relation to a current or previous hernia. In total, eight different questionnaires were used at varying time points in the 26 studies. In conclusion, standardization of timing and method of quality of life assessment after incisional hernia repair was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the

  5. Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:25239980

  6. Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

    2014-09-19

    Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Abdominal shotgun trauma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Toutouzas, Konstantinos G; Larentzakis, Andreas; Drimousis, Panagiotis; Riga, Maria; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Katsaragakis, Stylianos

    2008-01-01

    Introduction One of the most lethal mechanisms of injury is shotgun wound and particularly the abdominal one. Case presentation We report a case of a 45 years old male suffering abdominal shotgun trauma, who survived his injuries. Conclusion The management of the abdominal shotgun wounds is mainly dependent on clinical examination and clinical judgment, while requires advanced surgical skills. PMID:18625076

  8. Abdominal compartment syndrome related to noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    De Keulenaer, Bart L; De Backer, Adelard; Schepens, Dirk R; Daelemans, Ronny; Wilmer, Alexander; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2003-07-01

    To study the effects of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) on intra-abdominal pressure. Single case report from a tertiary teaching hospital. A 65-year-old man who experienced a sudden respiratory and cardiovascular collapse during NIPPV. This was caused by gastric overdistension due to aerophagia followed by raised intra-abdominal pressure leading to intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. The respiratory and cardiovascular problems resolved immediately after the introduction of a nasogastric tube. This resulted in normalization of IAP. This is the first case reported of an abdominal compartment syndrome related to NIPPV. Clinicians should be aware of this possible complication while using NIPPV.

  9. Appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Travis

    2017-09-01

    Appendicitis is a frequently encountered surgical problem in the Emergency Department (ED). Appendicitis typically results from obstruction of the appendiceal lumen, although trauma has been reported as an infrequent cause of acute appendicitis. Intestinal injury and hollow viscus injury following blunt abdominal trauma are well reported in the literature but traumatic appendicitis is much less common. The pathophysiology is uncertain but likely results from several mechanisms, either in isolation or combination. These include direct compression/crush injury, shearing injury, or from indirect obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by an ileocecal hematoma or traumatic impaction of stool into the appendix. Presentation typically mirrors that of non-traumatic appendicitis with nausea, anorexia, fever, and right lower quadrant abdominal tenderness and/or peritonitis. Evaluation for traumatic appendicitis requires a careful history and physical exam. Imaging with ultrasound or computed tomography is recommended if the history and physical do not reveal an acute surgical indication. Treatment includes intravenous antibiotics and surgical consultation for appendectomy. This case highlights a patient who developed acute appendicitis following blunt trauma to the abdomen sustained during a motor vehicle accident. Appendicitis must be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in any patient who presents to the ED with abdominal pain, including those whose pain begins after sustaining blunt trauma to the abdomen. Because appendicitis following trauma is uncommon, timely diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Subcutaneous Infiltration of Carbon Dioxide (Carboxytherapy) for Abdominal Fat Reduction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Alam, Murad; Sadhwani, Divya; Geisler, Amelia; Aslam, Imran; Makin, Inder Raj S; Schlessinger, Daniel I; Disphanurat, Wareeporn; Pongprutthipan, Marisa; Voravutinon, Nataya; Weil, Alexandra; Chen, Brian R; West, Dennis P; Veledar, Emir; Poon, Emily

    2018-04-23

    Non-invasive fat removal is preferred because of decreased downtime and lower perceived risk. It is important to seek new non-invasive fat removal treatments that are both safe and efficacious. To assess the extent to which carboxytherapy, the insufflation of carbon dioxide gas into subcutaneous fat, results in reduction of fat volume. Randomized, sham-controlled, split-body study. Adults (BMI 22-29) were randomized to receive five weekly infusions of 1000 cc CO 2 to one side of the abdomen, and five sham treatments to the contralateral side. Primary outcome measures were ultrasound measurement of fat layer thickness, as well as total circumference before and after treatment. Sixteen participants completed the study. Ultrasound measurement indicated less fat volume on the sides treated with carboxytherapy one week after the last treatment, (p=0.011), but was not maintained at 28 weeks. Total circumference decreased nominally but not significantly at Week 5 compared to baseline (p=0.0697). Participant body weights did not change over the entire course of the study (p=1.00) LIMITATIONS: Limitations included modest sample size and some sources of error in circumference and fat layer measurements. Carboxytherapy provides a transient decrease in subcutaneous fat that may not persist. Treatment is well-tolerated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Evaluation of the levels of metalloproteinsase-2 in patients with abdominal aneurysm and abdominal hernias.

    PubMed

    Antoszewska, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms and abdominal hernias become an important health problems of our times. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and its rupture is one of the most dangerous fact in vascular surgery. There are some theories pointing to a multifactoral genesis of these kinds of diseases, all of them assume the attenuation of abdominal fascia and abdominal aortic wall. The density and continuity of these structures depend on collagen and elastic fibers structure. Reducing the strength of the fibers may be due to changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) by the proteolytic enzymes-matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade extracellular matrix proteins. These enzymes play an important role in the development of many disease: malignant tumors (colon, breast, lung, pancreas), cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, ischemia-reperfusion injury), connective tissue diseases (Ehler-Danlos Syndrome, Marfan's Syndrome), complications of diabetes (retinopathy, nephropathy). One of the most important is matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). The aim of the study was an estimation of the MMP-2 blood levels in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia, and in patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm. The study involved 88 patients aged 42 to 89 years, including 75 men and 13 women. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia (45 persons, representing 51.1% of all group) and patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm (43 persons, representing 48,9% of all group). It was a statistically significant increase in MMP-2 blood levels in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia compared to patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm. It was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of POCHP in patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia. Statistically significant

  12. Abdominal Sarcoidosis Mimicking Peritoneal Carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Roh, Won Seok; Lee, Seungho; Park, Ji Hyun; Kang, Jeonghyun

    2018-04-01

    We present a patient diagnosed with skin sarcoidosis, breast cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and peritoneal sarcoidosis with a past history of colorectal cancer. During stage work up for breast cancer, suspicious lesions on peritoneum were observed in imaging studies. Considering our patient's history and imaging findings, we initially suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis. However, the peritoneal lesion was diagnosed as sarcoidosis in laparoscopic biopsy. This case demonstrates that abdominal sarcoidosis might be considered as a differential diagnosis when there is a lesion suspected of being peritoneal carcinomatosis with nontypical clinical presentations.

  13. [Internationalization and innovation of abdominal acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Characteristics of abdominal acupuncture are analyzed through three aspects of inheriting and innovation, collaborated research as well as international visual field. It is pointed that abdominal acupuncture is based on clinical practice, focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effect and expending the clinical application. It also promots the thinking on how to recall the tradition and how to inherit tradition availably. The modern medical problems should be studied and innovation resolutions should be searched, which can help the internationalization and modernization of abdominal acupuncture.

  14. [Diagnostic imaging and acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-19

    Acute abdominal pain is a common clinical condition. Clinical signs and symptoms can be difficult to interpret, and diagnostic imaging may help to identify intra-abdominal disease. Conventional X-ray, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen vary in usability between common surgical causes of acute abdominal pain. Overall, conventional X-ray cannot confidently diagnose or rule out disease. US and CT are equally trustworthy for most diseases. US with subsequent CT may enhance diagnostic precision. Magnetic resonance seems promising for future use in acute abdominal imaging.

  15. Abdominal Pain in the Geriatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Magidson, Phillip D; Martinez, Joseph P

    2016-08-01

    With an aging population, emergency department clinicians can expect an increase in geriatric patients presenting with abdominal pain. Compared with younger patients, this patient population is less likely to present with classic symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory values of abdominal disease. However, the morbidity and mortality associated with elderly patients presenting with abdominal pathologic conditions are significant. For this reason, the clinician must be familiar with some subtle and not so subtle differences when caring for the geriatric patient with abdominal pain to ensure timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Laparoscopy and tribology: the effect of laparoscopic gas on peritoneal fluid.

    PubMed

    Ott, D E

    2001-02-01

    To assess the changes in viscosity of peritoneal fluid during laparoscopic exposure to CO2 insufflation. Analysis and mathematic modeling of peritoneal fluid viscosity in vivo and in vitro as a result of exposure to unconditioned CO2 (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Medical school university research laboratory and hospital. Peritoneal fluid from 45 women. Peritoneal fluid was obtained at laparoscopy before insufflation and tested for viscosity after exposure to currently used raw dry unconditioned CO2. Peritoneal fluid viscosity was tested by viscometric methods and mathematic modeling. Initial viscosity of peritoneal fluid before gas exposure was 1.425 centipoise (cP). Viscosity measurements were obtained at 20-second intervals for gas flows of 1 and 3 L/minute. Increases in viscosity occur rapidly, and by 200 seconds it was 59 cP and 98 cP for 1 and 3 L flow rates, respectively. Very dry CO2 for laparoscopy causes peritoneal fluid viscosity to increase dramatically. (J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 8(1):117-123, 2001)

  17. Recurrent abdominal pain in childhood.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Fang Kuan; How, Choon How; Ong, Christina

    2013-04-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain in childhood is common, and continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is usually attributed to a functional gastrointestinal disorder rather than an organic disease. In most cases, a comprehensive history and physical examination should enable one to make a positive diagnosis of functional disorder. The presence of alarm symptoms and signs, such as weight loss, gastrointestinal bleeding and chronic severe diarrhoea, warrants further investigations and referral to a paediatric gastrointestinal specialist. The mainstay of therapy in functional abdominal pain is education, reassurance and avoidance of triggering factors. While symptom-based pharmacological therapy may be helpful in patients who do not respond to simple management, it is best used on a time-limited basis due to the lack of good evidence of its efficacy. The primary goal of therapy is a return to normal daily activities rather than complete elimination of pain. In recalcitrant cases, psychological interventions such as cognitive behaviour therapy and relaxation training have proven to be efficacious.

  18. Experimental study of delivery of humidified-warm carbon dioxide during open abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Carpinteri, S; Sampurno, S; Malaterre, J; Millen, R; Dean, M; Kong, J; Chittleborough, T; Heriot, A; Lynch, A C; Ramsay, R G

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the effect of humidified-warm carbon dioxide (HWCO 2 ) delivered into the open abdomen of mice, simulating laparotomy. Mice were anaesthetized, ventilated and subjected to an abdominal incision followed by wound retraction. In the experimental group, a diffuser device was used to deliver HWCO 2 ; the control group was exposed to passive air flow. In each group of mice, surgical damage was produced on one side of the peritoneal wall. Vital signs and core temperature were monitored throughout the 1-h procedure. The peritoneum was closed and mice were allowed to recover for 24 h or 10 days. Tumour cells were delivered into half of the mice in each cohort. Tissue was then examined using scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Passive air flow generated ultrastructural damage including mesothelial cell bulging/retraction and loss of microvilli, as assessed at 24 h. Evidence of surgical damage was still measurable on day 10. HWCO 2 maintained normothermia, whereas open surgery alone led to hypothermia. The degree of tissue damage was significantly reduced by HWCO 2 compared with that in controls. Peritoneal expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1α and vascular endothelial growth factor A was lowered by HWCO 2 . These effects were also evident at the surgical damage sites, where protection from tissue trauma extended to 10 days. HWCO 2 did not reduce tumorigenesis in surgically damaged sites compared with passive air flow. HWCO 2 diffusion into the abdomen in the context of open surgery afforded tissue protection and accelerated tissue repair in mice, while preserving normothermia. Surgical relevance Damage to the peritoneum always occurs during open abdominal surgery, by exposure to desiccating air and by mechanical trauma/damage owing to the surgical intervention. Previous experimental studies showed that humidified-warm carbon dioxide (HWCO 2 ) reduced peritoneal damage during laparoscopic insufflation

  19. Don't Forget the Abdominal Wall: Imaging Spectrum of Abdominal Wall Injuries after Nonpenetrating Trauma.

    PubMed

    Matalon, Shanna A; Askari, Reza; Gates, Jonathan D; Patel, Ketan; Sodickson, Aaron D; Khurana, Bharti

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal wall injuries occur in nearly one of 10 patients coming to the emergency department after nonpenetrating trauma. Injuries range from minor, such as abdominal wall contusion, to severe, such as abdominal wall rupture with evisceration of abdominal contents. Examples of specific injuries that can be detected at cross-sectional imaging include abdominal muscle strain, tear, or hematoma, including rectus sheath hematoma (RSH); traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH); and Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) (closed degloving injury). These injuries are often overlooked clinically because of (a) a lack of findings at physical examination or (b) distraction by more-severe associated injuries. However, these injuries are important to detect because they are highly associated with potentially grave visceral and vascular injuries, such as aortic injury, and because their detection can lead to the diagnosis of these more clinically important grave traumatic injuries. Failure to make a timely diagnosis can result in delayed complications, such as bowel hernia with potential for obstruction or strangulation, or misdiagnosis of an abdominal wall neoplasm. Groin injuries, such as athletic pubalgia, and inferior costochondral injuries should also be considered in patients with abdominal pain after nonpenetrating trauma, because these conditions may manifest with referred abdominal pain and are often included within the field of view at cross-sectional abdominal imaging. Radiologists must recognize and report acute abdominal wall injuries and their associated intra-abdominal pathologic conditions to allow appropriate and timely treatment. © RSNA, 2017.

  20. [Pathologic aerophagia: a rare cause of chronic abdominal distension].

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Cestari, Ana Beatriz C S S; Filho, Orli Carvalho da Silva; Fernandes, Marcia Antunes; Firme, Livia Honorato

    2015-01-01

    To describe an adolescent with pathologic aerophagia, a rare condition caused by excessive and inappropriate swallowing of air and to review its treatment and differential diagnoses. An 11 year-old mentally impaired blind girl presenting serious behavior problems and severe developmental delay with abdominal distension from the last 8 months. Her past history included a Nissen fundoplication. Abdominal CT and abdominal radiographs showed diffuse gas distension of the small bowel and colon. Hirschsprung's disease was excluded. The distention was minimal at the moment the child awoke and maximal at evening, and persisted after control of constipation. Audible repetitive and frequent movements of air swallowing were observed. The diagnosis of pathologic aerophagia associated to obsessive compulsive disorder and developmental delay was made, but pharmacological treatment was unsuccessful. The patient was submitted to an endoscopic gastrostomy, permanently opened and elevated relative to the stomach. The distention was resolved, while maintaining oral nutrition Pathologic aerophagia is a rare self-limiting condition in normal children exposed to high levels of stress and may be a persisting problem in children with psychiatric or neurologic disease. In this last group, the disease may cause serious complications. Pharmacological and behavioral treatments are ill-defined. Severe cases may demand surgical strategies, mainly decompressive gastrostomy. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Pathologic aerophagia: a rare cause of chronic abdominal distension

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Cestari, Ana Beatriz C.S.S.; da Silva, Orli Carvalho; Fernandes, Marcia Antunes; Firme, Livia Honorato

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe an adolescent with pathologic aerophagia, a rare condition caused by excessive and inappropriate swallowing of air and to review its treatment and differential diagnoses. Case description: An 11-year-old mentally impaired blind girl presenting serious behavior problems and severe developmental delay with abdominal distension from the last 8 months. Her past history included a Nissen fundoplication. Abdominal CT and abdominal radiographs showed diffuse gas distension of the small bowel and colon. Hirschsprung's disease was excluded. The distention was minimal at the moment the child awoke and maximal at evening, and persisted after control of constipation. Audible repetitive and frequent movements of air swallowing were observed. The diagnosis of pathologic aerophagia associated to obsessive-compulsive disorder and developmental delay was made, but pharmacological treatment was unsuccessful. The patient was submitted to an endoscopic gastrostomy, permanently opened and elevated relative to the stomach. The distention was resolved, while maintaining oral nutrition. Comments: Pathologic aerophagia is a rare self-limiting condition in normal children exposed to high levels of stress and may be a persisting problem in children with psychiatric or neurologic disease. In this last group, the disease may cause serious complications. Pharmacological and behavioral treatments are ill-defined. Severe cases may demand surgical strategies, mainly decompressive gastrostomy. PMID:26100594

  2. Retrospective comparison of abdominal ultrasonography and radiography in the investigation of feline abdominal disease

    PubMed Central

    Won, Wylen Wade; Sharma, Ajay; Wu, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal radiography and ultrasonography are commonly used as part of the initial diagnostic plan for cats with nonspecific signs of abdominal disease. This retrospective study compared the clinical usefulness of abdominal radiography and ultrasonography in 105 feline patients with signs of abdominal disease. The final diagnosis was determined more commonly with ultrasonography (59%) compared to radiography (25.7%). Ultrasonography was also able to provide additional clinically relevant information in 76% of cases, and changed or refined the diagnosis in 47% of cases. Based on these findings, ultrasonography may be sufficient as an initial diagnostic test for the investigation of feline abdominal disease. PMID:26483582

  3. Abdominal pain and nausea in the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis in boys

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Hiroshi; Nago, Naoki; Kiyokawa, Hiromichi; Fukushi, Motoharu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to assess the accuracy of gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting, in the diagnosis of Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis in children and to determine differences in diagnostic accuracy in boys versus girls. Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study included 5,755 consecutive patients aged <15 years with fever in the electronic database at a primary care practice. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded in the database according to the International Classification of Primary Care codes, and the data were extracted electronically. The reference standard was GAS pharyngitis diagnosed with a rapid test. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable GAS pharyngitis were excluded from the primary analysis. Results Among the 5,755 children with fever, 331 (5.8%) were coded as having GAS pharyngitis, including 218 (65.9%) diagnosed with rapid tests and 113 (34.1%) clinically diagnosed with probable GAS pharyngitis. Among patients with fever and abdominal pain, rapid-test-confirmed GAS pharyngitis was significantly more common in boys (11/120, 9.2%) than in girls (3/128, 2.3%; p=0.026). The positive likelihood ratio of abdominal pain was 1.49 (95% CI =0.88–2.51): 2.41 (95% CI =1.33–4.36) in boys and 0.63 (95% CI =0.20–1.94) in girls. The positive likelihood ratio of nausea was 2.05 (95% CI =1.06–4.00): 2.74 (95% CI =1.28–5.86) in boys and 1.09 (95% CI =0.27–4.42) in girls. The association between abdominal pain and GAS pharyngitis was stronger in boys aged <6 years than in boys aged 6–15 years. Conclusion Abdominal pain and nausea were associated with GAS pharyngitis in boys, but not in girls. Abdominal pain and nausea may help determine the suitability of rapid tests in younger boys with fever and other clinical findings consistent with GAS pharyngitis, even in the absence of sore throat. PMID:28989283

  4. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: An update

    PubMed

    Chuen, Jason; Theivendran, Mayo

    2018-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remains one of the hallmark pathologies in vascular surgery and an area of intense research interest. Treatment options have expanded in recent years to increase the range of morphology suitable for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), and with potential implications on treatment thresholds. This article is the first of two that will outline current treatment options for AAA, including areas of controversy and research in AAA disease, to inform the development of Australasian clinical guidelines and health policy. Medical therapy options remain limited and no aneurysm-specific pharmacotherapy is currently available. Recent years have witnessed a significant shift in AAA surgery from open repair to EVAR and expansion of EVAR techniques. General management of cardiovascular risk factors remains key to reducing all-cause mortality for patients with AAA.

  5. Da Vinci-assisted abdominal cerclage.

    PubMed

    Barmat, Larry; Glaser, Gretchen; Davis, George; Craparo, Frank

    2007-11-01

    To report the first placement of an abdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage using the da Vinci robot. Case report. Tertiary-care hospital. A 39-year-old female with a history of cervical insufficiency who required a cerclage and was not a candidate for transvaginal cerclage placement. Abdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage placement using the da Vinci robot. Ability to safely and successfully place an abdominal cerclage using the da Vinci robot. Abdominal cerclage was successfully placed using the da Vinci robot. The patient had minimal blood loss and was discharged to home on the same day as surgery. Da Vinci robot-assisted abdominal cerclage placement is an innovative application of robotic surgery and may alter the standard of care for women who require this surgery.

  6. [A commonly seen cause of abdominal pain: abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Solmaz, Ilker; Talay, Mustafa; Tekindur, Şükrü; Kurt, Ercan

    2012-01-01

    Although abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is accepted as a rare condition, it is a syndrome that should be diagnosed more commonly when the clinical signs cannot explain the cause of abdominal pain. Abdominal pain is commonly considered by physicians to be based on intra-abdominal causes. Consequently, redundant tests and consultations are requested for these patients, and unnecessary surgical procedures may be applied. Patients with this type of pain are consulted to many clinics, and because their definitive diagnoses cannot be achieved, they are assessed as psychiatric patients. Actually, a common cause of abdominal wall pain is nerve entrapment on the lateral edge of the rectus abdominis muscle. In this paper, we would like to share information about the diagnosis and treatment of a patient who, prior to presenting to us, had applied to different clinics for chronic abdominal pain and had undergone many tests and consultations; abdominal surgery was eventually decided.

  7. Effect of Chicory-derived Inulin on Abdominal Sensations and Bowel Motor Function.

    PubMed

    Azpiroz, Fernando; Molne, Laura; Mendez, Sara; Nieto, Adoración; Manichanh, Chaysavanh; Mego, Marianela; Accarino, Anna; Santos, Javier; Sailer, Manuela; Theis, Stephan; Guarner, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    To determine the effect of a prebiotic chicory-derived inulin-type fructan on the tolerance of intestinal gas. Subjects with gas-related complaints exhibit impaired handling of intestinal gas loads and we hypothesized that inulin would have a beneficial effect. Placebo-controlled, parallel, randomized, double-blind trial. Subjects with abdominal symptoms and reduced tolerance of intestinal gas (selected by a pretest) received either inulin (8 g/d, n=18) or maltodextrin as a placebo (8 g/d, n=18) for 4 weeks. A gas challenge test (4 h jejunal gas infusion at 12 mL/min while measuring abdominal symptoms and gas retention for 3 h) was performed before and at the end of the intervention phase. Gastrointestinal symptoms and bowel habits (using daily questionnaires for 1 wk) and fecal bifidobacteria counts were measured before and at the end of the intervention. Inulin decreased gas retention during the gas challenge test (by 22%; P=0.035 vs. baseline), while the placebo did not, but the intergroup difference was not statistically significant (P=0.343). Inulin and placebo reduced the perception of abdominal sensations in the gas challenge test to a similar extent (by 52% and 43%, respectively). Participants reported moderate gastrointestinal symptoms and normal bowel habits during baseline examination, and these findings remained unchanged in both groups during the intervention. Inulin led to a higher relative abundance of bifidobacteria counts (P=0.01 vs. placebo). A daily dose of inulin that promotes bifidobacteria growth and may improve gut function, is well tolerated by subjects with gastrointestinal complaints.

  8. Effect of Chicory-derived Inulin on Abdominal Sensations and Bowel Motor Function

    PubMed Central

    Molne, Laura; Mendez, Sara; Nieto, Adoración; Manichanh, Chaysavanh; Mego, Marianela; Accarino, Anna; Santos, Javier; Sailer, Manuela; Theis, Stephan; Guarner, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Goal: To determine the effect of a prebiotic chicory-derived inulin-type fructan on the tolerance of intestinal gas. Background: Subjects with gas-related complaints exhibit impaired handling of intestinal gas loads and we hypothesized that inulin would have a beneficial effect. Study: Placebo-controlled, parallel, randomized, double-blind trial. Subjects with abdominal symptoms and reduced tolerance of intestinal gas (selected by a pretest) received either inulin (8 g/d, n=18) or maltodextrin as a placebo (8 g/d, n=18) for 4 weeks. A gas challenge test (4 h jejunal gas infusion at 12 mL/min while measuring abdominal symptoms and gas retention for 3 h) was performed before and at the end of the intervention phase. Gastrointestinal symptoms and bowel habits (using daily questionnaires for 1 wk) and fecal bifidobacteria counts were measured before and at the end of the intervention. Results: Inulin decreased gas retention during the gas challenge test (by 22%; P=0.035 vs. baseline), while the placebo did not, but the intergroup difference was not statistically significant (P=0.343). Inulin and placebo reduced the perception of abdominal sensations in the gas challenge test to a similar extent (by 52% and 43%, respectively). Participants reported moderate gastrointestinal symptoms and normal bowel habits during baseline examination, and these findings remained unchanged in both groups during the intervention. Inulin led to a higher relative abundance of bifidobacteria counts (P=0.01 vs. placebo). Conclusions: A daily dose of inulin that promotes bifidobacteria growth and may improve gut function, is well tolerated by subjects with gastrointestinal complaints. PMID:27680592

  9. Intestinal injury mechanisms after blunt abdominal impact.

    PubMed

    Cripps, N P; Cooper, G J

    1997-03-01

    Intestinal injury is frequent after non-penetrating abdominal trauma, particularly after modern, high-energy transfer impacts. Under these circumstances, delay in the diagnosis of perforation is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. This study establishes patterns of intestinal injury after blunt trauma by non-penetrating projectiles and examines relationships between injury distribution and abdominal wall motion. Projectile impacts of variable momentum were produced in 31 anaesthetised pigs to cause abdominal wall motion of varying magnitude and velocity. No small bowel injury was observed at initial impact velocity of less than 40 m/s despite gross abdominal compression. At higher velocity, injury to the small bowel was frequent, irrespective of the degree of abdominal compression (P = 0.00044). Large bowel injury was observed at all impact velocities and at all degrees of abdominal compression. This study confirms the potential for intestinal injury in high velocity, low momentum impacts which do not greatly compress the abdominal cavity and demonstrates apparent differences in injury mechanisms for the small bowel and colon. Familiarity with injury mechanisms may reduce delays in the diagnosis of intestinal perforation in both military and civilian situations.

  10. Laparoscopy In Unexplained Abdominal Pain: Surgeon's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Muhammad Tariq; Waqar, Shahzad Hussain; Zahid, Muhammad Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Unexplained abdominal pain is a common but difficult presenting feature faced by the clinicians. Such patients can undergo a number of investigations with failure to reach any diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of laparoscopy in the diagnosis and management of patients with unexplained abdominal pain. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad from January 2009 to December 2013. This study included 91 patients of unexplained abdominal pain not diagnosed by routine clinical examination and investigations. These patients were subjected to diagnostic laparoscopy for evaluation of their conditions and to confirm the diagnosis. These patients presented 43% of patients undergoing investigations for abdominal pain. Patients diagnosed with gynaecological problems were excluded to see surgeon's perspective. The findings and the outcomes of the laparoscopy were recorded and data was analyzed. Unexplained abdominal pain is common in females than in males. The most common laparoscopic findings were abdominal tuberculosis followed by appendicitis. Ninety percent patients achieved pain relief after laparoscopic intervention. Laparoscopy is both beneficial and safe in majority of patients with unexplained abdominal pain. General surgeons should acquire training and experience in laparoscopic surgery to provide maximum benefit to these difficult patients.

  11. Intra-abdominal pressure during swimming.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, S; Ogita, F; Huang, Z; Kurobe, K; Nagira, A; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, H; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the intra-abdominal pressure during front crawl swimming at different velocities in competitive swimmers and to clarify the relationships between stroke indices and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. The subjects were 7 highly trained competitive collegiate male swimmers. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured during front crawl swimming at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 m · s(-1) and during the Valsalva maneuver. Intra-abdominal pressure was taken as the difference between minimum and maximum values, and the mean of 6 stable front crawl stroke cycles was used. Stroke rate and stroke length were also measured as stroke indices. There were significant differences in stroke rate among all velocities (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in stroke length by velocity. Significant within-subject correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke rate or stroke length (P < 0.01) were observed, although there were no significant correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke indices when controlling for swimming velocity. These findings do not appear to support the effectiveness of trunk training performed by competitive swimmers aimed at increasing intra-abdominal pressure. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Traumatic abdominal hernia complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Aleix; Garrigós-Ortega, Gonzalo; Gómez-Abril, Segundo Ángel; Martí-Martínez, Eva; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a critical illness involving skin and soft tissues, which may develop after blunt abdominal trauma causing abdominal wall hernia and representing a great challenge for physicians. A 52-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a road accident, presenting blunt abdominal trauma with a large non-reducible mass in the lower-right abdomen. A first, CT showed abdominal hernia without signs of complication. Three hours after ICU admission, he developed hemodynamic instability. Therefore, a new CT scan was requested, showing signs of hernia complication. He was moved to the operating room where a complete transversal section of an ileal loop was identified. Five hours after surgery, he presented a new episode of hemodynamic instability with signs of skin and soft tissue infection. Due to the high clinical suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis development, wide debridement was performed. Following traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH), patients can present unsuspected injuries in abdominal organs. Helical CT can be falsely negative in the early moments, leading to misdiagnosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection and, consequently, resuscitation measures, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and early surgical debridement are required. This type of fasciitis can develop after blunt abdominal trauma following wall hernia without skin disruption.

  13. Review article: the functional abdominal pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sperber, A D; Drossman, D A

    2011-03-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a debilitating disorder with constant or nearly constant abdominal pain, present for at least 6 months and loss of daily functioning. To review the epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of FAPS. A literature review using the keywords: functional abdominal pain, chronic abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and functional gastrointestinal disorders. No epidemiological studies have focused specifically on FAPS. Estimates of prevalence range from 0.5% to 1.7% and tend to show a female predominance. FAPS pathophysiology appears unique in that the pain is caused primarily by amplified central perception of normal visceral input, rather than by enhanced peripheral stimulation from abdominal viscera. The diagnosis of FAPS is symptom-based in accordance with the Rome III diagnostic criteria. These criteria are geared to identify patients with severe symptoms as they require constant or nearly constant abdominal pain with loss of daily function and are differentiated from IBS based on their non-association with changes in bowel habit, eating or other gut-related events. As cure is not feasible, the aims of treatment are reduced suffering and improved quality of life. Treatment is based on a biopsychosocial approach with a therapeutic patient-physician partnership at its base. Therapeutic options include central nonpharmacological and pharmacological modalities and peripheral modalities. These can be combined to produce an augmentation effect. Although few studies have assessed functional abdominal pain syndrome or its treatment specifically, the treatment strategies outlined in this paper appear to be effective. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Abdominal binders may reduce pain and improve physical function after major abdominal surgery - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Josephine Philip; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Bisgaard, Thue

    2014-11-01

    Evidence for the effect of post-operative abdominal binders on post-operative pain, seroma formation, physical function, pulmonary function and increased intra-abdominal pressure among patients after surgery remains largely un-investigated. A systematic review was conducted. The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for studies on the use of abdominal binders after abdominal surgery or abdominoplasty. All types of clinical studies were included. Two independent assessors evaluated the scientific quality of the studies. The primary outcomes were pain, seroma formation and physical function. A total of 50 publications were identified; 42 publications were excluded leaving eight publications counting a total of 578 patients for analysis. Generally, the scientific quality of the studies was poor. Use of abdominal binder revealed a non-significant tendency to reduce seroma formation after laparoscopic ventral herniotomy and a non-significant reduction in pain. Physical function was improved, whereas evidence supports a beneficial effect on psychological distress after open abdominal surgery. Evidence also supports that intra-abdominal pressure increases with the use of abdominal binders. Reduction of pulmonary function during use of abdominal binders has not been revealed. Abdominal binders reduce post-operative psychological distress, but their effect on post-operative pain after laparotomy and seroma formation after ventral hernia repair remains unclear. Due to the sparse evidence and poor quality of the literature, solid conclusions may be difficult to make, and procedure-specific, high-quality randomised clinical trials are warranted.

  15. Abdominal epilepsy as an unusual cause of abdominal pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Yilmaz; Sefer, Ustebay; Dondu, Ulker Ustebay; Ismail, Ozanli; Yusuf, Ehi

    2016-09-01

    Abdominal pain, in etiology sometimes difficult to be defined, is a frequent complaint in childhood. Abdominal epilepsy is a rare cause of abdominal pain. In this article, we report on 5 year old girl patient with abdominal epilepsy. Some investigations (stool investigation, routine blood tests, ultrasonography (USG), electrocardiogram (ECHO) and electrocardiograpy (ECG), holter for 24hr.) were done to understand the origin of these complaints; but no abnormalities were found. Finally an EEG was done during an episode of abdominal pain and it was shown that there were generalized spikes especially precipitated by hyperventilation. The patient did well on valproic acid therapy and EEG was normal 1 month after beginning of the treatment. The cause of chronic recurrent paroxymal abdominal pain is difficult for the clinicians to diagnose in childhood. A lot of disease may lead to paroxysmal gastrointestinal symptoms like familial mediterranean fever and porfiria. Abdominal epilepsy is one of the rare but easily treatable cause of abdominal pain. In conclusion, abdominal epilepsy should be suspected in children with recurrent abdominal pain.

  16. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

  17. Treatment strategy for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Davidovic, L

    2014-07-01

    Rupture is the most serious and lethal complication of the abdominal aortic aneurysm. Despite all improvements during the past 50 years, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are still associated with very high mortality. Namely, including patients who die before reaching the hospital, the mortality rate due to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is 90%. On the other hand, during the last twenty years, the number of abdominal aortic aneurysms significantly increased. One of the reasons is the fact that in majority of countries the general population is older nowadays. Due to this, the number of degenerative AAA is increasing. This is also the case for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. Age must not be the reason of a treatment refusal. Optimal therapeutic option ought to be found. The following article is based on literature analysis including current guidelines but also on my Clinics significant experience. Furthermore, this article show cases options for vascular medicine in undeveloped countries that can not apply endovascular procedures at a sufficient level and to a sufficient extent. At this moment the following is evident. Thirty-day-mortality after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms is significantly lower in high-volume hospitals. Due to different reasons all ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are not suitable for EVAR. Open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm should be performed by experienced open vascular surgeons. This could also be said for the treatment of endovascular complications that require open surgical conversion. There is no ideal procedure for the treatment of AAA. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages, its own limits and complications, as well as indications and contraindications. Future reductions in mortality of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms will depend on implementation of population-based screening; on strategies to prevent postoperative organ injury and also on new medical technology

  18. Abdominal Pain in the Geriatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Leuthauser, Amy; McVane, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain in the elderly can be a challenging and difficult condition to diagnose and treat. The geriatric population has significant comorbidities and often takes polypharmacy that can mask symptoms. The presentation of common conditions can be different than that in the younger population, often lacking the traditional indicators of disease, making it of pivotal importance for the clinician to consider a wide differential during their workup. It is also important to consider extra-abdominal abnormality that may manifest as abdominal pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fulminant massive gas gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Shoji; Okada, Yumi; Mita, Masaki; Okamoto, Yasuo; Kato, Hirotaka; Ueyama, Shigemitsu; Fujii, Ikuzo; Morita, Sumiharu; Yoshida, Yasuaki

    2005-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens (C.P) gas gangrene is one of the most fulminant infectious diseases. We encountered fulminant massive gas gangrene in a 56- year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The patient died 14 hours after diagnosis of gas gangrene (54 hours after admission). Dramatic changes in abdominal CT imaging revealed development of a massive volume of gas in the intra-portal vein, retroperitoneum and abdominal subcutaneous tissue within 24 hours. We also proved C.P infection by immunohistological staining, leading to a diagnosis of C.P gas gangrene.

  20. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  1. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex.

    PubMed

    Stuart, J J; Brown, S J; Beeman, R W; Denell, R E

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  2. [Desmoid tumor of the abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H; Henriksen, L O; Medgyesi, S; Waever, E

    1994-02-07

    Four cases of muscle-aponeurotic fibroadenomatosis (desmoid) of the abdominal wall are reported. The etiological factors, the recurrence rate, the treatment and the pre- and postoperative examinations are discussed.

  3. Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... Long-term Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-term Ankle Problems Breast Problems in Men Breast Problems in Women Chest Pain in Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... are two main types of abdominal wall defects: omphalocele and gastroschisis . Omphalocele is an opening in the center of the ... covering the exposed organs in gastroschisis. Fetuses with omphalocele may grow slowly before birth (intrauterine growth retardation) ...

  5. Correlation between intra-abdominal pressure and pulmonary volumes after superior and inferior abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Cleva, Roberto de; Assumpção, Marianna Siqueira de; Sasaya, Flavia; Chaves, Natalia Zuniaga; Santo, Marco Aurelio; Fló, Claudia; Lunardi, Adriana C; Jacob Filho, Wilson

    2014-07-01

    Patients undergoing abdominal surgery are at risk for pulmonary complications. The principal cause of postoperative pulmonary complications is a significant reduction in pulmonary volumes (FEV1 and FVC) to approximately 65-70% of the predicted value. Another frequent occurrence after abdominal surgery is increased intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study was to correlate changes in pulmonary volumes with the values of intra-abdominal pressure after abdominal surgery, according to the surgical incision in the abdomen (superior or inferior). We prospectively evaluated 60 patients who underwent elective open abdominal surgery with a surgical time greater than 240 minutes. Patients were evaluated before surgery and on the 3rd postoperative day. Spirometry was assessed by maximal respiratory maneuvers and flow-volume curves. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured in the postoperative period using the bladder technique. The mean age of the patients was 56 ± 13 years, and 41.6% 25 were female; 50 patients (83.3%) had malignant disease. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical incision (superior or inferior). The lung volumes in the preoperative period showed no abnormalities. After surgery, there was a significant reduction in both FEV1 (1.6 ± 0.6 L) and FVC (2.0 ± 0.7 L) with maintenance of FEV1/FVC of 0.8 ± 0.2 in both groups. The maximum intra-abdominal pressure values were similar (p=0.59) for the two groups. There was no association between pulmonary volumes and intra-abdominal pressure measured in any of the groups analyzed. Our results show that superior and inferior abdominal surgery determines hypoventilation, unrelated to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Patients at high risk of pulmonary complications should receive respiratory care even if undergoing inferior abdominal surgery.

  6. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Hip Arthroscopy Justin Fowler, M.D., and Brett D. Owens, M.D. Abstract: As hip arthroscopy becomes a more common procedure, more complications may occur...We present a case of abdominal compartment syndrome resulting from fluid extravasation in a 42-year-old man who underwent routine hip arthroscopy

  7. [Late primary abdominal pregnancy. Case report].

    PubMed

    Farías, Emigdio Torres; Gómez, Luis Guillermo Torres; Allegre, René Márquez; Higareda, Salvador Hernández

    2008-09-01

    Abdominal advanced pregnancy is an obstetric complication that put at risk maternal and fetal life. We report a case of advanced abdominal pregnancy with intact ovaries and fallopian tubes, without ureteroperitoneal fistulae and, late prenatal diagnosis, in a multiparous patient without risk factors, with alive newborn, and whose pregnancy was attended at Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad, Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia, Centro Medico Nacional de Occidente del IMSS, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

  8. Pediatric Abdominal Pain: An Emergency Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeremiah; Fox, Sean M

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain is a common complaint that leads to pediatric patients seeking emergency care. The emergency care provider has the arduous task of determining which child likely has a benign cause and not missing the devastating condition that needs emergent attention. This article reviews common benign causes of abdominal pain as well as some of the cannot-miss emergent causes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  10. The value of plain abdominal radiographs in management of abdominal emergencies in Luth.

    PubMed

    Ashindoitiang, J A; Atoyebi, A O; Arogundade, R A

    2008-01-01

    The plain abdominal x-ray is still the first imaging modality in diagnosis of acute abdomen. The aim of this study was to find the value of plain abdominal x-ray in the management of abdominal emergencies seen in Lagos university teaching hospital. The accurate diagnosis of the cause of acute abdominal pain is one of the most challenging undertakings in emergency medicine. This is due to overlapping of clinical presentation and non-specific findings of physical and even laboratory data of the multifarious causes. Plain abdominal radiography is one investigation that can be obtained readily and within a short period of time to help the physician arrive at a correct diagnosis The relevance of plain abdominal radiography was therefore evaluated in the management of abdominal emergencies seen in Lagos over a 12 month period (April 2002 to March 2003). A prospective study of 100 consecutively presenting patients with acute abdominal conditions treated by the general surgical unit of Lagos University Teaching Hospital was undertaken. All patients had supine and erect abdominal x-ray before any therapeutic intervention was undertaken. The diagnostic features of the plain films were compared with final diagnosis to determine the usefulness of the plain x-ray There were 54 males and 46 females (M:F 1.2:1). Twenty-four percent of the patients had intestinal obstruction, 20% perforated typhoid enteritis; gunshot injuries and generalized peritonitis each occurred in 13%, blunt abdominal trauma in 12%, while 8% and 10% had acute appendicitis and perforated peptic ulcer disease respectively. Of 100 patients studied, 54% had plain abdominal radiographs that showed positive diagnostic features. Plain abdominal radiograph showed high sensitivity in patients with intestinal obstruction 100% and perforated peptic ulcer 90% but was less sensitive in patients with perforated typhoid, acute appendicitis, and blunt abdominal trauma and generalized peritonitis. In conclusion, this study

  11. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  12. Mechanisms and management of functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Adam D; Aziz, Qasim

    2014-09-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome is characterised by frequent or continuous abdominal pain associated with a degree of loss of daily activity. It has a reported population prevalence of between 0.5% and 1.7%, with a female preponderance. The pathophysiology of functional abdominal pain is incompletely understood although it has been postulated that peripheral sensitisation of visceral afferents, central sensitisation of the spinal dorsal horn and aberrancies within descending modulatory systems may have an important role. The management of patients with functional abdominal pain requires a tailored multidisciplinary approach in a supportive and empathetic environment in order to develop an effective therapeutic relationship. Patient education directed towards an explanation of the pathophysiology of functional abdominal pain is in our opinion a prerequisite step and provides the rationale for the introduction of interventions. Interventions can usefully be categorised into general measures, pharmacotherapy, psychological interventions and 'step-up' treatments. Pharmacotherapeutic/step-up options include tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors and the gabapentinoids. Psychological treatments include cognitive behavioural therapy and hypnotherapy. However, the objective evidence base for these interventions is largely derived from other chronic pain syndrome, and further research is warranted in adult patients with functional abdominal pain. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  13. Genes and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Hinterseher, Irene; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2011-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Since the first candidate gene studies were published 20 years ago, approximately 100 genetic association studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biologically relevant genes have been reported on AAA. These studies investigated SNPs in genes of the extracellular matrix, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and signaling pathways. Very few studies were large enough to draw firm conclusions and very few results could be replicated in another sample set. The more recent unbiased approaches are family-based DNA linkage studies and genome-wide genetic association studies, which have the potential of identifying the genetic basis for AAA, only when appropriately powered and well-characterized large AAA cohorts are used. SNPs associated with AAA have already been identified in these large multicenter studies. One significant association was of a variant in a gene called contactin-3, which is located on chromosome 3p12.3. However, two follow-up studies could not replicate this association. Two other SNPs, which are located on chromosome 9p21 and 9q33, were replicated in other samples. The two genes with the strongest supporting evidence of contribution to the genetic risk for AAA are the CDKN2BAS gene, also known as ANRIL, which encodes an antisense ribonucleic acid that regulates expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and DAB2IP, which encodes an inhibitor of cell growth and survival. Functional studies are now needed to establish the mechanisms by which these genes contribute toward AAA pathogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Image mottle in abdominal CT.

    PubMed

    Ende, J F; Huda, W; Ros, P R; Litwiller, A L

    1999-04-01

    To investigate image mottle in conventional CT images of the abdomen as a function of radiographic technique factors and patient size. Water-filled phantoms simulating the abdomens of adult (32 cm in diameter) and pediatric (16 cm in diameter) patients were used to investigate image mottle in CT as a function of x-ray tube potential and mAs. CT images from 39 consecutive patients with noncontrast liver scans and 49 patients with iodine contrast scans were analyzed retrospectively. Measurements were made of the mean liver parenchyma Hounsfield unit value and the corresponding image mottle. For a given water phantom and x-ray tube potential, image mottle was proportional to the mAs-0.5. Increasing the phantom diameter from 16 cm (pediatric) to 32 cm increased the mottle by a factor of 2.4, and increasing the x-ray tube potential from 80 kVp to 140 kVp reduced the mottle by a factor of 2.5. All patients were scanned at 120 kVp, with no correlation between patient size and the x-ray tube mAs. The mean mottle level was 7.8 +/- 2.2 and 10.0 +/- 2.5 for the noncontrast and contrast studies, respectively. An increase in patient diameter of 3 cm would require approximately 65% more mAs to maintain the same level of image mottle. The mottle in abdominal CT images may be controlled by adjusting radiographic technique factors, which should be adjusted to take into account the size of the patient undergoing the examination.

  15. Dynamics of Albumin Synthetic Response to Intra-Abdominal Abscess in Patients with Gastrointestinal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bo; Han, Gang; Chen, Yu; A, Jiye; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Wang, Gefei; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low serum albumin concentration is a predictor of failure of source control for intra-abdominal infection. However, data on dynamics of albumin synthesis in these patients and to what extent these changes contribute to hypoalbuminemia are relatively scarce. We investigated in a group of patients with gastrointestinal fistula the dynamic response of liver albumin synthesis to intra-abdominal abscess and how these related to hypoalbuminemia and circulating endocrine hormone profiles. Methods: Eight gastrointestinal fistula patients scheduled to undergo percutaneous abscess sump drainage were enrolled prospectively to measure albumin synthesis rates at different stages of the inflammatory response (immediately after diagnosis and 7 d following sump drainage when clinical signs of intra-abdominal sepsis had been eradicated). Eight age-, sex-, and body mass index–matched intestinal fistula patients were studied as control patients. Consecutive arterial blood samples were drawn during a primed-constant infusion (priming dose: 4 micromol·kg−1, infusion rate: 6 micromol·kg−1·min−1) to determine the incorporation rate of L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine directly into plasma albumin using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Patients suffering from intra-abdominal infection had reduced plasma albumin and total plasma protein concentrations, compared with control patients. Albumin fractional synthesis rates in patients with intra-abdominal abscess were decreased, compared with those in the control group. When the source of infection was removed, albumin synthesis rates returned to control values, whereas albumin concentrations did not differ significantly from the corresponding concentrations in control subjects and patients with intra-abdominal abscess. Conclusion: Despite nutritional intervention, albumin synthesis rate is decreased in intestinal fistula patients with intra-abdominal abscess; albumin synthesis returns to

  16. Dynamics of albumin synthetic response to intra-abdominal abscess in patients with gastrointestinal fistula.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Ren, Jianan; Han, Gang; Chen, Yu; A, Jiye; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Wang, Gefei; Li, Jieshou

    2014-04-01

    Low serum albumin concentration is a predictor of failure of source control for intra-abdominal infection. However, data on dynamics of albumin synthesis in these patients and to what extent these changes contribute to hypoalbuminemia are relatively scarce. We investigated in a group of patients with gastrointestinal fistula the dynamic response of liver albumin synthesis to intra-abdominal abscess and how these related to hypoalbuminemia and circulating endocrine hormone profiles. Eight gastrointestinal fistula patients scheduled to undergo percutaneous abscess sump drainage were enrolled prospectively to measure albumin synthesis rates at different stages of the inflammatory response (immediately after diagnosis and 7 d following sump drainage when clinical signs of intra-abdominal sepsis had been eradicated). Eight age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched intestinal fistula patients were studied as control patients. Consecutive arterial blood samples were drawn during a primed-constant infusion (priming dose: 4 micromol·kg(-1), infusion rate: 6 micromol·kg(-1)·min(-1)) to determine the incorporation rate of L-[ring-(2)H5]-phenylalanine directly into plasma albumin using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Patients suffering from intra-abdominal infection had reduced plasma albumin and total plasma protein concentrations, compared with control patients. Albumin fractional synthesis rates in patients with intra-abdominal abscess were decreased, compared with those in the control group. When the source of infection was removed, albumin synthesis rates returned to control values, whereas albumin concentrations did not differ significantly from the corresponding concentrations in control subjects and patients with intra-abdominal abscess. Despite nutritional intervention, albumin synthesis rate is decreased in intestinal fistula patients with intra-abdominal abscess; albumin synthesis returns to control values during convalescence.

  17. Acute transfusion-related abdominal injury in trauma patients: a case report.

    PubMed

    Michel, P; Wähnert, D; Freistühler, M; Laukoetter, M G; Rehberg, S; Raschke, M J; Garcia, P

    2016-10-19

    Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is well known as a life-threatening complication in critically ill patients in an intensive care unit. Massive crystalloid fluid resuscitation has been identified as the most important risk factor. The time interval from hospital admittance to the development of manifest abdominal compartment syndrome is usually greater than 24 hours. In the absence of any direct abdominal trauma, we observed a rapidly evolving secondary abdominal compartment syndrome shortly after hospital admittance associated with massive transfusion of blood products and only moderate crystalloid resuscitation. We report the case of an acute secondary abdominal compartment syndrome developing within 3 to 4 hours in a 74-year-old polytraumatized white woman. Although multiple fractures of her extremities and a B-type pelvic ring fracture were diagnosed by a full body computed tomography scan, no intra-abdominal injury could be detected. Hemorrhagic shock with a drop in her hemoglobin level to 5.7 g/dl was treated by massive transfusion of blood products and high doses of catecholamines. Shortly afterwards, her pulmonary gas exchange progressively deteriorated and mechanical ventilation became almost impossible with peak airway pressures of up to 60 cmH 2 O. Her abdomen appeared rigid and tense accompanied by a progressive hemodynamic decompensation necessitating mechanic cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Although preoperative computed tomography scans showed no signs of intra-abdominal fluid, a decompressive laparotomy under cardiopulmonary resuscitation conditions was performed and 2 liters of ascites-like fluid disgorged. Her hemodynamics and pulmonary ventilation improved immediately. This case report describes for the first time acute secondary abdominal compartment syndrome in a trauma patient, evolving in a very short time period. We hypothesize that the massive transfusion of blood products along with high doses of catecholamines triggered the acute

  18. Management of complex abdominal wall defects associated with penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Arul, G Suren; Sonka, B J; Lundy, J B; Rickard, R F; Jeffery, S L A

    2015-03-01

    The paradigm of Damage Control Surgery (DCS) has radically improved the management of abdominal trauma, but less well described are the options for managing the abdominal wall itself in an austere environment. This article describes a series of patients with complex abdominal wall problems managed at the UK-led Role 3 Medical Treatment Facility (MTF) in Camp Bastion, Afghanistan. Contemporaneous review of a series of patients with complex abdominal wall injuries who presented to the Role 3 MTF between July and November 2012. Five patients with penetrating abdominal trauma associated with significant damage to the abdominal wall were included. All patients were managed using DCS principles, leaving the abdominal wall open at the end of the first procedure. Subsequent management of the abdominal wall was determined by a multidisciplinary team of general and plastic surgeons, intensivists and specialist nurses. The principles of management identified included minimising tissue loss on initial laparotomy by joining adjacent wounds and marginal debridement of dead tissue; contraction of the abdominal wall was minimised by using topical negative pressure dressing and dermal-holding sutures. Definitive closure was timed to allow oedema to settle and sepsis to be controlled. Closure techniques include delayed primary closure with traction sutures, components separation, and mesh closure with skin grafting. A daily multidisciplinary team discussion was invaluable for optimal decision making regarding the most appropriate means of abdominal closure. Dermal-holding sutures were particularly useful in preventing myostatic contraction of the abdominal wall. A simple flow chart was developed to aid decision making in these patients. This flow chart may prove especially useful in a resource-limited environment in which returning months or years later for closure of a large ventral hernia may not be possible. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  19. Two similar cases of elderly women with moderate abdominal pain and pneumoperitoneum of unknown origin: a surgeon's successful conservative management.

    PubMed

    Vinzens, Fabrizio; Zumstein, Valentin; Bieg, Christian; Ackermann, Christoph

    2016-05-26

    Patients presenting with abdominal pain and pneumoperitoneum in radiological examination usually require emergency explorative laparoscopy or laparotomy. Pneumoperitoneum mostly associates with gastrointestinal perforation. There are very few cases where surgery can be avoided. We present 2 cases of pneumoperitoneum with unknown origin and successful conservative treatment. Both patients were elderly women presenting to our emergency unit, with moderate abdominal pain. There was neither medical intervention nor trauma in their medical history. Physical examination revealed mild abdominal tenderness, but no clinical sign of peritonitis. Cardiopulmonary examination remained unremarkable. Blood studies showed only slight abnormalities, in particular, inflammation parameters were not significantly increased. Finally, obtained CTs showed free abdominal gas of unknown origin in both cases. We performed conservative management with nil per os, nasogastric tube, total parenteral nutrition and prophylactic antibiotics. After 2 weeks, both were discharged home. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Factors Predictive of Improved Abdominal Ultrasound Visualization after Oral Administration of Simethicone.

    PubMed

    Marsico, Maria; Gabbani, Tommaso; Casseri, Tommaso; Biagini, Maria Rosa

    2016-11-01

    Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, accurate and low-cost technique used to study the upper abdomen, but it has reduced reliability in the study of the pancreas and retroperitoneum. Simethicone is a well-known emulsifying agent that has been used to improve ultrasonographic visualization. The aim of this study was to identify anthropometric parameters that are able to predict a good response to simethicone in improving ultrasonographic visualization of abdominal structures. One hundred twenty-seven patients were recruited. After basal examination, their anthropometric parameters were collected. Patients with an incomplete upper abdominal examination because of gastrointestinal gas have greater body mass index, waist circumference and abdominal wall thickness. In our study, the best anthropometric parameter for identifying patients with poor visualization at abdominal ultrasound examination is waist circumference. Using a cutoff of 84 cm, we can identify patients with poor visibility at abdominal ultrasound examination (group B) with a sensitivity of 90%. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors of abdominal injuries in blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Farrath, Samiris; Parreira, José Gustavo; Perlingeiro, Jacqueline A G; Solda, Silvia C; Assef, José Cesar

    2012-01-01

    To identify predictors of abdominal injuries in victims of blunt trauma. retrospective analysis of trauma protocols (collected prospectively) of adult victims of blunt trauma in a period of 15 months. Variables were compared between patients with abdominal injuries (AIS>0) detected by computed tomography or/and laparotomy (group I) and others (AIS=0, group II). Student's t, Fisher and qui-square tests were used for statistical analysis, considering p<0.05 as significant. A total of 3783 cases were included, with a mean age of 39.1 ± 17.7 years (14-99), 76.1% being male. Abdominal injuries were detected in 130 patients (3.4%). Patients sustaining abdominal injuries had significantly lower mean age (35.4 + 15.4 vs. 39.2 + 17.7), lower mean systolic blood pressure on admission (114.7 + 32.4 mmHg vs. 129.1 + 21.7 mmHg), lower mean Glasgow coma scale (12.9 + 3.9 vs. 14.3 + 2.0), as well as higher head AIS (0.95 + 1.5 vs. 0.67 + 1.1), higher thorax AIS (1.10 + 1.5 vs. 0.11 + 0.6) and higher extremities AIS (1.70 ± 1.8 vs. 1.03 ± 1.2). Patients sustaining abdominal injuries also presented higher frequency of severe injuries (AIS>3) in head (18.5% vs. 7.9%), thorax (29.2% vs. 2.4%) and extremities (40.0% vs. 13.7%). The highest odds ratios for the diagnosis of abdominal injuries were associated flail chest (21.8) and pelvic fractures (21.0). Abdominal injuries were more frequently observed in patients with hemodynamic instability, changes in Glasgow coma scale and severe lesions to the head, chest and extremities.

  2. [Implementationof a low FODMAP dietforfunctional abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Baranguán Castro, María Luisa; Ros Arnal, Ignacio; García Romero, Ruth; Rodríguez Martínez, Gerardo; Ubalde Sainz, Eduardo

    2018-04-20

    The low FODMAP diet (fermentable oligosaccharides, monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polyols) has shown to be effective in adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome, but there are few studies on paediatric patients. The aim of this study is to assess the implementation and the outcomes of a low FODMAP diet in the treatment of functional abdominal pain in children from a Mediterranean area. A table was designed in which foods were classified according to their FODMAP content, as well as a 'Symptoms and Stools Diary'. A prospective study was conducted on children with functional abdominal pain in our Paediatric Gastroenterology Unit. A total of 22 patients were enrolled in the trial, and 20 completed it. Data were collected of the abdominal pain features over a period of 3 days, and then patients followed a two-week low FODMAP diet. Afterwards, information about abdominal pain features was collected again. After the diet, they showed fewer daily abdominal pain episodes compared to baseline (1.16 [IQR: 0.41-3.33] versus 2 [IQR: 1.33-6.33] daily episodes, P=.024), less pain severity compared to baseline (1.41cm [IQR: 0.32-5.23] versus 4.63cm [IQR: 2.51-6.39] measured by 10-cm Visual Analogue Scale, P=.035), less interference with daily activities, and less gastrointestinal symptoms. Only 15% of patients found it difficult to follow the diet. The implementation of a low FODMAP diet for 2 weeks in a Mediterranean paediatric population diagnosed with functional abdominal pain is possible with adapted diets. It was highly valued by patients, and they showed an improvement in abdominal pain symptoms assessed by objective methods. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  3. Vitamins and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya

    2017-02-01

    To summarize the association of vitamins (B6, B12, C, D, and E) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), we reviewed clinical studies with a comprehensive literature research and meta-analytic estimates. To identify all clinical studies evaluating the association of vitamins B6/B12/C/D/E and AAA, databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through April 2015, using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). For each case-control study, data regarding vitamin levels in both the AAA and control groups were used to generate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Pooled analyses of the 4 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin B6 levels (SMD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.11; P=0.003) but non-significantly lower vitamin B12 levels (SMD, -0.42; 95% CI, -1.09 to 0.25; P=0.22) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Pooled analyses of the 2 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower levels of circulating vitamins C (SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.23 to -0.19; P=0.007) and E (SMD, -1.76; 95% CI, -2.93 to 0.60; P=0.003) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Another pooled analysis of the 3 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels (SMD, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.50 to -0.01; P=0.04) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. In a double-blind controlled trial, 4.0-year treatment with a high-dose folic acid and vitamin B6/B12 multivitamin in kidney transplant recipients did not reduce a rate of AAA repair despite significant reduction in homocysteine level. In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 5.8-year supplementation with α-tocopherol (vitamin E) had no preventive effect on large AAA among male smokers. In clinical setting, although low circulating vitamins B6/C/D/E (not B12) levels are associated with AAA presence, vitamins B6/B12/E

  4. Chronic abdominal wall pain and ultrasound-guided abdominal cutaneous nerve infiltration: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kanakarajan, Saravanakumar; High, Kristina; Nagaraja, Ravi

    2011-03-01

    Chronic abdominal wall pain occurs in about 10-30% of patients presenting with chronic abdominal pain. Entrapment of abdominal cutaneous nerves at the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle has been attributed as a cause of abdominal wall pain. We report our experience of treating such patients using ultrasound-guided abdominal cutaneous nerve infiltration. We conducted a retrospective audit of abdominal cutaneous nerve infiltration performed in the period between September 2008 to August 2009 in our center. All patients had received local anesthetic and steroid injection under ultrasound guidance. The response to the infiltration was evaluated in the post-procedure telephone review as well as in the follow-up clinic. Brief pain inventory (BPI) and numerical rating scale pain scores were collated from two points: the initial outpatient clinic and the follow up clinic up to 5 months following the injection. Nine patients had abdominal cutaneous nerve injections under ultrasound guidance in the period under review. Six patients reported 50% pain relief or more (responders) while three patients did not. Pain and BPI scores showed a decreasing trend in responders. The median duration of follow-up was 12 weeks. Ultrasound can reliably be used for infiltration of the abdominal cutaneous nerves. This will improve the safety as well as diagnostic utility of the procedure. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in pediatrics. A review.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Farah Chedly; Ejike, Janeth Chiaka

    2017-10-01

    To consolidate pediatric intensivists' understanding of the pathophysiology, definition, incidence, monitoring, and management of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS); and to highlight the characteristics related to the pediatric population. This is a narrative review article that utilized a systematic search of the medical literature published in the English language between January 1990 and august 2016. Studies were identified by conducting a comprehensive search of Pub Med databases. Search terms included "intra-abdominal hypertension and child", "intra-abdominal hypertension and pediatrics", "abdominal compartment syndrome and child", and "abdominal compartment syndrome and pediatrics". Intra-abdominal hypertension and ACS are associated with a number of pathophysiological disturbances and increased morbidity and mortality. These conditions have been well described in critically ill adults. In children, the IAH and the ACS have a reported incidence of 13% and 0.6 to 10% respectively; they carry similar prognostic impact but are still under-diagnosed and under-recognized by pediatric health care providers. Intra-abdominal hypertension and ACS are conditions that are regularly encountered in critically ill children. They are associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. Early recognition, prevention and timely management of this critical condition are necessary to improve its outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intra-abdominal pressure: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. RESUMO Em pacientes críticos com quadros abdominais agudos a esclarecer é crescente a solicitação da aferição da pressão intra-abdominal. Sintetizar resultados de pesquisas sobre a mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal pela via vesical e analisar o nível de evidência foram os objetivos desta revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada nas bases LILACS, MEDLINE e PubMed, no período de 2005 a julho de 2012. Identificaram-se 20 artigos, sendo 12 revisões de literatura, 4 estudos exploratório-descritivos, 2 opiniões de especialistas, 1 estudo de coorte prospectivo e 1 relato de experiência. O método vesical para mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal foi considerado padrão-ouro. Existem variações na técnica, entretanto pontos em comum foram identificados: posição supina completa, na ausência de contratura abdominal, ao final da expiração e expressa em mmHg. A maioria indica posicionar o ponto zero do

  7. Segmentation of images of abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Kamath, Markad V; Noseworthy, Michael D; Boylan, Colm; Poehlman, Skip

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal organ segmentation, which is, the delineation of organ areas in the abdomen, plays an important role in the process of radiological evaluation. Attempts to automate segmentation of abdominal organs will aid radiologists who are required to view thousands of images daily. This review outlines the current state-of-the-art semi-automated and automated methods used to segment abdominal organ regions from computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MEI), and ultrasound images. Segmentation methods generally fall into three categories: pixel based, region based and boundary tracing. While pixel-based methods classify each individual pixel, region-based methods identify regions with similar properties. Boundary tracing is accomplished by a model of the image boundary. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the above algorithms with an emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages for abdominal organ segmentation. Several evaluation metrics that compare machine-based segmentation with that of an expert (radiologist) are identified and examined. Finally, features based on intensity as well as the texture of a small region around a pixel are explored. This review concludes with a discussion of possible future trends for abdominal organ segmentation.

  8. Intra-abdominal pressure: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. PMID:26958978

  9. Aerophagia and Intestinal Gas.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Eamonn M. M.

    2002-08-01

    Aerophagia refers to a rather rare disorder that may occur in both children and adults that features repetitive air swallowing and belching and that may result in abdominal distention. There are few, if any, controlled studies to guide therapy, which remains largely supportive but may include behavioral therapy and psychotherapy. Bloating, distention, and other gas-related symptoms are common in functional gastrointestinal disorders, including the irritable bowel syndrome; their pathophysiology remains, for the most part, poorly understood. Two separate phenomena need to be distinguished in these disorders: gas production and gas perception. Thus, whereas gas production, which relates most closely to flatus emissions, is probably within the normal range in most patients with irritable bowel syndrome, gas transport or transit through the gut may be impaired and may lead to the retention of gas within segments of the gut. Visceral hypersensitivity, a common phenomenon in all functional disorders, may exacerbate the sensation of distention and contribute to other "gas-related" symptoms. Few controlled studies have addressed any of these issues. Although, on an empiric basis, dietary therapy may be partially effective in some situations, there is at present no data to support the use of any form of pharmacologic, endoscopic, or surgical therapy for any of these symptoms.

  10. Abdominal Wall Desmoid during Pregnancy: Diagnostic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Awwad, Johnny; Hammoud, Nadine; Farra, Chantal; Fares, Farah; Abi Saad, George; Ghazeeri, Ghina

    2013-01-01

    Background. Desmoids are benign tumors, with local invasive features and no metastatic potential, which have rarely been described to be pregnancy associated. Case. We described the rapid growth of an anterior abdominal wall mass in a 40-year-old pregnant woman. Due to its close proximity to the enlarged uterus, it was misdiagnosed to be a uterine leiomyoma by ultrasound examination. Final tissue diagnosis and radical resection were done at the time of abdominal delivery. Conclusion. Due to the diagnostic limitations of imaging techniques, desmoids should always be considered when the following manifestations are observed in combination: progressive growth of a solitary abdominal wall mass during pregnancy and well-delineated smooth tumor margins demonstrated by imaging techniques. This case emphasizes the importance of entertaining uncommon medical conditions in the differential diagnosis of seemingly common clinical manifestations. PMID:23346436

  11. Bioprosthetic Mesh in Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesh materials have undergone a considerable evolution over the last several decades. There has been enhancement of biomechanical properties, improvement in manufacturing processes, and development of antiadhesive laminate synthetic meshes. The evolution of bioprosthetic mesh materials has markedly changed our indications and methods for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. The authors review the optimal properties of bioprosthetic mesh materials, their evolution over time, and their indications for use. The techniques to optimize outcomes are described using bioprosthetic mesh for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. Bioprosthetic mesh materials clearly have certain advantages over other implantable mesh materials in select indications. Appropriate patient selection and surgical technique are critical to the successful use of bioprosthetic materials for abdominal wall repair. PMID:23372454

  12. Modified Multivisceral Transplant After Acute Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Nikeghbalian, Saman; Alaa Eldin, Ahmed; Aliakbarian, Mohsen; Kazemi, Kourosh; Shamsaeefar, Alireza; Gholami, Siavash; Malekhosseini, Seyed Ali

    2016-04-01

    A 50-year-old man sustained blunt abdominal trauma in a motor vehicle accident. He underwent exploratory laparotomy on the day of trauma, and severe bleeding from the base of the small bowel mesentery was controlled by mass ligation and through-and-through suturing. After transfer to our center, repeat exploratory laparotomy showed ischemic small intestine, ischemic right colon, and severe pancreatic trauma. The severely injured organs were excised including the entire small bowel, pancreas, spleen, stomach, and right hemicolon. The next day, a modified multivisceral transplant was performed including stomach, pancreaticoduodenal complex, and small bowel transplant. Postoperative complications included an intra-abdominal collection that was drained percutaneously with ultrasonographic guidance and severe rejection that was treated with anti-thymocyte globulin. In summary, for select patients who have severe abdominal trauma may be treated with acute multivisceral transplant.

  13. Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma of the abdominal wall

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, L. Ben; Ghariani, B.; Rabeh, A.; Dali, N.; Said, W.; Hendaoui, L.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Ewing sarcoma is most commonly a bone tumour which has usually extended into the soft tissues at the time of diagnosis. Exceptionally, this tumour can have an extraskeletal origin. Clinical or imaging findings are non-specific and diagnosis is based on histology. We report a case of an extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma developed in the soft tissues of the abdominal wall in a 35-year-old woman who presented a painful abdominal wall tumefaction. Ultrasongraphy and computed tomography showed a large, well-defined soft tissue mass developed in the left anterolateral muscle group of the abdominal wall. Surgical biopsy was performed and an extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma was identified histologically. PMID:18818133

  14. Survival of shovelnose sturgeon after abdominally invasive endoscopic evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trested, D.G.; Goforth, Reuben R.; Kirk, J.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The development of effective and minimally invasive techniques to determine gender and gonad developmental stage is particularly important in performing accurate fisheries assessments for use in conservation and restoration. The initial and latent survival of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus was assessed after exposure to a modified endoscopic technique designed to collect that biological information. Rather than inserting the endoscope through the urogenital canal or directly into the body cavity, we inserted a threaded trocar through a ventral incision and used a low-pressure air supply attached to the trocar to gently insufflate the body cavity. The initial survival of both experimental and control shovelnose sturgeon was 100%. Latent survival was 100% and 90% for the experimental and control fish, respectively. Our study suggests that incision endoscopy coupled with insufflation of the body cavity through the use of a trocar and an air supply is a safe and effective way to determine gender and examine the gonad developmental stage of shovelnose sturgeon. The short duration of the procedure and the high postprocedure survival suggest that this technique is suitable for shovelnose sturgeon and perhaps for the evaluation of other endangered fish species (e.g., pallid sturgeon S. alba) as well.

  15. [Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children].

    PubMed

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-12-01

    To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos/SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-0 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Intraperitoneal pressure and volume of gas injected as effective parameters of the correct position of the Veress needle during creation of pneumoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, João L M C; Azevedo, Otavio C; Sorbello, Albino A; Becker, Otavio M; Hypolito, Otavio; Freire, Dalmer; Miyahira, Susana; Guedes, Afonso; Azevedo, Glicia C

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work was to establish reliable parameters of the correct position of the Veress needle in the peritoneal cavity during creation of pneumoperitoneum. The Veress needle was inserted into the peritoneal cavity of 100 selected patients, and a carbon-dioxide flow rate of 1.2 L/min and a maximum pressure of 12 mm Hg were established. Intraperitoneal pressure (IP) and the volume of gas injected (VG) were recorded at the beginning of insufflation and at every 20 seconds. Correlations were established for pressure and volume in function of time. Values of IP and VG were predicted at 1, 2, 3, and 4 minutes of insufflation, by applying the following formulas: IP = 2.3083 + 0.0266 x time +8.3 x 10(-5) x time(2) - 2.44 x 10(-7) x time(3); and VG = 0.813 + 0.0157 x time. A strong correlation was observed between IP and preestablished time points during creation of the pneumoperitoneum, as well as between VG and preestablished time points during creation of the pneumoperitoneum, with a coefficient of determination of 0.8011 for IP and of 0.9604 for VG. The predicted values were as follows: 1 minute = 4.15; 2 minutes = 6.27; 3 minutes = 8.36; and 4 minutes = 10.10 for IP (mm Hg); and 1 minute = 1.12; 2 minutes = 2.07; 3 minutes = 3.01; and 4 minutes = 3.95 for VG (L). Values of IP and VG at given time points during insufflation for creation of the pneumoperitoneum, using the Veress needle, can be effective parameters to determine whether the needle is correctly positioned in the peritoneal cavity.

  17. Plain abdominal radiography in acute abdominal pain; past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Gans, Sarah L; Stoker, Jaap; Boermeester, Marja A

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that a diagnosis based solely on a patient’s medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests is not reliable enough, despite the fact that these aspects are essential parts of the workup of a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain. Traditionally, imaging workup starts with abdominal radiography. However, numerous studies have demonstrated low sensitivity and accuracy for plain abdominal radiography in the evaluation of acute abdominal pain as well as various specific diseases such as perforated viscus, bowel obstruction, ingested foreign body, and ureteral stones. Computed tomography, and in particular computed tomography after negative ultrasonography, provides a better workup than plain abdominal radiography alone. The benefits of computed tomography lie in decision-making for management, planning of a surgical strategy, and possibly even avoidance of negative laparotomies. Based on abundant available evidence, major advances in diagnostic imaging, and changes in the management of certain diseases, we can conclude that there is no place for plain abdominal radiography in the workup of adult patients with acute abdominal pain presenting in the emergency department in current practice. PMID:22807640

  18. Automated anatomical labeling method for abdominal arteries extracted from 3D abdominal CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Masahiro; Hoang, Bui Huy; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Mori, Kensaku

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents an automated anatomical labeling method of abdominal arteries. In abdominal surgery, understanding of blood vessel structure concerning with a target organ is very important. Branching pattern of blood vessels differs among individuals. It is required to develop a system that can assist understanding of a blood vessel structure and anatomical names of blood vessels of a patient. Previous anatomical labbeling methods for abdominal arteries deal with either of the upper or lower abdominal arteries. In this paper, we present an automated anatomical labeling method of both of the upper and lower abdominal arteries extracted from CT images. We obtain a tree structure of artery regions and calculate feature values for each branch. These feature values include the diameter, curvature, direction, and running vectors of a branch. Target arteries of this method are grouped based on branching conditions. The following processes are separately applied for each group. We compute candidate artery names by using classifiers that are trained to output artery names. A correction process of the candidate anatomical names based on the rule of majority is applied to determine final names. We applied the proposed method to 23 cases of 3D abdominal CT images. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is able to perform nomenclature of entire major abdominal arteries. The recall and the precision rates of labeling are 79.01% and 80.41%, respectively.

  19. In vitro comparison of intra-abdominal hypertension development after different temporary abdominal closure techniques.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Emanuel; Labler, Ludwig; Seifert, Burkhardt; Trentz, Otmar; Menger, Michael D; Meier, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    To compare volume reserve capacity (VRC) and development of intra-abdominal hypertension after different in vitro temporary abdominal closure (TAC) techniques. A model of the abdomen was designed. The abdominal wall was simulated with polychloroprene, a synthetic rubber compound. A lentil-shaped defect of 150 cm(2) was cut into the anterior aspect of the abdominal wall. TAC of this defect was performed by a zipper system (ZS), a bag silo closure (BSC), or a vacuum assisted closure (VAC) with subatmospheric pressures ranging from 0- to 200 mmHg. The model with intact abdominal wall served as reference. The model was filled with water to baseline level. The intra-abdominal pressure was increased in 2 mmHg steps from baseline level (6 mmHg) to 40 mmHg by adding volume to the system according to a standardized protocol. VRC with corresponding intra-abdominal pressure were analyzed and compared for the different TAC techniques. VRC was the highest after BSC at all pressure levels studied (P < 0.05). VAC and ZS resulted in significantly lower VRC compared with BSC and reference (P < 0.05). The magnitude of negative pressure on the VAC did not significantly influence the VRC. In the present in vitro model, BSC demonstrated the highest VRC of all evaluated TAC techniques. Different levels of subatmospheric pressures applied to the VAC did not affect VRC. The results for ZS and VAC indicate that these TAC techniques may increase the risk for recurrent intra-abdominal hypertension and should therefore not be used in high-risk patients during the initial phase after abdominal decompression.

  20. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  1. Twin abdominal pregnancy - A rare scenario.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Faiqa

    2017-05-01

    Twin abdominal pregnancy is rarely encountered by gynaecologists throughout their professional career. It poses a challenge in terms of diagnosis and management. This case report is about a patient who was diagnosed and successfully managed for this complication at a peripheral hospital of Pakistan Armed Forces.

  2. [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Cervantes Castro, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.

  3. Childhood functional abdominal pain: mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Korterink, Judith; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Vlieger, Arine; Benninga, Marc A

    2015-03-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is one of the most common clinical syndromes encountered in day to day clinical paediatric practice. Although common, its definition is confusing, predisposing factors are poorly understood and the pathophysiological mechanisms are not clear. The prevailing viewpoint in the pathogenesis involves the inter-relationship between changes in hypersensitivity and altered motility, to which several risk factors have been linked. Making a diagnosis of functional abdominal pain can be a challenge, as it is unclear which further diagnostic tests are necessary to exclude an organic cause. Moreover, large, well-performed, high-quality clinical trials for effective agents are lacking, which undermines evidence-based treatment. This Review summarizes current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors and diagnostic work-up of functional abdominal pain. Finally, management options for children with functional abdominal pain are discussed including medications, dietary interventions, probiotics and psychological and complementary therapies, to improve understanding and to maximize the quality of care for children with this condition.

  4. Splenic trauma during abdominal wall liposuction: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Harnett, Paul; Koak, Yashwant; Baker, Daryl

    2008-01-01

    Summary A 35-year-old woman collapsed 18 hours after undergoing abdominal wall liposuction. Abdominal CT scan revealed a punctured spleen. She underwent an emergency splenectomy and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:18387911

  5. Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Brand, Martin; Grieve, Andrew

    2013-11-18

    Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs when the peritoneal cavity is breached. Routine laparotomy for penetrating abdominal injuries began in the 1800s, with antibiotics first being used in World War II to combat septic complications associated with these injuries. This practice was marked with a reduction in sepsis-related mortality and morbidity. Whether prophylactic antibiotics are required in the prevention of infective complications following penetrating abdominal trauma is controversial, however, as no randomised placebo controlled trials have been published to date. There has also been debate about the timing of antibiotic prophylaxis. In 1972 Fullen noted a 7% to 11% post-surgical infection rate with pre-operative antibiotics, a 33% to 57% infection rate with intra-operative antibiotic administration and 30% to 70% infection rate with only post-operative antibiotic administration. Current guidelines state there is sufficient class I evidence to support the use of a single pre-operative broad spectrum antibiotic dose, with aerobic and anaerobic cover, and continuation (up to 24 hours) only in the event of a hollow viscus perforation found at exploratory laparotomy. To assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic antibiotics administered for penetrating abdominal injuries for the reduction of the incidence of septic complications, such as septicaemia, intra-abdominal abscesses and wound infections. Searches were not restricted by date, language or publication status. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, issue 12 of 12), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S) and PubMed. Searches were last conducted in January 2013. All randomised controlled trials of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma versus no

  6. [Abdominal traumatic evisceration: reconstruction abdominal wall with biologic mesh and negative pressure therapy].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Gómez, M; Betancor Rivera, N; Lima Sánchez, J; Hernández Hernández, J R

    2016-04-10

    Abdominal traumatic evisceration as a result of high energy trauma is uncommon. Once repaired the possible internal damage, an abdominal wall defect of high complexity may exist, whose reconstruction represents a surgical challenge. Politraumatized male with important abdominal muculocutaneous avulsion and evisceration. After initial repair, the patient developed a big eventration in which we use a porcine dermis-derived mesh (Permacol TM ), a safe and effective alternative in abdominal wall repair, thanks to its seamless integration with other tissues, even when exposed. Negative pressure therapy has been used for the management of wound complications after surgical implantation of PermacolTM mesh. We describe our experience with the use of PermacolTM mesh and negative pressure therapy to aid the wound closure after skin necrosis and exposed mesh.

  7. Temporary Abdominal Closure Combined With an Irrigating System Utilizing Hypochlorous Acid Solution to Decrease Abdominal Mucopurulence

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Marc R.; Quan, Asia N.; Weir, Alexandra S.; Foster, Kevin N.; Caruso, Daniel M.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Leaving the abdominal cavity open is a well-described and frequently utilized technique in the treatment of severe intra-abdominal sepsis. Irrigation through a negative pressure wound therapy device is a technique employed to assist in the closure of wounds as well as the reduction of bacterial contamination. Furthermore, hypochlorous acid has been found to be safe and effective in microorganismal elimination from extremity wounds. There is no literature regarding the infusion of hypochlorous solution into the abdominal cavity for intra-abdominal sepsis or mucopurulent abscesses or biofilm. Objectives: A 47-year-old man with granulomatosis polyangiitis was started on weekly rituximab. After 4 infusions, skin sloughing, ultimately diagnosed as toxic epidermal necrolysis, developed. During the hospital course, he developed sepsis and bowel perforation necessitating an exploratory laparotomy. The abdomen was left open with a temporary abdominal closure using the Abthera open abdomen negative wound therapy device; however, the abdomen remained infected with visually diffuse, thickening mucopurulence despite multiple washouts. Therefore, a VAC Vera-Flo irrigation device was combined with the Abthera open abdomen negative wound therapy device and cyclical irrigation of hypochlorous acid. After 72 hours, the purulence visually was improved and no adverse events were recorded with the placement of intra-abdominal hypochlorous acid. Conclusions: The combination of two medical devices for the intra-abdominal instillation of irrigation is considered “off-label use” from the manufacturer's recommendations. In addition, the repeated instillation of hypochlorous acid solution has not been described but was noted to have visually decreased the contaminated effluent within the intra-abdominal fluid. PMID:29527250

  8. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in association with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in the endovascular era: vigilance remains critical.

    PubMed

    Bozeman, Matthew C; Ross, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are common complications of ruptured abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms (rAAAs) and other abdominal vascular catastrophes even in the age of endovascular therapy. Morbidity and mortality due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) are significant. Recognition and management of IAH are key critical care measures which may decrease morbidity and improve survival in these vascular patients. Two strategies have been utilized: expectant management with prompt decompressive laparotomy upon diagnosis of threshold levels of IAH versus prophylactic, delayed abdominal closure based upon clinical parameters at the time of initial repair. Competent management of the abdominal wound with preservation of abdominal domain is also an important component of the care of these patients. In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events.

  9. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Association with Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in the Endovascular Era: Vigilance Remains Critical

    PubMed Central

    Bozeman, Matthew C.; Ross, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are common complications of ruptured abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms (rAAAs) and other abdominal vascular catastrophes even in the age of endovascular therapy. Morbidity and mortality due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) are significant. Recognition and management of IAH are key critical care measures which may decrease morbidity and improve survival in these vascular patients. Two strategies have been utilized: expectant management with prompt decompressive laparotomy upon diagnosis of threshold levels of IAH versus prophylactic, delayed abdominal closure based upon clinical parameters at the time of initial repair. Competent management of the abdominal wound with preservation of abdominal domain is also an important component of the care of these patients. In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events. PMID:22454763

  10. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  11. Value and limitations of transpulmonary pressure calculations during intra-abdominal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Puentes, Gustavo A; Gard, Kenneth E; Adams, Alexander B; Faltesek, Katherine A; Anderson, Christopher P; Dries, David J; Marini, John J

    2013-08-01

    To clarify the effect of progressively increasing intra-abdominal pressure on esophageal pressure, transpulmonary pressure, and functional residual capacity. Controlled application of increased intra-abdominal pressure at two positive end-expiratory pressure levels (1 and 10 cm H2O) in an anesthetized porcine model of controlled ventilation. Large animal laboratory of a university-affiliated hospital. Eleven deeply anesthetized swine (weight 46.2 ± 6.2 kg). Air-regulated intra-abdominal hypertension (0-25 mm Hg). Esophageal pressure, tidal compliance, bladder pressure, and end-expiratory lung aeration by gas dilution. Functional residual capacity was significantly reduced by increasing intra-abdominal pressure at both positive end-expiratory pressure levels (p ≤ 0.0001) without corresponding changes of end-expiratory esophageal pressure. Above intra-abdominal pressure 5 mm Hg, plateau airway pressure increased linearly by ~ 50% of the applied intra-abdominal pressure value, associated with commensurate changes of esophageal pressure. With tidal volume held constant, negligible changes occurred in transpulmonary pressure due to intra-abdominal pressure. Driving pressures calculated from airway pressures alone (plateau airway pressure--positive end-expiratory pressure) did not equate to those computed from transpulmonary pressure (tidal changes in transpulmonary pressure). Increasing positive end-expiratory pressure shifted the predominantly negative end-expiratory transpulmonary pressure at positive end-expiratory pressure 1 cm H2O (mean -3.5 ± 0.4 cm H2O) into the positive range at positive end-expiratory pressure 10 cm H2O (mean 0.58 ± 1.2 cm H2O). Despite its insensitivity to changes in functional residual capacity, measuring transpulmonary pressure may be helpful in explaining how different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure influence recruitment and collapse during tidal ventilation in the presence of increased intra-abdominal pressure and in

  12. Focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) in blunt paediatric abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Ahmad Vaqas; Qazi, Saqib Hamid; Khan, Muhammad Arif Mateen; Akhtar, Wassem; Majeed, Amina

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the role of focussed abdominal sonography for trauma in blunt paediatric abdominal trauma patients, and to see if the role of computed tomography scan could be limited to only those cases in which sonography was positive. The retrospective study covered 10 years, from January 1,2000 to December 31,2009, and was conducted at the Department of Radiology and Department of Emergency Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. It comprised cases of 174 children from birth to 14 years who had presented with blunt abdominal trauma and had focussed abdominal sonography for trauma done at the hospital. The findings were correlated with computed tomography scan of the abdomen and clinical follow-up. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of focussed abdominal sonography for trauma were calculated for blunt abdominal trauma. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Of the total 174 cases, 31 (17.81%) were later confirmed by abdominal scan. Of these 31 children, sonography had been positive in 29 (93.54%) children. In 21 (67.74%) of the 31 children, sonograpy had been true positive; 8 (25%) (8/31) were false positive; and 2 (6%) (2/31) were false negative. There were 6 (19.3%) children in which sonography was positive and converted to laparotomy. There was no significant difference on account of gender (p>0.356). Focussed abdominal sonography for trauma in the study had sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 95%, positive predictive value of 73%, and negative predictive value of 73% with accuracy of 94%. All patients who had negative sonography were discharged later, and had no complication on clinical follow-up. Focussed abdominal sonography for trauma is a fairly reliable mode to assess blunt abdominal trauma in children. It is a useful tool to pick high-grade solid and hollow viscous injury. The results suggest that the role of computed tomography scan can be limited to those cases in which focussed

  13. Intra-abdominal abscess demonstrating an unusually large intra-abdominal pattern on an indium-111 leukocyte scan

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.R.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; ter Penning, B.

    1988-12-01

    Indium-111 WBC imaging of a patient with occult septicemia revealed a large focal pattern of radiopharmaceutical distribution within the abdominal cavity at 24 hours post radiopharmaceutical administration. This finding was felt to represent a large intra-abdominal abscess. A five liter peritoneal abscess was found at surgery. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of an intra-abdominal abscess.

  14. Surface Electromyographic Activity of the Abdominal Muscles During Pelvic-Tilt and Abdominal-Hollowing Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Drysdale, Cheri L.; Earl, Jennifer E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the rectus abdominus and external oblique abdominus muscles during pelvic-tilt and abdominal-hollowing exercises performed in different positions. Design and Setting: 2 × 3 (exercise by position) within-subjects design with repeated measures on both factors. All testing was performed in a university laboratory. Subjects: Twenty-six healthy, active young adult females. Measurements: Surface EMG activity was recorded from the left and right rectus abdominus and external oblique muscles while the 2 exercises (pelvic tilt and abdominal hollowing) were performed in different positions (standard, legs supported, and legs unsupported). The standard position was supine in the crook-lying position, the supported position was with hips and knees flexed to 90° and legs supported on a platform, and the unsupported position was with hips and knees flexed to 90° without external support. Peak EMG activity was normalized to a maximum voluntary isometric contraction for each muscle. Results: For the rectus abdominus, there was an interaction between position and activity. Abdominal hollowing produced significantly less activity than the pelvic tilt in all positions. The difference between the 2 exercises with the legs unsupported was of a greater magnitude than the other 2 positions. For the external obliques, there was significantly lower activity during the abdominal hollowing compared with the pelvic tilting. The greatest muscle activity occurred with the legs-unsupported position during both exercises. Conclusions: Abdominal-hollowing exercises produced less rectus abdominus and external oblique activity than pelvic-tilting exercises. Abdominal hollowing may be performed with minimal activation of the large global abdominal muscles. PMID:15085209

  15. Surface Electromyographic Activity of the Abdominal Muscles During Pelvic-Tilt and Abdominal-Hollowing Exercises.

    PubMed

    Drysdale, Cheri L.; Earl, Jennifer E.; Hertel, Jay

    2004-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the rectus abdominus and external oblique abdominus muscles during pelvic-tilt and abdominal-hollowing exercises performed in different positions. DESIGN AND SETTING: 2 x 3 (exercise by position) within-subjects design with repeated measures on both factors. All testing was performed in a university laboratory. SUBJECTS: Twenty-six healthy, active young adult females. MEASUREMENTS: Surface EMG activity was recorded from the left and right rectus abdominus and external oblique muscles while the 2 exercises (pelvic tilt and abdominal hollowing) were performed in different positions (standard, legs supported, and legs unsupported). The standard position was supine in the crook-lying position, the supported position was with hips and knees flexed to 90 degrees and legs supported on a platform, and the unsupported position was with hips and knees flexed to 90 degrees without external support. Peak EMG activity was normalized to a maximum voluntary isometric contraction for each muscle. RESULTS: For the rectus abdominus, there was an interaction between position and activity. Abdominal hollowing produced significantly less activity than the pelvic tilt in all positions. The difference between the 2 exercises with the legs unsupported was of a greater magnitude than the other 2 positions. For the external obliques, there was significantly lower activity during the abdominal hollowing compared with the pelvic tilting. The greatest muscle activity occurred with the legs-unsupported position during both exercises. CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal-hollowing exercises produced less rectus abdominus and external oblique activity than pelvic-tilting exercises. Abdominal hollowing may be performed with minimal activation of the large global abdominal muscles.

  16. Acute abdomen in children due to extra-abdominal causes.

    PubMed

    Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Gardikis, Stefanos; Cassimos, Dimitrios; Kambouri, Katerina; Tsalkidou, Evanthia; Deftereos, Savas; Chatzimichael, Athanasios

    2008-06-01

    Acute abdominal pain in children is a common cause for referral to the emergency room and for subsequent hospitalization to pediatric medical or surgical departments. There are rare occasions when the abdominal pain is derived from extra-abdominal organs or systems. The aim of the present study was to establish the most common extra-abdominal causes of acute abdominal pain. The notes of all children (1 month-14 years of age) examined for acute abdominal pain in the Accident and Emergency (A&E) Department of Alexandroupolis District University Hospital in January 2001-December 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. Demographic data, clinical signs and symptoms, and laboratory findings were recorded, as well as the final diagnosis and outcome. Of a total number of 28 124 children who were brought to the A&E department, in 1731 the main complaint was acute abdominal pain. In 51 children their symptoms had an extra-abdominal cause, the most frequent being pneumonia (n = 15), tonsillitis (n = 10), otitis media (n = 9), and acute leukemia (n = 5). Both abdominal and extra-abdominal causes should be considered by a pediatrician who is confronted with a child with acute abdominal pain.

  17. Plasma osmotic changes during major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Malone, R A; McLeavey, C A; Arens, J F

    1977-12-01

    Fluid balance across the capillary membrane is maintained normally by a balance of hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures (COP). In 12 patients having major intra-abdominal procedures, the COP was followed during the operative and immediate postoperative periods. The patients' intraoperative fluid management consisted of replacing shed blood with blood and following Shires' concept of crystalloid replacement. Significant decreases in COP to approximately two thirds of the initial value occurred in patients having intra-abdominal procedures versus only a 10 percent decrease in those having peripheral procedures (greater than .001). As a result of this decrease in COP, the balance between hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures is lost and risk of pulmonary intersitial edema is increased.

  18. Preincisional intraparietal Augmentin in abdominal operations.

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, A. V.; Evans, M.; Smith, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 624 consecutive eligible patients undergoing abdominal operations received a single preoperative dose of amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (1.2 g Augmentin) for the prophylaxis of surgical wound infection. They were randomised to have the antibiotic injected intravenously at induction of anaesthesia (n = 328) or infiltrated subcutaneously along the line of the proposed incision (n = 296). The incidence of wound infections was considerably lower in the group given the antibiotic into the abdominal wall (8.4% compared with 15.9%--chi 2 = 7.90, P = 0.005). No significant differences were found in the incidence of other major or minor infective or non-infective postoperative complications between the groups. It is concluded that preincisional intraparietal injection is more effective than intravenous injection of Augmentin for the prophylaxis of surgical wound infection. PMID:2523210

  19. Recurrent abdominal pain in childhood urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Polito, Cesare; La Manna, Angela; Signoriello, Giuseppe; Marte, Antonio

    2009-12-01

    Our goal was to establish the clinical presentation and features of pain attacks in children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) and urolithiasis. We compared the rate of previous appendectomy among 100 consecutive patients with that of 270 control subjects. We also compared the frequency of pain attacks with that reported by children with functional or organic gastrointestinal RAP. Fifty-three patients had no history of dysuria or gross hematuria, and only 35 had hematuria at the first visit; 41 patients were evaluated for urolithiasis only because of a family history of kidney stones associated with RAP. Twenty-nine patients had been previously hospitalized for abdominal symptoms. Sixteen patients and 4 control subjects (1.5%) had undergone a previous appendectomy (P < .0001). Two to 28 months before the diagnosis of urolithiasis, 37 patients underwent abdominal ultrasonography, which did not show urinary stones. Sixty-nine percent of subjects younger than 8 years of age had central/diffuse abdominal pain. The mean frequency of pain attacks was 4 to 9 times lower than in patients with functional or organic gastrointestinal RAP. Because of the inconstant occurrence of dysuria and hematuria, the location of pain in areas other than the flank, and the lack of calculi shown on imaging studies performed after pain attacks, the urologic origin of pain may be overlooked and ineffective procedures performed. The possibility of urolithiasis should be considered in children with RAP who have a family history of urolithiasis and/or infrequent pain attacks, even when dysuria and hematuria are lacking, and in younger children even when pain is not lateral.

  20. Abdominal wall desmoid tumors: A case report

    PubMed Central

    MA, JIN-HUI; MA, ZHEN-HAI; DONG, XUE-FENG; YIN, HANG; ZHAO, YONG-FU

    2013-01-01

    Desmoid tumors (DTs) are rare lesions that do not possess any metastatic potential. However, they have a strong tendency to invade locally and recur. They constitute 3% of all soft tissue tumors and 0.03% of all neoplasms. Abdominal DTs occur sporadically or are associated with certain familial syndromes, such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). The single form of this neoplasm most frequently occurs in females of reproductive age and during pregnancy. A female patient with a DT of the abdominal wall who had no relevant family history was admitted to hospital. The patient, who presented with a painless mass in the left anterolateral abdomen, had no history of trauma, surgery or childbearing. According to the medical history, physical examination and CT report, the patient was diagnosed with DT. Radical resection of the affected abdominal wall musculature was performed, and the defect was replaced with a polypropylene mesh. The histological diagnosis was of DT. The patient remains in good health and complete remission without any other treatment following surgery. DTs exhibit aggressive growth and have a high rate of recurrence. Surgery is the optimal treatment, and subsequent radiotherapy may decrease the local recurrence rate. Further research into their aetiology is required combined with multicentre clinical trials of new treatments in order to improve management of this disease. This case report provides general knowledge of DT, and may be used as a guidance for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23833679

  1. Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  2. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Evolving Controversies and Uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Carino, Davide; Sarac, Timur P; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is defined as a permanent dilatation of the abdominal aorta that exceeds 3 cm. Most AAAs arise in the portion of abdominal aorta distal to the renal arteries and are defined as infrarenal. Most AAAs are totally asymptomatic until catastrophic rupture. The strongest predictor of AAA rupture is the diameter. Surgery is indicated to prevent rupture when the risk of rupture exceeds the risk of surgery. In this review, we aim to analyze this disease comprehensively, starting from an epidemiological perspective, exploring etiology and pathophysiology, and concluding with surgical controversies. We will pursue these goals by addressing eight specific questions regarding AAA: (1) Is the incidence of AAA increasing? (2) Are ultrasound screening programs for AAA effective? (3) What causes AAA: Genes versus environment? (4) Animal models: Are they really relevant? (5) What pathophysiology leads to AAA? (6) Indications for AAA surgery: Are surgeons over-eager to operate? (7) Elective AAA repair: Open or endovascular? (8) Emergency AAA repair: Open or endovascular?

  3. Nonspecific abdominal pain is a safe diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pennel, David John Laurie; Goergen, Nina; Driver, Chris P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess if a clinical diagnosis of nonspecific abdominal pain (NSAP) is safe and if patients with this initial diagnosis are likely to require further investigation or surgical intervention. 3323 patients admitted with NSAP from July 1990 to September 2012 utilizing a prospective database of all surgical admissions were included. Readmission over the period of the study and specifically within 30 days of their initial presentation was identified together with any invasive investigation or surgical intervention. 319 children (9.6%) were subsequently readmitted with abdominal pain at some point during the study period. Of these, 78 (2.3%) were readmitted within 30 days. 118 (3.5%) children subsequently had an operation or invasive investigation some point following their initial admission. Of these 33 (0.6%) had the procedure within 3 months of the initial admission. 13 patients had an appendicectomy within 3 months of the initial presentation. Of these histology confirmed appendicitis in 8 patients. This gives an overall incidence of "missed" appendicitis of 0.2 % (8/3323). This study confirms that a clinical diagnosis of nonspecific abdominal pain (NSAP) is safe in a pediatric population and the risk of "missing" appendicitis is only 0.2%. Patients and/or parents can be confidently reassured that the risk of missing organic pathology is very low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lung-protective ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Futier, Emmanuel; Jaber, Samir

    2014-08-01

    To provide the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of prophylactic lung-protective mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery. Evidence is accumulating, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Nonprotective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (>10-12 ml/kg), very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP, <5 cm H2O), or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by the previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung-protective mechanical ventilation. Recent data provide compelling evidence that prophylactic lung-protective mechanical ventilation using lower tidal volume (6-8 ml/kg of predicted body weight), moderate PEEP (6-8 cm H2O), and recruitment maneuvers is associated with improved functional or physiological and clinical postoperative outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. The use of prophylactic lung-protective ventilation can help in improving the postoperative outcome.

  5. Effects of cardiothoracic physiotherapy on intrapulmonary shunt in abdominal surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Ntoumenopoulos, George; Greenwood, Kenneth

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the provision of additional evening physiotherapy on pulmonary complications and intrapulmonary shunt (Qs/Qt) after abdominal surgery. Thirty-one elderly patients received either daylight only or daylight plus evening physiotherapy for up to 48 hours. Physiotherapy included combinations of positioning, gravity assisted drainage, breathing exercises, manual techniques, coughing and airway suctioning. Measurements included Qs/Qt and post-operative pulmonary complications. While no significant difference in atelectasis was found, the post-operative Qs/Qt data averaged into six-hour time frames demonstrated significantly lower mean Qs/Qt for the daylight plus evening physiotherapy group between 18 and 24 hours post-surgery. Additional evening physiotherapy may reduce post-operative deterioration in gas exchange after major abdominal surgery.

  6. Somatization symptoms in pediatric abdominal pain patients: relation to chronicity of abdominal pain and parent somatization.

    PubMed

    Walker, L S; Garber, J; Greene, J W

    1991-08-01

    Symptoms of somatization were investigated in pediatric patients with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) and comparison groups of patients with organic etiology for abdominal pain and well patients. Somatization scores were higher in RAP patients than well patients at the clinic visit, and higher than in either well patients or organic patients at a 3-month followup. Higher somatization scores in mothers and fathers were associated with higher somatization scores in RAP patients, but not in organic or well patients. Contrary to the findings of Ernst, Routh, and Harper (1984), chronicity of abdominal pain in RAP patients was not significantly associated with their level of somatization symptoms. Psychometric information about the Children's Somatization Inventory is presented.

  7. Medical evacuation for unrecognized abdominal wall pain: a case series.

    PubMed

    Msonda, Hapu T; Laczek, Jeffrey T

    2015-05-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a frequently encountered complaint in the primary care setting. The abdominal wall is the etiology of this pain in 10 to 30% of all cases of chronic abdominal pain. Abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment at the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle has been attributed as a cause of this pain. In the military health care system, patients with unexplained abdominal pain are often transferred to military treatment facilities via the Military Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) system. We present two cases of patients who transferred via MEDEVAC to our facility for evaluation and treatment of chronic abdominal pain. Both patients had previously undergone extensive laboratory evaluation, imaging, and invasive procedures, such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy before transfer. Upon arrival, history and physical examinations suggested an abdominal wall source to their pain, and both patients experienced alleviation of their abdominal wall pain with lidocaine and corticosteroid injection. This case series highlights the need for military physicians to be aware of abdominal wall pain. Early diagnosis of abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome by eliciting Carnett's sign will limit symptom chronicity, avoid unnecessary testing, and even prevent medical evacuation. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. Effect of abdominal negative-pressure wound therapy on the measurement of intra-abdominal pressure.

    PubMed

    García, Alberto Federico; Sánchez, Álvaro Ignacio; Gutiérrez, Álvaro José; Bayona, Juan Gabriel; Naranjo, María Paula; Lago, Sebastián; Puyana, Juan Carlos

    2018-07-01

    In critically ill surgical patients undergoing abdominal negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT), it remains uncertain whether or not intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurements should be obtained when NPWT is activated. We aimed to determine agreement between IAP measured with and without NPWT. In this analytic cross-sectional study, critically ill surgical adults (≥18 y) requiring abdominal NPWT for temporary abdominal closure after a damage control laparotomy were selected. Patients with urinary tract injuries or with pelvic packing were excluded. Paired IAP measures were performed in the same patient, with and without NPWT; two different operators performed the measures unaware of the other's result. Bland-Altman methods assessed the agreement between the two measures. Subgroup analyses (trauma and nontrauma) were performed. There were 198 IAP measures (99 pairs) in 38 patients. Mean IAP with and without NPWT were 8.33 (standard deviation 4.01) and 8.65 (standard deviation 4.04), respectively. Mean IAP difference was -0.323 (95% confidence interval -0.748 to 0.101), and reference range for difference was -4.579 to 3.932 (P = 0.864). From 112 IAP measures (56 pairs) in 21 trauma patients, mean IAP difference was -0.268 (95% confidence interval -0.867 to 0.331), and reference range for the difference was -4.740 to 4.204 (P = 0.427). There was no statistically significant disagreement in IAP measures. IAP could be measured with or without NPWT. In critically ill surgical patients with abdominal NPWT for temporary abdominal closure, monitoring and management of IAP either with or without NPWT is recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Gas-containing gallstones: value of the "Mercedes-Benz" sign at CT examination].

    PubMed

    Delabrousse, E; Bartholomot, B; Narboux, Y; Barrali, E; Chirouze, C; Kastler, B

    2000-11-01

    Gas-containing gallstones are well-known in vitro. The typical triradiate arrangement of fissures filled with gas, first described on abdominal plain films, was named by Meyers the "Mercedes-Benz" sign. This sign is absent of the recent literature. We report a case where gas was the only CT sign suggesting the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder.

  10. Six-month therapy for abdominal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Jullien, Sophie; Jain, Siddharth; Ryan, Hannah; Ahuja, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) of the gastrointestinal tract and any other organ within the abdominal cavity is abdominal TB, and most guidelines recommend the same six-month regimen used for pulmonary TB for people with this diagnosis. However, some physicians are concerned whether a six-month treatment regimen is long enough to prevent relapse of the disease, particularly in people with gastrointestinal TB, which may sometimes cause antituberculous drugs to be poorly absorbed. On the other hand, longer regimens are associated with poor adherence, which could increase relapse, contribute to drug resistance developing, and increase costs to patients and health providers. Objectives To compare six-month versus longer drug regimens to treat people that have abdominal TB. Search methods We searched the following electronic databases up to 2 September 2016: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, Embase (accessed via OvidSP), LILACS, INDMED, and the South Asian Database of Controlled Clinical Trials. We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing trials. We also checked article reference lists. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared six-month regimens versus longer regimens that consisted of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol to treat adults and children that had abdominal TB. The primary outcomes were relapse, with a minimum of six-month follow-up after completion of antituberculous treatment (ATT), and clinical cure at the end of ATT. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. For analysis of dichotomous outcomes, we used risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where appropriate, we pooled data from the included

  11. Lumbar muscle rhabdomyolysis after abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, M; Godet, G; Fléron, M H; Bernard, M A; Orcel, P; Riou, B; Kieffer, E; Coriat, P

    1997-07-01

    Lumbar muscle rhabdomyolysis has been very rarely reported after surgery. The aim of this study was to determine its incidence and main characteristics in a large population undergoing abdominal aortic surgery. Over a 21-mo period, 224 consecutive patients, 209 male and 15 female, mean age 65 +/- 10 yr, underwent abdominal aortic surgery (aortic aneurysm in 142 patients and occlusive aortic degenerative disease in 82 patients). Surgical incision was a midline incision with exaggerated hyperlordosis in 173 patients and a flank incision with a retroperitoneal approach in 51 patients. Postoperative rhabdomyolysis was diagnosed in 20 patients. In these patients, 9 (4%) experienced severe low back pain, and lumbar muscle rhabdomyolysis was confirmed by tomodensitometry (n = 6) or muscle biopsy (n = 3). The remaining 11 patients had lower limb muscle rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdomyolysis occurred after surgery of longer duration, which involved more frequent visceral artery reimplantation, with longer duration of aortic clamping and greater intraoperative bleeding. Lumbar rhabdomyolysis occurred in younger patients who were more frequently obese. On first postoperative day, the mean creatine kinase (CK) value was greater in lumbar rhabdomyolysis than in lower limb rhabdomyolysis (17,082 +/- 15,003 vs 3,313 +/- 3,120 IU/L, P < 0.05). Acute renal failure and postoperative death did not occur in patients with lumbar muscle rhabdomyolysis. Lumbar rhabdomyolysis was not a rare event after abdominal aortic surgery (4%). This syndrome was characterized by postoperative low back pain of unusual severity, which required analgesic therapy, and induced a very high increase in CK with typical findings at tomodensitometry or muscle biopsy but was not associated with postoperative renal failure.

  12. Abdominal pain in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Melissa M; Bates, David Gregory; Andrews, Tina; Adkins, Laura; Thornton, Jennifer; Denham, Jolanda M

    2014-02-01

    The differential diagnosis of abdominal pain is broad in any child, and further complicated in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Acute causes of abdominal pain may require emergent surgery, such as for appendicitis or obstruction caused by a bezoar. Rapid intervention is necessary and life-saving in children with SCD and acute splenic or hepatic sequestration. The majority of children with SCD presenting to the physician's office or emergency department will have subacute reasons for their abdominal pain, including but not limited to constipation, urinary tract infection, peptic ulcer disease, and cholecystitis. Vaso-occlusive pain often presents in children as abdominal pain, but is a diagnosis of exclusion. The case of a 10-year-old girl with intermittent abdominal pain is used as a starting point to review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the most acute and common causes of abdominal pain in children with SCD.

  13. Functional Abdominal Pain: "Get" the Function, Loose the Pain.

    PubMed

    Draeger-Muenke, Reinhild

    2015-07-01

    Functional abdominal pain is a mind-body, psychosocial, and self-reinforcing experience with significant consequences for the sufferer and the surrounding support network. The occurrence of unpredictable symptoms and their severity add an element of dread and feeling out-of-control to daily life and often reduce overall functioning in a downward spiral. Two clinical presentations of functional abdominal pain are offered in this article (composites to protect confidentiality) dealing with abdominal pain syndrome and abdominal migraines. The treatment demonstrates the use of hypnotic principles for self-regulation, exploration, and meaning-making. Hypnosis treatment is conducted in combination with mindfulness-based interventions and Traditional Chinese Medicine's (TCM) teachings regarding abdominal health and illness. The clinical examples illustrate medical findings that suggest children with early life stress and an early onset of gastrointestinal somatization may not simply outgrow their functional abdominal pain but may suffer into adulthood.

  14. Serum Fatty Acids, Desaturase Activities and Abdominal Obesity – A Population-Based Study of 60-Year Old Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Alsharari, Zayed D.; Risérus, Ulf; Leander, Karin; Sjögren, Per; Carlsson, Axel C.; Vikström, Max; Laguzzi, Federica; Gigante, Bruna; Cederholm, Tommy; De Faire, Ulf; Hellénius, Mai-Lis

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is a key contributor of metabolic disease. Recent trials suggest that dietary fat quality affects abdominal fat content, where palmitic acid and linoleic acid influence abdominal obesity differently, while effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are less studied. Also, fatty acid desaturation may be altered in abdominal obesity. We aimed to investigate cross-sectional associations of serum fatty acids and desaturases with abdominal obesity prevalence in a population-based cohort study. Serum cholesteryl ester fatty acids composition was measured by gas chromatography in 60-year old men (n = 1883) and women (n = 2015). Cross-sectional associations of fatty acids with abdominal obesity prevalence and anthropometric measures (e.g., sagittal abdominal diameter) were evaluated in multivariable-adjusted logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Similar models were employed to investigate relations between desaturase activities (estimated by fatty acid ratios) and abdominal obesity. In logistic regression analyses, palmitic acid, stearoyl-CoA-desaturase and Δ6-desaturase indices were associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for highest versus lowest quartiles were 1.45 (1.19–1.76), 4.06 (3.27–5.05), and 3.07 (2.51–3.75), respectively. Linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, docohexaenoic acid, and Δ5-desaturase were inversely associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 0.39 (0.32–0.48), 0.74 (0.61–0.89), 0.76 (0.62–0.93), and 0.40 (0.33–0.49), respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid was not associated with abdominal obesity. Similar results were obtained from linear regression models evaluating associations with different anthropometric measures. Sex-specific and linear associations were mainly observed for n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, while associations of the other exposures were generally non-linear and similar across

  15. Improvements in Pneumatosis Cystoides Intestinalis and Hepatic Portal Venous Gas with Conservative Therapy in a Patient on Maintenance Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Torigoe, Kenta; Arai, Hideyuki; Yamashita, Ayuko; Muraya, Yoshiaki; Obata, Yoko; Nishino, Tomoya

    2016-01-01

    A 77-year-old man on maintenance dialysis developed hypotension, nausea and abdominal pain one hour after beginning to undergo hemodialysis. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed gas shadows in the intrahepatic portal vein and the small intestinal wall, but no signs indicating intestinal necrosis. Three days later, the gas shadows on abdominal CT disappeared by conservative therapy. In cases with both pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis and hepatic portal venous gas, intestinal necrosis should therefore be suspected and surgical therapy should also be considered, particularly in hemodialysis patients with a risk of intestinal ischemia. However, conservative therapy may be an option in cases with no intestinal necrosis.

  16. Sex differences in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Boese, Austin C; Chang, Lin; Yin, Ke-Jie; Chen, Y Eugene; Lee, Jean-Pyo; Hamblin, Milton H

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disorder with a high case fatality rate in the instance of rupture. AAA is a multifactorial disease, and the etiology is still not fully understood. AAA is more likely to occur in men, but women have a greater risk of rupture and worse prognosis. Women are reportedly protected against AAA possibly by premenopausal levels of estrogen and are, on average, diagnosed at older ages than men. Here, we review the present body of research on AAA pathophysiology in humans, animal models, and cultured cells, with an emphasis on sex differences and sex steroid hormone signaling.

  17. [Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following blunt abdominal injury].

    PubMed

    Kargl, S; Breitwieser, J; Gitter, R; Pumberger, W

    2012-12-01

    Posttraumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms are a rare but life-threatening complication of blunt abdominal trauma with liver damage. We report the case of a child who developed a pseudoaneurysm of the right hepatic artery after a bicycle accident with central liver rupture. After an episode of hemodynamically relevant hemobilia due to delayed bleeding, the asymptomatic pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed coincidentally by ultrasound. Because of the progression in size angiographic coiling was performed and led to thrombotic occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm. After a symptom-free period of 1 month the child required surgery because of acute cholecystitis.

  18. A Syrian man with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Mary; Hoencamp, Rigo; Bronkhorst, Maarten

    2017-05-22

    A 32-year-old man presented with progressive abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting after swallowing a packet of dollar bills, his entire money savings, during his journey to Europe as a refugee. Subsequent imaging confirmed the presence of a foreign body in his stomach, which required surgical intervention to be removed. This is one of many cases that illustrate the hopeless circumstances people in the Middle-Eastern warzone are currently facing. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Castleman Disease Presenting as an Abdominal Mass.

    PubMed

    Shariati, Farnaz; Verter, Elizabeth; Chang, Wendy; Huang, Li; Joshi, Virendra

    2017-01-01

    Unicentric Castleman disease is a rare condition of lymphoid hyperplasia, of which only 15% of cases occur in the abdomen. We report a 66-year-old man who presented with complaints of abdominal pain. Computed tomography scans revealed nephrolithiasis and a homogeneous calcified mass between the pancreas and stomach and several para-pancreatic nodes. Direct visualization during exploratory laparotomy revealed a mass on the lesser curvature of the stomach. Pyloromyotomy and mass resection were performed. Biopsy showed reactive lymphoid hyperplasia consistent with the hyaline vascular variant of Castleman disease.

  20. Castleman Disease Presenting as an Abdominal Mass

    PubMed Central

    Verter, Elizabeth; Chang, Wendy; Huang, Li; Joshi, Virendra

    2017-01-01

    Unicentric Castleman disease is a rare condition of lymphoid hyperplasia, of which only 15% of cases occur in the abdomen. We report a 66-year-old man who presented with complaints of abdominal pain. Computed tomography scans revealed nephrolithiasis and a homogeneous calcified mass between the pancreas and stomach and several para-pancreatic nodes. Direct visualization during exploratory laparotomy revealed a mass on the lesser curvature of the stomach. Pyloromyotomy and mass resection were performed. Biopsy showed reactive lymphoid hyperplasia consistent with the hyaline vascular variant of Castleman disease. PMID:28584844

  1. Chylous ascites following abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Panieri, E; Kussman, B D; Michell, W L; Tunnicliffe, J A; Immelman, E J

    1995-03-01

    Chylous ascites is an extremely rare complication of abdominal aortic surgery. A case with a successful outcome is presented, followed by a review of the 17 published cases. Chylous ascites can result in nutritional imbalance, immunological deficit and respiratory dysfunction. Paracentesis confirms the diagnosis and provides symptomatic relief. Conservative management, beginning with a low-fat diet and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) supplementation, is recommended, changing to total parenteral nutrition if unsuccessful. Failure of non-operative treatment may necessitate the need for laparotomy and ligation of leaking lymphatics or peritoneovenous shunting.

  2. Bacteriological aspects implicated in abdominal surgical emergencies.

    PubMed

    Israil, A M; Delcaru, C; Palade, R S; Chifiriuc, C; Iordache, C; Vasile, D; Grigoriu, M; Voiculescu, D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish the microbial etiology of abdominal surgical emergencies as well as the relationship between the bacterial etiology and the virulence factors produced by the respective isolated strains. 110 bacterial strains were isolated from 100 randomized clinical cases, operated during 2009-2010 in the First Surgical Clinic of the University Hospital of Bucharest. The clinical cases (sex ratio 52 M/48F aged between 22-85 years old) were classified into three risk groups, as related to their severity. The isolated strains were characterized by cultural, microscopic and biochemical methods. After identification, the bacterial strains were investigated for their virulence potential (adherence to abiotic surface and production of soluble virulence factors). The specimens were collected from different clinical pathologies: diffuse acute peritonitis, biliary duct infections, severe acute pancreatitis followed by septic processes etc. The 110 bacterial (72 aerobic and 38 anaerobic) strains were isolated only in 70 out of 100 cases. Out of these 70 cases, in 45 already submitted to pre-operatory empiric broad spectrum antibiotic therapy, there were isolated 74 strains, whereas in 25 cases without any treatment, there were isolated 36 strains. The etiology was either mono-specific or multi-specific (aerobic-anaerobic associations, especially in old persons). Out of the 30 negative culture cases, 16 were already submitted to pre-operatory parenteral empiric antibiotic therapy at the moment of specimen collection. The aerobic etiology was dominated by Enterobacteriaceae. The most frequent anaerobic species belonged to Clostridium, Peptococcus and Bacteroides genera. It is to be mentioned that the isolation of Bifidobacterium and Veillonella spp. in 11 (10%) severe cases of the studied abdominal surgical emergencies is pleading for the fact that in certain conditions, bacteria belonging usually to commensal gut flora can turn to pathogenic

  3. Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Sternbergh, W. Charles; Yoselevitz, Moises; Money, Samuel R.

    1999-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is an exciting new minimally invasive treatment option for patients with this disease. Ochsner Clinic has been the only institution in the Gulf South participating in FDA clinical trials of these investigational devices. Early results with endovascular AAA repair demonstrate a trend towards lower mortality and morbidity when compared with traditional open surgery. Length of stay has been reduced by two-thirds with a marked reduction in postoperative pain and at-home convalescence. If the long-term data on efficacy and durability of these devices are good, most AAAs in the future will be treated with this minimally invasive technique. PMID:21845135

  4. Fallopian Tube Herniation through Left Sided Abdominal Drain Site.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Khalid; Masood, Jovaria

    2016-06-01

    Intra-abdominal drains have been used since long to prevent intra-abdominal collection, and detect any anastomotic leaks. We report a case of left sided fallopian tube herniation from a left lower abdominal drain site in a 27-year female who underwent caesarian section for breach presentation. Several complications related to drain usage has been described but left sided fallopian tube prolapse through drain site has not been reported in literature.

  5. Desmoid tumors of the abdominal wall: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Overhaus, Marcus; Decker, Pan; Fischer, Hans Peter; Textor, Hans Jochen; Hirner, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Background Desmoid tumors are slow growing deep fibromatoses with aggressive infiltration of adjacent tissue but without any metastatic potential. Case Presentation We report on two female patients with desmoid tumor of the abdominal wall who underwent primary resection. Both patients had a history of an earlier abdominal surgery. Preoperative evaluation included abdominal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. The histology in both cases revealed a desmoid tumor. Conclusion Complete surgical resection is the first line management of this tumor entity. PMID:12890284

  6. [Abdominal wall reconstruction with collagen membrane in an animal model of abdominal hernia. A preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Łukasiewicz, Aleksander; Drewa, Tomasz; Skopińska-Wiśniewska, Joanna; Molski, Stanisław

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal hernia repair is one of the most common surgical procedures. Current data indicate that the best treatment results are achieved with use of synthetic material to reinforce weakened abdominal wall. Prosthetic materials utilized for hernia repair induce adhesions with underlying viscera. They should be therefore separated from them by a layer of peritoneum otherwise adhesions may cause to serious complications such as bowel-skin fistulas. The aim of our work was to determine if implantation of our collagen membrane into abdominal wall defect induce adhesions in rat model of ventral hernia. The collagen film was obtained by acetic acid extraction of rat tail tendons and than casting the soluble fraction onto polyethylene shits. Abdominal wall defect was created in 10 Wistar male rats. Collagen membranes were implanted into the defect using interrupted polypropylene stitches. After 3 months of observation all animals were sacrificed. No adhesions between path structure and bowel developed. In one often rats (10%) adhesion between fixating stitch and omentum was observed. Complete mesothelium lining and vascular ingrowth were microscopically observed within implanted structure. Promising result requires further confirmation in a larger series of animals.

  7. Simultaneous repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and resection of unexpected, associated abdominal malignancies.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio', Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Lorusso, Riccardo; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Vietri, Francesco

    2004-12-15

    The management of unexpected intra-abdominal malignancy, discovered at laparotomy for elective treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), is controversial. It is still unclear whether both conditions should be treated simultaneously or a staged approach is to be preferred. To contribute in improving treatment guidelines, we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients undergoing laparotomy for elective AAA repair. From January 1994 to March 2003, 253 patients underwent elective, trans-peritoneal repair of an AAA. In four patients (1.6%), an associated, unexpected neoplasm was detected at abdominal exploration, consisting of one renal, one gastric, one ileal carcinoid, and one ascending colon tumor. All of them were treated at the same operation, after aortic repair and careful isolation of the prosthetic graft. The whole series' operative mortality was 3.6%. None of the patients simultaneously treated for AAA and tumor resection died in the postoperative period. No graft-related infections were observed. Simultaneous treatment of AAA and tumor did not prolong significantly the mean length of stay in the hospital, compared to standard treatment of AAA alone. Except for malignancies of organs requiring major surgical resections, simultaneous AAA repair and resection of an associated, unexpected abdominal neoplasm can be safely performed, in most of the patients, sparing the need for a second procedure. Endovascular grafting of the AAA can be a valuable tool in simplifying simultaneous treatment, or in staging the procedures with a very short delay.

  8. Wireless system for monitoring Intra-abdominal pressure in patient with severe abdominal pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovskiy, S. S.; Shtotskiy, Y. V.; Leljanov, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses an experimental design of the wireless system for monitoring intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) using Bluetooth Low Energy technology. The possibility of measuring IAP via the bladder using a wireless pressure sensor with a hydrophobic bacteria filter between the liquid transmitting medium and the sensor element is grounded.

  9. Elasticity of the living abdominal wall in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Song, Chengli; Alijani, Afshin; Frank, Tim; Hanna, George; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery requires inflation of the abdominal cavity and this offers a unique opportunity to measure the mechanical properties of the living abdominal wall. We used a motion analysis system to study the abdominal wall motion of 18 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, and found that the mean Young's modulus was 27.7+/-4.5 and 21.0+/-3.7 kPa for male and female, respectively. During inflation, the abdominal wall changed from a cylinder to a dome shape. The average expansion in the abdominal wall surface was 20%, and a working space of 1.27 x 10(-3)m(3) was created by expansion, reshaping of the abdominal wall and diaphragmatic movement. For the first time, the elasticity of human abdominal wall was obtained from the patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, and a 3D simulation model of human abdominal wall has been developed to analyse the motion pattern in laparoscopic surgery. Based on this study, a mechanical abdominal wall lift and a surgical simulator for safe/ergonomic port placements are under development.

  10. Congenital heart disease manifested as acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Macha, Mahender; Gupta, Dipin; Molina, Ezequiel; Palma, Jon; Rothman, Steven

    2007-06-12

    We present a case of a 53-year-old man with complaints of severe abdominal pain and nausea. Emergency department abdominal workup was non-diagnostic. Physical examination revealed signs of right- and left-heart failure. A past medical history of dysrhythmias and chronic abdominal complaints prompted hospital admission. Subsequent right heart catheterization revealed a significant left-to-right shunt. CT scan of the chest and angiography confirmed the diagnosis of an abnormal ascending vein between the innominate vein and the left superior pulmonary vein. After the anomalous vein was ligated, the patient's abdominal pain resolved.

  11. Post ventriculoperitoneal shunt abdominal pseudocyst: Challenges posed in management.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Raashid; Baba, Aejaz A; Bhat, Nisar A; Mufti, Gowhar; Mir, Younis A; Sajad, Wani

    2017-01-01

    In patients with hydrocephalus, the abdominal cavity has been used for absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) since 1905. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt operation is followed by abdominal complications in about 5-47% cases. Abdominal CSF pseudo cyst is an uncommon, but well described complication. This survey was conducted to study the clinical profile and management of this entity. We present our experience with cases of CSF pseudo cyst in children. Retrospective analysis of 4 cases diagnosed to have abdominal pseudo cyst following VP shunt between 2008 and 2013. All the four cases were suspected clinically and diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography. In three patients, the cyst was multilocular and of varying size. Fourth one had a unilocular cyst at the lower end of VP shunt. All the four patients had features of varying degree raised intracranial pressure and a two patients had abdominal signs also. All the patients needed open exploration. Cyst fluid was drained and partial to complete excision of the cyst was done along with the repositioning of the shunt in abdominal cavity in three patients and exteriorization of shunt in one patient. Patients were followed for any further complication over a period of 1-year. Abdominal pseudo cyst is a rare complication after VP Shunt and could result in shunt malfunction or abdominal symptoms and signs. Whenever suspected it should be confirmed by imaging, followed by open exploration and repositioning of the shunt.

  12. Post ventriculoperitoneal shunt abdominal pseudocyst: Challenges posed in management

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Raashid; Baba, Aejaz A.; Bhat, Nisar A.; Mufti, Gowhar; Mir, Younis A.; Sajad, Wani

    2017-01-01

    Background: In patients with hydrocephalus, the abdominal cavity has been used for absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) since 1905. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt operation is followed by abdominal complications in about 5-47% cases. Abdominal CSF pseudo cyst is an uncommon, but well described complication. Aim: This survey was conducted to study the clinical profile and management of this entity. We present our experience with cases of CSF pseudo cyst in children. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 4 cases diagnosed to have abdominal pseudo cyst following VP shunt between 2008 and 2013. All the four cases were suspected clinically and diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography. Results: In three patients, the cyst was multilocular and of varying size. Fourth one had a unilocular cyst at the lower end of VP shunt. All the four patients had features of varying degree raised intracranial pressure and a two patients had abdominal signs also. All the patients needed open exploration. Cyst fluid was drained and partial to complete excision of the cyst was done along with the repositioning of the shunt in abdominal cavity in three patients and exteriorization of shunt in one patient. Patients were followed for any further complication over a period of 1-year. Conclusion: Abdominal pseudo cyst is a rare complication after VP Shunt and could result in shunt malfunction or abdominal symptoms and signs. Whenever suspected it should be confirmed by imaging, followed by open exploration and repositioning of the shunt. PMID:28413525

  13. Defensive abdominal rotation patterns of tenebrionid beetle, Zophobas atratus, pupae.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Toshio; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Yamawaki, Yoshifumi

    2012-01-01

    Exarate pupae of the beetle Zophobas atratus Fab. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) have free appendages (antenna, palp, leg, and elytron) that are highly sensitive to mechanical stimulation. A weak tactile stimulus applied to any appendage initiated a rapid rotation of abdominal segments. High-speed photography revealed that one cycle of defensive abdominal rotation was induced in an all-or-none fashion by bending single or multiple mechanosensory hairs on a leg or prodding the cuticular surface of appendages containing campaniform sensilla. The direction of the abdominal rotation completely depended on the side of stimulation; stimulation of a right appendage induced a right-handed rotation about the anterior-posterior axis of the pupal body and vice versa. The trajectories of the abdominal rotations had an ellipsoidal or pear-shaped pattern. Among the trajectory patterns of the rotations induced by stimulating different appendages, there were occasional significant differences in the horizontal (right-left) component of abdominal rotational movements. Simultaneous stimulation of right and left appendages often induced variable and complex patterns of abdominal movements, suggesting an interaction between sensory signals from different sides. When an abdominal rotation was induced in a freely lying pupa, the rotation usually made the pupa move away from or turn its dorsum toward the source of stimulation with the aid of the caudal processes (urogomphi), which served as a fulcrum for transmitting the power of the abdominal rotation to the movement or turning of the whole body. Pattern generation mechanisms for the abdominal rotation were discussed.

  14. Defensive Abdominal Rotation Patterns of Tenebrionid Beetle, Zophobas atratus, Pupae

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Toshio; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Yamawaki, Yoshifumi

    2012-01-01

    Exarate pupae of the beetle Zophobas atratus Fab. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) have free appendages (antenna, palp, leg, and elytron) that are highly sensitive to mechanical stimulation. A weak tactile stimulus applied to any appendage initiated a rapid rotation of abdominal segments. High-speed photography revealed that one cycle of defensive abdominal rotation was induced in an all-or-none fashion by bending single or multiple mechanosensory hairs on a leg or prodding the cuticular surface of appendages containing campaniform sensilla. The direction of the abdominal rotation completely depended on the side of stimulation; stimulation of a right appendage induced a right-handed rotation about the anterior-posterior axis of the pupal body and vice versa. The trajectories of the abdominal rotations had an ellipsoidal or pear-shaped pattern. Among the trajectory patterns of the rotations induced by stimulating different appendages, there were occasional significant differences in the horizontal (right-left) component of abdominal rotational movements. Simultaneous stimulation of right and left appendages often induced variable and complex patterns of abdominal movements, suggesting an interaction between sensory signals from different sides. When an abdominal rotation was induced in a freely lying pupa, the rotation usually made the pupa move away from or turn its dorsum toward the source of stimulation with the aid of the caudal processes (urogomphi), which served as a fulcrum for transmitting the power of the abdominal rotation to the movement or turning of the whole body. Pattern generation mechanisms for the abdominal rotation were discussed. PMID:23448289

  15. The utility of focused abdominal ultrasound in blunt abdominal trauma: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Helling, Thomas S; Wilson, Jennifer; Augustosky, Kim

    2007-12-01

    Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) has become commonplace in the management of blunt abdominal trauma. However, newer computed tomography (CT) scanners have decreased imaging time for trauma patients and provide more detailed examination of abdominal contents. It was the aim of the current study to evaluate practice patterns of FAST and abdominal CT in blunt trauma victims. This was a retrospective study of all blunt trauma patients (N = 299) who received at least 1 FAST examination in the emergency department by surgeons and were admitted. Patients were tracked for subsequent CT scanning, disposition from the emergency department, any operative findings, and survival. Twenty-one of 299 patients (7%) had a positive FAST. There were 7 deaths and 14 patients were taken directly to the operating room (OR) for control of abdominal bleeding. Thirty-one of 299 (10%) had equivocal FAST. There were 4 deaths and 8 patients were taken to the OR for control of abdominal bleeding. A total of 247 of the 299 patients had a negative FAST. CT scans were performed in 193: 15 showed a visceral injury. There were 13 deaths and 29 patients were taken to the OR (4 for bleeding). Patients with a positive FAST had a higher mortality than FAST-negative patients (P < .001) and greater likelihood for operation (P < .001). Those with equivocal FAST had a greater likelihood for operation than FAST-negative patients (P < .05). FAST examinations can identify patients at risk for hemorrhage and in whom operation may be needed and, therefore, can guide mobilization of hospital resources. FAST-negative patients can be managed expectantly, using more specific imaging techniques.

  16. Responses of intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal muscle activity during dynamic trunk loading in man.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, A G

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare interactions between the abdominal musculature and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during controlled dynamic and static trunk muscle loading. Myoelectric activity was recorded in six subjects from the rectus abdominis, obliquus externus, obliquus internus, transversus abdominis and erector spinae muscles using surface and intra-muscular fine-wire electrodes. The IAP was recorded intra-gastrically. Trunk flexions and extensions were performed lying on one side on a swivel table. An adjustable brake provided different friction loading conditions, while adding weights to an unbraked swivel table afforded various levels of inertial loading. During trunk extensions at all friction loads, IAP was elevated (1.8-7.2 kPa) with concomitant activity in transversus abdominis and obliquus internus muscles--little or no activity was seen from rectus abdominis and obliquus externus muscles. For inertia loading during trunk extension, IAP levels were somewhat lower (1.8-5.6 kPa) and displayed a second peak when abdominal muscle activity occurred in the course of decelerating the movement. For single trunk flexions with friction loading, IAP was higher than that seen in extension conditions and increased with added resistance. For inertial loading during trunk flexion, IAP showed two peaks, the larger first peak matched peak forward acceleration and general abdominal muscle activation, while the second corresponded to peak deceleration and was accompanied by activity in transversus abdominis and erector spinae muscles. It was apparent that different loading strategies produced markedly different patterns of response in both trunk musculature and intra-abdominal pressure.

  17. Constipation Risk in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Sevim; Atar, Nurdan Yalcin; Ozturk, Nilgun; Mendes, Guler; Kuytak, Figen; Bakar, Esra; Dalgiran, Duygu; Ergin, Sumeyra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Problems regarding bowel elimination are quite common in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Objectives: To determine constipation risk before the surgery, bowel elimination during postoperative period, and the factors affecting bowel elimination. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a general surgery ward of a university hospital in Zonguldak, Turkey between January 2013 and May 2013. A total of 107 patients were included in the study, who were selected by convenience sampling. Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS), patient information form, medical and nursing records were used in the study. Results: The mean age of the patients was found to be 55.97 ± 15.74 (year). Most of the patients have undergone colon (37.4%) and stomach surgeries (21.5%). Open surgical intervention (83.2%) was performed on almost all patients (96.3%) under general anesthesia. Patients were at moderate risk for constipation with average scores of 11.71 before the surgery. A total of 77 patients (72%) did not have bowel elimination problem during postoperative period. The type of the surgery (P < 0.05), starting time for oral feeding after the surgery (P < 0.05), and mobilization (P < 0.05) were effective on postoperative bowel elimination. Conclusions: There is a risk for constipation after abdominal surgery. Postoperative practices are effective on the risk of constipation. PMID:26380107

  18. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon).

    PubMed

    Serafimidis, Costas; Katsarolis, Ioannis; Vernadakis, Spyros; Rallis, George; Giannopoulos, George; Legakis, Nikolaos; Peros, George

    2006-02-13

    Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon) is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, especially in adult population. Diagnosis is usually incidental at laparotomy. We discuss one such rare case, outlining the fact that an intra-operative surprise diagnosis could have been facilitated by previous investigations. A 56 year-old man presented in A&E department with small bowel ileus. He had a history of 6 similar episodes of small bowel obstruction in the past 4 years, which resolved with conservative treatment. Pre-operative work-up did not reveal any specific etiology. At laparotomy, a fibrous capsule was revealed, in which small bowel loops were encased, with the presence of interloop adhesions. A diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was established and extensive adhesiolysis was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and follow-up. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, although rare, may be the cause of a common surgical emergency such as small bowel ileus, especially in cases with attacks of non-strangulating obstruction in the same individual. A high index of clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent character of small bowel ileus combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. Clinicians must rigorously pursue a preoperative diagnosis, as it may prevent a "surprise" upon laparotomy and result in proper management.

  19. Laparoscopic and abdominal hysterectomy: a cost comparison.

    PubMed

    Tsaltas, J; Magnus, A; Mamers, P M; Lawrence, A S; Lolatgis, N; Healy, D L

    1997-02-17

    To compare the cost of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) with that of total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) under casemix. Retrospective comparison of the costs, operating time and length of hospital stay. The 16 women undergoing consecutive LAVH and 16 age-matched women undergoing TAH between 1 February 1994 and 31 July 1995; all women were public patients undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease. Monash Medical Centre, a large tertiary teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia, where casemix is used to determine funding and budget allocation. The difference between the costs of the two procedures was not statistically significant (P = 0.5), despite the cost of laparoscopic hysterectomy including that of disposables. The mean operating time for TAH was 86 minutes (95% CI, 65.5-106.5), compared with 120 minutes (95% CI, 100.8-140.5) for LAVH (P < 0.01). The mean length of stay in the TAH group was 5.75 days, compared with 3.25 days in the LAVH group (P < 0.001). In hysterectomy for benign gynaecological disease, the laparoscopic procedure costs the same as the total abdominal procedure. Audit such as this is important in patient management and in guiding hospitals in funding and bed allocation.

  20. Functional abdominal pain disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Rajindrajith, Shaman; Zeevenhooven, Judith; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Perera, Bonaventure Jayasiri Crispus; Benninga, Marc A

    2018-04-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common problem in pediatric practice. The majority of cases fulfill the Rome IV criteria for functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs). At times, these disorders may lead to rather serious repercussions. Area covered: We have attempted to cover current knowledge on epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors related to pathophysiology, clinical evaluation and management of children with FAPDs. Expert commentary: FAPDs are a worldwide problem with a pooled prevalence of 13.5%. There are a number of predisposing factors and pathophysiological mechanisms including stressful events, child maltreatment, visceral hypersensitivity, altered gastrointestinal motility and change in intestinal microbiota. It is possible that the environmental risk factors intricately interact with genes through epigenetic mechanisms to contribute to the pathophysiology. The diagnosis mainly depends on clinical evaluation. Commonly used pharmacological interventions do not play a major role in relieving symptoms. Centrally directed, nonpharmacological interventions such as hypnotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy have shown both short and long term efficacy in relieving pain in children with FAPDs. However, these interventions are time consuming and need specially trained staff and therefore, not currently available at grass root level. Clinicians and researchers should join hands in searching for more pragmatic and effective therapeutic modalities to improve overall care of children with FAPDs.

  1. Temporary closure of the abdominal wall by use of silicone rubber sheets after operative repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Akers, D L; Fowl, R J; Kempczinski, R F; Davis, K; Hurst, J M; Uhl, S

    1991-07-01

    Management of patients after operative repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms can be further complicated if primary closure of the abdominal wall cannot be technically accomplished or is associated with profound increases in intraabdominal and peak inspiratory pressures. We recently treated five patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms and one patient with a ruptured thoracoabdominal aneurysm whose abdominal incisions had to be closed with a Dacron reinforced, silicone sheet. All patients were hemodynamically unstable either at admission to the hospital or became so during operation. Four patients required the insertion of a silicone rubber sheet at the primary operation because of massive retroperitoneal hematoma or edema of the bowel wall or both. Incisions in two patients were closed primarily, but the patients required reexploration and secondary closure with silicone rubber sheets because of the development of marked increases in peak inspiratory pressures, intraabdominal pressures, and decreased urinary output. Four of the six patients subsequently underwent successful removal of the silicone rubber sheets with delayed primary closure of the abdominal wall, and two others died before removal. The patient with the ruptured thoracoabdominal aneurysm died on postoperative day 20 because of pulmonary sepsis but had a healed abdominal incision. The three surviving patients have been discharged. A silicone rubber sheet may be necessary for closure of the abdominal wall after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in patients where primary abdominal wall closure is impossible or where it results in compromise in respiratory or renal function.

  2. Does abdominal sonography provide additional information over abdominal plain radiography for diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates?

    PubMed

    Dilli, Dilek; Suna Oğuz, S; Erol, Reyhan; Ozkan-Ulu, Hülya; Dumanlı, Hüseyin; Dilmen, Uğur

    2011-03-01

    To explore whether addition of abdominal sonography (AUS) to plain radiography is helpful in the management of premature newborns with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This study is a prospective analysis of 93 premature neonates with NEC who were followed-up in our neonatal intensive care unit between October 2007 and April 2009. Patients were classified into two groups; group I with suspected NEC (stage I) (n = 54) and group II with definite NEC (stage ≥II) (n = 39). Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) (n = 29), free air (n = 9), and portal venous gas (PVG) (n = 1) were observed in group II on plain radiography. In the same group, echoic free fluid (EFF) (n = 9), PVG (n = 6), PI (n = 5), and focal fluid collection (n = 3) were the most prominent sonographic findings. In patients with intestinal perforation, whereas EFF and bowel wall thinning were observed on AUS, free air was not detected on plain radiography as a sign of intestinal perforation. Our results suggest AUS to be superior to plain radiography on early detection of intestinal perforation by demonstrating PVG and EFF collection. Therefore, it may be life-saving by directing the surgeon to perform surgical intervention in the case of clinical deterioration in the course of NEC.

  3. Electrical impedance tomography during major open upper abdominal surgery: a pilot-study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) of the lungs facilitates visualization of ventilation distribution during mechanical ventilation. Its intraoperative use could provide the basis for individual optimization of ventilator settings, especially in patients at risk for ventilation-perfusion mismatch and impaired gas exchange, such as patients undergoing major open upper abdominal surgery. EIT throughout major open upper abdominal surgery could encounter difficulties in belt positioning and signal quality. Thus, we conducted a pilot-study and tested whether EIT is feasible in patients undergoing major open upper abdominal surgery. Methods Following institutional review board’s approval and written informed consent, we included patients scheduled for major open upper abdominal surgery of at least 3 hours duration. EIT measurements were conducted prior to intubation, at the time of skin incision, then hourly during surgery until shortly prior to extubation and after extubation. Number of successful intraoperative EIT measurements and reasons for failures were documented. From the valid measurements, a functional EIT image of changes in tidal impedance was generated for every time point. Regions of interest were defined as horizontal halves of the picture. Monitoring of ventilation distribution was assessed using the center of ventilation index, and also using the total and dorsal ventilated lung area. All parameter values prior to and post intubation as well as extubation were compared. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 120 intraoperative EIT measurements during major abdominal surgery lasting 4-13 hours were planned in 14 patients. The electrode belt was attached between the 2nd and 4th intercostal space. Consecutive valid measurements could be acquired in 13 patients (93%). 111 intraoperative measurements could be retrieved as planned (93%). Main obstacle was the contact of skin electrodes. Despite the high belt

  4. Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening program in Poland.

    PubMed

    Jawien, A; Formankiewicz, B; Derezinski, T; Migdalski, A; Brazis, P; Woda, L

    Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is currently recommended by several vascular societies. In countries where it has been introduced the prevalence of AAAs differed greatly and was mainly related to cigarette smoking. The screening program also had an enormous impact on the decrease of AAA ruptures and reduced mortality rate. These facts have led to the introduction of the first screening program for AAAs in Poland. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of AAAs among men aged 60 years and older undergoing ultrasound examination of the abdominal aorta. A single ultrasonography of the abdomen was performed to assess the aorta from the renal arteries to the bifurcation and the diameter of the aorta was measured at its widest point. The cut-off value for determining an aortic aneurysm was set at a diameter of ≥ 30 mm. All ultrasonography measurements were performed by physicians in outpatient departments throughout the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Province. Additionally, each subject had to fill out a questionnaire with demographic data, smoking habits, existing comorbidities and familial occurrence of AAAs. The study was conducted from October 2009 to November 2011. The abdominal aorta ultrasound examinations were carried out in 1556 men aged 60 years and older. The prevalence of AAA in the study population was 6.0 % (94 out of 1556). The average age of the men was 69 years (SD 6 years, range 60-92 years). In the study population 55 % of the men smoked or had smoked and 3 % were aware of the presence of AAAs in family members. There were three risk factors significantly associated with the presence of AAAs: age (p < 0.05), smoking (72.3 % vs 53.9 %, p = 0.004) and family history of AAAs (9.6 % vs 2.7 %, p = 0.017). The prevalence of AAAs among men in Poland is higher than in other European countries and the USA. The screening program for AAAs is an easy and reliable method for detecting early stages of the disease and

  5. Distinguishing infected from noninfected abdominal fluid collections after surgery: an imaging, clinical, and laboratory-based scoring system.

    PubMed

    Gnannt, Ralph; Fischer, Michael A; Baechler, Thomas; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Karlo, Christoph; Seifert, Burkhardt; Lesurtel, Mickael; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2015-01-01

    Mortality from abdominal abscesses ranges from 30% in treated cases up to 80% to 100% in patients with undrained or nonoperated abscesses. Various computed tomographic (CT) imaging features have been suggested to indicate infection of postoperative abdominal fluid collections; however, features are nonspecific and substantial overlap between infected and noninfected collections exists. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a scoring system on the basis of CT imaging findings as well as laboratory and clinical parameters for distinguishing infected from noninfected abdominal fluid collections after surgery. The score developmental cohort included 100 consecutive patients (69 men, 31 women; mean age, 58 ± 17 years) who underwent portal-venous phase CT within 24 hours before CT-guided intervention of postoperative abdominal fluid collections. Imaging features included attenuation (Hounsfield unit [HU]), volume, wall enhancement and thickness, fat stranding, as well as entrapped gas of fluid collections. Laboratory and clinical parameters included diabetes, intake of immunosuppressive drugs, body temperature, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte blood cell count. The score was validated in a separate cohort of 30 consecutive patients (17 men, 13 women; mean age, 51 ± 15 years) with postoperative abdominal fluid collections. Microbiologic analysis from fluid samples served as the standard of reference. Diabetes, body temperature, C-reactive protein, attenuation of the fluid collection (in HUs), wall enhancement and thickness of the wall, adjacent fat stranding, as well as entrapped gas within the fluid collection were significantly different between infected and noninfected collections (P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed diabetes, C-reactive protein, attenuation of the fluid collection (in HUs), as well as entrapped gas as significant independent predictors of infection (P < 0.001) and thus was selected for constructing a scoring

  6. Reproducibility of abdominal fat assessment by ultrasound and computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Mauad, Fernando Marum; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Benedeti, Augusto César Garcia Saab; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton Oliveira; Muller, Enrico Mattana; Elias Junior, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To test the accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) for the quantification of abdominal fat in correlation with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical assessments. Materials and Methods: Using ultrasound and CT, we determined the thickness of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat in 101 subjects-of whom 39 (38.6%) were men and 62 (61.4%) were women-with a mean age of 66.3 years (60-80 years). The ultrasound data were correlated with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical parameters, as well as with the areas measured by abdominal CT. Results: Intra-abdominal thickness was the variable for which the correlation with the areas of abdominal fat was strongest (i.e., the correlation coefficient was highest). We also tested the reproducibility of ultrasound and CT for the assessment of abdominal fat and found that CT measurements of abdominal fat showed greater reproducibility, having higher intraobserver and interobserver reliability than had the ultrasound measurements. There was a significant correlation between ultrasound and CT, with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. Conclusion: In the assessment of abdominal fat, the intraobserver and interobserver reliability were greater for CT than for ultrasound, although both methods showed high accuracy and good reproducibility. PMID:28670024

  7. Reproducibility of abdominal fat assessment by ultrasound and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Mauad, Fernando Marum; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Benedeti, Augusto César Garcia Saab; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton Oliveira; Muller, Enrico Mattana; Elias Junior, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    To test the accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) for the quantification of abdominal fat in correlation with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical assessments. Using ultrasound and CT, we determined the thickness of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat in 101 subjects-of whom 39 (38.6%) were men and 62 (61.4%) were women-with a mean age of 66.3 years (60-80 years). The ultrasound data were correlated with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical parameters, as well as with the areas measured by abdominal CT. Intra-abdominal thickness was the variable for which the correlation with the areas of abdominal fat was strongest (i.e., the correlation coefficient was highest). We also tested the reproducibility of ultrasound and CT for the assessment of abdominal fat and found that CT measurements of abdominal fat showed greater reproducibility, having higher intraobserver and interobserver reliability than had the ultrasound measurements. There was a significant correlation between ultrasound and CT, with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. In the assessment of abdominal fat, the intraobserver and interobserver reliability were greater for CT than for ultrasound, although both methods showed high accuracy and good reproducibility.

  8. Abdominal Cysticercosis in a Red Fox ( Vulpes vulpes ).

    PubMed

    Whipp, Christopher James; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Conboy, Gary; Gelens, Hans

    2017-01-01

    A large abdominal mass containing numerous cysticerci identified as those of Taenia crassiceps (=Cysticercus longicollis) was found in the pelvic region of the abdominal cavity of a severely constipated and emaciated red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Cysticercosis has not previously been reported in a wild canid in North America.

  9. Abdominal Wall Endometriosis Eleven Years After Cesarean Section: Case Report

    PubMed

    Djaković, Ivka; Vuković, Ante; Bolanča, Ivan; Soljačić Vraneš, Hrvojka; Kuna, Krunoslav

    2017-03-01

    Endometriosis is a common chronic disease characterized by growth of the endometrial gland and stroma outside the uterus. Symptoms affect physical, mental and social well-being. Extrapelvic location of endometriosis is very rare. Abdominal wall endometriosis occurs in 0.03%-2% of women with a previous cesarean section or other abdominopelvic operation. The leading symptoms are abdominal nodular mass, pain and cyclic symptomatology. The number of cesarean sections is increasing and so is the incidence of abdominal wall endometriosis as a potential complication of the procedure. There are cases of malignant transformation of abdominal wall endometriosis. Therefore, it is important to recognize this condition and treat it surgically. We report a case of a 37-year-old woman with abdominal wall endometriosis 11 years after cesarean section. She had low abdominal pain related to menstrual cycle, which intensified at the end of menstrual bleeding. A nodule painful to palpation was found in the medial part of previous Pfannenstiel incision. Ultrasound guided biopsy was performed and the diagnosis of endometriosis confirmed. Surgery is the treatment of choice for abdominal wall endometriosis. Excision with histologically proven free surgical margins of 1 cm is mandatory to prevent recurrence. A wide spectrum of mimicking conditions is the main reason for late diagnosis and treatment of abdominal wall endometriosis. In our case, the symptoms lasted for eight years and had intensified in the last six months prior to surgery.

  10. Bogota bag in the treatment of abdominal wound dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Sukumar, N; Shaharin, S; Razman, J; Jasmi, A Y

    2004-06-01

    A patient who underwent emergency laparotomy for rectal prolapse developed repeated abdominal wound dehiscence and subsequently an enteric fistula. The management of abdominal wound dehiscence is discussed, specifically with regards to the Bogota bag. Use of Bogota bag has been reported worldwide but this may be the first report here.

  11. [Abdominal gunshot wounds. Ballistic data and practical management].

    PubMed

    Vicq, P; Jourdan, P; Chapuis, O; Baranger, B

    1996-01-01

    The mortality from abdominal gunshot wounds remains high, either in civilian or military cases. The severity factors of these wounds include bullet calibre and energy transfer of the missile. This paper studies some of the ballistics features of abdominal gunshot wounds. Practical guidelines are inferred concerning diagnosis and treatment of these wounds.

  12. [Clinical Approach to Abdominal Pain as Functional Origin].

    PubMed

    Ryu, Han Seung; Choi, Suck Chei

    2018-02-25

    Abdominal pain is a common symptom that patients refer to a hospital. Organic causes should be differentiated in patients with abdominal pain and treatment should be administered in accordance with the causes. A meticulous history taking and physical examination are highly useful in making a diagnosis, and blood tests, imaging modalities, and endoscopy are useful for confirming diagnosis. However, in many cases, patients have functional disorders with no obvious abnormal findings obtained even if many diagnostic tests are performed. Patients with functional disorders usually complain the vague abdominal pain located in the center and other portions of the abdominal area. Although the most representative disease is irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal pain syndrome is currently researched as a new disease entity of functional abdominal pain. As various receptors related to functional abdominal pain have been discovered, drugs associated with those receptors are used to treat the disorders, and additional new drugs are vigorously developed. In addition, medical therapy with pharmacological or non-pharmacological psychiatric treatment is effective for treating functional abdominal pain.

  13. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abdominal decompression chamber. 884.5225 Section 884.5225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  14. Hypertonic lactated saline resuscitation reduces the risk of abdominal compartment syndrome in severely burned patients.

    PubMed

    Oda, Jun; Ueyama, Masashi; Yamashita, Katsuyuki; Inoue, Takuya; Noborio, Mitsuhiro; Ode, Yasumasa; Aoki, Yoshiki; Sugimoto, Hisashi

    2006-01-01

    Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is a lethal complication after resuscitation from burn shock. Hypertonic lactated saline (HLS) infusion reduces early fluid requirements in burn shock, but the effects of HLS on intraabdominal pressure have not been clarified. Patients admitted to our burn unit between 2002 and 2004 with burns > or =40% of the total body surface area without severe inhalation injury were entered into a fluid resuscitation protocol using HLS (n = 14) or lactated Ringer's solution (n = 22). Urine output was monitored hourly with a goal of 0.5 to 1.0 mL/kg per hour. Hemodynamic parameters, blood gas analysis, intrabladder pressure as an indicator of intraabdominal pressure (IAP), and the peak inspiratory pressure were recorded. Pulmonary compliance and the abdominal perfusion pressure were also calculated. In the HLS group, the amount of intravenous fluid volume needed to maintain adequate urine output was less at 3.1 +/- 0.9 versus 5.2 +/- 1.2 mL/24 h per kg per percentage of total body surface area, and the peak IAP and peak inspiratory pressure at 24 hours after injury were significantly lower than those in the lactated Ringer's group. Two of 14 patients (14%) in the HLS group and 11 of 22 patients (50%) developed IAH within 20.8 +/- 7.2 hours after injury. In patients with severe burn injury, a large intravenous fluid volume decreases abdominal perfusion during the resuscitative period because of increased IAP. Our data suggest that HLS resuscitation could reduce the risk of secondary abdominal compartment syndrome with lower fluid load in burn shock patients.

  15. Understanding the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kuivaniemi, Helena; Ryer, Evan J.; Elmore, James R.; Tromp, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Summary An aortic aneurysm is a dilatation in which the aortic diameter is ≥ 3.0 cm. If left untreated, the aortic wall continues to weaken and becomes unable to withstand the forces of the luminal blood pressure resulting in progressive dilatation and rupture, a catastrophic event associated with a mortality of 50 – 80%. Smoking and positive family history are important risk factors for the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Several genetic risk factors have also been identified. On the histological level, visible hallmarks of AAA pathogenesis include inflammation, smooth muscle cell apoptosis, extracellular matrix degradation, and oxidative stress. We expect that large genetic, genomic, epigenetic, proteomic and metabolomic studies will be undertaken by international consortia to identify additional risk factors and biomarkers, and to enhance our understanding of the pathobiology of AAA. Collaboration between different research groups will be important in overcoming the challenges to develop pharmacological treatments for AAA. PMID:26308600

  16. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: an autoimmune disease?

    PubMed

    Jagadesham, Vamshi P; Scott, D Julian A; Carding, Simon R

    2008-12-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a multifactorial degenerative vascular disorder. One of the defining features of the pathophysiology of aneurysmal disease is inflammation. Recent developments in vascular and molecular cell biology have increased our knowledge on the role of the adaptive and innate immune systems in the initiation and propagation of the inflammatory response in aortic tissue. AAAs share many features of autoimmune disease, including genetic predisposition, organ specificity and chronic inflammation. Here, this evidence is used to propose that the chronic inflammation observed in AAAs is a consequence of a dysregulated autoimmune response against autologous components of the aortic wall that persists inappropriately. Identification of the molecular and cellular targets involved in AAA formation will allow the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of AAA.

  17. Plain abdominal radiographs in acute medical emergencies: an abused investigation?

    PubMed

    Feyler, S; Williamson, V; King, D

    2002-02-01

    Plain abdominal radiographs are commonly requested for acute medical emergencies on patients with non-specific abdominal symptoms and signs. In this study 131 plain abdominal radiographs performed on the day of admission were prospectively analysed. In only 16 cases (12%) the reasons for requests conformed to the recommended guidelines by the Royal College of Radiologists. The reason for the request was stated in the case notes in only three cases. In 62 cases (47%), there was no comment made on the film by the requesting clinician. There was a discrepancy in the interpretation of the radiograph between the clinician and the radiologist in 31 cases (24%). The clinical management was influenced by plain abdominal radiographs in only nine cases (7%). The majority of plain abdominal radiographs requested on acute medical emergencies is inappropriate. There is a need to ensure guidelines are followed to prevent unnecessary exposure of patients to radiation as well as preventing expenditure on irrelevant investigations.

  18. Plain abdominal radiographs in acute medical emergencies: an abused investigation?

    PubMed Central

    Feyler, S; Williamson, V; King, D

    2002-01-01

    Plain abdominal radiographs are commonly requested for acute medical emergencies on patients with non-specific abdominal symptoms and signs. In this study 131 plain abdominal radiographs performed on the day of admission were prospectively analysed. In only 16 cases (12%) the reasons for requests conformed to the recommended guidelines by the Royal College of Radiologists. The reason for the request was stated in the case notes in only three cases. In 62 cases (47%), there was no comment made on the film by the requesting clinician. There was a discrepancy in the interpretation of the radiograph between the clinician and the radiologist in 31 cases (24%). The clinical management was influenced by plain abdominal radiographs in only nine cases (7%). The majority of plain abdominal radiographs requested on acute medical emergencies is inappropriate. There is a need to ensure guidelines are followed to prevent unnecessary exposure of patients to radiation as well as preventing expenditure on irrelevant investigations. PMID:11807192

  19. Desmoid Fibromatosis of the Lower Abdominal Wall in Irrua Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Awe, Oluwafemi Olasupo; Eluehike, Sylvester

    2018-01-01

    Desmoid fibromatosis (desmoid tumors) is rare tumors. It can occur as intra-abdominal, extraabdominal, or abdominal wall tumor depending on the site. The abdominal wall type is usually sporadic, but few have been associated with familial adenomatous polyposis. They are commonly seen in young females who are pregnant with a history of the previous cesarean section scar or within the 1st year of the last childbirth. There is an association between this tumor, presence of estrogen receptors, and abdominal trauma. We present a 29-year-old Nigerian woman with fungating lower abdominal wall tumor. This tumor is rare, a high index of suspicion will be very important in making the diagnosis. PMID:29643736

  20. Unusual causes of abdominal pain: sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shahid; Shahid, Rabia K; Russo, Linda A

    2005-04-01

    Sickle cell disease is characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia and vaso-occlusive painful crises. The vascular occlusion in sickle cell disease is a complex process and accounts for the majority of the clinical manifestation of the disease. Abdominal pain is an important component of vaso-occlusive painful crises. It often represents a substantial diagnostic challenge in this population of patients. These episodes are often attributed to micro-vessel occlusion and infarcts of mesentery and abdominal viscera. Abdominal pain due to sickle cell vaso-occlusive crisis is often indistinguishable from an acute intra-abdominal disease process such as acute cholecystitis, acute pancreatitis, hepatic infarction, ischemic colitis and acute appendicitis. In the majority of cases, however, no specific cause is identified and spontaneous resolution occurs. This chapter will focus on etiologies, pathophysiology and management of abdominal pain in patients with sickle cell disease.

  1. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  2. Medical Management of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, B. Timothy; Terrin, Michael C.; Dalman, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a common condition that may be lethal when it is unrecognized. Current guidelines suggest repair as the aneurysm diameter reaches 5.0 to 5.5 cm. Most aortic aneurysms are detected incidentally when imaging is done for other purposes or through screening programs. Ninety percent of these aneurysms are below the threshold for intervention at the time of detection. A number of studies have sought to determine factors that lead to progression of aneurysmal disease that might be amenable to intervention during this period of observation. We review these studies and make recommendations for the medical management of small abdominal aortic aneurysms. On the basis of our current knowledge of the causes of aneurysm, a number of approaches have been proposed to prevent progression of aneurysmal disease. These include hemodynamic management, inhibition of inflammation, and protease inhibition. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association clinical practice guidelines rules of evidence have helped to define strength of evidence to support these approaches. Level A evidence (from large randomized trials) is available to indicate that observation of small aneurysms in men is safe up to a size of 5.5 cm and that propranolol does not inhibit aneurysm expansion. Level B evidence (from small randomized trials) suggests that roxithromycin or doxycycline will decrease the rate of aneurysm expansion. A number of studies agree that tobacco use is associated with an increased rate of aneurysm expansion. Level B and C evidence is available to suggest that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) may inhibit aneurysm expansion. There are animal data but no human data demonstrating that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or losartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, will decrease the rate of AAA expansion. A pharmacological agent without important side effects that inhibited aneurysm expansion could change

  3. A reappraisal of adult abdominal surface anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, S Ali; McFadden, Sara L; Buckenham, Tim; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Descriptions of clinically important surface landmarks often vary between and within contemporary anatomical texts. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface anatomy of major abdominal vessels, kidneys, spleen, gastroesophageal junction, and duodenojejunal flexure in living adults using computed tomography (CT). After excluding patients with distorting space-occupying lesions, scoliosis, abnormal lordosis, and obvious visceromegaly, 108 abdominal CT scans of supine adults (mean age 60 years, range 18-97 years; 64 female) at end tidal inspiration were available for analysis by dual consensus reporting. Intra-observer agreement was assessed by repeat blind assessment of a random sample of scans. The vertebral level of the aortic bifurcation and almost all of its major branches, and the origin of the inferior vena cava were consistent with current descriptions. Important differences from contemporary descriptions of surface anatomy were as follows: the renal arteries were most commonly at the L1 vertebral level (left 55%, right 43%); the midpoint of the renal hila was most frequently at L2 (left 68%, right 40%); the 11th rib was a posterior relation of the left kidney in only 28% of scans; and the spleen was most frequently located between the 10th and 12th ribs (48%) with its long axis in line with the 11th rib (55%). Although the majority of vascular surface landmarks are consistent with standard descriptions, the surface anatomy of the kidneys, renal arteries, and spleen needs to be revised in accordance with observations using modern imaging techniques in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Laparotomy for blunt abdominal trauma in a civilian trauma service.

    PubMed

    Howes, N; Walker, T; Allorto, N L; Oosthuizen, G V; Clarke, D L

    2012-03-29

    This report looks at the group of patients who required a laparotomy for blunt torso trauma at a busy metropolitan trauma service in South Africa. Methods. A prospective trauma registry is maintained by the surgical services of the Pietermaritzburg metropolitan complex. This registry is interrogated retrospectively. All patients who required admission for blunt torso trauma over the period September 2006 - September 2007 were included for review. Proformas documenting mechanism of injury, age, vital signs, blood gas, delay in presentation, length of hospital stay, intensive care unit stay and operative details were completed. Results. A total of 926 patients were treated for blunt trauma by the Pietermaritzburg metropolitan services during the period under consideration. A cohort of 65 (8%) required a laparotomy for blunt trauma during this period. There were 17 females in this group. The mechanisms of injury were motor vehicle accident (MVA) (27), pedestrian vehicle accident (PVA) (21), assault (5), fall from a height (3), bicycle accident (6), quad bike accident (1) and tractor-related accident (2). The following isolated injuries were discovered at laparotomy: liver (9), spleen (5), diaphragm (1), duodenum (2), small bowel (8), mesentery (8) bladder (10), gallbladder (1), stomach (2), colon/rectum (2) and retrohepatic vena cava (1). The following combined injuries were discovered: liver and diaphragm (2), spleen and pancreas (1), spleen and liver (2), spleen, aorta and diaphragm (1), spleen and bladder (1) and small bowel and bladder (2). Eighteen patients in the series (26%) required relaparotomy. In 10 patients temporary abdominal containment was needed. The mortality rate was 26% (18 patients). There were 6 deaths from massive bleeding, all within 6 hours of operation, and 3 deaths from renal failure; the remaining 9 patients died of multiple organ failure. There were 8 negative laparotomies (7%). In the negative laparotomy group false-positive computed

  5. Incidence, Patterns, and Factors Predicting Mortality of Abdominal Injuries in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Mohammad A; Saber, Aly; Farrag, Shereif; Shams, Mohamed E; Ellabban, Goda M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abdominal trauma is a major public health problem for all nations and all socioeconomic strata. Aim: This study was designed to determine the incidence and patterns of abdominal injuries in trauma patients. Materials and Methods: We classified and identified the incidence and subtype of abdominal injuries and associated trauma, and identified variables related to morbidity and mortality. Results: Abdominal trauma was present in 248 of 300 cases; 172 patients with blunt abdominal trauma and 76 with penetrating. The most frequent type of abdominal trauma was blunt trauma; its most common cause was motor vehicle accident. Among patients with penetrating abdominal trauma, the most common cause was stabbing. Most abdominal trauma patients presented with other injuries, especially patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Mortality was higher among penetrating abdominal trauma patients. Conclusions: Type of abdominal trauma, associated injuries, and Revised Trauma Score are independent risk factors for mortality in abdominal trauma patients. PMID:22454826

  6. Temporary abdominal closure with zipper-mesh device for management of intra-abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Utiyama, Edivaldo Massazo; Pflug, Adriano Ribeiro Meyer; Damous, Sérgio Henrique Bastos; Rodrigues, Adilson Costa; Montero, Edna Frasson de Souza; Birolini, Claudio Augusto Vianna

    2015-01-01

    to present our experience with scheduled reoperations in 15 patients with intra-abdominal sepsis. we have applied a more effective technique consisting of temporary abdominal closure with a nylon mesh sheet containing a zipper. We performed reoperations in the operating room under general anesthesia at an average interval of 84 hours. The revision consisted of debridement of necrotic material and vigorous lavage of the involved peritoneal area. The mean age of patients was 38.7 years (range, 15 to 72 years); 11 patients were male, and four were female. forty percent of infections were due to necrotizing pancreatitis. Sixty percent were due to perforation of the intestinal viscus secondary to inflammation, vascular occlusion or trauma. We performed a total of 48 reoperations, an average of 3.2 surgeries per patient. The mesh-zipper device was left in place for an average of 13 days. An intestinal ostomy was present adjacent to the zipper in four patients and did not present a problem for patient management. Mortality was 26.6%. No fistulas resulted from this technique. When intra-abdominal disease was under control, the mesh-zipper device was removed, and the fascia was closed in all patients. In three patients, the wound was closed primarily, and in 12 it was allowed to close by secondary intent. Two patients developed hernia; one was incisional and one was in the drain incision. the planned reoperation for manual lavage and debridement of the abdomen through a nylon mesh-zipper combination was rapid, simple, and well-tolerated. It permitted effective management of severe septic peritonitis, easy wound care and primary closure of the abdominal wall.

  7. How useful is abdominal ultrasonography in dogs with diarrhoea?

    PubMed

    Mapletoft, E K; Allenspach, K; Lamb, C R

    2018-01-01

    To assess the utility of abdominal ultrasonography in the diagnostic work-up of dogs with diarrhoea. Retrospective cross-sectional study based on a referral population of dogs with diarrhoea. Associations between the clinical signs, use of abdominal ultrasonography, results of abdominal ultrasonography and subsequent work-up were examined. The utility of abdominal ultrasonography was scored as high, moderate, none or counterproductive based on review of medical records. Medical records of 269 dogs were reviewed, of which 149 (55%) had abdominal ultrasonography. The most frequent result was no ultrasonographic abnormalities affecting the intestine in 65 (44%) dogs. Ultrasonography results were associated with subsequent work-up as follows: (1) no detected abnormalities and dietary trial; (2) focal thickening of the intestinal wall, loss of intestinal wall layers or enlarged abdominal lymph nodes and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirates; (3) diffuse thickening of the intestinal wall or hyperechoic striations in the small intestinal mucosa and endoscopy; and (4) small intestinal foreign body and coeliotomy. Abdominal ultrasonography was considered to be diagnostic without further testing in only four (3%) dogs: two had a portosystemic shunt identified ultrasonographically, one had a linear foreign body and one had a perforated pyloric ulcer. Abdominal ultrasonography had moderate utility in 56 (38%) dogs and no utility in 79 (53%) dogs. Abdominal ultrasonography was considered counterproductive in 10 (7%) dogs because results were either falsely negative or falsely positive. These results should prompt clinicians to reconsider routine use of abdominal ultrasonography in dogs with diarrhoea. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  8. Effect of abdominal resistance exercise on abdominal subcutaneous fat of obese women: a randomized controlled trial using ultrasound imaging assessments.

    PubMed

    Kordi, Ramin; Dehghani, Saeed; Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Rostami, Mohsen; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of diet and an abdominal resistance training program to diet alone on abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and waist circumference of overweight and obese women. This randomized clinical trial included 40 overweight and obese women randomly divided into 2 groups: diet only and diet combined with 12 weeks of abdominal resistance training. Waist and hip circumferences and abdominal skin folds of the subjects were measured at the beginning and 12 weeks after the interventions. In addition, abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness of the subjects was measured using ultrasonography. Percentage body fat and lean body mass of all the subjects were also measured using a bioelectric impedance device. After 12 weeks of intervention, the weight of participants in both groups decreased; but the difference between the 2 groups was not significant (P = .45). Similarly, other variables including abdominal subcutaneous fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, body fat percentage, and skin fold thickness were reduced in both groups; but there were no significant differences between the groups. This study found that abdominal resistance training besides diet did not reduce abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness compared to diet alone in overweight or obese women. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pseudotumors after primary abdominal lipectomy as a new sequela in patients with abdominal apron.

    PubMed

    Dragu, Adrian; Bach, Alexander D; Polykandriotis, Elias; Kneser, Ulrich; Horch, Raymund E

    2009-11-01

    Malnutrition and overweight is a common problem in modern societies. Primary abdominal lipectomy is a standard surgical tool in patients with these problems. However, unknown secondary problems result from recent advances in obesity surgery. Plication of the anterior musculoaponeurotic wall is a widely and commonly used operative technique during abdominoplasty. Many different plication techniques have been published. So far no common standard and long-term effectiveness is proven. In addition, there is no sufficient literature dealing with the postoperative risks of plication of the musculoaponeurotic wall. Four patients with development of pseudotumors were reviewed. All four patients received 12 months in advance a primary abdominal lipectomy including a vertical plication of the musculoaponeurotic wall. All four patients were females with mean age of 61 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 37 kg/m(2). All four patients had developed a pseudotumor of the abdomen as a long-term complication more than 12 months after primary abdominal lipectomy including a vertical plication of the anterior rectus sheath. One should be aware of the potential long-term risk of secondary postoperative hematoma formation, with or without partial necrosis of the anterior rectus sheath after vertical plication of the anterior musculoaponeurotic wall. Viewed clinically and radiologically, such sequelas may appear as pseudotumor like masses and require immediate revision.

  10. [Abdominal catastrophe--abdominal wall defect associated with gastrointestinal fistula--strategy of therapy].

    PubMed

    Chobola, M; Sobotka, L; Ferko, A; Oberreiter, M; Kaska, M; Motycka, V; Páral, J; Mottl, R

    2010-11-01

    Wound dehiscence complicated by gastrointestinal (GI) fistula to belong ,,abdominal catastrophe". Therapy is prolonged and connected with high morbidity and mortality rate. In the period from October 2006 to July 2009 we performed 12 reconstructive surgical procedures on gastrointestinal tract in patients with abdominal catastrophe. Treatment of 12 consecutive patients (9 men, 3 women) was managed according to a standardize protocol. The protocol consists of treatment of septic complications, optimisation of nutritional state, special wound procedures, diagnosis of gastrointestinal fistulas and GI tract, timing of surgical procedures, reconstruction of GI tract and postoperative care. Reconstructive surgery of GI tract was successful on 11 patients. One patient developed recurrence of early GI fistula. In four patients we let open abdomen to heal per secundam. We observed no deaths after operation. With regard to complex character of therapy of abdominal catastrophe there is a need of multidisciplinary approach. Considering long-lasting and expensive therapy there is logical step to concentrate these patients into special centres which are experienced, equipped and their staff is trained in treatment of such a seriously impaired patients.

  11. Perioperative morbidity associated with abdominal myomectomy compared with total abdominal hysterectomy for uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Pundir, J; Walawalkar, R; Seshadri, S; Khalaf, Y; El-Toukhy, T

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to systematically review and summarise existing evidence related to the perioperative morbidity associated with abdominal myomectomy in comparison with abdominal hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. A review of MEDLINE and EMBASE was carried out. The primary outcome was the major morbidity rate and secondary outcomes were uterine size, estimated blood loss, blood transfusion, operating time and duration of hospital stay. The results identified six observational studies including 1520 participants. All studies scored moderately on the N-OQA scale and were limited to a uterine size of up to 18 weeks. There was no significant difference in the rate of major morbidity (RR 0.94; 95% CI = 0.31, 2.81; p = 0.91) between the two operations. It was concluded that based on variable quality data from retrospective cohort studies, abdominal myomectomy and hysterectomy appear to have similar major morbidity rates for the uterine size up to 16-18 weeks. Well-designed trials with a standardised morbidity outcome and including uterine size greater than 18 weeks are required.

  12. Diagnosis of pediatric colonic volvulus with abdominal radiography: how good are we?

    PubMed

    Marine, Megan B; Cooper, Matthew L; Delaney, Lisa R; Jennings, Samuel Gregory; Rescorla, Frederick J; Karmazyn, Boaz

    2017-04-01

    Colonic volvulus is rare in children and associated with colonic dysmotility. Diagnosis of colonic volvulus on radiographs in these patients can be challenging. The purpose of the study was to identify the accuracy of abdominal radiographs and findings suggestive of colonic volvulus. A retrospective (2003- 2014) study of all children with colonic volvulus proven surgically or endoscopically reviewed their medical charts for underlying disease and clinical presentation as well as their original radiograph reports. Two pediatric radiologists (reader 1 and reader 2) independently reviewed the radiographs. The kappa test was used to evaluate interobserver variability. There were 19 cases of colonic volvulus in 18 patients (11 males) a mean age 14 years. Cecal volvulus was the most common finding at 14/19 cases (74%). Sixteen of 18 (89%) patients had neurological impairment and 10 of 18 (56%) had intestinal dysmotility. The most common presentation was abdominal distension (14/19 [74%]) and pain (11/19 [58%]). Colonic volvulus was diagnosed in only 7/16 (44%) of the abdominal radiographs. The specific finding of a coffee-bean sign was retrospectively observed only by reader 2 in two cases. Absence of rectal gas and focal colonic loop dilation were the most common findings by the readers (average 73.5% and 87%, respectively) with Kappa values of 0.3 and 0.38, respectively. Diagnosis of colonic volvulus in children can be challenging. Radiologists should be alerted to the possibility of colonic volvulus when there is focal colonic loop distention or absent rectal gas.

  13. A comparison of abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies in Benghazi, Libya.

    PubMed

    Agnaeber, K; Bodalal, Z

    2013-08-01

    We performed a comparative study between abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies using clinical data from Al-Jamhouria hospital (one of the largest maternity hospitals in Eastern Libya). Various parameters were taken into consideration: the rates of each type (and their subtypes); average age of patients; indications; causes; postoperative complications; and duration of stay in the hospital afterwards. Conclusions and recommendations were drawn from the results of this study. In light of the aforementioned parameters, it was found that: (1) abdominal hysterectomies were more common than vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (2) patients admitted for abdominal hysterectomies are younger than those admitted for vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (3) the most common indication for an abdominal hysterectomy was menstrual disturbances, while for vaginal hysterectomies it was vaginal prolapse; (4) the histopathological cause for abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies were observed and the most common were found to be leiomyomas and atrophic endometrium; (5) there was no significant difference between the two routes in terms of postoperative complications; (6) patients who were admitted for abdominal hysterectomies spent a longer amount of time in the hospital (p < 0.01). It was concluded that efforts should be made to further pursue vaginal and laparoscopic hysterectomies as a viable option to the more conventional abdominal route.

  14. Maintenance of Pain in Children With Functional Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Czyzewski, Danita I; Self, Mariella M; Williams, Amy E; Weidler, Erica M; Blatz, Allison M; Shulman, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    A significant proportion of children with functional abdominal pain develop chronic pain. Identifying clinical characteristics predicting pain persistence is important in targeting interventions. We examined whether child anxiety and/or pain-stooling relations were related to maintenance of abdominal pain frequency and compared the predictive value of 3 methods for assessing pain-stooling relations (ie, diary, parent report, child report). Seventy-six children (7-10 years old at baseline) who presented for medical treatment of functional abdominal pain were followed up 18 to 24 months later. Baseline anxiety and abdominal pain-stooling relations based on pain and stooling diaries and child- and parent questionnaires were examined in relationship to the persistence of abdominal pain frequency. Children's baseline anxiety was not related to persistence of pain frequency. Children who, however, displayed irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms at baseline maintained pain frequency at follow-up, whereas in children in whom there was no relationship between pain and stooling, pain frequency decreased. Pain and stool diaries and parent report of pain-stooling relations were predictive of pain persistence but child-report questionnaires were not. The presence of IBS symptoms in school-age children with functional abdominal pain appears to predict persistence of abdominal pain over time, whereas anxiety does not. Prospective pain and stooling diaries and parent report of IBS symptoms were predictors of pain maintenance, but child report of symptoms was not.

  15. Perforated peptic ulcer associated with abdominal compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Jiun-Jen; Weng, Yi-Ming; Weng, Chia-Sui

    2008-11-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an increased intra-abdominal pressure with adverse physiologic consequences. Abdominal compartment syndrome caused by perforated peptic ulcer is rare owing to early diagnosis and management. Delayed recognition of perforated peptic ulcer with pneumoperitoneum, bowel distension, and decreased abdominal wall compliance can make up a vicious circle and lead to ACS. We report a case of perforated peptic ulcer associated with ACS. A 74-year-old man with old stroke and dementia history was found to have distended abdomen, edema of bilateral legs, and cyanosis. Laboratory tests revealed deterioration of liver and kidney function. Abdominal compartment syndrome was suspected, and image study was arranged to find the cause. The study showed pneumoperitoneum, contrast stasis in heart with decreased caliber of vessels below the abdominal aortic level, and diffuse lymphedema at the abdominal walls. Emergent laparotomy was performed. Perforated peptic ulcer was noted and the gastrorrhaphy was done. The symptoms, and liver and kidney function improved right after emergent operation.

  16. Maintenance of Pain in Children with Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Czyzewski, Danita I.; Self, Mariella M.; Williams, Amy E.; Weidler, Erica M.; Blatz, Allison M.; Shulman, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A significant proportion of children with functional abdominal pain develop chronic pain. Identifying clinical characteristics predicting pain persistence is important in targeting interventions. We examined whether child anxiety and/or pain-stooling relations were related to maintenance of abdominal pain frequency and compared the predictive value of three methods for assessing pain-stooling relations (i.e., diary, parent report, child report). Methods Seventy-six children (7–10-years-old at baseline) who presented for medical treatment of functional abdominal pain were followed up 18–24 months later. Baseline anxiety and abdominal pain-stooling relations based on pain and stooling diaries and child- and parent-questionnaires were examined in relationship to the persistence of abdominal pain frequency. Results Children’s baseline anxiety was not related to persistence of pain frequency. However, children who displayed irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms at baseline maintained pain frequency at follow-up, whereas in children in whom there was no relationship between pain and stooling, pain frequency decreased. Pain and stool diaries and parent report of pain-stooling relations were predictive of pain persistence but child-report questionnaires were not. Conclusions The presence of IBS symptoms in school age children with functional abdominal pain appears to predict persistence of abdominal pain over time, while anxiety does not. Prospective pain and stooling diaries and parent report of IBS symptoms were predictors of pain maintenance, but child report of symptoms was not. PMID:26301615

  17. 21 CFR 884.1700 - Hysteroscopic insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with a hysteroscope. (b) Classification. (1) Class II (performance standards). (2) Class I for tubing and tubing/filter fits which only include accessory instruments that are not used to effect intrauterine access, e.g., hysteroscopic introducer sheaths, etc.; and single-use tubing kits used for only...

  18. Computed tomographic evaluation of abdominal fat in minipigs.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jinhwa; Jung, Joohyun; Lee, Hyeyeon; Chang, Dongwoo; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Mincheol

    2011-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) exams were conducted to determine the distribution of abdominal fat identified based on the CT number measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) and to measure the volume of the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat in minipigs. The relationship between the CT-based fat volumes of several vertebral levels and the entire abdomen and anthropometric data including the sagittal abdominal diameter and waist circumference were evaluated. Moreover, the total fat volumes at the T11, T13, L3, and L5 levels were compared with the total fat volume of the entire abdomen to define the landmark of abdominal fat distribution. Using a single-detector CT, six 6-month-old male minipigs were scanned under general anesthesia. Three radiologists then assessed the HU value of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat by drawing the region of interest manually at the T11, T13, L1, L3, and L5 levels. The CT number and abdominal fat determined in this way by the three radiologists was found to be correlated (intra-class coefficient = 0.9). The overall HU ranges for the visceral and subcutaneous fat depots were -147.47 to -83.46 and -131.62 to -90.97, respectively. The total fat volume of the entire abdomen was highly correlated with the volume of abdominal fat at the T13 level (r = 0.97, p < 0.0001). These findings demonstrate that the volume of abdominal adipose tissue measured at the T13 level using CT is a strong and reliable predictor of total abdominal adipose volume.

  19. [Abdominal Tuberculosis in children and adolescents. A diagnostic challenge].

    PubMed

    Reto Valiente, Luz; Pichilingue Reto, Catherina; Pichilingue Prieto, Oscar; Dolores Cerna, Ketty

    2015-01-01

    To present our experience with abdominal tuberculosis in children and adolescents treated in our hospital from 2003 - 2014. It is a retrospective study. We have collected clinical records of inpatients <20 years old who were admitted at Hipolito Unanue Hospital from January 2003 to July 2014, with diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. Among the overall 30 patients, 16 (53.33%) were female and 14 (46.67%) were male. The mean age of all patients was 16.5 years. The most common clinical features were abdominal pain in 29 (96.67%), fever in 26 (86.67%), ascites in 23 (76.67%) and loss of weight in 21 (70%). 63.33% of the patients were eutrophics, 13.34% were overweight or obese and only 23.33% suffered of malnutrition. TB contact was present in 10 (33.33%). Positive tuberculin skin tests were seen in 10%. Extra-abdominal tuberculosis was found in 22 patients (63.32%). 12 cases had coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and 4 cases had pleural effusion. 12 patients (40%) had tuberculous peritonitis; 12 patients (40%) had intestinal tuberculosis and peritoneal tuberculosis and 4 patients (13.33%) had intestinal tuberculosis. Bacteriological confirmation of tuberculosis was achieved in 10 cases (33.33%). Antituberculous therapy for 6 months was effective in 29 cases. One patient died who multifocal tuberculosis with HIV had associated. Abdominal tuberculosis is seen in 4.37% of children affected with tuberculosis, of which over 63% will have extra abdominal manifestations. Abdominal tuberculosis should be considered in patients with abdominal pain, fever, weight loss and abnormal chest radiography. Imaging can be useful for early diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis.

  20. Abdominal injuries in communal crises: The Jos experience

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Emmanuel Olorundare; Ozoilo, Kenneth N.; Sule, Augustine Z.; Ugwu, Benjamin T.; Misauno, Michael A.; Ismaila, Bashiru O.; Peter, Solomon D.; Adejumo, Adeyinka A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abdominal injuries contribute significantly to battlefield trauma morbidity and mortality. This study sought to determine the incidence, demographics, clinical features, spectrum, severity, management, and outcome of abdominal trauma during a civilian conflict. Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis of patients treated for abdominal trauma during the Jos civil crises between December 2010 and May 2012 at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Results: A total of 109 victims of communal conflicts with abdominal injuries were managed during the study period with 89 (81.7%) males and 20 (18.3%) females representing about 12.2% of the total 897 combat related injuries. The peak age incidence was between 21 and 40 years (range: 3–71 years). The most frequently injured intra-abdominal organs were the small intestine 69 (63.3%), colon 48 (44%), and liver 41 (37.6%). Forty-four (40.4%) patients had extra-abdominal injuries involving the chest in 17 (15.6%), musculoskeletal 12 (11%), and the head in 9 (8.3%). The most prevalent weapon injuries were gunshot 76 (69.7%), explosives 12 (11%), stab injuries 11 (10.1%), and blunt abdominal trauma 10 (9.2%). The injury severity score varied from 8 to 52 (mean: 20.8) with a fatality rate of 11 (10.1%) and morbidity rate of 29 (26.6%). Presence of irreversible shock, 3 or more injured intra-abdominal organs, severe head injuries, and delayed presentation were the main factors associated with mortality. Conclusion: Abdominal trauma is major life-threatening injuries during conflicts. Substantial mortality occurred with loss of nearly one in every 10 hospitalized victims despite aggressive emergency room resuscitation. The resources expenditure, propensity for death and expediency of timing reinforce the need for early access to the wounded in a concerted trauma care systems. PMID:26957819

  1. Abdominothoracic mechanisms of functional abdominal distension and correction by biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Barba, Elizabeth; Burri, Emanuel; Accarino, Anna; Cisternas, Daniel; Quiroga, Sergi; Monclus, Eva; Navazo, Isabel; Malagelada, Juan-R; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    In patients with functional gut disorders, abdominal distension has been associated with descent of the diaphragm and protrusion of the anterior abdominal wall. We investigated mechanisms of abdominal distension in these patients. We performed a prospective study of 45 patients (42 women, 24-71 years old) with functional intestinal disorders (27 with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, 15 with functional bloating, and 3 with irritable bowel syndrome with alternating bowel habits) and discrete episodes of visible abdominal distension. Subjects were assessed by abdominothoracic computed tomography (n = 39) and electromyography (EMG) of the abdominothoracic wall (n = 32) during basal conditions (without abdominal distension) and during episodes of severe abdominal distension. Fifteen patients received a median of 2 sessions (range, 1-3 sessions) of EMG-guided, respiratory-targeted biofeedback treatment; 11 received 1 control session before treatment. Episodes of abdominal distension were associated with diaphragm contraction (19% ± 3% increase in EMG score and 12 ± 2 mm descent; P < .001 vs basal values) and intercostal contraction (14% ± 3% increase in EMG scores and 6 ± 1 mm increase in thoracic antero-posterior diameter; P < .001 vs basal values). They were also associated with increases in lung volume (501 ± 93 mL; P < .001 vs basal value) and anterior abdominal wall protrusion (32 ± 3 mm increase in girth; P < .001 vs basal). Biofeedback treatment, but not control sessions, reduced the activity of the intercostal muscles (by 19% ± 2%) and the diaphragm (by 18% ± 4%), activated the internal oblique muscles (by 52% ± 13%), and reduced girth (by 25 ± 3 mm) (P ≤ .009 vs pretreatment for all). In patients with functional gut disorders, abdominal distension is a behavioral response that involves activity of the abdominothoracic wall. This distension can be reduced with EMG-guided, respiratory-targeted biofeedback therapy. Copyright © 2015 AGA

  2. Fatty Acid Content of Plasma Triglycerides May Contribute to the Heterogeneity in the Relationship Between Abdominal Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aristizabal, Juan C; Barona, Jacqueline; Gonzalez-Zapata, Laura I; Deossa, Gloria C; Estrada, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    About one-third of the people with abdominal obesity do not exhibit the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Fatty acids in plasma triglycerides (TGs) may help to explain part of this heterogeneity. This study compared TG fatty acid profile of adults with and without abdominal obesity and examined the associations of these fatty acids with MetS components. Fifty-four abdominally obese subjects were matched by age and sex with 54 adults without abdominal obesity. People were classified with MetS according to the harmonizing criteria for MetS. Fatty acids in plasma TGs were analyzed by gas chromatography. There were no differences in fatty acids of plasma TGs between people with and without abdominal obesity. However, there were differences between abdominally obese people with and without MetS. The abdominally obese group with MetS had higher palmitic (+2.9%; P = 0.012) and oleic (+4.0%; P = 0.001) acids and lower linoleic (-6.4%; P = 0.018) and arachidonic (-1.2%; P = 0.004) acids. After adjustment for abdominal obesity, age, and sex, a stepwise regression analysis showed that palmitic acid positively contributed to the variance in insulin (β = +1.08 ± 1.01; P = 0.000) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index (β = +1.09 ± 1.01; P = 0.000) and myristic acid positively contributed to the variance in systolic blood pressure (β = +1.09 ± 1.03; P = 0.006). In contrast, linoleic acid negatively contributed to the variance in glucose (β = -0.321 ± 0.09; P = 0.001) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; β = -1.05 ± 1.01; P = 0.000). There were no differences in the plasma TG fatty acid profile between people with and without abdominal obesity. Likewise, fatty acids in plasma TGs associated with many of the MetS variables independently of abdominal obesity. These results suggest that the plasma TG fatty acid profile may help to explain part of the heterogeneity

  3. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  4. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, Arye

    1988-01-01

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  5. MR Fingerprinting for Rapid Quantitative Abdominal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Jiang, Yun; Pahwa, Shivani; Ma, Dan; Lu, Lan; Twieg, Michael D.; Wright, Katherine L.; Seiberlich, Nicole; Griswold, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) “fingerprinting” technique for quantitative abdominal imaging. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. To achieve accurate quantification in the presence of marked B0 and B1 field inhomogeneities, the MR fingerprinting framework was extended by using a two-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state free precession, or FISP, acquisition and a Bloch-Siegert B1 mapping method. The accuracy of the proposed technique was validated by using agarose phantoms. Quantitative measurements were performed in eight asymptomatic subjects and in six patients with 20 focal liver lesions. A two-tailed Student t test was used to compare the T1 and T2 results in metastatic adenocarcinoma with those in surrounding liver parenchyma and healthy subjects. Results Phantom experiments showed good agreement with standard methods in T1 and T2 after B1 correction. In vivo studies demonstrated that quantitative T1, T2, and B1 maps can be acquired within a breath hold of approximately 19 seconds. T1 and T2 measurements were compatible with those in the literature. Representative values included the following: liver, 745 msec ± 65 (standard deviation) and 31 msec ± 6; renal medulla, 1702 msec ± 205 and 60 msec ± 21; renal cortex, 1314 msec ± 77 and 47 msec ± 10; spleen, 1232 msec ± 92 and 60 msec ± 19; skeletal muscle, 1100 msec ± 59 and 44 msec ± 9; and fat, 253 msec ± 42 and 77 msec ± 16, respectively. T1 and T2 in metastatic adenocarcinoma were 1673 msec ± 331 and 43 msec ± 13, respectively, significantly different from surrounding liver parenchyma relaxation times of 840 msec ± 113 and 28 msec ± 3 (P < .0001 and P < .01) and those in hepatic parenchyma in healthy volunteers (745 msec ± 65 and 31 msec ± 6, P < .0001 and P = .021, respectively). Conclusion A rapid technique for quantitative abdominal imaging was developed that

  6. Gastrointestinal Injuries in Blunt Abdominal Traumas.

    PubMed

    Gönüllü, D; Ilgun, S; Gedik, M L; Demiray, O; Öner, Z; Er, M; Köksoy, F N

    2015-01-01

    To discuss the efficiency of RTS (Revised TraumaScore), ISS (Injury Severity Score), and factors that affect mortality and morbidity in gastrointestinal injuries due to blunt trauma.Method and methods: Patients with gastrointestinal injuries due to blunt trauma operated within the last six years have been studied retrospectively in terms of demographics,injury mechanism and localization, additional injuries, RTS and ISS, operative technique, morbidity, mortality and duration of hospitalization. Of the eighteen cases, cause of injury was a traffic accident for 11 (61.1%), fall from height for 5 (27%) and physical attack for 2 (11%). Among the eighteen patients,there were 21 gastrointestinal injuries (11 intestinal, 6 colon,3 duodenum, 1 stomach). 10 (55.6%) had additional intraabdominal injuries while the number for extra-abdominal injuries were 12 (66.7%). Primary suture (10), segmentary resection (9) and pyloric exclusion (2) were the operations performed for the twenty-one gastrointestinal injuries.Although statistically not significant, 13(72.2%) patients with additional injuries compared with 5 (27.8%) patients with isolated gastrointestinal injuries, were found to have lower RTS (7.087/7.841), higher ISS (19.4/12.2), longer duration of hospitalization (11.5/8.4 day) as well as higher morbidity (7/1) and mortality (2/0) rates. Comparing the RTS (7.059/7.490) of patients who have and have not developed morbidity revealed no significant difference.However, ISS (23.9/12.2) was significantly higher in patients who have developed morbidity (p=0.003). RTS (6.085 7.445) and ISS (39.5/14.6) of patients who have survived were significantly different than patients who have not(p=0.037 and p=0.023, respectively) Additional injuries in patients with gastrointestinal injury due blunt abdominal traumas increases, although not significantly, morbidity, mortality and duration of hospitalization even when operated early. High ISS is significantly related to the risk of both

  7. MR Fingerprinting for Rapid Quantitative Abdominal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Jiang, Yun; Pahwa, Shivani; Ma, Dan; Lu, Lan; Twieg, Michael D; Wright, Katherine L; Seiberlich, Nicole; Griswold, Mark A; Gulani, Vikas

    2016-04-01

    To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) "fingerprinting" technique for quantitative abdominal imaging. This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. To achieve accurate quantification in the presence of marked B0 and B1 field inhomogeneities, the MR fingerprinting framework was extended by using a two-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state free precession, or FISP, acquisition and a Bloch-Siegert B1 mapping method. The accuracy of the proposed technique was validated by using agarose phantoms. Quantitative measurements were performed in eight asymptomatic subjects and in six patients with 20 focal liver lesions. A two-tailed Student t test was used to compare the T1 and T2 results in metastatic adenocarcinoma with those in surrounding liver parenchyma and healthy subjects. Phantom experiments showed good agreement with standard methods in T1 and T2 after B1 correction. In vivo studies demonstrated that quantitative T1, T2, and B1 maps can be acquired within a breath hold of approximately 19 seconds. T1 and T2 measurements were compatible with those in the literature. Representative values included the following: liver, 745 msec ± 65 (standard deviation) and 31 msec ± 6; renal medulla, 1702 msec ± 205 and 60 msec ± 21; renal cortex, 1314 msec ± 77 and 47 msec ± 10; spleen, 1232 msec ± 92 and 60 msec ± 19; skeletal muscle, 1100 msec ± 59 and 44 msec ± 9; and fat, 253 msec ± 42 and 77 msec ± 16, respectively. T1 and T2 in metastatic adenocarcinoma were 1673 msec ± 331 and 43 msec ± 13, respectively, significantly different from surrounding liver parenchyma relaxation times of 840 msec ± 113 and 28 msec ± 3 (P < .0001 and P < .01) and those in hepatic parenchyma in healthy volunteers (745 msec ± 65 and 31 msec ± 6, P < .0001 and P = .021, respectively). A rapid technique for quantitative abdominal imaging was developed that allows simultaneous quantification of multiple tissue

  8. Takedown of enterocutaneous fistula and complex abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Slade, Dominic Alexander James; Carlson, Gordon Lawrence

    2013-10-01

    Key steps in managing patients with enterocutaneous fistulation and an abdominal wall defect include dealing effectively with abdominal sepsis and providing safe and effective nutritional support and skin care, then assessing intestinal and abdominal anatomy, before undertaking reconstructive surgery. The complexity, cost, and morbidity associated with such cases justifies creation of specialized centers in which gastroenterologic, hernia, and plastic surgical expertise, as well as experienced wound and stoma nursing and nutritional and psychological support, can be made available for patients with these challenging problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Abdominal ultrasonography in patients with diabetes mellitus. Part 1: Liver].

    PubMed

    Jenssen, C; Pietsch, C; Gottschalk, U; Barreiros, A P; Teufel, A; Cui, X W; Dietrich, C F

    2015-04-01

    In patients with diabetes mellitus, abdominal ultrasonography is the appropriate diagnostic technique to detect and to follow-up secondary and accompanying diseases of the liver, the kidneys, the pancreas, the gastrointestinal tract and of abdominal vessels. Moreover, pancreatic and hepatic diseases may be realized which are of etiological importance for diabetes mellitus. Based on a systematic survey of the published literature, this review in 3 parts will describe the value of abdominal ultrasonography in patients with diabetes mellitus. Part 1 deals with the diagnostic relevance and particular findings of ultrasonographic methods in hepatic manifestations and complications of diabetes mellitus. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Evaluation of abdominal pain in the AIDS patient.

    PubMed Central

    Potter, D A; Danforth, D N; Macher, A M; Longo, D L; Stewart, L; Masur, H

    1984-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a recently recognized entity characterized by a deficiency in cell mediated immune response. The syndrome is manifested by the development of otherwise rare malignant neoplasms and severe life-threatening opportunistic infections. Case histories of five AIDS patients evaluated for abdominal pain are presented to demonstrate the unusual spectrum of intra-abdominal pathology that may be encountered in the AIDS patient. As the number of patients with AIDS continues to escalate, surgical evaluation and intervention will be required more frequently. An understanding of this syndrome and its complications is mandatory for the surgeon to adequately evaluate AIDS patients with abdominal pain. PMID:6322708

  11. Dual antiplatelet treatment in patients candidates for abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Pacilè, Maria A; Pizzardi, Giulia; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing diffusion of percutaneous interventions (PCI), surgeons are often faced with the problem of operating on patients under dual antiplatelet treatment. Replacing dual antiplatelet regiment with low molecular weight heparin may expose to the abrupt thrombosis of coronary stent and massive myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal operations can be safely performed under dual antiplatelet treatment. Eleven patients underwent 5 colectomies, 3 nefrectomies, 2 gastrectomies and 1 hysterectomy under aspirin and plavix without any significant perioperative hemorrhage. These preliminary results show that abdominal operations can be safely performed under dual antiplatelet regimen. Abdominal surgery, Dual antiplatelet treatment.

  12. Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Pseudoaneurysm: Is It a Real Emergency?

    PubMed Central

    Massara, Mafalda; Prunella, Roberto; Gerardi, Pasquale; Lillo, Antonio; De Caridi, Giovanni; Serra, Raffaele; Notarstefano, Stefano; Impedovo, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm is a rare but life-threatening condition that occurs due to penetrating or blunt trauma. Clinical manifestations are variable, and the time interval from the initial trauma to diagnosis is variable. A prompt diagnosis and an aggressive management approach are required to avoid catastrophic complications. Possible treatment options are open surgical repair, endovascular repair, pseudoanerysmal sac thrombosis induction through direct thrombin injection, and coil embolization. Here, we present the case of a 75-year-old man affected by an infrarenal abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm presenting with abdominal and lumbar pain for 3 days, who was successfully treated with an endograft. PMID:29515707

  13. Non-absorbable antibiotics for managing intestinal gas production and gas-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, M; Strocchi, A; Malservisi, S; Veneto, G; Ferrieri, A; Corazza, G R

    2000-08-01

    Simethicone, activated charcoal and antimicrobial drugs have been used to treat gas-related symptoms with conflicting results. To study the relationship between gaseous symptoms and colonic gas production and to test the efficacy of rifaximin, a new non-absorbable antimicrobial agent, on these symptoms. Intestinal gas production was measured by hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) breath testing after lactulose in 21 healthy volunteers and 34 functional patients. Only the 34 functional patients took part in a double-blind, double-dummy controlled trial, receiving, at random, rifaximin (400 mg b.d per 7 days), or activated charcoal (400 mg b.d per 7 days). The following parameters were evaluated at the start of the study and 1 and 10 days after therapy: bloating, abdominal pain, number of flatus episodes, abdominal girth, and cumulative breath H2 excretion. Hydrogen excretion was greater in functional patients than in healthy volunteers. Rifaximin, but not activated charcoal, led to a significant reduction in H2 excretion and overall severity of symptoms. In particular, in patients treated with rifaximin, a significant reduction in the mean number of flatus episodes and of mean abdominal girth was evident. In patients with gas-related symptoms the colonic production of H2 is increased. Rifaximin significantly reduces this production and the excessive number of flatus episodes.

  14. Socio-economic factors, health care consumption and rating of abdominal symptom severity. A report from the abdominal symptom study.

    PubMed

    Agréus, L

    1993-06-01

    A study of the abdominal/gastrointestinal symptom panorama in relation to socio-economic factors and health care consumption in the general population was performed in Osthammar, Sweden. A postal questionnaire was sent to a representative sample of the adult population (n = 1260). The response rate was 87%. The responders with symptoms (52.1%) subjectively rated their illness on visual analogue scales. All responders were classified as asymptomatic or having 'minor' or 'major' abdominal symptoms. Those having dyspepsia, reflux or irritable bowel syndrome were also ranked as 'minors' or 'majors'. The proportion of subjects with abdominal/gastrointestinal complaints decreased with age, mainly due to a decrease of 'major' symptoms. Also, the proportion of complainers increased among the more educated. Those on sick leave and students had more and worse symptoms than the others, despite the former seldom stating abdominal discomfort as the main reason for sick listing. Fifty-five per cent of all persons reporting abdominal/gastrointestinal symptoms had at some time consulted a doctor because of such complaints, the proportion increasing with severity, as did drug consumption and the rate of previous abdominal operations, with appendectomy as an exception. The results show that it is possible to rank the illness along a severity dimension among persons with abdominal/gastrointestinal complaints in epidemiological research.

  15. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Novel Mechanisms and Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Frank M.; Rateri, Debra L.; Daugherty, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a pathological condition of permanent dilation that portends the potentially fatal consequence of aortic rupture. This review emphasizes recent advances in mechanistic insight into aneurysm pathogenesis and potential pharmacologic therapies that are on the horizon for AAAs. Recent Findings An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that genetic factors, including 3p12.3, DAB2IP, LDLr, LRP1, MMP3, TGFβR2 and SORT1 loci, are associated with AAA development. Current human studies and animal models have shown that many leukocytes and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1, IL-17, TGF-β and angiotensin II, are involved in the pathogenesis of AAAs. Leukocytic infiltration into aortic media leads to smooth muscle cell depletion, generation of reactive oxygen species, and extracellular matrix fragmentation. Recent preclinical investigations into pharmacological therapies for AAAs have provided intriguing insight for roles of microRNAs to regulate many pathological pathways in AAA development. Several large clinical trials are ongoing seeking to translate preclinical findings into therapeutic options. Summary Recent studies have identified many potential mechanisms involved in AAA pathogenesis that provide insight for the development of a medical treatment for this disease. PMID:26352243

  16. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: novel mechanisms and therapies.

    PubMed

    Davis, Frank M; Rateri, Debra L; Daugherty, Alan

    2015-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a pathological condition of permanent dilation that portends the potentially fatal consequence of aortic rupture. This review emphasizes recent advances in mechanistic insight into aneurysm pathogenesis and potential pharmacologic therapies that are on the horizon for AAAs. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that genetic factors, including 3p12.3, DAB2IP, LDLr, LRP1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, TGFBR2, and SORT1 loci, are associated with AAA development. Current human studies and animal models have shown that many leukocytes and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1, IL-17, TGF-β, and angiotensin II, are involved in the pathogenesis of AAAs. Leukocytic infiltration into aortic media leads to smooth muscle cell depletion, generation of reactive oxygen species, and extracellular matrix fragmentation. Preclinical investigations into pharmacological therapies for AAAs have provided intriguing insight into the roles of microRNAs in regulating many pathological pathways in AAA development. Several large clinical trials are ongoing, seeking to translate preclinical findings into therapeutic options. Recent studies have identified many potential mechanisms involved in AAA pathogenesis that provide insight into the development of a medical treatment for this disease.

  17. Diode laser for abdominal tissue cauterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durville, Frederic M.; Rediker, Robert H.; Connolly, Raymond J.; Schwaitzberg, Steven D.; Lantis, John

    1999-06-01

    We have developed a new device to effectively and quickly stop bleeding. The new device uses a small, 5 W diode laser to heat-up the tip of a modified medical forceps. The laser beam is totally contained within a protective enclosure, satisfying the requirements for a Class I laser system, which eliminates the need to protective eyewear. The new device is used in a manner similar to that of a bipolar electrocautery device. After visual location, the bleeding site or local vessel(s) is grabbed and clamped with the tips of the forceps-like instrument. The laser is then activated for a duration of typically 5 sec or until traditional visual or auditory clues such as local blubbling and popping indicate that the targeted site is effectively cauterized. When the laser is activated, the tip of the instrument, thus providing hemostasis. The new device was evaluated in animal models and compared with the monopolar and bipolar electrocautery, and also with the recently developed ultrasound technology. It has new been in clinical trials for abdominal surgery since September 1997.

  18. Molecular Imaging of Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Aneesh K.; Hamilton, Mark; Joshi, Rucha V.; Kline, Benjamin P.; Li, Rui; Wang, Pu; Goergen, Craig J.

    2013-01-01

    Current laboratory research in the field of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease often utilizes small animal experimental models induced by genetic manipulation or chemical application. This has led to the use and development of multiple high-resolution molecular imaging modalities capable of tracking disease progression, quantifying the role of inflammation, and evaluating the effects of potential therapeutics. In vivo imaging reduces the number of research animals used, provides molecular and cellular information, and allows for longitudinal studies, a necessity when tracking vessel expansion in a single animal. This review outlines developments of both established and emerging molecular imaging techniques used to study AAA disease. Beyond the typical modalities used for anatomical imaging, which include ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT), previous molecular imaging efforts have used magnetic resonance (MR), near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF), bioluminescence, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). Mouse and rat AAA models will hopefully provide insight into potential disease mechanisms, and the development of advanced molecular imaging techniques, if clinically useful, may have translational potential. These efforts could help improve the management of aneurysms and better evaluate the therapeutic potential of new treatments for human AAA disease. PMID:23737735

  19. A study of abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Shakya, K N; Dongol, U M S; Khadka, S B

    2008-01-01

    Pain abdomen is a common pediatric complaint that brings patient to the hospital in Nepal. Knowledge about its etiology and frequency helps in its evaluation and management. The present study was undertaken to find out the causes and their frequency of pain abdomen in Nepali children. Children with pain abdomen presenting at the emergency room and pediatric outpatient department of Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu from January, 2006 to December 2007 were clinically evaluated and investigated to find out the causes and frequency of their pain abdomen. The outcomes were tabulated and analyzed for interpretation. Of 444 patients attended, 356 completed investigations and came for follow up. Cause of pain abdomen was apparent in 117 (32.9%) only. 91.5% were medical causes, comprising predominantly of diarrheal diseases (28.3%), infantile colic (9.4%), urinary tract infection (7.7%) and acid peptic disease (6.8%). 8.5% causes were related to surgical conditions, which needed operative management. Secondary or extra-abdominal causes were found in 20 cases (17.1%). Pneumonia (2), functional (5), vulvovaginitis (2) and infantile colic (11) were predominant causes. Our study showed that the causes of pain abdomen in children were predominantly medical. Gastroenteritis was the most frequent cause. Secondary causes, including functional and emotional causes were infrequent. Small percentage needing surgical management formed a diagnostic challenge.

  20. Computer-assisted abdominal surgery: new technologies.

    PubMed

    Kenngott, H G; Wagner, M; Nickel, F; Wekerle, A L; Preukschas, A; Apitz, M; Schulte, T; Rempel, R; Mietkowski, P; Wagner, F; Termer, A; Müller-Stich, Beat P

    2015-04-01

    Computer-assisted surgery is a wide field of technologies with the potential to enable the surgeon to improve efficiency and efficacy of diagnosis, treatment, and clinical management. This review provides an overview of the most important new technologies and their applications. A MEDLINE database search was performed revealing a total of 1702 references. All references were considered for information on six main topics, namely image guidance and navigation, robot-assisted surgery, human-machine interface, surgical processes and clinical pathways, computer-assisted surgical training, and clinical decision support. Further references were obtained through cross-referencing the bibliography cited in each work. Based on their respective field of expertise, the authors chose 64 publications relevant for the purpose of this review. Computer-assisted systems are increasingly used not only in experimental studies but also in clinical studies. Although computer-assisted abdominal surgery is still in its infancy, the number of studies is constantly increasing, and clinical studies start showing the benefits of computers used not only as tools of documentation and accounting but also for directly assisting surgeons during diagnosis and treatment of patients. Further developments in the field of clinical decision support even have the potential of causing a paradigm shift in how patients are diagnosed and treated.

  1. Relationship Between Abdominal Symptoms and Fructose Ingestion in Children with Chronic Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Veronika; Hammer, Katharina; Memaran, Nima; Huber, Wolf-Dietrich; Hammer, Karin; Hammer, Johann

    2018-05-01

    Limited valid data are available regarding the association of fructose-induced symptoms, fructose malabsorption, and clinical symptoms. To develop a questionnaire for valid symptom assessment before and during a carbohydrate breath test and to correlate symptoms with fructose breath test results in children/adolescents with functional abdominal pain. A Likert-type questionnaire assessing symptoms considered relevant for hydrogen breath test in children was developed and underwent initial validation. Fructose malabsorption was determined by increased breath hydrogen in 82 pediatric patients with functional abdominal pain disorders; fructose-induced symptoms were quantified by symptom score ≥2 and relevant symptom increase over baseline. The results were correlated with clinical symptoms. The time course of symptoms during the breath test was assessed. The questionnaire exhibited good psychometric properties in a standardized assessment of the severity of carbohydrate-related symptoms. A total of 40 % (n = 33) had malabsorption; symptoms were induced in 38 % (n = 31), but only 46 % (n = 15) with malabsorption were symptomatic. There was no significant correlation between fructose malabsorption and fructose-induced symptoms. Clinical symptoms correlated with symptoms evoked during the breath test (p < 0.001, r 2  = 0.21) but not with malabsorption (NS). Malabsorbers did not differ from non-malabsorbers in terms of symptoms during breath test. Symptomatic patients had significantly higher pain and flatulence scores over the 9-h observation period (p < 0.01) than did nonsymptomatic patients; the meteorism score was higher after 90 min. Fructose-induced symptoms but not fructose malabsorption are related to increased abdominal symptoms and have distinct timing patterns.

  2. Intra-abdominal infection combined with intra-abdominal hypertension aggravates the intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Ren, Jianan; Wu, Xiuwen; Li, Jieshou

    2018-02-28

    Some patients with intra-abdominal infection (IAI) may develop intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) during treatment. The present study investigated the impact of IAI combined with IAH on the intestinal mucosal barrier in a rabbit model. Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: (i) IAI and IAH; (ii) IAI alone; (iii) IAH alone; and (iv) Control group. IAI model: cecal ligation and puncture for 48 h; IAH model: raised intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) of 20 mmHg for 4 h. Pathological changes in intestinal mucosa were confirmed by light and scanning electron microscopy. FITC-conjugated dextran (FITC-dextran) by gavage was used to measure intestinal mucosal permeability in plasma. Endotoxin, d-Lactate, and diamine oxidase (DAO) in plasma were measured to determine intestinal mucosal damage. Malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and GSH in ileum tissues were measured to evaluate intestinal mucosal oxidation and reducing state. Histopathologic scores were significantly higher in the IAI and IAH group, followed by IAI alone, IAH alone, and the control group. FITC-dextran, d-Lactate, DAO, and endotoxin in plasma and MDA in ileum tissues had similar trends. GSH and SOD were significantly lowest the in IAI and IAH group. Occludin levels were lowest in the ileums of the IAI and IAH group. All differences were statistically significant ( P -values <0.001). IAI combined with IAH aggravates damage of the intestinal mucosal barrier in a rabbit model. The combined effects were significantly more severe compared with a single factor. IAI combined with IAH should be prevented and treated effectively. © 2018 The Author(s).

  3. Effects of abdominal pressure on venous return: abdominal vascular zone conditions.

    PubMed

    Takata, M; Wise, R A; Robotham, J L

    1990-12-01

    The effects of changes in abdominal pressure (Pab) on inferior vena cava (IVC) venous return were analyzed using a model of the IVC circulation based on a concept of abdominal vascular zone conditions analogous to pulmonary vascular zone conditions. We hypothesized that an increase in Pab would increase IVC venous return when the IVC pressure at the level of the diaphragm (Pivc) exceeds the sum of Pab and the critical closing transmural pressure (Pc), i.e., zone 3 conditions, but reduce IVC venous return when Pivc is below the sum of Pab and Pc, i.e., zone 2 conditions. The validity of the model was tested in 12 canine experiments with an open-chest IVC bypass. An increase in Pab produced by phrenic stimulation increased the IVC venous return when Pivc-Pab was positive but decreased the IVC venous return when Pivc - Pab was negative. The value of Pivc - Pab that separated net increases from decreases in venous return was 1.00 +/- 0.72 (SE) mmHg (n = 6). An increase in Pivc did not influence the femoral venous pressure when Pivc was lower than the sum of Pab and a constant, 0.96 +/- 0.70 mmHg (n = 6), consistent with presence of a waterfall. These results agreed closely with the predictions of the model and its computer simulation. The abdominal venous compartment appears to function with changes in Pab either as a capacitor in zone 3 conditions or as a collapsible Starling resistor with little wall tone in zone 2 conditions.

  4. Wandering ascaris coming out through the abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Wani, Mohd L; Rather, Ajaz A; Parray, Fazl Q; Ahangar, Abdul G; Bijli, Akram H; Irshad, Ifat; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Tahir S

    2013-06-01

    A rare case of ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is reported here. A 40-year-old female had undergone dilatation and curettage by a quack. On the second day she presented with presented with features of peritonitis. She was explored. Resection anastomosis of the ileum was done for multiple perforations of the ileum. Patient developed a fistula in the anterior abdominal wall which was draining bile-colored fluid. On the 12(th) postoperative day a 10-cm-long worm was seen coming out through the fistulous tract which was found to be Ascaris lumbricoids. Ascaris lumbricoids can lead to many complications ranging from worm colic to intestinal obstruction, volvulus, peritonitis, pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, liver abscess and many more. Worm has been reported to come out through mouth, nostrils, abdominal drains, T-tubes etc. But ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is very rare hence reported here.

  5. Wandering Ascaris Coming Out Through the Abdominal Wall

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Mohd L; Rather, Ajaz A.; Parray, Fazl Q.; Ahangar, Abdul G.; Bijli, Akram H.; Irshad, Ifat; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Tahir S.

    2013-01-01

    A rare case of ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is reported here. A 40-year-old female had undergone dilatation and curettage by a quack. On the second day she presented with presented with features of peritonitis. She was explored. Resection anastomosis of the ileum was done for multiple perforations of the ileum. Patient developed a fistula in the anterior abdominal wall which was draining bile-colored fluid. On the 12th postoperative day a 10-cm-long worm was seen coming out through the fistulous tract which was found to be Ascaris lumbricoids. Ascaris lumbricoids can lead to many complications ranging from worm colic to intestinal obstruction, volvulus, peritonitis, pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, liver abscess and many more. Worm has been reported to come out through mouth, nostrils, abdominal drains, T-tubes etc. But ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is very rare hence reported here. PMID:23930192

  6. Diagnostic ultrasonography in cattle with abdominal fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the ultrasonographic findings in 14 cows with abdominal fat necrosis. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed the presence of heterogeneous hyperechoic masses and hyperechoic omentum with localized masses floating in a hypoechoic peritoneal fluid. A hyperechogenic rim was imaged around both kidneys. The intestines were coated with hyperechoic capsules and the intestinal lumens were constricted. Ultrasonographic examination of the pancreatic parenchyma showed an overall increased echogenicity which was homogenously distributed in 3 cases. A diagnosis of abdominal fat necrosis was made with ultrasound-guided biopsy of the echogenic masses, and thereafter at postmortem examination. Results from this study demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasonography as an imaging modality for antemortem diagnosis of abdominal lipomatosis in cattle. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first that illustrates ultrasonographic findings in cattle affected with abdominal lipomatosis.

  7. Complete occlusion after blunt injury to the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Meghoo, Colin A L; Gonzalez, Ernest A; Tyroch, Alan H; Wohltmann, Christopher D

    2003-10-01

    Injury to the abdominal aorta after blunt trauma is uncommon. When this injury results in complete vessel occlusion, the presentation is dramatic. Timely intervention is essential. After a case report, we examined all reported cases of complete occlusion after blunt injury to the abdominal aorta and reviewed the cause, presentation, and management of this injury. Complete vessel occlusion arises from intimal injury. The most frequent mechanism is compression from a seat belt or steering wheel during a motor vehicle crash. Patients present with absent femoral and distal pulses in association with lower extremity neuropathy. Intervention commonly involves bypass grafting of the abdominal aorta. Complete occlusion after blunt trauma to the abdominal aorta is rare. Neurologic deficits most commonly arise from peripheral nerve ischemia. Reperfusion within 6 hours confers a greater chance of limb salvage and neurologic recovery.

  8. [Application of antiseptic dekasan in urgent abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Fomin, P D; Lissov, A I; Kozlov, S N; Mikhal'chishin, S N

    2009-01-01

    Experience in local application of antiseptic Dekasan in the complex treatment of abdominal infections of various origins are presented. The clinical and economic efficacy of the drug application is notice.

  9. Delayed rupture of gallbladder following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Debajyoti; Agarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Krittika; Garg, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-09-01

    A 29-year-old gentleman presented to surgery emergency with severe upper abdominal pain and vomiting. He reported to had been hit in his abdomen by a ball during a cricket match. Computerized tomogram of the abdomen revealed hematoma within the gallbladder lumen, laceration of segment six of liver, and hemoperitoneum. The patient did not agree for laparotomy advised to him, and so, managed conservatively. The patient reported back to us with high grade fever, jaundice, and painful abdominal distension after seven days of discharge from the hospital. His abdominal examination showed features of generalized peritonitis. Surgical abdominal exploration revealed a single perforation in the fundus of gallbladder with frozen calot'striangle. Subtotal cholecystectomy was done. Histopathology of excised gallbladder revealed xanthogranulomatous inflammation. The present case report highlights that early exploration and cholecystectomy should be considered in patients with gallbladder injury to obviate the risk of delayed perforation.

  10. Prognostically favorable abdominal breast cancer metastases with stomach involvement.

    PubMed

    Akcali, Zafer; Sakalli, Hakan; Ozyilkan, Ozgur; Demirhan, Beyhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2005-05-01

    Abdominal metastases with stomach involvement are rare in breast cancer. The median disease free interval from the time of breast cancer diagnosis to gastric metastasis is usually very long. Treatment is generally palliative, and expected survival time is less than 1 year. A 59-year-old woman with breast cancer developed diffuse abdominal metastases involving stomach, abdominal lymph nodes, and omentum 9 years after she underwent mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. The histopathologic diagnosis found by stomach specimen examination was invasive lobular carcinoma, and the cells expressed high levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors. The abdominal metastases were treated with surgery, postoperative chemotherapy, and further hormonal therapy. This was successful, and the patient has been in remission for more than 3 years. Once the definitive diagnosis of breast cancer metastases to the abdomen including the stomach is established, treatment that targets systemic breast cancer must be initiated. Our patient's extended survival time suggests that surgical treatment could be considered for selected patients.

  11. Functional abdominal pain syndrome treated with Korean medication.

    PubMed

    Son, Chang-Gue

    2014-06-01

    A 37-year-old female patient with chronic and stubborn abdominal pain had been hospitalized five times in three Western hospitals, but no effects were observed. No abnormalities were found in blood tests, gastrointestinal endoscopy, sonogram, and computed tomography of the abdomen, except mild paralytic ileus. The patient decided to rely on Korean medicine as an inpatient. She was diagnosed with functional abdominal pain syndrome, and her symptom differentiation was the " Yang deficiency of spleen and kidney ." A herbal drug, Hwangikyeji-tang , along with moxibustion and acupuncture, was given to the patient. Abdominal pain and related symptoms were reduced radically within 16 days of treatment. This report shows a therapeutic potential of Korean medicine-based treatment for functional abdominal pain syndrome.

  12. [The etiological aspects of acute abdominal pain in children].

    PubMed

    Dinu, C A; Moraru, D

    2011-01-01

    The study of the etiological aspects of acute abdominal pain in children, in order to perceive the clinical-etiological correlations and the disorders distribution related to age, gender and the origin of the patients. The criteria for including patients were age (between 0 and 18 years) and the presence of acute abdominal pain before or during the consultation with the physician. The research on acute abdominal pain in children was performed on the level of the Surgery and Pediatrics II clinical departments of the "Sf. Ioan" Children's Emergency Clinical Hospital in Galati, between 01.01.2009 - 01.01.2011. The clinical study performed on the patients registered in the studied groups focused on the identification, the evaluation of the symptoms of acute abdominal pain in children, diagnosing and treating it. The criteria for excluding patients were an age older than 18 years or the absence of acute abdominal pain as a symptom before or during the examination. The statistical analysis used the descriptive and analytical methods. The data was centralized and statistically processed in M.S.EXCEL and S.P.S.S. databases. The patients with acute abdominal pain represent a percentage of 92.9% (2358 cases) of the total number of patients who suffer from abdominal pain (N=2537). The highest frequency of cases is represented by acute appendicitis (1056 cases - 44.8%). In the 5-18 years age group, acute appendicitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, ovarian follicular cysts, acute pyelenophritis and salpingitis are predominant. In the 0-4 years age group gastroenteritis, acute pharyngitis, reactive hepatitis and lower digestive bleeding are predominant. In females, acute appendicitis, gastroenteritis, gastroduodenitis and cystitis are predominant, whereas in males, peritonitis, sepsis through E. coli, the contusion of the abdominal wall and acute pharyngitis are predominant.

  13. WSES guidelines for emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Emergency repair of complicated abdominal hernias is associated with poor prognosis and a high rate of post-operative complications. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bergamo in July 2013, during the 2nd Congress of the World Society of Emergency Surgery with the goal of defining recommendations for emergency repair of abdominal wall hernias in adults. This document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference approved by a WSES expert panel. PMID:24289453

  14. A Virtual Reality-Based Simulation of Abdominal Surgery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-30

    415) 591-7881 In! IhNiI 1 SHORT TITLE: A Virtual Reality -Based Simulation of Abdominal Surgery REPORTING PERIOD: October 31, 1993-June 30, 1994 The...Report - A Virtual Reality -Based Simulation Of Abdominal Surgery Page 2 June 21, 1994 TECHNICAL REPORT SUMMARY Virtual Reality is a marriage between...applications of this technology. Virtual reality systems can be used to teach surgical anatomy, diagnose surgical problems, plan operations. simulate and

  15. Common Functional Gastroenterologic Disorders Associated With Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Sletten, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Although abdominal pain is a symptom of several structural gastrointestinal disorders (eg, peptic ulcer disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 4 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with abdominal pain: functional dyspepsia, constipation-predominant and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, and functional abdominal pain syndrome. Together, these conditions affect approximately 1 in 4 people in the United States. They are associated with comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia, depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Symptoms are explained by disordered gastrointestinal motility and sensation, which are implicated in a variety of peripheral (eg, postinfectious inflammation, luminal irritants) and/or central (eg, stress and anxiety) factors. These disorders are defined and can generally be diagnosed by symptoms alone. Often prompted by alarm features, selected testing is useful to exclude structural disease. Identifying the specific diagnosis (eg, differentiating between functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome) and establishing an effective patient-physician relationship are the cornerstones of therapy. Many patients with mild symptoms can be effectively managed with limited tests, sensible dietary modifications, and over-the-counter medications tailored to symptoms. If these measures are not sufficient, pharmacotherapy should be considered for bowel symptoms (constipation or diarrhea) and/or abdominal pain; opioids should not be used. Behavioral and psychological approaches (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy) can be very helpful, particularly in patients with chronic abdominal pain who require a multidisciplinary pain management program without opioids. PMID:27492916

  16. [Abdominal wall actinomycosis. A report of a case].

    PubMed

    Rojas Pérez-Ezquerra, Beatriz; Guardia-Dodorico, Lorena; Arribas-Marco, Teresa; Ania-Lahuerta, Aldonza; González Ballano, Isabel; Chipana-Salinas, Margot; Carazo-Hernández, Belén

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal wall Actinomycosis is a rare disease associated with the use of intrauterine device and as a complication of abdominal surgery. Diagnosis is difficult because it is unusual and behaves like a malignant neoplasm. A case report is presented of a patient who had used an intrauterine device for four years and developed a stony tumour in the abdominal wall associated with a set of symptoms that, clinically and radiologically, was simulating a peritoneal carcinomatosis associated with paraneoplastic syndrome, even in the course of an exploratory laparotomy. The patient attended our hospital with a two-month history of abdominal pain and symptoms that mimic a paraneoplastic syndrome. The diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis was suspected by the finding of the microorganism in cervical cytology together with other cultures and Actinomyces negative in pathological studies, confirming the suspicion of a complete cure with empirical treatment with penicillin. Actinomycosis should be considered in patients with pelvic mass or abdominal wall mass that mimics a malignancy. Antibiotic therapy is the first treatment choice and makes a more invasive surgical management unnecessary. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiology and contemporary management of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Ullery, Brant W; Hallett, Richard L; Fleischmann, Dominik

    2018-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is most commonly defined as a maximal diameter of the abdominal aorta in excess of 3 cm in either anterior-posterior or transverse planes or, alternatively, as a focal dilation ≥ 1.5 times the diameter of the normal adjacent arterial segment. Risk factors for the development of AAA include age > 60, tobacco use, male gender, Caucasian race, and family history of AAA. Aneurysm growth and rupture risk appear to be associated with persistent tobacco use, female gender, and chronic pulmonary disease. The majority of AAAs are asymptomatic and detected incidentally on various imaging studies, including abdominal ultrasound, and computed tomographic angiography. Symptoms associated with AAA may include abdominal or back pain, thromboembolization, atheroembolization, aortic rupture, or development of an arteriovenous or aortoenteric fistula. The Screening Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Efficiently (SAAAVE) Act provides coverage for a one-time screening abdominal ultrasound at age 65 for men who have smoked at least 100 cigarettes and women who have family history of AAA disease. Medical management is recommended for asymptomatic patients with AAAs < 5 cm in diameter and focuses on modifiable risk factors, including smoking cessation and blood pressure control. Primary indications for intervention in patients with AAA include development of symptoms, rupture, rapid aneurysm growth (> 5 mm/6 months), or presence of a fusiform aneurysm with maximum diameter of 5.5 cm or greater. Intervention for AAA includes conventional open surgical repair and endovascular aortic stent graft repair.

  18. Increased auditory startle reflex in children with functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Mirte J; Boer, Frits; Benninga, Marc A; Koelman, Johannes H T M; Tijssen, Marina A J

    2010-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders have a general hypersensitivity for sensory stimuli. Auditory startle reflexes were assessed in 20 children classified according to Rome III classifications of abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (13 irritable bowel syndrome [IBS], 7 functional abdominal pain syndrome; mean age, 12.4 years; 15 girls) and 23 control subjects (14 girls; mean age, 12.3 years) using a case-control design. The activity of 6 left-sided muscles and the sympathetic skin response were obtained by an electromyogram. We presented sudden loud noises to the subjects through headphones. Both the combined response of 6 muscles and the blink response proved to be significantly increased in patients with abdominal pain compared with control subjects. A significant increase of the sympathetic skin response was not found. Comorbid anxiety disorders (8 patients with abdominal pain) or Rome III subclassification did not significantly affect these results. This study demonstrates an objective hyperresponsivity to nongastrointestinal stimuli. Children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders may have a generalized hypersensitivity of the central nervous system. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel nonoperative approach to abdominal compartment syndrome after abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Zeenat R; Sorensen, G Brent

    2013-01-01

    Intraabdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome have been increasingly recognized as significant causes of morbidity and mortality in both medical and surgical patients. The gold standard remains surgical intervention; however, nonoperative approaches have been investigated less. Here, we describe the successful treatment of a severe acute case by intubation, nasogastric decompression, and paralysis--a novel approach not previously described in the literature. After the patient underwent laparoscopic bilateral component separation and repair of a large recurrent ventral hernia with a 20 30-cm Strattice mesh (LifeCell Corp, Branchburg, NJ), acute renal failure developed within 12 hours postoperatively, and was associated with oliguria, hyperkalemia, and elevated peak airway and bladder pressures. The patient was treated nonoperatively with intubation, nasogastric tube decompression, and paralysis with a vecuronium drip. Rapid reversal was seen, avoiding further surgery. Within 2 hours after intubation and paralysis, our patient's urine output improved dramatically with an initial diuresis of approximately 1 L, his bladder pressures decreased, and within 12 hours his creatinine level had normalized. Although surgical intervention has traditionally been thought of as the most effective--and thus the gold standard--for abdominal compartment syndrome, this preliminary experience demonstrates nonoperative management as highly efficacious, with the added benefit of decreased morbidity. Therefore, nonoperative management could be considered first-line therapy, with laparotomy reserved for refractory cases only. This suggests a more complex pathology than the traditional teaching of congestion and edema alone.

  20. Argon pneumoperitoneum is more dangerous than CO2 pneumoperitoneum during venous gas embolism.

    PubMed

    Mann, C; Boccara, G; Grevy, V; Navarro, F; Fabre, J M; Colson, P

    1997-12-01

    We investigated the possibility of using argon, an inert gas, as a replacement for carbon dioxide (CO2). The tolerance of argon pneumoperitoneum was compared with that of CO2 pneumoperitoneum. Twenty pigs were anesthetized with enflurane 1.5%. Argon (n = 11) or CO2 (n = 9) pneumoperitoneum was created at 15 mm Hg over 20 min, and serial intravenous injections of each gas (ranging from 0.1 to 20 mL/kg) were made. Cardiorespiratory variables were measured. Transesophageal Doppler and capnographic monitoring were assessed in the detection of embolism. During argon pneumoperitoneum, there was no significant change from baseline in arterial pressure and pulmonary excretion of CO2, mean systemic arterial pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), or systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances, whereas CO2 pneumoperitoneum significantly increased these values (P < 0.05). During the embolic trial and from gas volumes of 2 and 0.2 mL/kg, the decrease in MAP and the increase in PAP were significantly higher with argon than with CO2 (P < 0.05). In contrast to CO2, argon pneumoperitoneum was not associated with significant changes in cardiorespiratory functions. However, argon embolism seems to be more deleterious than CO2 embolism. The possibility of using argon pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopy remains uncertain. Laparoscopic surgery requires insufflation of gas into the peritoneal cavity. We compared the hemodynamic effects of argon, an inert gas, and carbon dioxide in a pig model of laparoscopic surgery. We conclude that argon carries a high risk factor in the case of an accidental gas embolism.

  1. Understanding administrative abdominal aortic aneurysm mortality data.

    PubMed

    Hussey, K; Siddiqui, T; Burton, P; Welch, G H; Stuart, W P

    2015-03-01

    Administrative data in the form of Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and the Scottish Morbidity Record (SMR) have been used to describe surgical activity. These data have also been used to compare outcomes from different hospitals and regions, and to corroborate data submitted to national audits and registries. The aim of this observational study was to examine the completeness and accuracy of administrative data relating to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Administrative data (SMR-01 returns) from a single health board relating to AAA repair were requested (September 2007 to August 2012). A complete list of validated procedures; termed the reference data set was compiled from all available sources (clinical and administrative). For each patient episode electronic health records were scrutinised to confirm urgency of admission, diagnosis, and operative repair. The 30-day mortality was recorded. The reference data set was used to systematically validate the SMR-01 returns. The reference data set contained 608 verified procedures. SMR-01 returns identified 2433 episodes of care (1724 patients) in which a discharge diagnosis included AAA. This included 574 operative repairs. There were 34 missing cases (5.6%) from SMR-01 returns; nine of these patients died within 30 days of the index procedure. Omission of these cases made a statistically significant improvement to perceived 30-day mortality (p < .05, chi-square test). If inconsistent SMR-01 data (in terms of ICD-10 and OPCS-4 codes) were excluded only 81.9% of operative repairs were correctly identified and only 30.9% of deaths were captured. The SMR-01 returns contain multiple errors. There also appears to be a systematic bias that reduces apparent 30-day mortality. Using these data alone to describe or compare activity or outcomes must be done with caution. Copyright © 2014 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Successful Treatment of Abdominal Cutaneous Entrapment Syndrome Using Ultrasound Guided Injection

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Myong Joo; Seo, Dong Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    There are various origins for chronic abdominal pain. About 10-30% of patients with chronic abdominal pain have abdominal wall pain. Unfortunately, abdominal wall pain is not thought to be the first origin of chronic abdominal pain; therefore, patients usually undergo extensive examinations, including diagnostic laparoscopic surgery. Entrapment of abdominal cutaneous nerves at the muscular foramen of the rectus abdominis is a rare cause of abdominal wall pain. If abdominal wall pain is considered in earlier stage of chronic abdominal pain, unnecessary invasive procedures are not required and patients will reach symptom free condition as soon as the diagnosis is made. Here, we report a case of successful treatment of a patient with abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome by ultrasound guided injection therapy. PMID:23862004

  3. Gas vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Walsby, A E

    1994-01-01

    The gas vesicle is a hollow structure made of protein. It usually has the form of a cylindrical tube closed by conical end caps. Gas vesicles occur in five phyla of the Bacteria and two groups of the Archaea, but they are mostly restricted to planktonic microorganisms, in which they provide buoyancy. By regulating their relative gas vesicle content aquatic microbes are able to perform vertical migrations. In slowly growing organisms such movements are made more efficiently than by swimming with flagella. The gas vesicle is impermeable to liquid water, but it is highly permeable to gases and is normally filled with air. It is a rigid structure of low compressibility, but it collapses flat under a certain critical pressure and buoyancy is then lost. Gas vesicles in different organisms vary in width, from 45 to > 200 nm; in accordance with engineering principles the narrower ones are stronger (have higher critical pressures) than wide ones, but they contain less gas space per wall volume and are therefore less efficient at providing buoyancy. A survey of gas-vacuolate cyanobacteria reveals that there has been natural selection for gas vesicles of the maximum width permitted by the pressure encountered in the natural environment, which is mainly determined by cell turgor pressure and water depth. Gas vesicle width is genetically determined, perhaps through the amino acid sequence of one of the constituent proteins. Up to 14 genes have been implicated in gas vesicle production, but so far the products of only two have been shown to be present in the gas vesicle: GvpA makes the ribs that form the structure, and GvpC binds to the outside of the ribs and stiffens the structure against collapse. The evolution of the gas vesicle is discussed in relation to the homologies of these proteins. Images PMID:8177173

  4. GAS BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1960-09-01

    A gas lubricated bearing for a rotating shaft is described. The assembly comprises a stationary collar having an annular member resiliently supported thereon. The collar and annular member are provided with cooperating gas passages arranged for admission of pressurized gas which supports and lubricates a bearing block fixed to the rotatable shaft. The resilient means for the annular member support the latter against movement away from the bearing block when the assembly is in operation.

  5. Gas magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  6. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, A.Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  7. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  8. Protective mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery improves postoperative pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Severgnini, Paolo; Selmo, Gabriele; Lanza, Christian; Chiesa, Alessandro; Frigerio, Alice; Bacuzzi, Alessandro; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Novario, Raffaele; Gregoretti, Cesare; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Schultz, Marcus J; Jaber, Samir; Futier, Emmanuel; Chiaranda, Maurizio; Pelosi, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    The impact of intraoperative ventilation on postoperative pulmonary complications is not defined. The authors aimed at determining the effectiveness of protective mechanical ventilation during open abdominal surgery on a modified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score as primary outcome and postoperative pulmonary function. Prospective randomized, open-label, clinical trial performed in 56 patients scheduled to undergo elective open abdominal surgery lasting more than 2 h. Patients were assigned by envelopes to mechanical ventilation with tidal volume of 9 ml/kg ideal body weight and zero-positive end-expiratory pressure (standard ventilation strategy) or tidal volumes of 7 ml/kg ideal body weight, 10 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure, and recruitment maneuvers (protective ventilation strategy). Modified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score, gas exchange, and pulmonary functional tests were measured preoperatively, as well as at days 1, 3, and 5 after surgery. Patients ventilated protectively showed better pulmonary functional tests up to day 5, fewer alterations on chest x-ray up to day 3 and higher arterial oxygenation in air at days 1, 3, and 5 (mmHg; mean ± SD): 77.1 ± 13.0 versus 64.9 ± 11.3 (P = 0.0006), 80.5 ± 10.1 versus 69.7 ± 9.3 (P = 0.0002), and 82.1 ± 10.7 versus 78.5 ± 21.7 (P = 0.44) respectively. The modified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score was lower in the protective ventilation strategy at days 1 and 3. The percentage of patients in hospital at day 28 after surgery was not different between groups (7 vs. 15% respectively, P = 0.42). A protective ventilation strategy during abdominal surgery lasting more than 2 h improved respiratory function and reduced the modified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score without affecting length of hospital stay.

  9. Longitudinal changes in abdominal fat distribution with menopause.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Ruth M; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Kanaley, Jill A

    2009-03-01

    Increases in abdominal fat have been reported with menopause, but the impact of menopause on abdominal fat distribution (visceral vs subcutaneous) is still unclear. The objective of the study was to determine if abdominal fat content (volume) or distribution is altered with menopause. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify total abdominal, subcutaneous, and visceral fat in 8 healthy women, both in the premenopausal state and 8 years later in the postmenopausal state. Physical activity (PA) and blood lipids were also measured. Body weight and waist circumference did not change with menopause (pre- vs postmenopause: body weight, 63.2 +/- 3.1 vs 63.9 +/- 2.5 kg; waist circumference, 92.1 +/- 4.6 vs 93.4 +/- 3.7 cm); however, total abdominal fat, subcutaneous fat, and visceral fat all significantly (P < .05) increased with menopause (pre- vs postmenopause: total, 27 154 +/- 4268 vs 34 717 +/- 3272 cm(3); subcutaneous, 19 981 +/- 3203 vs 24 918 +/- 2521 cm(3); visceral, 7173 +/- 1611 vs 9798 +/- 1644 cm(3)). Although absolute adiposity changed with menopause, relative fat distribution was not significantly different after menopause (pre- vs postmenopause: subcutaneous, 73% +/- 3% vs 71% +/- 3%; visceral, 26% +/- 3% vs 28% +/- 3%). Lean mass, fat mass, and PA, along with total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, did not change with menopause. High-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein both increased (P < .05), and the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein decreased (P < .05) with menopause. As measured longitudinally with magnetic resonance imaging, total abdominal fat content increased with menopause despite no change in PA, body weight, or waist circumference; however, menopause did not affect the relative abdominal fat distribution in these women.

  10. Volunteer patients and small groups contribute to abdominal examination's success.

    PubMed

    Shields, Helen M; Fernandez-Becker, Nielsen Q; Flier, Sarah N; Vaughn, Byron P; Tukey, Melissa H; Pelletier, Stephen R; Horst, Douglas A

    2017-01-01

    Prior to 2007, we taught the abdominal examination in a hospital based group to 40 students, at one hospital. We used volunteer patients, small groups, repetition, and required faculty development sessions. In 2007, our medical school changed its "Introduction to Physical Examination" session so that the entire class was to be taught in a geographically central session. Our hospital was selected to lead the abdominal examination portion of the session. Our aim was to answer three questions. First, could we quadruple the recruitment of volunteer patients, and faculty? Second, was it volunteer patients, small groups, repetition, or faculty training that was most valued by the students? Third, would volunteer patients and/or faculty agree to participate a second time? A total of 43-46 patients and 43-46 faculty were recruited and 43-46 examining rooms were obtained for each of the 5 years of this study. Teachers were required to attend a 1-hour faculty development session. The class of about 170 students was divided into 43-46 groups each year. The teacher demonstrated the abdominal examination and each student practiced the examination on another student. Each student then repeated the full abdominal examination on a volunteer patient. Over the 5-year time period (2008-2012), the abdominal examination ranked first among all organ systems' "Introductory Sessions". The abdominal examination ratings had the best mean score (1.35) on a Likert scale where 1 is excellent and 5 is poor. The students gave the most positive spontaneous comments to having volunteer patients, with small groups coming in as the second most appreciated educational element. We successfully quadrupled the number of faculty, patients, and examining rooms and created a highly rated educational program as measured by anonymous student evaluations, patient and faculty participation, and the medical school's selecting the abdominal examination methods as an "Advanced Examination" for the Pathways

  11. Diagnostic utility of abdominal ultrasonography in dogs with chronic diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Leib, M S; Larson, M M; Grant, D C; Monroe, W E; Troy, G C; Panciera, D L; Rossmeisl, J H; Werre, S R

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is common in dogs and has many causes. Ultrasonographic descriptions of many gastrointestinal diseases have been published, but the diagnostic utility of ultrasonography in dogs with chronic diarrhea has not been investigated. Diagnostic utility of abdominal ultrasound will be highest in dogs with GI neoplasia and lowest in those with inflammatory disorders. 87 pet dogs with chronic diarrhea. Prospective study in which medical records were reviewed and contribution of abdominal ultrasound toward making diagnosis was scored. In 57/87 (66%) of dogs, the same diagnosis would have been reached without ultrasonography. In 13/87 (15%) of dogs, the ultrasound examination was vital or beneficial to making the diagnosis. Univariable analysis identified that increased diagnostic utility was associated with weight loss (P = .0086), palpation of an abdominal or rectal mass (P = .0031), diseases that commonly have mass lesions visible on ultrasound examination (P < .0001), and a final diagnosis of GI neoplasia. Multivariable regression indicated that utility of abdominal ultrasonography would be 30 times more likely to be high in dogs in which an abdominal or rectal mass was palpated (odds ratio 30.5, 95% CI 5.5-169.6) (P < .0001) versus dogs without a palpable mass. In 15/87 (17%) of dogs, additional benefits of ultrasonography to case management, independent of the contribution to the diagnosis of diarrhea, were identified. Overall, the diagnostic utility of abdominal ultrasonography was low in dogs with chronic diarrhea. Identification of factors associated with high diagnostic utility is an indication to perform abdominal ultrasonography in dogs with chronic diarrhea. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum in patients with abdominal-wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Mayagoitia, J C; Suárez, D; Arenas, J C; Díaz de León, V

    2006-06-01

    Induction of preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum is an elective procedure in patients with hernias with loss of domain. A prospective study was carried out from June 2003 to May 2005 at the Hospital de Especialidades, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Leon, Mexico. Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum was induced using a double-lumen intraabdominal catheter inserted through a Veress needle and daily insufflation of ambient air. Variables analyzed were age, sex, body mass index, type, location and size of defective hernia, number of previous repairs, number of days pneumoperitoneum was maintained, type of hernioplasty, and incidence of complications. Of 12 patients, 2 were excluded because it was technically impossible to induce pneumoperitoneum. Of the remaining 10 patients, 60% were female and 40% were male. The patients' average age was 51.5 years, average body mass index was 34.7, and evolution time of their hernias ranged from 8 months to 23 years. Nine patients had ventral hernias and one had an inguinal hernia. Pneumoperitoneum was maintained for an average of 9.3 days and there were no serious complications relating to the puncture or the maintenance of the pneumoperitoneum. One patient who previously had undergone a mastectomy experienced minor complications. We were able to perform hernioplasty on all patients, eight with the Rives technique, one with supra-aponeurotic mesh, and one using the Lichtenstein method for inguinal hernia repair. One patient's wound became infected postoperatively. Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum is a safe procedure that is easy to perform and that facilitates surgical hernia repair in patients with hernia with loss of domain. Complications are infrequent, patient tolerability is adequate, and the proposed modification to the puncture technique makes the procedure even safer.

  13. Gas Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasek, Francis W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This review covers fundamental developments in gas chromatography during 1982 and 1983. Literature is considered under these headings: columns; liguid phases; solid supports; sorption processes and solvents; open tubular column gas chromatography; instrumentation; high-resolution columns and applications; other techniques; qualitative and…

  14. Gas Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, S. K.

    The field of gas lasers, started with the invention of He-Ne laser in 1961, has witnessed tremendous growth in terms of technology development, research into gaseous gain medium, resonator physics and application in widely diverse arenas. This was possible due to high versatility of gas lasers in terms of operating wavelengths, power, beam quality and mode of operation. In recent years, there is a definite trend to replace the gas lasers, wherever possible, by more efficient and compact solid-state lasers. However, for many industrial, medical and military applications, the gas lasers still rule the roost due to their high-power capabilities with good beam quality at specific wavelengths. This chapter presents a short review covering the operating principle, important technical details and application potential of all the important gas lasers such as He-Ne, CO2, argon ion, copper vapour, excimer and chemical lasers. These neutral atoms, ions and molecule gas lasers are discussed as per applicable electrical, chemical and optical excitation schemes. The optically pumped gas lasers, recently experiencing resurgence, are discussed in the context of far infrared THz molecular lasers, diode-pumped alkali lasers and optically pumped gas-filled hollow-core fibre lasers.

  15. Focused abdominal sonography for trauma in the clinical evaluation of children with blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ishay, Offir; Daoud, Mai; Peled, Zvi; Brauner, Eran; Bahouth, Hany; Kluger, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    In pediatric care, the role of focused abdominal sonography in trauma (FAST) remains ill defined. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of FAST for detecting free peritoneal fluid in children. The trauma registry of a single level I pediatric trauma center was queried for the results of FAST examination of consecutive pediatric (<18 years) blunt trauma patients over a period of 36 months, from January 2010 to December 2012. Demographics, type of injuries, FAST results, computerized tomography (CT) results, and operative findings were reviewed. During the study period, 543 injured pediatric patients (mean age 8.2 ± 5 years) underwent FAST examinations. In 95 (17.5 %) FAST was positive for free peritoneal fluid. CT examination was performed in 219 (40.3 %) children. Positive FAST examination was confirmed by CT scan in 61/73 (83.6 %). CT detected intra-peritoneal fluid in 62/448 (13.8 %) of the patients with negative FAST results. These findings correspond to a sensitivity of 50 %, specificity of 88 %, positive predictive value (PPV) of 84 %, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 58 %. In patients who had negative FAST results and no CT examination (302), no missed abdominal injury was detected on clinical ground. FAST examination in the young age group (<2 years) yielded lower sensitivity and specificity (36 and 78 % respectively) with a PPV of only 50 %. This study shows that although a positive FAST evaluation does not necessarily correlate with an IAI, a negative one strongly suggests the absence of an IAI, with a high NPV. These findings are emphasized in the analysis of the subgroup of children less than 2 years of age. FAST examination tempered with sound clinical judgment seems to be an effective tool to discriminate injured children in need of further imaging evaluation.

  16. Lung gas volumes and expiratory time constant in immature newborn rabbits treated with natural or synthetic surfactant or detergents.

    PubMed

    Bongrani, S; Fornasier, M; Papotti, M; Razzetti, R; Robertson, B

    1994-01-01

    Immature newborn rabbits delivered at a gestational age of 27 days were tracheotomized and treated, via the tracheal cannula, with clinically recommended doses of natural or synthetic surfactant (Curosurf and Exosurf, respectively). Littermates received 0.1% tyloxapol, 5% Tween 20, or saline. The dose volume of Curosurf was 2.5 ml/kg, that of the other materials 5 ml/kg. Animals were kept in a multiplethysmograph system and ventilated for 30 min with a standardized sequence of insufflation pressures. End-expiratory lung gas volume was calculated at the end of the experiment from measurements of lung weight and total lung volume. Tidal volumes were significantly improved in all groups of animals receiving surfactant or detergents. However, expiratory time constant (determined from the tidal volume tracing) was significantly longer, and end-expiratory gas volume significantly larger, in animals treated with Curosurf than in those receiving Exosurf or detergents. These differences were confirmed by semiquantitative evaluation of alveolar air expansion in histological sections. In addition, airway epithelial necrosis was reduced in animals receiving Curosurf, Exosurf, or Tween 20, but not in animals treated with tyloxapol. The discrepancy between improvements in tidal volume, expiratory time constant, and end-expiratory gas volume reflects failure of lung stabilization in animals treated with Exosurf or detergents, probably due to absence of specific hydrophobic proteins in the synthetic products.

  17. [Excess weight and abdominal obesity in Galician children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Leis, Rosaura; Martínez, Ana; Malvar, Alberto; Hervada, Xurxo; Suanzes, Jorge

    2017-12-06

    The excess of weight, mainly obesity, during childhood and adolescence increases morbimortality risk in adulthood. The aim of this article is to estimate both the overall prevalence, as well as according to age and gender, of underweight, overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity among schoolchildren aged between 6-15-years-old in the school year 2013-2014. Data were taken from a cross-sectional community-based study carried out on a representative sample, by gender and age, of the Galician population aged between 6 and 15 years-old. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obese children (Cole's cut-off criteria) and abdominal obesity (Taylor's cut-off criteria) were estimated after performing objective measurements of height, weight and waist circumference at school. A total of 7,438 students were weighed and measured in 137 schools. The prevalence of overweight and obese individuals was 24.9% and 8.2%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 25.8%, with 4% of children with normal weight having abdominal obesity. These data highlight the need to promote primary prevention measures at early ages in order to decrease the occurrence of the premature onset of disease in the future. The prevalence of excess weight is underestimated if abdominal obesity is not taken into consideration. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  18. Advanced abdominal pregnancy: an increasingly challenging clinical concern for obstetricians

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ke; Song, Lei; Wang, Longxia; Gao, Zhiying; Meng, Yuanguang; Lu, Yanping

    2014-01-01

    Advanced abdominal pregnancy is rare. The low incidence, high misdiagnosis rate, and lack of specific clinical signs and symptoms explain the fact that there are no standard diagnostic and treatment options available for advanced abdominal pregnancy. We managed a case of abdominal pregnancy in a woman who was pregnant for the first time. This case was further complicated by a concurrent singleton intrauterine pregnancy; the twin pregnancy was not detected until 20 weeks of pregnancy. The case was confirmed at 26 weeks gestational age using MRI to be an abdominal combined with intrauterine pregnancy. The pregnancy was terminated by cesarean section at 33 + 5 weeks gestation. We collected the relevant data of the case while reviewing the advanced abdominal pregnancy-related English literature in the Pubmed, Proquest, and OVID databases. We compared and analyzed the pregnancy history, gestational age when the diagnosis was confirmed, the placental colonization position, the course of treatment and surgical processes, related concurrency rate, post-operative drug treatment programs, and follow-up results with the expectation to provide guidance for other physicians who might encounter similar cases. PMID:25337188

  19. Practical human abdominal fat imaging utilizing electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, T; Maki, K; Katashima, M

    2010-07-01

    The fundamental cause of metabolic syndrome is thought to be abdominal obesity. Accurate diagnosis of abdominal obesity can be done by an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. But CT is expensive, bulky and entails the risks involved with radiation. To overcome such disadvantages, we attempted to develop a measuring device that could apply electrical impedance tomography to abdominal fat imaging. The device has 32 electrodes that can be attached to a subject's abdomen by a pneumatic mechanism. That way, electrode position data can be acquired simultaneously. An applied alternating current of 1.0 mArms was used at a frequency of 500 kHz. Sensed voltage data were carefully filtered to remove noise and processed to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. The image reconstruction software was developed concurrently, applying standard finite element methods and the Marquardt method to solve the mathematical inverse problem. The results of preliminary experiments showed that abdominal subcutaneous fat and the muscle surrounding the viscera could be imaged in humans. While our imaging of visceral fat was not of sufficient quality, it was suggested that we will be able to develop a safe and practical abdominal fat scanner through future improvements.

  20. Relationship between intra-abdominal pressure and trunk EMG.

    PubMed

    McGill, S M; Sharratt, M T

    1990-05-01

    Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) has been proposed as an important mechanism in manual lifting and breathing mechanics. Direct (invasive) measures of IAP have required the swallowing of a radio transducer or insertion of a pressure sensor into the rectum or down the oesophagus to the stomach. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between a non-invasive method (EMG) and IAP. Several tasks involving abdominal muscle activation were performed to assess whether or not IAP played a common role in these tasks. IAP and EMG from rectus abdominis, the abdominal obliques, intercostals and erector spinae were measured. Peak IAP reached 340 mmHg (valsalva) for one subject but most values were less than 100 mmHg for tasks other than valsalva. The IAP and EMG data provide some insight into the role of IAP during the performance of specific tasks. Peak IAP within 60 ms of the onset of vigorous abdominal activation indicated the importance of a very rapid pressure response to abdominal muscle activation. The correlations between various muscle EMG time histories and IAP exceeded 0·80 for only two activities (i.e. r(2) = 0·82 between the intercostals and IAP during valsalva manoeuvres). These data suggest that no unifying hypothesis exists to explain the role of IAP for a wide variety of movement tasks; rather, the role of IAP is task specific. Copyright © 1990. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Gender differences in abdominal aortic aneurysm therapy - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stoberock, Konstanze; Kölbel, Tilo; Atlihan, Gülsen; Debus, Eike Sebastian; Tsilimparis, Nikolaos; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Behrendt, Christian Alexander; Wipper, Sabine

    2018-06-01

    This article analyses if and to what extent gender differences exist in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) therapy. For this purpose Medline (PubMed) was searched from January 1999 to January 2018. Keywords were: "abdominal aortic aneurysm", "gender", "prevalence", "EVAR", and "open surgery of abdominal aortic aneurysm". Regardless of open or endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms, women have a higher rate of complications and longer hospitalizations compared to men. The majority of studies showed that women have a lower survival rate for surgical and endovascular treatment of abdominal aneurysms after both elective and emergency interventions. Women receive less surgical/interventional and protective medical treatment. Women seem to have a higher risk of rupture, a lower survival rate in AAA, and a higher rate of complications, regardless of endovascular or open treatment. The gender differences may be due to a higher age of women at diagnosis and therapy associated with higher comorbidity, but also because of genetic, hormonal, anatomical, biological, and socio-cultural differences. Strategies for treatment in female patients must be further defined to optimize outcome.

  2. [Globalization: challenges in abdominal surgery for migrants and refugees].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, T J; Post, S

    2018-03-01

    The increasing number of refugees, migrants and international travelers influences the surgical spectrum of abdominal diseases. The aim of this review is to familiarize surgeons with specific diseases which are endemic in the patients' countries of origin and are likely to be diagnosed with increasing incidence in Germany. Low levels of hygiene in the countries of origin or refugee camps is associated with a high incidence of numerous infections, such as helminth infections, typhoid fever or amoebiasis, which if untreated can cause surgical emergencies. Historically, some of them were common in Germany but have been more or less eradicated because of the high socioeconomic standard. Echinococcosis and Chagas disease are frequently treated surgically while schistosomiasis can mimic intestinal cancer. Abdominal tuberculosis presents in a variety of abdominal pathologies and frequently causes diagnostic uncertainty. Sigmoid volvulus has a very low incidence among Europeans, but is one of the most common abdominal surgical conditions of adults in endemic countries. The number of patients who eventually undergo surgery for these conditions might be relatively low; however, surgeons must be aware of them and consider them as differential diagnoses in refugees and migrants with acute or chronic abdominal symptoms.

  3. [Characterisation of Candida sp. isolated from patients after abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Adámková, V; Vaňková, A; Ulrych, J; Matek, K

    2017-01-01

    Intraabdominal candidiasis (IAC) is the predominant type of invasive candidiasis after candidemia. The majority of epidemiological studies on Candida are focused only on bloodstream infections. Nevertheless, the role of blood cultures has limited application in patients with abdominal candidiasis. IAC, which includes peritonitis and intraabdominal abscesses, may occur in around 40% of patients following repeat gastrointestinal (GI) surgery or GI perforation. Retrospective analysis of culture isolates of Candida sp. from clinical specimens of patients after abdominal surgery. The study period was from January 1 to October 31, 2016. Our study of 33 patients with findings of Candida sp. from the abdominal cavity found a mortality of 15.2%, the most frequent strain being C. albicans and C. glabrata. All strains of Candida sp. were susceptible to echinocandins. Candida sp. is part of normal microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract and its isolation is often difficult to interpret. Unfortunately, the pathophysiologic importance of Candida isolation from the abdominal space is not completely clear in many clinical situations.Key words: invasive candidiasis intra-abdominal candidiasis laboratory diagnostics.

  4. Conservative management of post-appendicectomy intra-abdominal abscesses.

    PubMed

    Ben Dhaou, Mahdi; Ghorbel, Sofiene; Chouikh, Taieb; Charieg, Awatef; Nouira, Faouzi; Ben Khalifa, Sonia; Khemakhem, Rachid; Jlidi, Said; Chaouachi, Béji

    2010-10-14

    Appendicitis is the most common abdominal inflammatory process in children which were sometimes followed by complications including intra-abdominal abscess. This later needs classically a surgical drainage. We evaluated the efficacy of antibiotic treatment and surgical drainage. Hospital records of children treated in our unit for intra-abdominal post appendectomy abscesses over a 6 years period were reviewed retrospectively. This study investigates a series of 14 children from 2 to 13 years of age with one or many abscesses after appendectomy, treated between 2002 and 2007. Seven underwent surgery and the others were treated with triple antibiotherapy. The two groups were comparable. For the 7 patients who receive medical treatment alone, it was considered efficient in 6 cases (85%) with clinical, biological and radiological recovery of the abscess. There was one failure (14%). The duration of hospitalization from the day of diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess was approximately 10.28 days (range 7 to 14 days). In the other group, the efficacy of treatment was considered satisfactory in all cases. The duration of hospitalization was about 13 days (range: 9 to 20). Compared to surgical drainage, antibiotic management of intra-abdominal abscesses was a no invasive treatment with shorter hospitalization.

  5. Conservative management of post-appendicectomy intra-abdominal abscesses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Appendicitis is the most common abdominal inflammatory process in children which were sometimes followed by complications including intra-abdominal abscess. This later needs classically a surgical drainage. We evaluated the efficacy of antibiotic treatment and surgical drainage. Methods Hospital records of children treated in our unit for intra-abdominal post appendectomy abscesses over a 6 years period were reviewed retrospectively. Results This study investigates a series of 14 children from 2 to 13 years of age with one or many abscesses after appendectomy, treated between 2002 and 2007. Seven underwent surgery and the others were treated with triple antibiotherapy. The two groups were comparable. For the 7 patients who receive medical treatment alone, it was considered efficient in 6 cases (85%) with clinical, biological and radiological recovery of the abscess. There was one failure (14%). The duration of hospitalization from the day of diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess was approximately 10.28 days (range 7 to 14 days). In the other group, the efficacy of treatment was considered satisfactory in all cases. The duration of hospitalization was about 13 days (range: 9 to 20). Conclusion Compared to surgical drainage, antibiotic management of intra-abdominal abscesses was a no invasive treatment with shorter hospitalization. PMID:20946659

  6. Cardiac function in muscular dystrophy associates with abdominal muscle pathology.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Brandon B; Swaggart, Kayleigh A; Kim, Gene; Watson, Sydeaka; McNally, Elizabeth M

    The muscular dystrophies target muscle groups differentially. In mouse models of muscular dystrophy, notably the mdx model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, the diaphragm muscle shows marked fibrosis and at an earlier age than other muscle groups, more reflective of the histopathology seen in human muscular dystrophy. Using a mouse model of limb girdle muscular dystrophy, the Sgcg mouse, we compared muscle pathology across different muscle groups and heart. A cohort of nearly 200 Sgcg mice were studied using multiple measures of pathology including echocardiography, Evans blue dye uptake and hydroxyproline content in multiple muscle groups. Spearman rank correlations were determined among echocardiographic and pathological parameters. The abdominal muscles were found to have more fibrosis than other muscle groups, including the diaphragm muscle. The abdominal muscles also had more Evans blue dye uptake than other muscle groups. The amount of diaphragm fibrosis was found to correlate positively with fibrosis in the left ventricle, and abdominal muscle fibrosis correlated with impaired left ventricular function. Fibrosis in the abdominal muscles negatively correlated with fibrosis in the diaphragm and right ventricles. Together these data reflect the recruitment of abdominal muscles as respiratory muscles in muscular dystrophy, a finding consistent with data from human patients.

  7. Does intra-abdominal fluid increase the resting energy expenditure?

    PubMed

    Zarling, E J; Grande, A; Hano, J

    1997-10-01

    In patients with intra-abdominal fluid collection, caloric needs are based on an estimated dry weight. This is done because intra-abdominal fluid has been assumed to be metabolically inactive. One recent study of patients with slowly resolving ascites suggested otherwise. In our study, the effect of intra-abdominal fluid on the resting energy expenditure (REE) and apparent lean body mass was determined in 10 stable patients requiring peritoneal dialysis. For each subject, in both the empty and full state, we measured REE by indirect calorimetry, and body composition by the bioelectric impedance method. In the full state, the VCO2 was significantly increased (210 +/- 11 versus 197 +/- 9 mL/min, P < 0.02) compared with the empty state. This caused an increase in the calculated resting energy expenditure (1531 +/- 88 kcal/d empty versus 1593 +/- 94 kcal/d full, P < 0.05). The magnitude of increase in REE was similar to the expected calories derived from glucose absorbed out of the dialysate. Estimates of body fat, lean body mass, and total water also were not affected by the intra-abdominal fluid. We conclude that intra-abdominal fluid will not affect the measured REE and hence may be considered to be metabolically inactive.

  8. Use of digital abdominal radiography for the diagnosis of enterolithiasis in equids: 238 cases (2008-2011).

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Maureen E; Puchalski, Sarah M; Drake, Christiana; le Jeune, Sarah S

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of direct digital abdominal radiography for the diagnosis of enterolithiasis in equids and to assess the effect of the number and anatomic location of enteroliths and gas distention of the gastrointestinal tract on diagnostic sensitivity of the technique. Retrospective case series. 238 horses and ponies ≥ 1 year old that underwent digital abdominal radiography with subsequent exploratory celiotomy or postmortem examination. For each case, 3 reviewers independently evaluated radiographic views. Radiographic images were evaluated for presence or absence and location of enteroliths and the degree of gas distention. Signalment, definitive diagnosis based on exploratory celiotomy or postmortem examination findings, and number and anatomic location of enteroliths were obtained from the medical records. 70 of the 238 (29.4%) equids had confirmed enterolithiasis. With regard to diagnosis of enterolithiasis via digital radiography, overall sensitivity and specificity for the 3 reviewers were 84% and 96%, respectively. Sensitivity was lower for small colon enteroliths (61.5%) than for large colon enteroliths (88.9%) and was negatively affected by gas distention of the gastrointestinal tract. Sensitivity was not affected by the number of enteroliths. Sensitivity and specificity of digital radiography for the diagnosis of large colon enterolithiasis in equids was high. Sensitivity of digital radiography for detection of small colon enteroliths was lower than that for large colon enteroliths, but was higher than that typically associated with computed radiography. In geographic regions in which enterolithiasis in equids is endemic, digital abdominal radiography could be used as a diagnostic test for equids with colic.

  9. Abdominal Muscle Activity during Mechanical Ventilation Increases Lung Injury in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianming; Wu, Weiliang; Zhu, Yongcheng; Jiang, Ying; Du, Juan; Chen, Rongchang

    2016-01-01

    Objective It has proved that muscle paralysis was more protective for injured lung in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the precise mechanism is not clear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation increases lung injury in severe ARDS. Methods Eighteen male Beagles were studied under mechanical ventilation with anesthesia. Severe ARDS was induced by repetitive oleic acid infusion. After lung injury, Beagles were randomly assigned into spontaneous breathing group (BIPAPSB) and abdominal muscle paralysis group (BIPAPAP). All groups were ventilated with BIPAP model for 8h, and the high pressure titrated to reached a tidal volume of 6ml/kg, the low pressure was set at 10 cmH2O, with I:E ratio 1:1, and respiratory rate adjusted to a PaCO2 of 35–60 mmHg. Six Beagles without ventilator support comprised the control group. Respiratory variables, end-expiratory volume (EELV) and gas exchange were assessed during mechanical ventilation. The levels of Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 in lung tissue and plasma were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Lung injury scores were determined at end of the experiment. Results For the comparable ventilator setting, as compared with BIPAPSB group, the BIPAPAP group presented higher EELV (427±47 vs. 366±38 ml) and oxygenation index (293±36 vs. 226±31 mmHg), lower levels of IL-6(216.6±48.0 vs. 297.5±71.2 pg/ml) and IL-8(246.8±78.2 vs. 357.5±69.3 pg/ml) in plasma, and lower express levels of IL-6 mRNA (15.0±3.8 vs. 21.2±3.7) and IL-8 mRNA (18.9±6.8 vs. 29.5±7.9) in lung tissues. In addition, less lung histopathology injury were revealed in the BIPAPAP group (22.5±2.0 vs. 25.2±2.1). Conclusion Abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation is one of the injurious factors in severe ARDS, so abdominal muscle paralysis might be an effective strategy to minimize ventilator-induce lung injury. PMID:26745868

  10. Abdominal Muscle Activity during Mechanical Ventilation Increases Lung Injury in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianming; Wu, Weiliang; Zhu, Yongcheng; Jiang, Ying; Du, Juan; Chen, Rongchang

    2016-01-01

    It has proved that muscle paralysis was more protective for injured lung in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the precise mechanism is not clear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation increases lung injury in severe ARDS. Eighteen male Beagles were studied under mechanical ventilation with anesthesia. Severe ARDS was induced by repetitive oleic acid infusion. After lung injury, Beagles were randomly assigned into spontaneous breathing group (BIPAPSB) and abdominal muscle paralysis group (BIPAPAP). All groups were ventilated with BIPAP model for 8h, and the high pressure titrated to reached a tidal volume of 6ml/kg, the low pressure was set at 10 cmH2O, with I:E ratio 1:1, and respiratory rate adjusted to a PaCO2 of 35-60 mmHg. Six Beagles without ventilator support comprised the control group. Respiratory variables, end-expiratory volume (EELV) and gas exchange were assessed during mechanical ventilation. The levels of Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 in lung tissue and plasma were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Lung injury scores were determined at end of the experiment. For the comparable ventilator setting, as compared with BIPAPSB group, the BIPAPAP group presented higher EELV (427±47 vs. 366±38 ml) and oxygenation index (293±36 vs. 226±31 mmHg), lower levels of IL-6(216.6±48.0 vs. 297.5±71.2 pg/ml) and IL-8(246.8±78.2 vs. 357.5±69.3 pg/ml) in plasma, and lower express levels of IL-6 mRNA (15.0±3.8 vs. 21.2±3.7) and IL-8 mRNA (18.9±6.8 vs. 29.5±7.9) in lung tissues. In addition, less lung histopathology injury were revealed in the BIPAPAP group (22.5±2.0 vs. 25.2±2.1). Abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation is one of the injurious factors in severe ARDS, so abdominal muscle paralysis might be an effective strategy to minimize ventilator-induce lung injury.

  11. Electromyographic evaluation of abdominal-muscle function with and without concomitant pelvic-floor-muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Tahan, Nahid; Arab, Amir Massoud; Vaseghi, Bita; Khademi, Khosro

    2013-05-01

    Coactivation of abdominal and pelvic-floor muscles (PFM) is an issue considered by researchers recently. Electromyography (EMG) studies have shown that the abdominal-muscle activity is a normal response to PFM activity, and increase in EMG activity of the PFM concomitant with abdominal-muscle contraction was also reported. The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in EMG activity of the deep abdominal muscles during abdominal-muscle contraction (abdominal hollowing and bracing) with and without concomitant PFM contraction in healthy and low-back-pain (LBP) subjects. A 2 × 2 repeated-measures design. Laboratory. 30 subjects (15 with LBP, 15 without LBP). Peak rectified EMG of abdominal muscles. No difference in EMG of abdominal muscles with and without concomitant PFM contraction in abdominal hollowing (P = .84) and abdominal bracing (P = .53). No difference in EMG signal of abdominal muscles with and without PFM contraction between LBP and healthy subjects in both abdominal hollowing (P = .88) and abdominal bracing (P = .98) maneuvers. Adding PFM contraction had no significant effect on abdominal-muscle contraction in subjects with and without LBP.

  12. Necrotizing Fasciitis of Thoracic and Abdominal Wall with Emphysematous Pyelonephritis and Retroperitoneal Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Khaladkar, Sanjay Mhalasakant; Jain, Kunaal Mahesh; Kuber, Rajesh; Gandage, Sidappa

    2018-01-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a life-threatening severe form of pyelonephritis usually occurring in patients with diabetes mellitus with or without obstructive uropathies in whom there is necrotizing infection leading to the gas production of an unclear mechanism involving the renal parenchyma and the collecting system. Necrotizing fasciitis is characterized by progressive necrosis of fat and fascia due to deep-seated infection of subcutaneous tissue. It has a fulminant course with considerable mortality. Diabetes Mellitus is a common predisposing factor. The combined occurrence of emphysematous pyelonephritis and necrotizing fasciitis is extremely unusual. Early recognition and management is mandatory to avoid mortality. We report a case of a 53-year-old female, a known case of Type II diabetes mellitus, who presented with necrotizing fasciitis of thoracic and abdominal wall with emphysematous pyelonephritis in the left kidney with a retroperitoneal abscess. PMID:29541493

  13. Wearing an abdominal belt increases diastolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Rafacz, W; McGill, S M

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wearing an abdominal belt on blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and heart rate during a variety of tasks. The belt was typical of the elastic type with suspenders and Velcro tabs for cinching the belt snug. The tasks performed included sitting at rest, sitting with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees, standing with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees (with and without holding an 11-kg weight), a trunk axial rotation task, and squat lifting. Blood pressure was monitored noninvasively with a FINAPRES blood pressure monitor. Twenty healthy men performed each task with and without the abdominal belt. Although no significant increases in mean systolic blood pressure or heart rate were found, there was a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure in all conditions. All people considering wearing an abdominal belt should also consider the risks and liability associated with the additional cardiovascular load, particularly heart attack and stroke.

  14. Anomalous Posterior Intercostal Arterial Trunk Arising From the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Jie, Bing, E-mail: jbshh@163.com; Yu, Dong, E-mail: yudong-mail@126.com; Jiang, Sen, E-mail: jasfly77@vip.163.com

    A common trunk of the ipsilateral posterior intercostal artery (PIA) arising from the thoracic aorta is usually an anatomical variation. However, a common trunk of bilateral posterior intercostal arterial trunk (PIAT) arising from the abdominal aorta is rare. It is important to recognize this anatomical variation of PIA when performing interventional radiological procedures. We present a rare case of an anomalous PIAT that originated from the abdominal aorta in a patient with hemoptysis caused by tuberculosis sequelae. Bilateral 4th to 11th PIAs arose from a common trunk and the trunk arising from the posterior aspect of the abdominal aorta atmore » the level of T12/L1 intervertebral space. The pathological right 4th and 5th PIAs and bronchial arteries were embolized. Hemoptysis has been controlled for 3 months.« less

  15. Intra-abdominal solid organ injuries: an enhanced management algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kokabi, Nima; Shuaib, Waqas; Xing, Minzhi; Harmouche, Elie; Wilson, Kenneth; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Khosa, Faisal

    2014-11-01

    The organ injury scale grading system proposed by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma provides guidelines for operative versus nonoperative management in solid organ injuries; however, major shortcomings of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma injury scale may become apparent with low-grade injuries, in which conservative management may fail. Nonoperative management of common intra-abdominal solid organ injuries relies increasingly on computed tomographic findings and other clinical factors, including patient age, presence of concurrent injuries, and serial clinical assessments. Familiarity with characteristic imaging features is essential for the prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of blunt abdominal trauma. In this pictorial essay, the spectrum of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma organ injury scale grading system is illustrated, and a multidisciplinary management algorithm for common intra-abdominal solid organ injuries is proposed. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block for upper abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Osaka, Yoshimune; Kashiwagi, Masanori; Nagatsuka, Yukio; Oosaku, Masayoshi; Hirose, Chikako

    2010-08-01

    Upper abdominal surgery leads to severe postoperative pain. Insufficient postoperative analgesia accompanies a high incidence of complications. Therefore, postoperative analgesia is very important. The epidural analgesia has many advantages. However it has a high risk of epidural hematoma in anticoagulated patients. Rectus sheath block provided safer and more reliable analgesia in recent years, by the development of ultrasound tools. We experienced two cases of the rectus sheath block in upper abdominal surgery under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound guided rectus sheath block can reduce the risk of peritoneal puncture, bleeding, and other complications. Rectus sheath block is very effective to reduce postoperative pain in upper abdominal surgery as an alternative method to epidural anesthesia in anticoagulated patients.

  17. Ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of healthy captive caracals (Caracal caracal).

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N; Groenewald, Hermanus B

    2012-09-01

    Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in six adult captive caracals (Caracal caracal) to describe the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy. Consistently, the splenic parenchyma was hyperechoic to the liver and kidneys. The relative echogenicity of the right kidney's cortex was inconsistent to the liver. The gall bladder was prominent in five animals and surrounded by a clearly visualized thin, smooth, regular echogenic wall. The wall thickness of the duodenum measured significantly greater compared with that of the jejunum and colon. The duodenum had a significantly thicker mucosal layer compared with that of the stomach. Such knowledge of the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy of individual species is important for accurate diagnosis and interpretation of routine health examinations.

  18. Acute abdominal pain and constipation due to lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mongolu, S; Sharp, P

    2013-01-01

    Although uncommon, lead poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of unexplained acute abdominal pain in both adults and children. We present the case of a 35-year-old Asian male who presented with abdominal pain and constipation secondary to lead poisoning. Initially, the source of lead exposure was not apparent; this was later found to be due to ingestion of an Ayurvedic herbal medicine for the treatment of infertility. Lead poisoning due to the ingestion of Ayurvedic remedies is well described. We discuss the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of lead poisoning. This case illustrates one of the rarer medical causes of acute abdominal pain and emphasizes the need to take a thorough history (including specific questioning regarding the use of over-the-counter and traditional/ herbal remedies) in cases of suspected poisoning or drug toxicity.

  19. Abdominal calcifications and diagnostic imaging decision making: a topic review

    PubMed Central

    Bassano, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review commonly encountered calcifications found within the abdomen as seen on the lumbar spine radiograph and to determine which advanced imaging modality is best to thoroughly assess the patient. Methods Searches of electronic databases and textbooks were conducted to construct this narrative overview. Discussion By categorizing the type of calcification and localizing it anatomically, most often a definitive diagnosis can be reached. Two commonly encountered conditions, abdominal aortic aneurysms and urinary calculi, are used to compare the main advanced imaging modalities (diagnostic ultrasound and computed tomography) used to further assess abdominal calcifications. Conclusion In most circumstances, either diagnostic ultrasound or computed tomography will establish a definitive diagnosis and offer thorough imaging assessment for abdominal calcifications. PMID:19674671

  20. Mechanics, Mechanobiology, and Modeling of Human Abdominal Aorta and Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J.D.; Holzapfel, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Biomechanical factors play fundamental roles in the natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and their responses to treatment. Advances during the past two decades have increased our understanding of the mechanics and biology of the human abdominal aorta and AAAs, yet there remains a pressing need for considerable new data and resulting patient-specific computational models that can better describe the current status of a lesion and better predict the evolution of lesion geometry, composition, and material properties and thereby improve interventional planning. In this paper, we briefly review data on the structure and function of the human abdominal aorta and aneurysmal wall, past models of the mechanics, and recent growth and remodeling models. We conclude by identifying open problems that we hope will motivate studies to improve our computational modeling and thus general understanding of AAAs. PMID:22189249

  1. Functional disability in paediatric patients with recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Wendland, M; Jackson, Y; Stokes, L D

    2010-07-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is common in childhood, affecting approximately 12% of children and adolescents. Children with RAP tend to experience impairments in functioning, such as increased school absences, anxiety and depression. The current study investigated the potential influences on the relation between functional disability and RAP in 100 school-aged children. A series of hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test two models: main effects and moderation of the relation between abdominal pain symptoms, child anxiety, child depression, maternal emotional distress, maternal encouragement of child illness behaviour and functional disability. The results indicated support for abdominal pain symptoms and child depression in predicting functional disability. The results also indicated that child anxiety and child depression each moderated the relation between pain symptoms and functional disability. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of potential influences on the development of functional disability in youth.

  2. [Interventional Radiology for Intra-Abdominal Abscess after Gastrectomy].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Norihiro; Fujitani, Kazumasa; Kawada, Junji; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Nakatsuka, Rie; Miyazaki, Susumu; Danno, Katsuki; Motoori, Masaaki; Kubota, Masaru; Matsuda, Chu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Iwase, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiro

    2015-11-01

    Approximately 20% of patients develop some complications after gastrectomy. These complications should be treated appropriately to achieve a positive outcome. The records of 6 patients with postoperative intra-abdominal abscesses treated with interventional radiology (IVR) were analyzed. The cause of abscess was anastomotic leakage in 4 patients and contaminated surgery after gastric perforation in 2 patients. Intra-abdominal abscesses were detected on postoperative day 12 (median), and an IVR-guided drainage tube was inserted with a median interval of 1 day. The drainage tube was kept in place for 26 days (median), and patients were discharged 6.5 days (median) after drainage tube removal. No patients were converted to open surgery. Early IVR-guided drainage was essential and effective for intra-abdominal abscess treatment after gastrectomy.

  3. Rare Abdominal Wall Malformation: Case Report of Umbilical Cord Hernia.

    PubMed

    Gliha, Andro; Car, Andrija; Višnjić, Stjepan; Zupancic, Bozidar; Kondza, Karmen; Petracic, Ivan

    The umbilical cord hernia is the rarest form of abdominal wall malformations, anatomically completely different from gastroschisis and omphalocele. It occurs due to the permanent physiological evisceration of abdominal organs into umbilical celom and persistence of a patent umbilical ring. The umbilical cord hernia is often mistaken for omphalocele and called "small omphalocele". Here we present a case of a female newborn with umbilical cord hernia treated in our Hospital. After preoperative examinations surgery was done on the second day of life. The abdominal wall was closed without tension. The aim of this article is to present the importance of the proper diagnose of these three entities and to stimulate academic community for the answer, is this umbilical cord hernia or small omphalocele.

  4. The use of abdominal muscle training, breathing exercises and abdominal massage to treat paediatric chronic functional constipation.

    PubMed

    Silva, C A G; Motta, M E F A

    2013-05-01

    The effect of muscular training, abdominal massage and diaphragmatic breathing was compared with medical treatment in a prospective randomized trial of patients with chronic functional constipation. Patients aged 4-18 years old with functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria were randomized to physiotherapy or medical treatment. In the physiotherapy group, exercises (isometric training of the abdominal muscles, diaphragmatic breathing exercises and abdominal massage) were employed during 12 40-min sessions twice a week by a trained physiotherapist, with laxatives. Patients in the medication group were only given laxatives. Primary outcome measures were frequency of defaecation and faecal incontinence. The analysis was performed by intention-to-treat. After 6 weeks of treatment, the frequency of bowel movements was higher in the physiotherapy group [5.1 (2.1) days/week] than in the medication group [3.9 (2.0) days/week] (P = 0.01). The frequency of faecal incontinence was no different between the groups [3.6 (1.9) days/week vs 3.0 (2.1) days/week] (P = 0.31). The combined use of isometric training of abdominal muscles, breathing exercises and abdominal massage increased defaecation frequency after 6 weeks but faecal incontinence remained unchanged. Physiotherapy may be a useful treatment for constipation. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Computed tomography has an important role in hollow viscus and mesenteric injuries after blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ker-Kan; Liu, Jody Zhiyang; Go, Tsung-Shyen; Vijayan, Appasamy; Chiu, Ming-Terk

    2010-05-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) scans have become invaluable in the management of patients with blunt abdominal trauma. No clear consensus exists on its role in hollow viscus injuries (HVI) and mesenteric injuries (MI). The aim of this study was to correlate operative findings of HVI and MI to findings on pre-operative CT. All patients treated for blunt abdominal trauma at Tan Tock Seng Hospital from January 2003 to January 2008 were reviewed. CT scans were only performed if the patients were haemodynamically stable and indicated. All scans were performed with intravenous contrast using a 4-slice CT scanner from 2003 to December 2004 and a 64-slice CT scanner from January 2005 onwards. All cases with documented HVI/MI that underwent both CT scans and exploratory laparotomy were analysed. Thirty-one patients formed the study group, with median age of 40 (range, 22-65) years and a significant male (83.9%) predominance. Vehicular-related incidents accounted for 67.7% of the injuries and the median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 13 (4-50). The 2 commonest findings on CT scans were extra-luminal gas (35.5%) and free fluid without significant solid organ injuries (93.5%). During exploratory laparotomy, perforation of hollow viscus (51.6%) occurred more frequently than suspected from the initial CT findings of extra-luminal gas. Other notable findings included haemoperitoneum (64.5%), and mesenteric tears (67.7%). None of our patients with HVI and MI had a normal pre-operative CT scan. Our study suggests that patients with surgically confirmed HVI and MI found at laparotomy were very likely to have an abnormal pre-operative CT scan. Unexplained free fluid was a very common finding in blunt HVI/MI and is one major indication to consider exploratory laparotomy. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gastrointestinal injuries from blunt abdominal trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Ameh, E A; Nmadu, P T

    2004-04-01

    To determine the pattern, presentation and outcome of gastrointestinal injuries from blunt abdominal trauma in children. A retrospective study. Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Twenty one children managed for gastrointestinal injuries from blunt trauma from 1984-2002. The pattern, presentation, management and outcome of gastrointestinal injuries from blunt trauma. In the 19 year period, 1984-2002, 92 children were treated for blunt abdominal trauma, 21(23%) of who had injuries to the gastrointestinal tract. Three presenting after 24 hours had evidence of peritonitis. In six children with isolated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) injury who presented within two hours, abdominal signs were vague at initial evaluation but became marked over a few hours at repeated examination. In eight with associated intraabdominal injuries, abdominal signs were marked at initial examination and five presented with shock. Free peritoneal air was present on plain abdominal and chest radiograph in three of ten patients, dilated bowel loops in six and fluid levels in one. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage or paracentesis was positive in four patients with isolated GIT injuries and eight with associated intraabdominal injuries. There were 24 injuries in the 21 patients consisting of 15 perforations, five contusions, two seromuscular tears, and two gangrene from mesenteric injury. The small intestine was involved in 11 patients, colon six, stomach five, duodenum one and rectum one. Seven (35%) patients had associated extraabdominal injuries. Treatment consisted of simple closure of perforations, over sewing of contusions, resection and anastomosis for gangrene and repair with protective stoma for the rectal injury. One patient each developed prolonged ileus, urinary tract infection and chest infection, respectively postoperatively. Mortality was 28%, all of who had associated intraabdominal or extraabdominal injuries. Gastrointestinal injury from blunt abdominal trauma in

  7. Evaluating abdominal oedema during experimental sepsis using an isotope technique.

    PubMed

    Lattuada, Marco; Maripuu, Enn; Segerstad, Carl Hard af; Lundqvist, Hans; Hedenstierna, Göran

    2012-05-01

    Abdominal oedema is common in sepsis. A technique for the study of such oedema may guide in the fluid regime of these patients. We modified a double-isotope technique to evaluate abdominal organ oedema and fluid extravasation in 24 healthy or endotoxin-exposed ('septic') piglets. Two different markers were used: red blood cells (RBC) labelled with Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) and Transferrin labelled with Indium111 ((111)In). Images were acquired on a dual-head gamma camera. Microscopic evaluation of tissue biopsies was performed to compare data with the isotope technique. No (99m)Tc activity was measured in the plasma fraction in blood sampled after labelling. Similarly, after molecular size gel chromatography, (111)In activity was exclusively found in the high molecular fraction of the plasma. Extravasation of transferrin, indicating the degree of abdominal oedema, was 4·06 times higher in the LPS group compared to the healthy controls (P<0·0001). Abdominal free fluid, studied in 3 animals, had as high (111)In activity as in plasma, but no (99m)Tc activity. Intestinal lymphatic vessel size was higher in LPS (3·7 ± 1·1 μm) compared to control animals (0·6 + 0·2 μm; P<0·001) and oedema correlated to villus diameter (R(2) = 0·918) and lymphatic diameter (R(2) = 0·758). A correlation between a normalized index of oedema formation (NI) and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was also found: NI = 0·46*IAP-3·3 (R(2) = 0·56). The technique enables almost continuous recording of abdominal oedema formation and may be a valuable tool in experimental research, with the potential to be applied in the clinic. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  8. Surgical versus non-surgical management of abdominal injury.

    PubMed

    Oyo-Ita, Angela; Ugare, Udey G; Ikpeme, Ikpeme A

    2012-11-14

    Injury to the abdomen can be blunt or penetrating. Abdominal injury can damage internal organs such as the liver, spleen, kidneys, and intestine. There are controversies about the best approach to manage abdominal injuries. To assess the effects of surgical and non-surgical interventions in the management of abdominal trauma. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2012, issue 1), MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), and ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S) all until January 2012; CINAHL until January 2009. We also searched the reference lists of all eligible studies and the trial registers www.controlled-trials.com and www.clinicaltrials.gov in January 2012. Randomised controlled trials of surgical and non surgical interventions among patients with abdominal injury who are haemodynamically stable and with no signs of peritonitis. Two review authors independently applied the search criteria. One study involving participants with penetrating abdominal injury met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted by two authors using a standard data extraction form. One study including 51 participants with moderate risk of bias was included. Participants were randomised to surgery or an observation protocol. There were no deaths among the participants. Seven participants had complications; 5 (18.5%) in the surgical group and 2 (8.3%) in the non-surgical group; the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.42; Fischer's exact). Among the 27 who had surgery six (22.2%) surgeries were negative laparotomies, and 15 (55.6%) were non-therapeutic. Based on the findings of one study involving 51 participants, which was at moderate risk of bias, there is no evidence to support the use of surgery over observation for people with abdominal trauma.

  9. Abdominal obesity, ethnicity and gastro‐oesophageal reflux symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Corley, Douglas A; Kubo, Ai; Zhao, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations between abdominal obesity and gastro‐oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), and their interactions with ethnicity and gender. Design A cross‐sectional study. Participants completed detailed symptom questionnaires and underwent a standardised examination, including anthropometric measurements. Setting A large integrated healthcare system. Patients 80 110 members of the Kaiser Permanente multiphasic health check‐up cohort. Main outcome measures Gastro‐oesophageal reflux‐type symptoms. Results Recent reflux‐type symptoms were present in 11% of the population. The multivariate OR for symptoms with an abdominal diameter (adjusted for body mass index (BMI)) of ⩾26 vs <16.3 cm was 1.85 (95% CI 1.55 to 2.21) for the white population, 0.95 (95% CI 0.61 to 1.48) for the black population and 0.64 (95% CI 0.18 to 2.30) for Asians. The mean abdominal diameter was greater in men (22.0 cm, 95% CI 21.9 to 22.0) than in women (20.1 cm, 95% CI 20.0 to 20.1, p<0.01), but the risk of symptoms for any given diameter did not differ markedly by gender. The association between increasing BMI and symptoms was also much stronger among the white population than among the black population. The association between BMI and reflux‐type symptoms was partially mediated through abdominal diameter. Conclusions There was a consistent association between abdominal diameter (independent of BMI) and reflux‐type symptoms in the white population, but no consistent associations in the black population or Asians. The BMI association was also strongest among the white population. These findings, combined with the increased prevalence of abdominal obesity in male subjects, suggest that an increased obesity may disproportionately increase GORD‐type symptoms in the white population and in male subjects. PMID:17047097

  10. Orchiopexy for intra-abdominal testes: factors predicting success.

    PubMed

    Stec, Andrew A; Tanaka, Stacy T; Adams, Mark C; Pope, John C; Thomas, John C; Brock, John W

    2009-10-01

    Intra-abdominal testes can be treated with several surgical procedures. We evaluated factors influencing the outcome of orchiopexy for intra-abdominal testis. We retrospectively reviewed 156 consecutive orchiopexies performed for intra-abdominal testis, defined as a nonpalpable testis on examination and located in the abdomen at surgery. All surgical approaches were included in the study. Primary outcome was the overall success rate and secondary outcomes were success based on surgical approach, age and a patent processus vaginalis. Success was considered a testis with normal texture and size compared to the contralateral testis at followup. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine factors predictive of success. The overall success rate of all orchiopexies was 79.5%. Median patient age at orchiopexy was 12 months and mean followup was 16 months. Of the patients 117 had a patent processus vaginalis at surgery. One-stage abdominal orchiopexy was performed in 92 testes with 89.1% success. Of these cases 32 were performed laparoscopically with 96.9% success. One-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy was performed in 27 testes and 2-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy was performed in 37 with success in 63.0% and 67.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that 1-stage orchiopexy without vessel division had more successful outcomes than 1 and 2-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy (OR 0.24, p = 0.007 and 0.29, p = 0.19, respectively). Neither age at surgery nor an open internal ring was significant (p = 0.49 and 0.12, respectively). The overall success of orchiopexy for intra-abdominal testis is 79.5%. While patient selection remains a critical factor, 1-stage orchiopexy without vessel division was significantly more successful and a laparoscopic approach was associated with the fewest failures for intra-abdominal testes.

  11. Common Functional Gastroenterological Disorders Associated With Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Sletten, Christopher D

    2016-08-01

    Although abdominal pain is a symptom of several structural gastrointestinal disorders (eg, peptic ulcer disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 4 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with abdominal pain: functional dyspepsia, constipation-predominant and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, and functional abdominal pain syndrome. Together, these conditions affect approximately 1 in 4 people in the United States. They are associated with comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia and depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Symptoms are explained by disordered gastrointestinal motility and sensation, which are implicated in various peripheral (eg, postinfectious inflammation and luminal irritants) and/or central (eg, stress and anxiety) factors. These disorders are defined and can generally be diagnosed by symptoms alone. Often prompted by alarm features, selected testing is useful to exclude structural disease. Identifying the specific diagnosis (eg, differentiating between functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome) and establishing an effective patient-physician relationship are the cornerstones of therapy. Many patients with mild symptoms can be effectively managed with limited tests, sensible dietary modifications, and over-the-counter medications tailored to symptoms. If these measures are not sufficient, pharmacotherapy should be considered for bowel symptoms (constipation or diarrhea) and/or abdominal pain; opioids should not be used. Behavioral and psychological approaches (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy) can be helpful, particularly in patients with chronic abdominal pain who require a multidisciplinary pain management program without opioids. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Prediction of Mortality From Clinical Presentation and Glasgow Aneurysm Score.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Toby N; Thompson, Lauren T; Licatino, Lauren K; Bailey, Christopher H; Schroeder, Darrell R; Sprung, Juraj

    2016-04-01

    To examine association of presenting clinical acuity and Glasgow Aneurysm Score (GAS) with perioperative and 1-year mortality. Retrospective chart review. Major tertiary care facility. Patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) from 2003 through 2013. Emergency repair of rAAA. The authors reviewed outcomes after stable versus unstable presentation and by GAS. Unstable presentation included hypotension, cardiac arrest, loss of consciousness, and preoperative tracheal intubation. In total, 125 patients (40 stable) underwent repair. Perioperative mortality rates were 41% and 12% in unstable and stable patients, respectively (p<0.001). Unstable status had 88% sensitivity and 41% specificity for predicting perioperative mortality. Using logistic regression, higher GAS was associated with perioperative mortality (p<0.001). Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.62-0.82) and cutoff GAS≥96 had 63% and 72% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Perioperative mortality for GAS≥96 was 51% (25/49), whereas it was 20% (15/76) for GAS≤95. The estimated 1-year survival (95% CI) was 75% (62%-91%) for stable patients and 48% (38%-60%) for unstable patients. Estimated 1-year survival (95% CI) was 23% (13%-40%) for GAS≥96 and 77% (67%-87%) for GAS≤95. Clinical presentation and GAS identified patients with rAAA who were likely to have a poor surgical outcome. GAS≥96 was associated with poor long-term survival, but>20% of these patients survived 1 year. Thus, neither clinical presentation nor GAS provided reliable guidance for decisions regarding futility of surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Complicated Thread: Abdominal Actinomycosis in a Young Woman with Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Nahum, Ari; Filice, Gregory; Malhotra, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory condition that primarily affects the gastrointestinal tract. Typical manifestations include fever, weight loss, fatigue, and abdominal pain, and abdominal abscesses and fistulae are frequent complications. Abdominal actinomycosis is a subacute or indolent disease associated with Actinomyces spp. Symptoms can be very similar to those of Crohn disease, and fistulae are also common. Since ulcerations in the intestinal tract are thought to be caused by Actinomyces escaping from the gut lumen and establishing intra-abdominal infection, it seems likely that abdominal actinomycosis may occur in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. We report a case of abdominal actinomycosis in a woman with active Crohn disease.

  14. Gas Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The M200 originated in the 1970's under an Ames Research Center/Stanford University contract to develop a small, lightweight gas analyzer for Viking Landers. Although the unit was not used on the spacecraft, it was further developed by The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Three researchers from the project later formed Microsensor Technology, Inc. (MTI) to commercialize the analyzer. The original version (Micromonitor 500) was introduced in 1982, and the M200 in 1988. The M200, a more advanced version, features dual gas chromatograph which separate a gaseous mixture into components and measure concentrations of each gas. It is useful for monitoring gas leaks, chemical spills, etc. Many analyses are completed in less than 30 seconds, and a wide range of mixtures can be analyzed.

  15. Gas Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cram, Stuart P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Selects fundamental developments in theory, methodology, and instrumentation in gas chromatography (GC). A special section reviews GC in the People's Republic of China. Over 1,000 references are cited. (CS)

  16. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of palpable abdominal masses in children.

    PubMed

    Annuar, Z; Sakijan, A S; Annuar, N; Kooi, G H

    1990-12-01

    Ultrasound examinations were done to evaluate clinically palpable abdominal masses in 125 children. The examinations were normal in 21 patients. In 15 patients, the clinically palpable masses were actually anterior abdominal wall abscesses or hematomas. Final diagnosis was available in 87 of 89 patients with intraabdominal masses detected on ultrasound. The majority (71%) were retroperitoneal masses where two-thirds were of renal origin. Ultrasound diagnosis was correct in 68 patients (78%). All cases of hydronephrosis were correctly diagnosed based on characteristic ultrasound appearances. Correct diagnoses of all cases of adrenal hematoma, psoas abscess, liver hematoma, liver abscess and one case of liver metastases were achieved with correlation of relevant clinical information.

  17. Abdominal foreign body: late presentation as a rectus sheath abscess.

    PubMed

    Noushif, M; Sivaprasad, S; Prashanth, A

    2011-05-01

    Intra-abdominal ingested foreign bodies are usually an incidental finding, typically encountered in mentally challenged patients. We present the case of a 65-year-old mentally sound woman who presented with recurrent abdominal pain and a lump in the hypogastrium. Evaluation revealed a rectus sheath abscess extending to the peritoneum, with a foreign body in situ. On enquiry, the patient revealed that she had accidentally ingested a tailoring needle 17 years ago. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of an ingested foreign body as a rectus sheath abscess after a long duration.

  18. Abdominal candidiasis is a hidden reservoir of echinocandin resistance.

    PubMed

    Shields, Ryan K; Nguyen, M Hong; Press, Ellen G; Clancy, Cornelius J

    2014-12-01

    FKS mutant Candida isolates were recovered from 24% (6/25) of abdominal candidiasis patients exposed to echinocandin. Candida glabrata (29%) and Candida albicans (14%) mutants were identified. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were recovered from 83% of FKS mutant infections. Mutations were associated with prolonged echinocandin exposure (P = 0.01), breakthrough infections (P = 0.03), and therapeutic failures despite source control interventions (100%). Abdominal candidiasis is a hidden reservoir for the emergence of echinocandin-resistant Candida. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Recurrent abdominal pain in children: a clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Quek, S H

    2015-03-01

    The term 'recurrent abdominal pain', or RAP, refers mainly to the duration of painful period and frequency of pain. The commonly accepted duration is at least three months in the preceding period, and over this three-month period, there are at least three episodes of pain that are severe enough to affect the daily activities of the affected patients. Over the years, with advances in medical technology and better understanding of the pathophysiology of abdominal pain, more and more organic causes have been identified. However, the most common cause of RAP in children is still functional in origin.

  20. Abdominal obesity: a marker of ectopic fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    In the early 1980s, we analyzed the metabolic profile of 930 men and women and concluded that an abdominal distribution of fat for a given BMI is associated with increased insulin resistance and risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The correlation between abdominal fat and metabolic dysfunction has since been validated in many studies, and waist circumference is now a criterion for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Several mechanisms for this relationship have been postulated; however, we now know that visceral fat is only one of many ectopic fat depots used when the subcutaneous adipose tissue cannot accommodate excess fat because of its limited expandability.

  1. Complex sacral abscess 8 years after abdominal sacral colpopexy.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sarah A; Tulikangas, Paul K; LaSala, Christine A; Lind, Lawrence R

    2011-08-01

    Sacral colpopexy is an effective, durable repair for women with apical vaginal or uterovaginal prolapse. There are few reports of serious complications diagnosed in the remote postoperative period. A 74-year-old woman presented 8 years after undergoing posthysterectomy abdominal sacral colpopexy using polypropylene mesh. Posterior vaginal mesh erosion had been diagnosed several months before presentation. She suffered severe infectious complications including an infected thrombus in the inferior vena cava, sacral osteomyelitis, and a complex abscess with presacral and epidural components. Surgical exploration revealed an abscess cavity surrounding the mesh. Although minor complications commonly occur after sacral colpopexy using abdominal mesh, serious and rare postoperative infectious complications may occur years postoperatively.

  2. Abdominal pain and hyperamylasaemia—not always pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Slack, Sally; Abbey, Ianthe; Smith, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    A raised serum amylase concentration, at least four times the upper limit of normal (ULN), is used to support the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in a patient presenting with abdominal pain. The authors report a case of toxic shock syndrome complicated by a raised serum amylase concentration that peaked at 50 times the ULN in a patient with recurrent abdominal pain. The commonest cause of hyperamylasaemia is pancreatic; however, further investigation of serum lipase and amylase isoenzyme studies found this to be of salivary origin and attributable to soft tissue inflammation of the salivary gland. This case highlights the need to consider non-pancreatic causes of hyperamylasaemia. PMID:22767564

  3. Abdominal pain and hyperamylasaemia--not always pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Slack, Sally; Abbey, Ianthe; Smith, Dominic

    2010-07-21

    A raised serum amylase concentration, at least four times the upper limit of normal (ULN), is used to support the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in a patient presenting with abdominal pain. The authors report a case of toxic shock syndrome complicated by a raised serum amylase concentration that peaked at 50 times the ULN in a patient with recurrent abdominal pain. The commonest cause of hyperamylasaemia is pancreatic; however, further investigation of serum lipase and amylase isoenzyme studies found this to be of salivary origin and attributable to soft tissue inflammation of the salivary gland. This case highlights the need to consider non-pancreatic causes of hyperamylasaemia.

  4. Abdominal pythiosis in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Buergelt, Claus; Powe, Joshua; White, Tamara

    2006-06-01

    An adult Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) housed in an outdoor sanctuary in Florida exhibited vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. A clinical workup did not reveal the source of the clinical signs and antibiotic therapy was unrewarding. Radiographs revealed the presence of an abdominal mass. The tiger died during an immobilization for a follow-up clinical examination. A necropsy was performed and tissue samples of intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes were submitted for histopathologic diagnosis. A pyogranulomatous panenteritis and lymphadenitis with intralesional hyphae led to a presumptive etiologic diagnosis of intestinal/abdominal pythiosis. The diagnosis of pythiosis was confirmed by serology and immunoblotting.

  5. Gas Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaplygin, S.

    1944-01-01

    A brief summary of the contents of this paper is presented here. In part I the differential equations of the problem of a gas flow in two dimensions is derived and the particular integrals by which the problem on jets is solved are given. Use is made of the same independent variables as Molenbroek used, but it is found to be more suitable to consider other functions. The stream function and velocity potential corresponding to the problem are given in the form of series. The investigation on the convergence of these series in connection with certain properties of the functions entering them forms the subject of part II. In part III the problem of the outflow of a gas from an infinite vessel with plane walls is solved. In part IV the impact of a gas jet on a plate is considered and the limiting case where the jet expands to infinity changing into a gas flow is taken up in more detail. This also solved the equivalent problem of the resistance of a gaseous medium to the motion of a plate. Finally, in part V, an approximate method is presented that permits a simpler solution of the problem of jet flows in the case where the velocities of the gas (velocities of the particles in the gas) are not very large.

  6. The effects of nursing activities on the intra-abdominal pressure of patients at risk for intra-abdominal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rosemary K

    2017-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) occurs frequently in critically ill patients, and adds to their morbidity and mortality. There is no published evidence on the effects of nursing activities on the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) for patients at risk of IAH. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of hygiene care on the IAP of patients at risk for IAH. Hygiene care was provided to 34 at-risk patients. IAP was measured prior to initiating the hygiene care, immediately after and 10 minutes later. This was a quasi-experimental, pre-test/ post-test design. The 10 minute post-hygiene care measurement of the IAP was significantly lower than the pre or immediate post-measurement of the IAP. There were no significant changes in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) or the abdominal perfusion pressure (APP). It is safe and possibly therapeutic to provide hygiene care to patients at risk for IAH.

  7. Validity and reliability of the abdominal test and evaluation systems tool (ABTEST) to accurately measure abdominal force.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Jordan M; Galey, Madeline; Edwards, Abigail; Rickert, Bradley; Washington, Tyrone A

    2015-07-01

    Ability to generate force from the core musculature is a critical factor for sports and general activities with insufficiencies predisposing individuals to injury. This study evaluated isometric force production as a valid and reliable method of assessing abdominal force using the abdominal test and evaluation systems tool (ABTEST). Secondary analysis estimated 1-repetition maximum on commercially available abdominal machine compared to maximum force and average power on ABTEST system. This study utilized test-retest reliability and comparative analysis for validity. Reliability was measured using test-retest design on ABTEST. Validity was measured via comparison to estimated 1-repetition maximum on a commercially available abdominal device. Participants applied isometric, abdominal force against a transducer and muscular activation was evaluated measuring normalized electromyographic activity at the rectus-abdominus, rectus-femoris, and erector-spinae. Test, re-test force production on ABTEST was significantly correlated (r=0.84; p<0.001). Mean electromyographic activity for the rectus-abdominus (72.93% and 75.66%), rectus-femoris (6.59% and 6.51%), and erector-spinae (6.82% and 5.48%) were observed for trial-1 and trial-2, respectively. Significant correlations for the estimated 1-repetition maximum were found for average power (r=0.70, p=0.002) and maximum force (r=0.72, p<0.001). Data indicate the ABTEST can accurately measure rectus-abdominus force isolated from hip-flexor involvement. Negligible activation of erector-spinae substantiates little subjective effort among participants in the lower back. Results suggest ABTEST is a valid and reliable method of evaluating abdominal force. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A case of gas-forming liver abscess with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tatsuta, Tetsuya; Wada, Toyohito; Chinda, Daisuke; Tsushima, Kiyoto; Sasaki, Yoshio; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Fukuda, Shinsaku

    2011-01-01

    A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with right hypochondriac and epigastric pain. An abdominal radiograph showed a large niveau in the right subphrenic space. An abdominal CT scan demonstrated a large liver abscess (diameter, 13 cm) with gas formation. Klebsiella pneumoniae cells were isolated from the abscess, and the patient was treated with antibiotics and percutaneous drainage. It is very important to treat gas-forming liver abscess immediately, because subsequent bacteremia and septic shock are frequently noted, and the associated mortality rate is high.

  9. Effect of Gender on the Total Abdominal Fat, Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Abdominal Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue among Indian Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    Abdominal obesity is a better marker of adverse metabolic profile than generalized obesity in hypertensive subjects. Further, gender has effect on adiposity and its distribution. Effect of gender on obesity and the distribution of fat in different sub-compartments of abdomen among Indian hypertensive subjects. This observational study included 278 adult subjects (Males-149 & Females-129) with essential hypertension from a tertiary care centre in north India over one year. A detailed history taking and physical examination including anthropometry were performed in all patients. Total Abdominal Fat (TAF) and abdominal adipose tissue sub-compartments like Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue (IAAT) and Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue (SCAT) were measured using the predictive equations developed for Asian Indians. Female hypertensive subjects had higher Body Mass Index (BMI) with more overweight (BMI ≥ 23kg/m(2)), and obesity (BMI≥ 25 kg/m(2)). Additionally, they had higher prevalence of central obesity based on both Waist Circumference (WC) criteria (WC≥ 90 cm in males and WC≥ 80 cm in females) and TAF criteria {≥245.6 cm(2) (males) and ≥203.46 cm(2) (females)} than male patients. But there was no difference in the prevalence of central obesity based on Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) criteria (WHR ≥0.90 in males and WHR ≥ 0.85 in females) between two genders. High TAF & IAAT were present in more females although there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT between two genders. Female hypertensive subjects were more obese with higher abnormal TAF & IAAT compared to male patients. However, there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT among them.

  10. Evolution of imaging for abdominal perforation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, JP; Steward, MJ; Booth, TC; Mukhtar, H; Murray, D

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gastrointestinal (GI) perforation is a common surgical presentation. In recent years, computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be accurate for predicting the site of GI perforation, and has become the investigation of choice. However the signs may be subtle or only indirectly related to the site or aetiology of perforation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A MEDLINE and PubMed search was performed for journals before June 2009 with MeSH major terms ‘CT’ and ‘perforation’. Non-English speaking literature was excluded. RESULTS Examples of GI perforation of various aetiologies are reviewed (inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic and iatrogenic) high-lighting characteristic CT appearances as well as pitfalls in diagnosis. Features of perforation include the presence of free gas or fluid within the supra- and/or inframesocolic compartments, segmental bowel wall thickening, bowel wall discontinuity, stranding of the mesenteric fat and abscess formation. CONCLUSIONS These differentiating features facilitate accurate multidisciplinary pre-operative evaluation, necessary to plan patient management and potential surgical approach. PMID:20412668

  11. Dietary Carbohydrates and Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Shulman, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) affect a large number of children throughout the world. Carbohydrates (which provide the majority of calories consumed in the Western diet) have been implicated both as culprits for the etiology of symptoms and as potential therapeutic agents (e.g., fiber) in childhood FGIDs. In this review, we detail how carbohydrate malabsorption may cause gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., bloating) via the physiologic effects of both increased osmotic activity and increased gas production from bacterial fermentation. Several factors may play a role, including: (1) the amount of carbohydrate ingested; (2) whether ingestion is accompanied by a meal or other food; (3) the rate of gastric emptying (how quickly the meal enters the small intestine); (4) small intestinal transit time (the time it takes for a meal to enter the large intestine after first entering the small intestine); (5) whether the meal contains bacteria with enzymes capable of breaking down the carbohydrate; (6) colonic bacterial adaptation to one's diet, and (7) host factors such as the presence or absence of visceral hypersensitivity. By detailing controlled and uncontrolled trials, we describe how there is a general lack of strong evidence supporting restriction of individual carbohydrates (e.g., lactose, fructose) for childhood FGIDs. We review emerging evidence suggesting that a more comprehensive restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) may be effective. Finally, we review how soluble fiber (a complex carbohydrate) supplementation via randomized controlled intervention trials in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders has demonstrated efficacy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Arnebia euchroma ointment can reduce abdominal fat thickness and abdominal circumference of overweight women: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Siavash, Mansour; Naseri, Mohsen; Rahimi, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide health problem which is associated with a lot of complications. One of these comorbidities is the metabolic syndrome that is in correlation with abdominal fat thickness and waist circumference. Various methods were used to reduce abdominal fat thickness such as liposuction. A noninvasive method is the topical agent. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Arnebia euchroma (AE) ointment on the abdominal fat thickness. This study was a double-blind clinical trial which was done at the endocrinology clinic in Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2014. After explaining the procedure and obtaining informed consent, the candidates were randomly divided into the case and control groups. The participants of the case and control groups applied AE ointment or placebo for 6 weeks on their abdominal area. Body mass index, waist and buttock circumference, and abdominal fat thickness were measured in both case and control groups at their first visit and then at the next 2, 4, and 6 weeks. We used t -test for comparing parametric variables between groups, paired t -test for changes from baseline to final, and repeated measure ANOVA for changes at different steps. Sixty female candidates participated in this study (thirty in each group). Ten patients left the study and fifty participants finished the trial. At the end of the study, participants had a significant weight loss (2.96 ± 1.6 kg, P < 0.001) that was slightly more in the case group (3.15 ± 1.5 kg vs. 2.75 ± 1.7, P = 0.375). Abdominal circumference also decreased significantly in the participants (11.3 ± 6.7 cm, P < 0.001), but the changes were more significant in the case group (13.9 vs. 6.5 cm, P = 0.004). Similarly, abdominal fat thickness decreased significantly in the participants (2.3 ± 1.1 cm, P < 0.001), although changes were not significantly different between two groups (2.53 vs. 2.04 cm, P = 0.139). Topical AE ointment can reduce the abdominal fat thickness as well as the

  13. Trans-anal barotrauma by compressed air leading to sigmoid perforation due to a dangerous practical joke

    PubMed Central

    Pahwa, Harvinder Singh; Kumar, Awanish; Srivastava, Rohit; Rai, Anurag

    2012-01-01

    To present a case report of trans-anal barotrauma by high-pressure compressed air jet as a dangerous practical joke, that is, playful insufflation of high-pressure air jet through the anal orifice resulting in sigmoid perforation. The patient presented to emergency a day later with complaints of severe pain in the abdomen and abdominal distension following insufflation of high-pressure air jet through the anus. On examination, he had signs suggestive of perforation peritonitis and x-ray of the abdomen showed gas under the diaphragm. An emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed which revealed a 4-cm perforation in the sigmoid colon. Resection of the segment containing perforation along with the surrounding devitalised part was done with double-barrel colostomy. Reversal of colostomy was done after 8 weeks. Follow-up was uneventful. PMID:22854240

  14. Trans-anal barotrauma by compressed air leading to sigmoid perforation due to a dangerous practical joke.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, Harvinder Singh; Kumar, Awanish; Srivastava, Rohit; Rai, Anurag

    2012-08-01

    To present a case report of trans-anal barotrauma by high-pressure compressed air jet as a dangerous practical joke, that is, playful insufflation of high-pressure air jet through the anal orifice resulting in sigmoid perforation. The patient presented to emergency a day later with complaints of severe pain in the abdomen and abdominal distension following insufflation of high-pressure air jet through the anus. On examination, he had signs suggestive of perforation peritonitis and x-ray of the abdomen showed gas under the diaphragm. An emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed which revealed a 4-cm perforation in the sigmoid colon. Resection of the segment containing perforation along with the surrounding devitalised part was done with double-barrel colostomy. Reversal of colostomy was done after 8 weeks. Follow-up was uneventful.

  15. Congenital left paraduodenal hernia causing chronic abdominal pain and abdominal catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Felsted, Amy E; Masand, Prakash M; Mothner, Brent A; Nuchtern, Jed G; Rodriguez, J Ruben; Vasudevan, Sanjeev A

    2015-04-01

    Paraduodenal hernias are the most common type of congenital internal hernia. Because of its overall rare incidence, this entity is often overlooked during initial assessment of the patient. Lack of specific diagnostic criteria also makes diagnosis exceedingly difficult, and the resulting diagnostic delays can lead to tragic outcomes for patients. Despite these perceived barriers to timely diagnosis, there may be specific radiographic findings that, when combined with the appropriate constellation of clinical symptoms, would aid in diagnosis. This patient first presented at 8 years of age with vague symptoms of postprandial emesis, chronic abdominal pain, nausea, and syncope. Over the span of 6 years he was evaluated 2 to 3 times a year with similar complaints, all of which quickly resolved spontaneously. He underwent multiple laboratory, imaging, and endoscopic studies, which were nondiagnostic. It was not until he developed signs of a high-grade obstruction and extremis that he was found to have a large left paraduodenal hernia that had volvulized around the superior mesenteric axis. This resulted in the loss of the entire superior mesenteric axis distribution of the small and large intestine and necrosis of the duodenum. In cases of chronic intermittent obstruction without clear etiology, careful attention and consideration should be given to the constellation of symptoms, imaging studies, and potential use of diagnostic laparoscopy. Increased vigilance by primary care and consulting physicians is necessary to detect this rare but readily correctable condition. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Longitudinal validity of abdominal adiposity assessment by regional bioelectrical impedance.

    PubMed

    Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; García-Romero, Jerónimo C; Carrillo de Albornoz-Gil, Margarita; Jiménez, Manuel; Correas-Gomez, Lorena; Peñaloza, Piero; López-Fernández, Iván; Carnero, Elvis A

    2018-03-20

    The main goal of this study was to analyze the longitudinal agreement between changes in trunk and abdominal adiposity variables assessed by DXA and portable bioimpedance device (ViScan). A total of 44 women, enrolled in a 4-month exercise intervention, were included in this analysis. Trunk/abdominal compartments were assessed by ViScan and DXA. Adjusted correlations for age and FM at first assessment (pre) were utilized to perform concurrent validation among methods and completed with an agreement analysis. We observed significant differences between the changes detected by DXA and ViScan for %TFM (difference = -1.41%; p < 0.05), and proportional bias (Kendall's Tau = 0.53; p < 0.0001). Changes in abdominal adiposity were similar (difference = -0.1037 z-score units, p = 0.53), although there was proportional bias (Kendall's Tau = -0.24, p < 0.022). ViScan has a limited capability to evaluated changes in trunk and abdominal adiposity, at least for clinical purposes in adult women.

  17. Scarless abdominal fat graft harvest for neurosurgical procedures: technical note.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Victoria T; Duckworth, Edward A M

    2015-02-01

    Background Abdominal fat grafts are often harvested for use in skull base reconstruction and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak repairs, and for operations traversing the nasal sinuses or mastoid bone. Although the endoscopic transnasal surgery has gained significant popularity, in part because it is considered "scarless," a common adjunct, the abdominal fat graft, can result in a disfiguring scar across the abdomen. Objective This is the first report of a scarless abdominal fat graft technique for skull base reconstruction. Methods Ten patients with a median age of 56.5 years (range: 45-73 years) underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal tumor resection with intraumbilical fat graft harvest. Careful circumferential fat dissection at the umbilicus, with progressive retraction of the graft, was crucial to ensure maximal visualization and to prevent injury to the subcutaneous vessels and rectus fascia. Results Following reconstruction of the sellar skull base, all patients did well postoperatively with no evidence of CSF leak. At 12-week follow-up for all patients, there was no evidence of scar, intracavity hematoma, or wound infection. Conclusions Fat graft harvest through an intraumbilical incision results in a scar-free abdominal harvest, and is a useful procedural adjunct to complement "scarless" brain surgery.

  18. Segmentation precision of abdominal anatomy for MRI-based radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Camille E.; Zhu, Fan; Lee, Andrew Y.; Yanle, Hu; Parikh, Parag J.

    2014-01-01

    The limited soft tissue visualization provided by computed tomography, the standard imaging modality for radiotherapy treatment planning and daily localization, has motivated studies on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for better characterization of treatment sites, such as the prostate and head and neck. However, no studies have been conducted on MRI-based segmentation for the abdomen, a site that could greatly benefit from enhanced soft tissue targeting. We investigated the interobserver and intraobserver precision in segmentation of abdominal organs on MR images for treatment planning and localization. Manual segmentation of 8 abdominal organs was performed by 3 independent observers on MR images acquired from 14 healthy subjects. Observers repeated segmentation 4 separate times for each image set. Interobserver and intraobserver contouring precision was assessed by computing 3-dimensional overlap (Dice coefficient [DC]) and distance to agreement (Hausdorff distance [HD]) of segmented organs. The mean and standard deviation of intraobserver and interobserver DC and HD values were DCintraobserver = 0.89 ± 0.12, HDintraobserver = 3.6 mm ± 1.5, DCinterobserver = 0.89 ± 0.15, and HDinterobserver = 3.2 mm ± 1.4. Overall, metrics indicated good interobserver/intraobserver precision (mean DC > 0.7, mean HD < 4 mm). Results suggest that MRI offers good segmentation precision for abdominal sites. These findings support the utility of MRI for abdominal planning and localization, as emerging MRI technologies, techniques, and onboard imaging devices are beginning to enable MRI-based radiotherapy. PMID:24726701

  19. Electromyographic and kinetic analysis of two abdominal muscle performance tests.

    PubMed

    Haladay, Douglas E; Denegar, Craig R; Miller, Sayers J; Challis, John

    2015-01-01

    In order to accurately assess the abdominal muscles, clinicians need valid clinical measures. The double leg lowering test (DLLT) and lower abdominal muscle progression (LAMP) are two common tests of abdominal muscle performance. The purposes of this study were to determine the relation between surface electromyographic (EMG) activity during the DLLT and LAMP levels; hip joint resultant moments and DLLT and LAMP levels; and the two measures of DLLT and LAMP. Ten healthy participants were tested under both conditions. Surface EMG activity of the abdominal muscles was obtained, while pelvic movement was detected simultaneously. A moderate to strong association was found between rectus abdominus muscle activity and a moderate association with the external obliques with both test levels. For the internal oblique/transversus abdominus, a moderate and weak association was found with the DLLT and LAMP, respectively. A very strong association existed between the hip resultant joint moments (RJM) and the DLLT, while there was a weak correlation between hip RJM and the LAMP. No significant correlation was found between the DLLT and LAMP grades. This finding suggests that these tests may measure different qualities of muscle performance and provides preliminary support for their use. Further evaluation of these assessments with clinical populations is necessary.

  20. Why Do Abdominal Muscles Sometimes Separate during Pregnancy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscles that meet in the middle of the abdomen (rectus muscles) to become separated by an abnormal distance — ... to sitting up. Diastasis recti can weaken the abdominal muscles, causing lower back pain and making it difficult to lift objects or ...

  1. [Unclear Abdominal Pain - Not Always a Gastroenterological Emergency].

    PubMed

    Aschoff, Anna Teresa; Pech, Maciej; Fischbach, Frank; Ricke, Jens; Luani, Blerim; Braun-Dullaeus, Rüdiger Christian; Herold, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    History and admission findings  An 84-year old patient with persistent atrial fibrillation and chronic renal failure received a subcutaneous injection with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) during a hospital stay. Over the course of her hospitalization, the patient developed abdominal pain. There was a marked hematoma at the injection site. A large tumor was palpable in the right abdominal quadrant. Examinations  Due to the significant reduction in hemoglobin, we performed a CT-angiogram of the abdomen. Diagnosis  We were able to visualize an intramuscular hematoma within the rectus abdominis muscle. Therapy and clinical course  After visualization with digital subtraction angiography and application of microcoils and histoacryl-glue, we were able to stop bleeding. After implantation of left atrial appendage occluder, oral anticoagulation therapy could be stopped. Conclusion  LMWH-treated patients with nonspecific abdominal pain should be meticulously examined to exclude iatrogenic abdominal muscle hematoma. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Can I improve postoperative outcome after abdominal surgery?

    PubMed

    Lauwick, S; Kaba, A; Joris, J

    2007-01-01

    Most of the textbooks of anesthesia do not devote any chapter to anesthesia for abdominal surgery. Whereas the choice of anesthetics has minimal impact on postoperative outcome of the patient scheduled for these procedures global perioperative anesthetic management however affects postoperative recovery, convalescence, or even morbidity. This presentation highlights practical measures susceptible of reducing postoperative complications and of shortening patient convalescence.

  3. Contemporary Strategies in the Management of Civilian Abdominal Vascular Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Karaolanis, Georgios; Moris, Dimitrios; McCoy, C. Cameron; Tsilimigras, Diamantis I.; Georgopoulos, Sotirios; Bakoyiannis, Chris

    2018-01-01

    The evaluation and management of patients with abdominal vascular trauma or injury requires immediate and effective decision-making in these unfavorable circumstances. The majority of these patients arrive at trauma centers in profound shock, secondary to massive blood loss, which is often unrelenting. Moreover, ischemia, compartment syndrome, thrombosis, and embolization may also be life threatening and require immediate intervention. To minimize the risk of these potentially lethal complications, early understanding of the disease process and emergent therapeutic intervention are necessary. In the literature, the management of acute traumatic vascular injuries is restricted to traditional open surgical techniques. However, in penetrating injuries surgeons often face a potentially contaminated field, which renders the placement of prosthetic grafts inappropriate. Currently, however, there are sparse data on the management of vascular trauma with endovascular techniques. The role of endovascular technique in penetrating abdominal vascular trauma, which is almost always associated with severe active bleeding, is limited. It is worth mentioning that hybrid operating rooms with angiographic radiology capabilities offer more opportunities for the management of this kind of injuries by either temporary control of the devastating bleeding using endovascular balloon tamponade or with embolization and stenting. On the other hand, blunt abdominal injuries are less dangerous and they could be treated at most times by endovascular means. Since surgeons continue to encounter abdominal vascular trauma, open and endovascular techniques will evolve constantly giving us encouraging messages for the near future. PMID:29516005

  4. Does specialization improve outcome in abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery?

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Rachel; von Känel, Oliver; Eugster, Thomas; Stierli, Peter; Gürke, Lorenz

    2005-01-01

    Specialization and high volume are reported to be related to a better outcome after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The aim of this study was to compare, in patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, the outcomes of those whose surgery was done by general surgeons with the outcomes of those whose surgery was done by specialist vascular surgeons. All patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm repair at the Basel University Hospital (referral center) from January 1990 to December 2000 were included. Patients with endovascular treatment were excluded. Operations in group A (n = 189), between January 1990 and May 1995, were done by general surgeons. Operations in group B (n = 291), between June 1995 and December 2000, were done by vascular surgeons. In-hospital mortality and local and systemic complications were assessed. In-hospital mortality rates were significantly lower for group B (with specialist surgeons) than for group A, both overall (group B, 11.7%; group A, 21.7%; p = .003) and for emergency interventions (group B, 28.1%; group A, 41.9%; p = .042). The reduction in mortality for elective surgery in group B was not statistically significant (group B, 1.1%; group A, 4.9%; p = .054). There were significantly fewer pulmonary complications in group B compared with group A (p = .000). We conclude that in patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, those whose surgery is done by a specialized team have a significantly better outcome than those whose surgery is done by general surgeons.

  5. 38 CFR 4.113 - Coexisting abdominal conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.113 Coexisting abdominal conditions. There are diseases of the digestive system, particularly within the abdomen, which, while... coexisting diseases in this area, as indicated in the instruction under the title “Diseases of the Digestive...

  6. Epidemiology of Abusive Abdominal Trauma Hospitalizations in United States Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman; Dubowitz, Howard; Langenberg, Patricia; Dischinger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To estimate the incidence of abusive abdominal trauma (AAT) hospitalizations among US children age 0-9 years. (2) To identify demographic characteristics of children at highest risk for AAT. Design: Secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional, national hospitalization database. Setting: Hospitalization data from the 2003 and 2006…

  7. An experimental abdominal pressure measurement device for child ATDs.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-12-01

    An experimental device to measure the abdominal pressure in child-size Anthropomorphic Test Dummies (ATDs) during dynamic tests was developed. A description is provided of the two ATDs in which the device was installed, the CRABI six-month-old and th...

  8. [Successful treatment of injuries of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Merkl, J; Bat'alík, B; Mydlo, J

    1990-03-01

    The authors describe successful treatment of severe haemorrhagic shock caused by profuse haemorrhage from the infrarenal portion of the abdominal aorta. After primary treatment of the perforation by a vascular suture reoperation was necessary because of repeated haemorrhage from that site, and for closure of the dehiscence Dacron stitch was used.

  9. Scrub typhus associated hepatic dysfunction and abdominal CT findings

    PubMed Central

    Park, Man Je; Lee, Hyoun Soo; Shim, Sang Goon; Kim, So Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This retrospective study investigated abnormal hepatic dysfunction and abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings in scrub typhus. Methods: Three hundred forty nine adult patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus. Ninety four underwent abdominal CT. The CT images were reviewed by the attending radiologist. Patient data of history, symptoms, signs, and results of laboratory tests were collected from the electronic medical records. Results: In 349 patients with scrub typhus, elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (78.5%) and alanine aminotransferase (63.0%) were dominant compared to alkaline phosphatase (27.2%) and total bilirubin (16.1%). Abdominal CT findings of 94 patients were, in descending order of frequency, enlarged lymph node (53.2%), inhomogeneous enhancement of liver (47.9%), splenomegaly (46.8%), ascites (28.7%), low attenuation of periportal areas (27.7%), gallbladder wall thickening (17.0%), and splenic infarct (6.4%). Also, the level of aspartate aminotransferase tended to be elevated according to the number of CT findings (P= 0.028) Conclusions: We found that abdominal CT manifestations of scrub typhus with elevated aminotransferases were varied and not specific. However, knowledge of these findings may evoke the recognition of scrub typhus by clinicians in endemic areas. PMID:26101478

  10. Evaluation of Criteria Associated with Abdominal Fitness Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Loarn D.; Magnusdottir, Hjordis

    1987-01-01

    The use of the timed sit up as a measure of abdominal fitness has been challenged. This article describes experiments designed to evaluate a modified curl up test as an alternative. Subjects were 20 college students averaging 25.3 years of age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  11. Race and acute abdominal pain in a pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Caperell, Kerry; Pitetti, Raymond; Cross, Keith P

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the demographic and clinical factors of children who present to the pediatric emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain and their outcomes. A review of the electronic medical record of patients 1 to 18 years old, who presented to the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh ED with a complaint of abdominal pain over the course of 2 years, was conducted. Demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as visit outcomes, were reviewed. Subjects were grouped by age, race, and gender. Results of evaluation, treatment, and clinical outcomes were compared between groups by using multivariate analysis and recursive partitioning. There were 9424 patient visits during the study period that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Female gender comprised 61% of African American children compared with 52% of white children. Insurance was characterized as private for 75% of white and 37% of African American children. A diagnosis of appendicitis was present in 1.9% of African American children and 5.1% of white children. Older children were more likely to be admitted and have an operation associated with their ED visit. Appendicitis was uncommon in younger children. Constipation was commonly diagnosed. Multivariate analysis by diagnosis as well as recursive partitioning analysis did not reflect any racial differences in evaluation, treatment, or outcome. Constipation is the most common diagnosis in children presenting with abdominal pain. Our data demonstrate that no racial differences exist in the evaluation, treatment, and disposition of children with abdominal pain.

  12. Assessment of Abdominal Pain in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Polly Gerber

    2003-01-01

    Pediatric abdominal pain can be a difficult condition to accurately assess for the nurse to determine whether the child's need is for teaching, treating, or transferring. This article describes the process as well as practical tips to be used by the nurse in the school setting. Distinguishing characteristics and findings, including key physical…

  13. Recurrent severe abdominal pain in the pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Homme, James L; Foster, Ashley A

    2014-05-01

    Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is a blockage occurring at the junction of the ureter and the renal pelvis. Pediatric patients with UPJO pose a diagnostic challenge when they present to the emergency department (ED) with severe recurrent abdominal pain if there is not a level of suspicion for this condition. Our aim was to review presentation of UPJO to the ED, methods of diagnosis, and treatment of this common but often overlooked condition. We report on 2 patients, a 9-year-old and 3-year-old, who had multiple presentations to health care providers and the ED with intermittent and recurrent abdominal pain. Subsequent testing, including ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) with diuretic-recreated symptoms, revealed UPJO. Open pyeloplasty was performed, resulting in complete resolution of symptoms. UPJO is an important diagnosis to consider when patients present to the ED with recurrent abdominal pain. US can be helpful in suspecting the diagnosis, but often CT, magnetic resonance urography, or diuretic scintigraphy is required for confirmation. Diuretics can be used to aid diagnostic testing by reproducing abdominal pain at the time of imaging. Referral to a urologist for open pyeloplasty is definitive treatment for this condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Maintenance of pain in children with functional abdominal pain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A significant proportion of children with functional abdominal pain develop chronic pain. Identifying clinical characteristics predicting pain persistence is important in targeting interventions. We examined whether child anxiety and/or pain-stooling relations were related to maintenance of abdomina...

  15. Determinants of splenectomy in splenic injuries following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Akinkuolie, A A; Lawal, O O; Arowolo, O A; Agbakwuru, E A; Adesunkanmi, A R K

    2010-02-01

    The management of splenic injuries has shifted from splenectomy to splenic preservation owing to the risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI). This study aimed to identify the factors that determine splenectomy in patients with isolated splenic injuries, with a view to increasing the rate of splenic preservation. Files of 55 patients managed for isolated splenic injuries from blunt abdominal trauma between 1998 and 2007 were retrospectively analysed using a pro forma. Management options were classified into nonoperative, operative salvage and splenectomy. The majority of patients suffered splenic injury as a result of motor vehicle accident (MVA) trauma or falls. Splenectomy was undertaken in 33 (60%) patients, 12 (22%) had non-operative management, and operative salvage was achieved in 10 (18%) patients. Significant determinants of splenectomy were grade of splenic injury, hierarchy of the surgeon, and hierarchy of the assistant. MVA injury and falls accounted for the vast majority of blunt abdominal trauma in this study. The rate and magnitude of energy transferred versus splenic protective mechanisms at the time of blunt abdominal trauma seems to determine the grade of splenic injury. Interest in splenic salvage surgery, availability of technology that enables splenic salvage surgery, and the experience of the surgeon and assistant appear to determine the surgical management. Legislation on vehicle safety and good parental control may reduce the severity of splenic injury in blunt abdominal trauma. When surgery is indicated, salvage surgery should be considered in intermediate isolated splenic injury to reduce the incidence of OPSI.

  16. Delayed splenic rupture presenting 70 days following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Resteghini, Nancy; Nielsen, Jonpaul; Hoimes, Matthew L; Karam, Adib R

    2014-01-01

    Delayed splenic rupture following conservative management of splenic injury is an extremely rare complication. We report a case of an adult patient who presented with delayed splenic rupture necessitating splenectomy, 2 months following blunt abdominal trauma. Imaging at the initial presentation demonstrated only minimal splenic contusion and the patient was discharge following 24 hours of observation. © 2014.

  17. 38 CFR 4.113 - Coexisting abdominal conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.113 Coexisting abdominal conditions. There are diseases of the digestive system, particularly within the abdomen, which, while... coexisting diseases in this area, as indicated in the instruction under the title “Diseases of the Digestive...

  18. 38 CFR 4.113 - Coexisting abdominal conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.113 Coexisting abdominal conditions. There are diseases of the digestive system, particularly within the abdomen, which, while... coexisting diseases in this area, as indicated in the instruction under the title “Diseases of the Digestive...

  19. 38 CFR 4.113 - Coexisting abdominal conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.113 Coexisting abdominal conditions. There are diseases of the digestive system, particularly within the abdomen, which, while... coexisting diseases in this area, as indicated in the instruction under the title “Diseases of the Digestive...

  20. 38 CFR 4.113 - Coexisting abdominal conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.113 Coexisting abdominal conditions. There are diseases of the digestive system, particularly within the abdomen, which, while... coexisting diseases in this area, as indicated in the instruction under the title “Diseases of the Digestive...