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Sample records for abdominal muscle contraction

  1. Effects of different types of contraction in abdominal bracing on the asymmetry of left and right abdominal muscles.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Song, Min-Young; Park, Hyeon-Ji; Park, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Hyun-Young; Lim, Da-Som

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective strength levels of abdominal muscle contraction using the bracing contraction method. [Subjects] The experiment was conducted with 31 healthy male (M=15) and female (F=16) adults attending D University in Busan; all participants had less than obesity level BMI (BMI<30). [Methods] Bracing contraction was performed by the subjects in the hook-lying position at maximum and minimum pressure levels, five times each, using a Pressure Biofeedback Unit (PBU), and the mean measurement value was calculated. The maximum pressure level was set at 100% and the half maximum pressure level was set at 50%. Each subject's left and right abdominal muscle thicknesses were then measured by ultrasound imaging in each state: at rest, 100% contraction, and 50% contraction. [Results] No significant differences were found between the left and right sides of the transversus abdominis (TrA) at rest, 50%, or 100% contraction. The external oblique abdominis (EO) and internal oblique abdominis (IO) showed no significant difference at rest or at the 50% contraction. However, a significant difference was noted at 100% contraction for the EO and IO. [Conclusion] Application of abdominal contraction using bracing can achieve symmetry in the left and right abdominal muscles at less than the maximum contractile strength. The occurrence of asymmetry in the left and right abdominal muscles at the maximum contractile strength suggests that the most suitable contractile strength in this exercise is less than the maximum contractile strength. PMID:25540478

  2. Contraction of Abdominal Wall Muscles Influences Incisional Hernia Occurrence and Size

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Samuel C.; Hu, Yaxi; Wollstein, Adi; Franz, Michael G.; Patel, Shaun P.; Kuzon, William M.; Urbanchek, Melanie G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Incisional hernias are a complication in 10% of all open abdominal operations and can result in significant morbidity. The purpose of this study is to determine if inhibiting abdominal muscle contraction influences incisional hernia formation during laparotomy healing. We hypothesize that reducing abdominal musculature deformation reduces incisional hernia occurrence and size. Study Design Using an established rat model for incisional hernia, a laparotomy through the linea alba was closed with one mid-incision, fast-absorbing suture. Three groups were compared: a SHAM group (SHAM; n = 6) received no laparotomies while the Saline Hernia (SH; n = 6) and Botox Hernia (BH; n = 6) groups were treated once with equal volume saline or Botulinum Toxin (Botox®, Allergan) before the incomplete laparotomy closure. On post-operative day 14, the abdominal wall was examined for herniation and adhesions and contractile forces were measured for abdominal wall muscles. Results No hernias developed in SHAM rats. Rostral hernias developed in all SH and BH rats. Caudal hernias developed in all SH rats, but in only 50% of the BH rats. Rostral hernias in the BH group were 35% shorter and 43% narrower compared to those in the SH group (p < 0.05). The BH group had weaker abdominal muscles compared to the SHAM and SH groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions In our rat model, partial paralysis of abdominal muscles reduces the number and size of incisional hernias. These results confirm abdominal wall muscle contractions play a significant role in the pathophysiology of incisional hernia formation. PMID:25817097

  3. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction.

    PubMed

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility was evaluated as the distance from the bladder base using ultrasound. [Results] According to exercise method, bridge exercise and abdominal curl-ups led to significantly different pelvic floor mobility. The pelvic floor muscle was elevated during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and descended during maximal expiration. Finally, pelvic floor muscle mobility was greater during abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. [Conclusion] According to these results, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver induced pelvic floor muscle contraction, and pelvic floor muscle contraction was greater during the abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. PMID:27065532

  4. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility was evaluated as the distance from the bladder base using ultrasound. [Results] According to exercise method, bridge exercise and abdominal curl-ups led to significantly different pelvic floor mobility. The pelvic floor muscle was elevated during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and descended during maximal expiration. Finally, pelvic floor muscle mobility was greater during abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. [Conclusion] According to these results, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver induced pelvic floor muscle contraction, and pelvic floor muscle contraction was greater during the abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. PMID:27065532

  5. Comparison of changes in the contraction of the lateral abdominal muscles between the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and breathe held at the maximum expiratory level.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Hirose, Ryohei; Watanabe, Susumu

    2012-10-01

    The abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) is commonly used as a fundamental component of lumbar stabilization training programs. One potential limitation of lumbar stabilization programs is that it can be difficult and time consuming to train people to perform the ADIM. The transverse abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscles are the most powerful muscles involved in expiration. However, little is known about the differences in the recruitment of the abdominal muscles between the ADIM and breathe held at maximum expiratory level (maximum expiration). The thickness of the TrA and IO muscles was measured by ultrasound imaging, and the activity of the EO muscle was measured by electromyography (EMG) in 33 healthy male performing the ADIM and maximum expiration. Maximum expiration produced a significant increase in the thickness of the TrA and IO muscles compared to the ADIM (p < 0.001). The EMG activity of the EO muscle was significantly higher during maximum expiration than during the ADIM (p < 0.001). The intensity of the EMG activity of the EO muscle was approximately 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction during maximum expiration. Thus, maximum expiration may be an effective method for training of co-activation of the lateral abdominal muscles. PMID:22595657

  6. Electromyography study of the portions of the abdominal rectus muscle.

    PubMed

    Negrao Filho, R de F; Bérzin, F; Souza, G da C

    1997-01-01

    This study objective was to verify the behavior of three portions of the abdominal rectus muscle through a quantitative analysis of the electromyographic signal in different types of abdominal exercises. Ten young male between 16 and 27 years old were studied and they had no previous history of muscle and joint illness. They were well-trained and did seven abdominal exercises chosen considering the types of contraction (isotonic and isometric) as well as the muscle fixation points. The electric activity of the superior, medium (above umbilicus) and inferior (below umbilicus) portions at the left side of the abdominal rectus muscle was taken using Beckman type surface mini-electrodes. The registers were collected from computerized 8-channel Nicholet electromyography equipment, model Viking II. The signals were quantified using the MVA (Maximum Volunteer Activity) software, being considered for analysis the values of RMS (Root Mean Square). The obtained data were submitted to a parametric analysis using the variance analysis (F test) and also the Tukey test, besides a descriptive graphic analysis starting from the average RMS values of each muscle portion. This study results suggest that for the majority of the subjects, the functional activities of the abdominal rectus muscle are performed with electric activity differences among their portions, showing a tendency of producing more electric activity in the superior portion than in the medium and inferior portions. The experiment also demonstrated an absence of a common behavior pattern in the three portions of the ten tested subjects. PMID:9444489

  7. Abdominal muscle size and symmetry at rest and during abdominal hollowing exercises in healthy control subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mannion, A F; Pulkovski, N; Toma, V; Sprott, H

    2008-01-01

    The symmetry of, and physical characteristics influencing, the thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles at rest and during abdominal exercises were examined in 57 healthy subjects (20 men, 37 women; aged 22–62 years). M-mode ultrasound images were recorded from the abdominal muscles at rest and during abdominal hollowing exercises in hook-lying. The fascial lines bordering the transvs. abdominis, obliquus internus and obliquus externus were digitized and the absolute thickness, relative thickness (% of total lateral thickness) and contraction ratio (thickness during hollowing/thickness at rest), as well as the asymmetry (difference between sides expressed as a percent of the smallest value for the two sides) for each of these parameters were determined for each muscle. Both at rest and during hollowing, obliquus internus was the thickest and transvs. abdominis the thinnest muscle. There were no significant differences between left and right sides for group mean thicknesses of any muscle; however, individual asymmetries were evident, with mean values for the different muscles ranging from 11% to 26%; asymmetry was much less for the contraction ratios (mean % side differences, 5–14% depending on muscle). Body mass was the most significant positive predictor of absolute muscle thickness, for all muscles at rest and during hollowing, accounting for 30–44% variance. Body mass index explained 20–30% variance in transvs. abdominis contraction ratio (negative relationship). The influence of these confounders must be considered in comparative studies of healthy controls and back pain patients, unless groups are very carefully matched. Asymmetries observed in patients should be interpreted with caution, as they are also common in healthy subjects. PMID:19172732

  8. An electrooptical muscle contraction sensor.

    PubMed

    Chianura, Alessio; Giardini, Mario E

    2010-07-01

    An electrooptical sensor for the detection of muscle contraction is described. Infrared light is injected into the muscle, the backscattering is observed, and the contraction is detected by measuring the change, that occurs during muscle contraction, between the light scattered in the direction parallel and perpendicular to the muscle cells. With respect to electromyography and to optical absorption-based sensors, our device has the advantage of lower invasiveness, of lower sensitivity to electromagnetic noise and to movement artifacts, and of being able to distinguish between isometric and isotonic contractions. PMID:20490943

  9. How different modes of child delivery influence abdominal muscle activities in the active straight leg raise.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yu-Jeong; Hyung, Eun-Ju; Yang, Kyung-Hye; Lee, Hyun-Ok

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the activities of the abdominal muscles of women who had experienced vaginal delivery in comparison with those who had experienced Cesarean childbirth. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 14 subjects (7 vaginal delivery, 7 Cesarean section) performed an active straight leg raise to 20 cm above the ground, and we measured the activities of the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the external oblique abdominal muscle, and the rectus abdominal muscle on both sides using electromyography. The effort required to raise the leg was scored on a Likert scale. Then, the subjects conducted maximum isometric contraction for hip joint flexion with the leg raised at 20 cm, and maximum torque and abdominal muscle activities were measured using electromyography. [Results] During the active straight leg raise, abdominal muscle activities were higher in the Cesarean section subjects. The Likert scale did not show a significant difference. The activities of the abdominal muscles and the maximum torque of the hip joint flexion at maximum isometric contraction were higher in the vaginal delivery subjects. [Conclusion] The abdominal muscles of Cesarean section subjects showed greater recruitment for maintaining pelvic stability during the active straight leg raising, but were relatively weaker when powerful force was required. Therefore, we consider that more abdominal muscle training is necessary for maintaining pelvic stability of Cesarean section subjects. PMID:25202194

  10. ABDOMINAL OBESITY, MUSCLE COMPOSITION, AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The independent relationships between visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) depots, muscle composition, and insulin sensitivity were examined in 40 abdominally obese, premenopausal women. Measurements included glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, muscle composition by computed to...

  11. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  12. Acting Out Muscle Contraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Describes a science activity that can be implemented into anatomy and physiology courses that demonstrates the interactions between action and myosin, the roles of sodium and calcium ions in the regulation of contraction, and the functions of the plasma membrane and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (YDS)

  13. Abdominal muscle paralysis associated with herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Gottschau, P; Trojaborg, W

    1991-10-01

    We describe a 77-year-old women with cutaneous herpes zoster in the area of the right T9-T11 dermatomes complicated by abdominal muscle paralysis. Four months after onset of paralysis, stimulation of appropriate intercostal nerves failed to evoke responses from the corresponding segments of the rectus abdominis muscle. Three months later EMG of these muscle segments revealed profuse denervation activity and spontaneous long-lasting burst of high frequency discharges. Magnetic stimulation applied transcranially and peripherally at T10 evoked responses from the left, but not from the right paralytic rectus abdominis muscle. Electric stimulation of right T10 elicited a markedly delayed, prolonged and polyphasic response in the transverse abdominis muscle and EMG revealed polyphasia and increased motor unit potential duration in muscle segments underlying herpes zoster eruption. One and a half years after onset, the paralysis of the rectus abdominis muscle was still present. A survey of the literature concerning this rare type of zoster paralysis is presented. PMID:1837649

  14. Cardiac function in muscular dystrophy associates with abdominal muscle pathology

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Brandon B.; Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Kim, Gene; Watson, Sydeaka; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The muscular dystrophies target muscle groups differentially. In mouse models of muscular dystrophy, notably the mdx model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, the diaphragm muscle shows marked fibrosis and at an earlier age than other muscle groups, more reflective of the histopathology seen in human muscular dystrophy. Methods Using a mouse model of limb girdle muscular dystrophy, the Sgcg mouse, we compared muscle pathology across different muscle groups and heart. A cohort of nearly 200 Sgcg mice were studied using multiple measures of pathology including echocardiography, Evans blue dye uptake and hydroxyproline content in multiple muscle groups. Spearman rank correlations were determined among echocardiographic and pathological parameters. Findings The abdominal muscles were found to have more fibrosis than other muscle groups, including the diaphragm muscle. The abdominal muscles also had more Evans blue dye uptake than other muscle groups. The amount of diaphragm fibrosis was found to correlate positively with fibrosis in the left ventricle, and abdominal muscle fibrosis correlated with impaired left ventricular function. Fibrosis in the abdominal muscles negatively correlated with fibrosis in the diaphragm and right ventricles. Together these data reflect the recruitment of abdominal muscles as respiratory muscles in muscular dystrophy, a finding consistent with data from human patients. PMID:26029630

  15. Comparison of Abdominal Muscle Thickness with Vaginal Pressure Changes in Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo-In; Hwang-Bo, Gak; Kim, Ha-Roo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the efficacy of a pelvic floor muscle exercise program by comparing subjects’ muscle thickness with changes in vaginal pressure. [Subjects] Two groups of female participants without a medical history of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction were evaluated. The mean age of Group I was 33.5 years and that of Group II was 49.69 years. [Methods] The participants were instructed to perform a pelvic floor muscle contraction. While measuring the vaginal pressure of the pelvic floor muscle, biofeedback was given on five levels, and the thicknesses of the transversus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique muscles were measured with ultrasound. [Results] The thickness of the transversus abdominis muscle was significantly increased at 30 cmH2O in Group I, and at 20 cmH2O in Group II. The thickness of the internal oblique abdominal muscle significantly increased at maximum contraction in Group II. [Conclusion] Different abdominal muscles contracted depending on vaginal pressure. The result may be used to create and implement an exercise program that effectively strengthens the pelvic floor muscles. PMID:24707099

  16. Effect of maximum ventilation on abdominal muscle relaxation rate.

    PubMed Central

    Kyroussis, D.; Mills, G. H.; Polkey, M. I.; Hamnegard, C. H.; Wragg, S.; Road, J.; Green, M.; Moxham, J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When the demand placed on the respiratory system is increased, the abdominal muscles become vigorously active to achieve expiration and facilitate subsequent inspiration. Abdominal muscle function could limit ventilatory capacity and a method to detect abdominal muscle fatigue would be of value. The maximum relaxation rate (MRR) of skeletal muscle has been used as an early index of the onset of the fatiguing process and precedes failure of force generation. The aim of this study was to measure MRR of abdominal muscles and to investigate whether it slows after maximum isocapnic ventilation (MIV). METHODS: Five normal subjects were studied. Each performed short sharp expiratory efforts against a 3 mm orifice before and immediately after a two minute MIV. Gastric pressure (PGA) was recorded and MRR (% pressure fall/10 ms) for each PGA trace was determined. RESULTS: Before MIV the mean (SD) maximum PGA MRR for the five subjects was 7.1 (0.8)% peak pressure fall/10 ms. Following MIV mean PGA MRR was decreased by 30% (range 25-35%), returning to control values within 5-10 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: The MRR of the abdominal muscles, measured from PGA, is numerically similar to that described for the diaphragm and other skeletal muscles. After two minutes of maximal isocapnic ventilation abdominal muscle MRR slows, indicating that these muscles are sufficiently heavily loaded to initiate the fatiguing process. PMID:8711679

  17. Abdominal muscle activity according to knee joint angle during sit-to-stand

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Juri; Rhee, Min-Hyung; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the activity of the abdominal muscles according to the angle of the knee joints during sit-to-stand. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy adult males participated in this study. Subjects initiated sit-to-stand at knee joint angles of 60°, 90°, or 120°. An electromyography system was used to measure the maximum voluntary isometric contraction of the rectus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique and transverse abdominis muscles. [Results] Percent contraction differed significantly among the three knee joint angles, most notably for the internal oblique and transverse abdominis muscles. [Conclusion] Wider knee joint angles more effectively activate the abdominal muscles, especially those in the deep abdomen, than do narrower angles. PMID:27390431

  18. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Mirosław

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents. PMID:25088309

  19. Differences in abdominal muscle activation during coughing between smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Min-Hyung; Lee, Dong-Rour; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of the abdominal muscles during coughing between smokers and nonsmokers. [Subjects] A total of 30 healthy adults (15 smokers, 15 nonsmokers) participated. [Methods] The percentage maximal voluntary isometric contraction values (%MVIC) of the rectus abdominis (RA), external abdominal oblique (EO), and internal abdominal oblique (IO) and transversus abdominis (TrA) were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] The %MVIC of the IO and TrA statistically significantly differed and the %MVIC of IO and TrA was found to be higher during coughing in nonsmokers compared with during coughing in smokers. [Conclusion] The activity of the deep abdominal muscles in nonsmokers was also higher than that of smokers during coughing. PMID:27190443

  20. Differences in abdominal muscle activation during coughing between smokers and nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Min-Hyung; Lee, Dong-Rour; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of the abdominal muscles during coughing between smokers and nonsmokers. [Subjects] A total of 30 healthy adults (15 smokers, 15 nonsmokers) participated. [Methods] The percentage maximal voluntary isometric contraction values (%MVIC) of the rectus abdominis (RA), external abdominal oblique (EO), and internal abdominal oblique (IO) and transversus abdominis (TrA) were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] The %MVIC of the IO and TrA statistically significantly differed and the %MVIC of IO and TrA was found to be higher during coughing in nonsmokers compared with during coughing in smokers. [Conclusion] The activity of the deep abdominal muscles in nonsmokers was also higher than that of smokers during coughing. PMID:27190443

  1. Abdominal muscle and quadriceps strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Man, W; Hopkinson, N; Harraf, F; Nikoletou, D; Polkey, M; Moxham, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Quadriceps muscle weakness is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but is not observed in a small hand muscle (adductor pollicis). Although this could be explained by reduced activity in the quadriceps, the observation could also be explained by anatomical location of the muscle or fibre type composition. However, the abdominal muscles are of a similar anatomical and fibre type distribution to the quadriceps, although they remain active in COPD. Cough gastric pressure is a recently described technique that assesses abdominal muscle (and hence expiratory muscle) strength more accurately than traditional techniques. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that more severe weakness exists in the quadriceps than in the abdominal muscles of patients with COPD compared with healthy elderly controls. Methods: Maximum cough gastric pressure and quadriceps isometric strength were measured in 43 patients with stable COPD and 25 healthy elderly volunteers matched for anthropometric variables. Results: Despite a significant reduction in mean quadriceps strength (29.9 kg v 41.2 kg; 95% CI –17.9 to –4.6; p = 0.001), cough gastric pressure was preserved in patients with COPD (227.3 cm H2O v 204.8 cm H2O; 95% CI –5.4 to 50.6; p = 0.11). Conclusions: Abdominal muscle strength is preserved in stable COPD outpatients in the presence of quadriceps weakness. This suggests that anatomical location and fibre type cannot explain quadriceps weakness in COPD. By inference, we conclude that disuse and consequent deconditioning are important factors in the development of quadriceps muscle weakness in COPD patients, or that activity protects the abdominal muscles from possible systemic myopathic processes. PMID:15923239

  2. Regulating the contraction of insect flight muscle.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Belinda; Pastore, Annalisa

    2011-12-01

    The rapid movement of the wings in small insects is powered by the indirect flight muscles. These muscles are capable of contracting at up to 1,000 Hz because they are activated mechanically by stretching. The mechanism is so efficient that it is also used in larger insects like the waterbug, Lethocerus. The oscillatory activity of the muscles occurs a low concentration of Ca(2+), which stays constant as the muscles contract and relax. Activation by stretch requires particular isoforms of tropomyosin and the troponin complex on the thin filament. We compare the tropomyosin and troponin of Lethocerus and Drosophila with that of vertebrates. The characteristics of the flight muscle regulatory proteins suggest ways in which stretch-activation works. There is evidence for bridges between troponin on thin filaments and myosin crossbridges on the thick filaments. Recent X-ray fibre diffraction results suggest that a pull on the bridges activates the thin filament by shifting tropomyosin from a blocking position on actin. The troponin bridges are likely to contain extended sequences of tropomyosin or troponin I (TnI). Flight muscle has two isoforms of TnC with different Ca(2+)-binding properties: F1 TnC is needed for stretch-activation and F2 TnC for isometric contractions. In this review, we describe the structural changes in both isoforms on binding Ca(2+) and TnI, and discuss how the steric model of muscle regulation can apply to insect flight muscle. PMID:22105701

  3. Effect of craniocervical posture on abdominal muscle activities

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jung Gil; Won, Shin Ji; Gak, Hwangbo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the craniocervical posture on abdominal muscle activities in hook-lying position. [Subjects] This study recruited 12 healthy young adults. [Methods] Each subject was asked to adopt a supine position with the hip and knee flexed at 60°. Surface electromyographic signals of transversus abdominis/internal oblique, rectus abdominis, and external oblique in different craniocervical postures (extension, neutral, and flexion) were compared. [Results] The transversus abdominis and rectus abdominis showed increased muscle activities in craniocervical flexion compared to craniocervical extension and neutral position. Greater muscle activities of the external oblique were seen in craniocervical flexion than in craniocervical extension. [Conclusion] Craniocervical flexion was found to be effective to increase the abdominal muscle activities. Consideration of craniocervical posture is recommended when performing trunk stabilization exercises. PMID:27065558

  4. Prediction of calf volume during muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Faghri, Pouran D; Du, Qing Yuan

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between calf volume changes and different intensities of maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) of a lower limb performing plantar flexions. An electronic plethysmography instrument (EPI) was developed, and after testing for its reliability, it was used to measure calf volume changes. For EPI, the reliability correlation coefficients (r) to measure calf volume consistently were .98, .91, and .98 at 100% MVC, 80% MVC, and 60% MVC, respectively. There were also significant correlations between calf volume changes and the different intensities of MVC (MVC: r = .42, p < .011; 80% MVC: r = .41, p < .013; 60% MVC: r = .5, p < .002). The calf volume changes at different levels of muscle contractions also correlate significantly (upper calf: r = .55, p < .0002; middle calf: r = .58, p < .0007; and lower calf: r = .55, p < .002). The results indicated that EPI might be used as a reliable tool to predict the intensity of muscle contraction based on calf volume changes. Clinicians who use functional electrical stimulation to induce muscle contraction in people with muscle paralysis may use EPI to predict the volume changes during functional electrical stimulation-induced contractions and to deliver the proper amount of electrical stimulation, producing the desired level of contraction without undue stimulation or fatigue. PMID:16796241

  5. Localization of motoneurons innervating individual abdominal muscles of the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Alan D.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a systematic investigation of the innervation of the cat's individual abdominal muscles. The segmental distribution of the different motor pools was determined by using electrical microstimulation of the ventral horn to produce visible localized muscle twitches and by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase injected into individual muscles. The segmental distribution of each motor pool was as follows: rectus abdominis, T4-L3; external oblique, T6-L3; transverse abdominis, T9-L3; and internal oblique, T13-L3.

  6. Postherpetic pseudohernia: delayed onset of paresis of abdominal muscles due to herpes zoster causing an ipsilateral abdominal bulge.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Shunsuke; Togawa, Yasuhiro; Chiku, Tsuyoshi; Sano, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Postherpetic pseudohernia causes an abdominal bulge as well as an abdominal wall herniation. This disease is one of the neurological complications of herpes zoster and essentially consists of paresis of ipsilateral abdominal muscles. Postherpetic pseudohernia may be mistaken for abdominal wall herniation because it is not well known. We describe two cases presenting an abdominal bulge. The ipsilateral abdominal bulge appeared after recovery from abdominal zoster. Abdominal CT showed no evidence of a herniation or mass. We diagnosed a postherpetic pseudohernia. One of the patients recovered spontaneously 4 months after the onset, and the other partially recovered after 2 months. This disease can be expected to disappear spontaneously, unlike abdominal herniation requiring surgery. It has been reported that 79.3% of patients eventually recovered spontaneously. For surgeons and general practitioners, it is beneficial to keep this disease in mind when examining a patient presenting an abdominal bulge. PMID:27229900

  7. Models of muscle contraction and energetics

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Nicola; Gladden, L. Bruce; Carlier, Pierre G.; Cabrera, Marco E.

    2013-01-01

    How does skeletal muscle manage to regulate the pathways of ATP synthesis during large-scale changes in work rate while maintaining metabolic homeostasis remains unknown. The classic model of metabolic regulation during muscle contraction states that accelerating ATP utilization leads to increasing concentrations of ADP and Pi, which serve as substrates for oxidative phosphorylation and thus accelerate ATP synthesis. An alternative model states that both the ATP demand and ATP supply pathways are simultaneously activated. Here, we review experimental and computational models of muscle contraction and energetics at various organizational levels and compare them with respect to their pros and cons in facilitating understanding of the regulation of energy metabolism during exercise in the intact organism. PMID:24421861

  8. Optical NIR monitoring of skeletal muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lago, Paolo; Gelmetti, Andrea; Pavesi, Roberta; Zambarbieri, Daniela

    1996-12-01

    NIR spectroscopy allows monitoring of muscle oxygenation and perfusion during contraction. The knowledge of modifications of blood characteristics in body tissues has relevant clinical interest. A compact and reliable device, which makes use of two laser diodes at 750 and 810 nm coupled with the skin surface through optical fibers, was tested. NIR and surface EMG signals during isometric contractions both in normal and ischaemic conditions were analyzed. A set of parameters from the 750/810 spectroscopic curve was analyzed. Two different categories depending on the recovery rate from maximal voluntary contraction to basal oxygenation conditions were found. This behavior can give information about metabolic modifications during muscle fatigue. Interesting results in testing isokinetic rehabilitation training were also obtained.

  9. Abdominal perforator vs. muscle sparing flaps for breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liza C.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominally based free flaps have become the mainstay for women that desire to use their own tissue as a means of breast reconstruction after mastectomy. As the techniques have evolved, significant effort has been invested in finding the best means of minimizing morbidity to the abdominal donor site while ensuring a viable reconstructed breast that is aesthetically pleasing. This manuscript reviews and compares the muscle sparing free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (MsfTRAM), the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP), and the superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flaps, regarding flap success rate, operative times, abdominal donor site morbidity and residual functionality, hospital lengths of stay and associated costs, impact of co-morbid conditions, and resilience after adjuvant radiation treatment. PMID:26161306

  10. Abdominal perforator vs. muscle sparing flaps for breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Butler, Paris D; Wu, Liza C

    2015-06-01

    Abdominally based free flaps have become the mainstay for women that desire to use their own tissue as a means of breast reconstruction after mastectomy. As the techniques have evolved, significant effort has been invested in finding the best means of minimizing morbidity to the abdominal donor site while ensuring a viable reconstructed breast that is aesthetically pleasing. This manuscript reviews and compares the muscle sparing free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (MsfTRAM), the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP), and the superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flaps, regarding flap success rate, operative times, abdominal donor site morbidity and residual functionality, hospital lengths of stay and associated costs, impact of co-morbid conditions, and resilience after adjuvant radiation treatment. PMID:26161306

  11. On the thermodynamics of smooth muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålhand, Jonas; McMeeking, Robert M.; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2016-09-01

    Cell function is based on many dynamically complex networks of interacting biochemical reactions. Enzymes may increase the rate of only those reactions that are thermodynamically consistent. In this paper we specifically treat the contraction of smooth muscle cells from the continuum thermodynamics point of view by considering them as an open system where matter passes through the cell membrane. We systematically set up a well-known four-state kinetic model for the cross-bridge interaction of actin and myosin in smooth muscle, where the transition between each state is driven by forward and reverse reactions. Chemical, mechanical and energy balance laws are provided in local forms, while energy balance is also formulated in the more convenient temperature form. We derive the local (non-negative) production of entropy from which we deduce the reduced entropy inequality and the constitutive equations for the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, the heat flux, the ion and molecular flux and the entropy. One example for smooth muscle contraction is analyzed in more detail in order to provide orientation within the established general thermodynamic framework. In particular the stress evolution, heat generation, muscle shorting rate and a condition for muscle cooling are derived.

  12. The Pilates Method increases respiratory muscle strength and performance as well as abdominal muscle thickness.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Mateus Beltrame; da Silva, Antônio Marcos Vargas; Weber, Laura Menezes; Monteiro, Mariane Borba

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the Pilates Method (PM) training program on the thickness of the abdominal wall muscles, respiratory muscle strength and performance, and lung function. This uncontrolled clinical trial involved 16 sedentary women who were assessed before and after eight weeks of PM training. The thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) muscles was assessed. The respiratory muscle strength was assessed by measuring the maximum inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressure. The lung function and respiratory muscle performance were assessed by spirometry. An increase was found in MIP (p = 0.001), MEP (p = 0.031), maximum voluntary ventilation (p = 0.020) and the TrA (p < 0.001), IO (p = 0.002) and EO (p < 0.001) thickness after the PM program. No alterations in lung function were found. These findings suggest that the PM program promotes abdominal wall muscle hypertrophy and an increase in respiratory muscle strength and performance, preventing weakness in abdominal muscles and dysfunction in ventilatory mechanics, which could favor the appearance of illnesses. PMID:27210841

  13. Poorly Understood Aspects of Striated Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Månsson, Alf

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contraction results from cyclic interactions between the contractile proteins myosin and actin, driven by the turnover of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Despite intense studies, several molecular events in the contraction process are poorly understood, including the relationship between force-generation and phosphate-release in the ATP-turnover. Different aspects of the force-generating transition are reflected in the changes in tension development by muscle cells, myofibrils and single molecules upon changes in temperature, altered phosphate concentration, or length perturbations. It has been notoriously difficult to explain all these events within a given theoretical framework and to unequivocally correlate observed events with the atomic structures of the myosin motor. Other incompletely understood issues include the role of the two heads of myosin II and structural changes in the actin filaments as well as the importance of the three-dimensional order. We here review these issues in relation to controversies regarding basic physiological properties of striated muscle. We also briefly consider actomyosin mutation effects in cardiac and skeletal muscle function and the possibility to treat these defects by drugs. PMID:25961006

  14. Active behavior of abdominal wall muscles: Experimental results and numerical model formulation.

    PubMed

    Grasa, J; Sierra, M; Lauzeral, N; Muñoz, M J; Miana-Mena, F J; Calvo, B

    2016-08-01

    In the present study a computational finite element technique is proposed to simulate the mechanical response of muscles in the abdominal wall. This technique considers the active behavior of the tissue taking into account both collagen and muscle fiber directions. In an attempt to obtain the computational response as close as possible to real muscles, the parameters needed to adjust the mathematical formulation were determined from in vitro experimental tests. Experiments were conducted on male New Zealand White rabbits (2047±34g) and the active properties of three different muscles: Rectus Abdominis, External Oblique and multi-layered samples formed by three muscles (External Oblique, Internal Oblique, and Transversus Abdominis) were characterized. The parameters obtained for each muscle were incorporated into a finite strain formulation to simulate active behavior of muscles incorporating the anisotropy of the tissue. The results show the potential of the model to predict the anisotropic behavior of the tissue associated to fibers and how this influences on the strain, stress and generated force during an isometric contraction. PMID:27111629

  15. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry of Pacific White Shrimp L. vannamei and identification of abdominal muscle proteins.

    PubMed

    Schey, Kevin L; Hachey, Amanda J; Rose, Kristie L; Grey, Angus C

    2016-06-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has been applied to whole animal tissue sections of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in an effort to identify and spatially localize proteins in specific organ systems. Frozen shrimp were sectioned along the ventral-dorsal axis and methods were optimized for matrix application. In addition, tissue microextraction and homogenization was conducted followed by top-down LC-MS/MS analysis of intact proteins and searches of shrimp EST databases to identify imaged proteins. IMS images revealed organ system specific protein signals that highlighted the hepatopancreas, heart, nervous system, musculature, and cuticle. Top-down proteomics identification of abdominal muscle proteins revealed the sequence of the most abundant muscle protein that has no sequence homology to known proteins. Additional identifications of abdominal muscle proteins included titin, troponin-I, ubiquitin, as well as intact and multiple truncated forms of flightin; a protein known to function in high frequency contraction of insect wing muscles. The combined use of imaging mass spectrometry and top-down proteomics allowed for identification of novel proteins from the sparsely populated shrimp protein databases. PMID:26990122

  16. Ecdysone signaling at metamorphosis triggers apoptosis of Drosophila abdominal muscles.

    PubMed

    Zirin, Jonathan; Cheng, Daojun; Dhanyasi, Nagaraju; Cho, Julio; Dura, Jean-Maurice; Vijayraghavan, Krishnaswamy; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-11-15

    One of the most dramatic examples of programmed cell death occurs during Drosophila metamorphosis, when most of the larval tissues are destroyed in a process termed histolysis. Much of our understanding of this process comes from analyses of salivary gland and midgut cell death. In contrast, relatively little is known about the degradation of the larval musculature. Here, we analyze the programmed destruction of the abdominal dorsal exterior oblique muscle (DEOM) which occurs during the first 24h of metamorphosis. We find that ecdysone signaling through Ecdysone receptor isoform B1 is required cell autonomously for the muscle death. Furthermore, we show that the orphan nuclear receptor FTZ-F1, opposed by another nuclear receptor, HR39, plays a critical role in the timing of DEOM histolysis. Finally, we show that unlike the histolysis of salivary gland and midgut, abdominal muscle death occurs by apoptosis, and does not require autophagy. Thus, there is no set rule as to the role of autophagy and apoptosis during Drosophila histolysis. PMID:24051228

  17. Ecdysone signaling at metamorphosis triggers apoptosis of Drosophila abdominal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Zirin, Jonathan; Cheng, Daojun; Dhanyasi, Nagaraju; Cho, Julio; Dura, Jean-Maurice; VijayRaghavan, Krishnaswamy; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    One of the most dramatic examples of programmed cell death occurs during Drosophila metamorphosis, when most of the larval tissues are destroyed in a process termed histolysis. Much of our understanding of this process comes from analyses of salivary gland and midgut cell death. In contrast, relatively little is known about the degradation of the larval musculature. Here, we analyze the programmed destruction of the abdominal dorsal exterior oblique muscle (DEOM) which occurs during the first 24 hrs of metamorphosis. We find that ecdysone signaling through Ecdysone receptor isoform B1 is required cell autonomously for the muscle death. Furthermore, we show that the orphan nuclear receptor FTZ-F1, opposed by another nuclear receptor, HR39, plays a critical role in the timing of DEOM histolysis. Finally, we show that unlike the histolysis of salivary gland and midgut, abdominal muscle death occurs by apoptosis, and does not require autophagy. Thus, there is no set rule as to the role of autophagy and apoptosis during Drosophila histolysis. PMID:24051228

  18. Flexing the abdominals: do bigger muscles make better fighters?

    PubMed

    Mowles, Sophie L; Cotton, Peter A; Briffa, Mark

    2011-06-23

    Animal contests often involve the use of repeated signals, which are assumed to advertise stamina, and hence fighting ability. While an individual may be predicted to give up once it has crossed an energetic threshold, costs inflicted by its opponent may also contribute to the giving-up decision. Therefore, physical strength should be of key importance in contests, allowing high signal magnitude as well as potentially inflicting costs. We investigated this using hermit crab shell fights, which employ a 'hybrid signal' of shell rapping, which advertises stamina but also imposes potentially deleterious consequences for the receiver. We examined the links between contest outcomes and two proxies for strength; the protein content and relative mass of hermit crab abdominal muscles, the main muscle group used in shell rapping. Our results indicate that there was no difference in muscle protein between winners and losers, whereas winners had significantly greater muscle mass : body mass ratios. Thus, while stamina has been assumed by theory to be an important determinant of agonistic success, the present results demonstrate the importance of muscle size and thereby strength. PMID:21247940

  19. Muscle contraction as a polymer-gel phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, Gerald H.

    1999-05-01

    In this paper I argue that the mechanism of muscle contraction is similar to the mechanism of contraction in most artificial muscles. Artificial muscles typically contract by a phase- transition. Muscle is thought to contract by a sliding- filament mechanism in which one set of filaments is driven past another by the action of cyclically rotating cross- bridges -- much like the mechanism of rowing. However, the evidence is equally consistent with a mechanism in which the filaments themselves contract, much like the collapse of polymers during a phase-transition. Muscle contains three principal polymer types, organized neatly within a framework. There is evidence that all three can contract. It appears that the relative contributions of each filament are designed to confer strength, speed and versatility on this natural machine. The principles of natural contraction may be useful in establishing optimal design principles for artificial muscles.

  20. Viscous properties of human muscle during contraction.

    PubMed

    Desplantez, A; Cornu, C; Goubel, F

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine viscous properties of human muscle during plantarflexion efforts. Experiments were performed on 17 subjects with an ankle ergometer allowing sinusoidal oscillations during isometric contractions and isokinetic movements. Sinusoidal oscillations led to the expression of (i) Bode diagrams of the musculo-articular system allowing the determination of a damping coefficient (Bbode); and (ii) a viscous coefficient (Bsin) using an adaptation of Hill's equation to sinusoidal oscillations. Isokinetic movements led to torque-velocity relationships. They showed a fall in torque associated to an increase in angular velocity what was quantified by calculating a damping coefficient (Biso). Both experiments gave consistent results indicating that Bbode was the lowest viscous parameter. This difference is discussed in terms of (i) "analog" viscosity originating from muscle cross-bridges; and (ii) real mechanical damping of passive structures. PMID:10332618

  1. Independent Active Contraction of Extraocular Muscle Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Demer, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Intramuscular innervation of horizontal rectus extraocular muscle (EOMs) is segregated into superior and inferior (transverse) compartments, whereas all EOMs are also divided into global (GL) and orbital (OL) layers with scleral and pulley insertions, respectively. Mechanical independence between both types of compartments has been demonstrated during passive tensile loading. We examined coupling between EOM compartments during active, ex vivo contraction. Methods. Fresh bovine EOMs were removed, and one compartment of each was coated with hydrophobic petrolatum. Contraction of the uncoated compartment was induced by immersion in a solution of 50 mM CaCl2 at 38°C labeled with sodium fluorescein dye, whereas tensions in both compartments were monitored by strain gauges. Control experiments omitted petrolatum so that the entire EOM contracted. After physiological experiments, EOMs were sectioned transversely to demonstrate specificity of CaCl2 permeation by yellow fluorescence dye excited by blue light. Results. In control experiments without petrolatum, both transverse and GL and OL compartments contracted similarly. Selective compartmental omission of petrolatum caused markedly independent compartmental contraction whether measured at the GL or the OL insertions or for transverse compartments at the scleral insertion. Although some CaCl2 spread occurred, mean (±SD) tension in the coated compartments averaged only 10.5 ± 3.3% and 6.0 ± 1.5% in GL/OL and transverse compartments, respectively relative to uncoated compartments. Fluorescein penetration confirmed selective CaCl2 permeation. Conclusions. These data confirm passive tensile findings of mechanical independence of EOM compartments and extend results to active contraction. EOMs behave actively as if composed of mechanically independent parallel fiber bundles having different insertional targets, consistent with the active pulley and transverse compartmental hypotheses. PMID:25503460

  2. Control of the lateral abdominal muscles during walking.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hai; Meijer, Onno G; Hodges, Paul W; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Strijers, Rob L; Nanayakkara, Prabath W B; van Royen, Barend J; Wu, Wen Hua; Xia, Chun; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2012-08-01

    Transversus abdominis (TA), obliquus internus (OI), and obliquus externus (OE) are involved in multiple functions: breathing, control of trunk orientation, and stabilization of the pelvis and spine. How these functions are coordinated has received limited attention. We studied electromyographic (EMG) activity of right-sided muscles and 3-dimensional moments during treadmill walking at six different speeds (1.4-5.4 km/h) in sixteen healthy young women. PCA revealed time series of trunk moments to be consistent across speeds and subjects though somewhat less in the sagittal plane. All three muscles were active during ≥75% of the stride cycle, indicative of a stabilizing function. Clear phasic modulations were observed, with TA more active during ipsilateral, and OE during contralateral swing, while OI activity was largely symmetrical. Fourier analysis revealed four main frequencies in muscle activity: respiration, stride frequency, step frequency, and a triphasic pattern. With increasing speed, the absolute power of all frequencies remained constant or increased; the relative power of respiration and stride-related activities decreased, while that of step-related activity and the triphasic pattern increased. Effects of speed were gradual, and EMG linear envelopes had considerable common variance (>70%) across speeds within subjects, suggesting that the same functions were performed at all speeds. Maximum cross-correlations between moments and muscle activity were 0.2-0.6, and further analyses in the time domain revealed both simultaneous and consecutive task execution. To deal with conflicting constraints, the activity of the three muscles was clearly coordinated, with co-contraction of antagonists to offset unwanted mechanical side-effects of each individual muscle. PMID:22119422

  3. Nox regulation of smooth muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Ritsick, Darren R.; Edens, William A.; Finnerty, Victoria; Lambeth, J. David

    2007-01-01

    The catalytic subunit, gp91phox (a.k.a., Nox2) of the NADPH-oxidase of mammalian phagocytes is activated by microbes and immune mediators to produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which participate in microbial killing. Homologs of gp91phox, the Nox and Duox enzymes, were recently described in a range of organisms, including plants, vertebrates, and invertebrates such as Drosophila melanogaster. While their enzymology and cell biology is being extensively studied in many laboratories, little is known about in vivo functions of Noxes. Here, we establish and use an inducible system for RNAi to discover functions of dNox, an ortholog of human Nox5 in Drosophila. We report here that depletion of dNox in musculature causes retention of mature eggs within ovaries, leading to female sterility. In dNox-depleted ovaries and ovaries treated with a Nox inhibitor, muscular contractions induced by the neuropeptide proctolin are markedly inhibited. This functional defect results from a requirement for dNox for the proctolin-induced calcium flux in Drosophila ovaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate a novel biological role for Nox-generated ROS in mediating agonist-induced calcium flux and smooth muscle contraction. PMID:17561091

  4. The comparison of abdominal muscle activation on unstable surface according to the different trunk stability exercises

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-seok; Kim, Da-yeon; Kim, Tae-ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of abdominal muscle activities and the activation ratio related to trunk stabilization to compare the effects between the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and lumbar stabilization exercises on an unstable base of support. [Subjects and Methods] Study subjects were 20 male and 10 female adults in their 20s without lumbar pain, who were equally and randomly assigned to either the abdominal drawing-in maneuver group and the lumbar stabilization exercise group. Abdominal muscle activation and ratio was measured using a wireless TeleMyo DTS during right leg raise exercises while sitting on a Swiss ball. [Results] Differences in rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominis, and internal oblique abdominis muscle activation were observed before and after treatment. Significant differences were observed between the groups in the muscle activation of the external oblique abdominis and internal oblique abdominis, and the muscle activation ratio of external oblique abdominis/rectus abdominis and internal oblique abdominis/rectus abdominis. [Conclusion] Consequently trunk stability exercise enhances internal oblique abdominis activity and increases trunk stabilization. In addition, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver facilitates the deep muscle more than LSE in abdominal muscle. Therefore, abdominal drawing-in maneuver is more effective than lumbar stabilization exercises in facilitating trunk stabilization. PMID:27134401

  5. Contributions of Central Command and Muscle Feedback to Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Contracting Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Boulton, Daniel; Taylor, Chloe E.; Macefield, Vaughan G.; Green, Simon

    2016-01-01

    During voluntary contractions, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) to contracting muscles increases in proportion to force but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. To shed light on these mechanisms, particularly the influences of central command and muscle afferent feedback, the present study tested the hypothesis that MSNA is greater during voluntary compared with electrically-evoked contractions. Seven male subjects performed a series of 1-min isometric dorsiflexion contractions (left leg) separated by 2-min rest periods, alternating between voluntary and electrically-evoked contractions at similar forces (5–10% of maximum). MSNA was recorded continuously (microneurography) from the left peroneal nerve and quantified from cardiac-synchronized, negative-going spikes in the neurogram. Compared with pre-contraction values, MSNA increased by 51 ± 34% (P < 0.01) during voluntary contractions but did not change significantly during electrically-evoked contractions (−8 ± 12%, P > 0.05). MSNA analyzed at 15-s intervals revealed that this effect of voluntary contraction appeared 15–30 s after contraction onset (P < 0.01), remained elevated until the end of contraction, and disappeared within 15 s after contraction. These findings suggest that central command, and not feedback from contracting muscle, is the primary mechanism responsible for the increase in MSNA to contracting muscle. The time-course of MSNA suggests that there is a longer delay in the onset of this effect compared with its cessation after contraction. PMID:27242537

  6. Contributions of Central Command and Muscle Feedback to Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Contracting Human Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Daniel; Taylor, Chloe E; Macefield, Vaughan G; Green, Simon

    2016-01-01

    During voluntary contractions, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) to contracting muscles increases in proportion to force but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. To shed light on these mechanisms, particularly the influences of central command and muscle afferent feedback, the present study tested the hypothesis that MSNA is greater during voluntary compared with electrically-evoked contractions. Seven male subjects performed a series of 1-min isometric dorsiflexion contractions (left leg) separated by 2-min rest periods, alternating between voluntary and electrically-evoked contractions at similar forces (5-10% of maximum). MSNA was recorded continuously (microneurography) from the left peroneal nerve and quantified from cardiac-synchronized, negative-going spikes in the neurogram. Compared with pre-contraction values, MSNA increased by 51 ± 34% (P < 0.01) during voluntary contractions but did not change significantly during electrically-evoked contractions (-8 ± 12%, P > 0.05). MSNA analyzed at 15-s intervals revealed that this effect of voluntary contraction appeared 15-30 s after contraction onset (P < 0.01), remained elevated until the end of contraction, and disappeared within 15 s after contraction. These findings suggest that central command, and not feedback from contracting muscle, is the primary mechanism responsible for the increase in MSNA to contracting muscle. The time-course of MSNA suggests that there is a longer delay in the onset of this effect compared with its cessation after contraction. PMID:27242537

  7. Muscle contraction increases carnitine uptake via translocation of OCTN2

    SciTech Connect

    Furuichi, Yasuro; Sugiura, Tomoko; Kato, Yukio; Takakura, Hisashi; Hanai, Yoshiteru; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Masuda, Kazumi

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscle contraction augmented carnitine uptake into rat hindlimb muscles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An increase in carnitine uptake was due to an intrinsic clearance, not blood flow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Histochemical analysis showed sarcolemmal OCTN2 was emphasized after contraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OCTN2 protein in sarcolemmal fraction was increased in contracting muscles. -- Abstract: Since carnitine plays an important role in fat oxidation, influx of carnitine could be crucial for muscle metabolism. OCTN2 (SLC22A5), a sodium-dependent solute carrier, is assumed to transport carnitine into skeletal muscle cells. Acute regulation of OCTN2 activity in rat hindlimb muscles was investigated in response to electrically induced contractile activity. The tissue uptake clearance (CL{sub uptake}) of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine during muscle contraction was examined in vivo using integration plot analysis. The CL{sub uptake} of [{sup 14}C]iodoantipyrine (IAP) was also determined as an index of tissue blood flow. To test the hypothesis that increased carnitine uptake involves the translocation of OCTN2, contraction-induced alteration in the subcellular localization of OCTN2 was examined. The CL{sub uptake} of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine in the contracting muscles increased 1.4-1.7-fold as compared to that in the contralateral resting muscles (p < 0.05). The CL{sub uptake} of [{sup 14}C]IAP was much higher than that of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine, but no association between the increase in carnitine uptake and blood flow was obtained. Co-immunostaining of OCTN2 and dystrophin (a muscle plasma membrane marker) showed an increase in OCTN2 signal in the plasma membrane after muscle contraction. Western blotting showed that the level of sarcolemmal OCTN2 was greater in contracting muscles than in resting muscles (p < 0.05). The present study showed that muscle contraction facilitated carnitine uptake in skeletal muscles, possibly

  8. The abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre for detecting activity in the deep abdominal muscles: is this clinical tool reliable and valid?

    PubMed Central

    Kaping, Karsten; Äng, Björn O; Rasmussen-Barr, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objective The abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) is a common clinical tool for manually assessing whether a preferential activation of the deep abdominal muscles in patients with low back pain (LBP) is ‘correct’ or not. The validity and reliability of manual assessment of the ADIM are, however, as yet unknown. This study evaluated the concurrent and discriminative validity and reliability of the manually assessed ADIM. Design Single-blinded cross-sectional study. Settings General population in Stockholm County, Sweden. Participants The study sample comprised 38 participants seeking care for LBP, and 15 healthy subjects. Measures The manual ADIM was assessed as correct or not following a standard procedure. Ultrasound imaging (USI) was used as the concurrent reference (gold standard) for the manually assessed ADIM by calculating a ratio of the change in muscle thickness between the resting and the contracted states: the correlation between manual test and USI was calculated. Discriminative validity was analysed by calculating sensitivity and specificity. A sample of 24 participants was analysed with κ coefficients for interobserver reliability between two raters. Results The concurrent validity between the manual ADIM and the ADIM–USI ratios showed poor correlations (r=0.13–0.40). The discriminative validity of the manually assessed ADIM to predict LBP showed a sensitivity/specificity of 0.30/0.73, while the ADIM–USI ratio to predict LBP showed 0.19/0.87. The interobserver reliability for the manually assessed ADIM revealed substantial agreement: K=0.71, CI (95%) 0.41 to 1.00. Conclusions Although the interobserver reliability of the manually assessed ADIM was high, the concurrent and discriminative validity were both low for examining the preferential activity of the deep abdominal muscles. Neither the manually assessed ADIM nor the ultrasound testing discriminated between participants with LBP and healthy subjects regarding preferential activity of

  9. Work done by titin protein folding assists muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Popa, Ionel; Kosuri, Pallav; Linke, Wolfgang A.; Fernández, Julio M.

    2016-01-01

    Current theories of muscle contraction propose that the power stroke of a myosin motor is the sole source of mechanical energy driving the sliding filaments of a contracting muscle. These models exclude titin, the largest protein in the human body, which determines the passive elasticity of muscles. Here, we show that stepwise unfolding/folding of titin Ig domains occurs in the elastic I band region of intact myofibrils at physiological sarcomere lengths and forces of 6-8 pN. We use single molecule techniques to demonstrate that unfolded titin Ig domains undergo a spontaneous stepwise folding contraction at forces below 10 pN, delivering up to 105 zJ of additional contractile energy, which is larger than the mechanical energy delivered by the power stroke of a myosin motor. Thus, it appears inescapable that folding of titin Ig domains is an important, but so far unrecognized contributor to the force generated by a contracting muscle. PMID:26854230

  10. Sepsis attenuates the anabolic response to skeletal muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Jennifer L.; Lang, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Electrically stimulated muscle contraction is a potential clinical therapy to treat sepsis-induced myopathy; however, whether sepsis alters contraction-induced anabolic signaling is unknown. Polymicrobial peritonitis was produced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in male C57BL/6 mice and time-matched, pair-fed controls (CON). At ~24 h post-CLP, the right hindlimb was electrically stimulated via the sciatic nerve to evoke maximal muscle contractions and the gastrocnemius was collected 2 h later. Protein synthesis was increased by muscle contraction in CON mice. Sepsis suppressed the rate of synthesis in both the non-stimulated (31%) and stimulated (57%) muscle versus CON. Contraction of muscle in CON mice increased the phosphorylation of mTORC1 substrates S6K1 Thr389 (8-fold), S6K1 Thr421/Ser424 (7-fold) and 4E-BP1 Ser65 (11-fold). Sepsis blunted the contraction-induced phosphorylation of S6K1 Thr389 (67%), S6K1 Thr421/Ser424 (46%) and 4E-BP1 Ser65 (85%). Conversely, sepsis did not appear to modulate protein elongation as eEF2 Thr56 phosphorylation was decreased similarly by muscle contraction in both groups. MAPK signaling was discordant following muscle contraction in septic muscle; phosphorylation of ERK Thr202/Tyr204 and p38 Thr180/Tyr182 was increased similarly in both CON and CLP mice while sepsis prevented the contraction-induced phosphorylation of JNK Thr183/Tyr185 and c-JUN Ser63. The expression of IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA in muscle was increased by sepsis, and contraction increased TNF-α to a greater extent in muscle from septic than CON mice. Injection of the mTOR inhibitor Torin2 in separate mice confirmed that contraction-induced increases in S6K1 and 4E-BP1 were mTOR-mediated. These findings demonstrate that resistance to contraction-induced anabolic signaling occurs during sepsis and is predominantly mTORC1-dependent. PMID:25423127

  11. Physiological response to submaximal isometric contractions of the paravertebral muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. R.; Jorgensen, K.; Hargens, A. R.; Nielsen, P. K.; Nicolaisen, T.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Brief (30-second) isometric trunk extensions at 5%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and 3 minutes of prolonged trunk extension (20% MVC) in erect position were studied in nine healthy male subjects. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the intercorrelation between intramuscular pressure and tissue oxygenation of the paravertebral muscles during submaximal isometric contractions and further, to evaluate paravertebral electromyogram and intramuscular pressure as indicators of force development. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Local physiologic responses to muscle contraction are incompletely understood. METHODS: Relative oxygenation was monitored with noninvasive near-infrared spectroscopy, intramuscular pressure was measured with a transducer-tipped catheter, and surface electromyogram was monitored at three recording sites. RESULTS: The root mean square amplitudes of the paravertebral electromyogram (L4, left and right; T12, right) and intramuscular pressure measured in the lumbar multifidus muscle at L4 increased with greater force development in a curvilinear manner. A significant decrease in the oxygenation of the lumbar paravertebral muscle in response to muscle contraction was found at an initial contraction level of 20% MVC. This corresponded to a paravertebral intramuscular pressure of 30-40 mm Hg. However, during prolonged trunk extension, no further decrease in tissue oxygenation was found compared with the tissue oxygenation level at the end of the brief contractions, indicating that homeostatic adjustments (mean blood pressure and heart rate) over time were sufficient to maintain paravertebral muscle oxygen levels. CONCLUSION: At a threshold intramuscular pressure of 30-40 mm Hg during muscle contraction, oxygenation in the paravertebral muscles is significantly reduced. The effect of further increase in intramuscular pressure on tissue oxygenation over time may be compensated for by an increase in blood pressure and heart

  12. Endurance training facilitates myoglobin desaturation during muscle contraction in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Takakura, Hisashi; Furuichi, Yasuro; Yamada, Tatsuya; Jue, Thomas; Ojino, Minoru; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Iwase, Satoshi; Hojo, Tatsuya; Izawa, Tetsuya; Masuda, Kazumi

    2015-01-01

    At onset of muscle contraction, myoglobin (Mb) immediately releases its bound O2 to the mitochondria. Accordingly, intracellular O2 tension (PmbO2) markedly declines in order to increase muscle O2 uptake (mO2). However, whether the change in PmbO2 during muscle contraction modulates mO2 and whether the O2 release rate from Mb increases in endurance-trained muscles remain unclear. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to determine the effect of endurance training on O2 saturation of Mb (SmbO2) and PmbO2 kinetics during muscle contraction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a 4-week swimming training (Tr group; 6 days per week, 30 min × 4 sets per day) with a weight load of 2% body mass. After the training period, deoxygenated Mb kinetics during muscle contraction were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy under hemoglobin-free medium perfusion. In the Tr group, the mO2peak significantly increased by 32%. Although the PmbO2 during muscle contraction did not affect the increased mO2 in endurance-trained muscle, the O2 release rate from Mb increased because of the increased Mb concentration and faster decremental rate in SmbO2 at the maximal twitch tension. These results suggest that the Mb dynamics during muscle contraction are contributing factors to faster O2 kinetics in endurance-trained muscle. PMID:25801957

  13. Endurance training facilitates myoglobin desaturation during muscle contraction in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Hisashi; Furuichi, Yasuro; Yamada, Tatsuya; Jue, Thomas; Ojino, Minoru; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Iwase, Satoshi; Hojo, Tatsuya; Izawa, Tetsuya; Masuda, Kazumi

    2015-01-01

    At onset of muscle contraction, myoglobin (Mb) immediately releases its bound O2 to the mitochondria. Accordingly, intracellular O2 tension (PmbO2) markedly declines in order to increase muscle O2 uptake (mVO2). However, whether the change in PmbO2 during muscle contraction modulates mVO2 and whether the O2 release rate from Mb increases in endurance-trained muscles remain unclear. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to determine the effect of endurance training on O2 saturation of Mb (SmbO2) and PmbO2 kinetics during muscle contraction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a 4-week swimming training (Tr group; 6 days per week, 30 min × 4 sets per day) with a weight load of 2% body mass. After the training period, deoxygenated Mb kinetics during muscle contraction were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy under hemoglobin-free medium perfusion. In the Tr group, the VmO2peak significantly increased by 32%. Although the PmbO2 during muscle contraction did not affect the increased mVO2 in endurance-trained muscle, the O2 release rate from Mb increased because of the increased Mb concentration and faster decremental rate in SmbO2 at the maximal twitch tension. These results suggest that the Mb dynamics during muscle contraction are contributing factors to faster VO2 kinetics in endurance-trained muscle. PMID:25801957

  14. Determinants of aponeurosis shape change during muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Christopher J; Gidmark, Nicholas J; Konow, Nicolai; Azizi, Emanuel; Roberts, Thomas J

    2016-06-14

    Aponeuroses are sheet-like elastic tendon structures that cover a portion of the muscle belly and act as insertion sites for muscle fibers while free tendons connect muscles to bones. During shortening contractions, free tendons are loaded in tension and lengthen due to the force acting longitudinally along the muscle׳s line of action. In contrast, aponeuroses increase in length and width, suggesting that aponeuroses are loaded in directions along and orthogonal to the muscle׳s line of action. Because muscle fibers are isovolumetric, they must expand radially as they shorten, potentially generating a force that increases aponeurosis width. We hypothesized that increases in aponeurosis width result from radial expansion of shortening muscle fibers. We tested this hypothesis by combining in situ muscle-tendon measurements with high-speed biplanar fluoroscopy measurements of the turkey׳s lateral gastrocnemius (n=6) at varying levels of isotonic muscle contractions. The change in aponeurosis width during periods of constant force depended on both the amount of muscle shortening and the magnitude of force production. At low to intermediate forces, aponeurosis width increased in direct proportion to fiber shortening. At high forces, aponeurosis width increased to a lesser extent or in some cases, decreased slightly during fiber shortening. Our results demonstrate that forces generated from radial expansion of shortening muscle fibers tend to drive increases in aponeurosis width, whereas longitudinal forces tend to decrease aponeurosis width. Ultimately, it is these two opposing forces that drive changes in aponeurosis width and alter series elastic stiffness during a muscle contraction. PMID:27155748

  15. The preferential contraction ratios of transversus abdominis on the variations of knee angles during abdominal drawing-in maneuver in wall support standing

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Young-In; Kim, Jwa-Jun; Park, Du-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine appropriate knee angles for the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) through evaluation of changes in contraction ratios of the abdominal muscles and activity of quadriceps muscle in relation to changes in knee angles occurring while the ADIM is performed in the wall support standing (WSS). 20 subjects performed the ADIM at different knee angles (0°, 20°, 40°, 60°) in random order, standing at a point 6 inches away from the wall with the spine maintained in the neutral position. The WSS with knee flexion at 20° showed significantly higher preferential contraction ratio (PCR) of transversus abdominis (TrA) compared to other positions (0°, 40°, 60°). Therefore, performing the ADIM in the WSS with knee flexion at 20° appears to be the most appropriate position for TrA PCR. PMID:24877045

  16. Study on contraction and relaxation of experimentally denervated and immobilized muscles: Comparison with dystrophic muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takamori, M.; Tsujihata, M.; Mori, M.; Hazama, R.; Ide, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The contraction-relaxation mechanism of experimentally denervated and immobilized muscles of the rabbit is examined. Results are compared with those of human dystrophic muscles, in order to elucidate the role and extent of the neurotrophic factor, and the role played by the intrinsic activity of muscle in connection with pathogenesis and pathophysiology of this disease.

  17. Forearm muscle oxygenation decreases with low levels of voluntary contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Rempel, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to determine if the near infrared spectroscopy technique was sensitive to changes in tissue oxygenation at low levels of isometric contraction in the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle. Nine subjects were seated with the right arm abducted to 45 degrees, elbow flexed to 85 degrees, forearm pronated 45 degrees, and wrist and forearm supported on an armrest throughout the protocol. Altered tissue oxygenation was measured noninvasively with near infrared spectroscopy. The near infrared spectroscopy probe was placed over the extensor carpi radialis brevis of the subject's right forearm and secured with an elastic wrap. After 1 minute of baseline measurements taken with the muscle relaxed, four different loads were applied just proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joint such that the subjects isometrically contracted the extensor carpi radialis brevis at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction for 1 minute each. A 3-minute recovery period followed each level of contraction. At the end of the protocol, with the probe still in place, a value for ischemic tissue oxygenation was obtained for each subject. This value was considered the physiological zero and hence 0% tissue oxygenation. Mean tissue oxygenation (+/-SE) decreased from resting baseline (100% tissue oxygenation) to 89 +/- 4, 81 +/- 8, 78 +/- 8, and 47 +/- 8% at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction, respectively. Tissue oxygenation levels at 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the baseline value. Our results indicate that tissue oxygenation significantly decreases during brief, low levels of static muscle contraction and that near infrared spectroscopy is a sensitive technique for detecting deoxygenation noninvasively at low levels of forearm muscle contraction. Our findings have important implications in occupational medicine because oxygen depletion induced by low levels of muscle

  18. Training through gametherapy promotes coactivation of the pelvic floor and abdominal muscles in young women, nulliparous and continents

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Valeria Regina; Riccetto, Cássio; Martinho, Natalia Miguel; Marques, Joseane; Carvalho, Leonardo Cesar; Botelho, Simone

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction and objectives: Several studies have been investigated co-activation can enhance the effectveness of PFM training protocols allowing preventive and therapeutic goals in pelvic floor dysfunctions. The objective of the present study was to investigate if an abdominal-pelvic protocol of training (APT) using gametherapy would allow co-activation of PFM and transversus abdominis/oblique internal (TrA/OI) muscles. Patients and methods: Twenty-five nulliparous, continent, young females, with median age 24.76 (±3.76) years were evaluated using digital palpation (DP) of PFM and surface electromyography of PFM and TrA/OI simultaneously, during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), alternating PFM and TrA/OI contraction requests. All women participated on a supervised program of APT using gametherapy, that included exercises of pelvic mobilization associated to contraction of TrA/OI muscles oriented by virtual games, for 30 minutes, three times a week, in a total of 10 sessions. Electromyographic data were processed and analyzed by ANOVA - analysis of variance. Results: When MVC of TrA/OI was solicited, it was observed simultaneous increase of electromyographic activity of PFM (p=0.001) following ATP. However, EMG activity did not change significantly during MVC of PFM. Conclusion: Training using gametherapy allowed better co-activation of pelvic floor muscles in response to contraction of TrA, in young nulliparous and continent women. PMID:27564290

  19. Muscle contraction and polymer-gel phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, Gerald H.

    2000-06-01

    Artificial muscles typically contrast by a phase-transition. Muscle is thought to contract by a different mechanism - a filament-sliding mechanism in which one set of filaments is driven past another by the action of cyclically rotating cross-bridges. The concept is much like the mechanism of rowing. The evidence, however, is equally consistent with a mechanism in which the filaments themselves contract, much like the condensation of polymers during a phase-transition. Muscle contains three principal polymer types organized neatly into a characteristic framework All three polymers can shorten. The contributions of each filament may be designed to confer versatility, as well as sped and strength, on this biological machine. The principles of natural contraction may be useful in establishing optimal design principles for artificial muscles.

  20. Diaphragmatic lymphatic vessel behavior during local skeletal muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Moriondo, Andrea; Solari, Eleonora; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism through which the stresses developed in the diaphragmatic tissue during skeletal muscle contraction sustain local lymphatic function was studied in 10 deeply anesthetized, tracheotomized adult Wistar rats whose diaphragm was exposed after thoracotomy. To evaluate the direct effect of skeletal muscle contraction on the hydraulic intraluminal lymphatic pressures (Plymph) and lymphatic vessel geometry, the maximal contraction of diaphragmatic fibers adjacent to a lymphatic vessel was elicited by injection of 9.2 nl of 1 M KCl solution among diaphragmatic fibers while Plymph was recorded through micropuncture and vessel geometry via stereomicroscopy video recording. In lymphatics oriented perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of muscle fibers and located at <300 μm from KCl injection, vessel diameter at maximal skeletal muscle contraction (Dmc) decreased to 61.3 ± 1.4% of the precontraction value [resting diameter (Drest)]; however, if injection was at >900 μm from the vessel, Dmc enlarged to 131.1 ± 2.3% of Drest. In vessels parallel to muscle fibers, Dmc increased to 122.8 ± 2.9% of Drest. During contraction, Plymph decreased as much as 22.5 ± 2.6 cmH2O in all submesothelial superficial vessels, whereas it increased by 10.7 ± 5.1 cmH2O in deeper vessels running perpendicular to contracting muscle fibers. Hence, the three-dimensional arrangement of the diaphragmatic lymphatic network seems to be finalized to efficiently exploit the stresses exerted by muscle fibers during the contracting inspiratory phase to promote lymph formation in superficial submesothelial lymphatics and its further propulsion in deeper intramuscular vessels. PMID:25485903

  1. Comparison of Abdominal Muscle Activity in Relation to Knee Angles during Abdominal Drawing-in Exercises Using Pressure Biofeedback

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun-Cheol; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Kim, Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The leg angles that are the most effective for abdominal muscle activation were investigated by performing abdominal drawing-in exercises at different leg angles with a biofeedback pressure unit. [Methods] Subjects were asked to adopt a supine position, and the tip of the biofeedback pressure unit was placed under the posterior superior iliac spine. Then, the pressure was adjusted to 40 mmHg while referring to the pressure gauge connected to the biofeedback pressure unit. Subjects were instructed to increase the pressure by 10 mmHg using the drawing-in technique upon the oral instruction, “Start,” and to maintain the drawn-in state. The time during which the pressure was maintained within an error range of ±1–2mmHg was measured in seconds. [Result] During the abdominal drawing-in exercises, the activity of the rectus abdominis, the internal and external obliques, and the transverse abdominis increased as the knee joint flexion angle increased from 45° to 120°. [Conclusion] When trunk stabilization exercises are performed at the same pressure to reduce damage after the acute phase of low back pain, trunk muscle strength can be efficiently increased by increasing the knee joint angle gradually, while performing abdominal drawing-in exercises with a biofeedback pressure unit. PMID:24259770

  2. The compliance of contracting skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Bressler, B. H.; Clinch, N. F.

    1974-01-01

    1. The method of controlled releases was used to obtain tension—extension curves in toad (Bufo bufo) sartorii under a variety of conditions at 0° C. 2. The curves obtained were approximately linear over a considerable range of force (0·4P0 to P0) if the releases were given from the plateau of tetanic tension. The slope of this linear region was little affected by changes of release velocity in the range 10-120 mm/sec. 3. Such changes as did occur with alterations in release velocity could be quantitatively accounted for in terms of the internal shortening predicted by A. V. Hill's two-component model. 4. As the muscles were stretched above l0, we found that the maximum stiffness of the tetanized muscles fell in much the same way as the maximum developed force, P0. 5. In another series of experiments we found a rapid change in the overall shape of the tension—extension curve during the early phase of force development in an isometric tetanus. The stiffness of the muscle increased with increasing developed force during this period. 6. The force—velocity curve in these muscles was measured by two methods, both giving a similar result. Surprisingly, toad muscle appears to have about the same intrinsic speed as frog muscle at 0° C. The a.b product from our experiments is considerably greater than the reported values for the maintenance heat rate at 0° C in these muscles. 7. The probable site of the variable compliance in active muscle is discussed. It seems most likely that this is within the A-band, perhaps in the cross-bridges themselves. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:4207658

  3. Ciliary muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity during manual tracking of a moving visual target.

    PubMed

    Domkin, Dmitry; Forsman, Mikael; Richter, Hans O

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown an association of visual demands during near work and increased activity of the trapezius muscle. Those studies were conducted under stationary postural conditions with fixed gaze and artificial visual load. The present study investigated the relationship between ciliary muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity across individuals during performance of a natural dynamic motor task under free gaze conditions. Participants (N=11) tracked a moving visual target with a digital pen on a computer screen. Tracking performance, eye refraction and trapezius muscle activity were continuously measured. Ciliary muscle contraction force was computed from eye accommodative response. There was a significant Pearson correlation between ciliary muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity on the tracking side (0.78, p<0.01) and passive side (0.64, p<0.05). The study supports the hypothesis that high visual demands, leading to an increased ciliary muscle contraction during continuous eye-hand coordination, may increase trapezius muscle tension and thus contribute to the development of musculoskeletal complaints in the neck-shoulder area. Further experimental studies are required to clarify whether the relationship is valid within each individual or may represent a general personal trait, when individuals with higher eye accommodative response tend to have higher trapezius muscle activity. PMID:26746010

  4. Physiological role of carnosine in contracting muscle.

    PubMed

    Begum, Gulshanara; Cunliffe, Adam; Leveritt, Michael

    2005-10-01

    High-intensity exercise leads to reductions in muscle substrates (ATP, PCr6, and glycogen) and a subsequent accumulation of metabolites (ADP, P, H(+), and Mg(+)) with a possible increase in free radical production. These factors independently and collectively have deleterious effects on muscle, with significant repercussions on high-intensity performance or training sessions. The effect of carnosine on overcoming muscle fatigue appears to be related to its ability to buffer the increased H(+) concentration following high-intensity work. Carnosine, however, has other roles such as an antioxidant, a metal chelator, a Ca(2+) and enzyme regulator, an inhibitor of protein glycosylation and protein-protein cross-linking. To date7comma; only 1 study has investigated the effects of carnosine supplementation (not in pure form) on exercise performance in human subjects and found no improvement in repetitive high-intensity work. Much data has come from in vitro work on animal skeletal muscle fibers or other components of muscle contractile mechanisms. Thus further research needs to be carried out on humans to provide additional understanding on the effects of carnosine in vivo. PMID:16327029

  5. Two-wave model of the muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Molski, Marcin

    2009-05-01

    The Matsuno model of the muscle contraction is considered in the framework of the two-wave Corben's theory of composite objects built up of both time- and space-like components. It has been proved that during muscle contraction the locally coherent aggregates distributed along the actin filament interact by means of space-like fields, which are solutions of the relativistic Feinberg equation. The existence of such interactions and lack of decoherence are conditions sine qua non for appearance of the quantum entanglement between actin monomers in an ATP-activated filament. A possible role of a quantum potential in the muscle contraction is discussed and the mass of the carrier of space-like interactions is estimated m0' = 7.3 x 10(-32) g (46 eV). PMID:19428979

  6. Control of abdominal muscles by brain stem respiratory neurons in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Alan D.; Ezure, Kazuhisa; Suzuki, Ichiro

    1985-01-01

    The nature of the control of abdominal muscles by the brain stem respiratory neurons was investigated in decerebrate unanesthetized cats. First, it was determined which of the brain stem respiratory neurons project to the lumbar cord (from which the abdominal muscles receive part of their innervation), by stimulating the neurons monopolarly. In a second part of the study, it was determined if lumbar-projecting respiratory neurons make monosynaptic connections with abdominal motoneurons; in these experiments, discriminate spontaneous spikes of antidromically acivated expiratory (E) neurons were used to trigger activity from both L1 and L2 nerves. A large projection was observed from E neurons in the caudal ventral respiratory group to the contralateral upper lumber cord. However, cross-correlation experiments found only two (out of 47 neuron pairs tested) strong monosynaptic connections between brain stem neurons and abdominal motoneurons.

  7. Influence of exercise training on the oxidative capacity of rat abdominal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uribe, J. M.; Stump, C. S.; Tipton, C. M.; Fregosi, R. F.

    1992-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine if endurance exercise training would increase the oxidative capacity of the abdominal expiratory muscles of the rat. Accordingly, 9 male rats were subjected to an endurance training protocol (1 h/day, 6 days/week, 9 weeks) and 9 litter-mates served as controls. Citrate synthase (CS) activity was used as an index of oxidative capacity, and was determined in the following muscles: soleus, plantaris, costal diaphragm, crural diaphragm, and in all four abdominal muscles: rectus abdominis, transversus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique. Compared to their non-trained litter-mates, the trained rats had higher peak whole body oxygen consumption rates (+ 16%) and CS activities in plantaris (+34%) and soleus (+36%) muscles. Thus, the training program caused substantial systemic and locomotor muscle adaptations. The CS activity of costal diaphragm was 20% greater in the trained animals, but no difference was observed in crural diaphragm. The CS activity in the abdominal muscles was less than one-half of that in locomotor and diaphragm muscles, and there were no significant changes with training except in the rectus abdominis where a 26% increase was observed. The increase in rectus abdominis CS activity may reflect its role in postural support and/or locomotion, as none of the primary expiratory pumping muscles adapted to the training protocol. The relatively low levels of CS activity in the abdominal muscles suggests that they are not recruited frequently at rest, and the lack of an increase with training indicates that these muscles do not contribute significantly to the increased ventilatory activity accompanying exercise in the rat.

  8. Direct optical activation of skeletal muscle fibres efficiently controls muscle contraction and attenuates denervation atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Magown, Philippe; Shettar, Basavaraj; Zhang, Ying; Rafuse, Victor F.

    2015-01-01

    Neural prostheses can restore meaningful function to paralysed muscles by electrically stimulating innervating motor axons, but fail when muscles are completely denervated, as seen in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or after a peripheral nerve or spinal cord injury. Here we show that channelrhodopsin-2 is expressed within the sarcolemma and T-tubules of skeletal muscle fibres in transgenic mice. This expression pattern allows for optical control of muscle contraction with comparable forces to nerve stimulation. Force can be controlled by varying light pulse intensity, duration or frequency. Light-stimulated muscle fibres depolarize proportionally to light intensity and duration. Denervated triceps surae muscles transcutaneously stimulated optically on a daily basis for 10 days show a significant attenuation in atrophy resulting in significantly greater contractile forces compared with chronically denervated muscles. Together, this study shows that channelrhodopsin-2/H134R can be used to restore function to permanently denervated muscles and reduce pathophysiological changes associated with denervation pathologies. PMID:26460719

  9. Tomographic elastography of contracting skeletal muscles from their natural vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Karim G.; Archer, Akibi

    2009-11-01

    Conventional elastography techniques require an external mechanical or radiation excitation to measure noninvasively the viscoelastic properties of skeletal muscles and thus monitor human motor functions. We developed instead a passive elastography technique using only an array of skin-mounted accelerometers to record the low-frequency vibrations of the biceps brachii muscle naturally generated during voluntary contractions and to determine their two-dimensional directionality. Cross-correlating these recordings provided travel-times measurements of these muscle vibrations between multiple sensor pairs. Travel-time tomographic inversions yielded spatial variations of their propagation velocity during isometric elbow flexions which indicated a nonuniform longitudinal stiffening of the biceps.

  10. Improved Cell Culture Method for Growing Contracting Skeletal Muscle Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquette, Michele L.; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2013-01-01

    An improved method for culturing immature muscle cells (myoblasts) into a mature skeletal muscle overcomes some of the notable limitations of prior culture methods. The development of the method is a major advance in tissue engineering in that, for the first time, a cell-based model spontaneously fuses and differentiates into masses of highly aligned, contracting myotubes. This method enables (1) the construction of improved two-dimensional (monolayer) skeletal muscle test beds; (2) development of contracting three-dimensional tissue models; and (3) improved transplantable tissues for biomedical and regenerative medicine applications. With adaptation, this method also offers potential application for production of other tissue types (i.e., bone and cardiac) from corresponding precursor cells.

  11. Membrane currents that govern smooth muscle contraction in a ctenophore.

    PubMed

    Bilbaut, A; Hernandez-Nicaise, M L; Leech, C A; Meech, R W

    1988-02-11

    Ctenophores are transparent marine organisms that swim by means of beating cilia; they are the simplest animals with individual muscle fibres. Predatory species, such as Beroe ovata, have particularly well-developed muscles and are capable of an elaborate feeding response. When Beroe contacts its prey, the mouth opens, the body shortens, the pharynx expands, the prey is engulfed and the lips then close tightly. How this sequence, which lasts 1 s, is accomplished is unclear. The muscles concerned are structurally uniform and are innervated at each end by a neuronal nerve net with no centre for coordination. Isolated muscle cells studied under voltage-clamp provide a solution to this puzzle. We find that different groups of muscle cells have different time-dependent membrane currents. Because muscle contraction depends upon calcium entry during each action potential, these different currents produce different patterns of contraction. We conclude that in a simple animal such as a ctenophore, a sophisticated set of membrane conductances can compensate for the absence of an elaborate system of effectors. PMID:2448648

  12. Effects of previous muscle contractions on cyclic movement dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jarić, S; Gavrilović, P; Ivancević, V

    1985-01-01

    In addition to muscle elastic energy, enhancement of movement performance in a stretch-shortening cycle could also be due to an increase in initial muscle force during the stretching phase. This hypothesis was tested by examining 9 male physical education students during maximum voluntary knee extensions performed with and without previous knee flexion. In both conditions movements were performed with various external loads. In addition, the force-velocity curve (FVC) parameters of the knee extensor muscles were also determined. As simple model of a muscle impulse was constructed in order to select independent biomechanical variables relevant to movement dynamics. The experimental results demonstrated that previous knee flexion enhanced the maximum angular velocity of knee extension. This effect decreased with increasing movement duration (i.e. increased external load), as well as giving positive correlation coefficients between the magnitude of this effect and the rate of development of knee extensor tension. These results are discussed in relation to a model of the dynamics. It is shown that previous muscle contractions performed during braking in the negative movement phase might play an important role in enhancing performance in cyclic movements. This role would be especially important in transient contractions of primarily slow twitch fiber muscles. PMID:4043051

  13. Heat production during contraction in skeletal muscle of hypothyroid mice

    SciTech Connect

    Leijendekker, W.J.; van Hardeveld, C.; Elzinga, G. )

    1987-08-01

    The effect of hypothyroidism on tension-independent and -dependent heat produced during a twitch and a tetanic contraction of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscle of mice was examined. The amount of heat produced during a twitch and the rate of heat development during a tetanus of EDL and soleus were measured at and above optimal length. The effect of hypothyroidism on force production was <30%. Straight lines were used to fit the relation between heat production and force. Hypothyroidism significantly decreases tension-independent heat during contraction of EDL and soleus muscle. Because the tension-independent heat is considered to be related to the Ca{sup 2+} cycling, these findings suggest that ATP splitting due to the Ca{sup 2+} cycling is reduced in hypothyroid mice. This conclusion was strengthened by the observation that the oxalate-supported {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}-uptake activity and {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}-loading capacity of muscle homogenates from hypothyroid mice were reduced, respectively, to 51 and to 65% in soleus and to 63 and 73% in EDL muscle as compared with euthyroid mice. The tension-dependent rate of heat development during a tetanus was also decreased in soleus muscle of hypothyroid mice. This suggests a lower rate of ATP hydrolysis related to cross-bridge cycling in this muscle due to the hypothyroid state.

  14. Capsiate Supplementation Reduces Oxidative Cost of Contraction in Exercising Mouse Skeletal Muscle In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yashiro, Kazuya; Tonson, Anne; Pecchi, Émilie; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Fur, Yann; Bernard, Monique; Bendahan, David; Giannesini, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Chronic administration of capsiate is known to accelerate whole-body basal energy metabolism, but the consequences in exercising skeletal muscle remain very poorly documented. In order to clarify this issue, the effect of 2-week daily administration of either vehicle (control) or purified capsiate (at 10- or 100-mg/kg body weight) on skeletal muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in mice. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively in contracting gastrocnemius muscle using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Regardless of the dose, capsiate treatments markedly disturbed basal bioenergetics in vivo including intracellular pH alkalosis and decreased phosphocreatine content. Besides, capsiate administration did affect neither mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 gene expression nor both basal and maximal oxygen consumption in isolated saponin-permeabilized fibers, but decreased by about twofold the Km of mitochondrial respiration for ADP. During a standardized in vivo fatiguing protocol (6-min of repeated maximal isometric contractions electrically induced at a frequency of 1.7 Hz), both capsiate treatments reduced oxidative cost of contraction by 30-40%, whereas force-generating capacity and fatigability were not changed. Moreover, the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis during the post-electrostimulation recovery period remained unaffected by capsiate. Both capsiate treatments further promoted muscle mass gain, and the higher dose also reduced body weight gain and abdominal fat content. These findings demonstrate that, in addition to its anti-obesity effect, capsiate supplementation improves oxidative metabolism in exercising muscle, which strengthen this compound as a natural compound for improving health. PMID:26030806

  15. Capsiate supplementation reduces oxidative cost of contraction in exercising mouse skeletal muscle in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yashiro, Kazuya; Tonson, Anne; Pecchi, Émilie; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Fur, Yann; Bernard, Monique; Bendahan, David; Giannesini, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Chronic administration of capsiate is known to accelerate whole-body basal energy metabolism, but the consequences in exercising skeletal muscle remain very poorly documented. In order to clarify this issue, the effect of 2-week daily administration of either vehicle (control) or purified capsiate (at 10- or 100-mg/kg body weight) on skeletal muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in mice. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively in contracting gastrocnemius muscle using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Regardless of the dose, capsiate treatments markedly disturbed basal bioenergetics in vivo including intracellular pH alkalosis and decreased phosphocreatine content. Besides, capsiate administration did affect neither mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 gene expression nor both basal and maximal oxygen consumption in isolated saponin-permeabilized fibers, but decreased by about twofold the Km of mitochondrial respiration for ADP. During a standardized in vivo fatiguing protocol (6-min of repeated maximal isometric contractions electrically induced at a frequency of 1.7 Hz), both capsiate treatments reduced oxidative cost of contraction by 30-40%, whereas force-generating capacity and fatigability were not changed. Moreover, the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis during the post-electrostimulation recovery period remained unaffected by capsiate. Both capsiate treatments further promoted muscle mass gain, and the higher dose also reduced body weight gain and abdominal fat content. These findings demonstrate that, in addition to its anti-obesity effect, capsiate supplementation improves oxidative metabolism in exercising muscle, which strengthen this compound as a natural compound for improving health. PMID:26030806

  16. Abdominal wall muscle elasticity and abdomen local stiffness on healthy volunteers during various physiological activities.

    PubMed

    Tran, D; Podwojewski, F; Beillas, P; Ottenio, M; Voirin, D; Turquier, F; Mitton, D

    2016-07-01

    The performance of hernia treatment could benefit from more extensive knowledge of the mechanical behavior of the abdominal wall in a healthy state. To supply this knowledge, the antero-lateral abdominal wall was characterized in vivo on 11 healthy volunteers during 4 activities: rest, pullback loading, abdominal breathing and the "Valsalva maneuver". The elasticity of the abdominal muscles (rectus abdominis, obliquus externus, obliquus internus and transversus abdominis) was assessed using ultrasound shear wave elastography. In addition, the abdomen was subjected to a low external load at three locations: on the midline (linea alba), on the rectus abdominis region and on lateral muscles region in order to evaluate the local stiffness of the abdomen, at rest and during "Valsalva maneuver". The results showed that the "Valsalva maneuver" leads to a statistically significant increase of the muscle shear modulus compared to the other activities. This study also showed that the local stiffness of the abdomen was related to the activity. At rest, a significant difference has been observed between the anterior (0.5N/mm) and the lateral abdomen locations (1N/mm). Then, during the Valsalva maneuver, the local stiffness values were similar for all locations (ranging from 1.6 to 2.2N/mm). This work focuses on the in vivo characterization of the mechanical response of the human abdominal wall and abdomen during several activities. In the future, this protocol could be helpful for investigation on herniated patients. PMID:26994992

  17. Reliability of ultrasound thickness measurement of the abdominal muscles during clinical isometric endurance tests.

    PubMed

    ShahAli, Shabnam; Arab, Amir Massoud; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Bahmani, Andia; Karimi, Noureddin; Nabavi, Hoda

    2015-07-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the intra-examiner reliability of ultrasound (US) thickness measurement of abdominal muscles activity when supine lying and during two isometric endurance tests in subjects with and without Low back pain (LBP). A total of 19 women (9 with LBP, 10 without LBP) participated in the study. Within-day reliability of the US thickness measurements at supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests were assessed in all subjects. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the relative reliability of thickness measurement. The standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were used to evaluate the absolute reliability. Results indicated high ICC scores (0.73-0.99) and also small SEM and MDC scores for within-day reliability assessment. The Bland-Altman plots of agreement in US measurement of the abdominal muscles during the two isometric endurance tests demonstrated that 95% of the observations fall between the limits of agreement for test and retest measurements. Together the results indicate high intra-tester reliability for the US measurement of the thickness of abdominal muscles in all the positions tested. According to the study's findings, US imaging can be used as a reliable method for assessment of abdominal muscles activity in supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests employed, in participants with and without LBP. PMID:26118508

  18. a Failure Analysis of Intramuscular Rigid Implants for Muscle Contractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Ho; Loeb, Gerald E.; Peck, Raymond A.; Singh, Jasspreet; Deshpande, Sudeep; Baker, Lucinda L.; Bryant, J. Timothy

    Several studies have been made to develop different versions of new leadless, permanently implanted small electronic devices that allow to be injected into muscles (BIONs™). Their circuitry should be protected from body fluids by thin-walled hermetic capsules of rigid and brittle materials such as glass or ceramic to include feed through for their electrodes. These packages experience repetitive stresses due to the muscle contraction from their excitations. This study provides a worst-case analysis of such stresses and methods to test and validate devices intended for such usage, along with the failure analysis and remediation strategy for a design that experienced unanticipated failures in vivo.

  19. Quantitative model for predicting lymph formation and muscle compressibility in skeletal muscle during contraction and stretch

    PubMed Central

    Causey, Laura; Cowin, Stephen C.; Weinbaum, Sheldon

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is widely perceived as nearly incompressible despite the fact that blood and lymphatic vessels within the endomysial and perimysial spaces undergo significant changes in diameter and length during stretch and contraction. These fluid shifts between fascicle and interstitial compartments have proved extremely difficult to measure. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework based on a space-filling hexagonal fascicle array to provide predictions of the displacement of blood and lymph into and out of the muscle’s endomysium and perimysium during stretch and contraction. We also use this model to quantify the distribution of blood and initial lymphatic (IL) vessels within a fascicle and its perimysial space using data for the rat spinotrapezius muscle. On average, there are 11 muscle fibers, 0.4 arteriole/venule pairs, and 0.2 IL vessels per fascicle. The model predicts that the blood volume in the endomysial space increases 24% and decreases 22% for a 20% contraction and stretch, respectively. However, these significant changes in blood volume in the endomysium produce a change of only ∼2% in fascicle cross-sectional area. In contrast, the entire muscle deviates from isovolumetry by 7% and 6% for a 20% contraction and stretch, respectively, largely attributable to the significantly larger blood volume changes that occur in the perimysial space. This suggests that arcade blood vessels in the perimysial space provide the primary pumping action required for the filling and emptying of ILs during muscular contraction and stretch. PMID:22615376

  20. Kinesthetic imagery training of forceful muscle contractions increases brain signal and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wan X; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Allexandre, Didier; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yue, Guang H

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of training using internal imagery (IMI; also known as kinesthetic imagery or first person imagery) with that of external imagery (EMI; also known as third-person visual imagery) of strong muscle contractions on voluntary muscle strengthening. Eighteen young, healthy subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups (6 in each group): internal motor imagery (IMI), external motor imagery (EMI), or a no-practice control (CTRL) group. Training lasted for 6 weeks (~15 min/day, 5 days/week). The participants' right arm elbow-flexion strength, muscle electrical activity, and movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) were evaluated before and after training. Only the IMI group showed significant strength gained (10.8%) while the EMI (4.8%) and CTRL (-3.3%) groups did not. Only the IMI group showed a significant elevation in MRCP on scalp locations over both the primary motor (M1) and supplementary motor cortices (EMI group over M1 only) and this increase was significantly greater than that of EMI and CTRL groups. These results suggest that training by IMI of forceful muscle contractions was effective in improving voluntary muscle strength without physical exercise. We suggest that the IMI training likely strengthened brain-to-muscle (BTM) command that may have improved motor unit recruitment and activation, and led to greater muscle output. Training by IMI of forceful muscle contractions may change the activity level of cortical motor control network, which may translate into greater descending command to the target muscle and increase its strength. PMID:24133427

  1. Control of abdominal and expiratory intercostal muscle activity during vomiting - Role of ventral respiratory group expiratory neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Alan D.; Tan, L. K.; Suzuki, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The role of ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons in the control of abdominal and internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting was investigated in cats. Two series of experiments were performed: in one, the activity of VRG E neurons was recorded during fictive vomiting in cats that were decerebrated, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated; in the second, the abdominal muscle activity during vomiting was compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons in decerebrate spontaneously breathing cats. The results show that about two-thirds of VRG E neurons that project at least as far caudally as the lower thoracic cord contribute to internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting. The remaining VRG E neurons contribute to abdominal muscle activation. As shown by severing the axons of the VRG E neurons, other, as yet unidenified, inputs (either descending from the brain stem or arising from spinal reflexes) can also produce abdominal muscle activation.

  2. Fluctuations in tension during contraction of single muscle fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Borejdo, J; Morales, M F

    1977-01-01

    We have searched for fluctuations in the steady-state tension developed by stimulated single muscle fibers. Such tension "noise" is expected to be present as a result of the statistical fluctuations in the number and/or state of myosin cross-bridges interacting with thin filament sites at any time. A sensitive electro-optical tension transducer capable of resolving the expected fluctuations in magnitude and frequency was constructed to search for the fluctuations. The noise was analyzed by computing the power spectra and amplitude of stochastic fluctuations in the photomultiplier counting rate, which was made proportional to muscle force. The optical system and electronic instrumentation together with the minicomputer software are described. Tensions were measured in single skinned glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle fibers in rigor and during contraction and relaxation. The results indicate the presence of fluctuations in contracting muscles and a complete absence of tension noise in eith rigor or relaxation. Also, a numerical method was developed to simulate the power spectra and amplitude of fluctuations, given the rate constants for association and dissociation of the cross-bridges and actin. The simulated power spectra and the frequency distributions observed experimentally are similar. PMID:922123

  3. Abdominal muscle response to a simulated weight-bearing task by elite Australian Rules football players.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Jodie; Stanton, Warren R; Hides, Julie A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the automatic recruitment of the deep abdominal muscles during a unilateral simulated weight-bearing task by elite Australian Rules football (AFL) players with and without low back pain (LBP). An observational cross-sectional study was conducted using ultrasound imaging to measure the thickness of the internal oblique (IO) and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles. Thirty-seven elite male AFL players participated. Repeated measures factors included 'force level' (rest, 25% and 45% of body weight), 'leg' (dominant or non-dominant kicking leg) and 'side' (ultrasound side ipsilateral or contralateral to the leg used for the weight-bearing task). The dependent variables were thickness of the IO and TrA muscles. The results of this study showed that thickness of the IO (p<.0001) and TrA (p<.0001) muscles increased in response to 'force level'. During the task, the thickness of the IO muscle on the contralateral side of the trunk relative to the leg being tested, increased more in participants with current LBP (p=.034). This pattern was more distinct on the non-dominant kicking leg. Altered abdominal muscle recruitment in elite athletes with low back pain may be an attempt by the central nervous system (CNS) to compensate for inadequate lumbo-pelvic stability. PMID:21840078

  4. Reliability of Abdominal Muscle Stiffness Measured Using Elastography during Trunk Rehabilitation Exercises.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, David; Wan, Alan; McPhee, Megan; Tucker, Kylie; Hug, François

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intra-session and inter-rater reliability of shear modulus measured in abdominal muscles during two commonly used trunk stability exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers performed a series of abdominal hollow and abdominal brace tasks. Supersonic shear imaging was used to measure the shear modulus (considered an index of muscle tension) of the four anterior trunk muscles: obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, transversus abdominis and rectus abdominis. Because of measurement artifacts, internus abdominis and transversus abdominis data were not analyzed for 36.7% and 26.7% of the participants, respectively. These participants exhibited thicker superficial fat layers than the others. For the remaining participants, fair to excellent intra-session and inter-rater reliability was observed with moderate to high intra-class coefficients (0.45-0.97) and low to moderate standard error of measurement values (0.38-3.53 kPa). Reliability values were consistently greater for superficial than for deeper muscles. PMID:26746381

  5. Ultrasound evaluation of the symmetry of abdominal muscles in mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Linek, Paweł; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Gogola, Anna

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of the study was to evaluate the symmetry of the thickness of the abdominal muscles at rest and while standing in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] An ultrasound assessment was performed of the side-to-side differences of the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominalis (TrA) muscles in the supine and standing positions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and control groups. [Results] In the AIS group, 64.3% of the patients had left scoliosis with a mean Cobb angle of 10.7°, and 35.7% of the patients had right scoliosis with a mean Cobb angle of 10°. In the supine position, the thickness asymmetry of the TrA was greater in the AIS compared with the control group by an average of 14% (95% CI 3.9–24.2). [Conclusion] Among the abdominal muscles examined, patients with AIS exhibited more asymmetry only for the TrA. In the standing position, the TrA was as symmetric in the patients as in the control group. Mild scoliosis has no impact on the symmetry of the thickness of the OE and OI in the supine and standing positions. The direction of curvature had no effect on the symmetry of the abdominal muscles studied. PMID:25729192

  6. Ultrasound evaluation of the symmetry of abdominal muscles in mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Linek, Paweł; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Gogola, Anna

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The objective of the study was to evaluate the symmetry of the thickness of the abdominal muscles at rest and while standing in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] An ultrasound assessment was performed of the side-to-side differences of the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominalis (TrA) muscles in the supine and standing positions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and control groups. [Results] In the AIS group, 64.3% of the patients had left scoliosis with a mean Cobb angle of 10.7°, and 35.7% of the patients had right scoliosis with a mean Cobb angle of 10°. In the supine position, the thickness asymmetry of the TrA was greater in the AIS compared with the control group by an average of 14% (95% CI 3.9-24.2). [Conclusion] Among the abdominal muscles examined, patients with AIS exhibited more asymmetry only for the TrA. In the standing position, the TrA was as symmetric in the patients as in the control group. Mild scoliosis has no impact on the symmetry of the thickness of the OE and OI in the supine and standing positions. The direction of curvature had no effect on the symmetry of the abdominal muscles studied. PMID:25729192

  7. Changes in Activation of Abdominal Muscles at Selected Angles During Trunk Exercise by Using Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Dong; Bae, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Jong-Gil; Han, Nami; Eom, Mi-Ja

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of activation of the abdominal muscles depending on exercise angles and whether the activation of rectus abdominis differs according to the location, during curl up and leg raise exercises, by measuring the thickness ratio of abdominal muscles using ultrasonography. Methods We examined 30 normal adults without musculoskeletal problems. Muscle thickness was measured in the upper rectus abdominis (URA), lower rectus abdominis (LRA), obliquus externus (EO), obliquus internus (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA), at pre-determined angles (30°, 60°, 90°) and additionally at the resting angle (0°). Muscle thickness ratio was calculated by dividing the resting (0°) thickness for each angle, and was used as reflection of muscle activity. Results The muscle thickness ratio was significantly different depending on the angles in URA and LRA. For curl up-URA p=0 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°>90°), p=0.44 (30°<90°) and LRA p=0.01 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°>90°), p=0.44 (30°>90°), respectively, by one-way ANOVA test-and for leg raise-URA p=0 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°<90°), p=0 (30°<90°) and LRA p=0.01 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°<90°), p=0 (30°<90°), respectively, by one-way ANOVA test-exercises, but not in the lateral abdominal muscles (EO, IO, and TrA). Also, there was no significant difference in the muscle thickness ratio of URA and LRA during both exercises. In the aspect of muscle activity, there was significant difference in the activation of RA muscle by selected angles, but not according to location during both exercises. Conclusion According to this study, exercise angle is thought to be an important contributing factor for strengthening of RA muscle; however, both the exercises are thought to have no property of strengthening RA muscle selectively based on the location. PMID:26798609

  8. From depolarization-dependent contractions in gastrointestinal smooth muscle to aortic pulse-synchronized contractions

    PubMed Central

    Marion, Sarah B; Mangel, Allen W

    2014-01-01

    For decades, it was believed that the diameter of gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells is sufficiently narrow, and that the diffusion of calcium across the plasma membrane is sufficient, to support contractile activity. Thus, depolarization-triggered release of intracellular calcium was not believed to be operative in gastrointestinal smooth muscle. However, after the incubation of muscle segments in solutions devoid of calcium and containing the calcium chelator ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid, an alternative electrical event occurred that was distinct from normal slow waves and spikes. Subsequently, it was demonstrated in gastrointestinal smooth muscle segments that membrane depolarization associated with this alternative electrical event triggered rhythmic contractions by release of intracellular calcium. Although this concept of depolarization-triggered calcium release was iconoclastic, it has now been demonstrated in multiple gastrointestinal smooth muscle preparations. On the basis of these observations, we investigated whether a rhythmic electrical and mechanical event would occur in aortic smooth muscle under the same calcium-free conditions. The incubation of aortic segments in a solution with no added calcium plus ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid induced a fast electrical event without corresponding tension changes. On the basis of the frequency of these fast electrical events, we pursued, contrary to what has been established dogma for more than three centuries, the question of whether the smooth muscle wall of the aorta undergoes rhythmic activation during the cardiac cycle. As with depolarization-triggered contractile activity in gastrointestinal smooth muscle, it was “well known” that rhythmic activation of the aorta does not occur in synchrony with the heartbeat. In a series of experiments, however, it was demonstrated that rhythmic contractions occur in the aortic wall in synchrony with the heartbeat and share a common pacemaker with the heart

  9. The muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of a 6-month-old Crocodylus niloticus (Reptilia: Crocodylia).

    PubMed

    Fechner, R; Schwarz-Wings, D

    2013-06-01

    The muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of crocodilians play an important role in their ventilatory mechanism. Yet the anatomy and homology of these muscles is poorly understood. To gain new insights into the anatomy of the crocodilian infrapubic abdominal wall, we dissected a specimen of Crocodylus niloticus. Origin and insertion of the muscles, as well as their arrangement relative to each other was examined in great detail. The findings were compared with those of other crocodilian taxa to detect potential variability of the muscles of interest. The homology of the muscles was studied by comparing the muscles of the crocodilian infrapubic abdominal wall with those of other diapsids. In Crocodylus niloticus, the infrapubic abdominal wall consists of four muscles: Musculus truncocaudalis, M. ischiotruncus, and Mm. rectus abdominis externus and internus. The arrangement of the muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of Crocodylus niloticus is consistent with that found in most other crocodilian taxa. In some crocodilian taxa, an additional muscle, M. ischiopubis, is found. In the remaining diapsids, only M. rectus abdominis is present. The crocodilian M. truncocaudalis, M. ischiotruncus and, if present, M. ischiopubis appear to be derivates of M. rectus abdominis; the development of those might be related to the evolution of the unique crocodilian ventilatory mechanism. PMID:22909340

  10. Characterization of muscle contraction with second harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prent, Nicole

    Muscle cells have the ability to change length and generate force due to orchestrated action of myosin nanomotors that cause sliding of actin filaments along myosin filaments in the sarcomeres, the fundamental contractile units, of myocytes. The correlated action of hundreds of sarcomeres is needed to produce the myocyte contractions. This study probes the molecular structure of the myofilaments and investigates the movement correlations between sarcomeres during contraction. In this study, second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is employed for imaging striated myocytes. Myosin filaments in striated myocytes inherently have a nonzero second-order susceptibility, [special characters omitted] and therefore generate efficient SHG. Employing polarization-in polarization-out (PIPO) SHG microscopy allows for the accurate determination of the characteristic ratio, [special characters omitted] in birefringent myocytes, which describes the structure of the myosin filament. Analysis shows that the b value at the centre of the myosin filament, where the nonlinear dipoles are better aligned, is slightly lower than the value at the edges of the filament, where there is more disorder in orientation of the nonlinear dipoles from the myosin heads. Forced stretching of myocytes resulted in an SHG intensity increase with the elongation of the sarcomere. SHG microscopy captured individual sarcomeres during contraction, allowing for the measurement of sarcomere length (SL) and SHG intensity (SI) fluctuations. The fluctuations also revealed higher SHG intensity in elongated sarcomeres. The sarcomere synchronization model (SSM) for contracting and quiescent myocytes was developed, and experimentally verified for three cases (isolated cardiomyocyte, embryonic chicken cardiomyocyte, and larva myocyte). During contraction, the action of SLs and SIs between neighbouring sarcomeres partially correlated, whereas in quiescent myocytes the SLs show an anti-correlation and the SIs have no

  11. A Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma of the Internal Abdominal Oblique Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Masakazu; Koide, Kei; Arita, Michinori; Kawaguchi, Koji; Mikuriya, Yoshihiro; Iwata, Jun; Iwamoto, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    A low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare tumor, with a benign histologic appearance but malignant behavior. This report describes a 74-year-old man with an internal abdominal oblique muscle mass. The tumor appeared as a well-defined ovoid mass on computed tomography, with mild uptake on fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography images. Radical resection with wide safe margins was performed. Histologically, the tumor was composed of spindle-shaped cells in a whorled growth pattern, with alternating fibrous and myxoid stroma. MUC4 expression, a highly sensitive and specific immunohistochemical marker for LGFMS, was detected. Therefore, we diagnosed the tumor as LGFMS. At the 3-month follow-up, there was no sign of recurrence or metastasis. We report the first case of LGFMS arising from the internal abdominal oblique muscle. PMID:27247823

  12. Architectural Analysis of Human Abdominal Wall Muscles: Implications for Mechanical Function

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephen H. M.; Ward, Samuel R.; Cook, Mark S.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Cadaveric analysis of human abdominal muscle architecture. Objective To quantify the architectural properties of rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO) and transverse abdominis (TrA), and model mechanical function in light of these new data. Summary of Background Data Knowledge of muscle architecture provides the structural basis for predicting muscle function. Abdominal muscles greatly affect spine loading, stability, injury prevention and rehabilitation; however, their architectural properties are unknown. Methods Abdominal muscles from eleven elderly human cadavers were removed intact, separated into regions and micro-dissected for quantification of physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), fascicle length and sarcomere length. From these data, sarcomere operating length ranges were calculated. Results IO had the largest PCSA and RA the smallest, and would thus generate the largest and smallest isometric forces, respectively. RA had the longest fascicle length, followed by EO, and would thus be capable of generating force over the widest range of lengths. Measured sarcomere lengths, in the post-mortem neutral spine posture, were significantly longer in RA and EO (3.29±0.07 and 3.18±0.11 μm) compared to IO and TrA (2.61±0.06 and 2.58±0.05 μm) (p < 0.0001). Biomechanical modeling predicted that RA, EO and TrA act at optimal force-generating length in the mid-range of lumbar spine flexion, where IO can generate approximately 90% of its maximum force. Conclusions These data provide clinically relevant insights into the ability of the abdominal wall muscles to generate force and change length throughout the lumbar spine range of motion. This will impact the understanding of potential postures in which the force-generating and spine stabilizing ability of these muscles become compromised, which can guide exercise/rehabilitation development and prescription. Future work should explore the mechanical interactions among

  13. Neuromuscular independence of abdominal wall muscles as demonstrated by middle-eastern style dancers.

    PubMed

    Moreside, Janice M; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J; McGill, Stuart M

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies analyzing neuromuscular independence of the abdominal wall have involved a participant population with no specific training in separating individual muscle segments. We chose to study nine women trained in the art of middle-eastern dance, anticipating they may have unique skills in motor control. Specifically, we were searching for evidence of separation of upper rectus abdominis (URA) from lower rectus abdominis (LRA), as well as understanding what role the oblique muscles play in abdominal wall synergies. EMG analysis was done on eight trunk muscles bilaterally as the dancers participated in 30 dance, planar, and curl-up activities. The filtered data were then cross-correlated to determine the time lag between pairs of signals. Only three dance movements demonstrated consistent evidence of an ability to separate URA/LRA activation timing. The external and internal oblique muscles tend to align themselves temporally with the LRA. However, these findings were only evident in these three specific "belly-roll" conditions, all with low levels of muscle activation, and no external torque. Evidence of significantly different activation levels (% MVC) between URA/LRA was demonstrated in eight conditions, all of which required various pelvis movements with minimal thorax motion. PMID:17329127

  14. β-Adrenergic modulation of skeletal muscle contraction: key role of excitation-contraction coupling.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Simeon P; Borrani, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Our aim is to describe the acute effects of catecholamines/β-adrenergic agonists on contraction of non-fatigued skeletal muscle in animals and humans, and explain the mechanisms involved. Adrenaline/β-agonists (0.1-30 μm) generally augment peak force across animal species (positive inotropic effect) and abbreviate relaxation of slow-twitch muscles (positive lusitropic effect). A peak force reduction also occurs in slow-twitch muscles in some conditions. β2 -Adrenoceptor stimulation activates distinct cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases to phosphorylate multiple target proteins. β-Agonists modulate sarcolemmal processes (increased resting membrane potential and action potential amplitude) via enhanced Na(+) -K(+) pump and Na(+) -K(+) -2Cl(-) cotransporter function, but this does not increase force. Myofibrillar Ca(2+) sensitivity and maximum Ca(2+) -activated force are unchanged. All force potentiation involves amplified myoplasmic Ca(2+) transients consequent to increased Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). This unequivocally requires phosphorylation of SR Ca(2+) release channels/ryanodine receptors (RyR1) which sensitize the Ca(2+) -induced Ca(2+) release mechanism. Enhanced trans-sarcolemmal Ca(2+) influx through phosphorylated voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels contributes to force potentiation in diaphragm and amphibian muscle, but not mammalian limb muscle. Phosphorylation of phospholamban increases SR Ca(2+) pump activity in slow-twitch fibres but does not augment force; this process accelerates relaxation and may depress force. Greater Ca(2+) loading of SR may assist force potentiation in fast-twitch muscle. Some human studies show no significant force potentiation which appears to be related to the β-agonist concentration used. Indeed high-dose β-agonists (∼0.1 μm) enhance SR Ca(2+) -release rates, maximum voluntary contraction strength and peak Wingate power in trained humans. The combined findings can explain how adrenaline

  15. Effects of upper airway pressure on abdominal muscle activity in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Plowman, L; Lauff, D C; McNamara, F; Berthon-Jones, M; Sullivan, C E

    1991-12-01

    We have examined arousal and abdominal muscle electromyogram (EMGabd) responses to upper airway pressure stimuli during physiological sleep in four dogs with permanent side-hole tracheal stomata. The dogs were trained to sleep with a tightly fitting snout mask, hermetically sealed in place, while breathing through a cuffed endotracheal tube inserted through the tracheostomy. Sleep stage was determined by behavioral and electroencephalographic criteria. EMGabd activity was measured using bipolar fine-wire electrodes inserted into the abdominal muscle layers. Static increases or decreases in upper airway pressure (+/- 6 cmH2O), when applied at the snout mask or larynx (upper trachea), caused an immediate decrease in EMGabd on the first two to three breaths; EMGabd usually returned to control levels within the 1-min test interval. In contrast, oscillatory pressure waves at 30 Hz and +/- 3 cmH2O amplitude (or -2 to -8 cmH2O amplitude) produced an immediate and sustained reduction in IMGabd in all sleep states. Inhibition of EMGabd could be maintained over many minutes when the oscillatory pressure stimulus was pulsed by using a cycle of 0.5 s on and 0.5 s off. Oscillatory upper airway pressures were also found to be powerful arousal-promoting stimuli, producing arousal in 94% of tests in drowsiness and 66% of tests in slowwave sleep. The results demonstrate the presence of breath-by-breath upper airway control of abdominal muscle activity. PMID:1778951

  16. Effects of Abdominal Stimulation during Inspiratory Muscle Training on Respiratory Function of Chronic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ju-hyeon; Shim, Je-myung; Kwon, Hae-yeon; Kim, Ha-roo; Kim, Bo-in

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to verify a new method for improving respiratory functions by applying both abdominal stimulation and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) to train the inspiratory muscle and the expiratory muscle simultaneously, to improve the efficiency of IMT of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] Eighteen stroke patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 9) and a control group (n = 9). [Methods] The experimental group was administered IMT with abdominal stimulation, and the control group was administered only IMT. During the intervention period, the experimental group and control group received training 20 min/day, 3 times/wk, for 4 weeks. To examine the lung functions of the subjects, FVC, FEV1, PEF, and FEF25–75 were measured using an electronic spirometer. The diaphragm thickness ratio was calculated from measurements made with a 7.5-MHz linear probe ultrasonic imaging system. [Result] The experimental group and the control group showed significant increases in diaphragm thickness ratio on the paretic side, but not on the non-paretic side. With regard to lung function, the experimental group showed significant increases in FEV1, PEF, and FEF25–75. The changes between before and after the intervention in the two groups were compared with each other, and the results showed significant differences in FEV1 and PEF. [Conclusion] The present study identified that IMT accompanied by abdominal stimulation improved the pulmonary function of chronic stroke patients. PMID:24567679

  17. Rac1 is a novel regulator of contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sylow, Lykke; Jensen, Thomas E; Kleinert, Maximilian; Mouatt, Joshua R; Maarbjerg, Stine J; Jeppesen, Jacob; Prats, Clara; Chiu, Tim T; Boguslavsky, Shlomit; Klip, Amira; Schjerling, Peter; Richter, Erik A

    2013-04-01

    In skeletal muscle, the actin cytoskeleton-regulating GTPase, Rac1, is necessary for insulin-dependent GLUT4 translocation. Muscle contraction increases glucose transport and represents an alternative signaling pathway to insulin. Whether Rac1 is activated by muscle contraction and regulates contraction-induced glucose uptake is unknown. Therefore, we studied the effects of in vivo exercise and ex vivo muscle contractions on Rac1 signaling and its regulatory role in glucose uptake in mice and humans. Muscle Rac1-GTP binding was increased after exercise in mice (~60-100%) and humans (~40%), and this activation was AMP-activated protein kinase independent. Rac1 inhibition reduced contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse muscle by 55% in soleus and by 20-58% in extensor digitorum longus (EDL; P < 0.01). In agreement, the contraction-stimulated increment in glucose uptake was decreased by 27% (P = 0.1) and 40% (P < 0.05) in soleus and EDL muscles, respectively, of muscle-specific inducible Rac1 knockout mice. Furthermore, depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton decreased contraction-stimulated glucose uptake by 100% and 62% (P < 0.01) in soleus and EDL muscles, respectively. These are the first data to show that Rac1 is activated during muscle contraction in murine and human skeletal muscle and suggest that Rac1 and possibly the actin cytoskeleton are novel regulators of contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. PMID:23274900

  18. Rac1 Is a Novel Regulator of Contraction-Stimulated Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sylow, Lykke; Jensen, Thomas E.; Kleinert, Maximilian; Mouatt, Joshua R.; Maarbjerg, Stine J.; Jeppesen, Jacob; Prats, Clara; Chiu, Tim T.; Boguslavsky, Shlomit; Klip, Amira; Schjerling, Peter; Richter, Erik A.

    2013-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, the actin cytoskeleton-regulating GTPase, Rac1, is necessary for insulin-dependent GLUT4 translocation. Muscle contraction increases glucose transport and represents an alternative signaling pathway to insulin. Whether Rac1 is activated by muscle contraction and regulates contraction-induced glucose uptake is unknown. Therefore, we studied the effects of in vivo exercise and ex vivo muscle contractions on Rac1 signaling and its regulatory role in glucose uptake in mice and humans. Muscle Rac1-GTP binding was increased after exercise in mice (∼60–100%) and humans (∼40%), and this activation was AMP-activated protein kinase independent. Rac1 inhibition reduced contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse muscle by 55% in soleus and by 20–58% in extensor digitorum longus (EDL; P < 0.01). In agreement, the contraction-stimulated increment in glucose uptake was decreased by 27% (P = 0.1) and 40% (P < 0.05) in soleus and EDL muscles, respectively, of muscle-specific inducible Rac1 knockout mice. Furthermore, depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton decreased contraction-stimulated glucose uptake by 100% and 62% (P < 0.01) in soleus and EDL muscles, respectively. These are the first data to show that Rac1 is activated during muscle contraction in murine and human skeletal muscle and suggest that Rac1 and possibly the actin cytoskeleton are novel regulators of contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. PMID:23274900

  19. Effects of muscle relaxation on sustained contraction of ipsilateral remote muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kouki; Watanabe, Tasuku; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the temporal change of muscle activity during relaxation of ipsilateral remote muscles. While participants maintained a constant right wrist extensor isometric force, they dorsiflexed the ipsilateral ankle from resting position or relaxed from dorsiflexed position in response to an audio signal. The wrist extensor force magnitude increased in the 0–400 msec period after the onset of foot contraction compared to that of the resting condition (P < 0.05). On the other hand, wrist extensor force magnitude and electromyographic (EMG) activity decreased in the 0–400 msec period after the onset of ankle dorsiflexion compared to that of the resting condition (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that foot muscle relaxation induces temporal reduction in hand muscle EMG activity and force magnitude. PMID:26611464

  20. Expiratory activation of abdominal muscle is associated with improved respiratory stability and an increase in minute ventilation in REM epochs of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Colin G; Pagliardini, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    Breathing is more vulnerable to apneas and irregular breathing patterns during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in both humans and rodents. We previously reported that robust and recurrent recruitment of expiratory abdominal (ABD) muscle activity is present in rats during REM epochs despite ongoing REM-induced muscle atonia in skeletal musculature. To develop a further understanding of the characteristics of ABD recruitment during REM epochs and their relationship with breathing patterns and irregularities, we sought to compare REM epochs that displayed ABD muscle recruitment with those that did not, within the same rats. Specifically, we investigated respiratory characteristics that preceded and followed recruitment. We hypothesized that ABD muscle recruitment would be likely to occur following respiratory irregularities and would subsequently contribute to respiratory stability and the maintenance of good ventilation following recruitment. Our data demonstrate that epochs of REM sleep containing ABD recruitments (REM(ABD+)) were characterized by increased respiratory rate variability and increased presence of spontaneous brief central apneas. Within these epochs, respiratory events that displayed ABD muscle activation were preceded by periods of increased respiratory rate variability. Onset of ABD muscle activity increased tidal volume, amplitude of diaphragmatic contractions, and minute ventilation compared with the periods preceding ABD muscle activation. These results show that expiratory muscle activity is more likely recruited when respiration is irregular and its recruitment is subsequently associated with an increase in minute ventilation and a more regular respiratory rhythm. PMID:26338455

  1. Time to Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction (MVC) for Five Different Muscle Groups in College Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, A. F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    College men and women were studied to ascertain the force-time components of a rapid voluntary muscle contraction for five muscle groups. Researchers found that the time required for full contraction differs: (1) in men and women; and (2) among the five muscle groups. (Authors/PP)

  2. Grounding after moderate eccentric contractions reduces muscle damage

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard; Chevalier, Gaétan; Hill, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Grounding a human to the earth has resulted in changes in the physiology of the body. A pilot study on grounding and eccentric contractions demonstrated shortened duration of pain, reduced creatine kinase (CK), and differences in blood parameters. This follow-up study was conducted to investigate the effects of grounding after moderate eccentric contractions on pain, CK, and complete blood counts. Thirty-two healthy young men were randomly divided into grounded (n=16) and sham-grounded (n=16) groups. On days 1 through 4, visual analog scale for pain evaluations and blood draws were accomplished. On day 1, the participants performed eccentric contractions of 200 half-knee bends. They were then grounded or sham-grounded to the earth for 4 hours on days 1 and 2. Both groups experienced pain on all posttest days. On day 2, the sham-grounded group experienced significant CK increase (P<0.01) while the CK of the grounded group did not increase significantly; the between-group difference was significant (P=0.04). There was also an increase in the neutrophils of the grounded group on day 3 (P=0.05) compared to the sham-grounded group. There was a significant increase in platelets in the grounded group on days 2 through 4. Grounding produced changes in CK and complete blood counts that were not shared by the sham-grounded group. Grounding significantly reduced the loss of CK from the injured muscles indicating reduced muscle damage. These results warrant further study on the effects of earthing on delayed onset muscle damage. PMID:26443876

  3. Muscle contraction and the elasticity-mediated crosstalk effect.

    PubMed

    Dharan, Nadiv; Farago, Oded

    2013-05-01

    Cooperative action of molecular motors is essential for many cellular processes. One possible regulator of motor coordination is the elasticity-mediated crosstalk (EMC) coupling between myosin II motors whose origin is the tensile stress that they collectively generate in actin filaments. Here, we use a statistical mechanical analysis to investigate the influence of the EMC effect on the sarcomere -- the basic contractile unit of skeletal muscles. We demonstrate that the EMC effect leads to an increase in the attachment probability of motors located near the end of the sarcomere while simultaneously decreasing the attachment probability of the motors in the central part. Such a polarized attachment probability would impair the motors' ability to cooperate efficiently. Interestingly, this undesired phenomenon becomes significant only when the system size exceeds that of the sarcomere in skeletal muscles, which provides an explanation for the remarkable lack of sarcomere variability in vertebrates. Another phenomenon that we investigate is the recently observed increase in the duty ratio of the motors with the tension in muscle. We reveal that the celebrated Hill's equation for muscle contraction is very closely related to this observation. PMID:23767573

  4. A modified force-velocity equation for smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Jiang, H; Stephens, N L

    1994-01-01

    It has been suggested that in skeletal muscle the force-velocity relationship may not be a simple hyperbolic one, as defined by Hill's equation. To determine whether smooth muscle demonstrated the same properties, quick-release force-velocity curves were obtained from canine tracheal smooth muscle. The results showed that the observed data points for tracheal smooth muscle systematically deviated from a hyperbola. Such deviation occurred at values of force (P) approaching maximum isometric force (Po) for curves elicited by quick release at 2 and 10 s in the course of isometric contractions. Shortening velocities under a given afterload were overestimated at the high-force end (P > 75% Po) by Hill's equation; this implied that a relationship more complex than a simple hyperbola was involved at high loads. We next focused on finding an equation to also fit those directly measured data points that did not conform to a hyperbola. Our rationale in developing the equation was that a plot of the linearized transform of Hill's equation should yield a straight line over the entire range of loads at which velocities were measured. The plot demonstrated that, in the low-load high-velocity portion of the curve, a peak value was reached at 70-80% Po, which decreased as load increased in the high-load low-velocity portion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8175513

  5. The effects of bridge exercise with the abdominal drawing-in maneuver on an unstable surface on the abdominal muscle thickness of healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Misuk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a bridge exercise with an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) performed with different surface conditions on abdominal muscle thickness. [Subjects] Thirty subjects were randomly divided into an unstable bridge exercise group (UBE group, n=15) and a stable bridge exercise group (SBE group, n=15). [Methods] After 6 weeks of performing bridge exercises accompanied by ADIM, the change in the muscle thicknesses of the transverse abdominis (TrA) and internal oblique abdominis (IOA) muscles was assessed using ultrasonography. [Results] After 6 weeks of exercise, the TrA was significantly altered in the SBEG, and the TrA and IOA were both significantly changed in the UBEG. [Conclusion] When performing bridge exercises to increase the Tra and the IO muscle thicknesses, exercising on an unstable surface is recommended. PMID:25642086

  6. Fast skeletal muscle troponin T increases the cooperativity of transgenic mouse cardiac muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qi-Quan; Brozovich, Frank V; Jin, Jian-Ping

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the functional significance of different troponin T (TnT) isoforms in the Ca2+ activation of muscle contraction, transgenic mice have been constructed with a chicken fast skeletal muscle TnT transgene driven by a cardiac α-myosin heavy chain gene promoter. Cardiac muscle-specific expression of the fast skeletal muscle TnT has been obtained with significant myofibril incorporation. Expression of the endogenous cardiac muscle thin filament regulatory proteins, such as troponin I and tropomyosin, was not altered in the transgenic mouse heart, providing an authentic system for the functional characterization of TnT isoforms. Cardiac muscle contractility was analysed for the force vs. Ca2+ relationship in skinned ventricular trabeculae of transgenic mice in comparison with wild-type litter-mates. The results showed unchanged pCa50 values (5.1 ± 0.04 and 5.1 ± 0.1, respectively) but significantly steeper slopes (the Hill coefficient was 2.0 ± 0.2 vs. 1.0 ± 0.2, P < 0.05). The results demonstrate that the structural and functional variation of different TnT isoforms may contribute to the difference in responsiveness and overall cooperativity of the thin filament-based Ca2+ regulation between cardiac and skeletal muscles. PMID:10517814

  7. Mechanisms of Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction and the Basis for Pharmacologic Treatment of Smooth Muscle Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brozovich, F.V.; Nicholson, C.J.; Degen, C.V.; Gao, Yuan Z.; Aggarwal, M.

    2016-01-01

    The smooth muscle cell directly drives the contraction of the vascular wall and hence regulates the size of the blood vessel lumen. We review here the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which agonists, therapeutics, and diseases regulate contractility of the vascular smooth muscle cell and we place this within the context of whole body function. We also discuss the implications for personalized medicine and highlight specific potential target molecules that may provide opportunities for the future development of new therapeutics to regulate vascular function. PMID:27037223

  8. Metabolic adaptations to repeated periods of contraction with reduced blood flow in canine skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    MacInnes, Alan; Timmons, James A

    2005-01-01

    Background Patients suffering from Intermittent Claudication (IC) experience repeated periods of muscle contraction with low blood flow, throughout the day and this may contribute to the hypothesised skeletal muscle abnormalities. However, no study has evaluated the consequences of intermittent contraction with low blood flow on skeletal muscle tissue. Our aim was to generate this basic physiological data, determining the 'normal' response of healthy skeletal muscle tissue. We specifically proposed that the metabolic responses to contraction would be modified under such circumstances, revealing endogenous strategies engaged to protect the muscle adenine nucleotide pool. Utilizing a canine gracilis model (n = 9), the muscle was stimulated to contract (5 Hz) for three 10 min periods (separated by 10 min rest) under low blood flow conditions (80% reduced), followed by 1 hr recovery and then a fourth period of 10 min stimulation. Muscle biopsies were obtained prior to and following the first and fourth contraction periods. Direct arterio-venous sampling allowed for the calculation of muscle metabolite efflux and oxygen consumption. Results During the first period of contraction, [ATP] was reduced by ~30%. During this period there was also a 10 fold increase in muscle lactate concentration and a substantial increase in muscle lactate and ammonia efflux. Subsequently, lactate efflux was similar during the first three periods, while ammonia efflux was reduced by the third period. Following 1 hr recovery, muscle lactate and phosphocreatine concentrations had returned to resting values, while muscle [ATP] remained 20% lower. During the fourth contraction period no ammonia efflux or change in muscle ATP content occured. Despite such contrasting metabolic responses, muscle tension and oxygen consumption were identical during all contraction periods from 3 to 10 min. Conclusion repeated periods of muscle contraction, with low blood flow, results in cessation of muscle ammonia

  9. Control of abdominal muscles by brain stem respiratory neurons in the cat.

    PubMed

    Miller, A D; Ezure, K; Suzuki, I

    1985-07-01

    Control of abdominal musculature by brain stem respiratory neurons was studied in decerebrate unanesthetized cats by determining 1) which brain stem respiratory neurons could be antidromically activated from the lumbar cord, from which the abdominal muscles receive part of their innervation, and 2) if lumbar-projecting respiratory neurons make monosynaptic connections with abdominal motoneurons. A total of 462 respiratory neurons, located between caudal C2 and the retrofacial nucleus (Bötzinger complex), were tested for antidromic activation from the upper lumbar cord. Fifty-eight percent of expiratory (E) neurons (70/121) in the caudal ventral respiratory group (VRG) between the obex and rostral C1 were antidromically activated from contralateral L1. Eight of these neurons were activated at low thresholds from lamina VIII and IX in the L1-2 gray matter. One-third (14/41) of the E neurons that projected to L1 could also be activated from L4-5. Almost all antidromic E neurons had an augmenting firing pattern. Ten scattered inspiratory (I) neurons projected to L1 but could not be activated from L4-5. No neurons that fired during both E and I phases (phase-spanning neurons) were antidromically activated from the lumbar cord. In order to test for possible monosynaptic connections between descending E neurons and abdominal motoneurons, cross-correlations were obtained between 27 VRG E neurons, which were antidromically activated from caudal L2 and contralateral L1 and L2 abdominal nerve activity (47 neuron-nerve combinations). Only two neurons showed a correlation with one of the two nerves tested. Although there is a large projection to the lumbar cord from expiratory neurons in the ventral respiratory group caudal to the obex, cross-correlation analyses suggest that strong monosynaptic connections between these neurons and abdominal motoneurons are scarce. PMID:3162005

  10. Muscle-contraction properties in overarm throwing movements.

    PubMed

    Grezios, Apostolos K; Gissis, Ioannis Th; Sotiropoulos, Aristomenis A; Nikolaidis, Dimitrios V; Souglis, Athanasios G

    2006-02-01

    On the basis of dynamic and kinematic data, this study identifies the type of muscle contraction in unloaded overarm throwing movements. An unloaded throw or nearly unloaded throw is defined as the throw in which the external resistance is too small (e.g., the team handball, baseball, and water polo throws as well as the tennis and badminton smashes). A special arm-force-measuring apparatus was constructed to imitate an overarm throw. Forty-two subjects were placed into 3 groups: untrained subjects, weight-trained athletes, and team handball players. The measured parameters included the velocity of the initial movement, the release velocity, the velocity of the first 50 milliseconds of the concentric phase, the force value at the moment of deceleration of the initial movement, and the impulse values during the eccentric and concentric phases of the test movement. Statistically significant higher values of the above parameters (p < 0.05) were determined in that test at which the initial speed of movement was higher. Also, the correlation coefficients of the parameters of the initial phase of the throw movement were very high (p < 0.001), especially the parameters related with the movement's first 50 milliseconds. The results support the thesis that the stretch-shortening cycle is the type of muscle contraction in unloaded overarm throws. Furthermore, it is possible to increase the throw velocity by increasing the velocity of the initial movement (i.e., by provoking higher inertia forces). PMID:16503670

  11. NIRS monitoring of muscle contraction to control a prosthetic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Thomas; Zambarbieri, Daniela; Beltrami, Giorgio; Verni, Gennaro

    1999-01-01

    The fitting of upper-extremity amputees requires special efforts, and its significance has been increased by the development of the myoelectrically controlled prosthetic arm. This solution is not free of problems due to the nature of the amputation, to the electromagnetic noise affecting the myelectrical signal and to the perspiration due to the contact between socket and the residual limb. Starting from the fact that NIRS and electromyographic signals are similar during a muscle contraction, we have first studied the NIRS signal during forearm muscle contractions in normal and amputee subjects. Then a new system to interface the NIRS unit and the myoelectrical prosthetic hand has been developed. The NIRS unit has been used as optical sensor and all the operations (I/O and signal processing) are performed via software. This system has been tested on normal and amputee subjects performing hand grasping using a visual biofeedback control scheme. All the subjects have been able to perform these operations demonstrating the NIRS technique. This could represent an alternative solution for controlling a prosthetic device.

  12. The combined effect of electrical stimulation and resistance isometric contraction on muscle atrophy in rat tibialis anterior muscle.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Naoto; Murakami, Shinichiro; Arakawa, Takamitsu; Miki, Akinori; Fujino, Hidemi

    2011-05-01

    Electrical stimulation has been used to prevent muscle atrophy, but this method is different in many previous studies, appropriate stimulation protocol is still not decided. Although resistance exercise has also been shown to be an effective countermeasure on muscle atrophy, almost previous studies carried out an electrical stimulation without resistance. It was hypothesized that electrical stimulation without resistance is insufficient to contract skeletal muscle forcefully, and the combination of electrical stimulation and forceful resistance contraction is more effective than electrical stimulation without resistance to attenuate muscle atrophy. This study investigated the combined effects of electrical stimulation and resistance isometric contraction on muscle atrophy in the rat tibialis anterior muscle. The animals were divided into control, hindlimb unloading (HU), hindlimb unloading plus electrical stimulation (ES), and hindlimb unloading plus the combination of electrical stimulation and resistance isometric contraction (ES+IC). Electrical stimulation was applied to the tibialis anterior muscle percutaneously for total 240 sec per day. In the ES+IC group, the ankle joint was fixed to produce resistance isometric contraction during electrical stimulation. After 7 days, the cross-sectional areas of each muscle fiber type in the HU group decreased. Those were prevented in the ES+IC group rather than the ES group. The expression of heat shock protein 72 was enhanced in the ES and ES+IC groups. These results indicated that although electrical stimulation is effective to prevent muscle atrophy, the combination of electrical stimulation and isometric contraction have further effect. PMID:21619551

  13. ROLE OF ACETYLCHOLINE IN RHYTHMIC SPONTANEOUS CONTRACTIONS OF RAT'S DUODENAL SMOOTH MUSCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study is to reexamine the role of endogenous acetylcholine in spontaneous contractions of smooth muscle whose contractions are associated with cell metabolism. The study does not attempt to define the role of endogenous acetylcholine.

  14. Abdominal Muscle Activity during Mechanical Ventilation Increases Lung Injury in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianming; Wu, Weiliang; Zhu, Yongcheng; Jiang, Ying; Du, Juan; Chen, Rongchang

    2016-01-01

    Objective It has proved that muscle paralysis was more protective for injured lung in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the precise mechanism is not clear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation increases lung injury in severe ARDS. Methods Eighteen male Beagles were studied under mechanical ventilation with anesthesia. Severe ARDS was induced by repetitive oleic acid infusion. After lung injury, Beagles were randomly assigned into spontaneous breathing group (BIPAPSB) and abdominal muscle paralysis group (BIPAPAP). All groups were ventilated with BIPAP model for 8h, and the high pressure titrated to reached a tidal volume of 6ml/kg, the low pressure was set at 10 cmH2O, with I:E ratio 1:1, and respiratory rate adjusted to a PaCO2 of 35–60 mmHg. Six Beagles without ventilator support comprised the control group. Respiratory variables, end-expiratory volume (EELV) and gas exchange were assessed during mechanical ventilation. The levels of Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 in lung tissue and plasma were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Lung injury scores were determined at end of the experiment. Results For the comparable ventilator setting, as compared with BIPAPSB group, the BIPAPAP group presented higher EELV (427±47 vs. 366±38 ml) and oxygenation index (293±36 vs. 226±31 mmHg), lower levels of IL-6(216.6±48.0 vs. 297.5±71.2 pg/ml) and IL-8(246.8±78.2 vs. 357.5±69.3 pg/ml) in plasma, and lower express levels of IL-6 mRNA (15.0±3.8 vs. 21.2±3.7) and IL-8 mRNA (18.9±6.8 vs. 29.5±7.9) in lung tissues. In addition, less lung histopathology injury were revealed in the BIPAPAP group (22.5±2.0 vs. 25.2±2.1). Conclusion Abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation is one of the injurious factors in severe ARDS, so abdominal muscle paralysis might be an effective strategy to minimize ventilator-induce lung injury. PMID:26745868

  15. Contraction of gut smooth muscle cells assessed by fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Tokita, Yohei; Akiho, Hirotada; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Ihara, Eikichi; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    Here we discuss the development of a novel cell imaging system for the evaluation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction. SMCs were isolated from the circular and longitudinal muscular layers of mouse small intestine by enzymatic digestion. SMCs were stimulated by test agents, thereafter fixed in acrolein. Actin in fixed SMCs was stained with phalloidin and cell length was determined by measuring diameter at the large end of phalloidin-stained strings within the cells. The contractile response was taken as the decrease in the average length of a population of stimulated-SMCs. Various mediators and chemically identified compounds of daikenchuto (DKT), pharmaceutical-grade traditional Japanese prokinetics, were examined. Verification of the integrity of SMC morphology by phalloidin and DAPI staining and semi-automatic measurement of cell length using an imaging analyzer was a reliable method by which to quantify the contractile response. Serotonin, substance P, prostaglandin E2 and histamine induced SMC contraction in concentration-dependent manner. Two components of DKT, hydroxy-α-sanshool and hydroxy-β-sanshool, induced contraction of SMCs. We established a novel cell imaging technique to evaluate SMC contractility. This method may facilitate investigation into SMC activity and its role in gastrointestinal motility, and may assist in the discovery of new prokinetic agents. PMID:25837933

  16. Deep abdominal muscle thickness measured under sitting conditions during different stability tasks

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Hideyuki; Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Otsudo, Takahiro; Sawada, Yutaka; Okubo, Yu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate ultrasonically determined changes in the thickness of the transversus abdominis and internal oblique muscles during different sitting conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy men volunteered to participate in this study. Four different sitting conditions including (A) sitting, (B) sitting with left hip flexion, (C) sitting with an abdominal hollowing maneuver (AHM), and (D) sitting with an AHM and left hip flexion, were used. Subjective exercise difficulty was evaluated. [Results] Transversus abdominis and internal oblique muscle thicknesses significantly differed between conditions, with significantly greater thickness between positions from (A) to (D). Stability of the surface when sitting had no effect on the muscle thickness of the transversus abdominis. By contrast, sitting on an unstable surface caused an increase in muscle thickness of the internal oblique in each condition. The subjects reported progressively increasing difficulty in performing each exercise in a stable position from (A) to (D), while the difficulty in an unstable position was significantly different between (A) and (B), and between (C) and (D). [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that task (B) on a stable surface should be chosen for maximal activation of transversus abdominis without inducing overactivation of the internal oblique muscle. PMID:27134381

  17. Co-contraction modifies the stretch reflex elicited in muscles shortened by a joint perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gwyn N.; MacKinnon, Colum D.; Trumbower, Randy; Perreault, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles acting about a joint influences joint stiffness and stability. Although several studies have shown that reflexes in the muscle lengthened by a joint perturbation are modulated during co-contraction, little attention has been given to reflex regulation in the antagonist (shortened) muscle. The goal of the present study was to determine whether co-contraction gives rise to altered reflex regulation across the joint by examining reflexes in the muscle shortened by a joint perturbation. Reflexes were recorded from electromyographic activity in elbow flexors and extensors while positional perturbations to the elbow joint were applied. Perturbations were delivered during isolated activation of the flexor or extensor muscles as well as during flexor and extensor co-contraction. Across the group, the shortening reflex in the elbow extensor switched from suppression during isolated extensor muscle activation to facilitation during co-contraction. The shortening reflex in the elbow flexor remained suppressive during co-contraction but was significantly smaller compared to the response obtained during isolated elbow flexor activation. This response in the shortened muscle was graded by the level of activation in the lengthened muscle. The lengthening reflex did not change during co-contraction. These results support the idea that reflexes are regulated across multiple muscles around a joint. We speculate that the facilitatory response in the shortened muscle arises through a fast-conducting oligosynaptic pathway involving Ib interneurons. PMID:20878148

  18. Syndrome of absent abdominal muscles: two cases with microcephaly, polymicrogyria, and cerebellar malformations

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Reid R.

    1970-01-01

    Two unique cases of the syndrome of absent abdominal muscles with central nervous system involvement are presented. Microcephaly, polymicrogyria, and cerebellar heterotopiae were present in both. In case 1 there was also absence of the corpus callosum and agenesis of the cerebellar vermis. In case 2 a count of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord showed a reduction of approximately 50% in the lower thoracic region. The pertinent literature is briefly discussed. The findings in the nervous system suggest that the syndrome is the result of defective embryogenesis during the first trimester. Images PMID:4250700

  19. Signal transduction in esophageal and LES circular muscle contraction.

    PubMed Central

    Harnett, K. M.; Cao, W.; Kim, N.; Sohn, U. D.; Rich, H.; Behar, J.; Biancani, P.

    1999-01-01

    Contraction of normal esophageal circular muscle (ESO) in response to acetylcholine (ACh) is linked to M2 muscarinic receptors activating at least three intracellular phospholipases, i.e., phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), phospholipase D (PLD), and the high molecular weight (85 kDa) cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) to induce phosphatidylcholine (PC) metabolism, production of diacylglycerol (DAG) and arachidonic acid (AA), resulting in activation of a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway. In contrast, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) contraction induced by maximally effective doses of ACh is mediated by muscarinic M3 receptors, linked to pertussis toxin-insensitive GTP-binding proteins of the G(q/11) type. They activate phospholipase C, which hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2), producing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and DAG. IP3 causes release of intracellular Ca++ and formation of a Ca++-calmodulin complex, resulting in activation of myosin light chain kinase and contraction through a calmodulin-dependent pathway. Signal transduction pathways responsible for maintenance of LES tone are quite distinct from those activated during contraction in response to maximally effective doses of agonists (e.g., ACh). Resting LES tone is associated with activity of a low molecular weight (approximately 14 kDa) pancreatic-like (group 1) secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) and production of arachidonic acid (AA), which is metabolized to prostaglandins and thromboxanes. These AA metabolites act on receptors linked to G-proteins to induce activation of PI- and PC-specific phospholipases, and production of second messengers. Resting LES tone is associated with submaximal PI hydrolysis resulting in submaximal levels of inositol trisphosphate (IP3-induced Ca++ release, and interaction with DAG to activate PKC. In an animal model of acute esophagitis, acid-induced inflammation alters the contractile pathway of ESO and LES. In LES circular

  20. Contractions

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel tightening of your uterus muscles at irregular intervals or a squeezing sensation in your lower abdomen ... beginning of childbirth. These contractions come at regular intervals, usually move from the back to the lower ...

  1. Mechanistic role of movement and strain sensitivity in muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Julien S.; Epstein, Neal D.

    2009-01-01

    Tension generation can be studied by applying step perturbations to contracting muscle fibers and subdividing the mechanical response into exponential phases. The de novo tension-generating isomerization is associated with one of these phases. Earlier work has shown that a temperature jump perturbs the equilibrium constant directly to increase tension. Here, we show that a length jump functions quite differently. A step release (relative movement of thick and thin filaments) appears to release a steric constraint on an ensemble of noncompetent postphosphate release actomyosin cross-bridges, enabling them to generate tension, a concentration jump in effect. Structural studies [Taylor KA, et al. (1999) Tomographic 3D reconstruction of quick-frozen, Ca2+-activated contracting insect flight muscle. Cell 99:421–431] that map to these kinetics indicate that both catalytic and lever arm domains of noncompetent myosin heads change angle on actin, whereas lever arm movement alone mediates the power stroke. Together, these kinetic and structural observations show a 13-nm overall interaction distance of myosin with actin, including a final 4- to 6-nm power stroke when the catalytic domain is fixed on actin. Raising fiber temperature with both perturbation techniques accelerates the forward, but slows the reverse rate constant of tension generation, kinetics akin to the unfolding/folding of small proteins. Decreasing strain, however, causes both forward and reverse rate constants to increase. Despite these changes in rate, the equilibrium constant is strain-insensitive. Activation enthalpy and entropy data show this invariance to be the result of enthalpy–entropy compensation. Reaction amplitudes confirm a strain-invariant equilibrium constant and thus a strain-insensitive ratio of pretension- to tension-generating states as work is done. PMID:19325123

  2. Regulation of ATP supply during muscle contraction: theoretical studies.

    PubMed Central

    Korzeniewski, B

    1998-01-01

    The dynamic computer model of oxidative phosphorylation developed previously and successfully tested for large-scale changes in fluxes and metabolite concentrations was used to study the question of how the rate of ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation is adjusted to meet the energy demand during muscle contraction, which causes a great increase in ATP consumption in relation to the resting state. The changes in the respiration rate and ATP/ADP ratio after the onset of maximal work measured experimentally were compared with simulated changes in the respiration rate and ATP/ADP in several different cases, assuming direct activation of different steps by an external effector. On the basis of the computer simulations performed, it was possible to conclude which enzymes/metabolic blocks should be directly activated to cause the experimentally observable changes in fluxes and metabolite concentrations. The theoretical results obtained suggest that the parallel direct activation of actinomyosin-ATP-ase and oxidative phosphorylation by an external effector (for example calcium ions) is the main mechanism responsible for fitting of ATP production to ATP consumption, while the negative feedback via an increase in ADP concentration (decrease in ATP/ADP), which indirectly activates the ATP supply, plays only a minor role. Additionally, the conclusion is drawn that most of the oxidative phosphorylation steps should be directly activated in order to explain the observed changes in the respiration rate and ATP/ADP ratio (and also in other parameters) during muscle contraction. It is suggested that there should exist a universal external activator/regulatory mechanism which causes a parallel stimulation of different enzymes/processes. A possible nature of such an activator is shortly discussed. PMID:9494084

  3. Mechanistic role of movement and strain sensitivity in muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Davis, Julien S; Epstein, Neal D

    2009-04-14

    Tension generation can be studied by applying step perturbations to contracting muscle fibers and subdividing the mechanical response into exponential phases. The de novo tension-generating isomerization is associated with one of these phases. Earlier work has shown that a temperature jump perturbs the equilibrium constant directly to increase tension. Here, we show that a length jump functions quite differently. A step release (relative movement of thick and thin filaments) appears to release a steric constraint on an ensemble of noncompetent postphosphate release actomyosin cross-bridges, enabling them to generate tension, a concentration jump in effect. Structural studies [Taylor KA, et al. (1999) Tomographic 3D reconstruction of quick-frozen, Ca(2+)-activated contracting insect flight muscle. Cell 99:421-431] that map to these kinetics indicate that both catalytic and lever arm domains of noncompetent myosin heads change angle on actin, whereas lever arm movement alone mediates the power stroke. Together, these kinetic and structural observations show a 13-nm overall interaction distance of myosin with actin, including a final 4- to 6-nm power stroke when the catalytic domain is fixed on actin. Raising fiber temperature with both perturbation techniques accelerates the forward, but slows the reverse rate constant of tension generation, kinetics akin to the unfolding/folding of small proteins. Decreasing strain, however, causes both forward and reverse rate constants to increase. Despite these changes in rate, the equilibrium constant is strain-insensitive. Activation enthalpy and entropy data show this invariance to be the result of enthalpy-entropy compensation. Reaction amplitudes confirm a strain-invariant equilibrium constant and thus a strain-insensitive ratio of pretension- to tension-generating states as work is done. PMID:19325123

  4. The responses of human muscle spindle endings to vibration of non-contracting muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, D; Hagbarth, K E; Löfstedt, L; Wallin, B G

    1976-01-01

    1. In micro-electrode recordings from the human peroneal and tibial nerves, the responses of thirty-two primary spindle endings, thirteen secondary spindle endings and three Golgi tendon organs were studied during vibration of the tendons of the receptor-bearing muscles in the leg. The amplitude of the applied vibration was 1-5 mm and the frequency was varied from 20 to 220 Hz. As checked with e.m.g. and torque measurements, the muscles of the leg were relaxed during the sequences analysed. 2. Providing that the vibrator was accurately applied, all endings responded with discharges phase-locked to the vibration cycles, the discharge rates being at the vibration frequency or at subharmonics of that frequency. The response to vibration was of abrupt onset and offset, was maintained for the duration of vibration, and was not subject to fluctuation with changes in attention or with remote muscle contraction. 3. The maximal discharge rate that could be achieved varied from one ending to the next, and increased with the length of the receptor-bearing muscle. For endings driven at their maximal rate an increase in vibration frequency produced a decrease in discharge rates as the ending changed to a subharmonic pattern of response. The converse occurred on decreasing vibration frequency. 4. For any given muscle length, primary endings could generally be driven to higher rates than secondary endings but there was a wide range of responsiveness within each group and a significant overlap between the groups. At medium muscle length, the most responsive primary endings could be driven up to 220 Hz but secondary endings did not reach discharge rates higher than 100 Hz. 5. With combined vibration and passive movements, primary endings exhibited maximal vibration responsiveness during the stretching phases, sometimes firing twice per vibration cycle. During the shortening phases, however, they usually ceased responding to the vibratory stimulus. The vibration responsiveness of

  5. Generation of Electrical Power from Stimulated Muscle Contractions Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Kilgore, Kevin; Ercegovic, David B.

    2004-01-01

    This project is a collaborative effort between NASA Glenn Research Center's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts (RAC) Project, part of the NASA Aerospace Propulsion and Power Program of the Aerospace Technology Enterprise, and Case Western Reserve University's Cleveland Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) Center. The RAC Project foresees implantable power requirements for future applications such as organically based sensor platforms and robotics that can interface with the human senses. One of the goals of the FES Center is to develop a totally implantable neural prosthesis. This goal is based on feedback from patients who would prefer a system with an internal power source over the currently used system with an external power source. The conversion system under investigation would transform the energy produced from a stimulated muscle contraction into electrical energy. We hypothesize that the output power of the system will be greater than the input power necessary to initiate, sustain, and control the electrical conversion system because of the stored potential energy of the muscle. If the system can be made biocompatible, durable, and with the potential for sustained use, then the biological power source will be a viable solution.

  6. Relationships of Muscular Endurance Among Specific Muscle Groups for Continuous and Intermittent Static Contractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshizaki, Thomas B.; Massey, B. H.

    1986-01-01

    The static contraction endurance characteristics of five muscle groups were investigated in 38 normal, health, college-aged men. Four parameters of continuous and intermittent contractions were examined. Results support the hypothesis that endurance is unique to each muscle group and specific to the task performed. (Author/MT)

  7. Molecular mechanisms of increased vascular smooth muscle contraction in SHR

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R.V.; Aqel, M.B.; Butters, C.; McEldoon, J.; Bhalla, R.C.

    1986-03-01

    The isometric tension development and /sup 45/Ca influx in response to NE and methoxamine stimulation were significantly (P < .05) increased in SHR caudal arteries as compared to WKY. Estimation of /sup 3/H-prazosin binding to the membranes isolated from caudal artery of WKY and SHR showed a single class of high affinity binding sites with Kd values: SHR, 128 +/- 14 pM; WKY, 141 +/- 19 pM and the Bmax values; SHR, 108 +/- 14 fmoles/mg protein; WKY, 113 +/- 21 fmoles/mg protein. Nifedipine inhibition of caudal artery contractions in response to NE stimulation was significantly greater (P < .05) in SHR as compared to WKY. On the other hand, there were no differences between WKY and SHR caudal artery rings either in the isometric tension development, /sup 45/Ca influx or nifedipine inhibition in response to K/sup +/-depolarization. Their results indicate that the increased vascular smooth muscle contraction in SHR in response to NE-stimulation may be due to increased Ca/sup 2 +/ influx through the receptor operated Ca/sup 2 +/ channels.

  8. Influence of Hamstring and Abdominal Muscle Activation on a Positive Ober's Test in People with Lumbopelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Tenney, H. Rich; DeBord, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the immediate effect of hamstring and abdominal activation on pain levels as measured by the Numeric Pain Scale (NPS) and hip range of motion as measured by Ober's Test in people with lumbopelvic pain. Methods: Thirteen participants with lumbopelvic pain and positive Ober's Tests completed an exercise developed by the Postural Restoration Institute™ to recruit hamstrings and abdominal muscles. Results: There was a significant increase in passive hip-adduction angles (p<0.01) and decrease in pain (p<0.01) immediately after the intervention. Conclusion: Specific exercises that activate hamstrings and abdominal muscles appear to immediately improve Ober's Test measurements and reduce pain as measured by the NPS in people with lumbo-pelvic pain. Hamstring/abdominal activation, rather than iliotibial band stretching, may be an effective intervention for addressing lumbopelvic pain and a positive Ober's Test. PMID:24381375

  9. Physiologic properties of contraction of the canine cremaster and cranial preputial muscles.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, T L; Kitchell, R L; Lohse, C L

    1978-12-01

    Contraction properties of the cremaster and the cranial preputial muscles of 11 mature intact male dogs were investigated. Isometric recordings of muscle contractile tension were performed in situ. Muscle contractions were elicited by stimulating the severed motor nerves. Contraction times of 73.8 ms and 103.2 ms were obtained for the cremaster and the cranial preputial muslces, respectively. Application of repetitive stiumuli produced summation of contractions at low stimulus frequencies. Apparent tetanic fusion and maximum tetanic tension were also observed at relatively low stimulus frequencies, 30 Hz for the cremaster muscle and 28 Hz for the cranial preputial muscle. Optimum length for the cremaster muscle was coincident with its observed in situ resting length (+/- 5 mm), but the optimum length for the cranial preputial muslce deviated by some 20 to 25 mm above the resting length. Possible artifactual errors regarding the cranial preputial muslce's length-tension relationship are discussed. PMID:749569

  10. Pre-operative inspiratory muscle training preserves postoperative inspiratory muscle strength following major abdominal surgery – a randomised pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, SR; Fletcher, E; McConnell, AK; Poskitt, KR; Whyman, MR

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this pilot study was to assess the effect of pre-operative inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory variables in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS Respiratory muscle strength (maximum inspiratory [MIP] and expiratory [MEP] mouth pressure) and pulmonary functions were measured at least 2 weeks before surgery in 80 patients awaiting major abdominal surgery. Patients were then allocated randomly to one of four groups (Group A, control; Group B, deep breathing exercises; Group C, incentive spirometry; Group D, specific IMT). Patients in groups B, C and D were asked to train twice daily, each session lasting 15 min, for at least 2 weeks up to the day before surgery. Outcome measurements were made immediately pre-operatively and postop-eratively. RESULTS In groups A, B and C, MIP did not increase from baseline to pre-operative assessments. In group D, MIP increased from 51.5 cmH2O (median) pre-training to 68.5 cmH2O (median) post-training pre-operatively (P < 0.01). Postoperatively, groups A, B and C showed a fall in MIP from baseline (P < 0.01, P < 0.01) and P = 0.06, respectively). No such significant reduction in postoperative MIP was seen in group D (P = 0.36). CONCLUSIONS Pre-operative specific IMT improves MIP pre-operatively and preserves it postoperatively. Further studies are required to establish if this is associated with reduced pulmonary complications. PMID:20663275

  11. The difference between standing and sitting in 3 different seat inclinations on abdominal muscle activity and chest and abdominal expansion in woodwind and brass musicians

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Bronwen J.; O'Dwyer, Nicholas; Halaki, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Wind instrumentalists require a sophisticated functioning of their respiratory system to control their air stream, which provides the power for optimal musical performance. The air supply must be delivered into the instrument in a steady and controlled manner and with enough power by the action of the expiratory musculature to produce the desired level of sound at the correct pitch. It is suggested that playing posture may have an impact on the abdominal muscle activity controlling this expired air, but there is no research on musicians to support this theory. This study evaluated chest and abdominal expansion, via respiratory inductive plethysmography, as well as activation patterns of lower and upper abdominal musculature, using surface electromyography, during performance of a range of typical orchestral repertoire by 113 woodwind and brass players. Each of the five orchestral excerpts was played in one of four randomly allocated postures: standing; sitting flat; sitting inclined forwards; and sitting inclined backwards. Musicians showed a clear preference for playing in standing rather than sitting. In standing, the chest expansion range and maximum values were greater (p < 0.01), while the abdominal expansion was less than in all sitting postures (p < 0.01). Chest expansion patterns did not vary between the three sitting postures, while abdominal expansion was reduced in the forward inclined posture compared to the other sitting postures (p < 0.05). There was no significant variation in abdominal muscle activation between the sitting postures, but the level of activation in sitting was only 2/3 of the significantly higher level observed in standing (p < 0.01). This study has demonstrated significant differences in respiratory mechanics between sitting and standing postures in wind musicians during playing of typical orchestral repertoire. Further research is needed to clarify the complex respiratory mechanisms supporting musical performance. PMID:25202290

  12. Muscle shortening velocity depends on tissue inertia and level of activation during submaximal contractions.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephanie A; Wakeling, James M

    2016-06-01

    In order to perform external work, muscles must do additional internal work to deform their tissue, and in particular, to overcome the inertia due to their internal mass. However, the contribution of the internal mass within a muscle to the mechanical output of that muscle has only rarely been studied. Here, we use a dynamic, multi-element Hill-type muscle model to examine the effects of the inertial mass within muscle on its contractile performance. We find that the maximum strain-rate of muscle is slower for lower activations and larger muscle sizes. As muscle size increases, the ability of the muscle to overcome its inertial load will decrease, as muscle tension is proportional to cross-sectional area and inertial load is proportional to mass. Thus, muscles that are larger in size will have a higher inertial cost to contraction. Similarly, when muscle size and inertial load are held constant, decreasing muscle activation will increase inertial cost to contraction by reducing muscle tension. These results show that inertial loads within muscle contribute to a slowing of muscle contractile velocities (strain-rates), particularly at the submaximal activations that are typical during animal locomotion. PMID:27354711

  13. Limb congestion enhances the synchronization of sympathetic outflow with muscle contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mostoufi-Moab, S.; Herr, M. D.; Silber, D. H.; Gray, K. S.; Leuenberger, U. A.; Sinoway, L. I.

    2000-01-01

    In this report, we examined if the synchronization of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) with muscle contraction is enhanced by limb congestion. To explore this relationship, we applied signal-averaging techniques to the MSNA signal obtained during short bouts of forearm contraction (2-s contraction/3-s rest cycle) at 40% maximal voluntary contraction for 5 min. We performed this analysis before and after forearm venous congestion; an intervention that augments the autonomic response to sustained static muscle contractions via a local effect on muscle afferents. There was an increased percentage of the MSNA noted during second 2 of the 5-s contraction/rest cycles. The percentage of total MSNA seen during this particular second increased from minute 1 to 5 of contraction and was increased further by limb congestion (control minute 1 = 25.6 +/- 2.0%, minute 5 = 32.8 +/- 2.2%; limb congestion minute 1 = 29.3 +/- 2.1%, minute 5 = 37.8 +/- 3.9%; exercise main effect <0.005; limb congestion main effect P = 0.054). These changes in the distribution of signal-averaged MSNA were seen despite the fact that the mean number of sympathetic discharges did not increase over baseline. We conclude that synchronization of contraction and MSNA is seen during short repetitive bouts of handgrip. The sensitizing effect of contraction time and limb congestion are apparently due to feedback from muscle afferents within the exercising muscle.

  14. Electromechanical delay of abdominal muscles is modified by low back pain prevention exercise.

    PubMed

    Szpala, Agnieszka; Rutkowska-Kucharska, Alicja; Drapala, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to assess the effect of a 4-week-long training program on selected parameters: electromechanical delay (EMD) and amplitude of electromyographic signal (EMG). Fourteen female students of the University School of Physical Education participated in the study. Torques and surface electromyography were evaluated under static conditions. Surface electrodes were glued to both sides of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and erector spinae (ES) muscles. The 4-week-long program was aimed at strengthening the abdominal muscles and resulted in increased EMD during maximum torque production by flexors of the trunk, increased amplitudes of the signals of the erector spinae ( p = 0.005), and increased EMG amplitude asymmetry of the lower ( p = 0.013) and upper part ( p = 0.006) of the rectus abdominis muscle. In a training program composed of a large number of repetitions of strength exercises, in which the training person uses their own weight as the load (like in exercises such as curl-ups), the process of recruitment of motor units is similar to that found during fatiguing exercises and plyometric training. PMID:25307027

  15. Regulation of oscillatory contraction in insect flight muscle by troponin.

    PubMed

    Krzic, Uros; Rybin, Vladimir; Leonard, Kevin R; Linke, Wolfgang A; Bullard, Belinda

    2010-03-19

    Insect indirect flight muscle is activated by sinusoidal length change, which enables the muscle to work at high frequencies, and contracts isometrically in response to Ca(2+). Indirect flight muscle has two TnC isoforms: F1 binding a single Ca(2+) in the C-domain, and F2 binding Ca(2+) in the N- and C-domains. Fibres substituted with F1 produce delayed force in response to a single rapid stretch, and those with F2 produce isometric force in response to Ca(2+). We have studied the effect of TnC isoforms on oscillatory work. In native Lethocerus indicus fibres, oscillatory work was superimposed on a level of isometric force that depended on Ca(2+) concentration. Maximum work was produced at pCa 6.1; at higher concentrations, work decreased as isometric force increased. In fibres substituted with F1 alone, work continued to rise as Ca(2+) was increased up to pCa 4.7. Fibres substituted with various F1:F2 ratios produced maximal work at a ratio of 100:1 or 50:1; a higher proportion of F2 increased isometric force at the expense of oscillatory work. The F1:F2 ratio was 9.8:1 in native fibres, as measured by immunofluorescence, using isoform-specific antibodies. The small amount of F2 needed to restore work to levels obtained for the native fibre is likely to be due to the relative affinity of F1 and F2 for TnH, the Lethocerus homologue of TnI. Affinity of TnC isoforms for a TnI fragment of TnH was measured by isothermal titration calorimetry. The K(d) was 1.01 muM for F1 binding and 22.7 nM for F2. The higher affinity of F2 can be attributed to two TnH binding sites on F2 and a single site on F1. Stretch may be sensed by an extended C-terminal domain of TnH, resulting in reversible dissociation of the inhibitory sequence from actin during the oscillatory cycle. PMID:20100491

  16. Contraction and AICAR Stimulate IL-6 Vesicle Depletion From Skeletal Muscle Fibers In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, Hans P.M.M.; Brandauer, Josef; Schjerling, Peter; Koh, Ho-Jin; Treebak, Jonas T.; Hirshman, Michael F.; Galbo, Henrik; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that interleukin 6 (IL-6) is released from contracting skeletal muscles; however, the cellular origin, secretion kinetics, and signaling mechanisms regulating IL-6 secretion are unknown. To address these questions, we developed imaging methodology to study IL-6 in fixed mouse muscle fibers and in live animals in vivo. Using confocal imaging to visualize endogenous IL-6 protein in fixed muscle fibers, we found IL-6 in small vesicle structures distributed throughout the fibers under basal (resting) conditions. To determine the kinetics of IL-6 secretion, intact quadriceps muscles were transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged IL-6 (IL-6-EGFP), and 5 days later anesthetized mice were imaged before and after muscle contractions in situ. Contractions decreased IL-6-EGFP–containing vesicles and protein by 62% (P < 0.05), occurring rapidly and progressively over 25 min of contraction. However, contraction-mediated IL-6-EGFP reduction was normal in muscle-specific AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α2-inactive transgenic mice. In contrast, the AMPK activator AICAR decreased IL-6-EGFP vesicles, an effect that was inhibited in the transgenic mice. In conclusion, resting skeletal muscles contain IL-6–positive vesicles that are expressed throughout myofibers. Contractions stimulate the rapid reduction of IL-6 in myofibers, occurring through an AMPKα2-independent mechanism. This novel imaging methodology clearly establishes IL-6 as a contraction-stimulated myokine and can be used to characterize the secretion kinetics of other putative myokines. PMID:23761105

  17. Intensification of the 5.9-nm actin layer line in contracting muscle.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, I; Yagi, N; Miura, H; Ozeki, M; Izumi, T

    According to the cross-bridge model of muscle contraction, an interaction of myosin heads with interdigitating actin filaments produces tension. Although X-ray equatorial diffraction patterns of active (contracting) muscle show that the heads are in the vicinity of the actin filaments, structural proof of actual attachment of heads to actin during contraction has been elusive. We show here that during contraction of frog skeletal muscle, the 5.9-nm layer line arising from the genetic helix of actin is intensified by as much as 56% of the change which occurs when muscle enters rigor, using a two-dimensional X-ray detector. This provides strong structural evidence that myosin heads do in fact attach during contraction. PMID:6334236

  18. Analysis of Muscle Contraction on Pottery Manufacturing Process Using Electromyography (EMG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soewardi, Hartomo; Azka Rahmayani, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common problems in pottery manufacturing process is musculoskeletal disorders on workers. This disorder was caused by uncomfortable posture where the workers sit on the floor with one leg was folded and another was twisted for long duration. Back, waist, buttock, and right knee frequently experience the disorders. The objective of this research is to investigate the muscle contraction at such body part of workers in manufacturing process of pottery. Electromyography is used to investigate the muscle contraction based on the median frequency signal. Focus measurements is conducted on four muscles types. They are lower interscapular muscle on the right and left side, dorsal lumbar muscle, and lateral hamstring muscle. Statistical analysis is conducted to test differences of muscle contraction between female and male. The result of this research showed that the muscle which reached the highest contraction is dorsal lumbar muscle with the average of median frequency is 51,84 Hz. Then followed by lower interscapular muscle on the left side with the average of median frequency is 31,30 hz, lower interscapular muscle on the right side average of median frequency is 31,24 Hz, and lateral hamstring muscle average of median frequency is 21,77 Hz. Based on the statistic analysis result, there were no differences between male and female on left and right lower interscapular muscle and dorsal lumbar muscle but there were differences on lateral hamstring muscle with the significance level is 5%. Besides that, there were differences for all combination muscle types with the level of significance is 5%.

  19. The vestibular system does not modulate fusimotor drive to muscle spindles in contracting leg muscles of seated subjects.

    PubMed

    Bent, L R; Sander, M; Bolton, P S; Macefield, V G

    2013-06-01

    We previously showed that sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) does not modulate the firing of spontaneously active muscle spindles in relaxed human leg muscles. However, given that there is little, if any, fusimotor drive to relaxed human muscles, we tested the hypothesis that vestibular modulation of muscle spindles becomes apparent during volitional contractions at levels that engage the fusimotor system. Unitary recordings were made from 28 muscle spindle afferents via tungsten microelectrodes inserted percutaneously into the common peroneal nerve of seated awake human subjects. Twenty-one of the spindle afferents were spontaneously active at rest and each increased its firing rate during a weak static contraction; seven were silent at rest and were recruited during the contraction. Sinusoidal bipolar binaural galvanic vestibular stimulation (±2 mA, 100 cycles) was applied to the mastoid processes at 0.8 Hz. This continuous stimulation produced a sustained illusion of "rocking in a boat" or "swinging in a hammock" but no entrainment of EMG. Despite these robust vestibular illusions, none of the fusimotor-driven muscle spindles exhibited phase-locked modulation of firing during sinusoidal GVS. We conclude that this dynamic vestibular input was not sufficient to modulate the firing of fusimotor neurones recruited during a voluntary steady-state contraction, arguing against a significant role of the vestibular system in adjusting the sensitivity of muscle spindles via fusimotor neurones. PMID:23552997

  20. Differential serial sarcomere number adaptations in knee extensor muscles of rats is contraction type dependent.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Timothy A; Leonard, Timothy R; Herzog, Walter

    2005-10-01

    Sarcomerogenesis, or the addition of sarcomeres in series within a fiber, has a profound impact on the performance of a muscle by increasing its contractile velocity and power. Sarcomerogenesis may provide a beneficial adaptation to prevent injury when a muscle consistently works at long lengths, accounting for the repeated-bout effect. The association between eccentric exercise, sarcomerogenesis and the repeated-bout effect has been proposed to depend on damage, where regeneration allows sarcomeres to work at shorter lengths for a given muscle-tendon unit length. To gain additional insight into this phenomenon, we measured fiber dynamics directly in the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle of rats during uphill and downhill walking, and we measured serial sarcomere number in the VL and vastus intermedius (VI) after chronic training on either a decline or incline grade. We found that the knee extensor muscles of uphill walking rats undergo repeated active concentric contractions, and therefore they suffer no contraction-induced injury. Conversely, the knee extensor muscles during downhill walking undergo repeated active eccentric contractions. Serial sarcomere numbers change differently for the uphill and downhill exercise groups, and for the VL and VI muscles. Short muscle lengths for uphill concentric-biased contractions result in a loss of serial sarcomeres, and long muscle lengths for downhill eccentric-biased contractions result in a gain of serial sarcomeres. PMID:15947030

  1. Analysis of dynamic voluntary muscle contractions in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Saara M; Kankaanpää, Markku; Tarvainen, Mika P; Meigal, Alexander Yu; Nuutinen, Juho; Tarkka, Ina M; Airaksinen, Olavi; Karjalainen, Pasi A

    2009-09-01

    A novel method for discrimination of dynamic muscle contractions between patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls on the basis of surface electromyography (EMG) and acceleration measurements is presented. In this method, dynamic EMG and acceleration measurements are analyzed using nonlinear methods and wavelets. Ten parameters capturing Parkinson's disease (PD) characteristic features in the measured signals are extracted. Each parameter is computed as time-varying, and for elbow flexion and extension movements separately. For discrimination between subjects, the dimensionality of the feature vectors formed from these parameters is reduced using a principal component approach. The cluster analysis of the low-dimensional feature vectors is then performed for flexion and extension movements separately. The EMG and acceleration data measured from 49 patients with PD and 59 healthy controls are used for analysis. According to clustering results, the method could discriminate 80 % of patient extension movements from 87 % of control extension movements, and 73 % of patient flexion movements from 82 % of control flexion movements. The results show that dynamic EMG and acceleration measurements can be informative for assessing neuromuscular dysfunction in PD, and furthermore, they may help in the objective clinical assessment of the disease. PMID:19497811

  2. Alcohol intoxication following muscle contraction in mice decreases muscle protein synthesis but not mTOR signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Jennifer L.; Lang, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol [ethanol (EtOH)] intoxication antagonizes stimulation of muscle protein synthesis and mTOR signaling. However, whether the anabolic response can be reversed when alcohol is consumed after the stimulus is unknown. Methods A single bout of electrically stimulated muscle contractions (10 sets of 6 contractions) were induced in fasted male C57BL/6 mice 2 h prior to alcohol intoxication. EtOH was injected IP (3g/kg) and the gastrocnemius/plantaris muscle complex was collected 2 h later from the stimulated and contralateral unstimulated control leg. Results Muscle contraction increased protein synthesis 28% in control mice while EtOH abolished this stimulation-induced increase. Further, EtOH suppressed the rate of synthesis ~75% compared to control muscle irrespective of stimulation. This decrease was associated with impaired protein elongation as EtOH increased the phosphorylation of eEF2 Thr56. In contrast, stimulation-induced increases in mTORC1 (S6K1 Thr421/Ser424, S6K1 Thr389, rpS6 Ser240/244, 4E-BP1 Thr37/46) and MAPK (JNK Thr183/Tyr185, p38 Thr180/Tyr182, and rpS6S235/236) signaling were not reversed by acute EtOH. Conclusion These data suggest that EtOH-induced decreases in protein synthesis in fasted mice may be independent of mTORC1 and MAPK signaling following muscle contraction and instead due to the antagonistic actions of EtOH on mRNA translation elongation. Therefore, EtOH suppresses the contraction-induced increase in protein synthesis and over time has the potential to prevent skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by repeated muscle contraction. PMID:25623400

  3. Local hindlimb antioxidant infusion does not affect muscle glucose uptake during in situ contractions in rat.

    PubMed

    Merry, T L; Dywer, R M; Bradley, E A; Rattigan, S; McConell, G K

    2010-05-01

    There is evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the regulation of skeletal muscle glucose uptake during highly fatiguing ex vivo contraction conditions via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In this study we investigated the role of ROS in the regulation of glucose uptake and AMPK signaling during low-moderate intensity in situ hindlimb muscle contractions in rats, which is a more physiological protocol and preparation. Male hooded Wistar rats were anesthetized, and then N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was infused into the epigastric artery (125 mg.kg(-1).h(-1)) of one hindlimb (contracted leg) for 15 min before this leg was electrically stimulated (0.1-ms impulse at 2 Hz and 35 V) to contract at a low-moderate intensity for 15 min. The contralateral leg did not receive stimulation or local NAC infusion (rest leg). NAC infusion increased (P<0.05) plasma cysteine and cystine (by approximately 360- and 1.4-fold, respectively) and muscle cysteine (by 1.5-fold, P=0.001). Although contraction did not significantly alter muscle tyrosine nitration, reduced (GSH) or oxidized glutathione (GSSG) content, S-glutathionylation of protein bands at approximately 250 and 150 kDa was increased (P<0.05) approximately 1.7-fold by contraction, and this increase was prevented by NAC. Contraction increased (P<0.05) skeletal muscle glucose uptake 20-fold, AMPK phosphorylation 6-fold, ACCbeta phosphorylation 10-fold, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation 60-fold, and the muscle fatigued by approximately 30% during contraction and NAC infusion had no significant effect on any of these responses. This was despite NAC preventing increases in S-glutathionylation with contraction. In conclusion, unlike during highly fatiguing ex vivo contractions, local NAC infusion during in situ low-moderate intensity hindlimb contractions in rats, a more physiological preparation, does not attenuate increases in skeletal muscle glucose uptake or AMPK signaling. PMID:20203065

  4. Forearm Muscle Oxygenation Decreases During Low Levels of Brief, Isometric Contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy Gita; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, Alan R.; Rempel, D. M.; Hargens, Murthy G. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Regional muscle pain syndromes can be caused by repeated and sustained exertion of a specific muscle. Such exertion may elevate local tissue fluid pressure, reduce blood flow and tissue oxygenation (TO2), and cause fatigue, pain and functional deficits of the Involved muscle. Low levels (less than 20% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)) of prolonged static contraction of the upper extremity are common In many occupational settings and May cause fatigue. The purpose of our Investigation was to determine whether TO2 decreases significantly at low levels of static contraction of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB).

  5. In-Vivo Measurement of Muscle Tension: Dynamic Properties of the MC Sensor during Isometric Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Đorđević, Srđan; Tomažič, Sašo; Narici, Marco; Pišot, Rado; Meglič, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue structure in our body and plays an essential role for producing motion through integrated action with bones, tendons, ligaments and joints, for stabilizing body position, for generation of heat through cell respiration and for blood glucose disposal. A key function of skeletal muscle is force generation. Non-invasive and selective measurement of muscle contraction force in the field and in clinical settings has always been challenging. The aim of our work has been to develop a sensor that can overcome these difficulties and therefore enable measurement of muscle force during different contraction conditions. In this study, we tested the mechanical properties of a “Muscle Contraction” (MC) sensor during isometric muscle contraction in different length/tension conditions. The MC sensor is attached so that it indents the skin overlying a muscle group and detects varying degrees of tension during muscular contraction. We compared MC sensor readings over the biceps brachii (BB) muscle to dynamometric measurements of force of elbow flexion, together with recordings of surface EMG signal of BB during isometric contractions at 15° and 90° of elbow flexion. Statistical correlation between MC signal and force was very high at 15° (r = 0.976) and 90° (r = 0.966) across the complete time domain. Normalized SD or σN = σ/max(FMC) was used as a measure of linearity of MC signal and elbow flexion force in dynamic conditions. The average was 8.24% for an elbow angle of 90° and 10.01% for an elbow of angle 15°, which indicates high linearity and good dynamic properties of MC sensor signal when compared to elbow flexion force. The next step of testing MC sensor potential will be to measure tension of muscle-tendon complex in conditions when length and tension change simultaneously during human motion. PMID:25256114

  6. Muscle Co-Contraction Modulates Damping and Joint Stability in a Three-Link Biomechanical Limb

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Stewart; Ferns, Norm; Breakspear, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Computational models of neuromotor control require forward models of limb movement that can replicate the natural relationships between muscle activation and joint dynamics without the burdens of excessive anatomical detail. We present a model of a three-link biomechanical limb that emphasizes the dynamics of limb movement within a simplified two-dimensional framework. Muscle co-contraction effects were incorporated into the model by flanking each joint with a pair of antagonist muscles that may be activated independently. Muscle co-contraction is known to alter the damping and stiffness of limb joints without altering net joint torque. Idealized muscle actuators were implemented using the Voigt muscle model which incorporates the parallel elasticity of muscle and tendon but omits series elasticity. The natural force-length-velocity relationships of contractile muscle tissue were incorporated into the actuators using ideal mathematical forms. Numerical stability analysis confirmed that co-contraction of these simplified actuators increased damping in the biomechanical limb consistent with observations of human motor control. Dynamic changes in joint stiffness were excluded by the omission of series elasticity. The analysis also revealed the unexpected finding that distinct stable (bistable) equilibrium positions can co-exist under identical levels of muscle co-contraction. We map the conditions under which bistability arises and prove analytically that monostability (equifinality) is guaranteed when the antagonist muscles are identical. Lastly we verify these analytic findings in the full biomechanical limb model. PMID:22275897

  7. Muscle co-contraction modulates damping and joint stability in a three-link biomechanical limb.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Stewart; Ferns, Norm; Breakspear, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Computational models of neuromotor control require forward models of limb movement that can replicate the natural relationships between muscle activation and joint dynamics without the burdens of excessive anatomical detail. We present a model of a three-link biomechanical limb that emphasizes the dynamics of limb movement within a simplified two-dimensional framework. Muscle co-contraction effects were incorporated into the model by flanking each joint with a pair of antagonist muscles that may be activated independently. Muscle co-contraction is known to alter the damping and stiffness of limb joints without altering net joint torque. Idealized muscle actuators were implemented using the Voigt muscle model which incorporates the parallel elasticity of muscle and tendon but omits series elasticity. The natural force-length-velocity relationships of contractile muscle tissue were incorporated into the actuators using ideal mathematical forms. Numerical stability analysis confirmed that co-contraction of these simplified actuators increased damping in the biomechanical limb consistent with observations of human motor control. Dynamic changes in joint stiffness were excluded by the omission of series elasticity. The analysis also revealed the unexpected finding that distinct stable (bistable) equilibrium positions can co-exist under identical levels of muscle co-contraction. We map the conditions under which bistability arises and prove analytically that monostability (equifinality) is guaranteed when the antagonist muscles are identical. Lastly we verify these analytic findings in the full biomechanical limb model. PMID:22275897

  8. Inhibition of skeletal muscle protein synthesis in septic intra-abdominal abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Vary, T.C.; Siegel, J.H.; Tall, B.D.; Morris, J.G.; Smith, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    Chronic sepsis is always associated with profound wasting leading to increased release of amino acids from skeletal muscle. Net protein catabolism may be due to decreased rate of synthesis, increased rate of degradation, or both. To determine whether protein synthesis is altered in chronic sepsis, the rate of protein synthesis in vivo was estimated by measuring the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)-phenylalanine in skeletal muscle protein in a chronic (5-day) septic rat model induced by creation of a stable intra-abdominal abscess using an E. coli + B. fragilis-infected sterile fecal-agar pellet as foreign body nidus. Septic rats failed to gain weight at rates similar to control animals, therefore control animals were weight matched to the septic animals. The skeletal muscle protein content in septic animals was significantly reduced relative to control animals (0.18 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.21 +/- 0.01 mg protein/gm wet wt; p less than 0.02). The rate of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)-phenylalanine into skeletal muscle protein from control animals was 39 +/- 4 nmole/gm wet wt/hr or a fractional synthetic rate of 5.2 +/- 0.5%/day. In contrast to control animals, the fractional synthetic rate in septic animals (2.6 +/- 0.2%/day) was reduced by 50% compared to control animals (p less than 0.005). The decreased rate of protein synthesis in sepsis was not due to an energy deficit, as high-energy phosphates and ATP/ADP ratio were not altered. This decrease in protein synthesis occurred even though septic animals consumed as much food as control animals.

  9. Comparison of contraction times of a muscle and its motor units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, E.; Smith, L.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1992-01-01

    The twitch contraction time (CT) for each of 13 soleus (SOL) and 13 medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles was compared with the mean CT from a sample of its motor units (MUs; 356 total) to see if the CT of a whole muscle when tested at its optimal length (Lo) differed systematically from that of its MUs tested at their individual Lo's. The CTs of the whole muscle were significantly longer in the ratio of 1.13. This is consistent with a hypothesis that electrical-field effects result in a more protracted contraction of the individual muscle fiber.

  10. Changes in muscle strength and pain in response to surgical repair of posterior abdominal wall disruption followed by rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Hemingway, A; Herrington, L; Blower, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Posterior abdominal wall deficiency (PAWD) is a tear in the external oblique aponeurosis or the conjoint tendon causing a posterior wall defect at the medial end of the inguinal canal. It is often known as sportsman's hernia and is believed to be caused by repetitive stress. Objective: To assess lower limb and abdominal muscle strength of patients with PAWD before intervention compared with matched controls; to evaluate any changes following surgical repair and rehabilitation. Methods: Sixteen subjects were assessed using a questionnaire, isokinetic testing of the lower limb strength, and pressure biofeedback testing of the abdominals. After surgery and a six week rehabilitation programme, the subjects were re-evaluated. A control group were assessed using the same procedure. Results: Quadriceps and hamstrings strength was not affected by this condition. A deficit hip muscle strength was found on the affected limb before surgery, which was significant for the hip flexors (p = 0.05). Before surgery, 87% of the patients compared with 20% of the controls failed the abdominal obliques test. Both the injured and non-injured sides had improved significantly in strength after surgery and rehabilitation. The strength of the abdominal obliques showed the most significant improvement over the course of the rehabilitation programme. Conclusions: Lower limb muscle strength may have been reduced as the result of disuse atrophy or pain inhibition. Abdominal oblique strength was deficient in the injured patients and this compromises rotational control of the pelvis. More sensitive investigations (such as electromyography) are needed to assess the link between abdominal oblique function and groin injury. PMID:12547744

  11. Impedance Alterations in Healthy and Diseased Mice During Electrically Induced Muscle Contraction.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Benjamin; Li, Jia; Geisbush, Tom; Bardia, Ramon Bragos; Rutkove, Seward B

    2016-08-01

    Alterations in the health of muscles can be evaluated through the use of electrical impedance myography (EIM). To date, however, nearly all work in this field has relied upon the measurement of muscle at rest. To provide an insight into the contractile mechanisms of healthy and disease muscle, we evaluated the alterations in the spectroscopic impedance behavior of muscle during the active process of muscle contraction. The gastrocnemii from a total of 13 mice were studied (five wild type, four muscular dystrophy animals, and four amyotrophic lateral sclerosis animals). Muscle contraction was induced via monophasic current pulse stimulation of the sciatic nerve. Simultaneously, multisine EIM (1 kHz to 1 MHz) and force measurements of the muscle were performed. Stimulation was applied at three different rates to produce mild, moderate, and strong contractions. We identified changes in both single and multifrequency data, as assessed by the Cole impedance model parameters. The processes of contraction and relaxation were clearly identified in the impedance spectra and quantified via derivative plots. Reductions in the center frequency fc were observed during the contraction consistent with the increasing muscle fiber diameter. Different EIM stimulation rate-dependencies were also detected across the three groups of animals. PMID:24800834

  12. Characterization of an acute muscle contraction model using cultured C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Yasuko; Miyatake, Shouta; Takagi, Mayumi; Nakamura, Mio; Okeda, Ai; Nakano, Taemi; Hirshman, Michael F; Goodyear, Laurie J; Fujii, Nobuharu L

    2012-01-01

    A cultured C2C12 myotube contraction system was examined for application as a model for acute contraction-induced phenotypes of skeletal muscle. C2C12 myotubes seeded into 4-well rectangular plates were placed in a contraction system equipped with a carbon electrode at each end. The myotubes were stimulated with electric pulses of 50 V at 1 Hz for 3 ms at 997-ms intervals. Approximately 80% of the myotubes were observed to contract microscopically, and the contractions lasted for at least 3 h with electrical stimulation. Calcium ion (Ca²⁺) transient evoked by the electric pulses was detected fluorescently with Fluo-8. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt (Akt), 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2, which are intracellular signaling proteins typically activated in exercised/contracted skeletal muscle, was observed in the electrically stimulated C2C12 myotubes. The contractions induced by the electric pulses increased glucose uptake and depleted glycogen in the C2C12 myotubes. C2C12 myotubes that differentiated after exogenous gene transfection by a lipofection or an electroporation method retained their normal contractile ability by electrical stimulation. These findings show that our C2C12 cell contraction system reproduces the muscle phenotypes that arise invivo (exercise), in situ (hindlimb muscles in an anesthetized animal), and invitro (dissected muscle tissues in incubation buffer) by acute muscle contraction, demonstrating that the system is applicable for the analysis of intracellular events evoked by acute muscle contraction. PMID:23300713

  13. Computation and Evaluation of Features of Surface Electromyogram to Identify the Force of Muscle Contraction and Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Arjunan, Sridhar P.; Kumar, Dinesh K.; Naik, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between force of muscle contraction and muscle fatigue with six different features of surface electromyogram (sEMG) was determined by conducting experiments on thirty-five volunteers. The participants performed isometric contractions at 50%, 75%, and 100% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Six features were considered in this study: normalised spectral index (NSM5), median frequency, root mean square, waveform length, normalised root mean square (NRMS), and increase in synchronization (IIS) index. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression analysis were performed to determine the significance of the feature with respect to the three factors: muscle force, muscle fatigue, and subject. The results show that IIS index of sEMG had the highest correlation with muscle fatigue and the relationship was statistically significant (P < 0.01), while NSM5 associated best with level of muscle contraction (%MVC) (P < 0.01). Both of these features were not affected by the intersubject variations (P > 0.05). PMID:24995275

  14. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids attenuate inflammation in rat muscle and enhance muscle repair after eccentric contraction.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Miura, Kyoko; Nakano, Sayako; Suzuki, Katsuya; Bannai, Makoto; Inoue, Yoshiko

    2016-09-01

    Eccentric exercise results in prolonged muscle damage that may lead to muscle dysfunction. Although inflammation is essential to recover from muscle damage, excessive inflammation may also induce secondary damage, and should thus be suppressed. In this study, we investigated the effect of leucine-enriched essential amino acids on muscle inflammation and recovery after eccentric contraction. These amino acids are known to stimulate muscle protein synthesis via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which, is also considered to alleviate inflammation. Five sets of 10 eccentric contractions were induced by electrical stimulation in the tibialis anterior muscle of male SpragueDawley rats (8-9 weeks old) under anesthesia. Animals received a 1 g/kg dose of a mixture containing 40 % leucine and 60 % other essential amino acids or distilled water once a day throughout the experiment. Muscle dysfunction was assessed based on isometric dorsiflexion torque, while inflammation was evaluated by histochemistry. Gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and myogenic regulatory factors was also measured. We found that leucine-enriched essential amino acids restored full muscle function within 14 days, at which point rats treated with distilled water had not fully recovered. Indeed, muscle function was stronger 3 days after eccentric contraction in rats treated with amino acids than in those treated with distilled water. The amino acid mix also alleviated expression of interleukin-6 and impeded infiltration of inflammatory cells into muscle, but did not suppress expression of myogenic regulatory factors. These results suggest that leucine-enriched amino acids accelerate recovery from muscle damage by preventing excessive inflammation. PMID:27168073

  15. Role of the medial medullary reticular formation in relaying vestibular signals to the diaphragm and abdominal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mori, R. L.; Bergsman, A. E.; Holmes, M. J.; Yates, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in posture can affect the resting length of respiratory muscles, requiring alterations in the activity of these muscles if ventilation is to be unaffected. Recent studies have shown that the vestibular system contributes to altering respiratory muscle activity during movement and changes in posture. Furthermore, anatomical studies have demonstrated that many bulbospinal neurons in the medial medullary reticular formation (MRF) provide inputs to phrenic and abdominal motoneurons; because this region of the reticular formation receives substantial vestibular and other movement-related input, it seems likely that medial medullary reticulospinal neurons could adjust the activity of respiratory motoneurons during postural alterations. The objective of the present study was to determine whether functional lesions of the MRF affect inspiratory and expiratory muscle responses to activation of the vestibular system. Lidocaine or muscimol injections into the MRF produced a large increase in diaphragm and abdominal muscle responses to vestibular stimulation. These vestibulo-respiratory responses were eliminated following subsequent chemical blockade of descending pathways in the lateral medulla. However, inactivation of pathways coursing through the lateral medulla eliminated excitatory, but not inhibitory, components of vestibulo-respiratory responses. The simplest explanation for these data is that MRF neurons that receive input from the vestibular nuclei make inhibitory connections with diaphragm and abdominal motoneurons, whereas a pathway that courses laterally in the caudal medulla provides excitatory vestibular inputs to these motoneurons.

  16. Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque over the entire range of isometric contraction intensity.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Filiz; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Jubeau, Marc; Frappart, Thomas; Couade, Mathieu; Bercoff, Jeremy; Nordez, Antoine

    2015-08-01

    Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque during low-level contractions (<60% of Maximal Voluntary Contraction, MVC). This measurement can therefore be used to estimate changes in individual muscle force. However, it is not known if this relationship remains valid for higher intensities. The aim of this study was to determine: (i) the relationship between muscle shear elastic modulus and muscle torque over the entire range of isometric contraction and (ii) the influence of the size of the region of interest (ROI) used to average the shear modulus value. Ten healthy males performed two incremental isometric little finger abductions. The joint torque produced by Abductor Digiti Minimi was considered as an index of muscle torque and elastic modulus. A high coefficient of determination (R(2)) (range: 0.86-0.98) indicated that the relationship between elastic modulus and torque can be accurately modeled by a linear regression over the entire range (0% to 100% of MVC). The changes in shear elastic modulus as a function of torque were highly repeatable. Lower R(2) values (0.89±0.13 for 1/16 of ROI) and significantly increased absolute errors were observed when the shear elastic modulus was averaged over smaller ROI, half, 1/4 and 1/16 of the full ROI) than the full ROI (mean size: 1.18±0.24cm(2)). It suggests that the ROI should be as large as possible for accurate measurement of muscle shear modulus. PMID:25956546

  17. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A

    2015-06-01

    Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness. PMID:26171383

  18. Contraction-free, fume-fixed longitudinal sections of fresh frozen muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Danny A.; Slocum, Glenn R.

    1988-01-01

    Contraction damage occurring when longitudinal frozen sections of fresh unfixed muscles are thawed on microscope slides has limited histological examination of this tissue mainly to cross sections. Longitudinally oriented sections are advantageous for investigating properties that vary along the length of the muscle fibers. A fume fixation technique has been developed for preventing contraction of thick longitudinal frozen sections. The technique is compatible with histochemical staining of enzymes.

  19. Dystrophin expression following the transplantation of normal muscle precursor cells protects mdx muscle from contraction-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Joel; Dumont, Nicolas; Lebel, Carl; Quenneville, Simon P; Côté, Claude H; Frenette, Jérome; Tremblay, Jacques P

    2010-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent muscular dystrophy. Currently, there is no cure for the disease. The transplantation of muscle precursor cells (MPCs) is one of the possible treatments, because it can restore the expression of dystrophin in DMD muscles. In this study, we investigated the effects of myoblasts injected with cardiotoxin on the contractile properties and resistance to eccentric contractions of transplanted and nontransplanted muscles. We used the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) as a model for our study. We conclude that the sole presence of dystrophin in a high percentage of muscle fibers is not sufficient by itself to increase the absolute or the specific force in the EDL of transplanted mdx muscle. This lack of strength increase may be due to the extensive damage that was produced by the cardiotoxin, which was coinjected with the myoblasts. However, the dystrophin presence is sufficient to protect muscle from eccentric damage as indicated by the force drop results. PMID:20650035

  20. Analysis of muscle coupling during isokinetic endurance contractions by means of nonlinear prediction.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Martínez, Mónica; Alonso, Joan F; Chaler, Joaquim; Mañanas, Miquel A

    2013-01-01

    Isokinetic exercises have been extensively used in order to analyze muscle imbalances and changes associated with fatigue. It is known that such changes are difficult to assess from EMG signals during dynamic contractions, especially, using linear signal processing tools. The aim of this work was to use nonlinear prediction in order to analyze muscle couplings and interactions in this context and to assess the load-sharing of different muscles during fatigue. Results show promising for detecting interaction strategies between muscles and even for the interaction between muscles and the output torque during endurance tests. PMID:24110859

  1. Superoxide release from contracting skeletal muscle in pulmonary TNF-α overexpression mice

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Allison H.; Roberts, William J.; Wagner, Peter D.; Hogan, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often results in increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine, which circulates in the blood. However, it is not clear whether pulmonary TNF-α overexpression (a COPD mimic) induces excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in skeletal muscle and thereby may contribute to the muscle impairment often seen in COPD. We hypothesized that ROS generation in contracting skeletal muscle is elevated when there is TNF-α overproduction in the lung and that this can induce muscle dysfunction. Cytochrome c (cyt c) in the perfusate was used to assay superoxide (O2·−) release from isolated contracting soleus muscles from transgenic mice of pulmonary TNF-α overexpression (Tg+) and wild-type (WT) mice. Our results showed that Tg+ muscle released significantly higher levels of O2·− than WT during a period of intense contractile activity (in nmol/mg wt; 17.5 ± 2.3 vs. 4.4 ± 1.3, respectively; n = 5; P < 0.05). In addition, the soleus muscle demonstrated a significantly reduced fatigue resistance in Tg+ mice compared with WT mice. Perfusion of the contracting soleus muscle with superoxide dismutase, which specifically scavenges O2·− in the perfusate, resulted in significantly less cyt c reduction, thereby indicating that the type of ROS released from the Tg+ muscles is O2·−. Our results demonstrate that pulmonary TNF-α overexpression leads to a greater O2·− release from contracting soleus muscle in Tg+ compared with WT and that the excessive formation of O2·− in the contracting muscle of Tg+ mice leads to earlier fatigue. PMID:24196666

  2. Time course of vasodilation at the onset of repetitive skeletal muscle contractions.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Marika L; Dua, Ashok K; Murrant, Coral L

    2007-01-01

    To characterize the vasodilatory response in the transition from a single skeletal contraction to a series of contractions, we measured the response of hamster cremaster muscle arterioles associated with four to five skeletal muscle fibers stimulated to contract for one, two, three, or four contractions (250-ms train duration) at 4-s intervals [15 contractions per minute (CPM)] for up to 12 s, at stimulus frequencies of 4, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 80 Hz. To investigate the contribution of contraction frequency, we stimulated muscle fiber bundles at 30 or 60 CPM for 12 s at stimulus frequencies of 4, 20, and 60 Hz. Arteriolar diameters at the site of overlap with the stimulated muscle fibers were measured before and after each contraction. At 15 CPM at 4, 20, and 60 Hz, we observed a peak change in diameter following the first contraction of 1.1 +/- 0.1, 1.6 +/- 0.2, and 2.1 +/- 0.2 mum that almost doubled in response to the second contraction (2.0 +/- 0.1, 3.0 +/- 0.1, and 3.8 +/- 0.1 mum, respectively), but there was no further dilation following the third or fourth contraction. A similar response occurred at all stimulus and contraction frequencies tested. At 30 and 60 CPM at 60 Hz, the plateau after two contractions was followed by a further increase in diameter to a second plateau at 7-8 s. Therefore, the vasodilatory response in the transition from single to multiple contractions had components that were stimulation parameter dependent and independent and showed a plateauing behavior indicative of rapid changes in either the nature and/or concentration of vasodilators released or changes in vascular reactivity. PMID:16931651

  3. A Simple, Inexpensive Model to Demonstrate How Contraction of GI Longitudinal Smooth Muscle Promotes Propulsion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Peristalis is a propulsive activity that involves both circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the esophagus, distal stomach, and small and large intestines. During peristalsis, the circular smooth muscle contracts behind (on the orad side) the bolus and relaxes in front (on the aborad side) of the bolus. At the same time, the longitudinal…

  4. Ablation of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain SM2 increases smooth muscle contraction and results in postnatal death in mice.

    PubMed

    Chi, Mei; Zhou, Yingbi; Vedamoorthyrao, Srikanth; Babu, Gopal J; Periasamy, Muthu

    2008-11-25

    The physiological relevance of smooth muscle myosin isoforms SM1 and SM2 has not been understood. In this study we generated a mouse model specifically deficient in SM2 myosin isoform but expressing SM1, using an exon-specific gene targeting strategy. The SM2 homozygous knockout (SM2(-/-)) mice died within 30 days after birth, showing pathologies including segmental distention of alimentary tract, retention of urine in renal pelvis, distension of bladder, and the development of end-stage hydronephrosis. In contrast, the heterozygous (SM2(+/-)) mice appeared normal and reproduced well. In SM2(-/-) bladder smooth muscle the loss of SM2 myosin was accompanied by a concomitant down-regulation of SM1 and a reduced number of thick filaments. However, muscle strips from SM2(-/-) bladder showed increased contraction to K(+) depolarization or in response to M3 receptor agonist Carbachol. An increase of contraction was also observed in SM2(-/-) aorta. However, the SM2(-/-) bladder was associated with unaltered regulatory myosin light chain (MLC20) phosphorylation. Moreover, other contractile proteins, such as alpha-actin and tropomyosin, were not altered in SM2(-/-) bladder. Therefore, the loss of SM2 myosin alone could have induced hypercontractility in smooth muscle, suggesting that distinctly from SM1, SM2 may negatively modulate force development during smooth muscle contraction. Also, because SM2(-/-) mice develop lethal multiorgan dysfunctions, we propose this regulatory property of SM2 is essential for normal contractile activity in postnatal smooth muscle physiology. PMID:19011095

  5. Contribution of abdominal muscle strength to various activities of daily living of stroke patients with mild paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Yamamoto, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The trunk muscles frequently become weak after stroke, thus impacting overall activities of daily living. However, activities of daily living items closely related with trunk strength remain unclear. This study aimed to clarify the influence of trunk muscle weakness on activities of daily living items. [Subjects] The subjects were 24 stroke patients who fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: first stroke and the absence of severe paralysis, marked cognitive function deterioration, unilateral spatial neglect or apathy. [Methods] According to abdominal strength, the 24 patients were divided into a nonweakness group and a weakness group. For the assessment, we used the stroke impairment assessment set, the Berg balance scale, a simple test for evaluating hand function, grip strength, and functional independence measure scale scores and the results were compared between the groups. [Results] The Berg balance scale score and scores for dressing, toilet use, transfer to bed, and walk items of the functional independence measure were significantly lower in the weakness group than in the nonweakness group. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that weakness of the abdominal muscles adversely impacts the balance of patients with mild stroke as well as their ability to dress, use a toilet, transfer, and walk. Trunk training, including abdominal muscle exercises, can effectively improve the performance of these activities of daily living items. PMID:25931737

  6. Characterization of muscarinic receptors mediating relaxation and contraction in the rat iris dilator muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Y; Yamahara, N S; Tanaka, M; Ryang, S; Kawai, T; Imaizumi, Y; Watanabe, M

    1995-01-01

    1. The characteristics of muscarinic receptors mediating relaxation and/or contraction in the rat iris dilator muscle were examined. 2. Relaxation was induced in a dilator muscle by application of acetylcholine (ACh) at low doses (3 microM or less) and contraction was induced by high doses. Methacholine and carbachol also showed biphasic effects similar to those of ACh; in contrast, bethanechol, arecoline, pilocarpine and McN-A-343 induced mainly relaxation but no substantial contraction. 3. After parasympathetic denervation by ciliary ganglionectomy, the relaxant response to muscarinic agonists disappeared upon nerve stimulation. Application of McN-A-343 and pilocarpine induced only small contractions in denervated dilator muscles, indicating that these are partial agonists for contraction. 4. pA2 values of pirenzepine, methoctramine, AF-DX 116, himbacine, and 4-DAMP for antagonism to pilocarpine-induced relaxation in normal dilator muscles and those for antagonism to ACh-induced contraction in denervated dilator muscles were determined. The pA2 values for antagonism to relaxation of all these antagonists were most similar to those for M3-type muscarinic receptors. 5. Although pA2 values for contraction of these antagonists, except for methoctramine, were very close to those for relaxation, contraction was not significantly antagonized by methoctramine. Contraction might be mediated by M3-like receptors which have a very low affinity for methoctramine. 6. In conclusion, ACh-induced biphasic responses in rat iris dilator muscles were clearly distinguished from each other by specific muscarinic agonists and parasympathetic denervation, whereas muscarinic receptors could not be subclassified according to the pA2 values of 5 specific antagonists only. PMID:7539696

  7. Force Measurement During Contraction to Assess Muscle Function in Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Sloboda, Darcée D.; Claflin, Dennis R.; Dowling, James J.; Brooks, Susan V.

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish larvae provide models of muscle development, muscle disease and muscle-related chemical toxicity, but related studies often lack functional measures of muscle health. In this video article, we demonstrate a method to measure force generation during contraction of zebrafish larval trunk muscle. Force measurements are accomplished by placing an anesthetized larva into a chamber filled with a salt solution. The anterior end of the larva is tied to a force transducer and the posterior end of the larva is tied to a length controller. An isometric twitch contraction is elicited by electric field stimulation and the force response is recorded for analysis. Force generation during contraction provides a measure of overall muscle health and specifically provides a measure of muscle function. Although we describe this technique for use with wild-type larvae, this method can be used with genetically modified larvae or with larvae treated with drugs or toxicants, to characterize muscle disease models and evaluate treatments, or to study muscle development, injury, or chemical toxicity. PMID:23912162

  8. Downstream mechanisms of nitric oxide-mediated skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction.

    PubMed

    Merry, Troy L; Lynch, Gordon S; McConell, Glenn K

    2010-12-01

    There is evidence that nitric oxide (NO) is required for the normal increases in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction, but the mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. We examined whether NO regulates glucose uptake during skeletal muscle contractions via cGMP-dependent or cGMP-independent pathways. Isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from mice were stimulated to contract ex vivo, and potential NO signaling pathways were blocked by the addition of inhibitors to the incubation medium. Contraction increased (P < 0.05) NO synthase (NOS) activity (∼40%) and dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence (a marker of oxidant levels; ∼95%), which was prevented with a NOS inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), and antioxidants [nonspecific antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC); thiol-reducing agent, DTT], respectively. L-NMMA and NAC both attenuated glucose uptake during contraction by ∼50% (P < 0.05), and their effects were not additive. Neither the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, which prevents the formation of cGMP, the cGMP-dependent protein (PKG) inhibitor Rp-8-bromo-β-phenyl-1,N2-ethenoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate sodium salt nor white light, which breaks S-nitrosylated bonds, affects glucose uptake during contraction; however, DTT attenuated (P < 0.05) contraction-stimulated glucose uptake (by 70%). NOS inhibition and antioxidant treatment reduced contraction-stimulated increases in protein S-glutathionylation and tyrosine nitration (P < 0.05), without affecting AMPK or p38 MAPK phosphorylation. In conclusion, we provide evidence to suggest that NOS-derived oxidants regulate skeletal muscle glucose uptake during ex vivo contractions via a cGMP/PKG-, AMPK-, and p38 MAPK-independent pathway. In addition, it appears that NO and ROS may regulate skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction through a similar pathway. PMID:20943856

  9. Captopril augments acetylcholine-induced bronchial smooth muscle contractions in vitro via kinin-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Naman; Akella, Aparna; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2016-06-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors therapy is aassociated with bothersome dry cough as an adverse effect. The mechanisms underlying this adverse effect are not clear. Therefore, influence of captopril (an ACE inhibitor) on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced bronchial smooth muscle contractions was investigated. Further, the mechanisms underlying the captopril-induced changes were also explored. In vitro contractions of rat bronchial smooth muscle to cumulative concentrations of ACh were recorded before and after exposure to captopril. Further, the involvement of kinin and inositol triphosphate (IP₃) pathways for captopril-induced alterations were explored. ACh produced concentration-dependent (5-500 µM) increase in bronchial smooth muscle contractions. Pre-treatment with captopril augmented the ACh-induced contractions at each concentration significantly. Pre-treatment with aprotinin (kinin synthesis inhibitor) or heparin (inositol triphosphate, IP₃-inhibitor), blocked the captopril-induced augmentation of bronchial smooth muscle contractions evoked by ACh. Further, captopril-induced augmentation was absent in calcium-free medium. These results suggest that captopril sensitizes bronchial smooth muscles to ACh-induced contractions. This sensitization may be responsible for dry cough associated with captopril therapy. PMID:27468462

  10. Muscle Fatigue Affects the Interpolated Twitch Technique When Assessed Using Electrically-Induced Contractions in Human and Rat Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Neyroud, Daria; Cheng, Arthur J.; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Place, Nicolas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is the gold standard to assess voluntary activation and central fatigue. Yet, its validity has been questioned. Here we studied how peripheral fatigue can affect the ITT. Repeated contractions at submaximal frequencies were produced by supramaximal electrical stimulations of the human adductor pollicis muscle in vivo and of isolated rat soleus fiber bundles; an extra stimulation pulse was given during contractions to induce a superimposed twitch. Human muscles fatigued by repeated 30-Hz stimulation trains (3 s on–1 s off) showed an ~80% reduction in the superimposed twitch force accompanied by a severely reduced EMG response (M-wave amplitude), which implies action potential failure. Subsequent experiments combined a less intense stimulation protocol (1.5 s on–3 s off) with ischemia to cause muscle fatigue, but which preserved M-wave amplitude. However, the superimposed twitch force still decreased markedly more than the potentiated twitch force; with ITT this would reflect increased “voluntary activation.” In contrast, the superimposed twitch force was relatively spared when a similar protocol was performed in rat soleus bundles. Force relaxation was slowed by >150% in fatigued human muscles, whereas it was unchanged in rat soleus bundles. Accordingly, results similar to those in the human muscle were obtained when relaxation was slowed by cooling the rat soleus muscles. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that muscle fatigue can confound the quantification of central fatigue using the ITT.

  11. Effects of hypoxia and glucose-removal condition on muscle contraction of the smooth muscles of porcine urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    NAGAI, Yuta; KANEDA, Takeharu; MIYAMOTO, Yasuyuki; NURUKI, Takaomi; KANDA, Hidenori; URAKAWA, Norimoto; SHIMIZU, Kazumasa

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the dependence of aerobic energy metabolism and utilization of glucose in contraction of urinary bladder smooth muscle, we investigated the changes in the reduced pyridine nucleotide (PNred) fluorescence, representing glycolysis activity, and determined the phosphocreatine (PCr) and ATP contents of the porcine urinary bladder during contractions induced by high K+ or carbachol (CCh) and with and without hypoxia (achieved by bubbling N2 instead of O2) or in a glucose-free condition. Hyperosmotic addition of 65 mM KCl (H-65K+) and 1 µM CCh induced a phasic contraction followed by a tonic contraction. A glucose-free physiological salt solution (PSS) did not change the subsequent contractile responses to H-65K+ and CCh. However, hypoxia significantly attenuated H-65K+- and CCh-induced contraction. H-65K+ and CCh induced a sustained increase in PNred fluorescence, representing glycolysis activity. Hypoxia enhanced H-65K+- and CCh-induced increases in PNred fluorescence, whereas glucose-free PSS decreased these increases, significantly. In the presence of H-65K+, hypoxia decreased the PCr and ATP contents; however, the glucose-free PSS did not change the PCr contents. In conclusion, we demonstrated that high K+- and CCh-induced contractions depend on aerobic metabolism and that an endogenous substrate may be utilized to maintain muscle contraction in a glucose-free PSS in the porcine urinary bladder. PMID:26369431

  12. Smooth muscle and purinergic contraction of the human, rabbit, rat, and mouse testicular capsule.

    PubMed

    Banks, Frederick C L; Knight, Gillian E; Calvert, Robert C; Turmaine, Mark; Thompson, Cecil S; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Morgan, Robert J; Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2006-03-01

    The smooth-muscle cells of the testicular capsule (tunica albuginea) of man, rat, and mouse were examined by electron microscopy. They were characteristically flattened, elongated, branching cells and diffusely incorporated into the collagenous matrix and did not form a compact muscle layer. Contractile and synthetic smooth-muscle cell phenotypes were identified. Nerve varicosities in close apposition to smooth muscle were seen in human tissue. Contractions induced by adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), alpha, beta-methylene ATP, noradrenaline (NA), acetylcholine (ACh), and electrical field stimulation (EFS) of autonomic nerves were investigated. Nerve-mediated responses of the rabbit and human tunica albuginea were recorded. The EFS-induced human responses were completely abolished by prazosin. In the rabbit, EFS-induced contractile responses were reduced by pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid by 36% and by prazosin by 77%. Both antagonists together almost completely abolished all EFS-induced contractions. The human tunica albuginea was contracted by NA, ATP, and alpha, beta-methylene ATP, but not by ACh. The rabbit and rat tunica albuginea were contracted by NA, ATP, alpha, beta-methylene ATP, and ACh. The mouse tunica albuginea was contracted by ACh, ATP, and alpha, beta-methylene ATP, but relaxed to NA. Immunohistochemical studies showed that P2X1 (also known as P2RX1) and P2X2 (also known as P2RX2) receptors were expressed on the smooth muscle of the rodent testicular capsule, expression being less pronounced in man. The testicular capsule of the rat, mouse, rabbit, and man all contain contractile smooth muscle. ATP, released as a cotransmitter from sympathetic nerves, can stimulate the contraction of rabbit smooth muscle. Human, rat, and mouse testicular smooth muscle demonstrated purinergic responsiveness, probably mediated through the P2X1 and/or P2X2 receptors. PMID:16280417

  13. The role of TRPP2 in agonist-induced gallbladder smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xingguo; Fu, Jie; Song, Kai; Xue, Nairui; Gong, Renhua; Sun, Dengqun; Luo, Huilai; He, Wenzhu; Pan, Xiang; Shen, Bing; Du, Juan

    2016-04-01

    TRPP2 channel protein belongs to the superfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and is widely expressed in various tissues, including smooth muscle in digestive gut. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that TRPP2 can mediate Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+) stores. However, the functional role of TRPP2 in gallbladder smooth muscle contraction still remains unclear. In this study, we used Ca(2+) imaging and tension measurements to test agonist-induced intracellular Ca(2+) concentration increase and smooth muscle contraction of guinea pig gallbladder, respectively. When TRPP2 protein was knocked down in gallbladder muscle strips from guinea pig, carbachol (CCh)-evoked Ca(2+) release and extracellular Ca(2+) influx were reduced significantly, and gallbladder contractions induced by endothelin 1 and cholecystokinin were suppressed markedly as well. CCh-induced gallbladder contraction was markedly suppressed by pretreatment with U73122, which inhibits phospholipase C to terminate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3) production, and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB), which inhibits IP3 recepor (IP3R) to abolish IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) release. To confirm the role of Ca(2+) release in CCh-induced gallbladder contraction, we used thapsigargin (TG)-to deplete Ca(2+) stores via inhibiting sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase and eliminate the role of store-operated Ca(2+) entry on the CCh-induced gallbladder contraction. Preincubation with 2 μmol L(-1) TG significantly decreased the CCh-induced gallbladder contraction. In addition, pretreatments with U73122, 2APB or TG abolished the difference of the CCh-induced gallbladder contraction between TRPP2 knockdown and control groups. We conclude that TRPP2 mediates Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores, and has an essential role in agonist-induced gallbladder muscle contraction. PMID:26660312

  14. The effects of 5-HT on sensory, central and motor neurons driving the abdominal superficial flexor muscles in the crayfish.

    PubMed

    Strawn, J R; Neckameyer, W S; Cooper, R L

    2000-12-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) induces a variety of physiological and behavioral effects in crustaceans. However, the mechanisms employed by 5-HT to effect behavioral changes are not fully understood. Among the mechanisms by which these changes might occur are alterations in synaptic drive and efficacy of sensory, interneurons and motor neurons, as well as direct effects on muscles. We investigated these aspects with the use of a defined sensory-motor system, which is entirely contained within a single abdominal segment and consists of a 'cuticular sensory neurons segmental ganglia abdominal superficial flexor motor neurons-muscles' circuit. Our studies address the role of 5-HT in altering (1) the activity of motor neurons induced by sensory stimulation; (2) the inherent excitability of superficial flexor motor neurons; (3) transmitter release properties of the motor nerve terminal and (4) input resistance of the muscle. Using en passant recordings from the motor nerve, with and without sensory stimulation, and intracellular recordings from the muscle, we show that 5-HT enhances sensory drive and output from the ventral nerve cord resulting in an increase in the firing frequency of the motor neurons. Also, 5-HT increases transmitter release at the neuromuscular junction, and alters input resistance of the muscle fibers. PMID:11281271

  15. The relationship between cough-specific quality of life and abdominal muscle endurance, fatigue, and depression in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Arikan, Hulya; Savci, Sema; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Saglam, Melda; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Coplu, Lutfi

    2015-01-01

    Background Cough is a prevalent symptom that impacts quality of life in COPD. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between cough-specific quality of life, abdominal muscle endurance, fatigue, and depression in stable patients with COPD. Methods Twenty-eight patients with COPD (mean age 60.6±8.7 years) referred for pulmonary rehabilitation participated in this cross-sectional study. Sit-ups test was used for assessing abdominal muscle endurance. Leicester Cough Questionnare (LCQ) was used to evaluate symptom-specific quality of life. Fatigue perception was evaluated with Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS). Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used for assessing depression level. Results The LCQ total score was significantly associated with number of sit-ups; BDI score; FIS total; physical, cognitive, and psychosocial scores (P<0.05). Scores of the LCQ physical, social, and psychological domains were also significantly related with number of sit-ups, FIS total score, and BDI score (P<0.05). FIS total score and number of sit-ups explained 58% of the variance in LCQ total score (r=0.76, r2=0.577, F(2–20)=12.296, P<0.001). Conclusion Chronic cough may adversely affect performance in daily life due to its negative effect on fatigue and decrease abdominal muscle endurance in patients with COPD. Decreased cough-related quality of life is related with increased level of depression in COPD patients. Effects of increased abdominal muscle endurance and decreased fatigue in COPD patients with chronic cough need further investigation. PMID:26379433

  16. Control of respiration by the hypothalamus and by feedback from contracting muscles in cats.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, T G; Mullins, D C; Millhorn, D E

    1986-06-01

    Central command and feedback from contracting muscles are two mechanisms which are thought to control the respiratory and cardiovascular systems during exercise. In this study, we compared the individual and combined responses to activation of central command and to muscular contraction in anesthetized cats. Continuous electrical stimulation of the subthalamic locomotor region (STLR) was used to simulate central command (Eldridge et al., 1985). Static (tetanic) contraction of hindlimb muscles was produced by stimulating the cut peripheral ends of the L7-S1 ventral roots. Despite similar increases in arterial pressure, STLR stimulation caused larger increases in cardiac frequency and respiration than that evoked by muscular contraction. When performed during muscular contraction, STLR still caused large increases in respiration, arterial pressure and cardiac frequency. In contrast, muscular contraction when induced during STLR stimulation caused only small increases in respiration and modest changes in arterial pressure and cardiac frequency. These results suggest that central command and feedback from contracting muscles exert different respiratory and cardiovascular effects when activated simultaneously than when activated individually. In addition, central command, as activated by STLR stimulation, predominates over the responses caused by muscular contraction. PMID:3738257

  17. Characterizing rapid-onset vasodilation to single muscle contractions in the human leg.

    PubMed

    Credeur, Daniel P; Holwerda, Seth W; Restaino, Robert M; King, Phillip M; Crutcher, Kiera L; Laughlin, M Harold; Padilla, Jaume; Fadel, Paul J

    2015-02-15

    Rapid-onset vasodilation (ROV) following single muscle contractions has been examined in the forearm of humans, but has not yet been characterized in the leg. Given known vascular differences between the arm and leg, we sought to characterize ROV following single muscle contractions in the leg. Sixteen healthy men performed random ordered single contractions at 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) using isometric knee extension made with the leg above and below heart level, and these were compared with single isometric contractions of the forearm (handgrip). Single thigh cuff compressions (300 mmHg) were utilized to estimate the mechanical contribution to leg ROV. Continuous blood flow was determined by duplex-Doppler ultrasound and blood pressure via finger photoplethysmography (Finometer). Single isometric knee extensor contractions produced intensity-dependent increases in peak leg vascular conductance that were significantly greater than the forearm in both the above- and below-heart level positions (e.g., above heart level: leg 20% MVC, +138 ± 28% vs. arm 20% MVC, +89 ± 17%; P < 0.05). Thigh cuff compressions also produced a significant hyperemic response, but these were brief and smaller in magnitude compared with single isometric contractions in the leg. Collectively, these data demonstrate the presence of a rapid and robust vasodilation to single muscle contractions in the leg that is largely independent of mechanical factors, thus establishing the leg as a viable model to study ROV in humans. PMID:25539935

  18. Exploring smooth muscle phenotype and function in a bioreactor model of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) are central to arterial structure and function yet their involvement in the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease is not well studied. The progressive and silent nature of AAA in man essentially restricts research to the use of “end-stage” tissue recovered during surgical repair. This study aimed to generate an ex vivo model of AAA using protease-treated porcine carotid arteries maintained in a novel bioreactor, and to compare the structural and functional changes in SMC cultured from the recovered vessels with those from human tissue acquired at elective surgical repair. Methods Freshly isolated porcine arteries were pretreated with collagenase and/or elastase before culturing under flow in a bioreactor for 12 days. Human end-stage aneurysmal tissue and saphenous veins from age-matched controls were collected from patients undergoing surgery. SMC were cultured and characterised (immunocytochemistry, measurement of spread cell area) and assessed functionally at the level of proliferation (cell-counting) and matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion (gelatin zymography). Cellular senescence was investigated using β-galactosidase staining and apoptosis was quantified using a fluorescence-based caspase 3 assay. Results Co-expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain confirmed all cell populations as SMC. Porcine SMC harvested and cultivated after collagenase/elastase pretreatment displayed a prominent “rhomboid” morphology, increased spread area (32%, P < 0.01), impaired proliferation (47% reduction, P < 0.05), increased senescence (52%, P < 0.001), susceptibility to apoptosis and reduced MMP-2 secretion (60% decrease, P < 0.01) compared with SMC from vehicle, collagenase or elastase pre-treated vessels. Notably, these changes were comparable to those observed in human AAA SMC which were 2.4-fold larger than non-aneurysmal SMC (P < 0.001) and

  19. Identification and Validation of Novel Contraction-Regulated Myokines Released from Primary Human Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Raschke, Silja; Eckardt, Kristin; Bjørklund Holven, Kirsten; Jensen, Jørgen; Eckel, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Proteins secreted by skeletal muscle, so called myokines, have been shown to affect muscle physiology and additionally exert systemic effects on other tissues and organs. Although recent profiling studies have identified numerous myokines, the amount of overlap from these studies indicates that the secretome of skeletal muscle is still incompletely characterized. One limitation of the models used is the lack of contraction, a central characteristic of muscle cells. Here we aimed to characterize the secretome of primary human myotubes by cytokine antibody arrays and to identify myokines regulated by contraction, which was induced by electrical pulse stimulation (EPS). In this study, we validated the regulation and release of two selected myokines, namely pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), which were recently described as adipokines. This study reveals that both factors, DPP4 and PEDF, are secreted by primary human myotubes. PEDF is a contraction-regulated myokine, although PEDF serum levels from healthy young men decrease after 60 min cycling at VO2max of 70%. Most interestingly, we identified 52 novel myokines which have not been described before to be secreted by skeletal muscle cells. For 48 myokines we show that their release is regulated by contractile activity. This profiling study of the human skeletal muscle secretome expands the number of myokines, identifies novel contraction-regulated myokines and underlines the overlap between proteins which are adipokines as well as myokines. PMID:23637948

  20. Decreased vascular smooth muscle cell density in medial degeneration of human abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    López-Candales, A.; Holmes, D. R.; Liao, S.; Scott, M. J.; Wickline, S. A.; Thompson, R. W.

    1997-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by structural deterioration of the aortic wall leading to progressive aortic dilatation and eventual rupture. The histopathological changes in AAAs are particularly evident within the elastic media, which is normally dominated by vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). To determine whether a decrease in vascular SMCs contributes to medial degeneration, we measured SMC density in 21 normal and pathological human abdominal aortic tissue specimens using immunohistochemistry for alpha-SMC actin and direct cell counts (medial SMCs per high-power field (HPF)). Medial SMC density was not significantly different between normal aorta (n = 5; 199.5 +/- 14.9 SMCs/HPF) and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (n = 6; 176.4 +/- 13.9 SMCs/HPF), but it was reduced by 74% in AAA (n = 10; 50.9 +/- 6.1 SMCs/HPF; P < 0.01 versus normal aorta). Light and electron microscopy revealed no evidence of overt cellular necrosis, but SMCs in AAAs exhibited ultrastructural changes consistent with apoptosis. Using in situ end-labeling (ISEL) of fragmented DNA to detect apoptotic cells, up to 30% of aortic wall cells were ISEL positive in AAAs. By double-labeling techniques, many of these cells were alpha-actin-positive SMCs distributed throughout the degenerative media. In contrast, ISEL-positive cells were observed only within the intimal plaque in atherosclerotic occlusive disease. The amount of p53 protein detected by immunoblotting was increased nearly fourfold in AAA compared with normal aorta and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (P < 0.01), and immunoreactive p53 was localized to lymphocytes and residual SMCs in the aneurysm wall. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays a substantial amount of p53 mRNA expression was observed in AAAs. These results demonstrate that medial SMC density is significantly decreased in human AAA tissues associated with evidence of SMC apoptosis and increased production of p53, a potential

  1. Optical induction of muscle contraction at the tissue scale through intrinsic cellular amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jonghee; Choi, Myunghwan; Ku, Taeyun; Choi, Won Jong; Choi, Chulhee

    2014-08-01

    The smooth muscle cell is the principal component responsible for involuntary control of visceral organs, including vascular tonicity, secretion, and sphincter regulation. It is known that the neurotransmitters released from nerve endings increase the intracellular Ca(2+) level in smooth muscle cells followed by muscle contraction. We herein report that femtosecond laser pulses focused on the diffraction-limited volume can induce intracellular Ca(2+) increases in the irradiated smooth muscle cell without neurotransmitters, and locally increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels are amplified by calcium-induced calcium-releasing mechanisms through the ryanodine receptor, a Ca(2+) channel of the endoplasmic reticulum. The laser-induced Ca(2+) increases propagate to adjacent cells through gap junctions. Thus, ultrashort-pulsed lasers can induce smooth muscle contraction by controlling Ca(2+), even with optical stimulation of the diffraction-limited volume. This optical method, which leads to reversible and reproducible muscle contraction, can be used in research into muscle dynamics, neuromuscular disease treatment, and nanorobot control. PMID:23650149

  2. Behavior of human gastrocnemius muscle fascicles during ramped submaximal isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    Héroux, Martin E; Stubbs, Peter W; Herbert, Robert D

    2016-09-01

    Precise estimates of muscle architecture are necessary to understand and model muscle mechanics. The primary aim of this study was to estimate continuous changes in fascicle length and pennation angle in human gastrocnemius muscles during ramped plantar flexor contractions at two ankle angles. The secondary aim was to determine whether these changes differ between proximal and distal fascicles. Fifteen healthy subjects performed ramped contractions (0-25% MVC) as ultrasound images were recorded from the medial (MG, eight sites) and lateral (LG, six sites) gastrocnemius muscle with the ankle at 90° and 120° (larger angles correspond to shorter muscle lengths). In all subjects, fascicles progressively shortened with increasing torque. MG fascicles shortened 5.8 mm (11.1%) at 90° and 4.5 mm (12.1%) at 120°, whereas LG muscle fascicles shortened 5.1 mm (8.8%) at both ankle angles. MG pennation angle increased 1.4° at 90° and 4.9° at 120°, and LG pennation angle decreased 0.3° at 90° and increased 2.6° at 120°. Muscle architecture changes were similar in proximal and distal fascicles at both ankle angles. This is the first study to describe continuous changes in fascicle length and pennation angle in the human gastrocnemius muscle during ramped isometric contractions. Very similar changes occurred in proximal and distal muscle regions. These findings are relevant to studies modeling active muscle mechanics. PMID:27604399

  3. EMG parameters and EEG α Index change at fatigue period during different types of muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Zhou, Bin; Song, Gaoqing

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure and analyze the characteristics in change of EMG and EEG parameters at muscle fatigue period in participants with different exercise capacity. Twenty participants took part in the tests. They were divided into two groups, Group A (constant exerciser) and Group B (seldom-exerciser). MVC dynamic and 1/3 isometric exercises were performed; EMG and EEG signals were recorded synchronously during different type of muscle contraction. Results indicated that values of MVC, RMS and IEMG in Group A were greater than Group B, but isometric exercise time was shorter than the time of dynamic exercise although its intensity was light. Turning point of IEMG and α Index occurred synchronously during constant muscle contraction of isometric or dynamic exercise. It is concluded that IEMG turning point may be an indication to justify muscle fatigue. Synchronization of EEG and EMG reflects its common characteristics on its bio-electric change.

  4. EMG parameters and EEG α Index change at fatigue period during different types of muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Zhou, Bin; Song, Gaoqing

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure and analyze the characteristics in change of EMG and EEG parameters at muscle fatigue period in participants with different exercise capacity. Twenty participants took part in the tests. They were divided into two groups, Group A (constant exerciser) and Group B (seldom-exerciser). MVC dynamic and 1/3 isometric exercises were performed; EMG and EEG signals were recorded synchronously during different type of muscle contraction. Results indicated that values of MVC, RMS and IEMG in Group A were greater than Group B, but isometric exercise time was shorter than the time of dynamic exercise although its intensity was light. Turning point of IEMG and α Index occurred synchronously during constant muscle contraction of isometric or dynamic exercise. It is concluded that IEMG turning point may be an indication to justify muscle fatigue. Synchronization of EEG and EMG reflects its common characteristics on its bio-electric change.

  5. ATP cost of muscle contraction is associated with motor unit discharge rate in humans.

    PubMed

    Christie, Anita D; Foulis, Stephen A; Kent, Jane A

    2016-08-26

    Although a neural component has been suggested to contribute to the energetic cost of muscle contraction in vivo, the association between neural and energetic factors has not been determined during voluntary contractions in humans. Twenty young (24±1years, 10 women) healthy individuals performed isometric ankle dorsiflexion contractions at 20%, 50% and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction torque on two occasions during which measures of either motor unit discharge rates (MUDR, by indwelling electromyography) or ATP cost of contraction (by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy) were obtained. Both MUDR and ATP cost increased with increasing contraction intensity (p≤0.02). A strong, positive relationship (r(2)=0.70; p<0.001) was observed between MUDR and ATP cost. These results suggest that a substantial portion of the variability in ATP cost can be explained by MUDR, and thus demonstrate that motor unit rate coding is likely an important neural factor contributing to energetic cost in vivo. PMID:27397010

  6. Muscle contraction phenotypic analysis enabled by optogenetics reveals functional relationships of sarcomere components in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hyundoo; Barnes, Dawn E.; Matsunaga, Yohei; Benian, Guy M.; Ono, Shoichiro; Lu, Hang

    2016-01-01

    The sarcomere, the fundamental unit of muscle contraction, is a highly-ordered complex of hundreds of proteins. Despite decades of genetics work, the functional relationships and the roles of those sarcomeric proteins in animal behaviors remain unclear. In this paper, we demonstrate that optogenetic activation of the motor neurons that induce muscle contraction can facilitate quantitative studies of muscle kinetics in C. elegans. To increase the throughput of the study, we trapped multiple worms in parallel in a microfluidic device and illuminated for photoactivation of channelrhodopsin-2 to induce contractions in body wall muscles. Using image processing, the change in body size was quantified over time. A total of five parameters including rate constants for contraction and relaxation were extracted from the optogenetic assay as descriptors of sarcomere functions. To potentially relate the genes encoding the sarcomeric proteins functionally, a hierarchical clustering analysis was conducted on the basis of those parameters. Because it assesses physiological output different from conventional assays, this method provides a complement to the phenotypic analysis of C. elegans muscle mutants currently performed in many labs; the clusters may provide new insights and drive new hypotheses for functional relationships among the many sarcomere components.

  7. Muscle contraction phenotypic analysis enabled by optogenetics reveals functional relationships of sarcomere components in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyundoo; Barnes, Dawn E.; Matsunaga, Yohei; Benian, Guy M.; Ono, Shoichiro; Lu, Hang

    2016-01-01

    The sarcomere, the fundamental unit of muscle contraction, is a highly-ordered complex of hundreds of proteins. Despite decades of genetics work, the functional relationships and the roles of those sarcomeric proteins in animal behaviors remain unclear. In this paper, we demonstrate that optogenetic activation of the motor neurons that induce muscle contraction can facilitate quantitative studies of muscle kinetics in C. elegans. To increase the throughput of the study, we trapped multiple worms in parallel in a microfluidic device and illuminated for photoactivation of channelrhodopsin-2 to induce contractions in body wall muscles. Using image processing, the change in body size was quantified over time. A total of five parameters including rate constants for contraction and relaxation were extracted from the optogenetic assay as descriptors of sarcomere functions. To potentially relate the genes encoding the sarcomeric proteins functionally, a hierarchical clustering analysis was conducted on the basis of those parameters. Because it assesses physiological output different from conventional assays, this method provides a complement to the phenotypic analysis of C. elegans muscle mutants currently performed in many labs; the clusters may provide new insights and drive new hypotheses for functional relationships among the many sarcomere components. PMID:26822332

  8. Inhibition of tracheal smooth muscle contraction and myosin phosphorylation by ryanodine

    SciTech Connect

    Gerthoffer, W.T.; Murphey, K.A.; Khoyi, M.A.

    1988-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that muscarinic activation of airway smooth muscle in low Ca++ solutions increases myosin phosphorylation without increasing tension. Blocking Ca++ influx reduced phosphorylation, but not to basal levels. It was proposed that release of intracellular Ca++ contributed to dissociation of phosphorylation and contraction. To test this hypothesis the effects of ryanodine were studied under similar conditions. Ryanodine (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) antagonized caffeine-induced contraction of canine tracheal smooth muscle. Ryanodine also reduced carbachol-induced contractions and carbachol-induced myosin phosphorylation. The effect of ryanodine on potassium and serotonin-induced contractions was also investigated to test for a nonspecific inhibitory effect. In contrast to the effect on carbachol responses, ryanodine (10(-5) M) potentiated the contractile response to low concentrations of serotonin and potassium, but had no effect on the maximum response to either stimulant. Carbachol (10(-6) M) and ryanodine (10(-5) M) both significantly decreased /sup 45/Ca++ content of tracheal muscle. The effect of ryanodine and carbachol together on /sup 45/Ca++ content was not greater than either drug alone suggesting that ryanodine reduces the caffeine and carbachol responses by depleting releaseable Ca++ stores. Ryanodine significantly reduced Ca++-induced contraction and myosin phosphorylation in carbachol-stimulated muscle, suggesting that some of the Ca++ responsible for elevated phosphorylation is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

  9. Ultrasound-Derived Abdominal Muscle Thickness Better Detects Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Obese Patients than Skeletal Muscle Index Measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Ido, Ayumi; Nakayama, Yuki; Ishii, Kojiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sato, Koji; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia has never been diagnosed based on site-specific muscle loss, and little is known about the relationship between site-specific muscle loss and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. To this end, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between site-specific muscle size and MetS risk factors. Subjects were 38 obese men and women aged 40-82 years. Total body fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured using B-mode ultrasound scanning in six body regions. Subjects were classified into general obesity (GO) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) groups using the threshold values of one standard deviation below the sex-specific means of either MTH or skeletal muscle index (SMI) measured by DXA. MetS risk score was acquired by standardizing and summing the following continuously distributed variables: visceral fat area, mean blood pressure, HbA1c, and serum triglyceride / high density lipoprotein cholesterol, to obtain the Z-score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the MetS risk score was independently associated with abdominal MTH in all subjects, but not with MTH in other muscle regions, including the thigh. Although HbA1c and the number of MetS risk factors in the SO group were significantly higher than those in the GO group, there were no significant differences between GO and SO groups as defined by SMI. Ultrasound-derived abdominal MTH would allow a better assessment of sarcopenia in obese patients and can be used as an alternative to the conventionally-used SMI measured by DXA. PMID:26700167

  10. Ultrasound-Derived Abdominal Muscle Thickness Better Detects Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Obese Patients than Skeletal Muscle Index Measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    PubMed Central

    Ido, Ayumi; Nakayama, Yuki; Ishii, Kojiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sato, Koji; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia has never been diagnosed based on site-specific muscle loss, and little is known about the relationship between site-specific muscle loss and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. To this end, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between site-specific muscle size and MetS risk factors. Subjects were 38 obese men and women aged 40–82 years. Total body fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured using B-mode ultrasound scanning in six body regions. Subjects were classified into general obesity (GO) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) groups using the threshold values of one standard deviation below the sex-specific means of either MTH or skeletal muscle index (SMI) measured by DXA. MetS risk score was acquired by standardizing and summing the following continuously distributed variables: visceral fat area, mean blood pressure, HbA1c, and serum triglyceride / high density lipoprotein cholesterol, to obtain the Z-score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the MetS risk score was independently associated with abdominal MTH in all subjects, but not with MTH in other muscle regions, including the thigh. Although HbA1c and the number of MetS risk factors in the SO group were significantly higher than those in the GO group, there were no significant differences between GO and SO groups as defined by SMI. Ultrasound-derived abdominal MTH would allow a better assessment of sarcopenia in obese patients and can be used as an alternative to the conventionally-used SMI measured by DXA. PMID:26700167

  11. Potentiation of carbachol-induced detrusor smooth muscle contractions by β-adrenoceptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Klausner, Adam P; Rourke, Keith F; Miner, Amy S; Ratz, Paul H

    2011-01-01

    In strips of rabbit bladder free of urothelium, the β-adrenoceptor agonist, isoproterenol, significantly reduced basal detrusor smooth muscle tone and inhibited contractions produced by low concentrations of the muscarinic receptor agonist, carbachol. During a carbachol concentration-response curve, instead of inhibiting, isoproterenol strengthened contractions produced by high carbachol concentrations. Thus, the carbachol concentration-response curve was shifted by isoproterenol from a shallow, graded relationship, to a steep, switch-like relationship. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, inhibited carbachol-induced contractions only in the presence of isoproterenol. Contraction produced by a single high carbachol concentration (1 µM) displayed 1 fast and 1 slow peak. In the presence of isoproterenol, the slow peak was not strengthened, but was delayed, and U-0126 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor) selectively inhibited this delay concomitantly with inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Isoproterenol reduced ERK phosphorylation only in the absence of carbachol. These data support the concept that, by inhibiting weak contractions, potentiating strong contractions, and producing a more switch-like concentration-response curve, β-adrenoceptor stimulation enhanced the effectiveness of muscarinic receptor-induced detrusor smooth muscle contraction. Moreover, β-adrenoceptor stimulation changed the cellular mechanism by which carbachol produced contraction. The potential significance of multi-receptor and multi-cell crosstalk is discussed. PMID:19374847

  12. Responses in muscle afferent fibres of slow conduction velocity to contractions and ischaemia in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Mense, S; Stahnke, M

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out to what extent muscle receptors with slowly conducting afferent fibres (group III and IV) are activated by muscular contractions of moderate force, and what kind of muscle afferents could mediate the pain of ischaemic exercise. In chloralose-anaesthetized cats, the impulse activity of single afferent units from the triceps surae muscle was recorded from dorsal root filaments during muscular contractions with intact blood supply and after occlusion of the muscle artery. Two types of responses were observed to contractions without muscular ischaemia. One was characterized by sudden onset and a graded response amplitude to contractions of increasing force. In most cases stretching the muscle was also an effective stimulus. Units showing this response behaviour were labelled c.s.m (contraction-sensitive with mechanical mechanism of activation). The other response type had a more delayed onset and often outlasted the exercise period; because of the unknown mechanism of activation, units of this kind were labelled c.s.x. The proportion of c.s.m receptors was significantly higher amongst group III than amongst group IV units. During ischaemic contractions of comparable force the c.s.m and c.s.x receptors exhibited an unchanged or a decreased response amplitude. Under these conditions another receptor type (N, for nociceptive) was activated which did not respond to contractions with intact blood supply. Vigorous activations during ischaemic work were only observed in group IV receptors. The majority of the 131 group III and IV units tested did not respond to contractions at all. These contraction-insensitive (c.i.) endings probably comprised different receptor populations (nociceptors, thermoreceptors, low-threshold mechanoreceptors). It is concluded that the various central nervous effects of muscular exercise without ischaemia which are known to be due to raised activity in thin muscle afferents (e.g. cardiopulmonary adjustments

  13. Proprioceptive acuity predicts muscle co-contraction of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis in older adults' dynamic postural control.

    PubMed

    Craig, C E; Goble, D J; Doumas, M

    2016-05-13

    Older adults use a different muscle strategy to cope with postural instability, in which they 'co-contract' the muscles around the ankle joint. It has been suggested that this is a compensatory response to age-related proprioceptive decline however this view has never been assessed directly. The current study investigated the association between proprioceptive acuity and muscle co-contraction in older adults. We compared muscle activity, by recording surface electromyography (EMG) from the bilateral tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles, in young (aged 18-34) and older adults (aged 65-82) during postural assessment on a fixed and sway-referenced surface at age-equivalent levels of sway. We performed correlations between muscle activity and proprioceptive acuity, which was assessed using an active contralateral matching task. Despite successfully inducing similar levels of sway in the two age groups, older adults still showed higher muscle co-contraction. A stepwise regression analysis showed that proprioceptive acuity measured using variable error was the best predictor of muscle co-contraction in older adults. However, despite suggestions from previous research, proprioceptive error and muscle co-contraction were negatively correlated in older adults, suggesting that better proprioceptive acuity predicts more co-contraction. Overall, these results suggest that although muscle co-contraction may be an age-specific strategy used by older adults, it is not to compensate for age-related proprioceptive deficits. PMID:26905952

  14. Complex myograph allows the examination of complex muscle contractions for the assessment of muscle force, shortening, velocity, and work in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rahe-Meyer, Niels; Pawlak, Matthias; Weilbach, Christian; Osthaus, Wilhelm Alexander; Ruhschulte, Hainer; Solomon, Cristina; Piepenbrock, Siegfried; Winterhalter, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background The devices used for in vivo examination of muscle contractions assess only pure force contractions and the so-called isokinetic contractions. In isokinetic experiments, the extremity and its muscle are artificially moved with constant velocity by the measuring device, while a tetanic contraction is induced in the muscle, either by electrical stimulation or by maximal voluntary activation. With these systems, experiments cannot be performed at pre-defined, constant muscle length, single contractions cannot be evaluated individually and the separate examination of the isometric and the isotonic components of single contractions is not possible. Methods The myograph presented in our study has two newly developed technical units, i.e. a). a counterforce unit which can load the muscle with an adjustable, but constant force and b). a length-adjusting unit which allows for both the stretching and the contraction length to be infinitely adjustable independently of one another. The two units support the examination of complex types of contraction and store the counterforce and length-adjusting settings, so that these conditions may be accurately reapplied in later sessions. Results The measurement examples presented show that the muscle can be brought to every possible pre-stretching length and that single isotonic or complex isometric-isotonic contractions may be performed at every length. The applied forces act during different phases of contraction, resulting into different pre- and after-loads that can be kept constant – uninfluenced by the contraction. Maximal values for force, shortening, velocity and work may be obtained for individual muscles. This offers the possibility to obtain information on the muscle status and to monitor its changes under non-invasive measurement conditions. Conclusion With the Complex Myograph, the whole spectrum of a muscle's mechanical characteristics may be assessed. PMID:18616815

  15. Dynamics of male pelvic floor muscle contraction observed with transperineal ultrasound imaging differ between voluntary and evoked coughs

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, Ryan E.; Mazzone, Stuart; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Constantinou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Coughing provokes stress urinary incontinence, and voluntary coughs are employed clinically to assess pelvic floor dysfunction. Understanding urethral dynamics during coughing in men is limited, and it is unclear whether voluntary coughs are an appropriate surrogate for spontaneous coughs. We aimed to investigate the dynamics of urethral motion in continent men during voluntary and evoked coughs. Thirteen men (28–42 years) with no history of urological disorders volunteered to participate. Transperineal ultrasound (US) images were recorded and synchronized with measures of intraabdominal pressure (IAP), airflow, and abdominal/chest wall electromyography during voluntary coughs and coughs evoked by inhalation of nebulized capsaicin. Temporal and spatial aspects of urethral movement induced by contraction of the striated urethral sphincter (SUS), levator ani (LA), and bulbocavernosus (BC) muscles and mechanical aspects of cough generation were investigated. Results showed coughing involved complex urethral dynamics. Urethral motion implied SUS and BC shortening and LA lengthening during preparatory and expulsion phases. Evoked coughs resulted in greater IAP, greater bladder base descent (LA lengthening), and greater midurethral displacement (SUS shortening). The preparatory inspiration cough phase was shorter during evoked coughs, as was the latency between onset of midurethral displacement and expulsion. Maximum midurethral displacement coincided with maximal bladder base descent during voluntary cough, but followed it during evoked cough. The data revealed complex interaction between muscles involved in continence in men. Spatial and temporal differences in urethral dynamics and cough mechanics between cough types suggest that voluntary coughing may not adequately assess capacity of the continence mechanism. PMID:24526580

  16. A DIC Based Technique to Measure the Contraction of a Skeletal Muscle Engineered Tissue.

    PubMed

    Rizzuto, Emanuele; Carosio, Silvia; Faraldi, Martina; Pisu, Simona; Musarò, Antonio; Del Prete, Zaccaria

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary science based on the application of engineering approaches to biologic tissue formation. Engineered tissue internal organization represents a key aspect to increase biofunctionality before transplant and, as regarding skeletal muscles, the potential of generating contractile forces is dependent on the internal fiber organization and is reflected by some macroscopic parameters, such as the spontaneous contraction. Here we propose the application of digital image correlation (DIC) as an independent tool for an accurate and noninvasive measurement of engineered muscle tissue spontaneous contraction. To validate the proposed technique we referred to the X-MET, a promising 3-dimensional model of skeletal muscle. The images acquired through a high speed camera were correlated with a custom-made algorithm and the longitudinal strain predictions were employed for measuring the spontaneous contraction. The spontaneous contraction reference values were obtained by studying the force response. The relative error between the spontaneous contraction frequencies computed in both ways was always lower than 0.15%. In conclusion, the use of a DIC based system allows for an accurate and noninvasive measurement of biological tissues' spontaneous contraction, in addition to the measurement of tissue strain field on any desired region of interest during electrical stimulation. PMID:27034612

  17. A DIC Based Technique to Measure the Contraction of a Skeletal Muscle Engineered Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Carosio, Silvia; Faraldi, Martina; Pisu, Simona; Musarò, Antonio; Del Prete, Zaccaria

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary science based on the application of engineering approaches to biologic tissue formation. Engineered tissue internal organization represents a key aspect to increase biofunctionality before transplant and, as regarding skeletal muscles, the potential of generating contractile forces is dependent on the internal fiber organization and is reflected by some macroscopic parameters, such as the spontaneous contraction. Here we propose the application of digital image correlation (DIC) as an independent tool for an accurate and noninvasive measurement of engineered muscle tissue spontaneous contraction. To validate the proposed technique we referred to the X-MET, a promising 3-dimensional model of skeletal muscle. The images acquired through a high speed camera were correlated with a custom-made algorithm and the longitudinal strain predictions were employed for measuring the spontaneous contraction. The spontaneous contraction reference values were obtained by studying the force response. The relative error between the spontaneous contraction frequencies computed in both ways was always lower than 0.15%. In conclusion, the use of a DIC based system allows for an accurate and noninvasive measurement of biological tissues' spontaneous contraction, in addition to the measurement of tissue strain field on any desired region of interest during electrical stimulation. PMID:27034612

  18. Epithelial modulation of preterm airway smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Panitch, H B; Wolfson, M R; Shaffer, T H

    1993-03-01

    To determine if epithelium from immature airways can modulate the responsiveness of smooth muscle, we studied paired trachealis muscle strips from preterm sheep. The epithelium was removed from one strip and left undisturbed in the other. Concentration-effect (CE) curves to acetylcholine (ACh), KCl, and isoproterenol were obtained. To evaluate maturational effects, responses to ACh and isoproterenol were studied in trachealis strips from adult airways. Maximal stress (Po) to ACh increased after epithelium removal in preterm (P < 0.05) but not adult strips. Epithelium removal caused a leftward shift of the ACh CE curves in both preterm and adult strips (P < 0.001) and a decrease in the dose required to achieve a one-half maximal response (ED50) in both preterm (P < 0.005) and adult strips (P < 0.05). The magnitude of the change in Po as well as in the ED50 for ACh between preterms and adults was similar. Epithelium removal did not alter either the Po or the CE curves of preterm strips stimulated by KCl. Response to isoproterenol in precontracted strips was enhanced in the presence of an intact epithelium in both groups (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that preterm airway epithelium is able to modulate the responsiveness of smooth muscle. Additionally, the magnitude of the effect is unchanged with maturation. We speculate that damage of airway epithelium from mechanical ventilation may contribute to the increased incidence of airway hyperreactivity observed in preterm infants. PMID:8482688

  19. Changes in corticomotor excitability after fatiguing muscle contractions.

    PubMed

    Sacco, P; Thickbroom, G W; Byrnes, M L; Mastaglia, F L

    2000-12-01

    To investigate whether the type and duration of activity influences corticomotor excitability following fatiguing exercise, we compared motor evoked potential (MEP) responses of the biceps brachii to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during recovery from two different exercise regimens. Responses were recorded in both the resting state and during a weak contraction. Ten subjects performed a 60-s maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and, on a subsequent occasion, a sustained 20% MVC to the point of exhaustion. Resting MEP amplitude declined following maximal and submaximal protocols, reaching 34% and 31% of pre-exercise means, respectively (P < 0.001 for both). In contrast, mean facilitated MEP amplitude showed a smaller and more transient decrement following the sustained submaximal effort (64%; P < 0.05), but not the 60-s MVC. Abolition of the postexercise depression in resting MEP amplitude by a weak tonic contraction indicates that decreases in excitability at the spinal level contribute to the reduced corticomotor excitability observed after fatiguing exercise. PMID:11102907

  20. Time-dependent changes in Ca2+ sensitivity during phasic contraction of canine antral smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, H; Gerthoffer, W T; Publicover, N G; Fusetani, N; Sanders, K M

    1991-01-01

    1. Relationships between cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt), myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and muscle tension were examined in circular smooth muscle of canine gastric antrum. 2. Electrical slow waves induced a transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt and muscle tension. [Ca2+]cyt increased before the initiation of contraction and reached a maximum before the peak of the phasic contractions. Following the first Ca2+ transient, a second rise in [Ca2+]cyt was often observed. The second Ca2+ transient was of similar magnitude to the first, but only in some cases was this increase in [Ca2+]cyt associated with a second phase of contraction. Relaxation occurred more rapidly than the restoration of resting levels of [Ca2+]cyt. 3. Acetylcholine (ACh; 3 x 10(-7) M) increased the amplitude of Ca2+ transients, caused MLC phosphorylation and increased the force of contraction. The decay of contraction and MLC dephosphorylation preceded that of [Ca2+]cyt. 4. Increasing external K+ (to 25-40 mM) caused a sustained increase in [Ca2+]cyt, but little change in resting tension. This suggests that the Ca2+ sensitivity decreased as [Ca2+]cyt increased. Increasing K+ to 59.5 mM further increased the level of [Ca2+]cyt, induced MLC phosphorylation and caused a transient contraction. When normal levels of K+ were restored, the rates of MLC dephosphorylation and relaxation exceeded the rate of decay in [Ca2+]cyt. 5. Removal of external Ca2+ in depolarized muscles decreased [Ca2+]cyt below the resting level without affecting resting tension. Readmission of Ca2+ to depolarized muscles caused force to develop at [Ca2+]cyt levels below the original resting level, suggesting that Ca2+ sensitivity was increased when the resting level of [Ca2+]cyt was decreased. 6. The phosphatase inhibitor, calyculin-A (10(-6) M), induced tonic contraction and MLC phosphorylation without an increase in [Ca2+]cyt. During these contractures, electrical activity caused transient increases in [Ca2+]cyt and

  1. Non-invasive muscle contraction assay to study rodent models of sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Age-related sarcopenia is a disease state of loss of muscle mass and strength that affects physical function and mobility leading to falls, fractures, and disability. The need for therapies to treat age-related sarcopenia has attracted intensive preclinical research. To facilitate the discovery of these therapies, we have developed a non-invasive rat muscle functional assay system to efficiently measure muscle force and evaluate the efficacy of drug candidates. Methods The lower leg muscles of anesthetized rats are artificially stimulated with surface electrodes on the knee holders and the heel support, causing the lower leg muscles to push isometric pedals that are attached to force transducers. We developed a stimulation protocol to perform a fatigability test that reveals functional muscle parameters like maximal force, the rate of fatigue, fatigue-resistant force, as well as a fatigable muscle force index. The system is evaluated in a rat aging model and a rat glucocorticoid-induced muscle loss model Results The aged rats were generally weaker than adult rats and showed a greater reduction in their fatigable force when compared to their fatigue-resistant force. Glucocorticoid treated rats mostly lost fatigable force and fatigued at a higher rate, indicating reduced force from glycolytic fibers with reduced energy reserves. Conclusions The involuntary contraction assay is a reliable system to assess muscle function in rodents and can be applied in preclinical research, including age-related sarcopenia and other myopathy. PMID:22035016

  2. Localized Electrical Impedance Myography of the Biceps Brachii Muscle during Different Levels of Isometric Contraction and Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Li, Le; Shin, Henry; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed changes in electrical impedance myography (EIM) at different levels of isometric muscle contraction as well as during exhaustive exercise at 60% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) until task failure. The EIM was performed on the biceps brachii muscle of 19 healthy subjects. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the muscle resistance (R) measured during the isometric contraction and when the muscle was completely relaxed. Post hoc analysis shows that the resistance increased at higher contractions (both 60% MVC and MVC), however, there were no significant changes in muscle reactance (X) during the isometric contractions. The resistance also changed during different stages of the fatigue task and there were significant decreases from the beginning of the contraction to task failure as well as between task failure and post fatigue rest. Although our results demonstrated an increase in resistance during isometric contraction, the changes were within 10% of the baseline value. These changes might be related to the modest alterations in muscle architecture during a contraction. The decrease in resistance seen with muscle fatigue may be explained by an accumulation of metabolites in the muscle tissue. PMID:27110795

  3. Localized Electrical Impedance Myography of the Biceps Brachii Muscle during Different Levels of Isometric Contraction and Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Shin, Henry; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed changes in electrical impedance myography (EIM) at different levels of isometric muscle contraction as well as during exhaustive exercise at 60% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) until task failure. The EIM was performed on the biceps brachii muscle of 19 healthy subjects. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the muscle resistance (R) measured during the isometric contraction and when the muscle was completely relaxed. Post hoc analysis shows that the resistance increased at higher contractions (both 60% MVC and MVC), however, there were no significant changes in muscle reactance (X) during the isometric contractions. The resistance also changed during different stages of the fatigue task and there were significant decreases from the beginning of the contraction to task failure as well as between task failure and post fatigue rest. Although our results demonstrated an increase in resistance during isometric contraction, the changes were within 10% of the baseline value. These changes might be related to the modest alterations in muscle architecture during a contraction. The decrease in resistance seen with muscle fatigue may be explained by an accumulation of metabolites in the muscle tissue. PMID:27110795

  4. The impact of altered task mechanics on timing and duration of eccentric bi-articular muscle contractions during cycling.

    PubMed

    Connick, Mark J; Li, François-Xavier

    2013-02-01

    In order to understand muscle adaptations to altered task mechanics during cycling, this study investigated the impact of altered seat height and cadence on timing and duration of gastrocnemius (GAST), biceps femoris (BF) and vastus lateralis (VL) eccentric contractions and muscle activation patterns, and cycling economy. Ten male cyclists completed 9 × 5 min of cycling at 3 seat heights and 3 cadences. Three-dimensional leg kinematics and muscle activation patterns were recorded to estimate timing of eccentric muscle contractions. Onset, offset and duration of eccentric contractions and, onset, offset and duration of muscle activation were calculated, along with cycling economy. Duration of GAST and VL eccentric contractions decreased with increasing seat height due to earlier offset of eccentric muscle contractions. Duration of BF eccentric contractions significantly increased with seat height due to a later eccentric contraction offset. Offset of GAST and BF muscle activation occurred earlier with increasing cadence. Cycling economy was significantly affected by cadence but not seat height. The results suggest that as a consequence of altered seat height, proprioceptive feedback is used to fine-tune the timing of bi-articular eccentric muscle contractions. These results may have implications for seat height self-selection. PMID:23010605

  5. Associations between low back pain, urinary incontinence, and abdominal muscle recruitment as assessed via ultrasonography in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Vânia F.; Amorim, Juleimar S. C.; Pereira, Aline M.; Ferreira, Paulo H.; Pereira, Leani S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) and urinary incontinence (UI) are highly prevalent among elderly individuals. In young adults, changes in trunk muscle recruitment, as assessed via ultrasound imaging, may be associated with lumbar spine stability. Objective: To assess the associations between LBP, UI, and the pattern of transversus abdominis (TrA), internal (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscle recruitment in the elderly as evaluated by ultrasound imaging. Method: Fifty-four elderly individuals (mean age: 72±5.2 years) who complained of LBP and/or UI as assessed by the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form, and ultrasound imaging were included in the study. The statistical analysis comprised a multiple linear regression model, and a p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The regression models for the TrA, IO, and EO muscle thickness levels explained 2.0% (R2=0.02; F=0.47; p=0.628), 10.6% (R2=0.106; F=3.03; p=0.057), and 10.1% (R2=0.101; F=2.70; p=0.077) of the variability, respectively. None of the regression models developed for the abdominal muscles exhibited statistical significance. A significant and negative association (p=0.018; β=-0.0343) was observed only between UI and IO recruitment. Conclusion: These results suggest that age-related factors may have interfered with the findings of the study, thus emphasizing the need to perform ultrasound imaging-based studies to measure abdominal muscle recruitment in the elderly. PMID:25714438

  6. Viscosity of the flexor muscles of the elbow joint under maximum contraction condition.

    PubMed

    Niku, S; Henderson, J M

    1989-01-01

    The maximum contractile moments developed by the elbow flexors of eleven normal subjects at different elbow angles were measured, both isometrically and at various shortening velocities. The results were used to predict the damping coefficient of the viscous element of the elbow flexor muscles and soft tissue under maximum contraction condition for various angles and shortening velocities. PMID:2808437

  7. In vivo human knee joint dynamic properties as functions of muscle contraction and joint position.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L Q; Nuber, G; Butler, J; Bowen, M; Rymer, W Z

    1998-01-01

    Information on the dynamic properties (joint stiffness, viscosity and limb inertia) of the human knee joint is scarce in the literature, especially for actively contracting knee musculature. A joint driving device was developed to apply small-amplitude random perturbations to the human knee at several flexion angles with the subject maintaining various levels of muscle contraction. It was found that joint stiffness and viscosity increased with muscle contraction substantially, while limb inertia was constant. Stiffness produced by the quadriceps was highest at 30 degrees flexion and decreased with increasing or decreasing flexion angle, while knee flexors produced highest stiffness at 90 degree flexion. When knee flexion was < 60 degrees, stiffness produced by the quadriceps was higher than that of the hamstrings and gastrocnemius at the same level of background muscle torque, while knee flexor muscles produced higher stiffnesses than the quadriceps at 90 degree flexion. Similar but less obvious trends were observed for joint viscosity. Passive joint stiffness at full knee extension was significantly higher than in more flexed positions. Surprisingly, as the knee joint musculature changed from relaxed to contracting at 50% MVC, system damping ratio remained at about 0.2. This outcome potentially simplifies neuromuscular control of the knee joint. In contrast, the natural undamped frequency increased more than twofold, potentially making the knee joint respond more quickly to the central nervous system commands. The approach described here provides us with a potentially valuable tool to quantify in vivo dynamic properties of normal and pathological human knee joints. PMID:9596540

  8. Dietary apple polyphenols have preventive effects against lengthening contraction-induced muscle injuries.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Koichi; Ochi, Eisuke; Waga, Toshiaki

    2010-03-01

    We examined whether polyphenols from dietary apple have protective effects against exercise-induced muscle strain injury. Sixteen male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into the apple polyphenol (APP; N=8) and control (CON; N=8) groups. The APP and the CON groups were fed diets with and without 5% APP, respectively. After a 3-wk feeding period, the gastrocnemii of the animals were subject to lengthening contractions with electrical stimulation and forced ankle dorsiflexion. Isometric torques were measured before and after the lengthening contractions and on days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 after the contractions. On day 7, the animals were sacrificed and the gastrocnemii harvested. Thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyl, and mRNA of antioxidative proteins in the muscles were quantified. The APP group had significantly lower torque deficits than the CON group on days 3, 5, and 7 after the eccentric contractions. The thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances and protein carbonyl levels in the case of the APP group were significantly lower than those in the case of the CON group. The APP group had significantly higher glutathione-S-transferase alpha1 mRNA levels than the CON group. Therefore, we conclude that dietary APPs have protective effects against lengthening contraction-induced muscle injury. PMID:19866470

  9. CCN1 suppresses pulmonary vascular smooth muscle contraction in response to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon-jin; Zhang, Meng; Hu, Kebin; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Duo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary vasoconstriction and increased vascular resistance are common features in pulmonary hypertension (PH). One of the contributing factors in the development of pulmonary vasoconstriction is increased pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) contraction. Here we report that CCN1, an extracellular matrix molecule, suppressed PASMC contraction in response to hypoxia. CCN1 (Cyr61), discovered in past decade, belongs to the Cyr61-CTGF-Nov (CCN) family. It carries a variety of cellular functions, including angiogenesis and cell adhesion, death, and proliferation. Hypoxia robustly upregulated the expression of CCN1 in the pulmonary vessels and lung parenchyma. Given that CCN1 is a secreted protein and functions in a paracine manner, we examined the potential effects of CCN1 on the adjacent smooth muscle cells. Interestingly, bioactive recombinant CCN1 significantly suppressed hypoxia-induced contraction in human PASMCs in vitro. Consistently, in the in vivo functional studies, administration of bioactive CCN1 protein significantly decreased right ventricular pressure in three different PH animal models. Mechanistically, protein kinase A–pathway inhibitors abolished the effects of CCN1 in suppressing PASMC contraction. Furthermore, CCN1-inhibited smooth muscle contraction was independent of the known vasodilators, such as nitric oxide. Taken together, our studies indicated a novel cellular function of CCN1, potentially regulating the pathogenesis of PH. PMID:26697179

  10. Defective excitation-contraction coupling is partially responsible for impaired contractility in hindlimb muscles of Stac3 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Xiaofei; Doering, Jonathan; Grange, Robert W.; Jiang, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    The Stac3 gene is exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle, and Stac3 knockout is perinatal lethal in mice. Previous data from Stac3-deleted diaphragms indicated that Stac3-deleted skeletal muscle could not contract because of defective excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. In this study, we determined the contractility of Stac3-deleted hindlimb muscle. In response to frequent electrostimulation, Stac3-deleted hindlimb muscle contracted but the maximal tension generated was only 20% of that in control (wild type or heterozygous) muscle (P < 0.05). In response to high [K+], caffeine, and 4-chloro-m-cresol (4-CMC), the maximal tensions generated in Stac3-deleted muscle were 29% (P < 0.05), 58% (P = 0.08), and 55% (P < 0.05) of those in control muscle, respectively. In response to 4-CMC or caffeine, over 90% of myotubes formed from control myoblasts contracted, but only 60% of myotubes formed from Stac3-deleted myoblasts contracted (P = 0.05). However, in response to 4-CMC or caffeine, similar increases in intracellular calcium concentration were observed in Stac3-deleted and control myotubes. Gene expression and histological analyses revealed that Stac3-deleted hindlimb muscle contained more slow type-like fibers than control muscle. These data together confirm a critical role of STAC3 in EC coupling but also suggest that STAC3 may have additional functions in skeletal muscle, at least in the hindlimb muscle. PMID:27184118

  11. Defective excitation-contraction coupling is partially responsible for impaired contractility in hindlimb muscles of Stac3 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xiaofei; Doering, Jonathan; Grange, Robert W; Jiang, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    The Stac3 gene is exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle, and Stac3 knockout is perinatal lethal in mice. Previous data from Stac3-deleted diaphragms indicated that Stac3-deleted skeletal muscle could not contract because of defective excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. In this study, we determined the contractility of Stac3-deleted hindlimb muscle. In response to frequent electrostimulation, Stac3-deleted hindlimb muscle contracted but the maximal tension generated was only 20% of that in control (wild type or heterozygous) muscle (P < 0.05). In response to high [K(+)], caffeine, and 4-chloro-m-cresol (4-CMC), the maximal tensions generated in Stac3-deleted muscle were 29% (P < 0.05), 58% (P = 0.08), and 55% (P < 0.05) of those in control muscle, respectively. In response to 4-CMC or caffeine, over 90% of myotubes formed from control myoblasts contracted, but only 60% of myotubes formed from Stac3-deleted myoblasts contracted (P = 0.05). However, in response to 4-CMC or caffeine, similar increases in intracellular calcium concentration were observed in Stac3-deleted and control myotubes. Gene expression and histological analyses revealed that Stac3-deleted hindlimb muscle contained more slow type-like fibers than control muscle. These data together confirm a critical role of STAC3 in EC coupling but also suggest that STAC3 may have additional functions in skeletal muscle, at least in the hindlimb muscle. PMID:27184118

  12. Regulation of phosphorylase kinase by low concentrations of Ca ions upon muscle contraction: the connection between metabolism and muscle contraction and the connection between muscle physiology and Ca-dependent signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    OZAWA, Eijiro

    2011-01-01

    It had long been one of the crucial questions in muscle physiology how glycogenolysis is regulated in connection with muscle contraction, when we found the answer to this question in the last half of the 1960s. By that time, the two principal currents of muscle physiology, namely, the metabolic flow starting from glycogen and the mechanisms of muscle contraction, had already been clarified at the molecular level thanks to our senior researchers. Thus, the final question we had to answer was how to connect these two currents. We found that low concentrations of Ca ions (10−7–10−4 M) released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum for the regulation of muscle contraction simultaneously reversibly activate phosphorylase kinase, the enzyme regulating glycogenolysis. Moreover, we found that adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), which is already known to activate muscle phosphorylase kinase, is not effective in the absence of such concentrations of Ca ions. Thus, cyclic AMP is not effective by itself alone and only modifies the activation process in the presence of Ca ions (at that time, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase had not yet been identified). After a while, it turned out that our works have not only provided the solution to the above problem on muscle physiology, but have also been considered as the first report of Ca-dependent protein phosphorylation, which is one of the central problems in current cell biology. Phosphorylase kinase is the first protein kinase to phosphorylate a protein resulting in the change in the function of the phosphorylated protein, as shown by Krebs and Fischer. Our works further showed that this protein kinase is regulated in a Ca-dependent manner. Accordingly, our works introduced the concept of low concentrations of Ca ions, which were first identified as the regulatory substance of muscle contraction, to the vast field of Ca biology including signal transduction. PMID:21986313

  13. Coherence between the sympathetic drives to relaxed and contracting muscles of different limbs of human subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Wallin, B G; Burke, D; Gandevia, S C

    1992-01-01

    1. This study was undertaken to quantify the simultaneous sympathetic drives to muscles in the two legs of human subjects, and to elucidate the extent to which a common drive determines sympathetic outflow to different limbs at rest, during apnoea and during voluntary contractions. 2. Sympathetic efferent activity was recorded simultaneously from fascicles of both peroneal nerves, innervating the pretibial flexor muscles. At rest the similarity was quantified for a sample of records by manual measurement of equivalent bursts in the two recordings, and for all records by cross-correlation and power spectral analysis of the two recordings. During contractions, only the latter method was used. 3. At rest the correlation coefficient for the relationship between the burst amplitudes for the two recordings was 0.72 (S.D. 0.1). For the same sequences, the computed coherence between the two recordings was 85.6% (S.D. 6.7%) at the cardiac period. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between these two measures of similarity, and this was stronger when data from sequences recorded during apnoea were included in the analysis. At rest the mean difference in coherence between consecutive sequences with no intervening manoeuvre (apnoea, contraction, change in recording site) was 4.2% (S.D. 4.3%). In only two of forty-nine such instances was the difference in coherence > 10%. 4. Apnoea at end-expiration increased the amplitude and frequency of sympathetic bursts and increased the similarity between the two recordings. The correlation coefficients increased from a mean of 0.72 at rest to 0.89 during apnoea. Coherence increased from a mean of 82.1% at rest to 91.9% during apnoea. 5. On the right side, graded voluntary contractions were performed at 5, 10, 20 or 30% maximal force using the muscle innervated by the fascicle from which the recording was made. The coherence between the recordings made from the right and left legs decreased by > 10% at each

  14. Trigeminal Proprioception Evoked by Strong Stretching of the Mechanoreceptors in Müller's Muscle Induces Reflex Contraction of the Orbital Orbicularis Oculi Slow-Twitch Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Ryokuya; Ban, Midori; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The mixed orbicularis oculi muscle lacks an intramuscular proprioceptive system such as muscle spindles, to induce reflex contraction of its slow-twitch fibers. We evaluated whether the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle function as extrinsic mechanoreceptors to induce reflex contraction of the slow-twitch fibers of the orbicularis oculi in addition to those of the levator and frontalis muscles. Methods: We evaluated in patients with aponeurosis-disinserted blepharoptosis whether strong stretching of the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle from upgaze with unilateral lid load induced reflex contraction of the orbicularis oculi slow-twitch fibers and whether anesthesia of Müller's muscle precluded the contraction. We compared the electromyographic responses of the bilateral orbicularis oculi muscles to unilateral intraoperative direct stimulation of the trigeminal proprioceptive nerve with those to unilateral transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve. Results: Upgaze with a unilateral 3-g lid load induced reflex contraction of the bilateral orbicularis oculi muscles with ipsilateral dominance. Anesthesia of Müller's muscle precluded the reflex contraction. The orbicularis oculi reflex evoked by stimulation of the trigeminal proprioceptive nerve differed from that by electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve in terms of the intensity of current required to induce the reflex, the absence of R1, and duration. Conclusions: The mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle functions as an extramuscular proprioceptive system to induce reflex contraction of the orbital orbicularis oculi slow-twitch fibers. Whereas reflex contraction of the pretarsal orbicularis fast-twitch fibers functions in spontaneous or reflex blinking, that of the orbital orbicularis oculi slow-twitch fibers may factor in grimacing and blepharospasm. PMID:25210572

  15. Kinetic control of oxygen consumption during contractions in self-perfused skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Wüst, Rob C I; Grassi, Bruno; Hogan, Michael C; Howlett, Richard A; Gladden, L Bruce; Rossiter, Harry B

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Fast kinetics of muscle oxygen consumption () is characteristic of effective physiological systems integration. The mechanism of kinetic control in vivo is equivocal as measurements are complicated by the twin difficulties of making high-frequency direct measurements of and intramuscular metabolites, and in attaining high [ADP]; complexities that can be overcome utilising highly aerobic canine muscle for the investigation of the transition from rest to contractions at maximal . Isometric tetanic contractions of the gastrocnemius complex of six anaesthetised, ventilated dogs were elicited via sciatic nerve stimulation (50 Hz; 200 ms duration; 1 contraction s−1). Muscle and lactate efflux were determined from direct Fick measurements. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest and every ∼10 s during the transient and analysed for [phosphates], [lactate] and pH. The temporal vs.[PCr] and [ADP] relationships were not well fitted by linear or classical hyperbolic models (respectively), due to the high sensitivity of to metabolic perturbations early in the transient. The time course of this apparent sensitisation was closely aligned to that of ATP turnover, which was lower in the first ∼25 s of contractions compared to the steady state. These findings provide the first direct measurements of skeletal muscle and [PCr] in the non-steady state, and suggest that simple phosphate feedback models (which are adequate for steady-state observations in vitro) are not sufficient to explain the dynamic control of in situ. Rather an allosteric or ‘parallel activation’ mechanism of energy consuming and producing processes is required to explain the kinetic control of in mammalian skeletal muscle. PMID:21690197

  16. Low-intensity contraction activates the alpha1-isoform of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Taro; Tanaka, Satsuki; Ebihara, Ken; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Hosoda, Kiminori; Sato, Kenji; Fushiki, Tohru; Nakao, Kazuwa; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2006-03-01

    Skeletal muscle expresses two catalytic subunits, alpha1 and alpha2, of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which has been implicated in contraction-stimulated glucose transport and fatty acid oxidation. Muscle contraction activates the alpha2-containing AMPK complex (AMPKalpha2), but this activation may occur with or without activation of the alpha1-containing AMPK complex (AMPKalpha1), suggesting that AMPKalpha2 is the major isoform responsible for contraction-induced metabolic events in skeletal muscle. We report for the first time that AMPKalpha1, but not AMPKalpha2, can be activated in contracting skeletal muscle. Rat epitrochlearis muscles were isolated and incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing pyruvate. In muscles stimulated to contract at a frequency of 1 and 2 Hz during the last 2 min of incubation, AMPKalpha1 activity increased twofold and AMPKalpha2 activity remained unchanged. Muscle stimulation did not change the muscle AMP concentration or the AMP-to-ATP ratio. AMPK activation was associated with increased phosphorylation of Thr(172) of the alpha-subunit, the primary activation site. Muscle stimulation increased the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), a downstream target of AMPK, and the rate of 3-O-methyl-d-glucose transport. In contrast, increasing the frequency (>or=5 Hz) or duration (>or=5 min) of contraction activated AMPKalpha1 and AMPKalpha2 and increased AMP concentration and the AMP/ATP ratio. These results suggest that 1) AMPKalpha1 is the predominant isoform activated by AMP-independent phosphorylation in low-intensity contracting muscle, 2) AMPKalpha2 is activated by an AMP-dependent mechanism in high-intensity contracting muscle, and 3) activation of each isoform enhances glucose transport and ACC phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. PMID:16249251

  17. Clearance of extracellular K+ during muscle contraction--roles of membrane transport and diffusion.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Torben

    2008-05-01

    Excitation of muscle often leads to a net loss of cellular K + and a rise in extracellular K+([K+]o), which in turn inhibits excitability and contractility. It is important, therefore, to determine how this K+ is cleared by diffusion into the surroundings or by reaccumulation into the muscle cells. The inhibitory effects of the rise in [K+] o may be assessed from the time course of changes in tetanic force in isolated muscles where diffusional clearance of K+ is eliminated by removing the incubation medium and allowing the muscles to contract in air. Measurements of tetanic force, endurance, and force recovery showed that in rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles there was no significant difference between the performance of muscles contracting in buffer or in air for up to 8 min. Ouabain-induced inhibition of K+ clearance via the Na+,K+ pumps markedly reduced contractile endurance and force recovery in air. Incubation in buffer containing 10 mM K+ clearly inhibited force development and endurance,and these effects were considerably reduced by stimulating Na+,K+ pumps with the 2 -agonist salbutamol. Following 30-60 s of continuous stimulation at 60 Hz, the amount of K + released into the extracellular space was assessed from washout experiments. The release of intracellular K+ per pulse was fourfold larger in EDL than in soleus,and in the two muscles, the average [K+] o reached 52.4 and 26.0 mM, respectively, appreciably higher than previously detected. In conclusion, prevention of diffusion of K+ from the extracellular space of isolated working muscles causes only modest interference with contractile performance. The Na+,K+ pumps play a major role in the clearance of K+ and the maintenance of force. This new information is important for the evaluation of K+ -induced inhibition in muscles, where diffusional clearance of K+ is reduced by tension development sufficient to suppress circulation. PMID:18411333

  18. Human skeletal muscle metabolic economy in vivo: effects of contraction intensity, age, and mobility impairment

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Anita D.; Tonson, Anne; Larsen, Ryan G.; DeBlois, Jacob P.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that older muscle has greater metabolic economy (ME) in vivo than young, in a manner dependent, in part, on contraction intensity. Twenty young (Y; 24 ± 1 yr, 10 women), 18 older healthy (O; 73 ± 2, 9 women) and 9 older individuals with mild-to-moderate mobility impairment (OI; 74 ± 1, 7 women) received stimulated twitches (2 Hz, 3 min) and performed nonfatiguing voluntary (20, 50, and 100% maximal; 12 s each) isometric dorsiflexion contractions. Torque-time integrals (TTI; Nm·s) were calculated and expressed relative to maximal fat-free muscle cross-sectional area (cm2), and torque variability during voluntary contractions was calculated as the coefficient of variation. Total ATP cost of contraction (mM) was determined from flux through the creatine kinase reaction, nonoxidative glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, and used to calculate ME (Nm·s·cm−2·mM ATP−1). While twitch torque relaxation was slower in O and OI compared with Y (P ≤ 0.001), twitch TTI, ATP cost, and economy were similar across groups (P ≥ 0.15), indicating comparable intrinsic muscle economy during electrically induced isometric contractions in vivo. During voluntary contractions, normalized TTI and total ATP cost did not differ significantly across groups (P ≥ 0.20). However, ME was lower in OI than Y or O at 20% and 50% MVC (P ≤ 0.02), and torque variability was greater in OI than Y or O at 20% MVC (P ≤ 0.05). These results refute the hypothesis of greater muscle ME in old age, and provide support for lower ME in impaired older adults as a potential mechanism or consequence of age-related reductions in functional mobility. PMID:25163917

  19. Regulation of muscle contraction by Drebrin-like protein 1 probed by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, Renata; Butkevich, Eugenia; Platen, Mitja; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Biophysics Team

    Sarcomeres are the fundamental contractile units of striated muscle cells. They are composed of a variety of structural and regulatory proteins functioning in a precisely orchestrated fashion to enable coordinated force generation in striated muscles. Recently, we have identified a C. elegans drebrin-like protein 1 (DBN-1) as a novel sarcomere component, which stabilizes actin filaments during muscle contraction. To further characterize the function of DBN-1 in muscle cells, we generated a new dbn-1 loss-of-function allele. Absence of DBN-1 resulted in a unique worm movement phenotype, characterized by hyper-bending. It is not clear yet if DBN-1 acts to enhance or reduce the capacity for contraction. We present here an experimental mechanical study on C. elegans muscle mechanics. We measured the stiffness of the worm by indenting living C. eleganswith a micron-sized sphere adhered to the cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Modeling the worm as a pressurized elastic shell allows us to monitor the axial tension in the muscle through the measured stiffness. We compared responses of wild-type and mutant C. elegans in which DBN-1 is not expressed..

  20. Recruitment of β-catenin to N-cadherin is necessary for smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Ruping; Cleary, Rachel A; Gannon, Olivia J; Tang, Dale D

    2015-04-01

    β-Catenin is a key component that connects transmembrane cadherin with the actin cytoskeleton at the cell-cell interface. However, the role of the β-catenin/cadherin interaction in smooth muscle has not been well characterized. Here stimulation with acetylcholine promoted the recruitment of β-catenin to N-cadherin in smooth muscle cells/tissues. Knockdown of β-catenin by lentivirus-mediated shRNA attenuated smooth muscle contraction. Nevertheless, myosin light chain phosphorylation at Ser-19 and actin polymerization in response to contractile activation were not reduced by β-catenin knockdown. In addition, the expression of the β-catenin armadillo domain disrupted the recruitment of β-catenin to N-cadherin. Force development, but not myosin light chain phosphorylation and actin polymerization, was reduced by the expression of the β-catenin armadillo domain. Furthermore, actin polymerization and microtubules have been implicated in intracellular trafficking. In this study, the treatment with the inhibitor latrunculin A diminished the interaction of β-catenin with N-cadherin in smooth muscle. In contrast, the exposure of smooth muscle to the microtubule depolymerizer nocodazole did not affect the protein-protein interaction. Together, these findings suggest that smooth muscle contraction is mediated by the recruitment of β-catenin to N-cadherin, which may facilitate intercellular mechanotransduction. The association of β-catenin with N-cadherin is regulated by actin polymerization during contractile activation. PMID:25713069

  1. Muscle microanatomy and its changes during contraction: the legacy of William Bowman (1816-1892).

    PubMed

    Frixione, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    Striated muscle fine structure began to be really understood following a comprehensive survey of the matter carried out by William Bowman in the late 1830s. The publications resulting from such a study, the first of which earned for the author a precocious election as Fellow of the Royal Society, are herewith examined in the context of contemporary views on the subject as well as of their subsequent repercussion and current knowledge today. It is shown that not only Bowman succeeded in establishing the true architecture of striated muscle fibres to the extent possible with the most advanced technology available in his day--explaining and eradicating alternative erroneous concepts in the process--but also in correctly describing the basic microstructural changes associated with contraction. In addition, although unrecognized by him or others at the time, his experiments with muscle provided direct evidence for the existence of a selectively permeable cell membrane--in the present meaning of the word--over half a century before its officially accepted discovery. Yet, in spite of these remarkable advances, Bowman arrived at the conclusion that the structure of striated muscle fibres is essentially irrelevant for the mechanism of contraction. Possible reasons behind Bowman's breakthrough accomplishments as a pioneer of modern muscle research, and his failure to understand their significance for muscle physiology, are discussed. PMID:16465470

  2. Contraction-induced injury to single permeabilized muscle fibers from normal and congenitally-clefted goat palates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A goat model in which cleft palate is induced by the plant alkaloid, anabasine was used to determine muscle fiber integrity of the levator veli palatine (LVP) muscle. It was determined that muscle fiber type, size, and sensitivity to contraction-induced injury was different between cleft palate ind...

  3. Extracting low-velocity concentric and eccentric dynamic muscle properties from isometric contraction experiments.

    PubMed

    Rockenfeller, R; Günther, M

    2016-08-01

    Determining dynamic properties of mammalian muscles, such as activation characteristics or the force-velocity relation, challenges the experimentalist. Tracking system, apparatus stiffness, load oscillation, force transducer, other sensors, and additional measuring devices may be incorporated, integrated and evaluated in an experimental set-up. In contrast, isometric contraction experiments (ICEs) are less challenging, but are generally not considered to reveal dynamic muscle properties. Yet, a sensitivity analysis of our muscle model discloses the influence of concentric, eccentric and activation parameters on isometric force development. Accordingly, we used solely experimental ICE data to identify muscle model parameters that generally describe concentric as well as eccentric muscle performance. In addition, we compared two different activation dynamics in regards to their physiological relevance to improve model-fits to ICE data. To this end, we optimized different combinations of such dynamic parameter subsets with respect to their influence on contraction solutions. Depending on muscle length in our optimized model, the contractile element reached shortening peaks during activation in the range 9-39% of its maximum contraction velocity, and about 8-25% during lengthening when deactivated. As a first result, we suggest one formulation of activation dynamics to be superior. Second, the step in slope of the force-velocity relation at isometric force was found to be the least influential among all dynamic parameters. Third, we suggest a specially designed isometric experimental set-up to estimate this transition parameter. Fourth, because of an inconsistency in literature, we developed a simple method to determine switching times of the neural stimulation and thus electro-mechanical delay (EMD) values from measuring muscle force in ICEs only. PMID:27321191

  4. Ultrasound Evaluation of Muscle Thickness Changes in the External Oblique, Internal Oblique, and Transversus Abdominis Muscles Considering the Influence of Posture and Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Tomoaki; Abe, Yota; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate muscle thickness changes in the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles between the neutral position and trunk rotation, under a state of rest without voluntary contractions, and isometric contractions to both sides with resistance of 50% of the maximum trunk rotation strength. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 21 healthy young men. [Methods] Muscle thickness changes in the EO, IO, and TrA in each position and state were evaluated by ultrasound. The range of motion at maximum trunk rotation and the maximum strength of trunk rotation were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] In the neutral position and at 50% trunk rotation to the right side, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased with resistance. In both states, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased at 50% trunk rotation to the right side. [Conclusion] The muscular contractions of the IO and TrA were stronger during ipsilateral rotation than in the neutral position and with resistance than at rest. Moreover, the muscular contraction was strongest in the resistive state during ipsilateral rotation. PMID:25276022

  5. Overexpression of antioxidant enzymes in diaphragm muscle does not alter contraction-induced fatigue or recovery.

    PubMed

    McClung, Joseph M; Deruisseau, Keith C; Whidden, Melissa A; Van Remmen, Holly; Richardson, Arlan; Song, Wook; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Powers, Scott K

    2010-01-01

    Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are necessary to optimize muscle force production in unfatigued muscle. In contrast, sustained high levels of ROS production have been linked to impaired muscle force production and contraction-induced skeletal muscle fatigue. Using genetically engineered mice, we tested the hypothesis that the independent transgenic overexpression of catalase (CAT), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD; SOD1) or manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD; SOD2) antioxidant enzymes would negatively affect force production in unfatigued diaphragm muscle but would delay the development of muscle fatigue and enhance force recovery after fatiguing contractions. Diaphragm muscle from wild-type littermates (WT) and from CAT, SOD1 and SOD2 overexpressing mice were subjected to an in vitro contractile protocol to investigate the force-frequency characteristics, the fatigue properties and the time course of recovery from fatigue. The CAT, SOD1 and SOD2 overexpressors produced less specific force (in N cm(-2)) at stimulation frequencies of 20-300 Hz and produced lower maximal tetanic force than WT littermates. The relative development of muscle fatigue and recovery from fatigue were not influenced by transgenic overexpression of any antioxidant enzyme. Morphologically, the mean cross-sectional area (in microm(2)) of diaphragm myofibres expressing myosin heavy chain type IIA was decreased in both CAT and SOD2 transgenic animals, and the percentage of non-contractile tissue increased in diaphragms from all transgenic mice. In conclusion, our results do not support the hypothesis that overexpression of independent antioxidant enzymes protects diaphragm muscle from contraction-induced fatigue or improves recovery from fatigue. Moreover, our data are consistent with the concept that a basal level of ROS is important to optimize muscle force production, since transgenic overexpression of major cellular antioxidants is associated with

  6. In a dynamic lifting task, the relationship between cross-sectional abdominal muscle thickness and the corresponding muscle activity is affected by the combined use of a weightlifting belt and the Valsalva maneuver.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Trevor W; Smith, Camille; Grenier, Sylvain G

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown that under isometric conditions, as the activity of the abdominal muscles increases, the thicknesses of the muscles also increase. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether change in muscle thickness could be used as a measure of muscle activity during a deadlift as well as determining the effect of a weightlifting belt and/or the Valsalva maneuver on the muscle thicknesses. The Transversus Abdominis (TrA) and Internal Obliques (IO) muscles were analyzed at rest and during a deadlift. Muscle thickness was measured using ultrasound imaging and muscle activity was simultaneously recorded using electromyography. Each subject performed deadlift under normal conditions, while performing the Valsalva maneuver, while wearing a weightlifting belt and while both utilizing the belt and the Valsalva maneuver. There was no relationship between change in muscle thickness and muscle activity for both the TrA and IO (R(2)<0.13 for all conditions). However it was found that the Valsalva maneuver increased abdominal muscle thickness whereas the belt limited muscle expansion; each with an increase in activity. These results indicate that ultrasound cannot be used to measure muscle activity for a deadlift and that the belt affects how the IO and TrA function together. PMID:27093137

  7. The relationship of creatine kinase variability with body composition and muscle damage markers following eccentric muscle contractions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jooyoung; Lee, Joohyung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between CK variability and body composition and muscle damage markers following eccentric exercise. [Methods] Total 119 healthy male subjects were recruited to perform 50 eccentric contractions consisted of 2 sets of 25 contractions. Then, blood creatine kinase (CK) activity was analyzed to divide into three groups based on their CK activity levels. Maximum isometric strength (MIS), muscle soreness (SOR) and body composition data were obtained before and after exercise. [Results] The results showed that high CK responders had a significant decrease in MIS (p<0.001) and greater SOR (p<0.01) following eccentric exercise compared to low CK responders. Percent body fat was also higher in high responders compared to low responders (p=0.014). Peak CK activity was significantly correlated with MIS and SOR but no correlation with % body fat, muscle mass, and body mass index. [Conclusion] CK variability following eccentric exercise is closely related to MIS and SOR and % body fat may be a potent factor for CK variability. PMID:26244131

  8. Smooth muscle NOS, colocalized with caveolin-1, modulates contraction in mouse small intestine

    PubMed Central

    El-Yazbi, Ahmed F; Cho, Woo Jung; Cena, Jonathan; Schulz, Richard; Daniel, Edwin E

    2008-01-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in myenteric neurons is activated during peristalsis to produce nitric oxide which relaxes intestinal smooth muscle. A putative nNOS is also found in the membrane of intestinal smooth muscle cells in mouse and dog. In this study we studied the possible functions of this nNOS expressed in mouse small intestinal smooth muscle colocalized with caveolin-1(Cav-1). Cav-1 knockout mice lacked nNOS in smooth muscle and provided control tissues. 60 mM KCl was used to increase intracellular [Ca2+] through L-type Ca2+ channel opening and stimulate smooth muscle NOS activity in intestinal tissue segments. An additional contractile response to LNNA (100 μM, NOS inhibitor) was observed in KCl-contracted tissues from control mice and was almost absent in tissues from Cav-1 knockout mice. Disruption of caveolae with 40 mM methyl-β cyclodextrin in tissues from control mice led to the loss of Cav-1 and nNOS immunoreactivity from smooth muscle as shown by immunohistochemistry and a reduction in the response of these tissues to N-ω-nitro-L-arginine (LNNA). Reconstitution of membrane cholesterol using water soluble cholesterol in the depleted segments restored the immunoreactivity and the response to LNNA added after KCl. Nicardipine (1 μM) blocked the responses to KCl and LNNA confirming the role of L-type Ca2+ channels. ODQ (1 μM, soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor) had the same effect as inhibition of NOS following KCl. We conclude that the activation of nNOS, localized in smooth muscle caveolae, by calcium entering through L-type calcium channels triggers nitric oxide production which modulates muscle contraction by a cGMP-dependent mechanism. PMID:18400048

  9. A Magnetic Resonance-Compatible Loading Device for Dynamically Imaging Shortening and Lengthening Muscle Contraction Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Silder, Amy; Westphal, Christopher J.; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and test a magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible device to induce either shortening or lengthening muscle contractions for use during dynamic MR imaging. The proposed device guides the knee through cyclic flexion-extension, while either elastic or inertial loads are imposed on the hamstrings. Ten subjects were tested in a motion capture laboratory to evaluate the repeatability of limb motion and imposed loads. Image data were subsequently obtained for all ten subjects using cine phase contrast imaging. Subjects achieved ~30 deg of knee joint motion, with individual subjects remaining within ~1 deg of their average motion across 56 repeated cycles. The maximum hamstring activity and loading occurred when the knee was flexed for the elastic loading condition (shortening contraction), and extended for the inertial loading condition (lengthening contraction). Repeat MR image acquisitions of the same loading condition resulted in similar tissue velocities, while spatial variations in velocity data were clearly different between loading conditions. The proposed device can enable dynamic imaging of the muscle under different types of loads, which has the potential to improve our understanding of basic muscle mechanics, identify potential causes of muscle injury, and provide a basis for quantitatively assessing injury effects at the tissue level. Slight modifications to the device design and/or subject positioning could allow for imaging of the quadriceps or the knee. PMID:24353749

  10. Implantable power generation system utilizing muscle contractions excited by electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sahara, Genta; Hijikata, Wataru; Tomioka, Kota; Shinshi, Tadahiko

    2016-06-01

    An implantable power generation system driven by muscle contractions for supplying power to active implantable medical devices, such as pacemakers and neurostimulators, is proposed. In this system, a muscle is intentionally contracted by an electrical stimulation in accordance with the demands of the active implantable medical device for electrical power. The proposed system, which comprises a small electromagnetic induction generator, electrodes with an electrical circuit for stimulation and a transmission device to convert the linear motion of the muscle contractions into rotational motion for the magneto rotor, generates electrical energy. In an ex vivo demonstration using the gastrocnemius muscle of a toad, which was 28 mm in length and weighed 1.3 g, the electrical energy generated by the prototype exceeded the energy consumed for electrical stimulation, with the net power being 111 µW. It was demonstrated that the proposed implantable power generation system has the potential to replace implantable batteries for active implantable medical devices. PMID:27006422

  11. A threshold-based approach for muscle contraction detection from surface EMG signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morantes, Gaudi; Fernández, Gerardo; Altuve, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Surface electromyographic (SEMG) signals are commonly used as control signals in prosthetic and orthotic devices. Super cial electrodes are placed on the skin of the subject to acquire its muscular activity through this signal. The muscle contraction episode is then in charge of activating and deactivating these devices. Nevertheless, there is no gold standard" to detect muscle contraction, leading to delayed responses and false and missed detections. This fact motivated us to propose a new approach that compares a smoothed version of the SEMG signal with a xed threshold, in order to detect muscle contraction episodes. After preprocessing the SEMG signal, the smoothed version is obtained using a moving average lter, where three di erent window lengths has been evaluated. The detector was tuned by maximizing sensitivity and speci city and evaluated using SEMG signals obtained from the anterior tibial and gastrocnemius muscles, taken during the walking of ve subjects. Compared with traditional detection methods, we obtain a reduction of 3 ms in the detection delay, an increase of 8% in sensitivity but a decrease of 15% in speci city. Future work is directed to the inclusion of a temporal threshold (a double-threshold approach) to minimize false detections and reduce detection delays.

  12. Structural Basis for the Activation of Muscle Contraction by Troponin and Tropomyosin

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, William; Galińska-Rakoczy, Agnieszka; Hatch, Victoria; Tobacman, Larry S.; Craig, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The molecular regulation of striated muscle contraction couples the binding and dissociation of Ca2+ on troponin to the movement of tropomyosin on actin filaments. In turn, this process exposes or blocks myosin binding sites on actin, thereby controlling myosin crossbridge dynamics and consequently muscle contraction. Using 3D-EM, we recently provided structural evidence that a C-terminal extension of TnI is anchored on actin at low Ca2+ and competes with tropomyosin for a common site to drive tropomyosin to the B-state location, a constrained, relaxing position on actin that inhibits myosin-crossbridge association. Here, we show that release of this constraint at high Ca2+ allows a second segment of troponin, probably representing parts of TnT or the troponin core domain, to promote tropomyosin movement on actin to the Ca2+-induced C-state location. With tropomyosin stabilized in this position, myosin binding interactions can then begin. Tropomyosin appears to oscillate to a higher degree between respective B- and C-state positions on troponin-free filaments than on fully regulated filaments, suggesting that tropomyosin positioning in both states is troponin dependent. By biasing tropomyosin to either of these two positions, troponin appears to have two distinct structural functions; in relaxed muscles at low Ca2+, troponin operates as an inhibitor, while in activated muscles at high Ca2+, it acts as a promoter to initiate contraction. PMID:19341744

  13. The effect of sustained low-intensity contractions on supraspinal fatigue in human elbow flexor muscles

    PubMed Central

    Søgaard, Karen; Gandevia, Simon C; Todd, Gabrielle; Petersen, Nicolas T; Taylor, Janet L

    2006-01-01

    Subjects quickly fatigue when they perform maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). Much of the loss of force is from processes within muscle (peripheral fatigue) but some occurs because voluntary activation of the muscle declines (central fatigue). The role of central fatigue during submaximal contractions is not clear. This study investigated whether central fatigue developed during prolonged low-force voluntary contractions. Subjects (n = 9) held isometric elbow flexions of 15% MVC for 43 min. Voluntary activation was measured during brief MVCs every 3 min. During each MVC, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was followed by stimulation of either brachial plexus or the motor nerve of biceps brachii. After nerve stimulation, a resting twitch was also evoked before subjects resumed the 15% MVC. Perceived effort, elbow flexion torque and surface EMG from biceps, brachioradialis and triceps were recorded. TMS was also given during the sustained 15% MVC. During the sustained contraction, perceived effort rose from ∼2 to ∼8 (out of 10) while ongoing biceps EMG increased from 6.9 ± 2.1% to 20.0 ± 7.8% of initial maximum. Torque in the brief MVCs and the resting twitch fell to 58.6 ± 14.5 and 58.2 ± 13.2% of control values, respectively. EMG in the MVCs also fell to 62.2 ± 15.3% of initial maximum, and twitches evoked by nerve stimulation and TMS grew progressively. Voluntary activation calculated from these twitches fell from ∼98% to 71.9 ± 38.9 and 76.9 ± 18.3%, respectively. The silent period following TMS lengthened both in the brief MVCs (by ∼40 ms) and in the sustained target contraction (by ∼18 ms). After the end of the sustained contraction, the silent period recovered immediately, voluntary activation and voluntary EMG recovered over several minutes while MVC torque only returned to ∼85% baseline. The resting twitch showed no recovery. Thus, as well as fatigue in the muscle, the prolonged low-force contraction produced progressive central

  14. Gravitational effects on human cardiovascular responses to isometric muscle contractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonde-Petersen, Flemmig; Suzuki, Yoji; Sadamoto, Tomoko

    Isometric exercise induces profound cardiovascular adaptations increasing mean arterial pressure and heart rate. We investigated effects of simulated +Gz and -Gz respectively on the central and peripheral cardiovascular system. Sustained handgrip exercise was performed at 40% of maximum for 2 minutes in five subjects. This maneuver increased mean arterial pressure by 40-45 mm Hg both during head out water immersion which simulates weightlessness, as well as bedrest during -25, 0, and +25 degrees tilt from the horizontal. Lower body negative pressure (-60 mm Hg for 10 min) attenuated the response to handgrip exercise to 30 mm Hg. It also increased the heart rate minimally by about 20 beats per minute while the water immersion, as well as head up, head down and horizontal bedrest showed increments of about 50 beats per min. It was concluded that the response to isometric contraction is mediated through the high pressure baroreceptors, because similar responses were seen during stresses producing a wide variation in central venous pressure. During lower body negative pressure the increased sympathetic nervous activity itself increased resting heart rate and mean arterial pressure. The responses to static exercise were, therefore, weaker.

  15. The Generalized Hill Model: A Kinematic Approach Towards Active Muscle Contraction.

    PubMed

    Göktepe, Serdar; Menzel, Andreas; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling is the physiological process of converting an electrical stimulus into a mechanical response. In muscle, the electrical stimulus is an action potential and the mechanical response is active contraction. The classical Hill model characterizes muscle contraction though one contractile element, activated by electrical excitation, and two non-linear springs, one in series and one in parallel. This rheology translates into an additive decomposition of the total stress into a passive and an active part. Here we supplement this additive decomposition of the stress by a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a passive and an active part. We generalize the one-dimensional Hill model to the three-dimensional setting and constitutively define the passive stress as a function of the total deformation gradient and the active stress as a function of both the total deformation gradient and its active part. We show that this novel approach combines the features of both the classical stress-based Hill model and the recent active-strain models. While the notion of active stress is rather phenomenological in nature, active strain is micro-structurally motivated, physically measurable, and straightforward to calibrate. We demonstrate that our model is capable of simulating excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle with its characteristic features of wall thickening, apical lift, and ventricular torsion. PMID:25221354

  16. The Generalized Hill Model: A Kinematic Approach Towards Active Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Andreas; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling is the physiological process of converting an electrical stimulus into a mechanical response. In muscle, the electrical stimulus is an action potential and the mechanical response is active contraction. The classical Hill model characterizes muscle contraction though one contractile element, activated by electrical excitation, and two non-linear springs, one in series and one in parallel. This rheology translates into an additive decomposition of the total stress into a passive and an active part. Here we supplement this additive decomposition of the stress by a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a passive and an active part. We generalize the one-dimensional Hill model to the three-dimensional setting and constitutively define the passive stress as a function of the total deformation gradient and the active stress as a function of both the total deformation gradient and its active part. We show that this novel approach combines the features of both the classical stress-based Hill model and the recent active-strain models. While the notion of active stress is rather phenomenological in nature, active strain is micro-structurally motivated, physically measurable, and straightforward to calibrate. We demonstrate that our model is capable of simulating excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle with its characteristic features of wall thickening, apical lift, and ventricular torsion. PMID:25221354

  17. Steroids augment relengthening of contracted airway smooth muscle: potential additional mechanism of benefit in asthma.

    PubMed

    Lakser, O J; Dowell, M L; Hoyte, F L; Chen, B; Lavoie, T L; Ferreira, C; Pinto, L H; Dulin, N O; Kogut, P; Churchill, J; Mitchell, R W; Solway, J

    2008-11-01

    Breathing (especially deep breathing) antagonises development and persistence of airflow obstruction during bronchoconstrictor stimulation. Force fluctuations imposed on contracted airway smooth muscle (ASM) in vitro result in its relengthening, a phenomenon called force fluctuation-induced relengthening (FFIR). Because breathing imposes similar force fluctuations on contracted ASM within intact lungs, FFIR represents a likely mechanism by which breathing antagonises bronchoconstriction. While this bronchoprotective effect appears to be impaired in asthma, corticosteroid treatment can restore the ability of deep breaths to reverse artificially induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects. It has previously been demonstrated that FFIR is physiologically regulated through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. While the beneficial effects of corticosteroids have been attributed to suppression of airway inflammation, the current authors hypothesised that alternatively they might exert their action directly on ASM by augmenting FFIR as a result of inhibiting p38 MAPK signalling. This possibility was tested in the present study by measuring relengthening in contracted canine tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) strips. The results indicate that dexamethasone treatment significantly augmented FFIR of contracted canine TSM. Canine tracheal ASM cells treated with dexamethasone demonstrated increased MAPK phosphatase-1 expression and decreased p38 MAPK activity, as reflected in reduced phosphorylation of the p38 MAPK downstream target, heat shock protein 27. These results suggest that corticosteroids may exert part of their therapeutic effect through direct action on airway smooth muscle, by decreasing p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and thus increasing force fluctuation-induced relengthening. PMID:18768574

  18. The generalized Hill model: A kinematic approach towards active muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göktepe, Serdar; Menzel, Andreas; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling is the physiological process of converting an electrical stimulus into a mechanical response. In muscle, the electrical stimulus is an action potential and the mechanical response is active contraction. The classical Hill model characterizes muscle contraction though one contractile element, activated by electrical excitation, and two non-linear springs, one in series and one in parallel. This rheology translates into an additive decomposition of the total stress into a passive and an active part. Here we supplement this additive decomposition of the stress by a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a passive and an active part. We generalize the one-dimensional Hill model to the three-dimensional setting and constitutively define the passive stress as a function of the total deformation gradient and the active stress as a function of both the total deformation gradient and its active part. We show that this novel approach combines the features of both the classical stress-based Hill model and the recent active-strain models. While the notion of active stress is rather phenomenological in nature, active strain is micro-structurally motivated, physically measurable, and straightforward to calibrate. We demonstrate that our model is capable of simulating excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle with its characteristic features of wall thickening, apical lift, and ventricular torsion.

  19. Influence of lumbar spine rhythms and intra-abdominal pressure on spinal loads and trunk muscle forces during upper body inclination.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Rizwan; Zander, Thomas; Dreischarf, Marcel; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    Improved knowledge on spinal loads and trunk muscle forces may clarify the mechanical causes of various spinal diseases and has the potential to improve the current treatment options. Using an inverse dynamic musculoskeletal model, this sensitivity analysis was aimed to investigate the influence of lumbar spine rhythms and intra-abdominal pressure on the compressive and shear forces in L4-L5 disc and the trunk muscle forces during upper body inclination. Based on in vivo data, three different spine rhythms (SRs) were used along with alternative settings (with/without) of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). Compressive and shear forces in L4-L5 disc as well as trunk muscle forces were predicted by inverse static simulations from standing upright to 55° of intermediate trunk inclination. Alternate model settings of intra-abdominal pressure and different spine rhythms resulted in significant variation of compression (763 N) and shear forces (195 N) in the L4-L5 disc and in global (454 N) and local (156 N) trunk muscle forces at maximum flexed position. During upper body inclination, the compression forces at L4-L5 disc were mostly released by IAP and increased for larger intervertebral rotation in a lumbar spine rhythm. This study demonstrated that with various possible assumptions of lumbar spine rhythm and intra-abdominal pressure, variation in predicted loads and muscles forces increase with larger flexion. It is therefore, essential to adapt these model parameters for accurate prediction of spinal loads and trunk muscle forces. PMID:26922676

  20. Effect of the Mandibular Orthopedic Repositioning Appliance on Trunk and Upper Limb Muscle Activation during Maximum Isometric Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Yeol; Hong, Min-Ho; Park, Min-Chull; Choi, Sung-Min

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to measure the muscle activities of the trunk muscles and upper limb muscles during maximum isometric contraction when temporomandibular joint alignment was achieved with a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance in order provide basic data on the effects of mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance on the entire body. [Subjects] The present study was conducted with healthy Korean adults in their 20s (males=10, females=10). [Methods] An 8 channel surface electromyography system was used to measure the muscle activities of the upper limb muscles and neck muscles of the subjects during maximum isometric contraction with and without use of a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance. [Results] The maximum isometric contractions of the trunk and upper limb muscles when mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance were used were compared with those when no mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance was used. The results showed that the sternocleidomastoid muscle, cervical and lumbar erector spinae, upper trapezius, biceps, triceps, rectus abdominis and internal oblique and external oblique muscles all showed significant increases in maximum isometric contractions with a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance. [Conclusion] The use of a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance is considered to be a method for normal adults to improve the stability of the entire body with the improvement of the stability of the TMJ. The proximal improvement in stability improves of the proximal thereby improving not only muscle strength with increased muscle activation but also stability during exercises. PMID:24396194

  1. Near-infrared monitoring of perfusion and oxygen availability in abdominal organs and skeletal muscle during hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Vari, Sandor G.; Marcu, Laura; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Pergadia, Vani R.; Snyder, Wendy J.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1994-05-01

    Near-IR spectroscopy was used to quantify blood content and oxygenation dynamics in abdominal organs and skeletal muscle of 18 anesthetized rabbits during hypoxic hypoxia. Liver, kidney, and hindlimb muscle were exposed surgically. Laser diode pulses transmitted across the tissues were detected by means of a photomultiplier. The amount and redox level of tissue hemoglobin were estimated from the near-IR signals and monitored during 5- min-long hypoxic challenges and subsequent recovery periods. In the kidney, exposure to 10% FiO2 resulted in rapid and symmetrical changes in oxygenated and reduced hemoglobin with 50% of the variations occurring within 1 min and a plateau after 3 min. Total hemoglobin did not change and hemoglobin oxygenation returned to baseline within 1 min of hypoxia cessation. Exposure to 6% FiO2 doubled the decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin and induced a sustained vasoconstriction which decreased total hemoglobin content 2 min after initiation of hypoxia. Comparable patterns were observed in the liver and skeletal muscle with the following exceptions: local vasoconstriction was generally not observed at 6% FiO2, return to baseline oxygen availability was much slower in skeletal muscle than in the other organs.

  2. Sympathetic nerve responses to muscle contraction and stretch in ischemic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Koba, Satoshi; Xing, Jihong; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Li, Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) induces abnormal regulation of peripheral blood flow during exercise. Previous studies have suggested that a reflex from contracting muscle is disordered in this disease. However, there has been very little investigation of the muscle reflex regulating sympathetic outflows in CHF. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced by the coronary artery ligation in rats. Echocardiography was performed to determine fractional shortening (FS), an index of the left ventricular function. We examined renal and lumbar sympathetic nerve activities (RSNA and LSNA, respectively) during 1-min repetitive (1- to 4-s stimulation to relaxation) contraction or stretch of the triceps surae muscles. During these interventions, the RSNA and LSNA responded synchronously as tension was developed. The RSNA and LSNA responses to contraction were significantly greater in MI rats (n = 13) with FS <30% than in control animals (n = 13) with FS >40% (RSNA: +49 +/- 7 vs. +19 +/- 4 a.u., P < 0.01; LSNA: +28 +/- 7 vs. +8 +/- 2 a.u., P < 0.01) at the same tension development. Stretch also increased the RSNA and LSNA to a larger degree in MI (n = 13) than in control animals (n = 13) (RSNA: +36 +/- 6 vs. +19 +/- 3 a.u., P < 0.05; LSNA: +24 +/- 3 vs. +9 +/- 2 a.u., P < 0.01). The data demonstrate that CHF exaggerates sympathetic nerve responses to muscle contraction as well as stretch. We suggest that muscle afferent-mediated sympathetic outflows contribute to the abnormal regulation of peripheral blood flow seen during exercise in CHF. PMID:17965282

  3. Blood flow restriction prevents muscle damage but not protein synthesis signaling following eccentric contractions.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Mizuki; Ando, Soichi; Poole, David C; Kano, Yutaka

    2015-07-01

    There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that resistance training exercise combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) increases muscle size and strength in humans. Eccentric contraction (ECC) frequently induces severe muscle damage. However, it is not known whether and to what extent muscle damage occurs following ECC + BFR due to the difficulty of conducting definitive invasive studies. The purpose of this study was to examine muscle fiber damage following ECC + BFR at the cellular level. High-intensity ECC was purposefully selected to maximize the opportunity for muscle damage and hypertrophic signaling in our novel in vivo animal model. Male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to the following groups: ECC and ECC + BFR at varying levels of occlusion pressure (140, 160, and 200 Torr). In all conditions, electrical stimulation was applied to the dorsiflexor muscles simultaneously with electromotor-induced plantar flexion. We observed severe histochemical muscle fiber damage (area of damaged fibers/total fiber area analyzed) following ECC (26.4 ± 4.0%). Surprisingly, however, muscle damage was negligible following ECC + BFR140 (2.6 ± 1.2%), ECC+BFR160 (3.0 ± 0.5%), and ECC + BFR200 (0.2 ± 0.1%). Ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation, a downstream target of rapamycin (mTOR)-phosphorylation kinase, increased following ECC + BFR200 as well as ECC. In contrast, S6K1 phosphorylation was not altered by BFR alone. The present findings suggest that ECC combined with BFR, even at high exercise intensities, may enhance muscle protein synthesis without appreciable muscle fiber damage. PMID:26149281

  4. Slowly contracting muscles power the rapid jumping of planthopper insects (Hemiptera, Issidae).

    PubMed

    Burrows, M; Meinertzhagen, I A; Bräunig, P

    2014-01-01

    The planthopper insect Issus produces one of the fastest and most powerful jumps of any insect. The jump is powered by large muscles that are found in its thorax and that, in other insects, contribute to both flying and walking movements. These muscles were therefore analysed by transmission electron microscopy to determine whether they have the properties of fast-acting muscle used in flying or those of more slowly acting muscle used in walking. The muscle fibres are arranged in a parallel bundle that inserts onto an umbrella-shaped tendon. The individual fibres have a diameter of about 70 μm and are subdivided into myofibrils a few micrometres in diameter. No variation in ultrastructure was observed in various fibres taken from different parts of the muscle. The sarcomeres are about 15 μm long and the A bands about 10 μm long. The Z lines are poorly aligned within a myofibril. Mitochondrial profiles are sparse and are close to the Z lines. Each thick filament is surrounded by 10-12 thin filaments and the registration of these arrays of filaments is irregular. Synaptic boutons from the two excitatory motor neurons to the muscle fibres are characterised by accumulations of ~60 translucent 40-nm-diameter vesicle profiles per section, corresponding to an estimated 220 vesicles, within a 0.5-μm hemisphere at a presynaptic density. All ultrastructural features conform to those of slow muscle and thus suggest that the muscle is capable of slow sustained contractions in keeping with its known actions during jumping. A fast and powerful movement is thus generated by a slow muscle. PMID:24135974

  5. Loss of Abdominal Muscle in Pitx2 Mutants Associated with Altered Axial Specification of Lateral Plate Mesoderm

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Diana; Ma, Hsiao-Yen; Xu, Jun; Shih, Hung-Ping; Gross, Michael K.; Kiouss, Chrissa

    2012-01-01

    Sequence specific transcription factors (SSTFs) combinatorially define cell types during development by forming recursively linked network kernels. Pitx2 expression begins during gastrulation, together with Hox genes, and becomes localized to the abdominal lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) before the onset of myogenesis in somites. The somatopleure of Pitx2 null embryos begins to grow abnormally outward before muscle regulatory factors (MRFs) or Pitx2 begin expression in the dermomyotome/myotome. Abdominal somites become deformed and stunted as they elongate into the mutant body wall, but maintain normal MRF expression domains. Subsequent loss of abdominal muscles is therefore not due to defects in specification, determination, or commitment of the myogenic lineage. Microarray analysis was used to identify SSTF families whose expression levels change in E10.5 interlimb body wall biopsies. All Hox9-11 paralogs had lower RNA levels in mutants, whereas genes expressed selectively in the hypaxial dermomyotome/myotome and sclerotome had higher RNA levels in mutants. In situ hybridization analyses indicate that Hox gene expression was reduced in parts of the LPM and intermediate mesoderm of mutants. Chromatin occupancy studies conducted on E10.5 interlimb body wall biopsies showed that Pitx2 protein occupied chromatin sites containing conserved bicoid core motifs in the vicinity of Hox 9-11 and MRF genes. Taken together, the data indicate that Pitx2 protein in LPM cells acts, presumably in combination with other SSTFs, to repress gene expression, that are normally expressed in physically adjoining cell types. Pitx2 thereby prevents cells in the interlimb LPM from adopting the stable network kernels that define sclerotomal, dermomyotomal, or myotomal mesenchymal cell types. This mechanism may be viewed either as lineage restriction or specification. PMID:22860089

  6. High-frequency irreversible electroporation (H-FIRE) for non-thermal ablation without muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Therapeutic irreversible electroporation (IRE) is an emerging technology for the non-thermal ablation of tumors. The technique involves delivering a series of unipolar electric pulses to permanently destabilize the plasma membrane of cancer cells through an increase in transmembrane potential, which leads to the development of a tissue lesion. Clinically, IRE requires the administration of paralytic agents to prevent muscle contractions during treatment that are associated with the delivery of electric pulses. This study shows that by applying high-frequency, bipolar bursts, muscle contractions can be eliminated during IRE without compromising the non-thermal mechanism of cell death. Methods A combination of analytical, numerical, and experimental techniques were performed to investigate high-frequency irreversible electroporation (H-FIRE). A theoretical model for determining transmembrane potential in response to arbitrary electric fields was used to identify optimal burst frequencies and amplitudes for in vivo treatments. A finite element model for predicting thermal damage based on the electric field distribution was used to design non-thermal protocols for in vivo experiments. H-FIRE was applied to the brain of rats, and muscle contractions were quantified via accelerometers placed at the cervicothoracic junction. MRI and histological evaluation was performed post-operatively to assess ablation. Results No visual or tactile evidence of muscle contraction was seen during H-FIRE at 250 kHz or 500 kHz, while all IRE protocols resulted in detectable muscle contractions at the cervicothoracic junction. H-FIRE produced ablative lesions in brain tissue that were characteristic in cellular morphology of non-thermal IRE treatments. Specifically, there was complete uniformity of tissue death within targeted areas, and a sharp transition zone was present between lesioned and normal brain. Conclusions H-FIRE is a feasible technique for non-thermal tissue

  7. Acetyl group availability influences phosphocreatine degradation even during intense muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Timmons, James A; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Poucher, Simon M; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2004-12-15

    We previously established that activation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) using dichloroacetate (DCA) reduced the reliance on substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP) at the onset of exercise, with normal and reduced blood flow. PDC activation also reduced fatigue development during contraction with reduced blood flow. Since these observations, several studies have re-evaluated our observations. One study demonstrated a performance benefit without a reduction in SLP, raising a question mark over PDC's role in the regulation of ATP regeneration and our interpretation of fatigue mechanisms. Using a model of muscle contraction similar to the conflicting study (i.e. tetanic rather than twitch stimulation), we re-examined this question. Using canine skeletal muscle, one group was infused with saline while the other was pretreated with 300 mg (kg body mass)(-1) DCA. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, peak tension (1 min) and after 6 min of tetanic electrical stimulation (75 ms on-925 ms off per second) and blood flow was limited to 25% of normal values observed during contraction. DCA reduced phosphocreatine (PCr) degradation by 40% during the first minute of contraction, but did not prevent the almost complete depletion of PCr stores at 6 min, while muscle fatigue did not differ between the two groups. During intermittent tetanic stimulation PCr degradation was 75% greater than with our previous 3 Hz twitch contraction protocol, despite a similar rate of oxygen consumption at 6 min. Thus, in the present study enhanced acetyl group availability altered the time course of PCr utilization but did not prevent the decline towards depletion. Consistent with our earlier conclusions, DCA pretreatment reduces muscle fatigue only when SLP is attenuated. The present study and our met-analysis indicates that enhanced acetyl group availability results in a readily measurable reduction in SLP when the initial rate of PCr utilization is approximately 1 mmol (kg dry mass)(-1

  8. Depression of corticomotor excitability after muscle fatigue induced by electrical stimulation and voluntary contraction

    PubMed Central

    Kotan, Shinichi; Kojima, Sho; Miyaguchi, Shota; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Onishi, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of muscle fatigue induced by tetanic electrical stimulation (ES) and submaximal isometric contraction on corticomotor excitability. Experiments were performed in a cross-over design. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Corticomotor excitability was recorded before and after thumb opposition muscle fatigue tasks, in which 10% of the maximal tension intensity was induced by tetanic ES or voluntary contraction (VC). The participants were 10 healthy individuals who performed each task for 10 min. Surface electrodes placed over the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle recorded MEPs. F- and M-waves were elicited from APB by supramaximal ES of the median nerve. After the tetanic ES- and VC tasks, MEP amplitudes were significantly lower than before the task. However, F- and M-wave amplitudes remained unchanged. These findings suggest that corticospinal excitability is reduced by muscle fatigue as a result of intracortical inhibitory mechanisms. Our results also suggest that corticomotor excitability is reduced by muscle fatigue caused by both VC and tetanic ES. PMID:26150781

  9. Effects of nitrate supplementation via beetroot juice on contracting rat skeletal muscle microvascular oxygen pressure dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Scott K.; Hirai, Daniel M.; Copp, Steven W.; Holdsworth, Clark T.; Allen, Jason D.; Jones, Andrew M.; Musch, Timothy I.; Poole, David C.

    2013-01-01

    NO3− supplementation via beetroot juice (BR) augments exercising skeletal muscle blood flow subsequent to its reduction to NO2− then NO. We tested the hypothesis that enhanced vascular control following BR would elevate the skeletal muscle O2 delivery/O2 utilization ratio (microvascular PO2, PmvO2) and raise the PmvO2 during the rest-contractions transition. Rats were administered BR (~0.8 mmol/kg/day, n=10) or water (control, n=10) for 5 days. PmvO2 was measured during 180 s of electrically-induced (1 Hz) twitch spinotrapezius muscle contractions. There were no changes in resting or contracting steady-state PmvO2. However, BR slowed the PmvO2 fall following contractions onset such that time to reach 63% of the initial PmvO2 fall increased (MRT1; control: 16.8±1.9, BR: 24.4±2.7 s, p<0.05) and there was a slower relative rate of PmvO2 fall (Δ1PmvO2/τ1; control: 1.9±0.3, BR: 1.2±0.2 mmHg/s, p<0.05). Despite no significant changes in contracting steady state PmvO2, BR supplementation elevated the O2 driving pressure during the crucial rest-contractions transients thereby providing a potential mechanism by which BR supplementation may improve metabolic control. PMID:23584049

  10. Contraction and recovery of living muscles studied by 31p nuclear magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Gadian, D. G.; Dawson, M. Joan; Wilkie, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    1. Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) can be used to measure the concentrations of phosphorus-containing metabolites within living tissue. We have developed methods for maintaining muscles in physiological condition, stimulating them and recording tension while at the same time accumulating their 31P NMR spectra. Experiments were performed on frog sartorii and frog and toad gastrocnemii at 4° C. 2. The NMR signals from 31P (the naturally occurring phosphorus) is weak, and signal averaging is required. In order to follow the time course of reactions it is necessary to maintain the muscles in a steady state for many hours while they are undergoing repeated contractions. Signals were accumulated in separate computer bins according to time after initiation of contraction. By these means spectra were obtained which corresponded to the different intervals during the contraction and recovery cycle. 3. In the absence of stimulation, the spectra of frog sartorius muscles and of their extracts indicated concentrations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), phosphoryl creatine (PCr), inorganic orthophosphate (Pi) and sugar phosphates (sugar P) which are in reasonable agreement with the values obtained by chemical analysis. 4. We have confirmed that unidentified resonances representing unknown compounds appear in the spectra of both frog and toad muscle; one of these is much larger in spectra from toad than from frog. We have found an additional small, unidentified resonance which appears to be specific to toad muscle. 5. Spectra accumulated during actual contractions (1 s tetani every 2 min) did not differ dramatically from those accumulated throughout the 2 min cycle of contraction and partial recovery. 6. Following 25 s tetanii, approximately 20% of the PCr had been hydrolysed; it was then rebuilt exponentially with a half-time of about 10 min. The increase in [Pi] immediately after contraction and the time course of its disappearance corresponded to the changes in

  11. Hierarchical Internal Variables Reflecting Microstructural Properties: Application to Cardiac Muscle Contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, Jüri; Vendelin, Marko; Maugin, Gérard A.

    2000-09-01

    The formalism of internal state variables is proposed for describing the processes of deformation in muscles. Due to the complicated hierarchical microstructure of soft tissues where macroscopic stress states depend upon the sliding of molecules and ion concentrations, the internal variables are switched in successively forming a certain hierarchy. This hierarchy is a general property for complicated materials with different microscopic processes influencing the macroscopic behaviour. Based on that property a novel concept of hierarchical internal variables is defined (up to the knowledge of authors first time) and embedded into the framework of the existing formalism. The discussion based on an example of cardiac muscle contraction illustrates the advantages of this approach.

  12. Middle ear muscle contractions and their relation to pulse and echo evoked potentials in the bat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henson, O. W., Jr.; Henson, M. M.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is made of pulse and echo orientation cries of the Mustache Bat. That bat's cries are characterized by a long, 60 to 30 msec, pure tone component and brief beginning and terminal FM sweeps. In addition to obvious echo overlap and middle ear muscle contractions, the following are examined: (1) characteristics of pulse- and echo-evoked potential under various conditions, (2) evidence of changes in hearing sensitivity during and after pulse emission, and (3) the role of the middle ear muscles in bringing about these changes.

  13. Effects of metoclopramide and domperidone on cholinergically mediated contractions of human isolated stomach muscle.

    PubMed

    Sanger, G J

    1985-09-01

    The experiments examine the actions of metoclopramide and domperidone on the responses evoked by electrical field stimulation or by acetylcholine, in longitudinal muscle strips obtained from human stomach. Electrical field stimulation evoked contractions which were predominantly cholinergically mediated; metoclopramide 0.28-28 microM caused a concentration-dependent increase in the height of these contractions. In the presence of atropine and barium chloride, electrical stimulation evoked relaxations of the stomach muscle, probably by stimulating non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic inhibitory nerves; metoclopramide 28 microM had no effect on these relaxations. Metoclopramide 0.003-2.8 microM had no effect on contractions evoked by exogenous acetylcholine, although higher concentrations of the drug increased the contractions. The results suggest that in human isolated stomach, low concentrations of metoclopramide may increase electrically evoked cholinergic activity by increasing the release of neuronal acetylcholine. Stimulation by metoclopramide of cholinergic activity in the gut may therefore be an important mechanism by which the drug increases gastrointestinal motility during therapy. Cholinergically mediated contractions were not increased by domperidone, and other mechanism(s) of action may therefore be important for this drug. PMID:2867191

  14. Evaluation of an in vitro muscle contraction model in mouse primary cultured myotubes.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Yasuko; Ogino, Shinya; Ito, Miyuki; Furuichi, Yasuro; Takagi, Mayumi; Yamada, Mio; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Ono, Yusuke; Fujii, Nobuharu L

    2016-03-15

    To construct an in vitro contraction model with the primary cultured myotubes, we isolated satellite cells from the mouse extensor digitorum longus. Differentiated myotubes possessed a greater number of sarcomere assemblies and higher expression levels of myosin heavy chain, cytochrome c oxidase IV, and myoglobin than in C2C12 myotubes. In agreement with these results regarding the sarcomere assemblies and protein expressions, the primary myotubes showed higher contractile activity stimulated by the electric pulses than that in the C2C12 myotubes. These data suggest that mouse primary myotubes will be a valuable research tool as an in vitro muscle contraction model. PMID:26548957

  15. Excitability of spinal motor neurons during motor imagery of thenar muscle activity under maximal voluntary contractions of 50% and 100%

    PubMed Central

    Bunno, Yoshibumi; Onigata, Chieko; Suzuki, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We often perform physical therapy using motor imagery of muscle contraction to improve motor function for healthy subjects and central nerve disorders. This study aimed to determine the differences in the excitability of spinal motor neurons during motor imagery of a muscle contraction at different contraction strengths. [Subjects] We recorded the F-wave in 15 healthy subjects. [Methods] In resting trial, the muscle was relaxed during F-wave recording. For motor imagery trial, subjects were instructed to imagine maximal voluntary contractions of 50% and 100% while holding the sensor of a pinch meter, and F-waves were recorded for each contraction. The F-wave was recorded immediately after motor imagery. [Results] Persistence and F/M amplitude ratio during motor imagery under maximal voluntary contractions of 50% and 100% were significantly higher than that at rest. In addition, the relative values of persistence, F/M amplitude ratio, and latency were similar during motor imagery under the two muscle contraction strengths. [Conclusion] Motor imagery under maximal voluntary contractions of 50% and 100% can increase the excitability of spinal motor neurons. Differences in the imagined muscle contraction strengths are not involved in changes in the excitability of spinal motor neurons. PMID:26504291

  16. On Using Model Populations to Determine Mechanical Properties of Skeletal Muscle. Application to Concentric Contraction Simulation.

    PubMed

    Sierra, M; Miana-Mena, F J; Calvo, B; Muñoz, M J; Rodríguez, J F; Grasa, J

    2015-10-01

    In the field of computational biomechanics, the experimental evaluation of the material properties is crucial for the development of computational models that closely reproduce real organ systems. When simulations of muscle tissue are concerned, stress/strain relations for both passive and active behavior are required. These experimental relations usually exhibit certain variability. In this study, a set of material parameters involved in a 3D skeletal muscle model are determined by using a system biology approach in which the parameters are randomly varied leading to a population of models. Using a set of experimental results from an animal model, a subset of the entire population of models was selected. This reduced population predicted the mechanical response within the window of experimental observations. Hence, a range of model parameters, instead of a single set of them, was determined. Rat Tibialis Anterior muscle was selected for this study. Muscles ([Formula: see text]) were activated through the sciatic nerve and during contraction the tissue pulled a weight fixed to the distal tendon (concentric contraction). Three different weights 1, 2 and 3 N were used and the time course of muscle stretch was analyzed obtaining values of (mean [Formula: see text] standard deviation): [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] respectively. A paired two-sided sign rank test showed significant differences between the muscle response for the three weights ([Formula: see text]). This study shows that the Monte Carlo method could be used for determine muscle characteristic parameters considering the variability of the experimental population. PMID:25691399

  17. Influence on muscle oxygenation to EMG parameters at different skeletal muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Song, Gaoqing

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of muscle oxygenation on EMG parameters during isometric and incremental exercises and to observe the relationship between EMG parameters and muscle oxygenation. Twelve rowers took part in the tests. Near infrared spectrometer was utilized for measurements of muscle oxygenation on lateral quadriceps. sEMG measurement is performed for EMG parameters during isometric and incremental exercises. Results indicated that Oxy-Hb decrease significantly correlated with IEMG, E/T ratio and frequency of impulse signal during 1/3 MVC and 2/3 MVC isometric exercise, and it is also correlated with IEMG, E/T ratio and frequency of impulse signal. Increase of IEMG occurred at the time after Oxy-Hb decrease during incremental exercise and highly correlated with BLa. It is concluded that no matter how heavy the intensity is, Oxy-Hb dissociation may play an important role in affecting EMG parameters of muscle fatigue during isometric exercise. 2) EMG parameters may be influenced by Oxy-Hb dissociation and blood lactate concentration during dynamic exercise.

  18. Influence on muscle oxygenation to EMG parameters at different skeletal muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Song, Gaoqing

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of muscle oxygenation on EMG parameters during isometric and incremental exercises and to observe the relationship between EMG parameters and muscle oxygenation. Twelve rowers took part in the tests. Near infrared spectrometer was utilized for measurements of muscle oxygenation on lateral quadriceps. sEMG measurement is performed for EMG parameters during isometric and incremental exercises. Results indicated that Oxy-Hb decrease significantly correlated with IEMG, E/T ratio and frequency of impulse signal during 1/3 MVC and 2/3 MVC isometric exercise, and it is also correlated with IEMG, E/T ratio and frequency of impulse signal. Increase of IEMG occurred at the time after Oxy-Hb decrease during incremental exercise and highly correlated with BLa. It is concluded that no matter how heavy the intensity is, Oxy-Hb dissociation may play an important role in affecting EMG parameters of muscle fatigue during isometric exercise. 2) EMG parameters may be influenced by Oxy-Hb dissociation and blood lactate concentration during dynamic exercise.

  19. Effects of high-pressure acclimatization on silver eel (Anguilla anguilla, L.) slow muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, Orlane; Sebert, Philippe; Simon, Bernard

    2006-02-01

    As the spawning migration of the eel is supposed to correspond to a long swimming activity at depth, patterns of slow red muscle contraction have been investigated in European silver eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) exposed for 3 weeks to 10.1 MPa hydrostatic pressure. The results show that pressure-acclimated eels (male and female) show a three-fold decrease in maximum isometric stress of twitch and tetanic contractions while time to peak force, time from peak force to 90% relaxation and ratio of twitch tension to tetanic tension remain unchanged. The observed modifications in slow red muscle mechanical properties do not impede the spawning migration of the eel and are possibly partially compensated by an improvement in the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation. Effects of changes in membrane fluidity are also discussed. PMID:16413804

  20. The Development of Muscle Fatigue Suppresses Auditory Sensory Gating (P50) during Sustained Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrov, Aleksander A.; Dmitrieva, Elena S.; Stankevich, Ludmila N.; Knyazeva, Veronika M.; Shestakova, Anna N.

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study the influence of fatigue development on sensory gating during a muscle load. The fatiguing task was sustained contraction of a handgrip dynamometer with 7 and 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). The suppression of P50, an auditory event-related potential, was used as the sensory gating index in the paired-click paradigm with a 500 ms interstimulus interval; the difference between the P50 amplitudes of the first and the second stimuli of the pair was used as the sensory gating index. We found that the 30% MVC fatigue development strongly decreased sensory gating, sometimes totally suppressing it. We concluded that central fatigue impaired motor performance and strongly suppressed inhibitory processes, as shown by the decreased P50 amplitude to the second stimulus. Therefore, muscle central fatigue influences sensory gating, similar to schizophrenia spectrum disorders. PMID:27458348

  1. Experimental basis of the hypotheses on the mechanism of skeletal muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Grazi, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Summary With time clever hypotheses may be accepted as “facts” without being supported by solid experimental evidence. In our opinion this happened with muscle contraction where pure suggestions still occupy the scene and delay the progress of the research. Among these suggestions are: 1. the believe that viscosity is irrelevant in the economy of muscle contraction, 2. the concept of the drag stroke, 3. some interpretations of the significance of the Huxley-Simmons manoeuvre, 4. the definition of the load as a force/cross-section without taking into consideration the possible, divergent effects of the infinite mass x acceleration couples. Technical questions are also raised since it is apparent that measuring equipments interfere with the measure itself. PMID:23738252

  2. Muscle contraction: energy rate equations in relation to efficiency and step-size distance.

    PubMed

    Worthington, C R; Elliott, G F

    2003-09-01

    We derive the energy rate equation for muscle contraction. Our equation has only two parameters m, the maintenance heat rate and 1/S, the shortening heat coefficient. The impulsive model (previously described in earlier papers) provides a physical basis for parameter 1/S as well as for constants a and b in Hill's force-velocity equation. We develop new theory and relate the efficiency and the step-size distance to our energy rate equation. Correlation between the efficiency and the step-size distance is established. The various numbers are listed in Table 1: we use data from five different muscles in the literature. In summary, our analysis strongly supports the impulsive model as the correct model of contraction. PMID:12957311

  3. Pennation angle dependency in skeletal muscle tissue doppler strain in dynamic contractions.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Frida; Öhberg, Fredrik; Granåsen, Gabriel; Brodin, Lars-Åke; Grönlund, Christer

    2011-07-01

    Tissue velocity imaging (TVI) is a Doppler based ultrasound technique that can be used to study regional deformation in skeletal muscle tissue. The aim of this study was to develop a biomechanical model to describe the TVI strain's dependency on the pennation angle. We demonstrate its impact as the subsequent strain measurement error using dynamic elbow contractions from the medial and the lateral part of biceps brachii at two different loadings; 5% and 25% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). The estimated pennation angles were on average about 4° in extended position and increased to a maximal of 13° in flexed elbow position. The corresponding relative angular error spread from around 7% up to around 40%. To accurately apply TVI on skeletal muscles, the error due to angle changes should be compensated for. As a suggestion, this could be done according to the presented model. PMID:21640478

  4. Mechanisms of the Ba2+-induced contraction in smooth muscle cells of the rabbit mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Satoh, S; Kubota, Y; Itoh, T; Kuriyama, H

    1987-02-01

    The mechanism of the Ba2+-induced contraction was investigated using intact and saponin-treated skinned smooth muscle (skinned muscle) strips of the rabbit mesenteric artery. After depletion of Ca2+ stored in the caffeine-sensitive site, greater than 0.65 mM Ba2+ evoked contraction in muscle strips depolarized with 128 mM K+ in Ca2+-free solution in a dose-dependent fashion, and the ED50 values for Ca2+ and Ba2+ were 0.5 mM and 1.2 mM in intact muscle strips, respectively. Nisoldipine (10 nM) blocked the contraction evoked by high K+ or 10 microM norepinephrine (NE) in the presence of 2.6 mM Ba2+, but did not block the contraction evoked in the presence of 2.6 mM Ca2+. These results may indicate that Ba2+ permeates the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel. In skinned muscle strips, the ED50 values for Ca2+ and Ba2+ were 0.34 and 90 microM, respectively, as estimated from the pCa- and pBa-tension relationships. Calmodulin enhanced and trifluoperazine inhibited the Ba2+- and Ca2+-induced contractions. After the application of Ba2+ or Ca2+ with ATP gamma S in rigor solution, myosin light chain (MLC) was irreversibly thiophosphorylated, as estimated from the Ba2+- or Ca2+-independent contraction. Furthermore, both divalent cations phosphorylated MLC, as measured using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, to the extent expected from the amplitudes of the contraction evoked by these cations. Thus, Ba2+ is capable of activating the contractile proteins as Ca2+ does. The amount of Ca2+ or Ba2+ stored in cells was estimated from the caffeine response evoked in Ca2+-free solution in intact and skinned muscle strips. After the application of 0.3 microM Ca2+ or 0.1 mM Ba2+ for 60 s to skinned muscle strips after the depletion of Ca2+ stored in cells, caffeine produced a contraction only upon pretreatment with Ca2+ but not with Ba2+. When Ba2+ was applied successively just after the application of Ca2+, the subsequently evoked caffeine-induced contraction was much smaller than that

  5. The role of computed tomography in evaluating body composition and the influence of reduced muscle mass on clinical outcome in abdominal malignancy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gibson, D J; Burden, S T; Strauss, B J; Todd, C; Lal, S

    2015-10-01

    It is estimated that there were 3.45 million new cases and 1.75 million deaths from cancer in Europe in 2012. Colorectal cancer was one of the most common cancers, accounting for 13% of new cases and 12.2% of all deaths. Conditions causing reduced muscle mass, such as sarcopenia, can increase the morbidity and mortality of people with cancer. Computed tomography (CT) scans can provide accurate, high-quality information on body composition, including muscle mass. To date, there has been no systematic review on the role of CT scans in identifying sarcopenia in abdominal cancer. This review aimed to examine the role of CT scans in determining the influence of reduced muscle mass on clinical outcome in abdominal cancer. A systematic review of English-language articles published in 2000 or later was conducted. Articles included cohort, randomised controlled trials and validation studies. Participants were people diagnosed with abdominal cancer who had undergone a CT scan. Data extraction and critical appraisal were undertaken. Ten cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies demonstrated that low muscle mass was significantly associated with poor clinical outcome, with six specifically demonstrating reduced survival rates. Eight studies demonstrated that a greater number of patients (27.3-66.7%) were identified as sarcopenic using CT scans compared with numbers identified as malnourished using body mass index. CT scans can identify reduced muscle mass and predict negative cancer outcomes in people with abdominal malignancies, where traditional methods of assessment are less effective. PMID:25782424

  6. Contracts

    Science.gov Websites

    05, 2016 Contracts For Feb. 04, 2016 Contracts For Feb. 03, 2016 Contracts For Feb. 02, 2016 Contracts For Feb. 01, 2016 Search Contracts Search Recent Oldest Title Title - ...

  7. Contracts

    Science.gov Websites

    2016 Contracts For March 04, 2016 Contracts For March 03, 2016 Contracts For March 02, 2016 Contracts For March 01, 2016 Search Contracts Search Recent Oldest Title Title - ...

  8. Three-dimensional geometrical changes of the human tibialis anterior muscle and its central aponeurosis measured with three-dimensional ultrasound during isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    Raiteri, Brent J; Cresswell, Andrew G; Lichtwark, Glen A

    2016-01-01

    Background. Muscles not only shorten during contraction to perform mechanical work, but they also bulge radially because of the isovolumetric constraint on muscle fibres. Muscle bulging may have important implications for muscle performance, however quantifying three-dimensional (3D) muscle shape changes in human muscle is problematic because of difficulties with sustaining contractions for the duration of an in vivo scan. Although two-dimensional ultrasound imaging is useful for measuring local muscle deformations, assumptions must be made about global muscle shape changes, which could lead to errors in fully understanding the mechanical behaviour of muscle and its surrounding connective tissues, such as aponeurosis. Therefore, the aims of this investigation were (a) to determine the intra-session reliability of a novel 3D ultrasound (3DUS) imaging method for measuring in vivo human muscle and aponeurosis deformations and (b) to examine how contraction intensity influences in vivo human muscle and aponeurosis strains during isometric contractions. Methods. Participants (n = 12) were seated in a reclined position with their left knee extended and ankle at 90° and performed isometric dorsiflexion contractions up to 50% of maximal voluntary contraction. 3DUS scans of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle belly were performed during the contractions and at rest to assess muscle volume, muscle length, muscle cross-sectional area, muscle thickness and width, fascicle length and pennation angle, and central aponeurosis width and length. The 3DUS scan involved synchronous B-mode ultrasound imaging and 3D motion capture of the position and orientation of the ultrasound transducer, while successive cross-sectional slices were captured by sweeping the transducer along the muscle. Results. 3DUS was shown to be highly reliable across measures of muscle volume, muscle length, fascicle length and central aponeurosis length (ICC ≥ 0.98, CV < 1%). The TA remained isovolumetric

  9. Contractions Activate Hormone-Sensitive Lipase in Rat Muscle by Protein Kinase C and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Donsmark, Morten; Langfort, Jozef; Holm, Cecilia; Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Intramuscular triacylglycerol is an important energy store and is also related to insulin resistance. The mobilization of fatty acids from this pool is probably regulated by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which has recently been shown to exist in muscle and to be activated by both adrenaline and contractions. Adrenaline acts via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The signalling mediating the effect of contractions is unknown and was explored in this study. Incubated soleus muscles from 70 g male rats were electrically stimulated to perform repeated tetanic contractions for 5 min. The contraction-induced activation of HSL was abolished by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I and calphostin C and reduced 50 % by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126, which also completely blocked extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2 phosphorylation. None of the inhibitors reduced adrenaline-induced HSL activation in soleus muscle. Both phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), which activates PKC and, in turn, ERK, and caffeine, which increases intracellular Ca2+ without eliciting contraction, increased HSL activity. Activated ERK increased HSL activity in supernatant from basal but not from electrically stimulated muscle. In conclusion, in muscle, PKC can stimulate HSL through ERK. Contractions and adrenaline enhance muscle HSL activity by different signalling mechanisms. The effect of contractions is mediated by PKC, at least partly via the ERK pathway. PMID:12794177

  10. Effect of motor imagery and voluntary muscle contraction on the F wave.

    PubMed

    Hara, Motohiko; Kimura, Jun; Walker, D David; Taniguchi, Shinichirou; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Fujisawa, Reiko; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Abe, Tatsuya; Yamada, Thoru; Kayamori, Ryoji; Mizutani, Tomohiko

    2010-08-01

    We tested the validity of instructing patients to minimally contract the muscle to facilitate F-wave recording in clinical practice. In 12 healthy subjects, F waves were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous muscle at rest, during motor imagery, and at up to 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). F-wave persistence increased significantly from 32.5 +/- 11.9% (mean +/- SD) at rest to 58.3 +/- 15.2% during motor imagery and 90.0 +/- 8.7% during 3% MVC. It then remained the same during stepwise changes to and from 30% MVC before decreasing significantly from 80.8 +/- 18.5% during 3% MVC to 48.7 +/- 23.8% during motor imagery and 27.0 +/- 16.0% at rest. The trial average of F-wave amplitude showed a similar pattern of facilitation. Motor imagery enhances F-wave persistence and amplitude, which further increase with a slight muscle contraction and show no additional change with a stronger effort. PMID:20544929

  11. Severe COPD Alters Muscle Fiber Conduction Velocity During Knee Extensors Fatiguing Contraction.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Gennaro; Coratella, Giuseppe; Dardanello, Davide; Rinaldo, Nicoletta; Lanza, Massimo; Schena, Federico; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the changes in muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV), as a sign of fatigue during knee extensor contraction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as compared with healthy controls. Eleven male patients (5 with severe and 6 with moderate COPD; age 67 ± 5 years) and 11 age-matched healthy male controls (age 65 ± 4 years) volunteered for the study. CV was obtained by multichannel surface electromyography (EMG) from the vastus lateralis (VL) and medialis (VM) of the quadriceps muscle during isometric, 30-second duration knee extension at 70% of maximal voluntary contraction. The decline in CV in both the VL and VM was steeper in the severe COPD patients than in healthy controls (for VL: severe COPD vs. controls -0.45 ± 0.07%/s; p < 0.001, and for VM: severe COPD vs. controls -0.54 ± 0.09%/s, p < 0.001). No difference in CV decline was found between the moderate COPD patients and the healthy controls. These findings suggest that severe COPD may impair muscle functions, leading to greater muscular fatigue, as expressed by CV changes. The results may be due to a greater involvement of anaerobic metabolism and a shift towards fatigable type II fibers in the muscle composition of the severe COPD patients. PMID:27007486

  12. Lower muscle co-contraction in flutter kicking for competitive swimmers.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yuji; Hirano, Masami; Yamada, Yosuke; Ikuta, Yasushi; Nomura, Teruo; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Oda, Shingo

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in muscle activation pattern and co-contraction of the rectus and biceps femoris in flutter-kick swimming between competitive and recreational swimmers, to better understand the mechanism of repetitive kicking movements during swimming. Ten competitive and 10 recreational swimmers swam using flutter kicks at three different velocities (100%, 90%, and 80% of their maximal velocity) in a swimming flume. Surface electromyographic signals (EMG) were obtained from the rectus (RF) and biceps femoris (BF), and lower limb kinematic data were obtained at the same time. The beginning and ending of one kick cycle was defined as when the right lateral malleolus reached its highest position in the vertical axis. The offset timing of muscle activation of RF in the recreational swimmers was significantly later at all velocities than in the competitive swimmers (47-48% and 26-33% of kick time of one cycle for recreational and competitive swimmers, respectively), although the kinematic data and other activation timing of RF and BF did not differ between groups. A higher integrated EMG of RF during hip extension and knee extension induced a higher level of muscle co-contraction between RF and BF in the recreational swimmers. These results suggest that long-term competitive swimming training can induce an effective muscle activation pattern in the upper legs. PMID:26590483

  13. Assessment of the ankle muscle co-contraction during normal gait: a surface electromyography study.

    PubMed

    Di Nardo, Francesco; Mengarelli, Alessandro; Maranesi, Elvira; Burattini, Laura; Fioretti, Sandro

    2015-04-01

    The study was designed to assess the co-contractions of tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) in healthy young adults during gait at self-selected speed and cadence, in terms of variability of onset-offset muscular activation and occurrence frequency. Statistical gait analysis (SGA), a recent methodology performing a statistical characterization of gait by averaging spatio-temporal and EMG-based parameters over numerous strides, was performed in twenty-four healthy young adults. Co-contractions were assessed as the period of overlap between activation intervals of TA and GL. Results showed that GL and TA act as pure agonist/antagonists for ankle plantar/dorsiflexion (no co-contractions) in only 21.3 ± 8.2% of strides. In the remaining strides, statistically significant (p < 0.05) co-contractions appear in early stance (29.2 ± 1.7%), mid-stance (32.1 ± 18.3%) and swing (62.2 ± 2.0%). This significantly increased complexity in muscle recruitment strategy beyond the activation as pure ankle plantar/dorsiflexors, suggests that co-contractions are likely functional to further physiological tasks as foot inversion, balance improvement, control of ankle stability and knee flexion. This study represents the first attempt for the development in healthy young adults of a "normality" reference frame for GL/TA co-contractions, able to include the physiological variability of the phenomenon and eliminate the confounding effect of age. PMID:25465985

  14. Three-dimensional geometrical changes of the human tibialis anterior muscle and its central aponeurosis measured with three-dimensional ultrasound during isometric contractions

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Andrew G.; Lichtwark, Glen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Muscles not only shorten during contraction to perform mechanical work, but they also bulge radially because of the isovolumetric constraint on muscle fibres. Muscle bulging may have important implications for muscle performance, however quantifying three-dimensional (3D) muscle shape changes in human muscle is problematic because of difficulties with sustaining contractions for the duration of an in vivo scan. Although two-dimensional ultrasound imaging is useful for measuring local muscle deformations, assumptions must be made about global muscle shape changes, which could lead to errors in fully understanding the mechanical behaviour of muscle and its surrounding connective tissues, such as aponeurosis. Therefore, the aims of this investigation were (a) to determine the intra-session reliability of a novel 3D ultrasound (3DUS) imaging method for measuring in vivo human muscle and aponeurosis deformations and (b) to examine how contraction intensity influences in vivo human muscle and aponeurosis strains during isometric contractions. Methods. Participants (n = 12) were seated in a reclined position with their left knee extended and ankle at 90° and performed isometric dorsiflexion contractions up to 50% of maximal voluntary contraction. 3DUS scans of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle belly were performed during the contractions and at rest to assess muscle volume, muscle length, muscle cross-sectional area, muscle thickness and width, fascicle length and pennation angle, and central aponeurosis width and length. The 3DUS scan involved synchronous B-mode ultrasound imaging and 3D motion capture of the position and orientation of the ultrasound transducer, while successive cross-sectional slices were captured by sweeping the transducer along the muscle. Results. 3DUS was shown to be highly reliable across measures of muscle volume, muscle length, fascicle length and central aponeurosis length (ICC ≥ 0.98, CV < 1%). The TA remained isovolumetric

  15. ( sup 3 H)QNB binding and contraction of rabbit colonic smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ringer, M.J.; Hyman, P.E.; Kao, H.W.; Hsu, C.T.; Tomomasa, T.; Snape, W.J. Jr. )

    1987-11-01

    The authors used radioligand binding and studies of cell contraction to characterize muscarinic receptors on dispersed smooth muscle cells from rabbit proximal and distal colon. Cells obtained after serial incubations in collagenase were used to measure binding of tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate (({sup 3}H)QNB). At 37{degree}C, specific ({sup 3}H)QNB binding was saturable and linearly related to cell number. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to determine the affinity of ({sup 3}H)QNB for its receptor. The IC{sub 50} for the muscarinic agonists bethanechol and oxotremorine were 80 and 0.57 {mu}M, respectively. Hill coefficients were 0.67 for both, suggesting more complex interaction involving receptors of different affinities. In studies of cell contraction, bethanechol stimulated a dose-dependent decrease in cell length with half the maximal contraction occurring at 100 pM. These results suggest that (1) contraction is mediated by binding of bethanechol to M{sub 2}-muscarinic receptors and that (2) there are a large number of spare receptors in colonic smooth muscle.

  16. Myosin light chain phosphorylation during the contraction cycle of frog muscle.

    PubMed

    Bárány, K; Bárány, M; Gillis, J M; Kushmerick, M J

    1980-04-01

    Changes in the [32P]phosphate content of proteins during contraction were investigated with sartorius and semitendinosus muscles dissected from live frogs injected with [32P]orthophosphate. During a single tetanus, the only significant change was the increase in the [32P]phosphate content of the 18,000-dalton light chain of myosin. The extent of light chain phosphorylation was a function of stimulus duration and it amounted maximally to 0.35 mol of [32P]phosphate transferred per mol of light chain. The extent of phosphorylation in stimulated and stretched semitendinosus muscles, which were unable to produce active tension, was nearly identical to that in muscles stimulated at standard rest length, when the time of stimulation was over a half-second. Maximal light chain phosphorylation was also observed in muscles treated with caffein. These results provide evidence for the activation of the light chain kinase in the intact muscle through a process involving Ca2+. The phosphorylation of the light chain associated with tetanic stimulation was reversible. After short tetanuses, dephosphorylation of light chain approximately followed relaxation and after longer tetanuses, dephosphorylation lagged behind relaxation. The role of light chain phosphorylation was investigated in caffeine-treated and untreated muscles by measuring the Ca content of actin and the [32P]phosphate content of light chain. Phosphorylation of light chain protected the actin-bound Ca against removal by EDTA stoichiometrically. It is postulated that the physiological role of light chain phosphorylation is to increase the rate of combination of the cross-bridges with the actin filaments in the contracting phase of the mechanical activity. PMID:7364050

  17. The force of contraction of the human ciliary muscle during accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    1. Apparatus has been designed to alter the shape of the human lens by tensile forces applied to the zonular fibres indirectly through the ciliary body. The changes in dioptric power of the lens for monochromatic sodium light were measured at the same time. Simultaneous serial photography, and direct measurement enabled one to relate a change in shape of the lens to the change in dioptric power. Subsequently, the same lens was isolated and spun around its antero-posterior polar axis and high speed photography recorded its changing profile. 2. By comparing the changes in lens profile due to zonular tension and centrifugal force respectively, the force developed in the zonule for a given change in the shape of the lens could be calculated. Changes in dioptric power associated with those of shape can thus be related directly to the force of contraction of the ciliary muscle necessary to reduce the initial tension of the zonule in the unaccommodated state. 3. The force of contraction of the ciliary muscle as measured by radial force exerted through the zonule and the change in dioptric power of the lens were not linearly related. The relationship is more exactly expressed by the equation [Formula: see text] where D = amplitude of accommodation in dioptres (m-1), FCB = force of contraction of the ciliary muscle as measured by changes in tension of the zonule (N), Kdf = dioptric force coefficient and is constant for a given age (m-1N-½ × 102·5). This coefficient is 0·41 at 15 yr and 0·07 at 45 yr of age. 4. In youth for maximum accommodation (10-12 D) the force is approximately 1·0 × 10-2 N while to produce sufficient accommodation for near vision (3·5 D) the force is less than 0·05 × 10-2 N. 5. After the age of 30 yr the force of contraction of the ciliary muscle necessary to produce maximum accommodation rises steadily to about 50 yr of age and thereafter probably falls slightly. At about 50 yr of age the ciliary muscle is some 50% more powerful than in youth

  18. Comparison of the effect of alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on muscle contractility of the rabbit abdominal aorta in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gnus, Jan; Rusiecka, Agnieszka; Czerski, Albert; Zawadzki, Wojciech; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Hauzer, Willy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the effect of selected agonists and antagonists of alpha-adrenergic receptors on muscle contractility of the rabbit abdominal aorta in vitro with particular emphasis on alpha2-adrenergic receptor subtypes. The study was conducted on 30 New Zealand breed rabbits from which specimens of the abdominal aorta were collected. The sections were set up in an automatic water bath in a Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 37 degrees C. The experiments showed that alpha1-adrenergic receptors played the main role in the contractile response ofthe rabbit abdominal aorta. Stimulation of alpha1-adrenergic receptor by administration ofphenylephrine resulted in an increase in smooth muscle tonus ofthe rabbit abdominal aorta by an average of 4.75 mN. The reaction after stimulation of alpha2-adrenergic receptors by similar doses of their agonists was much weaker. Prolonged tissue response time and time needed to reach maximum tonus for alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists were observed. The obtained results confirm the thesis that the alpha1-adrenergic receptor is the most important factor controlling the contractility of the rabbit abdominal aorta, but the alpha2-adrenergic receptor is also involved in maintaining muscle tissue tonus. PMID:23767297

  19. Structural changes in isometrically contracting insect flight muscle trapped following a mechanical perturbation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shenping; Liu, Jun; Reedy, Mary C; Perz-Edwards, Robert J; Tregear, Richard T; Winkler, Hanspeter; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Lucaveche, Carmen; Goldman, Yale E; Reedy, Michael K; Taylor, Kenneth A

    2012-01-01

    The application of rapidly applied length steps to actively contracting muscle is a classic method for synchronizing the response of myosin cross-bridges so that the average response of the ensemble can be measured. Alternatively, electron tomography (ET) is a technique that can report the structure of the individual members of the ensemble. We probed the structure of active myosin motors (cross-bridges) by applying 0.5% changes in length (either a stretch or a release) within 2 ms to isometrically contracting insect flight muscle (IFM) fibers followed after 5-6 ms by rapid freezing against a liquid helium cooled copper mirror. ET of freeze-substituted fibers, embedded and thin-sectioned, provides 3-D cross-bridge images, sorted by multivariate data analysis into ~40 classes, distinct in average structure, population size and lattice distribution. Individual actin subunits are resolved facilitating quasi-atomic modeling of each class average to determine its binding strength (weak or strong) to actin. ~98% of strong-binding acto-myosin attachments present after a length perturbation are confined to "target zones" of only two actin subunits located exactly midway between successive troponin complexes along each long-pitch helical repeat of actin. Significant changes in the types, distribution and structure of actin-myosin attachments occurred in a manner consistent with the mechanical transients. Most dramatic is near disappearance, after either length perturbation, of a class of weak-binding cross-bridges, attached within the target zone, that are highly likely to be precursors of strong-binding cross-bridges. These weak-binding cross-bridges were originally observed in isometrically contracting IFM. Their disappearance following a quick stretch or release can be explained by a recent kinetic model for muscle contraction, as behaviour consistent with their identification as precursors of strong-binding cross-bridges. The results provide a detailed model for

  20. Structural Changes in Isometrically Contracting Insect Flight Muscle Trapped following a Mechanical Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shenping; Liu, Jun; Perz-Edwards, Robert J.; Tregear, Richard T.; Winkler, Hanspeter; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Goldman, Yale E.; Reedy, Michael K.; Taylor, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The application of rapidly applied length steps to actively contracting muscle is a classic method for synchronizing the response of myosin cross-bridges so that the average response of the ensemble can be measured. Alternatively, electron tomography (ET) is a technique that can report the structure of the individual members of the ensemble. We probed the structure of active myosin motors (cross-bridges) by applying 0.5% changes in length (either a stretch or a release) within 2 ms to isometrically contracting insect flight muscle (IFM) fibers followed after 5–6 ms by rapid freezing against a liquid helium cooled copper mirror. ET of freeze-substituted fibers, embedded and thin-sectioned, provides 3-D cross-bridge images, sorted by multivariate data analysis into ∼40 classes, distinct in average structure, population size and lattice distribution. Individual actin subunits are resolved facilitating quasi-atomic modeling of each class average to determine its binding strength (weak or strong) to actin. ∼98% of strong-binding acto-myosin attachments present after a length perturbation are confined to “target zones” of only two actin subunits located exactly midway between successive troponin complexes along each long-pitch helical repeat of actin. Significant changes in the types, distribution and structure of actin-myosin attachments occurred in a manner consistent with the mechanical transients. Most dramatic is near disappearance, after either length perturbation, of a class of weak-binding cross-bridges, attached within the target zone, that are highly likely to be precursors of strong-binding cross-bridges. These weak-binding cross-bridges were originally observed in isometrically contracting IFM. Their disappearance following a quick stretch or release can be explained by a recent kinetic model for muscle contraction, as behaviour consistent with their identification as precursors of strong-binding cross-bridges. The results provide a detailed model

  1. The Signaling Mechanism of Contraction Induced by ATP and UTP in Feline Esophageal Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Tae Hoon; Jung, Hyunwoo; Cho, Eun Jeong; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-01-01

    P2 receptors are membrane-bound receptors for extracellular nucleotides such as ATP and UTP. P2 receptors have been classified as ligand-gated ion channels or P2X receptors and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors. Recently, purinergic signaling has begun to attract attention as a potential therapeutic target for a variety of diseases especially associated with gastroenterology. This study determined the ATP and UTP-induced receptor signaling mechanism in feline esophageal contraction. Contraction of dispersed feline esophageal smooth muscle cells was measured by scanning micrometry. Phosphorylation of MLC20 was determined by western blot analysis. ATP and UTP elicited maximum esophageal contraction at 30 s and 10 μM concentration. Contraction of dispersed cells treated with 10 μM ATP was inhibited by nifedipine. However, contraction induced by 0.1 μM ATP, 0.1 μM UTP and 10 μM UTP was decreased by U73122, chelerythrine, ML-9, PTX and GDPβS. Contraction induced by 0.1 μM ATP and UTP was inhibited by Gαi3 or Gαq antibodies and by PLCβ1 or PLCβ3 antibodies. Phosphorylated MLC20 was increased by ATP and UTP treatment. In conclusion, esophageal contraction induced by ATP and UTP was preferentially mediated by P2Y receptors coupled to Gαi3 and G q proteins, which activate PLCβ1 and PLCβ3. Subsequently, increased intracellular Ca2+ and activated PKC triggered stimulation of MLC kinase and inhibition of MLC phosphatase. Finally, increased pMLC20 generated esophageal contraction. PMID:26013385

  2. Effects of shakuyakukanzoto and its absorbed components on twitch contractions induced by physiological Ca2+ release in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kaifuchi, Noriko; Omiya, Yuji; Kushida, Hirotaka; Fukutake, Miwako; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Kase, Yoshio

    2015-07-01

    Shakuyakukanzoto (SKT) is a kampo medicine composed of equal proportions of Glycyrrhizae radix (G. radix) and Paeoniae radix (P. radix). A double-blind study reported that SKT significantly ameliorated painful muscle cramp in cirrhosis patients without the typical severe side effects of muscle weakness and central nervous system (CNS) depression. Previous basic studies reported that SKT and its active components induced relaxation by a direct action on skeletal muscle and that SKT did not depress CNS functions; however, why SKT has a lower incidence of muscle weakness remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated which components are absorbed into the blood of rats after a single oral administration of SKT to identify the active components of SKT. We also investigated the effects of SKT and its components on the twitch contraction induced by physiological Ca(2+) release. Our study demonstrated that SKT and five G. radix isolates, which are responsible for the antispasmodic effect of SKT, did not inhibit the twitch contraction in contrast to dantrolene sodium, a direct-acting peripheral muscle relaxant, indicating that the mechanisms of muscle contraction of SKT and dantrolene in skeletal muscle differ. These findings suggest that SKT does not reduce the contractile force in skeletal muscle under physiological conditions, i.e., SKT may have a low risk of causing muscle weakness in clinical use. Considering that most muscle relaxants and anticonvulsants cause various harmful side effects such as weakness and CNS depression, SKT appears to have a benign safety profile. PMID:25783410

  3. Memories of early work on muscle contraction and regulation in the 1950's and 1960's

    SciTech Connect

    Huxley, Hugh E.

    2008-04-25

    Professor Ebashi's epic work on the biochemistry of the regulation of muscle contraction began in the early 1950's, during the same period that work on the molecular basis of force production in muscle was also beginning. The latter work started in two MRC Research Units in the UK, and was continued jointly by the two workers from those Units who had, independently, gone to MIT to learn the new techniques of electron microscopy and to apply them to muscle. In a somewhat similar fashion, Professor Ebashi also spent one or two years in the USA, continuing his work on the role of calcium in muscle regulation in Lippman's laboratory, before returning to Japan to achieve the great breakthroughs in this work during the 1960's. Hanson and Huxley, after putting forward the overlapping actin and myosin filament arrays model for the striated muscle sarcomere, and subsequently the sliding filament model of muscle contraction (simultaneously with A.F Huxley and R. Niedergerke), returned to the UK to pursue detailed structural studies in separate Research Units, in a mixture of consultation, collaboration, and competition, during the later 1950's and throughout the 1960's. However, the path to enlightenment described here in some detail was somewhat more tortuous than the standard literature perhaps reveals. Nevertheless, by the time of the Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Muscle Contraction in 1972, the two lines of enquiry on regulation itself, and on the tilting cross-bridge model of force production, had arrived at a good deal of common ground, and indeed the identification of troponin and its periodic distribution along the actin filaments had helped resolve a long-standing puzzle in the interpretation of the low angle X-ray diagram. Since then, an enormous amount of remarkable new work has been necessary to establish troponin regulation and the tilting cross-bridge mechanism in molecular detail, but the work in the 1950's and 1960's has provided a firm and accurate basis

  4. Memories of early work on muscle contraction and regulation in the 1950's and 1960's.

    PubMed

    Huxley, Hugh E

    2008-04-25

    Professor Ebashi's epic work on the biochemistry of the regulation of muscle contraction began in the early 1950's, during the same period that work on the molecular basis of force production in muscle was also beginning. The latter work started in two MRC Research Units in the UK, and was continued jointly by the two workers from those Units who had, independently, gone to MIT to learn the new techniques of electron microscopy and to apply them to muscle. In a somewhat similar fashion, Professor Ebashi also spent one or two years in the USA, continuing his work on the role of calcium in muscle regulation in Lippman's laboratory, before returning to Japan to achieve the great breakthroughs in this work during the 1960's. Hanson and Huxley, after putting forward the overlapping actin and myosin filament arrays model for the striated muscle sarcomere, and subsequently the sliding filament model of muscle contraction (simultaneously with A.F Huxley and R. Niedergerke), returned to the UK to pursue detailed structural studies in separate Research Units, in a mixture of consultation, collaboration, and competition, during the later 1950's and throughout the 1960's. However, the path to enlightenment described here in some detail was somewhat more tortuous than the standard literature perhaps reveals. Nevertheless, by the time of the Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Muscle Contraction in 1972, the two lines of enquiry on regulation itself, and on the tilting cross-bridge model of force production, had arrived at a good deal of common ground, and indeed the identification of troponin and its periodic distribution along the actin filaments had helped resolve a long-standing puzzle in the interpretation of the low angle X-ray diagram. Since then, an enormous amount of remarkable new work has been necessary to establish troponin regulation and the tilting cross-bridge mechanism in molecular detail, but the work in the 1950's and 1960's has provided a firm and accurate basis

  5. Dynamics of Muscle Microcirculatory and Blood-myocyte O2 Flux During Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Poole, David C.; Copp, Steven W.; Hirai, Daniel M.; Musch, Timothy I.

    2011-01-01

    The O2 requirements of contracting skeletal muscle may increase 100-fold above rest. In 1919 August Krogh’s brilliant insights recognized the capillary as the principal site for this increased blood-myocyte O2 flux. Based on the premise that most capillaries did not sustain RBC flux at rest Krogh proposed that capillary recruitment (i.e., initiation of red blood cell (RBC) flux in previously non-flowing capillaries) increased the capillary surface area available for O2 flux and reduced mean capillary-to-mitochondrial diffusion distances. More modern experimental approaches reveal that most muscle capillaries may support RBC flux at rest. Thus, rather than contraction-induced capillary recruitment per se, increased RBC flux and hematocrit within already-flowing capillaries likely elevate perfusive and diffusive O2 conductances and hence blood-myocyte O2 flux. Additional surface area for O2 exchange is recruited but, crucially, this may occur along the length of already-flowing capillaries (i.e. longitudinal recruitment). Today, the capillary is still considered the principal site for O2 and substrate delivery to contracting skeletal muscle. Indeed, the presence of very low intramyocyte O2 partial pressures (PO2’s) and the absence of PO2 gradients, whilst refuting the relevance of diffusion distances, place an even greater importance on capillary hemodynamics. This emergent picture calls for a paradigm-shift in our understanding of the function of capillaries by de-emphasizing de novo ‘capillary recruitment.’ Diseases such as heart failure impair blood-myocyte O2 flux, in part, by decreasing the proportion of RBC-flowing capillaries. Knowledge of capillary function in healthy muscle is requisite for identification of pathology and efficient design of therapeutic treatments. PMID:21199399

  6. Mechanism of cadmium-induced contraction in ileal longitudinal muscle of guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Asai, F.; Nishimura, M.; Satoh, E.; Urakawa, N.

    1982-01-01

    1 The mechanism of cadmium (Cd2+)-induced contraction was studied in isolated ileal longitudinal muscle of guinea-pig. 2 CdCl2 (1x10(-8) to 1x10-4M)) caused a transient contraction which subsided within approximately 6 min of application. The contraction was reproducible and dependent on the concentration. The dose-response curve was bell-shaped. A maximal response was observed at concentrations of 5x10(-6) to 1x10(-5) M. 3 The contractile effect was inhibited to some degree at 20 degree C or by tetrodotoxin (0.1 microgram/ml), hyoscine (o.1 microgram/ml), but completely inhibited by Ca2+ -removal from the medium. 4 Cd2+ increased the output of [14C]-acetylcholine biosynthesized from [14C] by the preparation depending on the concentration. The increase terminated within the first 6 min and was reduced by tetrodotoxin (0.1 microgram/ml) or by removal of Ca2+ from the medium. 5 Both the contractile and transmitter releasing effects of Cd2+ were dependent on the concentration of external Ca2+. Strontium ions were able to replace Ca2+ -induced transmitter release. 6 It is suggested that Cd2+ contracts ileal longitudinal muscle through a release of cholinergic transmitter from the parasympathetic nerve terminals, which is dependent on external Ca2+. It also has a smaller hyoscine-resistant contractile effect, presumably due to a direct action on smooth muscle cells. PMID:7066605

  7. Regulation of skeletal muscle carbohydrate oxidation during steady-state contraction.

    PubMed

    Timmons, J A; Poucher, S M; Constantin-Teodosiu, D; Macdonald, I A; Greenhaff, P L

    1998-05-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activation status has been described as being central in the regulation of tissue substrate oxidation as outlined by the glucose fatty-acid cycle. In the present study we examined the effects of reduced lipolysis, with use of nicotinate, and increased PDC activation, with use of dichloroacetate (DCA), on substrate utilization during 20 min of submaximal steady-state contraction (approximately 80% of maximal O2 uptake) in canine gracilis skeletal muscle. At rest, PDC activation was unchanged by nicotinate but was approximately 2.5-fold higher in the DCA group than in the control group (P < 0.05). During contraction, PDC activation status increased to 3.5 mmol acetyl-CoA.min-1.kg-1 at 37 degrees C in the control group, remained at 4.5 mmol acetyl-CoA.min-1.kg-1 at 37 degrees C in the DCA group, but only increased to 2.2 mmol acetyl-CoA.min-1.kg-1 at 37 degrees C in the nicotinate group (P < 0.05). However, the estimated amount of carbohydrate oxidized during the 20-min contraction was similar across groups and did not follow the degree of PDC activation (81.2 +/- 22.9, 95.9 +/- 11.7, and 89.3 +/- 18.9 mmol glucosyl units/kg dry muscle for control, nicotinate, and DCA, respectively). Thus it would appear that, during steady-state contraction, PDC activation status does not determine the rate of carbohydrate oxidation in skeletal muscle. PMID:9612406

  8. Triclosan impairs excitation-contraction coupling and Ca2+ dynamics in striated muscle.

    PubMed

    Cherednichenko, Gennady; Zhang, Rui; Bannister, Roger A; Timofeyev, Valeriy; Li, Ning; Fritsch, Erika B; Feng, Wei; Barrientos, Genaro C; Schebb, Nils H; Hammock, Bruce D; Beam, Kurt G; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Pessah, Isaac N

    2012-08-28

    Triclosan (TCS), a high-production-volume chemical used as a bactericide in personal care products, is a priority pollutant of growing concern to human and environmental health. TCS is capable of altering the activity of type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), but its potential to influence physiological excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) and muscle function has not been investigated. Here, we report that TCS impairs ECC of both cardiac and skeletal muscle in vitro and in vivo. TCS acutely depresses hemodynamics and grip strength in mice at doses ≥12.5 mg/kg i.p., and a concentration ≥0.52 μM in water compromises swimming performance in larval fathead minnow. In isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes, skeletal myotubes, and adult flexor digitorum brevis fibers TCS depresses electrically evoked ECC within ∼10-20 min. In myotubes, nanomolar to low micromolar TCS initially potentiates electrically evoked Ca(2+) transients followed by complete failure of ECC, independent of Ca(2+) store depletion or block of RyR1 channels. TCS also completely blocks excitation-coupled Ca(2+) entry. Voltage clamp experiments showed that TCS partially inhibits L-type Ca(2+) currents of cardiac and skeletal muscle, and [(3)H]PN200 binding to skeletal membranes is noncompetitively inhibited by TCS in the same concentration range that enhances [(3)H]ryanodine binding. TCS potently impairs orthograde and retrograde signaling between L-type Ca(2+) and RyR channels in skeletal muscle, and L-type Ca(2+) entry in cardiac muscle, revealing a mechanism by which TCS weakens cardiac and skeletal muscle contractility in a manner that may negatively impact muscle health, especially in susceptible populations. PMID:22891308

  9. Phosphocreatine kinetics at the onset of contractions in skeletal muscle of MM creatine kinase knockout mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Brian B.; Meyer, Ronald A.; Wiseman, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphocreatine (PCr) depletion during isometric twitch stimulation at 5 Hz was measured by (31)P-NMR spectroscopy in gastrocnemius muscles of pentobarbital-anesthetized MM creatine kinase knockout (MMKO) vs. wild-type C57B (WT) mice. PCr depletion after 2 s of stimulation, estimated from the difference between spectra gated to times 200 ms and 140 s after 2-s bursts of contractions, was 2.2 +/- 0.6% of initial PCr in MMKO muscle vs. 9.7 +/- 1.6% in WT muscles (mean +/- SE, n = 7, P < 0.001). Initial PCr/ATP ratio and intracellular pH were not significantly different between groups, and there was no detectable change in intracellular pH or ATP in either group after 2 s. The initial difference in net PCr depletion was maintained during the first minute of continuous 5-Hz stimulation. However, there was no significant difference in the quasi-steady-state PCr level approached after 80 s (MMKO 36.1 +/- 3.5 vs. WT 35.5 +/- 4.4% of initial PCr; n = 5-6). A kinetic model of ATPase, creatine kinase, and adenylate kinase fluxes during stimulation was consistent with the observed PCr depletion in MMKO muscle after 2 s only if ADP-stimulated oxidative phosphorylation was included in the model. Taken together, the results suggest that cytoplasmic ADP more rapidly increases and oxidative phosphorylation is more rapidly activated at the onset of contractions in MMKO compared with WT muscles.

  10. Skeletal Muscle Inflammation Following Repeated Bouts of Lengthening Contractions in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Deyhle, Michael R.; Gier, Amanda M.; Evans, Kaitlyn C.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Nelson, W. Bradley; Parcell, Allen C.; Hyldahl, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle responds to exercise-induced damage by orchestrating an adaptive process that protects the muscle from damage by subsequent bouts of exercise, a phenomenon called the repeated bout effect (RBE). The mechanisms underlying the RBE are not understood. We hypothesized that an attenuated inflammation response following a repeated bout of lengthening contractions (LC) would be coincidental with a RBE, suggesting a potential relationship. Fourteen men (n = 7) and women (n = 7) completed two bouts of lengthening contractions (LC) separated by 28 days. Muscle biopsies were taken before the first bout (B1) from the non-exercised leg, and from the exercised leg 2- and 27-d post-B1 and 2-d following the second bout (B2). A 29-plex cytokine array identified alterations in inflammatory cytokines. Immunohistochemistry quantified inflammatory cell infiltration and major histocompatibility complex class 1 (MHC-1). Muscle soreness was attenuated in the days following B2 relative to B1, indicating a RBE. Intramuscular monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP1) and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP10) increased following B2 relative to the pre-exercise sample (7–52 and 11–36 pg/ml, respectively p < 0.05). Interleukin 4 (IL4) decreased (26–13 pg/ml, p < 0.05) following B2 relative to the pre-exercise sample. Infiltration of CD68+ macrophages and CD8+ T-cells were evident following B2, but not B1. Moreover, CD8+ T-cells were observed infiltrating apparently necrotic muscle fibers. No changes in MHC-1 were found. We conclude that inflammation is not attenuated following a repeated bout of LC and that CD8+ T-cells may play a role in muscle adaptation following LC. Moreover, it appears that the muscle or the immune system becomes sensitized to an initial bout of damaging exercise such that inflammatory cell infiltration into the muscle is enhanced upon a repeated bout of damaging exercise. PMID:26793125

  11. Prostanoid-induced contraction of human bronchial smooth muscle is mediated by TP-receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, R. A.; Sheldrick, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    1. A range of naturally-occurring prostaglandins sulprostone, 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (DME2) and the thromboxane A2 (TXA2)-mimetic, 11 alpha,9 alpha-epoxymethano prostaglandin H2 (U-46619) have been tested for contractile agonist activity on human isolated bronchial smooth muscle. 2. Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), PGF2 alpha, 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2 (11 beta-PGF2) and U-46619 all caused concentration-related contractions. U46619 was at least 300 fold more potent than the other prostanoids with a mean EC50 of 12 nM. Sulprostone caused contraction only at the highest concentration tested (30 microM). PGE2 and PGI2 caused relaxations at low concentrations, and only caused contractile responses at high concentrations (greater than or equal to 10 microM). In contrast, DME2 caused small contractions at low concentrations but relaxation at the highest concentration tested (30 microM). 3. The rank order of contractile agonist potency was: U-46619 much greater than 11 beta-PGF2 congruent to PGF2 alpha greater than PGD2 greater than PGE2 greater than PGI2 congruent to sulprostone congruent to DME2. 4. The TP-receptor blocking drug, AH23848 (1 microM) antagonized the contractile effects of U-46619, PGD2, PGF2 alpha and 11 beta-PGF2, but had no effect against contractions to carbachol. In a single experiment, a pA2 of 8.3 (slope = 1.2) was obtained for AH23848 against U-46619. 5. In most preparations, administration of AH23848 (1 microM) to human bronchus resulted in small, transient contractile responses. 6. The results obtained with both the agonists and the antagonist, AH23848 are therefore consistent with prostanoid-induced contractions of human bronchial smooth muscle being mediated by TP-receptors. PMID:2720298

  12. Can women correctly contract their pelvic floor muscles without formal instruction?

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, J. Welles; Wang, Siqing; Egger, Marlene J; Masters, Maria; Nygaard, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Objectives It is unknown how many women presenting for primary care can appropriately contract their pelvic floor muscle (PFM) or whether this ability differs between women with or without pelvic floor disorders. We sought to describe the proportion of women who initially incorrectly contract the PFM, and how many can learn after basic instruction. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 779 women presenting to community based primary care practices. During PFM assessment, research nurses recorded whether women could correctly contract their PFM after a brief verbal cue. We defined POP as prolapse to or beyond the hymen and SUI as a score of > 3 on the Incontinence Severity Index. Results PFM contraction was done correctly on first attempt in 85.5%, 83.4%, 68.6%, and 85.8% of women with POP, SUI, both POP and SUI and neither POP nor SUI, respectively (p=0.01 for difference between POP and SUI versus neither POP nor SUI). Of 120 women who initially incorrectly contracted the PFM, 94 (78%) learned after brief instruction. Women with POP were less likely to learn than women with neither POP nor SUI (54.3% vs. 85.7%, p=0.001). Increasing vaginal delivery and decreasing caffeine intake (but not age or other demographic factors) were associated with incorrect PFM contraction; only decreased caffeine intake remained significant on multivariable analysis. Conclusions Most women with no or mild pelvic floor disorders can correctly contract their PFM after a simple verbal cue, suggesting that population-based prevention interventions can be initiated without clinical confirmation of correct PFM technique. PMID:23321652

  13. History dependence of human muscle-fiber conduction velocity during voluntary isometric contractions

    PubMed Central

    Lateva, Zoia C.

    2011-01-01

    The conduction velocity (CV) of a muscle fiber is affected by the fiber's discharge history going back ∼1 s. We investigated this dependence by measuring CV fluctuations during voluntary isometric contractions of the human brachioradialis muscle. We recorded electromyogram (EMG) signals simultaneously from multiple intramuscular electrodes, identified potentials belonging to the same motor unit using EMG decomposition, and estimated the CV of each discharge from the interpotential interval. In 12 of 14 subjects, CV increased by ∼10% during the first second after recruitment and then fluctuated by about ±2% in a way that mirrored the fluctuations in the instantaneous firing rate. The CV profile could be precisely described in terms of the discharge history by a simple mathematical model. In the other two subjects, and one subject retested after cooling the arm, the CV fluctuations were inversely correlated with instantaneous firing rate. In all subjects, CV was additionally affected by very short interdischarge intervals (<25 ms): it was increased in doublets at recruitment, but decreased in doublets during continuous firing and after short interdischarge intervals in doubly innervated fibers. CV also exhibited a slow trend of about −0.05%/s that did not depend on the immediate discharge history. We suggest that measurements of CV fluctuations during voluntary contractions, or during stimulation protocols that involve longer and more complex stimulation patterns than are currently being used, may provide a sensitive approach for estimating the dynamic characteristics of ion channels in the human muscle-fiber membrane. PMID:21565985

  14. Motor imagery muscle contraction strength influences spinal motor neuron excitability and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity

    PubMed Central

    Bunno, Yoshibumi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Iwatsuki, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in spinal motor neuron excitability and autonomic nervous system activity during motor imagery of isometric thenar muscle activity at 10% and 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). [Methods] The F-waves and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio were recorded at rest, during motor imagery, and post-trial. For motor imagery trials, subjects were instructed to imagine thenar muscle activity at 10% and 50% MVC while holding the sensor of a pinch meter for 5 min. [Results] The F-waves and LF/HF ratio during motor imagery at 50% MVC were significantly increased compared with those at rest, whereas those during motor imagery at 10% MVC were not significantly different from those at rest. The relative values of the F/M amplitude ratio during motor imagery at 50% MVC were significantly higher than those at 10% MVC. The relative values of persistence and the LF/HF ratio during motor imagery were similar during motor imagery at the two muscle contraction strengths. [Conclusion] Motor imagery can increase the spinal motor neuron excitability and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity. Motor imagery at 50% MVC may be more effective than motor imagery at 10% MVC. PMID:26834354

  15. History dependence of human muscle-fiber conduction velocity during voluntary isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    McGill, Kevin C; Lateva, Zoia C

    2011-09-01

    The conduction velocity (CV) of a muscle fiber is affected by the fiber's discharge history going back ∼1 s. We investigated this dependence by measuring CV fluctuations during voluntary isometric contractions of the human brachioradialis muscle. We recorded electromyogram (EMG) signals simultaneously from multiple intramuscular electrodes, identified potentials belonging to the same motor unit using EMG decomposition, and estimated the CV of each discharge from the interpotential interval. In 12 of 14 subjects, CV increased by ∼10% during the first second after recruitment and then fluctuated by about ±2% in a way that mirrored the fluctuations in the instantaneous firing rate. The CV profile could be precisely described in terms of the discharge history by a simple mathematical model. In the other two subjects, and one subject retested after cooling the arm, the CV fluctuations were inversely correlated with instantaneous firing rate. In all subjects, CV was additionally affected by very short interdischarge intervals (<25 ms): it was increased in doublets at recruitment, but decreased in doublets during continuous firing and after short interdischarge intervals in doubly innervated fibers. CV also exhibited a slow trend of about -0.05%/s that did not depend on the immediate discharge history. We suggest that measurements of CV fluctuations during voluntary contractions, or during stimulation protocols that involve longer and more complex stimulation patterns than are currently being used, may provide a sensitive approach for estimating the dynamic characteristics of ion channels in the human muscle-fiber membrane. PMID:21565985

  16. Thin-film dielectric elastomer sensors to measure the contraction force of smooth muscle cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araromi, O.; Poulin, A.; Rosset, S.; Favre, M.; Giazzon, M.; Martin-Olmos, C.; Liley, M.; Shea, H.

    2015-04-01

    The development of thin-film dielectric elastomer strain sensors for the characterization of smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction is presented here. Smooth muscle disorders are an integral part of diseases such as asthma and emphysema. Analytical tools enabling the characterization of SMC function i.e. contractile force and strain, in a low-cost and highly parallelized manner are necessary for toxicology screening and for the development of new and more effective drugs. The main challenge with the design of such tools is the accurate measurement of the extremely low contractile cell forces expected as a result of SMC monolayer contraction (as low as ~ 100 μN). Our approach utilizes ultrathin (~5 μm) and soft elastomer membranes patterned with elastomer-carbon composite electrodes, onto which the SMCs are cultured. The cell contraction induces an in-plane strain in the elastomer membrane, predicted to be in the order 1 %, which can be measured via the change in the membrane capacitance. The cell force can subsequently be deduced knowing the mechanical properties of the elastomer membrane. We discuss the materials and fabrication methods selected for our system and present preliminary results indicating their biocompatibility. We fabricate functional capacitive senor prototypes with good signal stability over the several hours (~ 0.5% variation). We succeed in measuring in-plane strains of 1 % with our fabricated devices with good repeatability and signal to noise ratio.

  17. PKCε regulates contraction-stimulated GLUT4 traffic in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Niu, Wenyan; Bilan, Philip J; Yu, Junna; Gao, Jing; Boguslavsky, Shlomit; Schertzer, Jonathan D; Chu, Guilan; Yao, Zhi; Klip, Amira

    2011-01-01

    The signaling pathways that stimulate glucose uptake in response to muscle contraction are not well defined. Recently, we showed that carbachol, an acetylcholine analog, stimulates contraction of C2C12 myotube cultures and the rapid arrival of myc-epitope tagged GLUT4 glucose transporters at the cell surface. Here, we explore a role for protein kinase C (PKC) in regulating GLUT4 traffic. Cell surface carbachol-induced GLUT4myc levels were partly inhibited by the conventional/novel PKC inhibitors GF-109203X, Gö6983, and Ro-31-8425 but not by the conventional PKC inhibitor Gö6976. C2C12 myotubes expressed several novel isoforms of PKC mRNA with PKCδ and PKCε in greater abundance. Carbachol stimulated phosphorylation of PKC isoforms and translocation of PKCδ and PKCε to membranes within 5 min. However, only a peptidic inhibitor of PKCε translocation (myristoylated-EAVSLKPT), but not one of PKCδ (myristoylated-SFNSYELGSL), prevented the GLUT4myc response to carbachol. Significant participation of PKCε in the carbachol-induced gain of GLUT4myc at the surface of C2C12 myotubes was further supported through siRNA-mediated PKCε protein knockdown. These findings support a role for novel PKC isoforms, especially PKCε, in contraction-stimulated GLUT4 traffic in muscle cells. PMID:20658540

  18. Direct Modeling of X-Ray Diffraction Pattern from Contracting Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Koubassova, Natalia A.; Bershitsky, Sergey Y.; Ferenczi, Michael A.; Tsaturyan, Andrey K.

    2008-01-01

    A direct modeling approach was used to quantitatively interpret the two-dimensional x-ray diffraction patterns obtained from contracting mammalian skeletal muscle. The dependence of the calculated layer line intensities on the number of myosin heads bound to the thin filaments, on the conformation of these heads and on their mode of attachment to actin, was studied systematically. Results of modeling are compared to experimental data collected from permeabilized fibers from rabbit skeletal muscle contracting at 5°C and 30°C and developing low and high isometric tension, respectively. The results of the modeling show that: i), the intensity of the first actin layer line is independent of the tilt of the light chain domains of myosin heads and can be used as a measure of the fraction of myosin heads stereospecifically attached to actin; ii), during isometric contraction at near physiological temperature, the fraction of these heads is ∼40% and the light chain domains of the majority of them are more perpendicular to the filament axis than in rigor; and iii), at low temperature, when isometric tension is low, a majority of the attached myosin heads are bound to actin nonstereospecifically whereas at high temperature and tension they are bound stereospecifically. PMID:18539638

  19. Role of muscle mass and mode of contraction in circulatory responses to exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, S. F.; Snell, P. G.; Pettinger, W. A.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Taylor, W. F.; Hamra, M.; Graham, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The roles of the mode of contraction (dynamic or static) and active muscle mass in determining the cardiovascular response to exercise has been investigated experimentally in six normal men. Exercise consisted of static handgrip and dynamic handgrip exercise, and static and dynamic knee extension for a period of six minutes. Observed increases in mean arterial pressure after exercise were similar for each mode of contraction, but larger for knee extension than handgrip exercise. Cardiac output increased more for dynamic than for static exercise and for each mode more for knee exercise than for handgrip exercise. Systemic resistance was found to be lower for dynamic than for static exercise, and to decrease from resisting levels by about one third during dynamic knee extension. It is shown that the magnitude of cardiovascular response is related to active muscle mass, but is independent of the contraction mode. Equalization of cardiovascular response was achieved by proportionately larger increases in cardiac output during dynamic exercise. The complete experimental results are given in a table.

  20. Specific modulation of spinal and cortical excitabilities during lengthening and shortening submaximal and maximal contractions in plantar flexor muscles.

    PubMed

    Duclay, Julien; Pasquet, Benjamin; Martin, Alain; Duchateau, Jacques

    2014-12-15

    This study investigated the influence of the torque produced by plantar flexor muscles on cortical and spinal excitability during lengthening and shortening voluntary contractions. To that purpose, modulations of motor-evoked potential (MEP) and Hoffmann (H) reflex were compared in the soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) during anisometric submaximal and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the plantar flexor muscles. For the submaximal shortening and lengthening contractions, the target torque was set at 50% of their respective MVC force. The results indicate that the amplitudes of both MEP and H-reflex responses, normalized to the maximal M wave, were significantly (P < 0.05) lower during lengthening compared with shortening submaximal contraction. For these two parameters, the reduction reached, respectively, 22.1 and 31.9% for the SOL and 34.5 and 29.3% for the MG. During MVC, normalized MEP and H reflex of the SOL were both reduced significantly by 19.9% (P < 0.05) and 29.9% (P < 0.001) during lengthening and shortening contraction, respectively, whereas no significant change (P > 0.05) was observed for MG. In addition, the silent period in the ongoing electromyogram (EMG) activity following the MEP was significantly (P < 0.01) briefer during lengthening than shortening contractions but did not differ (P > 0.05) between contraction intensities and muscles. Together, these results indicate that cortical and spinal mechanisms involved in the modulation of muscle activation during shortening and lengthening contractions differ between synergistic muscles according to the torque produced. Data further document previous studies reporting that the specific modulation of muscle activation during lengthening contraction is not torque dependent. PMID:25324516

  1. Evoked EMG versus muscle torque during fatiguing functional electrical stimulation-evoked muscle contractions and short-term recovery in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Estigoni, Eduardo H; Fornusek, Che; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Smith, Richard M; Davis, Glen M

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether the relationship between muscle torque and m-waves remained constant after short recovery periods, between repeated intervals of isometric muscle contractions induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES). Eight subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) were recruited for the study. All subjects had their quadriceps muscles group stimulated during three sessions of isometric contractions separated by 5 min of recovery. The evoked-electromyographic (eEMG) signals, as well as the produced torque, were synchronously acquired during the contractions and during short FES bursts applied during the recovery intervals. All analysed m-wave variables changed progressively throughout the three contractions, even though the same muscle torque was generated. The peak to peak amplitude (PtpA), and the m-wave area (Area) were significantly increased, while the time between the stimulus artefact and the positive peak (PosT) were substantially reduced when the muscles became fatigued. In addition, all m-wave variables recovered faster and to a greater extent than did torque after the recovery intervals. We concluded that rapid recovery intervals between FES-evoked exercise sessions can radically interfere in the use of m-waves as a proxy for torque estimation in individuals with SCI. This needs to be further investigated, in addition to seeking a better understanding of the mechanisms of muscle fatigue and recovery. PMID:25479324

  2. Strength Training to Contraction Failure Increases Voluntary Activation of the Quadriceps Muscle Shortly After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Elin Karin; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Andersen, Lars Louis; Bandholm, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to investigate voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle during one set of knee extensions performed until contraction failure in patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty. Design This was a cross-sectional study of 24 patients with total knee arthroplasty. One set of knee extensions was performed until contraction failure, using a predetermined 10 repetition maximum loading. In the operated leg, electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lateral and medial vastus, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris muscles was recorded during the set. Muscle activity (%EMGmax) and median power frequency of the EMG power spectrum were calculated for each repetition decile (10%–100% contraction failure). Results Muscle activity increased significantly over contractions from a mean of 90.0 and 93.6 %EMGmax (lateral vastus and medial vastus, respectively) at 10% contraction failure to 99.3 and 105.5 %EMGmax at 100% contraction failure (P = 0.009 and 0.004). Median power frequency decreased significantly over contractions from a mean of 66.8 and 64.2 Hz (lateral vastus and medial vastus, respectively) at 10% contraction failure to 59.9 and 60.1 Hz at 100% contraction failure (P = 0.0006 and 0.0187). Conclusion In patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty, 10 repetition maximum–loaded knee extensions performed in one set until contraction failure increases voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle during the set. Clinical Trials Gov-identifier: NCT01713140 to the abstract to increase trial transparency. PMID:26339729

  3. Whole-body electromyostimulation as a means to impact muscle mass and abdominal body fat in lean, sedentary, older female adults: subanalysis of the TEST-III trial

    PubMed Central

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 months of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) exercise on appendicular muscle mass and abdominal fat mass in subjects specifically at risk for sarcopenia and abdominal obesity, but unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally. Methods Forty-six lean, nonsportive (<60 minutes of exercise per week), elderly women (aged 75 ± 4 years) with abdominal obesity according to International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n=23) which performed 18 minutes of intermittent, bipolar WB-EMS (85 Hz) three sessions in 14 days or an “active” control group (n=23). Whole-body and regional body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine appendicular muscle mass, upper leg muscle mass, abdominal fat mass, and upper leg fat mass. Maximum strength of the leg extensors was determined isometrically by force plates. Results After 12 months, significant intergroup differences were detected for the primary end-points of appendicular muscle mass (0.5% ± 2.0% for the WB-EMS group versus −0.8% ± 2.0% for the control group, P=0.025) and abdominal fat mass (−1.2% ± 5.9% for the WB-EMS group versus 2.4% ± 5.8% for the control group, P=0.038). Further, upper leg lean muscle mass changed favorably in the WB-EMS group (0.5% ± 2.5% versus −0.9% ± 1.9%, in the control group, P=0.033), while effects for upper leg fat mass were borderline nonsignificant (−0.8% ± 3.5% for the WB-EMS group versus 1.0% ± 2.6% for the control group, P=0.050). With respect to functional parameters, the effects for leg extensor strength were again significant, with more favorable changes in the WB-EMS group (9.1% ± 11.2% versus 1.0% ± 8.1% in the control group, P=0.010). Conclusion In summary, WB-EMS showed positive effects on the parameters of sarcopenia and regional fat accumulation. Further, considering the good acceptance of this technology by

  4. Extracellular formation and uptake of adenosine during skeletal muscle contraction in the rat: role of adenosine transporters.

    PubMed

    Lynge, J; Juel, C; Hellsten, Y

    2001-12-01

    1. The existence of adenosine transporters in plasma membrane giant vesicles from rat skeletal muscles and in primary skeletal muscle cell cultures was investigated. In addition, the contribution of intracellularly or extracellularly formed adenosine to the overall extracellular adenosine concentration during muscle contraction was determined in primary skeletal muscle cell cultures. 2. In plasma membrane giant vesicles, the carrier-mediated adenosine transport demonstrated saturation kinetics with Km = 177 +/- 36 microM and Vmax = 1.9 +/- 0.2 nmol x ml(-1) x s(-1) (0.7 nmol (mg protein)(-1) x s(-1)). The existence of an adenosine transporter was further evidenced by the inhibition of the carrier-mediated adenosine transport in the presence of NBMPR (nitrobenzylthioinosine; 72% inhibition) or dipyridamol (64% inhibition; P < 0.05). 3. In primary skeletal muscle cells, the rate of extracellular adenosine accumulation was 5-fold greater (P < 0.05) with electrical stimulation than without electrical stimulation. Addition of the adenosine transporter inhibitor NBMPR led to a 57% larger (P < 0.05) rate of extracellular adenosine accumulation in the electro-stimulated muscle cells compared with control cells, demonstrating that adenosine is taken up by the skeletal muscle cells during contractions. 4. Inhibition of ecto-5'-nucleotidase with AOPCP in electro-stimulated cells resulted in a 70% lower (P < 0.05) rate of extracellular adenosine accumulation compared with control cells, indicating that adenosine to a large extent is formed in the extracellular space during contraction. 5. The present study provides evidence for the existence of an NBMPR-sensitive adenosine transporter in rat skeletal muscle. Our data furthermore demonstrate that the increase in extracellular adenosine observed during electro-stimulation of skeletal muscle is due to production of adenosine in the extracellular space of skeletal muscle and that adenosine is taken up rather than released by the

  5. Drebrin-like protein DBN-1 is a sarcomere component that stabilizes actin filaments during muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Butkevich, Eugenia; Bodensiek, Kai; Fakhri, Nikta; von Roden, Kerstin; Schaap, Iwan A T; Majoul, Irina; Schmidt, Christoph F; Klopfenstein, Dieter R

    2015-01-01

    Actin filament organization and stability in the sarcomeres of muscle cells are critical for force generation. Here we identify and functionally characterize a Caenorhabditis elegans drebrin-like protein DBN-1 as a novel constituent of the muscle contraction machinery. In vitro, DBN-1 exhibits actin filament binding and bundling activity. In vivo, DBN-1 is expressed in body wall muscles of C. elegans. During the muscle contraction cycle, DBN-1 alternates location between myosin- and actin-rich regions of the sarcomere. In contracted muscle, DBN-1 is accumulated at I-bands where it likely regulates proper spacing of α-actinin and tropomyosin and protects actin filaments from the interaction with ADF/cofilin. DBN-1 loss of function results in the partial depolymerization of F-actin during muscle contraction. Taken together, our data show that DBN-1 organizes the muscle contractile apparatus maintaining the spatial relationship between actin-binding proteins such as α-actinin, tropomyosin and ADF/cofilin and possibly strengthening actin filaments by bundling. PMID:26146072

  6. ALUMINUM CHLORIDE EFFECT ON Ca2+,Mg(2+)-ATPase ACTIVITY AND DYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTION.

    PubMed

    Nozdrenko, D M; Abramchuk, O M; Soroca, V M; Miroshnichenko, N S

    2015-01-01

    We studied enzymatic activity and measured strain-gauge contraction properties of the frog Rana temporaria m. tibialis anterior muscle fascicles during the action of aluminum chloride solution. It was shown that AlCl3 solutions did not affect the dynamic properties of skeletal muscle preparation in concentrations less than 10(-4) M Increasing the concentration of AlCl3 to 10(-2) M induce complete inhibition of muscle contraction. A linear correlation between decrease in Ca2+,Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum and the investigated concentrations range of aluminum chloride was observed. The reduction in the dynamic contraction performance and the decrease Ca2+,Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum under the effect of the investigated AlCl3 solution were minimal in pre-tetanus period of contraction. PMID:26717594

  7. Studies with a reconstituted muscle glycolytic system. The anaerobic glycolytic response to simulated tetanic contraction

    PubMed Central

    Scopes, Robert K.

    1974-01-01

    By using a reconstituted glycolytic system and a highly active adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), the metabolism during muscular tetanic contraction was simulated and observed. With an ATPase activity somewhat greater than can be maintained in muscle tissue, phosphocreatine was rapidly and completely utilized, lactate production commenced about 5s after the ATPase was added and after 15s adenine nucleotides were lost through deamination to IMP. By 40s, all metabolism ceased because of complete loss of adenine mononucleotides. With a lower ATPase activity, glycolytic regeneration of ATP was capable of maintaining the ATP concentration at its initial value and even by 80s, only one-half of the phosphocreatine had been utilized. No deamination occurred in this time. It is suggested that the metabolic events observed in the simulated system are basically the same as occur in muscle doing heavy work. PMID:4275706

  8. Mitochondrial fusion is frequent in skeletal muscle and supports excitation–contraction coupling

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Verónica; Lenaers, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Genetic targeting experiments indicate a fundamental role for mitochondrial fusion proteins in mammalian physiology. However, owing to the multiple functions of fusion proteins, their related phenotypes are not necessarily caused by altered mitochondrial fusion. Perhaps the biggest mystery is presented by skeletal muscle, where mostly globular-shaped mitochondria are densely packed into the narrow intermyofilamental space, limiting the interorganellar interactions. We show here that mitochondria form local networks and regularly undergo fusion events to share matrix content in skeletal muscle fibers. However, fusion events are less frequent and more stable in the fibers than in nondifferentiated myoblasts. Complementation among muscle mitochondria was suppressed by both in vivo genetic perturbations and chronic alcohol consumption that cause myopathy. An Mfn1-dependent pathway is revealed whereby fusion inhibition weakens the metabolic reserve of mitochondria to cause dysregulation of calcium oscillations during prolonged stimulation. Thus, fusion dynamically connects skeletal muscle mitochondria and its prolonged loss jeopardizes bioenergetics and excitation–contraction coupling, providing a potential pathomechanism contributing to myopathies. PMID:24751540

  9. A mechanochemical 3D continuum model for smooth muscle contraction under finite strains.

    PubMed

    Stålhand, J; Klarbring, A; Holzapfel, G A

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a modelling framework in which the mechanochemical properties of smooth muscle cells may be studied. The activation of smooth muscles is considered in a three-dimensional continuum model which is key to realistically capture the function of hollow organs such as blood vessels. On the basis of a general thermodynamical framework the mechanical and chemical phases are specialized in order to quantify the coupled mechanochemical process. A free-energy function is proposed as the sum of a mechanical energy stored in the passive tissue, a coupling between the mechanical and chemical kinetics and an energy related purely to the chemical kinetics and the calcium ion concentration. For the chemical phase it is shown that the cross-bridge model of Hai and Murphy [1988. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 254, C99-C106] is included in the developed evolution law as a special case. In order to show the specific features and the potential of the proposed continuum model a uniaxial extension test of a tissue strip is analysed in detail and the related kinematics and stress-stretch relations are derived. Parameter studies point to coupling phenomena; in particular the tissue response is analysed in terms of the calcium ion level. The model for smooth muscle contraction may significantly contribute to current modelling efforts of smooth muscle tissue responses. PMID:20946904

  10. Attenuation of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage conferred by maximal isometric contractions: a mini review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Leonardo C. R.; Denadai, Benedito S.

    2015-01-01

    Although, beneficial in determined contexts, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) might be unwanted during training regimens, competitions and daily activities. There are a vast number of studies investigating strategies to attenuate EIMD response after damaging exercise bouts. Many of them consist of performing exercises that induce EIMD, consuming supplements or using equipment that are not accessible for most people. It appears that performing maximal isometric contractions (ISOs) 2–4 days prior to damaging bouts promotes significant attenuation of EIMD symptoms that are not related to muscle function. It has been shown that the volume of ISOs, muscle length in which they are performed, and interval between them and the damaging bout influence the magnitude of this protection. In addition, it appears that this protection is not long-lived, lasting no longer than 4 days. Although no particular mechanisms for these adaptations were identified, professionals should consider applying this non-damaging stimulus before submitting their patients to unaccustomed exercised. However, it seems not to be the best option for athletes or relatively trained individuals. Future, studies should focus on establishing if ISOs protect other populations (i.e., trained individuals) or muscle groups (i.e., knee extensors) against EIMD, as well as investigate different mechanisms for ISO-induced protection. PMID:26578972

  11. Inhibition of RhoA-dependent pathway and contraction by endogenous hydrogen sulfide in rabbit gastric smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Nalli, Ancy D.; Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Mahavadi, Sunila; Grider, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory neurotransmitters, chiefly nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal peptide, increase cyclic nucleotide levels and inhibit muscle contraction via inhibition of myosin light chain (MLC) kinase and activation of MLC phosphatase (MLCP). H2S produced as an endogenous signaling molecule synthesized mainly from l-cysteine via cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) regulates muscle contraction. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of CSE and H2S function in the regulation of MLCP activity, 20-kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC20) phosphorylation, and contraction in isolated gastric smooth muscle cells. Both mRNA expression and protein expression of CSE, but not CBS, were detected in smooth muscle cells of rabbit, human, and mouse stomach. l-cysteine, an activator of CSE, and NaHS, a donor of H2S, inhibited carbachol-induced Rho kinase and PKC activity, Rho kinase-sensitive phosphorylation of MYPT1, PKC-sensitive phosphorylation of CPI-17, and MLC20 phosphorylation and sustained muscle contraction. The inhibitory effects of l-cysteine, but not NaHS, were blocked upon suppression of CSE expression by siRNA or inhibition of its activity by dl-propargylglycine (PPG) suggesting that the effect of l-cysteine is mediated via activation of CSE. Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of KATP channels, had no effect on the inhibition of contraction by H2S. Both l-cysteine and NaHS had no effect on basal cAMP and cGMP levels but augmented forskolin-induced cAMP and SNP-induced cGMP formation. We conclude that both endogenous and exogenous H2S inhibit muscle contraction, and the mechanism involves inhibition of Rho kinase and PKC activities and stimulation of MLCP activity leading to MLC20 dephosphorylation and inhibition of muscle contraction. PMID:25567809

  12. Movement-related cortical potentials during muscle fatigue induced by upper limb submaximal isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Wang, Ji-Ya; Sun, Yong-Jun; Yang, A-Li; Zhang, Ri-Hui

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the central neurophysiological mechanisms during fatigue induced by submaximal isometric contractions. A total of 23 individuals participated in the study and were assigned to fatigue and nonfatigue groups. Handgrip force, root mean square (RMS) of surface electromyography (sEMG) signal and movement-related cortical potentials during self-paced submaximal handgrip isometric contractions were assessed for each participant. The experimental data showed significant decreases in both maximal voluntary contraction [-24.3%; F(3, 42)=19.62, P<0.001, ηp=0.48] and RMS [-30.1%; F(3, 42)=19.01, P<0.001, ηp=0.57] during maximal voluntary contractions and a significant increase [F(3, 42)=14.27, P<0.001, ηp=0.50] in the average RMS of sEMG over four blocks in the fatigue group. There was no significant difference in the readiness potential between the fatigue and the nonfatigue groups at early stages, and at late stages, significant differences were observed only at the Fp1 and FC1 sites. Motor potential amplitudes were significantly higher in the fatigue group than in the nonfatigue group irrespective of block or electrode positions. Positive waveforms were observed in the prefrontal cortex in states without muscle fatigue, whereas a negative waveform pattern was observed with muscle fatigue. Significant within-subject correlations were observed between motor potential at the C1 site and RMS of sEMG (r=-0.439, P=0.02, ηp=0.11). Neurophysiological evidence indicates that cortical activity increases in the prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex and supplementary motor cortex with muscle fatigue. Muscle fatigue appears to have considerable effects on the components of movement-related cortical potentials during movement execution, whereas the readiness potential before movement is sensitive to cognitive demands during prolonged exercise. Our results provide additional evidence for a link between central motor command during movement

  13. [Effect of sydnophen and caffeine on reflex shifts in arterial pressure arising during skeletal muscle contraction].

    PubMed

    Medvedev, O S; Stepochkina, N A

    1977-01-01

    The influence of sydnophen (5-20 mg/kg) and of caffein (10-40 mg/kg) on the pressor reaction of the arterial pressure, provoked by contraction of skeletal muscles following stimulation of the anterior spinal cord roots (L6, L7, S1) was investigated in 17 tests set up on decerebrated non-narcotized cats. The intraveonus injection of sydnophen was attended by a fall of the arterial pressure and inhibition of the pressor reflex. Caffein reduced the intensity of the pressor reflex to a lesser extent and did not modify the initial level of the arterial pressure. PMID:852546

  14. High-Intensity Interval Training Alters ATP Pathway Flux During Maximal Muscle Contractions in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Ryan G.; Maynard, Logan; Kent, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim High-intensity interval training (HIT) results in potent metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, however little is known about the influence of these adaptations on energetics in vivo. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to examine the effects of HIT on ATP synthesis from net PCr breakdown (ATPCK), oxidative phosphorylation (ATPOX) and non-oxidative glycolysis (ATPGLY) in vivo in vastus lateralis during a 24-s maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Methods Eight young men performed 6 sessions of repeated, 30-s “all-out” sprints on a cycle ergometer; measures of muscle energetics were obtained at baseline, and after the first and sixth sessions. Results Training increased peak oxygen consumption (35.8±1.4 to 39.3±1.6 ml·min−1·kg−1, p=0.01) and exercise capacity (217.0±11.0 to 230.5±11.7 W, p=0.04) on the ergometer, with no effects on total ATP production or force-time integral during the MVC. While ATP production by each pathway was unchanged after the first session, 6 sessions increased the relative contribution of ATPOX (from 31±2 to 39±2% of total ATP turnover, p<0.001), and lowered the relative contribution from both ATPCK (49±2 to 44±1%, p=0.004) and ATPGLY (20±2 to 17±1%, p=0.03). Conclusion These alterations to muscle ATP production in vivo indicate that brief, maximal contractions are performed with increased support of oxidative ATP synthesis, and relatively less contribution from anaerobic ATP production following training. These results extend previous reports of molecular and cellular adaptations to HIT and show that 6 training sessions are sufficient to alter in vivo muscle energetics, which likely contributes to increased exercise capacity after short-term HIT. PMID:24612773

  15. Mathematical model of excitation-contraction in a uterine smooth muscle cell.

    PubMed

    Bursztyn, Limor; Eytan, Osnat; Jaffa, Ariel J; Elad, David

    2007-05-01

    Uterine contractility is generated by contractions of myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) that compose most of the myometrial layer of the uterine wall. Calcium ion (Ca(2+)) entry into the cell can be initiated by depolarization of the cell membrane. The increase in the free Ca(2+) concentration within the cell initiates a chain of reactions, which lead to formation of cross bridges between actin and myosin filaments, and thereby the cell contracts. During contraction the SMC shortens while it exerts forces on neighboring cells. A mathematical model of myometrial SMC contraction has been developed to study this process of excitation and contraction. The model can be used to describe the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and stress produced by the cell in response to depolarization of the cell membrane. The model accounts for the operation of three Ca(2+) control mechanisms: voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels, Ca(2+) pumps, and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers. The processes of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and stress production are accounted for using the cross-bridge model of Hai and Murphy (Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 254: C99-C106, 1988) and are coupled to the Ca(2+) concentration through the rate constant of myosin phosphorylation. Measurements of Ca(2+), MLC phosphorylation, and force in contracting cells were used to set the model parameters and test its ability to predict the cell response to stimulation. The model has been used to reproduce results of voltage-clamp experiments performed in myometrial cells of pregnant rats as well as the results of simultaneous measurements of MLC phosphorylation and force production in human nonpregnant myometrial cells. PMID:17267547

  16. The acetyl group deficit at the onset of contraction in ischaemic canine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Paul A; Loxham, Susan J G; Poucher, Simon M; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2002-10-15

    Considerable debate surrounds the identity of the precise cellular site(s) of inertia that limit the contribution of mitochondrial ATP resynthesis towards a step increase in workload at the onset of muscular contraction. By detailing the relationship between canine gracilis muscle energy metabolism and contractile function during constant-flow ischaemia, in the absence (control) and presence of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activation by dichloroacetate, the present study examined whether there is a period at the onset of contraction when acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) availability limits mitochondrial ATP resynthesis, i.e. whether a limitation in mitochondrial acetyl group provision exists. Secondly, assuming it does exist, we also aimed to identify the mechanism by which dichloroacetate overcomes this "acetyl group deficit". No increase in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activation or acetyl group availability occurred during the first 20 s of contraction in the control condition, with strong trends for both acetyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine to actually decline (indicating the existence of an acetyl group deficit). Dichloroacetate increased resting pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activation, acetyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine by approximately 20-fold (P < 0.01), approximately 3-fold (P < 0.01) and approximately 4-fold (P < 0.01), respectively, and overcame the acetyl group deficit at the onset of contraction. As a consequence, the reliance upon non-oxidative ATP resynthesis was reduced by approximately 40 % (P < 0.01) and tension development was increased by approximately 20 % (P < 0.05) following 5 min of contraction. The present study has demonstrated, for the first time, the existence of an acetyl group deficit at the onset of contraction and has confirmed the metabolic and functional benefits to be gained from overcoming this inertia. PMID:12381829

  17. The influence of unilateral contraction of hand muscles on the contralateral corticomuscular coherence during bimanual motor tasks.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yang; Gao, Lin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Yingtuo; Yang, Zi; Wang, Xiuyue; Li, Tianqi; Dang, Chuan; Zhu, Ruohan; Wang, Jue

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms behind how muscle contractions in one hand influence corticomuscular coherence in the opposite hand are still undetermined. Twenty-two subjects were recruited to finish bimanual and unimanual motor tasks. In the unimanual tasks, subjects performed precision grip using their right hand with visual feedback of exerted forces. The bimanual tasks involved simultaneous finger abduction of their left hand with visual feedback and precision grip of their right hand. They were divided into four conditions according to the two contraction levels of the left-hand muscles and whether visual feedback existed for the right hand. Measures of coherence and power spectrum were calculated from EEG and EMG data and statistically analyzed to identify changes in corticomuscular coupling and oscillatory activity. Results showed that compared with the unimanual task, a significant increase in the mean corticomuscular coherence of the right hand was found when left-hand muscles contracted at 5% of the maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC). No significant changes were found when the contraction level was 50% of the MVC. Furthermore, both the increase of muscle contraction levels and the elimination of visual feedback for right hand can significantly decrease the corticomuscular coupling in right hand during bimanual tasks. In summary, the involvement of moderate left-hand muscle contractions resulted in an increase tendency of corticomuscular coherence in right hand while strong left-hand muscle contractions eliminated it. We speculated that the perturbation of activities in one corticospinal tract resulted from the movement of the opposite hand can enhance the corticomuscular coupling when attention distraction is limited. PMID:27018484

  18. A novel role for RhoA GTPase in the regulation of airway smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenwu; Huang, Youliang; Wu, Yidi; Gunst, Susan J

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a novel molecular mechanism for the regulation of airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction by RhoA GTPase. In ASM tissues, both myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and actin polymerization are required for active tension generation. RhoA inactivation dramatically suppresses agonist-induced tension development and completely inhibits agonist-induced actin polymerization, but only slightly reduces MLC phosphorylation. The inhibition of MLC phosphatase does not reverse the effects of RhoA inactivation on contraction or actin polymerization. Thus, RhoA regulates ASM contraction through its effects on actin polymerization rather than MLC phosphorylation. Contractile stimulation of ASM induces the recruitment and assembly of paxillin, vinculin, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) into membrane adhesion complexes (adhesomes) that regulate actin polymerization by catalyzing the activation of cdc42 GTPase by the G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting target (GIT) - p21-activated kinase (PAK) - PAK-interacting exchange factor (PIX) complex. Cdc42 is a necessary and specific activator of the actin filament nucleation activator, N-WASp. The recruitment and activation of paxillin, vinculin, and FAK is prevented by RhoA inactivation, thus preventing cdc42 and N-WASp activation. We conclude that RhoA regulates ASM contraction by catalyzing the assembly and activation of membrane adhesome signaling modules that regulate actin polymerization, and that the RhoA-mediated assembly of adhesome complexes is a fundamental step in the signal transduction process in response to a contractile agonist. PMID:25531582

  19. The mode of transverse spread of contraction initiated by local activation in single frog muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Sugi, H; Ochi, R

    1967-10-01

    Isolated single frog muscle fibers were locally activated by applying negative current pulses to a pipette whose tip was in contact with the fiber surface. In contrast to the graded inward spread of contraction initiated by a moderate depolarization, the contraction in response to a strong negative current was observed to spread transversely around the whole perimeter but not through the center of the fiber. This response was elicited only with pipettes of more than 6 micro diameter. The response was still present if the sodium of the Ringer solution was replaced by choline, or the chloride was replaced by nitrate or propionate. The duration of the response appeared to be independent of the duration of stimulating current in fresh fibers, while the contraction lasted as long as the current went on in deteriorated fibers. The contraction was first initiated at the area of fiber surface covered by the pipette, and spread around the perimeter of the fiber with a velocity of 0.8-6 cm/sec. Possible mechanisms of the response are discussed in connection with the properties of the transverse tubular system, the possibility of some self-propagating process along the walls of the tubules being suggested. PMID:6064146

  20. Enhancement of K+ conductance improves in vitro the contraction force of skeletal muscle in hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Grafe, P; Quasthoff, S; Strupp, M; Lehmann-Horn, F

    1990-05-01

    An abnormal ratio between Na+ and K+ conductances seems to be the cause for the depolarization and paralysis of skeletal muscle in primary hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Recently we have shown that the "K+ channel opener" cromakalim hyperpolarizes mammalian skeletal muscle fibers. Now we have studied the effects of this drug on the twitch force of muscle biopsies from normal and diseased human skeletal muscle. Cromakalim had little effect on the twitch force of normal muscle whereas it strongly improved the contraction force of fibers from patients suffering from hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Recordings of intracellular K+ and Cl- activities in human muscle and isolated rat soleus muscle support the view that cromakalim enhances the membrane K+ conductance (gK+). These data indicate that "K+ channel openers" may have a beneficial effect in primary hypokalemic periodic paralysis. PMID:2345562

  1. Rapid onset vasodilation with single muscle contractions in the leg: influence of age.

    PubMed

    Hughes, William E; Ueda, Kenichi; Treichler, David P; Casey, Darren P

    2015-08-01

    The influence of aging on contraction-induced rapid vasodilation has been well characterized in the forearm. We sought to examine the impact of aging on contraction-induced rapid vasodilation in the leg following single muscle contractions and determine whether potential age-related impairments were similar between limbs (leg vs. arm). Fourteen young (23 ± 1 years) and 16 older (66 ± 1 years) adults performed single leg knee extensions at 20%, 40%, and 60% of work rate maximum. Femoral artery diameter and blood velocity were measured using Doppler ultrasound. Limb vascular conductance (VC) was calculated using blood flow (mL·min(-1)) and mean arterial pressure (mmHg). Peak and total vasodilator responses in the leg (change [Δ] in VC from baseline) were blunted in older adults by 44-50% across exercise intensities (P < 0.05 for all). When normalized for muscle mass, age-related differences were still evident (P < 0.05). Comparing the rapid vasodilator responses between the arm and the leg of the same individuals at similar relative intensities (20% and 40%) reveals that aging influences peak and total vasodilation equally between the limbs (no significant age × limb interaction at either intensity, P = 0.28-0.80). Our data demonstrate that (1) older adults exhibit an attenuated rapid hyperemic and vasodilator response in the leg; and (2) the age-related reductions in rapid vasodilation are similar between the arm and the leg. The mechanisms contributing to the age-related differences in contraction-induced rapid vasodilation are perhaps similar to those seen with the forearm model, but have not been confirmed. PMID:26320213

  2. Rapid onset vasodilation with single muscle contractions in the leg: influence of age

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, William E; Ueda, Kenichi; Treichler, David P; Casey, Darren P

    2015-01-01

    The influence of aging on contraction-induced rapid vasodilation has been well characterized in the forearm. We sought to examine the impact of aging on contraction-induced rapid vasodilation in the leg following single muscle contractions and determine whether potential age-related impairments were similar between limbs (leg vs. arm). Fourteen young (23 ± 1 years) and 16 older (66 ± 1 years) adults performed single leg knee extensions at 20%, 40%, and 60% of work rate maximum. Femoral artery diameter and blood velocity were measured using Doppler ultrasound. Limb vascular conductance (VC) was calculated using blood flow (mL·min−1) and mean arterial pressure (mmHg). Peak and total vasodilator responses in the leg (change [Δ] in VC from baseline) were blunted in older adults by 44–50% across exercise intensities (P < 0.05 for all). When normalized for muscle mass, age-related differences were still evident (P < 0.05). Comparing the rapid vasodilator responses between the arm and the leg of the same individuals at similar relative intensities (20% and 40%) reveals that aging influences peak and total vasodilation equally between the limbs (no significant age × limb interaction at either intensity, P = 0.28–0.80). Our data demonstrate that (1) older adults exhibit an attenuated rapid hyperemic and vasodilator response in the leg; and (2) the age-related reductions in rapid vasodilation are similar between the arm and the leg. The mechanisms contributing to the age-related differences in contraction-induced rapid vasodilation are perhaps similar to those seen with the forearm model, but have not been confirmed. PMID:26320213

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor enhances cholinergic contraction of longitudinal muscle of rabbit intestine via activation of phospholipase C

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qudah, M.; Anderson, C. D.; Mahavadi, S.; Bradley, Z. L.; Akbarali, H. I.; Murthy, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) belongs to the neurotrophin family of proteins best known for its role in neuronal survival, differentiation, migration, and synaptic plasticity in central and peripheral neurons. BDNF is also widely expressed in nonneuronal tissues including the gastrointestinal tract. The role of BDNF in intestinal smooth muscle contractility is not well defined. The aim of this study was to identify the role of BDNF in carbachol (CCh)- and substance P (SP)-induced contraction of intestinal longitudinal smooth muscle. BDNF, selective tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor agonists, and pharmacological inhibitors of signaling pathways were examined for their effects on contraction of rabbit intestinal longitudinal muscle strips induced by CCh and SP. BDNF activation of intracellular signaling pathways was examined by Western blot in homogenates of muscle strips and isolated muscle cells. One-hour preincubation with BDNF enhanced intestinal muscle contraction induced by CCh but not by SP. The selective synthetic TrkB agonists LM 22A4 and 7,8-dihydroxyflavone produced similar effects to BDNF. The Trk antagonist K-252a, a TrkB antibody but not p75NTR antibody, blocked the effect of BDNF. The enhancement of CCh-induced contraction by BDNF was blocked by the phospholipase C (PLC) antagonist U73122, but not by ERK1/2 or Akt antagonists. Direct measurement in muscle strips and isolated muscle cells showed that BDNF caused phosphorylation of TrkB receptors and PLC-γ, but not ERK1/2 or Akt. We conclude that exogenous BDNF augments the CCh-induced contraction of longitudinal muscle from rabbit intestine by activating TrkB receptors and subsequent PLC activation. PMID:24356881

  4. Critical role of actin-associated proteins in smooth muscle contraction, cell proliferation, airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dale D

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling, which are largely attributed to increased airway smooth muscle contractility and cell proliferation. It is known that both chemical and mechanical stimulation regulates smooth muscle contraction. Recent studies suggest that contractile activation and mechanical stretch induce actin cytoskeletal remodeling in smooth muscle. However, the mechanisms that control actin cytoskeletal reorganization are not completely elucidated. This review summarizes our current understanding regarding how actin-associated proteins may regulate remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton in airway smooth muscle. In particular, there is accumulating evidence to suggest that Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl) plays a critical role in regulating airway smooth muscle contraction and cell proliferation in vitro, and airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling in vivo. These studies indicate that Abl may be a novel target for the development of new therapy to treat asthma. PMID:26517982

  5. Validity and Reliability of an Instrumented Speculum Designed to Minimize the Effect of Intra-abdominal Pressure on the Measurement of Pelvic Floor Muscle Strength

    PubMed Central

    Ashton-Miller, James A.; Zielinski, Ruth; Miller, Janis M.; DeLancey, John O.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Existing clinical measurements of pelvic floor muscle strength are contaminated by crosstalk from intra-abdominal pressure. We tested an improved instrumented speculum designed to minimize this crosstalk. The hypotheses were that the speculum yields: 1) maximum vaginal closure forces unrelated to intra-abdominal pressure, 2) discriminatory validity between women who have strong vs. weak pelvic floor muscles, and 3) acceptable test-retest reliability. Methods Maximum voluntary vaginal closure force was measured in 40 incontinent women (20–77 years) using the improved instrumented speculum on two visits spaced one month apart. At the baseline visit, intra-abdominal pressure was also estimated via intra-vesical catheterization during the vaginal closure force measurement. Subjective estimate of pelvic floor muscle strength was also assessed using digital palpation by a skilled examiner to determine group placement as “strong” (n=31) or “weak” (n=9). Findings Vaginal closure force was not significantly correlated with intra-abdominal pressure (r = −.26, p = .109). The groups with subjectively scored strong and weak pelvic floor muscles differed significantly by mean [SD] maximum vaginal closure force (3.8 [1.7] vs. 1.9 [0.8] N respectively, p < .01.) Across both time points the mean vaginal closure force was 3.42 [1.67] N with a range of .68 to 9.05 N. Mean Visit 1 and Visit 2 vaginal closure force scores did not differ (3.41 [1.8] and 3.42 [1.6] N, respectively). The vaginal closure force repeatability coefficient was 3.1 N. Interpretation The improved speculum measured maximum vaginal closure force without evidence of crosstalk from intra-abdominal pressure, while retaining acceptable discriminant validity and repeatability. PMID:25307868

  6. Bioprosthetic mesh of bacterial cellulose for treatment of abdominal muscle aponeurotic defect in rat model.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Raquel Kelner; Coelho, Antônio Roberto Barros; Pinto, Flávia Cristina Morone; de Albuquerque, Amanda Vasconcelos; de Melo Filho, Djalma Agripino; de Andrade Aguiar, José Lamartine

    2016-08-01

    The use of meshes for treatment of hernias continues to draw attention of surgeons and the industry in the search of an ideal prosthesis. The purpose of this work is to use meshes manufactured from bacterial cellulose, evaluate their organic tissue interaction and compare with an expanded polytetrafluorethylene (ePTFE's) prosthesis used to repair acute defect of muscle aponeurotic induced in rats. Forty-five male Wistar rats were classified using the following criteria: (1) surgical repair of acute muscle aponeurotic defect with perforated bacterial cellulose film (PBC; n = 18); (2) compact bacterial cellulose film (CBC; n = 12) and (3) ePTFE; (n = 15). After postoperative period, rectangles (2 × 3 cm) including prosthesis, muscles and peritoneum were collected for biomechanical, histological and stereological analysis. In all cases, the maximum acceptable error probability for rejecting the null hypothesis was 5 %. Between PBC and CBC samples, the variables of strain (P = 0.011) and elasticity (P = 0.035) were statistically different. The same was found between CBC and ePTFE (elasticity, P = 0.000; strain, P = 0.009). PBC differed from CBC for giant cells (P = 0.001) and new blood vessels (P = 0.000). In conclusion, there was biological integration and biomechanical elasticity of PBC; therefore, we think this option should be considered as a new alternative biomaterial for use as a bio prosthesis. PMID:27379627

  7. Tetanic contraction induces enhancement of fatigability and sarcomeric damage in atrophic skeletal muscle and its underlying molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2013-11-01

    Muscle unloading due to long-term exposure of weightlessness or simulated weightlessness causes atrophy, loss of functional capacity, impaired locomotor coordination, and decreased resistance to fatigue in the antigravity muscles of the lower limbs. Besides reducing astronauts' mobility in space and on returning to a gravity environment, the molecular mechanisms for the adaptation of skeletal muscle to unloading also play an important medical role in conditions such as disuse and paralysis. The tail-suspended rat model was used to simulate the effects of weightlessness on skeletal muscles and to induce muscle unloading in the rat hindlimb. Our series studies have shown that the maximum of twitch tension and the twitch duration decreased significantly in the atrophic soleus muscles, the maximal tension of high-frequency tetanic contraction was significantly reduced in 2-week unloaded soleus muscles, however, the fatigability of high-frequency tetanic contraction increased after one week of unloading. The maximal isometric tension of intermittent tetanic contraction at optimal stimulating frequency did not alter in 1- and 2-week unloaded soleus, but significantly decreased in 4-week unloaded soleus. The 1-week unloaded soleus, but not extensor digitorum longus (EDL), was more susceptible to fatigue during intermittent tetanic contraction than the synchronous controls. The changes in K+ channel characteristics may increase the fatigability during high-frequency tetanic contraction in atrophic soleus muscles. High fatigability of intermittent tetanic contraction may be involved in enhanced activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) and switching from slow to fast isoform of myosin heavy chain, tropomyosin, troponin I and T subunit in atrophic soleus muscles. Unloaded soleus muscle also showed a decreased protein level of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and the reduction in nNOS-derived NO increased frequency of calcium sparks and elevated

  8. Age affects the contraction-induced mitochondrial redox response in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Claflin, Dennis R.; Jackson, Malcolm J.; Brooks, Susan V.

    2015-01-01

    Compromised mitochondrial respiratory function is associated with advancing age. Damage due to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) with age is thought to contribute to the mitochondrial deficits. The coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in its reduced (NADH) and oxidized (NAD+) forms plays an essential role in the cyclic sequence of reactions that result in the regeneration of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Monitoring mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ redox status during recovery from an episode of high energy demand thus allows assessment of mitochondrial function. NADH fluoresces when excited with ultraviolet light in the UV-A band and NAD+ does not, allowing NADH/NAD+ to be monitored in real time using fluorescence microscopy. Our goal was to assess mitochondrial function by monitoring the NADH fluorescence response following a brief period of high energy demand in muscle from adult and old wild-type mice. This was accomplished by isolating whole lumbrical muscles from the hind paws of 7- and 28-month-old mice and making simultaneous measurements of force and NADH fluorescence responses during and after a 5 s maximum isometric contraction. All muscles exhibited fluorescence oscillations that were qualitatively similar and consisted of a brief transient increase followed by a longer transient period of reduced fluorescence and, finally, an increase that included an overshoot before recovering to resting level. Compared with the adult mice, muscles from the 28 mo mice exhibited a delayed peak during the first fluorescence transient and an attenuated recovery following the second transient. These findings indicate an impaired mitochondrial capacity to maintain NADH/NAD+ redox homeostasis during contractile activity in skeletal muscles of old mice. PMID:25698975

  9. Sympathetic modulation of blood flow and O2 uptake in rhythmically contracting human forearm muscles.

    PubMed

    Joyner, M J; Nauss, L A; Warner, M A; Warner, D O

    1992-10-01

    This study tested the effects of sympathetically mediated changes in blood flow to active muscles on muscle O2 uptake (VO2) in humans. Four minutes of graded (15-80% of maximum voluntary contraction, MVC) rhythmic handgrip exercise were performed. Forearm blood flow (FBF) (plethysmography) and deep vein O2 saturation were measured each minute. Forearm O2 uptake was calculated using the Fick principle. In protocol 1, exercise was performed while supine and again while upright to augment sympathetic outflow to the active muscles. Standing reduced FBF at rest from 3.6 to 2.2 ml.100 ml-1.min-1 (P < 0.05). During light exercise (15-40% MVC) FBF was unaffected by body position. Standing reduced FBF (P < 0.05) from 36.0 to 25.2 ml.100 ml-1.min-1 and forearm VO2 from 38.2 to 28.1 ml.kg-1.min-1 during the final work load. In protocol 2, exercise was performed while supine before and after local anesthetic block of the sympathetic nerves to the forearm. Sympathetic block increased FBF at rest from 3.1 to 8.9 ml.100 ml-1.min-1 (P < 0.05), and FBF was higher during all work loads At 70-80% of MVC sympathetic block increased FBF from 35.4 to 50.7 ml.100 ml-1.min-1 (P < 0.05), and forearm VO2 from 45.5 to 54.2 ml.kg-1.min-1 (P < 0.05). These results suggest that in humans sympathetic nerves modulate blood flow to active muscles during light and heavy rhythmic exercise and that this restraint of flow can limit O2 uptake in muscles performing heavy rhythmic exercise. PMID:1415755

  10. Identification of excitatory premotor interneurons which regulate local muscle contraction during Drosophila larval locomotion.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Eri; Truman, James W; Nose, Akinao

    2016-01-01

    We use Drosophila larval locomotion as a model to elucidate the working principles of motor circuits. Larval locomotion is generated by rhythmic and sequential contractions of body-wall muscles from the posterior to anterior segments, which in turn are regulated by motor neurons present in the corresponding neuromeres. Motor neurons are known to receive both excitatory and inhibitory inputs, combined action of which likely regulates patterned motor activity during locomotion. Although recent studies identified candidate inhibitory premotor interneurons, the identity of premotor interneurons that provide excitatory drive to motor neurons during locomotion remains unknown. In this study, we searched for and identified two putative excitatory premotor interneurons in this system, termed CLI1 and CLI2 (cholinergic lateral interneuron 1 and 2). These neurons were segmentally arrayed and activated sequentially from the posterior to anterior segments during peristalsis. Consistent with their being excitatory premotor interneurons, the CLIs formed GRASP- and ChAT-positive putative synapses with motoneurons and were active just prior to motoneuronal firing in each segment. Moreover, local activation of CLI1s induced contraction of muscles in the corresponding body segments. Taken together, our results suggest that the CLIs directly activate motoneurons sequentially along the segments during larval locomotion. PMID:27470675

  11. Identification of excitatory premotor interneurons which regulate local muscle contraction during Drosophila larval locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Eri; Truman, James W.; Nose, Akinao

    2016-01-01

    We use Drosophila larval locomotion as a model to elucidate the working principles of motor circuits. Larval locomotion is generated by rhythmic and sequential contractions of body-wall muscles from the posterior to anterior segments, which in turn are regulated by motor neurons present in the corresponding neuromeres. Motor neurons are known to receive both excitatory and inhibitory inputs, combined action of which likely regulates patterned motor activity during locomotion. Although recent studies identified candidate inhibitory premotor interneurons, the identity of premotor interneurons that provide excitatory drive to motor neurons during locomotion remains unknown. In this study, we searched for and identified two putative excitatory premotor interneurons in this system, termed CLI1 and CLI2 (cholinergic lateral interneuron 1 and 2). These neurons were segmentally arrayed and activated sequentially from the posterior to anterior segments during peristalsis. Consistent with their being excitatory premotor interneurons, the CLIs formed GRASP- and ChAT-positive putative synapses with motoneurons and were active just prior to motoneuronal firing in each segment. Moreover, local activation of CLI1s induced contraction of muscles in the corresponding body segments. Taken together, our results suggest that the CLIs directly activate motoneurons sequentially along the segments during larval locomotion. PMID:27470675

  12. Smooth muscle modeling and experimental identification: application to bladder isometric contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laforêt, Jérémy; Guiraud, David; Andreu, David; Taillades, Hubert; Azevedo Coste, Christine

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents an original smooth muscle model based on the Huxley microscopic approach. This model is the main part of a comprehensive lower urinary track model. The latter is used for simulation studies and is assessed through experiments on rabbits, for which a subset of parameters is estimated, using intravesical pressure measurements in isometric conditions. Bladder contraction is induced by electrical stimulation that determines the onset and thus synchronizes simulation and experimental data. Model sensitivity versus parameter accuracy is discussed and allows the definition of a subset of four parameters that must be accurately identified in order to obtain good fitting between experimental and acquired data. Preliminary experimental data are presented as well as model identification results. They show that the model is able to follow the pressure changes induced by an artificial stimulus in isometric contractions. Moreover, the model gives an insight into the internal changes in calcium concentration and the ratio of the different chemical species present in the muscle cells, in particular the bounded and unbounded actin and myosin and the normalized concentration of intracellular calcium.

  13. A circuit mechanism for the propagation of waves of muscle contraction in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Fushiki, Akira; Zwart, Maarten F; Kohsaka, Hiroshi; Fetter, Richard D; Cardona, Albert; Nose, Akinao

    2016-01-01

    Animals move by adaptively coordinating the sequential activation of muscles. The circuit mechanisms underlying coordinated locomotion are poorly understood. Here, we report on a novel circuit for the propagation of waves of muscle contraction, using the peristaltic locomotion of Drosophila larvae as a model system. We found an intersegmental chain of synaptically connected neurons, alternating excitatory and inhibitory, necessary for wave propagation and active in phase with the wave. The excitatory neurons (A27h) are premotor and necessary only for forward locomotion, and are modulated by stretch receptors and descending inputs. The inhibitory neurons (GDL) are necessary for both forward and backward locomotion, suggestive of different yet coupled central pattern generators, and its inhibition is necessary for wave propagation. The circuit structure and functional imaging indicated that the commands to contract one segment promote the relaxation of the next segment, revealing a mechanism for wave propagation in peristaltic locomotion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13253.001 PMID:26880545

  14. Birefringence changes associated with isometric contraction and rapid shortening steps in frog skeletal muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Irving, M

    1993-01-01

    1. Muscle birefringence, the difference between the refractive indices of light polarized parallel and perpendicular to the muscle fibre axis, was measured at 3 degrees C in intact single fibres isolated from frog muscle. Resting birefringence was 2.20 +/- 0.02 x 10(-3) (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 44) at sarcomere length 2.4-2.7 microns and 2.35 +/- 0.03 x 10(-3) (n = 19) at 3.5-3.8 microns. 2. Birefringence decreased during isometric twitch or tetanic contractions. The peak change in a twitch at sarcomere length 2.6 microns, determined by two independent methods, was 0.150 +/- 0.017 x 10(-3) (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 6). The corresponding value after 0.4 s of tetanic stimulation was 0.167 +/- 0.012 x 10(-3) (n = 6). 3. The birefringence change had a shorter latency than tension and reached its half-maximum value earlier than tension. The difference in time to half-maximum in tetani was 11.5 +/- 1.3 ms (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 6) at 3 degrees C. After stimulation birefringence recovered to its pre-stimulus baseline more slowly than tension. 4. The birefringence decrease after 0.4 s of tetanic stimulation was linearly related to the expected degree of overlap between actin and myosin filaments in the sarcomere length range 2.6-3.6 microns. The amplitude of the birefringence decrease at full filament overlap (sarcomere length 2.2 microns) was estimated to be 0.235 +/- 0.015 x 10(-3). 5. Birefringence changes associated with shortening steps of 0.9% fibre length at sarcomere length 2.6 microns exhibited four phases corresponding to those of the tension transient. There was no consistent birefringence change during the length step itself. During the rapid tension recovery birefringence increased by 0.014 +/- 0.001 x 10(-3) (n = 3), measured from the end of the length step to 2 ms later. Birefringence continued to increase as tension recovery slowed, reaching a peak about 10 ms after the step, then recovered with a rate similar to that of the final tension recovery. 6. These

  15. Desensitized morphological and cytokine response after stretch-shortening muscle contractions as a feature of aging in rats.

    PubMed

    Rader, Erik P; Layner, Kayla N; Triscuit, Alyssa M; Kashon, Michael L; Gu, Ja K; Ensey, James; Baker, Brent A

    2015-12-01

    Recovery from contraction-induced injury is impaired with aging. At a young age, the secondary response several days following contraction-induced injury consists of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and segmental muscle fiber degeneration to aid in the clearance of damaged tissue and repair. This morphological response has not been wholly established at advanced age. Our aim was to characterize muscle fiber morphology 3 and 10 days following stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs) varying in repetition number (i.e. 0, 30, 80, and 150) for young and old rats. For muscles of young rats, muscle fiber degeneration was overt at 3 days exclusively after 80 or 150 SSCs and returned significantly closer to control values by 10 days. For muscles of old rats, no such responses were observed. Transcriptional microarray analysis at 3 days demonstrated that muscles of young rats differentially expressed up to 2144 genes while muscles of old rats differentially expressed 47 genes. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that cellular movement was a major biological process over-represented with genes that were significantly altered by SSCs especially for young rats. Protein levels in muscle for various cytokines and chemokines, key inflammatory factors for cell movement, increased 3- to 50-fold following high-repetition SSCs for young rats with no change for old rats. This age-related differential response was insightful given that for control (i.e. 0 SSCs) conditions, protein levels of circulatory cytokines/chemokines were increased with age. The results demonstrate ongoing systemic low-grade inflammatory signaling and subsequent desensitization of the cytokine/chemokine and morphological response to contraction-induced injury with aging - features which accompany age-related impairment in muscle recovery. PMID:26454037

  16. Electron Tomography of Cryofixed, Isometrically Contracting Insect Flight Muscle Reveals Novel Actin-Myosin Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shenping; Liu, Jun; Tregear, Richard T.; Winkler, Hanspeter; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Lucaveche, Carmen; Goldman, Yale E.; Reedy, Michael K.; Taylor, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Isometric muscle contraction, where force is generated without muscle shortening, is a molecular traffic jam in which the number of actin-attached motors is maximized and all states of motor action are trapped with consequently high heterogeneity. This heterogeneity is a major limitation to deciphering myosin conformational changes in situ. Methodology We used multivariate data analysis to group repeat segments in electron tomograms of isometrically contracting insect flight muscle, mechanically monitored, rapidly frozen, freeze substituted, and thin sectioned. Improved resolution reveals the helical arrangement of F-actin subunits in the thin filament enabling an atomic model to be built into the thin filament density independent of the myosin. Actin-myosin attachments can now be assigned as weak or strong by their motor domain orientation relative to actin. Myosin attachments were quantified everywhere along the thin filament including troponin. Strong binding myosin attachments are found on only four F-actin subunits, the “target zone”, situated exactly midway between successive troponin complexes. They show an axial lever arm range of 77°/12.9 nm. The lever arm azimuthal range of strong binding attachments has a highly skewed, 127° range compared with X-ray crystallographic structures. Two types of weak actin attachments are described. One type, found exclusively in the target zone, appears to represent pre-working-stroke intermediates. The other, which contacts tropomyosin rather than actin, is positioned M-ward of the target zone, i.e. the position toward which thin filaments slide during shortening. Conclusion We present a model for the weak to strong transition in the myosin ATPase cycle that incorporates azimuthal movements of the motor domain on actin. Stress/strain in the S2 domain may explain azimuthal lever arm changes in the strong binding attachments. The results support previous conclusions that the weak attachments preceding force

  17. Age Related Differences in the Surface EMG Signals on Adolescent's Muscle during Contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin Ahamed, Nizam; Taha, Zahari; Alqahtani, Mahdi; Altwijri, Omar; Rahman, Matiur; Deboucha, Abdelhakim

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences in the amplitude of the EMG signal among five different age groups of adolescent's muscle. Fifteen healthy adolescents participated in this study and they were divided into five age groups (13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 years). Subjects were performed dynamic contraction during lifting a standard weight (3-kg dumbbell) and EMG signals were recorded from their Biceps Brachii (BB) muscle. Two common EMG analysis techniques namely root mean square (RMS) and mean absolute values (MAV) were used to find the differences. The statistical analysis was included: linear regression to examine the relationships between EMG amplitude and age, repeated measures ANOVA to assess differences among the variables, and finally Coefficient of Variation (CoV) for signal steadiness among the groups of subjects during contraction. The result from RMS and MAV analysis shows that the 17-years age groups exhibited higher activity (0.28 and 0.19 mV respectively) compare to other groups (13-Years: 0.26 and 0.17 mV, 14-years: 0.25 and 0.23 mV, 15-Years: 0.23 and 0.16 mV, 16-years: 0.23 and 0.16 mV respectively). Also, this study shows modest correlation between age and signal activities among all age group's muscle. The experiential results can play a pivotal role for developing EMG prosthetic hand controller, neuromuscular system, EMG based rehabilitation aid and movement biomechanics, which may help to separate age groups among the adolescents.

  18. Electron Tomography of Cryofixed, Isometrically Contracting Insect Flight Muscle Reveals Novel Actin-Myosin Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shenping; Liu, Jun; Reedy, Mary C.; Tregear, Richard T.; Winkler, Hanspeter; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Lucaveche, Carmen; Goldman, Yale E.; Reedy, Michael K.; Taylor, Kenneth A.

    2010-10-22

    Isometric muscle contraction, where force is generated without muscle shortening, is a molecular traffic jam in which the number of actin-attached motors is maximized and all states of motor action are trapped with consequently high heterogeneity. This heterogeneity is a major limitation to deciphering myosin conformational changes in situ. We used multivariate data analysis to group repeat segments in electron tomograms of isometrically contracting insect flight muscle, mechanically monitored, rapidly frozen, freeze substituted, and thin sectioned. Improved resolution reveals the helical arrangement of F-actin subunits in the thin filament enabling an atomic model to be built into the thin filament density independent of the myosin. Actin-myosin attachments can now be assigned as weak or strong by their motor domain orientation relative to actin. Myosin attachments were quantified everywhere along the thin filament including troponin. Strong binding myosin attachments are found on only four F-actin subunits, the 'target zone', situated exactly midway between successive troponin complexes. They show an axial lever arm range of 77{sup o}/12.9 nm. The lever arm azimuthal range of strong binding attachments has a highly skewed, 127{sup o} range compared with X-ray crystallographic structures. Two types of weak actin attachments are described. One type, found exclusively in the target zone, appears to represent pre-working-stroke intermediates. The other, which contacts tropomyosin rather than actin, is positioned M-ward of the target zone, i.e. the position toward which thin filaments slide during shortening. We present a model for the weak to strong transition in the myosin ATPase cycle that incorporates azimuthal movements of the motor domain on actin. Stress/strain in the S2 domain may explain azimuthal lever arm changes in the strong binding attachments. The results support previous conclusions that the weak attachments preceding force generation are very

  19. Role of Dystrophin in Airway Smooth Muscle Phenotype, Contraction and Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pawan; Basu, Sujata; Mitchell, Richard W.; Stelmack, Gerald L.; Anderson, Judy E.; Halayko, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Dystrophin links the transmembrane dystrophin-glycoprotein complex to the actin cytoskeleton. We have shown that dystrophin-glycoprotein complex subunits are markers for airway smooth muscle phenotype maturation and together with caveolin-1, play an important role in calcium homeostasis. We tested if dystrophin affects phenotype maturation, tracheal contraction and lung physiology. We used dystrophin deficient Golden Retriever dogs (GRMD) and mdx mice vs healthy control animals in our approach. We found significant reduction of contractile protein markers: smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (smMHC) and calponin and reduced Ca2+ response to contractile agonist in dystrophin deficient cells. Immunocytochemistry revealed reduced stress fibers and number of smMHC positive cells in dystrophin-deficient cells, when compared to control. Immunoblot analysis of Akt1, GSK3β and mTOR phosphorylation further revealed that downstream PI3K signaling, which is essential for phenotype maturation, was suppressed in dystrophin deficient cell cultures. Tracheal rings from mdx mice showed significant reduction in the isometric contraction to methacholine (MCh) when compared to genetic control BL10ScSnJ mice (wild-type). In vivo lung function studies using a small animal ventilator revealed a significant reduction in peak airway resistance induced by maximum concentrations of inhaled MCh in mdx mice, while there was no change in other lung function parameters. These data show that the lack of dystrophin is associated with a concomitant suppression of ASM cell phenotype maturation in vitro, ASM contraction ex vivo and lung function in vivo, indicating that a linkage between the DGC and the actin cytoskeleton via dystrophin is a determinant of the phenotype and functional properties of ASM. PMID:25054970

  20. Aging is associated with altered vasodilator kinetics in dynamically contracting muscle: role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Casey, Darren P; Ranadive, Sushant M; Joyner, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that aging would be associated with slowed vasodilator kinetics in contracting muscle in part due to a reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Young (n = 10; 24 ± 2 yr) and older (n = 10; 67 ± 2 yr) adults performed rhythmic forearm exercise (4 min each) at 10, 20, and 30% of max during saline infusion (control) and NO synthase (NOS) inhibition. Brachial artery diameter and velocities were measured using Doppler ultrasound. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated for each duty cycle (1 s contraction/2 s relaxation) from forearm blood flow (FBF; ml/min) and blood pressure (mmHg) and fit with a monoexponential model. The main parameters derived from the model were the amplitude of the FBF and FVC response and the number of duty cycles for FBF and FVC to change 63% of the steady-state amplitude (τFBF and τFVC). Under control conditions 1) the amplitude of the FVC response at 30% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was lower in older compared with young adults (319 ± 33 vs. 462 ± 52 ml·min(-1)·100 mmHg(-1); P < 0.05) and 2) τFVC was slower in older (10 ± 1, 13 ± 1, and 15 ± 1 duty cycles) compared with young (6 ± 1, 9 ± 1, and 11 ± 1 duty cycles) adults at all intensities (P < 0.05). In young adults, NOS inhibition blunted the amplitude of the FVC response at 30% MVC and prolonged the τFVC at all intensities (10 ± 2, 12 ± 1, and 16 ± 2 duty cycles; P < 0.05), whereas it did not change in older adults. Our data indicate that the blood flow and vasodilator kinetics in exercising muscle are altered with aging possibly due to blunted NO signaling. PMID:26023230

  1. Resolution of three structural states of spin-labeled myosin in contracting muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Ostap, E M; Barnett, V A; Thomas, D D

    1995-01-01

    We have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to detect ATP- and calcium-induced changes in the structure of spin-labeled myosin heads in glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle fibers in key physiological states. The probe was a nitroxide iodoacetamide derivative attached selectively to myosin SH1 (Cys 707), the conventional EPR spectra of which have been shown to resolve several conformational states of the myosin ATPase cycle, on the basis of nanosecond rotational motion within the protein. Spectra were acquired in rigor and during the steady-state phases of relaxation and isometric contraction. Spectral components corresponding to specific conformational states and biochemical intermediates were detected and assigned by reference to EPR spectra of trapped kinetic intermediates. In the absence of ATP, all of the myosin heads were rigidly attached to the thin filament, and only a single conformation was detected, in which there was no sub-microsecond probe motion. In relaxation, the EPR spectrum resolved two conformations of the myosin head that are distinct from rigor. These structural states were virtually identical to those observed previously for isolated myosin and were assigned to the populations of the M*.ATP and M**.ADP.Pi states. During isometric contraction, the EPR spectrum resolves the same two conformations observed in relaxation, plus a small fraction (20-30%) of heads in the oriented actin-bound conformation that is observed in rigor. This rigor-like component is a calcium-dependent, actin-bound state that may represent force-generating cross-bridges. As the spin label is located near the nucleotide-binding pocket in a region proposed to be pivotal for large-scale force-generating structural changes in myosin, we propose that the observed spectroscopic changes indicate directly the key steps in energy transduction in the molecular motor of contracting muscle. Images FIGURE 7 PMID:7669895

  2. A role of stretch-activated potassium currents in the regulation of uterine smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Iain L O; Heyman, Nathanael; Wu, Yi-ying; Barnett, Scott; Ulrich, Craig

    2011-06-01

    Rates of premature birth are alarming and threaten societies and healthcare systems worldwide. Premature labor results in premature birth in over 50% of cases. Preterm birth accounts for three-quarters of infant morbidity and mortality. Children that survive birth before 34 weeks gestation often face life-long disability. Current treatments for preterm labor are wanting. No treatment has been found to be generally effective and none are systematically evaluated beyond 48 h. New approaches to the treatment of preterm labor are desperately needed. Recent studies from our laboratory suggest that the uterine muscle is a unique compartment with regulation of uterine relaxation unlike that of other smooth muscles. Here we discuss recent evidence that the mechanically activated 2-pore potassium channel, TREK-1, may contribute to contraction-relaxation signaling in uterine smooth muscle and that TREK-1 gene variants associated with human labor and preterm labor may lead to a better understanding of preterm labor and its possible prevention. PMID:21642947

  3. Design and performance of an electrical stimulator for long-term contraction of cultured muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Mario; Bragós, Ramón; Gómez-Foix, Anna M

    2004-01-01

    Excitability in muscle cells manifests itself as contractility and may be evoked by electrical stimulation. Here we describe an electrical stimulator device applicable to cells seeded on standard multiwell plates and demonstrate how it effectively stimulates synchronous contraction of skeletal muscle C2C12 cells without damaging them. The electrical stimulator of cultured cells (ESCC) consists of two connection cards and a network of platinum electrodes positioned in such way that each well in a row is uniformly stimulated. The ESCC may produce a range of outputs based on the stimulation parameters it receives from a commercial pulse generator and can be placed in a standard cell incubator, allowing for long-term stimulation as required for biochemical and molecular biological assays. We show that a 90-min stimulation of C2C12 myotubes at 50 V, 30 ms of pulse duration, and 3 Hz of frequency enhances glucose metabolism and glycogen mobilization while oppositely modulating the activity ratio of glycogen metabolizing enzymes. Thus, we demonstrate that long-term electrical stimulation of C2C12 myotubes with the ESCC results in contractility and metabolic changes, as seen in exercising muscle. PMID:14740487

  4. Investigation of trunk muscle co-contraction and its association with low back pain development during prolonged sitting.

    PubMed

    Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Nairn, Brian C; Drake, Janessa D M

    2013-08-01

    Previous work has shown muscle activation differences between chronic low back pain patients and healthy controls in sitting postures, and between asymptomatic individuals who do (PDs: pain developers) and do not (NPDs: non-pain developers) develop transient back pain during prolonged standing (as determined using a visual analog scale). The current study aimed to investigate differences in trunk muscle co-contraction between PD and NPD individuals over 2h of prolonged sitting. Ten healthy males sat continuously for 2h while performing tasks that simulated computer-aided-drafting; four were classified as PDs, and six as NPDs. Co-contraction indices were calculated from EMG data collected from eight trunk muscles bilaterally, and compared between pain groups and over time. PDs exhibited higher levels of co-contraction than NPDs. Additionally, co-contraction tended to increase over time, and was significantly correlated to pain development. The relationship between co-contraction and back pain development may actually be circular, in that it is both causal and adaptive: high co-contraction initially predisposes to pain development, following which co-contraction further increases in an attempt to alleviate the pain, and the cycle perpetuates. Further work will be required to elucidate the exact nature of this relationship, and to confirm the generalizability to other populations. PMID:23489715

  5. Exercise training and α1-adrenoreceptor-mediated sympathetic vasoconstriction in resting and contracting skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Just, Timothy P; DeLorey, Darren S

    2016-02-01

    Exercise training (ET) increases sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness and enhances contraction-mediated inhibition of sympathetic vasoconstriction (i.e., sympatholysis) through a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism. Changes in α2-adrenoreceptor vasoconstriction mediate a portion of these training adaptations, however the contribution of other postsynaptic receptors remains to be determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ET on α1-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in resting and contracting muscle. It was hypothesized that α1-adrenoreceptor-mediated sympatholysis would be enhanced following ET. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to sedentary (S; n = 12) or heavy-intensity treadmill ET (n = 11) groups. Subsequently, rats were anesthetized and instrumented for lumbar sympathetic chain stimulation and measurement of femoral vascular conductance (FVC) at rest and during muscle contraction. The percentage change in FVC in response to sympathetic stimulation was measured in control, α1-adrenoreceptor blockade (Prazosin; 20 μg, IV), and combined α1 and NO synthase (NOS) blockade (l-NAME; 5 mg·kg(-1) IV) conditions. Sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness was increased (P < 0.05) in ET compared to S rats at low, but not high (P > 0.05) stimulation frequencies at rest (S: 2 Hz: -25 ± 4%; 5 Hz: -45 ± 5 %; ET: 2 Hz: -35 ± 7%, 5 Hz: -52 ± 7%), whereas sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness was not different (P > 0.05) between groups during contraction (S: 2 Hz: -11 ± 8%; 5 Hz: -26 ± 11%; ET: 2 Hz: -10 ± 7%, 5 Hz: -27 ± 12%). Prazosin blunted (P < 0.05) vasoconstrictor responsiveness in S and ET rats at rest and during contraction, and abolished group differences in vasoconstrictor responsiveness. Subsequent NOS blockade increased vasoconstrictor responses (P < 0.05) in S at rest and during contraction, whereas in ET vasoconstriction was increased (P < 0

  6. Voluntary breathing increases corticospinal excitability of lower limb muscle during isometric contraction.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Kazuki; Yunoki, Takahiro; Afroundeh, Roghayyeh; Lian, Chang-Shun; Matsuura, Ryouta; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori; Yano, Tokuo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of voluntary breathing on corticospinal excitability of a leg muscle during isometric contraction. Seven subjects performed 5-s isometric knee extension at the intensity of 10% of maximal voluntary contraction (10% MVC). During the 10% MVC, the subjects were instructed to breath normally (NORM) or to inhale (IN) or exhale (OUT) once as fast as possible. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranialmagnetic stimulation in the right vastus lateralis (VL) during the 10% MVC were recorded and compared during the three breathing tasks. MEPs in IN and OUT were significantly higher than that in NORM. Effort sense of breathing was significantly higher in IN and OUT than in NORM. There was a significant positive correlation between MEP and effort sense of breathing. These results suggest that activation of the breathing-associated cortical areas with voluntary breathing is involved in the increase in corticospinal excitability of the VL during isometric contraction. PMID:26184658

  7. EMG control of a bionic knee prosthesis: exploiting muscle co-contractions for improved locomotor function.

    PubMed

    Dawley, James A; Fite, Kevin B; Fulk, George D

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the development and experimental evaluation of a volitional control architecture for a powered-knee transfemoral prosthesis that affords the amputee user with direct control of knee impedance using measured electromyogram (EMG) potentials of antagonist muscles in the residual limb. The control methodology incorporates a calibration procedure performed with each donning of the prosthesis that characterizes the co-contraction levels as the user performs volitional phantom-knee flexor and extensor contractions. The performance envelope for EMG control of impedance is then automatically shaped based on the flexor and extensor calibration datasets. The result is a control architecture that is optimized to the user's current co-contraction activity, providing performance robustness to variation in sensor placement or physiological changes in the residual-limb musculature. Experimental results with a single unilateral transfemoral amputee user demonstrate consistent and repeatable control performance for level walking at self-selected speed over a multi-week, multi-session period of evaluation. PMID:24187208

  8. Rat vascular smooth muscle cells in culture contract upon Ca2+ repletion after depletion.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, S.; Kanaide, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Nakamura, M.

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Ca2+-repletion following depletion on cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from the rat aorta. With Ca2+-repletion, the cells in primary cultures contracted, as indicated by a decrease in cell area. The process was slow (30 min to maximum effect) and reversible (relaxation completed by 120 min). Contraction during Ca2+-repletion was never observed in subcultured cells. The SMCs in primary culture after treatment maintained the ability to grow and to exclude dye, with a normal plating efficiency. There was no treatment-related additional leakage of intracellular enzymes, LDH and CPK, into the medium. Ca2+-repletion at first accelerated the 45Ca uptake by SMCs (1-5 min after repletion) and then increased Ca2+ efflux after about 10 min of Ca2+-repletion. We conclude that Ca2+-repletion after depletion induces a transient and reversible contraction of vascular SMCs in primary culture, without cell injury and in association with a transient increase in Ca2+ influx and then efflux. This phenomenon may relate to the decrease in perfusion flow in hearts and kidneys during Ca2+-repletion after depletion (Ca2+-paradox). Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:4084451

  9. Observing cycling of a few cross-bridges during isometric contraction of skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Mettikolla, P.; Calander, N.; Luchowski, R.; Gryczynski, I.; Gryczynski, Z.; Borejdo, J.

    2010-01-01

    During muscle contraction a myosin cross-bridge imparts periodic force impulses to actin. It is possible to visualize those impulses by observing a few molecules of actin or myosin. We have followed the time course of orientation change of a few actin molecules during isometric contraction by measuring parallel polarized intensity of its fluorescence. The orientation of actin reflects local bending of a thin filament and is different when a cross-bridge binds to, or is detached from, F-actin. The changes in orientation were characterized by periods of activity during which myosin cross-bridges interacted normally with actin, interspersed with periods of inactivity during which actin and myosin were unable to interact. The periods of activity lasted on average 1.2 ± 0.4 s and were separated on average by 2.3 ± 1.0 s. During active period, actin orientation oscillated between the two extreme values with the ON and OFF times of 0.4±0.2 and 0.7±0.4 s, respectively. When the contraction was induced by a low concentration of ATP both active and inactive times were longer and approximately equal. These results imply that cross-bridges interact with actin in bursts and suggest that during active period, on average 36% of cross-bridges are involved in force generation. PMID:20517927

  10. Distinct Skeletal Muscle Gene Regulation from Active Contraction, Passive Vibration, and Whole Body Heat Stress in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Michael A.; Kimball, Amy L.; McHenry, Colleen L.; Suneja, Manish; Yen, Chu-Ling; Sharma, Arpit; Shields, Richard K.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle exercise regulates several important metabolic genes in humans. We know little about the effects of environmental stress (heat) and mechanical stress (vibration) on skeletal muscle. Passive mechanical stress or systemic heat stress are often used in combination with many active exercise programs. We designed a method to deliver a vibration stress and systemic heat stress to compare the effects with active skeletal muscle contraction. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine whether active mechanical stress (muscle contraction), passive mechanical stress (vibration), or systemic whole body heat stress regulates key gene signatures associated with muscle metabolism, hypertrophy/atrophy, and inflammation/repair. Methods: Eleven subjects, six able-bodied and five with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in the study. The six able-bodied subjects sat in a heat stress chamber for 30 minutes. Five subjects with SCI received a single dose of limb-segment vibration or a dose of repetitive electrically induced muscle contractions. Three hours after the completion of each stress, we performed a muscle biopsy (vastus lateralis or soleus) to analyze mRNA gene expression. Results: We discovered repetitive active muscle contractions up regulated metabolic transcription factors NR4A3 (12.45 fold), PGC-1α (5.46 fold), and ABRA (5.98 fold); and repressed MSTN (0.56 fold). Heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05); while vibration induced FOXK2 (2.36 fold change; p < 0.05). Vibration similarly caused a down regulation of MSTN (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05), but to a lesser extent than active muscle contraction. Vibration induced FOXK2 (p < 0.05) while heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold) and ANKRD1 genes (0.51 fold; p < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings support a distinct gene regulation in response to heat stress, vibration, and muscle contractions. Understanding these responses may assist in developing regenerative

  11. Comparison of the Effects of Hollowing and Bracing Exercises on Cross-sectional Areas of Abdominal Muscles in Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Hyung-Woo; Cho, Sung-Hyoun; Kim, Cheol-Yong

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hollowing and bracing exercises on cross-sectional areas of abdominal muscles. [Subjects] Thirty healthy female adults participated in this study. The exclusion criteria were orthopedic or neurologic diseases. [Methods] The subjects of this study were assigned randomly to one of two groups, each with 15 people. Each group performed a 60-minute exercise program, one performed a bracing exercise, and the other performed a hollowing exercise, with both groups performing the exercise three times a week for six weeks. [Results] The changes in cross-sectional areas after the bracing exercise showed statistically significant differences in the left rectus abdominis and both internal and external obliques. The changes in cross-sectional areas after the hollowing exercise showed statistically significant differences in the left and right transversus abdominis and left rectus abdominis. [Conclusion] Performing bracing exercises rather than hollowing exercises is more effective for activating the abdominal muscles. PMID:24648652

  12. Elevation in heat shock protein 72 mRNA following contractions in isolated single skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Stary, Creed M; Walsh, Brandon J; Knapp, Amy E; Brafman, David; Hogan, Michael C

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was 1) to develop a stable model for measuring contraction-induced elevations in mRNA in single skeletal muscle fibers and 2) to utilize this model to investigate the response of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) mRNA following an acute bout of fatiguing contractions. Living, intact skeletal muscle fibers were microdissected from lumbrical muscle of Xenopus laevis and either electrically stimulated for 15 min of tetanic contractions (EX; n=26) or not stimulated to contract (REST; n=14). The relative mean developed tension of EX fibers decreased to 29+/-7% of initial peak tension at the stimulation end point. Following treatment, individual fibers were allowed to recover for 1 (n=9), 2 (n=8), or 4 h (n=9) prior to isolation of total cellular mRNA. HSP72, HSP60, and cardiac alpha-actin mRNA content were then assessed in individual fibers using quantitative PCR detection. Relative HSP72 mRNA content was significantly (P<0.05) elevated at the 2-h postcontraction time point relative to REST fibers when normalized to either HSP60 (18.5+/-7.5-fold) or cardiac alpha-actin (14.7+/-4.3-fold), although not at the 1- or 4-h time points. These data indicate that 1) extraction of RNA followed by relative quantification of mRNA of select genes in isolated single skeletal muscle fibers can be reliably performed, 2) HSP60 and cardiac alpha-actin are suitable endogenous normalizing genes in skeletal muscle following contractions, and 3) a significantly elevated content of HSP72 mRNA is detectable in skeletal muscle 2 h after a single bout of fatiguing contractions, despite minimal temperature changes and without influence from extracellular sources. PMID:18525012

  13. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate-induced, protein kinase C-mediated contraction of rabbit bladder smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tanchun; Kendig, Derek M; Trappanese, Danielle M; Smolock, Elaine M; Moreland, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Contraction of bladder smooth muscle is predominantly initiated by M(3) muscarinic receptor-mediated activation of the G(q/11)-phospholipase C β-protein kinase C (PKC) and the G(12/13)-RhoGEF-Rho kinase (ROCK) pathways. However, these pathways and their downstream effectors are not well understood in bladder smooth muscle. We used phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), and 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DOG), activators of PKC, in this investigation. We were interested in dissecting the role(s) of PKC and to clarify the signaling pathways in bladder smooth muscle contraction, especially the potential cross-talk with ROCK and their downstream effectors in regulating myosin light chain phosphatase activity and force. To achieve this goal, the study was performed in the presence or absence of the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide-1 (Bis) or the ROCK inhibitor H-1152. Phosphorylation levels of Thr(38)-CPI-17 and Thr(696)/Thr(850) myosin phosphatase target subunit (MYPT1) were measured during PDBu or DOG stimulation using site specific antibodies. PDBu-induced contraction in bladder smooth muscle involved both activation of PKC and PKC-dependent activation of ROCK. CPI-17 as a major downstream effector, is phosphorylated by PKC and ROCK during PDBu and DOG stimulation. Our results suggest that Thr(696) and Thr(850)-MYPT1 phosphorylation are not involved in the regulation of a PDBu-induced contraction. The results also demonstrate that bladder smooth muscle contains a constitutively active isoform of ROCK that may play an important role in the regulation of bladder smooth muscle basal tone. Together with the results from our previous study, we developed a working model to describe the complex signaling pathways that regulate contraction of bladder smooth muscle. PMID:22232602

  14. AMP kinase activation with AICAR further increases fatty acid oxidation and blunts triacylglycerol hydrolysis in contracting rat soleus muscle

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Angela C; Bruce, Clinton R; Dyck, David J

    2005-01-01

    Muscle contraction increases glucose uptake and fatty acid (FA) metabolism in isolated rat skeletal muscle, due at least in part to an increase in AMP-activated kinase activity (AMPK). However, the extent to which AMPK plays a role in the regulation of substrate utilization during contraction is not fully understood. We examined the acute effects of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR; 2 mm), a pharmacological activator of AMPK, on FA metabolism and glucose oxidation during high intensity tetanic contraction in isolated rat soleus muscle strips. Muscle strips were exposed to two different FA concentrations (low fatty acid, LFA, 0.2 mm; high fatty acid, HFA, 1 mm) to examine the role that FA availability may play in both exogenous and endogenous FA metabolism with contraction and AICAR. Synergistic increases in AMPK α2 activity (+45%; P < 0.05) were observed after 30 min of contraction with AICAR, which further increased exogenous FA oxidation (LFA: +71%, P < 0.05; HFA: +46%, P < 0.05) regardless of FA availability. While there were no changes in triacylglycerol (TAG) esterification, AICAR did increase the ratio of FA partitioned to oxidation relative to TAG esterification (LFA: +65%, P < 0.05). AICAR significantly blunted endogenous TAG hydrolysis (LFA: −294%, P < 0.001; HFA: −117%, P < 0.05), but had no effect on endogenous oxidation rates, suggesting a better matching between TAG hydrolysis and subsequent oxidative needs of the muscle. There was no effect of AICAR on the already elevated rates of glucose oxidation during contraction. These results suggest that FA metabolism is very sensitive to AMPK α2 stimulation during contraction. PMID:15774529

  15. Local Muscle Metabolic Demand Induced by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Voluntary Contractions at Different Force Levels: A NIRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Muthalib, Makii; Kerr, Graham; Nosaka, Kazunori; Perrey, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Functional Muscle metabolic demand during contractions evoked by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been consistently documented to be greater than voluntary contractions (VOL) at the same force level (10-50% maximal voluntary contraction-MVC). However, we have shown using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique that local muscle metabolic demand is similar between NMES and VOL performed at MVC levels, thus controversy exists. This study therefore compared biceps brachii muscle metabolic demand (tissue oxygenation index-TOI and total hemoglobin volume-tHb) during a 10s isometric contraction of the elbow flexors between NMES (stimulation frequency of 30Hz and current level to evoke 30% MVC) and VOL at 30% MVC (VOL-30%MVC) and MVC (VOL-MVC) level in 8 healthy men (23-33-y). Greater changes in TOI and tHb induced by NMES than VOL-30%MVC confirm previous studies of a greater local metabolic demand for NMES than VOL at the same force level. The same TOI and tHb changes for NMES and VOL-MVC suggest that local muscle metabolic demand and intramuscular pressure were similar between conditions. In conclusion, these findings indicate that NMES induce a similar local muscle metabolic demand as that of maximal VOL. PMID:27478574

  16. Role of neuronal nitric oxide in the inhibition of sympathetic vasoconstriction in resting and contracting skeletal muscle of healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Jendzjowsky, Nicholas G; DeLorey, Darren S

    2013-07-01

    Isoform-specific nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) contributions to NO-mediated inhibition of sympathetic vasoconstriction in resting and contracting skeletal muscle are incompletely understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of neuronal NOS (nNOS) in the inhibition of sympathetic vasoconstriction in resting and contracting skeletal muscle of healthy rats. We hypothesized that acute pharmacological inhibition of nNOS would augment sympathetic vasoconstriction in resting and contracting skeletal muscle, demonstrating that nNOS is primarily responsible for NO-mediated inhibition of sympathetic vasoconstriction. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 13) were anesthetized and instrumented with an indwelling brachial artery catheter, femoral artery flow probe, and lumbar sympathetic chain stimulating electrodes. Triceps surae muscles were stimulated to contract rhythmically at 60% of maximal contractile force. In series 1 (n = 9), the percent change in femoral vascular conductance (%FVC) in response to sympathetic stimulations delivered at 2 and 5 Hz was determined at rest and during muscle contraction before and after selective nNOS blockade with S-methyl-l-thiocitrulline (SMTC, 0.6 mg/kg iv) and subsequent nonselective NOS blockade with N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 5 mg/kg iv). In series 2 (n = 4), l-NAME was injected first, and then SMTC was injected to determine if the effect of l-NAME on constrictor responses was influenced by selective nNOS inhibition. Sympathetic stimulation decreased FVC at rest (-25 ± 7 and -44 ± 8%FVC at 2 and 5 Hz, respectively) and during contraction (-7 ± 3 and -19 ± 5%FVC at 2 and 5 Hz, respectively). The decrease in FVC in response to sympathetic stimulation was greater in the presence of SMTC at rest (-32 ± 6 and -49 ± 8%FVC at 2 and 5 Hz, respectively) and during contraction (-21 ± 4 and -28 ± 4%FVC at 2 and 5 Hz, respectively). l-NAME further increased (P < 0.05) the sympathetic vasoconstrictor

  17. The inhibition of muscle contraction by adenosine 5' (beta, gamma-imido) triphosphate and by pyrophosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Pate, E; Cooke, R

    1985-01-01

    We have studied the inhibition of the contraction of glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle caused by ligands that bind to the ATPase site of myosin. Two ligands, adenosine 5' (beta, gamma-imido) triphosphate (AMPPNP) and pyrophosphate (PPi), decreased the force and stiffness developed in isometric contractions and the velocity of shortening of isotonic contractions. The force exerted by isometric fibers was measured as a function of MgATP in the presence and absence of a constant concentration of the ligands. As the MgATP concentration decreased, the inhibition of tension caused by the ligand increased, reaching approximately 50% at 25 microM MgATP and either 2 mM MgPPi or 2 mM MgAMPPNP. The maximum velocity of shortening was also measured as a function of MgATP concentration in the presence of 1 and 2 mM MgPPi and 2.5 and 5 mM MgAMPPNP. Both ligands acted as pure competitive inhibitors with Ki = 3.0 mM for PPi and 5.1 mM for MgAMPPNP. These data show that both ligands are weak inhibitors of the contraction of fibers. The results provided information on the energetics of actin-myosin-ligand states that occur in the portion of the cross-bridge cycle where MgATP binds to myosin. A simple analysis of the inhibition of velocity suggests that MgAMPPNP binds to the actomyosin complex at this step of the cycle with an effective affinity constant of approximately 2 X 10(2) M-1. PMID:2990586

  18. Functional morphometry demonstrates extraocular muscle compartmental contraction during vertical gaze changes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert A; Demer, Joseph L

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical studies demonstrate selective compartmental innervation of most human extraocular muscles (EOMs), suggesting the potential for differential compartmental control. This was supported by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrating differential lateral rectus (LR) compartmental contraction during ocular counterrolling, differential medial rectus (MR) compartmental contraction during asymmetric convergence, and differential LR, inferior rectus (IR), and superior oblique (SO) compartmental contraction during vertical vergence. To ascertain possible differential compartmental EOM contraction during vertical ductions, surface coil MRI was performed over a range of target-controlled vertical gaze positions in 25 orbits of 13 normal volunteers. Cross-sectional areas and partial volumes of EOMs were analyzed in contiguous, quasi-coronal 2-mm image planes spanning origins to globe equator to determine morphometric features correlating best with contractility. Confirming and extending prior findings for horizontal EOMs during horizontal ductions, the percent change in posterior partial volume (PPV) of vertical EOMs from 8 to 14 mm posterior to the globe correlated best with vertical duction. EOMs were then divided into equal transverse compartments to evaluate the effect of vertical gaze on changes in PPV. Differential contractile changes were detected in the two compartments of the same EOM during infraduction for the IR medial vs. lateral (+4.4%, P = 0.03), LR inferior vs. superior (+4.0%, P = 0.0002), MR superior vs. inferior (-6.0%, P = 0.001), and SO lateral vs. medial (+9.7%, P = 0.007) compartments, with no differential contractile changes in the superior rectus. These findings suggest that differential compartmental activity occurs during normal vertical ductions. Thus all EOMs may contribute to cyclovertical actions. PMID:26538608

  19. Fatigability and recovery of arm muscles with advanced age for dynamic and isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tejin; Schlinder-Delap, Bonnie; Hunter, Sandra K

    2013-02-01

    This study determined whether age-related mechanisms can increase fatigue of arm muscles during maximal velocity dynamic contractions, as it occurs in the lower limb. We compared elbow flexor fatigue of young (n=10, 20.8±2.7 years) and old men (n=16, 73.8±6.1 years) during and in recovery from a dynamic and an isometric postural fatiguing task. Each task was maintained until failure while supporting a load equivalent to 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess supraspinal fatigue (superimposed twitch, SIT) and muscle relaxation. Time to failure was longer for the old men than for the young men for the isometric task (9.5±3.1 vs. 17.2±7.0 min, P=0.01) but similar for the dynamic task (6.3±2.4 min vs. 6.0±2.0 min, P=0.73). Initial peak rate of relaxation was slower for the old men than for the young men, and was associated with a longer time to failure for both tasks (P<0.05). Low initial power during elbow flexion was associated with the greatest difference (reduction) in time to failure between the isometric task and the dynamic task (r=-0.54, P=0.015). SIT declined after both fatigue tasks similarly with age, although the recovery of SIT was associated with MVIC recovery for the old (both sessions) but not for the young men. Biceps brachii and brachioradialis EMG activity (% MVIC) of the old men were greater than that of the young men during the dynamic fatiguing task (P<0.05), but were similar during the isometric task. Muscular mechanisms and greater relative muscle activity (EMG activity) explain the greater fatigue during the dynamic task for the old men compared with the young men in the elbow flexor muscles. Recovery of MVC torque however relies more on the recovery of supraspinal fatigue among the old men than among the young men. PMID:23103238

  20. Characterization of muscarinic receptors mediating contractions of circular and longitudinal muscle of human isolated colon.

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, P. M.; Hillier, K.; Wallis, R. M.; Garland, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of seven muscarinic receptor antagonists were used to characterize the receptors which mediate carbachol-evoked contractions of intertaenial circular and taenial longitudinal muscle in human isolated colon. The effects of these antagonists were studied upon colon contractions induced by cumulatively added carbachol which had mean EC50 values of 11.7 +/- 2.3 microM (n = 8) and 12.6 +/- 2.3 microM (n = 8) respectively upon circular and longitudinal smooth muscle. 2. All antagonists displaced concentration-response curves to carbachol to the right in a parallel manner. The maximum concentration of each antagonist added (30 nM-10 microM) did not significantly suppress the maximum response. 3. In circular muscle, the M3 muscarinic receptor antagonists, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP), hexahydrosiladiphenidol (HHSiD) and para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladiphenidol (p-F-HHSiD) inhibited responses with pA2 values of 9.41 +/- 0.23, 7.17 +/- 0.07, 6.94 +/- 0.18 respectively. The M2 muscarinic receptor antagonist, AF-DX 116, the M2/M4 muscarinic receptor antagonist, himbacine, and the M1 muscarinic receptor antagonist, pirenzepine, yielded pA2 values of 7.36 +/- 0.43, 7.47 +/- 0.14 and 7.23 +/- 0.48 respectively. The non-selective antagonist, atropine, had a pA2 of 8.72 +/- 0.28. 4. In longitudinal muscle 4-DAMP, HHSiD, p-F-HHSiD, AF-DX 116, himbacine and pirenzepine gave pA2 values of 9.09 +/- 0.16, 7.45 +/- 0.43, 7.44 +/- 0.21, 6.44 +/- 0.1, 7.54 +/- 0.40, 6.87 +/- 0.38 respectively. Atropine yielded a pA2 value of 8.60 +/- 0.08.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8564213

  1. Muscle contraction: the step-size distance and the impulse-time per ATP.

    PubMed

    Worthington, C R; Elliott, G F

    1996-02-01

    We derive the step-size distance, and the impulse time per ATP split, from a consideration of Hill's energy rate equation coupled with the enthalpy available per ATP split. This definition of step-size distance is model-independent, and is calculated to have a maximum of 17 A at no load and to reduce to zero at isometric tension, since it will depend on the velocity of shortening. We revisit a derivation of Hill's force-velocity equation depending on impulsive forces working against frictional forces and show that this gives a physical meaning to Hill's constants a and b. This is particularly elegant for Hill's constant b, which is directly related to the impulse time; the value of this impulse time is 1/2 ms. The question that muscle contraction may involve overlapping interactions is considered. However, we find that the step-size distance is not dependent on the possibility of overlapping interactions. PMID:8852761

  2. Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from Common Mobile Phone Jammers Alters the Pattern of Muscle Contractions: an Animal Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Rafati, A.; Rahimi, S.; Talebi, A.; Soleimani, A.; Haghani, M.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The rapid growth of wireless communication technologies has caused public concerns regarding the biological effects of electromagnetic radiations on human health. Some early reports indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians such as the alterations of the pattern of muscle extractions. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from mobile phone jammers on the pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period of frog’s isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz). Materials and Methods Frogs were kept in plastic containers in a room. Animals in the jammer group were exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from a common Jammer at a distance of 1m from the jammer’s antenna for 2 hours while the control frogs were only sham exposed. Then animals were sacrificed and isolated gastrocnemius muscles were exposed to on/off jammer radiation for 3 subsequent 10 minute intervals. Isolated gastrocnemius muscles were attached to the force transducer with a string. Using a PowerLab device (26-T), the pattern of muscular contractions was monitored after applying single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz) as stimuli. Results The findings of this study showed that the pulse height of muscle contractions could not be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. However, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. Conclusion These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions. PMID:26396969

  3. Energetic cost of activation processes during contraction of swine arterial smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Wingard, C J; Paul, R J; Murphy, R A

    1997-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to partition the increase in ATP consumption during contraction of swine carotid arterial smooth muscle estimated from suprabasal oxygen consumption (suprabasal JO2) and lactate release (Jlactate) into a component associated with cross-bridge cycling (JX) and one reflecting activation (JA). 2. Two experimental approaches-varying length under constant activation, and varying activation at a long length (1.8 times the optimal length for force development (Lo)) where force generation is minimal-revealed a linear dependence of JO2 and activation energy (JA) on cross-bridge phosphorylation. Protocols inducing a large increase in myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) phosphorylation at 1.8 Lo resulted in significant elevations of JO2 and marked reductions in the economy of force maintenance. Our evidence suggests that this is primarily due to the increased cost of cross-bridge phosphorylation. 3. The extrapolated estimate of JA during maximal K(+)-induced depolarization made by varying length was 16%, while at 1.8 Lo it was 33% of the suprabasal JO2 at Lo. Calculated activation energies ranged from 17 to 45% of the suprabasal JO2 at Lo and from 72 to 87% of the suprabasal JO2 at 1.8 Lo under stimulation conditions that varied steady-state MRLC phosphorylation from 15 to 50%. 4. The results suggest that the kinetics of cross-bridge phosphorylation-dephosphorylation can rival those of cross-bridge cycling during isometric contractions in swine arterial smooth muscle. PMID:9175004

  4. Transient contractions of urinary bladder smooth muscle are drivers of afferent nerve activity during filling.

    PubMed

    Heppner, Thomas J; Tykocki, Nathan R; Hill-Eubanks, David; Nelson, Mark T

    2016-04-01

    Activation of afferent nerves during urinary bladder (UB) filling conveys the sensation of UB fullness to the central nervous system (CNS). Although this sensory outflow is presumed to reflect graded increases in pressure associated with filling, UBs also exhibit nonvoiding, transient contractions (TCs) that cause small, rapid increases in intravesical pressure. Here, using an ex vivo mouse bladder preparation, we explored the relative contributions of filling pressure and TC-induced pressure transients to sensory nerve stimulation. Continuous UB filling caused an increase in afferent nerve activity composed of a graded increase in baseline activity and activity associated with increases in intravesical pressure produced by TCs. For each ∼4-mmHg pressure increase, filling pressure increased baseline afferent activity by ∼60 action potentials per second. In contrast, a similar pressure elevation induced by a TC evoked an ∼10-fold greater increase in afferent activity. Filling pressure did not affect TC frequency but did increase the TC rate of rise, reflecting a change in the length-tension relationship of detrusor smooth muscle. The frequency of afferent bursts depended on the TC rate of rise and peaked before maximum pressure. Inhibition of small- and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+)(SK and BK) channels increased TC amplitude and afferent nerve activity. After inhibiting detrusor muscle contractility, simulating the waveform of a TC by gently compressing the bladder evoked similar increases in afferent activity. Notably, afferent activity elicited by simulated TCs was augmented by SK channel inhibition. Our results show that afferent nerve activity evoked by TCs represents the majority of afferent outflow conveyed to the CNS during UB filling and suggest that the maximum TC rate of rise corresponds to an optimal length-tension relationship for efficient UB contraction. Furthermore, our findings implicate SK channels in controlling the gain of sensory

  5. Skeletal Muscle Contractions Induce Acute Changes in Cytosolic Superoxide, but Slower Responses in Mitochondrial Superoxide and Cellular Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Timothy; Kabayo, Tabitha; Ng, Rainer; Chamberlain, Jeffrey; McArdle, Anne; Jackson, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is increased following contractile activity and these species interact with multiple signaling pathways to mediate adaptations to contractions. The sources and time course of the increase in ROS during contractions remain undefined. Confocal microscopy with specific fluorescent probes was used to compare the activities of superoxide in mitochondria and cytosol and the hydrogen peroxide content of the cytosol in isolated single mature skeletal muscle (flexor digitorum brevis) fibers prior to, during, and after electrically stimulated contractions. Superoxide in mitochondria and cytoplasm were assessed using MitoSox red and dihydroethidium (DHE) respectively. The product of superoxide with DHE, 2-hydroxyethidium (2-HE) was acutely increased in the fiber cytosol by contractions, whereas hydroxy-MitoSox showed a slow cumulative increase. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthases increased the contraction-induced formation of hydroxy-MitoSox only with no effect on 2-HE formation. These data indicate that the acute increases in cytosolic superoxide induced by contractions are not derived from mitochondria. Data also indicate that, in muscle mitochondria, nitric oxide (NO) reduces the availability of superoxide, but no effect of NO on cytosolic superoxide availability was detected. To determine the relationship of changes in superoxide to hydrogen peroxide, an alternative specific approach was used where fibers were transduced using an adeno-associated viral vector to express the hydrogen peroxide probe, HyPer within the cytoplasmic compartment. HyPer fluorescence was significantly increased in fibers following contractions, but surprisingly followed a relatively slow time course that did not appear directly related to cytosolic superoxide. These data demonstrate for the first time temporal and site specific differences in specific ROS that occur in skeletal muscle fibers during and after contractile activity. PMID

  6. Measurement of high-resolution mechanical contraction of cardiac muscle by induced eddy current.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Jae; Lee, Kang-Hwi; Kang, Seung-Jin; Kim, Kyeung-Nam; Khang, Seonah; Koo, Hye Ran; Gi, Sunok; Lee, Joo Hyeon; Lee, Jeong-Whan

    2014-01-01

    There are many types of devices which help to manage a personal health conditions such as heartbeat chest belt, pedometer and smart watch. And the most common device has the relationship with heart rate or ECG data. However, users have to attach some electrode or fasten the belt on the bare skin to measure bio-signal information. Therefore, most of people want more convenient and short-ready-time and no-need to attach electrode. In this paper, we proposed the high-resolution measuring system of mechanical activity of cardiac muscle and thereby measure heartbeat. The principle of the proposed measuring method is that the alternating current generate alternating magnetic field around coil. This primary magnetic field induces eddy current which makes magnetic field against primary coil in the nearby objects. To measure high-resolution changes of the induced secondary magnetic fields, we used digital Phase-locked loop(PLL) circuit which provides more high-resolution traces of frequency changes than the previous studies based on digital frequency counter method. As a result of our preliminary experiment, peak-peak intervals of the proposed method showed high correlation with R-R intervals of clinical ECG signals(r=0.9249). Also, from signal traces of the proposed method, we might make a conjecture that the contraction of atrium or ventricle is reflected by changing conductivity of cardiac muscle which is beating ceaselessly. PMID:25571434

  7. Regulation of actin dynamics by WNT-5A: implications for human airway smooth muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Koopmans, Tim; Kumawat, Kuldeep; Halayko, Andrew J; Gosens, Reinoud

    2016-01-01

    A defining feature of asthma is airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), which underlies the exaggerated bronchoconstriction response of asthmatics. The role of the airway smooth muscle (ASM) in AHR has garnered increasing interest over the years, but how asthmatic ASM differs from healthy ASM is still an active topic of debate. WNT-5A is increasingly expressed in asthmatic ASM and has been linked with Th2-high asthma. Due to its link with calcium and cytoskeletal remodelling, we propose that WNT-5A may modulate ASM contractility. We demonstrated that WNT-5A can increase maximum isometric tension in bovine tracheal smooth muscle strips. In addition, we show that WNT-5A is preferentially expressed in contractile human airway myocytes compared to proliferative cells, suggesting an active role in maintaining contractility. Furthermore, WNT-5A treatment drives actin polymerisation, but has no effect on intracellular calcium flux. Next, we demonstrated that WNT-5A directly regulates TGF-β1-induced expression of α-SMA via ROCK-mediated actin polymerization. These findings suggest that WNT-5A modulates fundamental mechanisms that affect ASM contraction and thus may be of relevance for AHR in asthma. PMID:27468699

  8. Effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid on neurally mediated contraction of guinea pig trachealis smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Tamaoki, J; Graf, P D; Nadel, J A

    1987-10-01

    To determine whether gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) affects the contractile properties of airway smooth muscle and, if so, what the mechanism of action is, the authors studied guinea pig tracheal rings under isometric conditions in vitro. GABA and related substances, baclofen and muscimol, had no effect on the resting tension but reversibly depressed contractions induced by electrical field stimulation in a dose-dependent fashion, IC50 values (mean +/- S.E.) being 5.6 +/- 1.4 X 10(-6) M, 6.8 +/- 0.9 X 10(-6) M and 8.5 +/- 1.5 X 10(-5) M, respectively. In contrast, GABA did not alter the response to exogenous acetylcholine or the nonadrenergic noncholinergic inhibitory component. Pretreatment of tissues with bicuculline antagonized the inhibitory effect of GABA as well as that of baclofen. This inhibitory effect was not modified by propranolol, phentolamine, hemicholinium-3 or naloxone, but it was blocked by the Cl channel blocker furosemide and by the substitution of external Cl. These results suggest that GABA decreases the contractile response of airway smooth muscle to cholinergic nerve stimulation by inhibiting the evoked release of acetylcholine and that this effect is exerted by activating Cl-dependent, bicuculline-sensitive GABA receptors. PMID:3668869

  9. Epithelium-generated neuropeptide Y induces smooth muscle contraction to promote airway hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanru; Koziol-White, Cynthia; Jude, Joseph; Jiang, Meiqi; Zhao, Hengjiang; Cao, Gaoyuan; Yoo, Edwin; Jester, William; Morley, Michael P; Zhou, Su; Wang, Yi; Lu, Min Min; Panettieri, Reynold A; Morrisey, Edward E

    2016-05-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases globally and can be divided into presenting with or without an immune response. Current therapies have little effect on nonimmune disease, and the mechanisms that drive this type of asthma are poorly understood. Here, we have shown that loss of the transcription factors forkhead box P1 (Foxp1) and Foxp4, which are critical for lung epithelial development, in the adult airway epithelium evokes a non-Th2 asthma phenotype that is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) without eosinophilic inflammation. Transcriptome analysis revealed that loss of Foxp1 and Foxp4 expression induces ectopic expression of neuropeptide Y (Npy), which has been reported to be present in the airways of asthma patients, but whose importance in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Treatment of human lung airway explants with recombinant NPY increased airway contractility. Conversely, loss of Npy in Foxp1- and Foxp4-mutant airway epithelium rescued the AHR phenotype. We determined that NPY promotes AHR through the induction of Rho kinase activity and phosphorylation of myosin light chain, which induces airway smooth muscle contraction. Together, these studies highlight the importance of paracrine signals from the airway epithelium to the underlying smooth muscle to induce AHR and suggest that therapies targeting epithelial induction of this phenotype may prove useful in treatment of noneosinophilic asthma. PMID:27088802

  10. A model of the release of myosin heads from actin in rapidly contracting muscle fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, R; White, H; Pate, E

    1994-01-01

    We describe a model that relates the maximum shortening velocity of a muscle fiber, Vm, to the kinetics of the dissociation of a myosin head from actin. At Vm, the positive work exerted by cross-bridges attached in the powerstroke must be balanced by cross-bridges that have been carried by movement of the filaments into a region where they exert a negative force. This balance allows one to relate Vm and the rate of cross-bridge detachment. Studies of actomyosin kinetics suggest that at high substrate, detachment should be limited by a slow protein isomerization (approximately 50 s-1) that precedes ADP release. This rate is too slow to be easily accommodated in existing models. However, a slow rate for cross-bridge dissociation, similar to that of the isomerization, is predicted if previous models are modified to include rapid detachment of cross-bridges that have been carried so far into the negative force region that their free energy exceeds that of the detached state. The model also explains another aspect of muscle contraction: at high shortening velocities, the observed rate of ATP hydrolysis is low, because a cross-bridge can interact with multiple actin binding sites before releasing the hydrolysis products and binding another ATP. PMID:8011910

  11. Rats Bred for Low Aerobic Capacity Become Promptly Fatigued and Have Slow Metabolic Recovery after Stimulated, Maximal Muscle Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Torvinen, Sira; Silvennoinen, Mika; Piitulainen, Harri; Närväinen, Johanna; Tuunanen, Pasi; Gröhn, Olli; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2012-01-01

    AIM Muscular fatigue is a complex phenomenon affected by muscle fiber type and several metabolic and ionic changes within myocytes. Mitochondria are the main determinants of muscle oxidative capacity which is also one determinant of muscle fatigability. By measuring the concentrations of intracellular stores of high-energy phosphates it is possible to estimate the energy production efficiency and metabolic recovery of the muscle. Low intrinsic aerobic capacity is known to be associated with reduced mitochondrial function. Whether low intrinsic aerobic capacity also results in slower metabolic recovery of skeletal muscle is not known. Here we studied the influence of intrinsic aerobic capacity on in vivo muscle metabolism during maximal, fatiguing electrical stimulation. METHODS Animal subjects were genetically heterogeneous rats selectively bred to differ for non–trained treadmill running endurance, low capacity runners (LCRs) and high capacity runners (HCRs) (n = 15–19). We measured the concentrations of major phosphorus compounds and force parameters in a contracting triceps surae muscle complex using 31P-Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) combined with muscle force measurement from repeated isometric twitches. RESULTS Our results demonstrated that phosphocreatine re-synthesis after maximal muscle stimulation was significantly slower in LCRs (p<0.05). LCR rats also became promptly fatigued and maintained the intramuscular pH poorly compared to HCRs. Half relaxation time (HRT) of the triceps surae was significantly longer in LCRs throughout the stimulation protocol (p≤0.05) and maximal rate of torque development (MRTD) was significantly lower in LCRs compared to HCRs from 2 min 30 s onwards (p≤0.05). CONCLUSION We observed that LCRs are more sensitive to fatigue and have slower metabolic recovery compared to HCRs after maximal muscle contractions. These new findings are associated with reduced running capacity and with previously found lower

  12. Spectral properties of electromyographic and mechanomyographic signals during dynamic concentric and eccentric contractions of the human biceps brachii muscle.

    PubMed

    Qi, Liping; Wakeling, James M; Ferguson-Pell, Martin

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and examine the variations in recruitment patterns of motor units (MUs) in biceps brachii (BB) through a range of joint motion during dynamic eccentric and concentric contractions. Twelve healthy participants (6 females, 6 males, age=30±8.5 years) performed concentric and eccentric contractions with constant external loading at different levels. Surface electromyography (EMG) and mechanomyography (MMG) were recorded from BB. The EMGs and MMGs were decomposed into their intensities in time-frequency space using a wavelet technique. The EMG and MMG spectra were then compared using principal component analysis. Variations in total intensity, first principal component (PCI), and the angle θ formed by first component (PCI) and second component (PCII) loading scores were explained in terms of MU recruitment patterns and elbow angles. Elbow angle had a significant effect on dynamic concentric and eccentric contractions. The EMG total intensity was greater for concentric than for eccentric contractions in the present study. MMG total intensity, however, was lower during concentric than during eccentric contractions. In addition, there was no significant difference in θ between concentric and eccentric contractions for both EMG and MMG. Selective recruitment of fast MUs from BB muscle during eccentric muscle contractions was not found in the present study. PMID:22000481

  13. Energetics of shortening muscles in twitches and tetanic contractions. II. Force-determined shortening heat.

    PubMed

    Homsher, E; Mommaerts, W F; Ricchiuti, N V

    1973-12-01

    The extra heat liberation accompanying muscular shortening, the force-determined shortening heat, is defined as the difference between the heat produced when shortening occurs and that produced in an isometric contraction developing the same amount of force and performing the same amount of internal work. Based on this definition, the initial energy production in twitches and tetanic contractions (E) is given by E = A + f (P, t) + alpha(F)x + W, where A is the activation heat, f(P, t), the tension-related heat (a heat production associated with the development and maintenance of tension), alpha(F)x, the force-determined shortening heat, and W, the external work. It is demonstrated that this equation accurately accounts for the time-course of heat evolution and the total initial energy production in both twitches and tetani at 0 degrees C. The force-determined shortening heat is liberated, during shortening, in direct proportion to (a) the distance shortened, and (b) the force against which shortening occurs. The normalized value of the force-determined shortening heat coefficient, alpha(F)/P(o), is the same in both the twitch and the tetanus. Finally, this formulation of the muscle's energy production also accounts for the total energy production in afterload isotonic twitches at 20 degrees C, where a Fenn effect is not demonstrable. PMID:4548714

  14. Structural and functional aspects of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Priya; Wang, Li; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Huang, Wenrui; Hernandez, Olga M.; Kawai, Masataka; Irving, Thomas C.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    The myosin essential light chain (ELC) is a structural component of the actomyosin cross-bridge, but its function is poorly understood, especially the role of the cardiac specific N-terminal extension in modulating actomyosin interaction. Here, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the A57G (alanine to glycine) mutation in the cardiac ELC known to cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC). The function of the ELC N-terminal extension was investigated with the Tg-Δ43 mouse model, whose myocardium expresses a truncated ELC. Low-angle X-ray diffraction studies on papillary muscle fibers in rigor revealed a decreased interfilament spacing (∼1.5 nm) and no alterations in cross-bridge mass distribution in Tg-A57G mice compared to Tg-WT, expressing the full-length nonmutated ELC. The truncation mutation showed a 1.3-fold increase in I1,1/I1,0, indicating a shift of cross-bridge mass from the thick filament backbone toward the thin filaments. Mechanical studies demonstrated increased stiffness in Tg-A57G muscle fibers compared to Tg-WT or Tg-Δ43. The equilibrium constant for the cross-bridge force generation step was smallest in Tg-Δ43. These results support an important role for the N-terminal ELC extension in prepositioning the cross-bridge for optimal force production. Subtle changes in the ELC sequence were sufficient to alter cross-bridge properties and lead to pathological phenotypes.—Muthu, P., Wang, L., Yuan, C.-C., Kazmierczak, K., Huang, W., Hernandez, O. M., Kawai, M., Irving, T. C., Szczesna-Cordary, D. Structural and functional aspects of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction. PMID:21885653

  15. A single intake of capsiate improves mechanical performance and bioenergetics efficiency in contracting mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kazuya, Yashiro; Tonson, Anne; Pecchi, Emilie; Dalmasso, Christiane; Vilmen, Christophe; Fur, Yann Le; Bernard, Monique; Bendahan, David; Giannesini, Benoît

    2014-05-15

    Capsiate is known to increase whole body oxygen consumption possibly via the activation of uncoupling processes, but its effect at the skeletal muscle level remains poorly documented and conflicting. To clarify this issue, gastrocnemius muscle function and energetics were investigated in mice 2 h after a single intake of either vehicle (control) or purified capsiate (at 10 or 100 mg/kg body wt) through a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements. Mechanical performance and energy pathway fluxes were assessed strictly noninvasively during a standardized electrostimulation-induced exercise, using an original device implementing 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mitochondrial respiration was evaluated in isolated saponin-permeabilized fibers. Compared with control, both capsiate doses produced quantitatively similar effects at the energy metabolism level, including an about twofold decrease of the mitochondrial respiration sensitivity for ADP. Interestingly, they did not alter either oxidative phosphorylation or uncoupling protein 3 gene expression at rest. During 6 min of maximal repeated isometric contractions, both doses reduced the amount of ATP produced from glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation but increased the relative contribution of oxidative phosphorylation to total energy turnover (+28 and +21% in the 10- and 100-mg groups, respectively). ATP cost of twitch force generation was further reduced in the 10- (-35%) and 100-mg (-45%) groups. Besides, the highest capsiate dose also increased the twitch force-generating capacity. These data present capsiate as a helpful candidate to enhance both muscle performance and oxidative phosphorylation during exercise, which could constitute a nutritional approach for improving health and preventing obesity and associated metabolic disorders. PMID:24644244

  16. The effect of the correlation between the contraction of the pelvic floor muscles and diaphragmatic motion during breathing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hankyu; Han, Dongwook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the correlation between the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) and diaphragmatic motion during breathing. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy female students who listened to an explanation of the study methods, purpose and agreed to participate in the experiment. [Methods] Radiograph equipment was used to examine diaphragmatic motion with contraction of the PFM during breathing, and a spirometer was used to examine lung vital capacity. [Results] The results revealed a significant change in the diaphragmatic motion and pulmonary function (FEV1, MVV). FEV1 and MVV showed significant differences when the PFM was contracted. Diaphragmatic motion showed a significant difference when the PFM was contracted. [Conclusion] Diaphragmatic motion and contraction of the PFM correlate with breathing. In addition, breathing is much more effective during contraction of the PFM. Therefore, PFM strengthening exercises should be included in respiratory rehabilitation programs. PMID:26311935

  17. Anti-stomach serum induces contraction of isolated smooth muscle cells from gastric antrum.

    PubMed

    Bobo, M H; Ammor, S; Magous, R; Mingard, P; Bali, J P

    1993-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the ability of anti-tissue sera to cause contraction of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in vitro. Therefore, we compared the effects of a horse immune serum raised against hog gastric tissue (SER 292), of its globulin fraction (SER 292 globulin), and of its IgG fraction (SER 292 IgG), on concentration of isolated SMC from the gastric antrum of the rabbit. Our results showed that SER 292 IgG induced a dose-dependent contraction of SMC with a higher potency than SER 292 globulin and SER 292. Preincubation of SER 292 globulin with anti-F(ab')2 but not with anti-Fc reduced the contractile activity of this anti-tissue serum. A serum raised against reticulo-endothelial system (SER 108) as well as a non immune serum (SENI) did not show any contractile activity. Our data provide evidence that SER 292 interacts with plasma membrane of SMC through its F(ab')2 fragments. Withdrawal of extracellular Ca2+ caused a significant reduction of the contractile effect induced by SER 292 IgG. When 45 Ca influx was measured, SER 292 IgG induced a specific and significant 45 Ca uptake which was blocked by pinaverium, a 'L-type' calcium channel blocker. These findings tend to show that contraction of SMC induced by SER 292 IgG involves an increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration due in part to an influx of external Ca2+ via plasma membrane Ca2+ channels sensitive to 'L-type' channel blockers. PMID:8288445

  18. The effects of acute tension increase on rat esophageal muscle contractions: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Soyer, Tutku; Kalkışım, Said; Yalcin, Sule; Müderrisoğlu, Ahmet; Taş, Sadık Taşkın; Tanyel, Feridun Cahit; Ertunç, Mert; Sara, Yıldırım

    2015-10-01

    In long-gap esophageal atresia surgeries, anastomoses can be tensioned by several traction methods in order to establish esophageal continuity. It is unclear whether the etiology of esophageal dysmotility after traction is related with esophageal atresia itself or tensioned esophagus. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of acute in vitro esophageal tension application on esophageal muscle contractility in rats. 26 Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were included to the study. After diethyl ether anesthesia, proximal segment (PS) and distal segment (DS) of esophagus were removed and suspended in an isolated organ bath kept at 37°C, Krebs-Henseleit solution. Rats were enrolled into four groups including control group (CG, n=14) without tension, 5 g (5G, n=4), 15 g (15G, n=4) and 25 g (25G, n=4) tension groups. In all groups, contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS), carbachol and KCl, and relaxation responses to serotonin were obtained. In CG, higher contractile responses were obtained in PS than DS after EFS. Both PS and DS showed higher contractile amplitudes in 5G with respect to that of CG, 15G and 25G (p<0.05). In 5G, contractile responses to carbachol were significantly increased in both PS and DS with respect to CG (p<0.05). However, contractile amplitudes in response to carbachol were decreased in PS when tension was increased to 15 g and 25 g. In DS, contractile responses in 15G and 25G were lower than 5G, and still higher than CG. Serotonin relaxation responses in PS were decreased when compared to CG at tension levels of 5 g, 15 g and 25 g (p<0.05). In DS, responses to serotonin were also decreased in tension groups. PS had higher contraction amplitudes than DS when contractile responses were obtained by high K(+) (p<0.05). Tension groups of both PS and DS showed increased contractions to high K(+) compared to CG (p<0.05). Increased esophageal tension led to increase in cholinergic responses of smooth muscles as well as in EFS

  19. The effects of cannabidiol on the antigen-induced contraction of airways smooth muscle in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Dudášová, A; Keir, S D; Parsons, M E; Molleman, A; Page, C P

    2013-06-01

    (-)-Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects in the airways, but its psychoactive effects preclude its therapeutic use for the treatment of airways diseases. In the present study we have investigated the effects of (-)-cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component of cannabis for its actions on bronchial smooth muscle in vitro and in vivo. Guinea-pig bronchial smooth muscle contractions induced by exogenously applied spasmogens were measured isometrically. In addition, contractile responses of bronchial smooth muscle from ovalbumin-sensitized guinea-pigs were investigated in the absence or presence of (-)-cannabidiol. Furthermore, the effect of (-)-cannabidiol against ovalbumin-induced airway obstruction was investigated in vivo in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea-pigs. (-)-Cannabidiol did not influence the bronchial smooth muscle contraction induced by carbachol, histamine or neurokinin A. In contrast, (-)-cannabidiol inhibited anandamide- and virodhamine-induced responses of isolated bronchi. A fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride reversed the inhibitory effect of (-)-cannabidiol on anandamide-induced contractions. In addition, (-)-cannabidiol inhibited the contractile response of bronchi obtained from allergic guinea-pigs induced by ovalbumin. In vivo, (-)-cannabidiol reduced ovalbumin-induced airway obstruction. In conclusion, our results suggest that cannabidiol can influence antigen-induced airway smooth muscle tone suggesting that this molecule may have beneficial effects in the treatment of obstructive airway disorders. PMID:23428645

  20. Do Differences in Levels, Types, and Duration of Muscle Contraction Have an Effect on the Degree of Post-exercise Depression?

    PubMed Central

    Miyaguchi, Shota; Kojima, Sho; Kirimoto, Hikari; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Onishi, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    We conducted two experiments to determine how differences in muscle contraction levels, muscle contraction types, and movement duration affect degree of post-exercise depression (PED) after non-exhaustive, repetitive finger movement. Twelve healthy participants performed repetitive abduction movements of the right index finger at 2 Hz. In experiment 1, we examined the effects of muscle contraction levels at 10, 20, and 30% maximum voluntary contraction and the effects of muscle contraction types at isotonic and isometric contraction. In experiment 2, we examined the effects of movement duration at 2 and 6 min. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle before movement tasks and 1–10 min after movement tasks. MEP amplitudes after isotonic contraction tasks were significantly smaller than those after isometric contraction tasks and decreased with increasing contraction levels, but were independent of movement duration. This study demonstrated that the degree of PED after non-exhaustive repetitive finger movement depended on muscle contraction levels and types. Thus, the degree of PED may depend on the levels of activity in the motor cortex during a movement task. This knowledge will aid in the design of rehabilitation protocols. PMID:27199696

  1. Contraction dynamics and function of the muscle-tendon complex depend on the muscle fibre-tendon length ratio: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Mörl, Falk; Siebert, Tobias; Häufle, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Experimental studies show different muscle-tendon complex (MTC) functions (e.g. motor or spring) depending on the muscle fibre-tendon length ratio. Comparing different MTC of different animals examined experimentally, the extracted MTC functions are biased by, for example, MTC-specific pennation angle and fibre-type distribution or divergent experimental protocols (e.g. influence of temperature or stimulation on MTC force). Thus, a thorough understanding of variation of these inner muscle fibre-tendon length ratios on MTC function is difficult. In this study, we used a hill-type muscle model to simulate MTC. The model consists of a contractile element (CE) simulating muscle fibres, a serial element (SE) as a model for tendon, and a parallel elastic element (PEE) modelling tissue in parallel to the muscle fibres. The simulation examines the impact of length variations of these components on contraction dynamics and MTC function. Ensuring a constant overall length of the MTC by L(MTC) = L(SE) + L(CE), the SE rest length was varied over a broad physiological range from 0.1 to 0.9 MTC length. Five different MTC functions were investigated by simulating typical physiological experiments: the stabilising function with isometric contractions, the motor function with contractions against a weight, the capability of acceleration with contractions against a small inertial mass, the braking function by decelerating a mass, and the spring function with stretch-shortening cycles. The ratio of SE and CE mainly determines the MTC function. MTC with comparably short tendon generates high force and maximal shortening velocity and is able to produce maximal work and power. MTC with long tendon is suitable to store and release a maximum amount of energy. Variation of muscle fibre-tendon ratio yielded two peaks for MTC's force response for short and long SE lengths. Further, maximum work storage capacity of the SE is at long relL(SE,0). Impact of fibre-tendon length ratio on MTC

  2. Acute and chronic effects of bupivacaine on muscle energetics during contraction in vivo: a modular metabolic control analysis.

    PubMed

    Arsac, Laurent M; Nouette-Gaulain, Karine; Miraux, Sylvain; Deschodt-Arsac, Veronique; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Thiaudiere, Eric; Diolez, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    Bupivacaine is a widely used anaesthetic injected locally in clinical practice for short-term neurotransmission blockade. However, persistent side effects on mitochondrial integrity have been demonstrated in muscle parts surrounding the injection site. We use the precise language of metabolic control analysis in the present study to describe in vivo consequences of bupivacaine injection on muscle energetics during contraction. We define a model system of muscle energy metabolism in rats with a sciatic nerve catheter that consists of two modules of reactions, ATP/PCr (phosphocreatine) supply and ATP/PCr demand, linked by the common intermediate PCr detected in vivo by (31)P-MRS (magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Measured system variables were [PCr] (intermediate) and contraction (flux). We first applied regulation analysis to quantify acute effects of bupivacaine. After bupivacaine injection, contraction decreased by 15.7% and, concomitantly, [PCr] increased by 11.2%. The regulation analysis quantified that demand was in fact directly inhibited by bupivacaine (-21.3%), causing an increase in PCr. This increase in PCr indirectly reduced mitochondrial activity (-22.4%). Globally, the decrease in contractions was almost fully explained by inhibition of demand (-17.0%) without significant effect through energy supply. Finally we applied elasticity analysis to quantify chronic effects of bupivacaine iterative injections. The absence of a difference in elasticities obtained in treated rats when compared with healthy control rats clearly shows the absence of dysfunction in energetic control of muscle contraction energetics. The present study constitutes the first and direct evidence that bupivacaine myotoxicity is compromised by other factors during contraction in vivo, and illustrates the interest of modular approaches to appreciate simple rules governing bioenergetic systems when affected by drugs. PMID:22390862

  3. The role of ion-regulatory membrane proteins of excitation-contraction coupling and relaxation in inherited muscle diseases.

    PubMed

    Froemming, G R; Ohlendieck, K

    2001-01-01

    The excitation-contraction-relaxation cycle of skeletal muscle fibres depends on the finely tuned interplay between the voltage-sensing dihydropyridine receptor, the junctional ryanodine receptor Ca2+-release channel and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. Inherited diseases of excitation-contraction coupling and muscle relaxation such as malignant hyperthermia, central core disease, hypokalemic periodic paralysis or Brody disease are caused by mutations in these Ca2+-regulatory elements. Over twenty different mutations in the Ca2+-release channel are associated with susceptibility to the pharmacogenetic disorder malignant hyperthermia. Other mutations in the ryanodine receptor trigger central core disease. Primary abnormalities in the alpha-1 subunit of the dihydropyridine receptor underlie the molecular pathogenesis of both hypokalemic periodic paralysis and certain forms of malignant hyperthermia. Some cases of the muscle relaxation disorder named Brody disease were demonstrated to be based on primary abnormalities in the Ca2+-ATPase. Since a variety of other sarcoplasmic reticulum proteins modulate the activity of the voltage sensor, Ca2+-release channel and ion-binding proteins, mutations in these Ca2+-regulatory muscle components might be the underlying cause for novel, not yet fully characterized, genetic muscle disorders. The cell biological analysis of knock-out mice has been helpful in evaluating the biomedical consequences of defects in ion-regulatory muscle proteins. PMID:11145921

  4. Caffeine and contraction synergistically stimulate 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin-independent glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Satoshi; Egawa, Tatsuro; Kitani, Kazuto; Oshima, Rieko; Ma, Xiao; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    5′-Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been identified as a key mediator of contraction-stimulated insulin-independent glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Caffeine acutely stimulates AMPK in resting skeletal muscle, but it is unknown whether caffeine affects AMPK in contracting muscle. Isolated rat epitrochlearis muscle was preincubated and then incubated in the absence or presence of 3 mmol/L caffeine for 30 or 120 min. Electrical stimulation (ES) was used to evoke tetanic contractions during the last 10 min of the incubation period. The combination of caffeine plus contraction had additive effects on AMPKα Thr172 phosphorylation, α-isoform-specific AMPK activity, and 3-O-methylglucose (3MG) transport. In contrast, caffeine inhibited basal and contraction-stimulated Akt Ser473 phosphorylation. Caffeine significantly delayed muscle fatigue during contraction, and the combination of caffeine and contraction additively decreased ATP and phosphocreatine contents. Caffeine did not affect resting tension. Next, rats were given an intraperitoneal injection of caffeine (60 mg/kg body weight) or saline, and the extensor digitorum longus muscle was dissected 15 min later. ES of the sciatic nerve was performed to evoke tetanic contractions for 5 min before dissection. Similar to the findings from isolated muscles incubated in vitro, the combination of caffeine plus contraction in vivo had additive effects on AMPK phosphorylation, AMPK activity, and 3MG transport. Caffeine also inhibited basal and contraction-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in vivo. These findings suggest that caffeine and contraction synergistically stimulate AMPK activity and insulin-independent glucose transport, at least in part by decreasing muscle fatigue and thereby promoting energy consumption during contraction. PMID:26471759

  5. The purinergic component of human bladder smooth muscle cells’ proliferation and contraction under physiological stretch

    SciTech Connect

    Wazir, Romel; Luo, De-Yi; Tian, Ye; Yue, Xuan; Li, Hong; Wang, Kun-Jie

    2013-07-26

    Highlights: •Stretch induces proliferation and contraction. •Optimum applied stretch in vitro is 5% and 10% equibiaxial stretching respectively. •Expression of P2X1 and P2X2 is upregulated after application of stretch. •P2X2 is possibly more susceptible to stretch related changes. •Purinoceptors functioning may explain conditions with atropine resistance. -- Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether cyclic stretch induces proliferation and contraction of human smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs), mediated by P2X purinoceptor 1 and 2 and the signal transduction mechanisms of this process. Methods: HBSMCs were seeded on silicone membrane and stretched under varying parameters; (equibiaxial elongation: 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%), (Frequency: 0.05 Hz, 0.1 Hz, 0.2 Hz, 0.5 Hz, 1 Hz). 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine assay was employed for proliferative studies. Contractility of the cells was determined using collagen gel contraction assay. After optimal physiological stretch was established; P2X1 and P2X2 were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot. Specificity of purinoceptors was maintained by employing specific inhibitors; (NF023 for P2X1, and A317491for P2X2), in some experiments. Results: Optimum proliferation and contractility were observed at 5% and 10% equibiaxial stretching respectively, applied at a frequency of 0.1 Hz; At 5% stretch, proliferation increased from 0.837 ± 0.026 (control) to 1.462 ± 0.023%, p < 0.05. Mean contraction at 10% stretching increased from 31.7 ± 2.3%, (control) to 78.28 ±1.45%, p < 0.05. Expression of P2X1 and P2X2 was upregulated after application of stretch. Inhibition had effects on proliferation (1.232 ± 0.051, p < 0.05 NF023) and (1.302 ± 0.021, p < 0.05 A314791) while contractility was markedly reduced (68.24 ± 2.31, p < 0.05 NF023) and (73.2 ± 2.87, p < 0.05 A314791). These findings shows that mechanical stretch can promote magnitude-dependent proliferative and contractile modulation of HBSMCs in

  6. Age-related changes in motor unit firing pattern of vastus lateralis muscle during low-moderate contraction.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Holobar, Aleš; Kouzaki, Motoki; Ogawa, Madoka; Akima, Hiroshi; Moritani, Toshio

    2016-06-01

    Age-related changes in motor unit activation properties remain unclear for locomotor muscles such as quadriceps muscles, although these muscles are preferentially atrophied with aging and play important roles in daily living movements. The present study investigated and compared detailed motor unit firing characteristics for the vastus lateralis muscle during isometric contraction at low to moderate force levels in the elderly and young. Fourteen healthy elderly men and 15 healthy young men performed isometric ramp-up contraction to 70 % of the maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) during knee extension. Multichannel surface electromyograms were recorded from the vastus lateralis muscle using a two-dimensional grid of 64 electrodes and decomposed with the convolution kernel compensation technique to extract individual motor units. Motor unit firing rates in the young were significantly higher (~+29.7 %) than in the elderly (p < 0.05). There were significant differences in firing rates among motor units with different recruitment thresholds at each force level in the young (p < 0.05) but not in the elderly (p > 0.05). Firing rates at 60 % of the MVC force level for the motor units recruited at <20 % of MVC were significantly correlated with MVC force in the elderly (r = 0.885, p < 0.0001) but not in the young (r = 0.127, p > 0.05). These results suggest that the motor unit firing rate in the vastus lateralis muscle is affected by aging and muscle strength in the elderly and/or age-related strength loss is related to motor unit firing/recruitment properties. PMID:27084115

  7. Muscle Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  8. Nitric oxide availability is increased in contracting skeletal muscle from aged mice, but does not differentially decrease muscle superoxide

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, T.; McArdle, A.; Jackson, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been implicated in the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs during aging. Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide are generated by skeletal muscle and where these are generated in proximity their chemical reaction to form peroxynitrite can compete with the superoxide dismutation to hydrogen peroxide. Changes in NO availability may therefore theoretically modify superoxide and peroxynitrite activities in tissues, but published data are contradictory regarding aging effects on muscle NO availability. We hypothesised that an age-related increase in NO generation might increase peroxynitrite generation in muscles from old mice, leading to an increased nitration of muscle proteins and decreased superoxide availability. This was examined using fluorescent probes and an isolated fiber preparation to examine NO content and superoxide in the cytosol and mitochondria of muscle fibers from adult and old mice both at rest and following contractile activity. We also examined the 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and peroxiredoxin 5 (Prx5) content of muscles from mice as markers of peroxynitrite activity. Data indicate that a substantial age-related increase in NO levels occurred in muscle fibers during contractile activity and this was associated with an increase in muscle eNOS. Muscle proteins from old mice also showed an increased 3-NT content. Inhibition of NOS indicated that NO decreased superoxide bioavailability in muscle mitochondria, although this effect was not age related. Thus increased NO in muscles of old mice was associated with an increased 3-NT content that may potentially contribute to age-related degenerative changes in skeletal muscle. PMID:25462644

  9. Effect of atrophy and contractions on myogenin mRNA concentration in chick and rat myoblast omega muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, J. M.; Denney, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    The skeletal rat myoblast omega (RMo) cell line forms myotubes that exhibit spontaneous contractions under appropriate conditions in culture. We examined if the RMo cells would provide a model for studying atrophy and muscle contraction. To better understand how to obtain contractile cultures, we examined levels of contraction under different growing conditions. The proliferation medium and density of plating affected the subsequent proportion of spontaneously contracting myotubes. Using a ribonuclease protection assay, we found that exponentially growing RMo myoblasts contained no detectable myogenin or herculin mRNA, while differentiating myoblasts contained high levels of myogenin mRNA but no herculin mRNA. There was no increase in myogenin mRNA concentration in either primary chick or RMo myotubes whose contractions were inhibited by depolarizing concentrations of potassium (K+). Thus, altered myogenin mRNA concentrations are not involved in atrophy of chick myotubes. Depolarizing concentrations of potassium inhibited spontaneous contractions in both RMo cultures and primary chick myotube cultures. However, we found that the myosin concentration of 6-d-old contracting RMo cells fed medium plus AraC was 11 +/- 3 micrograms myosin/microgram DNA, not significantly different from 12 +/- 4 micrograms myosin/microgram DNA (n = 3), the myosin concentration of noncontracting RMo cells (treated with 12 mM K+ for 6 d). Resolving how RMo cells maintained their myosin content when contraction is inhibited may be important for understanding atrophy.

  10. Extracellular matrix remodeling and its contribution to protective adaptation following lengthening contractions in human muscle.

    PubMed

    Hyldahl, Robert D; Nelson, Brad; Xin, Ling; Welling, Tyson; Groscost, Logan; Hubal, Monica J; Chipkin, Stuart; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Parcell, Allen C

    2015-07-01

    This study determined the contribution of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling to the protective adaptation of human skeletal muscle known as the repeated-bout effect (RBE). Muscle biopsies were obtained 3 hours, 2 days, and 27 days following an initial bout (B1) of lengthening contractions (LCs) and 2 days following a repeated bout (B2) in 2 separate studies. Biopsies from the nonexercised legs served as controls. In the first study, global transcriptomic analysis indicated widespread changes in ECM structural, deadhesive, and signaling transcripts, 3 hours following LC. To determine if ECM remodeling is involved in the RBE, we conducted a second study by use of a repeated-bout paradigm. TNC immunoreactivity increased 10.8-fold following B1, was attenuated following B2, and positively correlated with LC-induced strength loss (r(2) = 0.45; P = 0.009). Expression of collagen I, III, and IV (COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A1) transcripts was unchanged early but increased 5.7 ± 2.5-, 3.2 ± 0.9-, and 2.1 ± 0.4-fold (P < 0.05), respectively, 27 days post-B1 and were unaffected by B2. Likewise, TGF-β signaling demonstrated a delayed response following LC. Satellite cell content increased 80% (P < 0.05) 2 days post-B1 (P < 0.05), remained elevated 27 days post-B1, and was unaffected by B2. Collectively, the data suggest sequential ECM remodeling characterized by early deadhesion and delayed reconstructive activity that appear to contribute to the RBE. PMID:25808538

  11. Development of a training method for weightless environment using both electrical stimulation and voluntary muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Yoshimitsu, Kazuhiro; Shiba, Naoto; Matsuse, Hiroo; Takano, Yoshio; Matsugaki, Tohoru; Inada, Tomohisa; Tagawa, Yoshihiko; Nagata, Kensei

    2010-01-01

    Extreme skeletal muscle atrophy is rampant in astronauts exposed to extended periods of microgravity (muG), and it is one of the main problems in human space exploration. A "Hybrid training" (HYB) method utilizing combined electrical stimulation and voluntary muscle contraction has been developed as a possible solution. A wearable HYB device and a virtual reality (VR) system were developed for use in space, and were verified at muG generated by parabolic flight (PF). A 36-year-old male subject performed HYB of reciprocal flexion and extension as a knee joint exercise training in a seated position at 1G, 2G and muG. The wearable HYB device and VR system developed for the study functioned well during the flight. However knee extension was insufficient at 1G and 2G, and the maximum knee extension angles at 1G and 2G were smaller than at muG. The extension velocity in the latter half of each motion was slower than in the first half at 1G and 2G, but no difference in velocity was observed at muG. The subject could extend the knee joint sufficiently and keep a constant extension velocity, because his legs were weightless at muG. The congruity between the subject's actual joint motions and instructed joint motions during muG was improved, when VR was employed with or without body fixation; accordingly, the subject was able to perform the desired joint motion. The VR system improved HYB exercise performance at muG during PF. HYB is considered a useful training method for future human space exploration. PMID:20046056

  12. Glucose ingestion blunts hormone-sensitive lipase activity in contracting human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Watt, Matthew J; Krustrup, Peter; Secher, Niels H; Saltin, Bengt; Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    To examine the effect of attenuated epinephrine and elevated insulin on intramuscular hormone sensitivity lipase activity (HSLa) during exercise, seven men performed 120 min of semirecumbent cycling (60% peak pulmonary oxygen uptake) on two occasions while ingesting either 250 ml of a 6.4% carbohydrate (GLU) or sweet placebo (CON) beverage at the onset of, and at 15 min intervals throughout, exercise. Muscle biopsies obtained before and immediately after exercise were analyzed for HSLa. Blood samples were simultaneously obtained from a brachial artery and a femoral vein before and during exercise, and leg blood flow was measured by thermodilution in the femoral vein. Net leg glycerol and lactate release and net leg glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) uptake were calculated from these measures. Insulin and epinephrine were also measured in arterial blood before and throughout exercise. During GLU, insulin was elevated (120 min: CON, 11.4 +/- 2.4, GLU, 35.3 +/- 6.9 pM, P < 0.05) and epinephrine suppressed (120 min: CON, 6.1 +/- 2.5, GLU, 2.1 +/- 0.9 nM; P < 0.05) compared with CON. Carbohydrate feeding also resulted in suppressed (P < 0.05) HSLa relative to CON (120 min: CON, 1.71 +/- 0.18, GLU, 1.27 +/- 0.16 mmol.min-1.kg dry mass-1). There were no differences in leg lactate or glycerol release when trials were compared, but leg FFA uptake was lower (120 min: CON, 0.29 +/- 0.06, GLU, 0.82 +/- 0.09 mmol/min) and leg glucose uptake higher (120 min: CON, 3.16 +/- 0.59, GLU, 1.37 +/- 0.37 mmol/min) in GLU compared with CON. These results demonstrate that circulating insulin and epinephrine play a role in HSLa in contracting skeletal muscle. PMID:14506077

  13. The effect of nitrate supplementation on muscle contraction in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hoon, Matthew W; Fornusek, Ché; Chapman, Phillip G; Johnson, Nathan A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of dietary supplementation with inorganic nitrate ([Formula: see text] ) on markers of contractile function in human knee extensors. In a double-blinded, randomized cross-over design, 18 (12 M) healthy participants undertook four days of supplementation with either nitrate-rich beetroot juice (NITRATE; days 1-3: 525 mg [Formula: see text], day 4: 1050 mg [Formula: see text]) or nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PLACEBO). On the fourth day, isometric knee extension force was assessed during a series of voluntary and electrically evoked (stimulation) tests. In addition, muscular fatigue was examined in two separate continuous-stimulation (0.8 s tetanus with a 1:1 work:rest ratio for 102.4 s) fatigue tests, one with and one without blood flow restriction. There were no differences for maximum voluntary contraction, peak twitch force, half-relaxation time and the force-frequency relationship for stimulations up to 100 Hz between the NITRATE and PLACEBO trials. No differences between trials were observed in the non-restricted fatigue test, however NITRATE was found to attenuate the decline in force during the restricted test, such that the force at the 80 s mark (PLACEBO: 66 ± 11 vs. NITRATE 74 ± 9% of initial force; P = .01) and 102 s mark (PLACEBO: 47 ± 8% vs. NITRATE 55 ± 8%; P < .01) were significantly higher. These results suggest that four days of [Formula: see text] supplementation elicits peripheral responses in muscle that attenuate muscular fatigue during exhaustive exercise under hypovolemic conditions. This ergogenic action is likely attributable to improved Ca(2+) handling in the muscle, or enhanced perfusion during ischemia. PMID:26681629

  14. Serratus Anterior and Lower Trapezius Muscle Activities During Multi-Joint Isotonic Scapular Exercises and Isometric Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruike, Masaaki; Ellenbecker, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Proper scapular function during humeral elevation, such as upward rotation, external rotation, and posterior tilting of the scapula, is necessary to prevent shoulder injury. However, the appropriate intensity of rehabilitation exercise for the periscapular muscles has yet to be clarified. Objective: To identify the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, infraspinatus, and posterior deltoid muscle activities during 2 free-motion exercises using 3 intensities and to compare these muscle activities with isometric contractions during quadruped shoulder flexion and external rotation and abduction of the glenohumeral joint. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Health Science Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 16 uninjured, healthy, active, male college students (age = 19.5 ± 1.2 years, height = 173.1 ± 6.5 cm, weight = 68.8 ± 6.6 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s): Mean electromyographic activity normalized by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction was analyzed across 3 intensities and 5 exercises. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for electromyographic activity of the 4 muscles in each free-motion exercise. Results: Significant interactions in electromyographic activity were observed between intensities and exercises (P < .05). The quadruped shoulder-flexion exercise activated all 4 muscles compared with other exercises. Also, the modified robbery free-motion exercise activated the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus compared with the lawn-mower free-motion exercise. However, neither exercise showed a difference in posterior deltoid electromyographic activity. Conclusions: Three intensities exposed the nature of the periscapular muscle activities across the different exercises. The free-motion exercise in periscapular muscle rehabilitation may not modify serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus muscle activities unless knee-joint extension is limited. PMID:25689561

  15. Transverse Strains in Muscle Fascicles during Voluntary Contraction: A 2D Frequency Decomposition of B-Mode Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    Wakeling, James M.

    2014-01-01

    When skeletal muscle fibres shorten, they must increase in their transverse dimensions in order to maintain a constant volume. In pennate muscle, this transverse expansion results in the fibres rotating to greater pennation angle, with a consequent reduction in their contractile velocity in a process known as gearing. Understanding the nature and extent of this transverse expansion is necessary to understand the mechanisms driving the changes in internal geometry of whole muscles during contraction. Current methodologies allow the fascicle lengths, orientations, and curvatures to be quantified, but not the transverse expansion. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate techniques for quantifying transverse strain in skeletal muscle fascicles during contraction from B-mode ultrasound images. Images were acquired from the medial and lateral gastrocnemii during cyclic contractions, enhanced using multiscale vessel enhancement filtering and the spatial frequencies resolved using 2D discrete Fourier transforms. The frequency information was resolved into the fascicle orientations that were validated against manually digitized values. The transverse fascicle strains were calculated from their wavelengths within the images. These methods showed that the transverse strain increases while the longitudinal fascicle length decreases; however, the extent of these strains was smaller than expected. PMID:25328509

  16. Intramuscular water movement during and after isometric muscle contraction: evaluation at different exercise intensities.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Osamu; Kurihara, Toshiyuki

    2016-09-01

    We aimed at evaluating the effect of isometric muscle contraction on intramuscular water movement at different exercise intensities. Seven men performed 1-min isometric ankle dorsiflexion (20% and 50% maximal voluntary contractions [MVCs]) with a non-magnetic custom-made dynamometer, inside a magnetic resonance (MR) device. Axial diffusion-weighted images were obtained before, during and at 1-20 min (1-min interval) after the exercise to calculate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the tibialis anterior. Under the same exercise condition, the concentration change of total haemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb) (total Hb/Mb) within the tibialis anterior was assessed by performing near-infrared spectroscopy before, during and after the exercise outside the MR device. The 20% MVC exercise significantly increased the ADC only at 1 min postexercise (P<0·01), whereas the ADC significantly increased during and at 2-20 min after the 50% MVC exercise (P<0·01). The 20% MVC exercise decreased the total Hb/Mb during exercise (P<0·01), but the value significantly increased at 1 min postexercise (P<0·01). The total Hb/Mb significantly decreased during the 50% MVC exercise, but significantly increased at 1-5 min postexercise (P<0·01). One-minute moderate-intensity isometric exercise activates intramuscular water movement during and after the exercise. This activation was found even after a low-intensity exercise, but the effect was small and did not last long. The effect of intramuscular hyperaemia on the postexercise ADC elevation may be limited to the very early period after low- to moderate-intensity exercises. PMID:26147530

  17. Effect of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus Flavonoid on the Contraction of Isolated Gastric Smooth Muscle Strips in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peicai; Wang, Yueqi

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of Aurantii fructus immaturus flavonoid (AFIF) on the contraction of isolated gastric smooth muscle in rats and explore its underlying mechanisms. Isolated antral longitudinal smooth muscle strip (ALSMS) and pyloric circular smooth muscle strip (PCSMS) of rats were suspended in tissue chambers. The responses of ALSMS and PCSMS to administration of AFIF were observed. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and protein kinase G (PKG) levels of PCSMS were measured by ELISA kits. In this study, AFIF showed no significant effect on ALSMS contraction, but it dose-dependently reduced the mean contraction amplitude of PCSMS. When the concentration of AFIF reached 3000 μg/mL, 6000 μg/mL, and 10000 μg/mL, its inhibitory effect on PCSMS contraction was significant. This effect of AFIF was weakened in Ca2+-rich environment. And Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl (L-NAME), the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), significantly inhibited AFIF's action in comparison with control (P < 0.05). After incubation with AFIF for 30 min, levels of cGMP and PKG in PCSMS were significantly increased compared with control (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that AFIF has a dose-dependent diastolic effect on PCSMS in rats, which may be related to the regulatory pathway of NO/cGMP/PKG/Ca2+. PMID:27429637

  18. Enhanced Glycogen Storage of a Subcellular Hot Spot in Human Skeletal Muscle during Early Recovery from Eccentric Contractions.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Joachim; Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo; Vissing, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise is accompanied by muscle damage and impaired glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis during subsequent recovery. Recently, it was shown that the role and regulation of glycogen in skeletal muscle are dependent on its subcellular localization, and that glycogen synthesis, as described by the product of glycogen particle size and number, is dependent on the time course of recovery after exercise and carbohydrate availability. In the present study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of glycogen in fibers with high (type I) and low (type II) mitochondrial content during post-exercise recovery from eccentric contractions. Analysis was completed on five male subjects performing an exercise bout consisting of 15 x 10 maximal eccentric contractions. Carbohydrate-rich drinks were subsequently ingested throughout a 48 h recovery period and muscle biopsies for analysis included time points 3, 24 and 48 h post exercise from the exercising leg, whereas biopsies corresponding to prior to and at 48 h after the exercise bout were collected from the non-exercising, control leg. Quantitative imaging by transmission electron microscopy revealed an early (post 3 and 24 h) enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen (defined as glycogen particles located within the myofibrils) of type I fibers, which was associated with an increase in the number of particles. In contrast, late in recovery (post 48 h), intermyofibrillar, intramyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal glycogen in both type I and II fibers were lower in the exercise leg compared with the control leg, and this was associated with a smaller size of the glycogen particles. We conclude that in the carbohydrate-supplemented state, the effect of eccentric contractions on glycogen metabolism depends on the subcellular localization, muscle fiber's oxidative capacity, and the time course of recovery. The early enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen after the eccentric contractions may

  19. Skeletal myofiber VEGF regulates contraction-induced perfusion and exercise capacity but not muscle capillarity in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Amy E; Goldberg, Daniel; Delavar, Hamid; Trisko, Breanna M; Tang, Kechun; Hogan, Michael C; Wagner, Peter D; Breen, Ellen C

    2016-07-01

    A single bout of exhaustive exercise signals expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the exercising muscle. Previous studies have reported that mice with life-long deletion of skeletal myofiber VEGF have fewer capillaries and a severe reduction in endurance exercise. However, in adult mice, VEGF gene deletion conditionally targeted to skeletal myofibers limits exercise capacity without evidence of capillary regression. To explain this, we hypothesized that adult skeletal myofiber VEGF acutely regulates skeletal muscle perfusion during muscle contraction. A tamoxifen-inducible skeletal myofiber-specific VEGF gene deletion mouse (skmVEGF-/-) was used to reduce skeletal muscle VEGF protein by 90% in adult mice. Three weeks after inducing deletion of the skeletal myofiber VEGF gene, skmVEGF-/- mice exhibited diminished maximum running speed (-10%, P < 0.05) and endurance capacity (-47%; P < 0.05), which did not persist after 8 wk. In skmVEGF-/- mice, gastrocnemius complex time to fatigue measured in situ was 71% lower than control mice. Contraction-induced perfusion measured by optical imaging during a period of electrically stimulated muscle contraction was 85% lower in skmVEGF-/- than control mice. No evidence of capillary rarefication was detected in the soleus, gastrocnemius, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) up to 8 wk after tamoxifen-induced VEGF ablation, and contractility and fatigue resistance of the soleus measured ex vivo were also unchanged. The force-frequency of the EDL showed a small right shift, but fatigue resistance did not differ between EDL from control and skmVEGF-/- mice. These data suggest myofiber VEGF is required for regulating perfusion during periods of contraction and may in this manner affect endurance capacity. PMID:27225953

  20. Enhanced Glycogen Storage of a Subcellular Hot Spot in Human Skeletal Muscle during Early Recovery from Eccentric Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Joachim; Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo; Vissing, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise is accompanied by muscle damage and impaired glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis during subsequent recovery. Recently, it was shown that the role and regulation of glycogen in skeletal muscle are dependent on its subcellular localization, and that glycogen synthesis, as described by the product of glycogen particle size and number, is dependent on the time course of recovery after exercise and carbohydrate availability. In the present study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of glycogen in fibers with high (type I) and low (type II) mitochondrial content during post-exercise recovery from eccentric contractions. Analysis was completed on five male subjects performing an exercise bout consisting of 15 x 10 maximal eccentric contractions. Carbohydrate-rich drinks were subsequently ingested throughout a 48 h recovery period and muscle biopsies for analysis included time points 3, 24 and 48 h post exercise from the exercising leg, whereas biopsies corresponding to prior to and at 48 h after the exercise bout were collected from the non-exercising, control leg. Quantitative imaging by transmission electron microscopy revealed an early (post 3 and 24 h) enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen (defined as glycogen particles located within the myofibrils) of type I fibers, which was associated with an increase in the number of particles. In contrast, late in recovery (post 48 h), intermyofibrillar, intramyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal glycogen in both type I and II fibers were lower in the exercise leg compared with the control leg, and this was associated with a smaller size of the glycogen particles. We conclude that in the carbohydrate-supplemented state, the effect of eccentric contractions on glycogen metabolism depends on the subcellular localization, muscle fiber’s oxidative capacity, and the time course of recovery. The early enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen after the eccentric contractions may

  1. Effects of disopyramide on detrusor muscle contraction: in vitro experiment and report of 3 cases with disopyramide-induced urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, M; Kato, K; Saito, M; Kondo, A

    1987-01-01

    Three cases of disopyramide-induced urinary retention were reported and effects of disopyramide on agonist-induced contraction of detrusor muscle were studied in vitro. Muscle strips were obtained from rabbit bladder body and changes in isometric contraction of the strips were monitored. Acetylcholine, prostaglandin F2-alpha, potassium chloride, barium chloride, adenosine triphosphate and Ca2+ were used as agonists for detrusor muscle contraction. Disopyramide relaxed the contraction elicited by acetylcholine in normal Krebs solution, but exhibited no relaxing effect on contractions induced by prostaglandin F2-alpha, potassium chloride, barium chloride and adenosine triphosphate. In Ca2+-free Krebs solution, basal tension of the strips declined and spontaneous contractile activity was eliminated. Replenishment of 3 mM Ca2+ induced a slow contraction and redevelopment of spontaneous contraction of the strips. Pretreatment of the strips with disopyramide had no inhibitory effect on the Ca2+-induced contraction or on the spontaneous contractile activity in Ca2+-free solution. In normal Krebs solution, acetylcholine (10(-9)-10(-2)M) caused dose-dependent contractions of the detrusor muscle strips. Pretreatment of the strips with disopyramide (10(-5)-10(-3)M) dose-dependently inhibited the acetylcholine-induced contraction in a competitive way. The inhibitory effect of disopyramide on acetylcholine-induced contraction was less potent than that of atropine. We conclude that disopyramide may inhibit detrusor contractile activity mostly by its anticholinergic effect, resulting clinically in micturition disturbance. PMID:3482338

  2. Definite differences between in vitro actin-myosin sliding and muscle contraction as revealed using antibodies to myosin head.

    PubMed

    Sugi, Haruo; Chaen, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Takakazu; Abe, Takahiro; Kimura, Kazushige; Saeki, Yasutake; Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2014-01-01

    Muscle contraction results from attachment-detachment cycles between myosin heads extending from myosin filaments and actin filaments. It is generally believed that a myosin head first attaches to actin, undergoes conformational changes to produce force and motion in muscle, and then detaches from actin. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanism of myosin head conformational changes still remains to be a matter for debate and speculation. The myosin head consists of catalytic (CAD), converter (CVD) and lever arm (LD) domains. To give information about the role of these domains in the myosin head performance, we have examined the effect of three site-directed antibodies to the myosin head on in vitro ATP-dependent actin-myosin sliding and Ca2+-activated contraction of muscle fibers. Antibody 1, attaching to junctional peptide between 50K and 20K heavy chain segments in the CAD, exhibited appreciable effects neither on in vitro actin-myosin sliding nor muscle fiber contraction. Since antibody 1 covers actin-binding sites of the CAD, one interpretation of this result is that rigor actin-myosin linkage is absent or at most a transient intermediate in physiological actin-myosin cycling. Antibody 2, attaching to reactive lysine residue in the CVD, showed a marked inhibitory effect on in vitro actin-myosin sliding without changing actin-activated myosin head (S1) ATPase activity, while it showed no appreciable effect on muscle contraction. Antibody 3, attaching to two peptides of regulatory light chains in the LD, had no significant effect on in vitro actin-myosin sliding, while it reduced force development in muscle fibers without changing MgATPase activity. The above definite differences in the effect of antibodies 2 and 3 between in vitro actin-myosin sliding and muscle contraction can be explained by difference in experimental conditions; in the former, myosin heads are randomly oriented on a glass surface, while in the latter myosin heads are regularly

  3. Proctolin in the innervation of the locust mandibular closer muscle modulates contractions through the elevation of inositol trisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Baines, R A; Lange, A B; Downer, R G

    1990-07-22

    Extracts of the locust (Locusta migratoria) mandibular closer muscle separated on reverse-phase HPLC and tested for bio-activity on the locust oviduct contain a bio-active substance that coelutes with authentic proctolin. Furthermore, the effect on oviduct contractions of this compound is indistinguishable from that of authentic proctolin. Antiserum to proctolin stains numerous axons with beaded endings that run along the fibres of the closer muscles and, in addition, the antiserum stains a number of cell bodies in the suboesophageal ganglion, some of which have axons in the mandibular nerve that innervates the mandibular musculature. The function of proctolin appears to be modulatory as its presence significantly increases the amplitude of neurally evoked contractions of the closer muscle. This effect can be mimicked by the addition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) to preparations in which the muscles have been permeabilized with dimethyl sulfoxide. The involvement of this second messenger is further implicated as we also show that proctolin produces a large, significant increase in the IP3 content of homogenized muscle. PMID:1974556

  4. The effect of phenylglyoxal on contraction and intramembrane charge movement in frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Etter, E F

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of the arginine-specific protein-modifying reagent, phenylglyoxal, on contraction and intramembrane charge movement were studied in cut single fibres from frog skeletal muscle, using the double-Vaseline-gap voltage clamp technique. 2. The strength-duration curve for pulses which produced microscopically just-detectable contractions was shifted to more positive potentials and longer durations following treatment of fibres with phenylglyoxal. Caffeine-induced contractures were not blocked. 3. The amount of charge moved by large depolarizing pulses from -100 mV holding potential (charge 1) declined during the phenylglyoxal treatment with a single-exponential time course (tau = 7 min). Linear capacitance did not change significantly over the entire experiment. Inhibition of charge movement was predominantly irreversible. 4. Slow bumps (Q gamma) observed in charge movement current transients recorded before phenylglyoxal treatment, using either large test pulses or small steps superimposed on test pulses, were absent from currents recorded after treatment. The current removed by phenylglyoxal contained the bump (Q gamma) and a small fast transient (Q beta). 5. The amount of charge moved by large depolarizing pulses from -100 mV was reduced 20-50% following phenylglyoxal treatment. Charge moved by pulses to potentials more negative than -40 mV was relatively unaffected. The magnitude and voltage range of this inhibitory effect were the same whether the reagent was applied at -100 mV or at 0 mV holding potential. 6. A phenylglyoxal-sensitive component of charge was isolated which had a much steeper voltage dependence than the total charge movement or the charge remaining after treatment. 7. Charge recorded during hyperpolarizing pulses from 0 mV holding potential (charge 2) was reduced very little (less than 5%) at any potential by phenylglyoxal treatments at either 0 or -100 mV. 8. The phenylglyoxal reaction with charge 2 was kinetically different from the

  5. Can fast-twitch muscle fibres be selectively recruited during lengthening contractions? Review and applications to sport movements.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Gordon R

    2008-01-01

    Literature examining the recruitment order of motor units during lengthening (eccentric) contractions was reviewed to determine if fast-twitch motor units can be active while lower threshold slow-twitch motor units are not active. Studies utilizing surface electromyogram (EMG) amplitude, single motor unit activity, spike amplitude-frequency analyses, EMG power spectrum, mechanomyographic, and phosphocreatine-to-creatine ratio (PCr/Cr) techniques were reviewed. Only single motor unit and PCr/Cr data were found to be suitable to address the goals of this review. Nine of ten single motor unit studies, examining joint movement velocities up to 225 degrees/s and forces up to 53% of a maximum voluntary contraction, found that the size principle of motor unit recruitment applied during lengthening contractions. Deviation from the size principle was demonstrated by one study examining movements within a small range of low velocities and modest forces, although other studies examining similar low forces and lengthening velocities reported size-ordered recruitment. The PCr/Cr data demonstrated the activation of all fibre types in lengthening maximal contractions. Most evidence indicates that for lengthening contractions of a wide range of efforts and speeds, fast-twitch muscle fibres cannot be selectively recruited without activity of the slow-twitch fibres of the same muscle. PMID:18341141

  6. Effects of age on muscarinic agonist-induced contraction an IP accumulation in airway smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Wills-Karp, M. )

    1991-01-01

    The effects of age on carbachol-stimulated force development and ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphate production was studied in tracheal rings from guinea pigs aged 1 month and 25 months of age. The pD{sub 2} for the contractile response to carbachol was significantly reduced in tracheal tissues from old animals as compared to that of the young tissues, respectively. In contrast, inositol phosphate formation was not altered with increasing age when stimulated by carbachol or NaF, a direct activator of G proteins. Carbachol-induced inositol phosphate accumulation was inhibited by treatment with 1{mu}g/ml pertussis toxin, suggesting that IP1 accumulation is coupled to a pertussis-toxin-sensitive protein. The pD{sub 2} values for contraction were significantly different from the pD{sub 2} values for IP1 accumulation, in both young and old tissues, respectively. These data suggest that IP1 accumulation is not responsible for the decreased contractile ability in tracheal smooth muscle during aging.

  7. The ACB technique: a biomagentic tool for monitoring gastrointestinal contraction directly from smooth muscle in dogs.

    PubMed

    Américo, Madileine F; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Corá, Luciana A; Marques, Rozemeire G; Romeiro, Fernando G; Andreis, Uilian; Miranda, José Ricardo A

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to verify whether AC biosusceptometry (ACB) is suitable for monitoring gastrointestinal (GI) contraction directly from smooth muscle in dogs, comparing with electrical recordings simultaneously. All experiments were performed in dogs with magnetic markers implanted under the serosa of the right colon and distal stomach, and their movements were recorded by ACB. Monopolar electrodes were implanted close to the magnetic markers and their electric potentials were recorded by electromyography (EMG). The effects of neostigmine, hyoscine butylbromide and meal on gastric and colonic parameters were studied. The ACB signal from the distal stomach was very similar to EMG; in the colonic recordings, however, within the same low-frequency band, ACB and EMG signals were characterized by simultaneity or a widely changeable frequency profile with time. ACB recordings were capable of demonstrating the changes in gastric and colonic motility determined by pharmacological interventions as well as by feeding. Our results reinforce the importance of evaluating the mechanical and electrical components of motility and show a temporal association between them. ACB and EMG are complementary for studying motility, with special emphasis on the colon. ACB offers an accurate method for monitoring in vivo GI motility. PMID:20009185

  8. Recent X-ray diffraction studies of muscle contraction and their implications.

    PubMed Central

    Huxley, Hugh E

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies on the interference fringes in the myosin meridional reflections provide a new source of structural information on cross-bridge movement during mechanical transients and steady shortening. Many observations can be interpreted satisfactorily by the tilting lever-arm model, with some assumptions, including the presence of fixed repeating structures contributing to the M3 and higher-order meridional reflections. In isometric contraction, the lever arms are oriented near the start of the working stroke, with a dispersion of ca+/-20-25 degrees . Upon a rapid release of 10-12 nm, they move to the end of the stroke, with a well-known T2 delay of 1-2 ms. This delay must represent additional processes, which have to occur even in tension-generating heads, or activation of attached heads, which initially do not develop force. Surprisingly, in muscles shortening at moderate loads (0.5-0.6 P0), the mean position of the heads moves only 2-3 nm closer to the M-line than in the isometric case, reminiscent of the Piazzesi-Lombardi model. PMID:15647163

  9. Remarks on Muscle Contraction Mechanism II. Isometric Tension Transient and Isotonic Velocity Transient

    PubMed Central

    Mitsui, Toshio; Takai, Nobukatsu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Mitsui and Ohshima (2008) criticized the power-stroke model for muscle contraction and proposed a new model. In the new model, about 41% of the myosin heads are bound to actin filaments, and each bound head forms a complex MA3 with three actin molecules A1, A2 and A3 forming the crossbridge. The complex translates along the actin filament cooperating with each other. The new model well explained the experimental data on the steady filament sliding. As an extension of the study, the isometric tension transient and isotonic velocity transient are investigated. Statistical ensemble of crossbridges is introduced, and variation of the binding probability of myosin head to A1 is considered. When the binding probability to A1 is zero, the Hill-type force-velocity relation is resulted in. When the binding probability to A1 becomes finite, the deviation from the Hill-type force-velocity relation takes place, as observed by Edman (1988). The characteristics of the isometric tension transient observed by Ford, Huxley and Simmons (1977) and of the isotonic velocity transient observed by Civan and Podolsky (1966) are theoretically reproduced. Ratios of the extensibility are estimated as 0.22 for the crossbridge, 0.26 for the myosin filament and 0.52 for the actin filament, in consistency with the values determined by X-ray diffraction by Wakabayashi et al. (1994). PMID:21673917

  10. Skeletal muscle fiber type composition and performance during repeated bouts of maximal, concentric contractions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, E. B.; Dudley, G. A.; Tesch, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Force output and fatigue and recovery patterns were studied during intermittent short-term exercise. 27 men performed three bouts of 30 maximal unilateral knee extensions on 2 different occasions. Blood flow was maintained or occluded during recovery periods (60 s). Blood flow was restricted by inflating a pneumatic cuff placed around the proximal thigh. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis were analyzed for identification of fast twitch (FT) and slow twitch (ST) fibers and relative FT area. Peak torque decreased during each bout of exercise and more when blood flow was restricted during recovery. Initial peak torque (IPT) and average peak torque (APT) decreased over the three exercise bouts. This response was 3 fold greater without than with blood flow during recovery. IPT and APT decreased more in individuals with mainly FT fibers than in those with mainly ST fibers. It is suggested that performance during repeated bouts of maximal concentric contractions differs between individuals with different fiber type composition. Specifically, in high intensity, intermittent exercise with emphasis on anaerobic energy release a high FT composition may not necessarily be advantageous for performance.

  11. Mechanism underlying H2O2-induced inhibition of acetylcholine-induced contraction in rabbit tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Saito, Michihiro; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Itoh, Takeo

    2007-02-28

    The mechanism underlying the inhibition by H2O2 of acetylcholine-induced contraction was investigated in epithelium-denuded strips of rabbit trachea. Acetylcholine (10 microM) generated a phasic, followed by a tonic increase in both the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and force. Although the acetylcholine-induced tonic contraction was around 9 times the high K+ (80 mM)-induced one, the two stimulants induced similar [Ca2+]i increases (around 0.2 microM), indicating that acetylcholine generates tonic contraction via increases in both [Ca2+]i and myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity. H2O2 (30 microM) (a) enhanced the acetylcholine-induced tonic (not phasic) increase in [Ca2+]i but attenuated both phases of the acetylcholine-induced contraction and (b) enhanced the high K+-induced increase in [Ca2+]i but did not modify the high K+-induced contraction. In beta-escin-skinned strips, application of acetylcholine in the presence of GTP enhanced the contraction induced by 0.3 microM Ca2+ so that its amplitude became similar to that induced by 1 microM Ca2+. H2O2 (30 microM) attenuated the contraction induced by 0.3 microM Ca2+ (alone or in the presence of acetylcholine) but not those induced by higher concentrations of Ca2+ alone (0.5 microM and 1 microM). These results indicate that H2O2 acts directly on contractile proteins in rabbit tracheal smooth muscle to inhibit the contraction induced by low concentrations of Ca2+ (<0.5 microM). An action of H2O2 that increases [Ca2+]i (and thereby masks this reactive-oxygen-induced inhibition of myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity) is apparent in the presence of high K+ but not of acetylcholine. Thus, in rabbit tracheal smooth muscle H2O2 downregulates myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity more potently during acetylcholine-induced contraction than during high-K+-induced contraction, leading to an effective inhibition of the former contraction. PMID:17188263

  12. A General Mathematical Algorithm for Predicting the Course of Unfused Tetanic Contractions of Motor Units in Rat Muscle.

    PubMed

    Raikova, Rositsa; Krutki, Piotr; Celichowski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An unfused tetanus of a motor unit (MU) evoked by a train of pulses at variable interpulse intervals is the sum of non-equal twitch-like responses to these stimuli. A tool for a precise prediction of these successive contractions for MUs of different physiological types with different contractile properties is crucial for modeling the whole muscle behavior during various types of activity. The aim of this paper is to develop such a general mathematical algorithm for the MUs of the medial gastrocnemius muscle of rats. For this purpose, tetanic curves recorded for 30 MUs (10 slow, 10 fast fatigue-resistant and 10 fast fatigable) were mathematically decomposed into twitch-like contractions. Each contraction was modeled by the previously proposed 6-parameter analytical function, and the analysis of these six parameters allowed us to develop a prediction algorithm based on the following input data: parameters of the initial twitch, the maximum force of a MU and the series of pulses. Linear relationship was found between the normalized amplitudes of the successive contractions and the remainder between the actual force levels at which the contraction started and the maximum tetanic force. The normalization was made according to the amplitude of the first decomposed twitch. However, the respective approximation lines had different specific angles with respect to the ordinate. These angles had different and non-overlapping ranges for slow and fast MUs. A sensitivity analysis concerning this slope was performed and the dependence between the angles and the maximal fused tetanic force normalized to the amplitude of the first contraction was approximated by a power function. The normalized MU contraction and half-relaxation times were approximated by linear functions depending on the normalized actual force levels at which each contraction starts. The normalization was made according to the contraction time of the first contraction. The actual force levels were calculated

  13. Sciatic Nerve Palsy Caused by Ruptured and Contracted Short External Rotator Muscles after Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Seok; Hong, Chang-Hwa; Soh, Jae-Wan; Nho, Jae-Hwi; Suh, You-Sung; Lee, Hwan-Woong

    2015-01-01

    Although the incidence of sciatic nerve palsy following total hip arthroplasty is low, this complication can cause devastating permanent nerve palsy. The authors experienced a case of sciatic nerve palsy caused by ruptured and contracted external rotator muscles following total hip arthroplasty in a patient suffering from osteonecrosis of the femoral head. We report this unusual case of sciatic nerve palsy with a review of the literature.

  14. Repeatability of Corticospinal and Spinal Measures during Lengthening and Shortening Contractions in the Human Tibialis Anterior Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tallent, Jamie; Goodall, Stuart; Hortobágyi, Tibor; St Clair Gibson, Alan; French, Duncan N.; Howatson, Glyn

    2012-01-01

    Elements of the human central nervous system (CNS) constantly oscillate. In addition, there are also methodological factors and changes in muscle mechanics during dynamic muscle contractions that threaten the stability and consistency of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and perpherial nerve stimulation (PNS) measures. Purpose To determine the repeatability of TMS and PNS measures during lengthening and shortening muscle actions in the intact human tibialis anterior. Methods On three consecutive days, 20 males performed lengthening and shortening muscle actions at 15, 25, 50 and 80% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The amplitude of the Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) produced by TMS was measured at rest and during muscle contraction at 90° of ankle joint position. MEPs were normalised to Mmax determined with PNS. The corticospinal silent period was recorded at 80% MVC. Hoffman reflex (H-reflex) at 10% isometric and 25% shortening and lengthening MVCs, and V-waves during MVCs were also evoked on each of the three days. Results With the exception of MEPs evoked at 80% shortening MVC, all TMS-derived measures showed good reliability (ICC = 0.81–0.94) from days 2 to 3. Confidence intervals (CI, 95%) were lower between days 2 and 3 when compared to days 1 and 2. MEPs significantly increased at rest from days 1 to 2 (P = 0.016) and days 1 to 3 (P = 0.046). The H-reflex during dynamic muscle contraction was reliable across the three days (ICC = 0.76–0.84). V-waves (shortening, ICC = 0.77, lengthening ICC = 0.54) and the H-reflex at 10% isometric MVC (ICC = 0.66) was generally less reliable over the three days. Conclusion Although it is well known that measures of the intact human CNS exhibit moment-to-moment fluctuations, careful experimental arrangements make it possible to obtain consistent and repeatable measurements of corticospinal and spinal excitability in the actively lengthening and shortening human TA muscle. PMID

  15. Fiber type effects on contraction-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 abundance in single fibers from rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Castorena, Carlos M.; Arias, Edward B.; Sharma, Naveen; Bogan, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    To fully understand skeletal muscle at the cellular level, it is essential to evaluate single muscle fibers. Accordingly, the major goals of this study were to determine if there are fiber type-related differences in single fibers from rat skeletal muscle for: 1) contraction-stimulated glucose uptake and/or 2) the abundance of GLUT4 and other metabolically relevant proteins. Paired epitrochlearis muscles isolated from Wistar rats were either electrically stimulated to contract (E-Stim) or remained resting (No E-Stim). Single fibers isolated from muscles incubated with 2-deoxy-d-[3H]glucose (2-DG) were used to determine fiber type [myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform protein expression], 2-DG uptake, and abundance of metabolically relevant proteins, including the GLUT4 glucose transporter. E-Stim, relative to No E-Stim, fibers had greater (P < 0.05) 2-DG uptake for each of the isolated fiber types (MHC-IIa, MHC-IIax, MHC-IIx, MHC-IIxb, and MHC-IIb). However, 2-DG uptake for E-Stim fibers was not significantly different among these five fiber types. GLUT4, tethering protein containing a UBX domain for GLUT4 (TUG), cytochrome c oxidase IV (COX IV), and filamin C protein levels were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in MHC-IIa vs. MHC-IIx, MHC-IIxb, or MHC-IIb fibers. TUG and COX IV in either MHC-IIax or MHC-IIx fibers exceeded values for MHC-IIxb or MHC-IIb fibers. GLUT4 levels for MHC-IIax fibers exceeded MHC-IIxb fibers. GLUT4, COX IV, filamin C, and TUG abundance in single fibers was significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with each other. Differences in GLUT4 abundance among the fiber types were not accompanied by significant differences in contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. PMID:25491725

  16. Combined effects of body composition and ageing on joint torque, muscle activation and co-contraction in sedentary women.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, G L

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to establish the interplay between body mass, adiposity, ageing and determinants of skeletal muscle strength. One hundred and two untrained healthy women categorised by age into young (Y) (mean ± SD, 26.7 ± 9.4 years) vs. old (O) (65.1 ± 7.2 years) were assessed for body fat, lean mass, plantar flexion and dorsiflexion maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque, muscle activation capacity and antagonist muscle co-contraction. MVC torque normalised to body mass in the obese group was 35 and 29 % lower (p < 0.05) in Y and 34 and 31 % lower (p < 0.05) in O, compared with underweight and normal weight individuals, respectively. Y with ≥40 % body fat had significantly lower activation than Y with <40 % body fat (88.3 vs. 94.4 %, p < 0.05), but O did not exhibit this effect. Co-contraction was affected by ageing (16.1 % in O vs. 13.8 % in Y, p < 0.05) but not body composition. There were significant associations between markers of body composition, age, strength and activation capacity, with the strongest correlation between muscle strength and total body mass (r (2) = 0.508 in Y, p < 0.001, vs. r (2) = 0.204 in O, p < 0.01). Furthermore, the age-related loss in plantar flexion (PF) MVC torque was exacerbated in obese compared to underweight, normal weight and overweight individuals (-0.96 vs. -0.54, -0.57 and -0.57 % per year, p < 0.05). The negative impact of adiposity on muscle performance is associated with not only muscular but also neural factors. Overall, the effects of ageing and obesity on this system are somewhat cumulative. PMID:24744050

  17. The structure of Ca(2+) release units in arthropod body muscle indicates an indirect mechanism for excitation-contraction coupling.

    PubMed Central

    Takekura, Hiroaki; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara

    2002-01-01

    The relative disposition of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and L-type Ca(2+) channels was examined in body muscles from three arthropods. In all muscles the disposition of ryanodine receptors in the junctional gap between apposed SR and T tubule elements is highly ordered. By contrast, the junctional membrane of the T tubule is occupied by distinctive large particles that are clustered within the small junctional domain, but show no order in their arrangement. We propose that the large particles of the junctional T tubules represent L-type Ca(2+) channels involved in excitation-contraction (e-c) coupling, based on their similarity in size and location with the L-type Ca(2+) channels or dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) of skeletal and cardiac muscle. The random arrangement of DHPRs in arthropod body muscles indicates that there is no close link between them and RyRs. This matches the architecture of vertebrate cardiac muscle and is in keeping with the similarity in e-c coupling mechanisms in cardiac and invertebrate striated muscles. PMID:12414707

  18. Phosphoinositides in Ca(2+) signaling and excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle: an old player and newcomers.

    PubMed

    Csernoch, Laszlo; Jacquemond, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Since the postulate, 30 years ago, that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P 2) as the precursor of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P 3) would be critical for skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, the issue of whether phosphoinositides (PtdInsPs) may have something to do with Ca(2+) signaling in muscle raised limited interest, if any. In recent years however, the PtdInsP world has expanded considerably with new functions for PtdIns(4,5)P 2 but also with functions for the other members of the PtdInsP family. In this context, the discovery that genetic deficiency in a PtdInsP phosphatase has dramatic consequences on Ca(2+) homeostasis in skeletal muscle came unanticipated and opened up new perspectives in regards to how PtdInsPs modulate muscle Ca(2+) signaling under normal and disease conditions. This review intends to make an update of the established, the questioned, and the unknown regarding the role of PtdInsPs in skeletal muscle Ca(2+) homeostasis and EC coupling, with very specific emphasis given to Ca(2+) signals in differentiated skeletal muscle fibers. PMID:26377756

  19. Protective effect by maximal isometric contractions against maximal eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage of the knee extensors.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuo-Wei; Tseng, Wei-Chin; Lin, Ming-Ju; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Nosaka, Kazunori; Chen, Trevor C

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) performed before maximal eccentric contractions (MaxEC) would attenuate muscle damage of the knee extensors. Untrained men were placed to an experimental group that performed 6 sets of 10 MVIC at 90° knee flexion 2 weeks before 6 sets of 10 MaxEC or a control group that performed MaxEC only (n = 13/group). Changes in muscle damage markers were assessed before to 5 days after each exercise. Small but significant changes in maximal voluntary concentric contraction torque, range of motion (ROM) and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were evident at immediately to 2 days post-MVIC (p < 0.05), but other variables (e.g. thigh girth, myoglobin concentration, B-mode echo intensity) did not change significantly. Changes in all variables after MaxEC were smaller (p < 0.05) by 45% (soreness)-67% (CK) for the experimental than the control group. These results suggest that MVIC conferred potent protective effect against MaxEC-induced muscle damage. PMID:27366814

  20. The Efficacy of Functional Electrical Stimulation of the Abdominal Muscles in the Treatment of Chronic Constipation in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Peace, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Chronic constipation in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is common and the current methods of treatment are ineffective in some patients. Anecdotal observations suggest that functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the abdominal muscles may be effective in the management of constipation in these patients. Patients and Methods. In this exploratory investigation we studied the effects of FES on the whole gut transit time (WGTT) and the colonic transit time (CTT). In addition, we evaluated the treatment effect on the patients' constipation-related quality of life and on the use of laxatives and the use of manual bowel evacuation. FES was given for 30 minutes twice a day for a period of six weeks. Four female patients were studied. Results. The WGTT and CTT and constipation-related quality of life improved in all patients. The patients' use of laxatives was reduced. No adverse effects of FES treatment were reported. Conclusion. The findings of this pilot study suggest that FES applied to the abdominal muscles may be an effective treatment modality for severe chronic constipation in patients with MS. PMID:27200190

  1. Rem uncouples excitation–contraction coupling in adult skeletal muscle fibers

    PubMed Central

    Beqollari, Donald; Romberg, Christin F.; Filipova, Dilyana; Meza, Ulises; Papadopoulos, Symeon

    2015-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, excitation–contraction (EC) coupling requires depolarization-induced conformational rearrangements in L-type Ca2+ channel (CaV1.1) to be communicated to the type 1 ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channel (RYR1) of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via transient protein–protein interactions. Although the molecular mechanism that underlies conformational coupling between CaV1.1 and RYR1 has been investigated intensely for more than 25 years, the question of whether such signaling occurs via a direct interaction between the principal, voltage-sensing α1S subunit of CaV1.1 and RYR1 or through an intermediary protein persists. A substantial body of evidence supports the idea that the auxiliary β1a subunit of CaV1.1 is a conduit for this intermolecular communication. However, a direct role for β1a has been difficult to test because β1a serves two other functions that are prerequisite for conformational coupling between CaV1.1 and RYR1. Specifically, β1a promotes efficient membrane expression of CaV1.1 and facilitates the tetradic ultrastructural arrangement of CaV1.1 channels within plasma membrane–SR junctions. In this paper, we demonstrate that overexpression of the RGK protein Rem, an established β subunit–interacting protein, in adult mouse flexor digitorum brevis fibers markedly reduces voltage-induced myoplasmic Ca2+ transients without greatly affecting CaV1.1 targeting, intramembrane gating charge movement, or releasable SR Ca2+ store content. In contrast, a β1a-binding–deficient Rem triple mutant (R200A/L227A/H229A) has little effect on myoplasmic Ca2+ release in response to membrane depolarization. Thus, Rem effectively uncouples the voltage sensors of CaV1.1 from RYR1-mediated SR Ca2+ release via its ability to interact with β1a. Our findings reveal Rem-expressing adult muscle as an experimental system that may prove useful in the definition of the precise role of the β1a subunit in skeletal-type EC coupling. PMID:26078055

  2. Caffeine-induced increase in voluntary activation and strength of the quadriceps muscle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Weippert, Matthias; Fuhrmann, Josefin; Wegner, Katharina; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of caffeine ingestion (8 mg/kg) on maximum voluntary torque (MVT) and voluntary activation of the quadriceps during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Fourteen subjects ingested caffeine and placebo in a randomized, controlled, counterbalanced, double-blind crossover design. Neuromuscular tests were performed before and 1 h after oral caffeine and placebo intake. MVTs were measured and the interpolated twitch technique was applied during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions to assess voluntary activation. Furthermore, normalized root mean square of the EMG signal was calculated and evoked spinal reflex responses (H-reflex evoked at rest and during weak isometric voluntary contraction) as well as twitch torques were analyzed. Caffeine increased MVT by 26.4 N m (95%CI: 9.3-43.5 N m, P = 0.004), 22.5 N m (95%CI: 3.1-42.0 N m, P = 0.025) and 22.5 N m (95%CI: 2.2-42.7 N m, P = 0.032) for isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Strength enhancements were associated with increases in voluntary activation. Explosive voluntary strength and voluntary activation at the onset of contraction were significantly increased following caffeine ingestion. Changes in spinal reflex responses and at the muscle level were not observed. Data suggest that caffeine ingestion induced an acute increase in voluntary activation that was responsible for the increased strength regardless of the contraction mode. PMID:25969895

  3. Influence of exercise contraction mode and protein supplementation on human skeletal muscle satellite cell content and muscle fiber growth

    PubMed Central

    Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Riis, Simon; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; de Paoli, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are involved in remodeling and hypertrophy processes of skeletal muscle. However, little knowledge exists on extrinsic factors that influence the content of SCs in skeletal muscle. In a comparative human study, we investigated the muscle fiber type-specific association between emergence of satellite cells (SCs), muscle growth, and remodeling in response to 12 wk unilateral resistance training performed as eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc) resistance training ± whey protein (Whey, 19.5 g protein + 19.5 g glucose) or placebo (Placebo, 39 g glucose) supplementation. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were analyzed for fiber type-specific SCs, myonuclei, and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA). Following training, SCs increased with Conc in both type I and type II fibers (P < 0.01) and exhibited a group difference from Ecc (P < 0.05), which did not increase. Myonuclei content in type I fibers increased in all groups (P < 0.01), while a specific accretion of myonuclei in type II fibers was observed in the Whey-Conc (P < 0.01) and Placebo-Ecc (P < 0.01) groups. Similarly, whereas type I fiber CSA increased independently of intervention (P < 0.001), type II fiber CSA increased exclusively with Whey-Conc (P < 0.01) and type II fiber hypertrophy correlated with whole muscle hypertrophy exclusively following Conc training (P < 0.01). In conclusion, isolated concentric knee extensor resistance training appears to constitute a stronger driver of SC content than eccentric resistance training while type II fiber hypertrophy was accentuated when combining concentric resistance training with whey protein supplementation. PMID:25103976

  4. Timing matters: tuning the mechanics of a muscle-tendon unit by adjusting stimulation phase during cyclic contractions.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Gregory S; Robertson, Benjamin D; Azizi, Emanuel; Roberts, Thomas J

    2015-10-01

    A growing body of research on the mechanics and energetics of terrestrial locomotion has demonstrated that elastic elements acting in series with contracting muscle are critical components of sustained, stable and efficient gait. Far fewer studies have examined how the nervous system modulates muscle-tendon interaction dynamics to optimize 'tuning' or meet varying locomotor demands. To explore the fundamental neuromechanical rules that govern the interactions between series elastic elements (SEEs) and contractile elements (CEs) within a compliant muscle-tendon unit (MTU), we used a novel work loop approach that included implanted sonomicrometry crystals along muscle fascicles. This enabled us to decouple CE and SEE length trajectories when cyclic strain patterns were applied to an isolated plantaris MTU from the bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus). Using this approach, we demonstrate that the onset timing of muscle stimulation (i.e. stimulation phase) that involves a symmetrical MTU stretch-shorten cycle during active force production results in net zero mechanical power output, and maximal decoupling of CE and MTU length trajectories. We found it difficult to 'tune' the muscle-tendon system for strut-like isometric force production by adjusting stimulation phase only, as the zero power output condition involved significant positive and negative mechanical work by the CE. A simple neural mechanism - adjusting muscle stimulation phase - could shift an MTU from performing net zero to net positive (energy producing) or net negative (energy absorbing) mechanical work under conditions of changing locomotor demand. Finally, we show that modifications to the classical work loop paradigm better represent in vivo muscle-tendon function during locomotion. PMID:26232413

  5. Indirect coupling of phosphate release to de novo tension generation during muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Davis, J S; Rodgers, M E

    1995-11-01

    A key question in muscle contraction is how tension generation is coupled to the chemistry of the actomyosin ATPase. Biochemical and mechanochemical experiments link tension generation to a change in structure associated with phosphate release. Length-jump and temperature-jump experiments, on the other hand, implicate phase 2slow, a significantly faster, markedly strain-sensitive kinetic process in tension generation. We use a laser temperature jump to probe the kinetics and mechanism of tension generation in skinned rabbit psoas fibers--an appropriate method since both phosphate release and phase 2slow are readily perturbed by temperature. Kinetics characteristic of the structural change associated with phosphate release are observed only when phosphate is added to fibers. When present, it causes a reduction in fiber tension; otherwise, no force is generated when it is perturbed. We therefore exclude this step from tension generation. The kinetics of de novo tension generation by the temperature-jump equivalent of phase 2slow appear unaffected by phosphate binding. We therefore propose that phosphate release is indirectly coupled to de novo tension generation via a steady-state flux through an irreversible step. We conclude that tension generation occurs in the absence of chemical change as the result of an entropy-driven transition between strongly bound crossbridges in the actomyosin-ADP state. The mechanism resembles the operation of a clock, with phosphate release providing the energy to tension the spring, and the irreversible step functions as the escapement mechanism, which is followed in turn by tension generation as the movement of the hands. PMID:7479824

  6. Huxley's Model for Muscle Contraction Revisited: The Importance of Microscopic Reversibility.

    PubMed

    Astumian, R Dean

    2015-01-01

    Andrew Huxley's model for muscle contraction is the first mechanistic description of how an energy-providing chemical reaction, ATP hydrolysis, can be coupled by a molecule (myosin) to do work in the environment in a cyclic process. The model was originally used to fit experimentally obtained force vs velocity curves, and has served as a paradigm for understanding mechanochemical coupling ever since. Despite the remarkable success in fitting kinetic data, Huxley's model is thermodynamically inconsistent in several regards, most notably in its failure to include thermal noise in the description of the mechanical transitions by which motion occurs. This inconsistency has led subsequent workers to incorrect conclusions regarding the importance of mechanical transitions for determining the direction of motion, the efficiency of energy conversion, the ratio of forward to backward steps, and the applied force necessary to stop the motion of chemically driven molecular motors. In this chapter an extension of Huxley's model is described where the principle of microscopic reversibility provides a framework for developing a thermodynamically consistent description of a molecular machine. The results show clearly that mechanical strain and the so-called "power stroke" are irrelevant for determining the directionality and thermodynamic properties of any chemically driven molecular motor. Instead these properties are controlled entirely by the chemical specificity that describes how the relative rates of the ATP hydrolysis reaction depend, by allosteric interactions, on the mechanical state of the molecule. This mechanism has been termed an "information ratchet" in the literature. In contrast to the results for chemical driving, a power stroke can be a key component for the operation of an optically driven motor, the transitions of which do not obey microscopic reversibility. PMID:26122749

  7. Rectus abdominis muscle strains in tennis players.

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, Javier; Ghisi, Juan P; Kokalj, Antonio M

    2007-11-01

    Rectus abdominis muscle strains are common and debilitating injuries among competitive tennis players. Eccentric overload, followed by forced contraction of the non-dominant rectus abdominis during the cocking phase of the service motion is the accepted injury mechanism. A tennis-specific rehabilitation program emphasising eccentrics and plyometric strengthening of the abdominal wall muscles, contributes to the complete functional recovery in tennis players, and could help reduce recurrences. PMID:17957025

  8. Rectus abdominis muscle strains in tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Maquirriain, Javier; Ghisi, Juan P; Kokalj, Antonio M

    2007-01-01

    Rectus abdominis muscle strains are common and debilitating injuries among competitive tennis players. Eccentric overload, followed by forced contraction of the non‐dominant rectus abdominis during the cocking phase of the service motion is the accepted injury mechanism. A tennis‐specific rehabilitation program emphasising eccentrics and plyometric strengthening of the abdominal wall muscles, contributes to the complete functional recovery in tennis players, and could help reduce recurrences. PMID:17957025

  9. Invertebrate muscles: thin and thick filament structure; molecular basis of contraction and its regulation, catch and asynchronous muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Scott L.; Hobbs, Kevin H.; Thuma, Jeffrey B.

    2008-01-01

    This is the second in a series of canonical reviews on invertebrate muscle. We cover here thin and thick filament structure, the molecular basis of force generation and its regulation, and two special properties of some invertebrate muscle, catch and asynchronous muscle. Invertebrate thin filaments resemble vertebrate thin filaments, although helix structure and tropomyosin arrangement show small differences. Invertebrate thick filaments, alternatively, are very different from vertebrate striated thick filaments and show great variation within invertebrates. Part of this diversity stems from variation in paramyosin content, which is greatly increased in very large diameter invertebrate thick filaments. Other of it arises from relatively small changes in filament backbone structure, which results in filaments with grossly similar myosin head placements (rotating crowns of heads every 14.5 nm) but large changes in detail (distances between heads in azimuthal registration varying from three to thousands of crowns). The lever arm basis of force generation is common to both vetebrates and invertebrates, and in some invertebrates this process is understood on the near atomic level. Invertebrate actomyosin is both thin (tropomyosin:troponin) and thick (primarily via direct Ca++ binding to myosin) filament regulated, and most invertebrate muscles are dually regulated. These mechanisms are well understood on the molecular level, but the behavioral utility of dual regulation is less so. The phosphorylation state of the thick filament associated giant protein, twitchin, has been recently shown to be the molecular basis of catch. The molecular basis of the stretch activation underlying asynchronous muscle activity, however, remains unresolved. PMID:18616971

  10. Influence of different control strategies on muscle activation patterns in trunk muscles

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Laura; Anders, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Adequate training of the trunk muscles is essential to prevent low back pain. Although sit‐ups are simple to perform, the perceived high effort is the reason why training the abdominal muscles is seldom continued over a longer period of time. It is well known that the abdominal muscles are inferior to the back muscles in terms of force, but this cannot explain the extreme difference in perceived effort between trunk flexion and extension tasks. Therefore, this study was aimed at the identification of control strategy influences on the muscular stress level. Thirty‐nine subjects were investigated. The performed tasks were restricted to the sagittal plane and were implemented with simulated and realized tilt angles. Subjects were investigated in an upright position with their lower bodies fixed and their upper bodies free. Posture‐controlled tasks involved graded forward and backward tilting, while force‐controlled tasks involved the application of force based on a virtual tilt angle. The Surface EMG (SEMG) was taken from five trunk muscles on both sides. Control strategies seemed to have no systematic influence on the SEMG amplitudes of the back muscles. In contrast, the abdominal muscles exhibited significantly higher stress levels under posture‐controlled conditions without relevantly increasing antagonistic co‐activation of back muscles. The abdominal muscles' relative differences ranged from an average of 20% for the external oblique abdominal muscle to approximately 40% for the rectus abdominal muscle. The perceived high effort expended during sit‐ups can now be explained by the posture‐controlled contractions that are required. PMID:25501425

  11. Cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons that transmit reflex contraction of the levator muscle are located in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kenya; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke; Kawagishi, Kyutaro; Moriizumi, Tetsuji

    2012-12-01

    Since the levator and frontalis muscles lack interior muscle spindles despite being antigravity mixed muscles to involuntarily sustain eyelid opening and eyebrow lifting, this study has proposed a hypothetical mechanism to compensate for this anatomical defect. The voluntary contraction of fast-twitch fibres of the levator muscle stretches the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle to evoke proprioception, which continuously induces reflex contraction of slow-twitch fibres of the levator and frontalis muscles. This study confirmed the presence of cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons that transmit reflex contraction of the levator and frontalis muscles. After confirming that severing the trigeminal proprioceptive fibres that innervate the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle induced ipsilateral eyelid ptosis, Fluorogold was applied as a tracer to the proximal stump of the trigeminal proprioceptive nerve in rats. Fluorogold labelled the cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons, not in any regions of the rat brain including the trigeminal ganglion, but in the ipsilateral mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus neighbouring the locus ceruleus. Some Fluorogold particles accumulated in the area of the locus ceruleus. The trigeminal proprioceptive neurons could be considered centrally displaced ganglion cells to transmit afferent signal from the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle to the mesencephalon, where they may be able to make excitatory synaptic connections with both the oculomotor neurons and the frontalis muscle motoneurons for the involuntary coordination of the eyelid and eyebrow activities, and potentially to the locus ceruleus. PMID:23157498

  12. Muscle contraction increases interstitial nitric oxide as predicted by a new model of local blood flow regulation.

    PubMed

    Golub, Aleksander S; Song, Bjorn K; Pittman, Roland N

    2014-03-15

    The prevailing metabolic theory of local blood flow regulation suggests the dilatation of arterioles in response to tissue hypoxia via the emission of multiple metabolic vasodilators by parenchymal cells. We have proposed a mechanism of regulation, built from well-known components, which assumes that arterioles are normally dilated in metabolically active tissues, due to the emission of NO by the endothelium of microvessels. Regulation of local blood flow aims at preventing an excessive supply of oxygen (O2) and glucose to the tissue and thus provides an adequate supply, in contrast to the metabolic regulation theory which requires permanent hypoxia to generate the metabolic vasodilators. The mediator of the restrictive signal is superoxide anion (O2(-)) released by membrane NAD(P)H oxidases into the interstitial space, where it neutralizes NO at a diffusion-limited rate. This model predicts that the onset of muscle contraction will lead to the cessation of O2(-) production, which will cause an elevation of interstitial NO concentration and an increase in fluorescence of the NO probe DAF-FM after its conversion to DAF-T. The time course of DAF-T fluorescence in contracting muscle is predicted by also considering the washout from the muscle of the interstitially loaded NO indicator. Experiments using pulse fluorimetry confirmed an increase in the interstitial concentration of NO available for reaction with DAF-FM during bouts of muscle contraction. The sharp increase in interstitial [NO] is consistent with the hypothesis that the termination of the neutralizing superoxide flow into the interstitium is associated with the activation of mitochondria and a reduction of the interstitial oxygen tension. The advantage of the new model is its ability to explain the interaction of metabolic activity and local blood flow through the adequate delivery of glucose and oxygen. PMID:24445318

  13. Identification and classification of involuntary leg muscle contractions in electromyographic records from individuals with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Thomas, C K; Dididze, M; Martinez, A; Morris, R W

    2014-10-01

    Involuntary muscle contractions (spasms) are common after human spinal cord injury (SCI). Our aim was to compare how well two raters independently identified and classified different types of spasms in the same electromyographic records (EMG) using predefined rules. Muscle spasms were identified by the presence, timing and pattern of EMG recorded from paralyzed leg muscles of four subjects with chronic cervical SCI. Spasms were classified as one of five types: unit, tonic, clonus, myoclonus, mixed. In 48h of data, both raters marked the same spasms most of the time. More variability in the total spasm count arose from differences between muscles (84%; within subjects) than differences between subjects (6.5%) or raters (2.6%). Agreement on spasm classification was high (89%). Differences in spasm count, and classification largely occurred when EMG was marked as a single spasm by one rater but split into multiple spasms by the other rater. EMG provides objective measurements of spasm number and type in contrast to the self-reported spasm counts that are often used to make clinical decisions about spasm management. Data on inter-rater agreement and discrepancies on muscle spasm analysis can both drive the design and evaluation of software to automate spasm identification and classification. PMID:25023162

  14. Anaesthetic tricaine acts preferentially on neural voltage-gated sodium channels and fails to block directly evoked muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Attili, Seetharamaiah; Hughes, Simon M

    2014-01-01

    Movements in animals arise through concerted action of neurons and skeletal muscle. General anaesthetics prevent movement and cause loss of consciousness by blocking neural function. Anaesthetics of the amino amide-class are thought to act by blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels. In fish, the commonly used anaesthetic tricaine methanesulphonate, also known as 3-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester, metacaine or MS-222, causes loss of consciousness. However, its role in blocking action potentials in distinct excitable cells is unclear, raising the possibility that tricaine could act as a neuromuscular blocking agent directly causing paralysis. Here we use evoked electrical stimulation to show that tricaine efficiently blocks neural action potentials, but does not prevent directly evoked muscle contraction. Nifedipine-sensitive L-type Cav channels affecting movement are also primarily neural, suggesting that muscle Nav channels are relatively insensitive to tricaine. These findings show that tricaine used at standard concentrations in zebrafish larvae does not paralyse muscle, thereby diminishing concern that a direct action on muscle could mask a lack of general anaesthesia. PMID:25090007

  15. Anaesthetic Tricaine Acts Preferentially on Neural Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels and Fails to Block Directly Evoked Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Attili, Seetharamaiah; Hughes, Simon M.

    2014-01-01

    Movements in animals arise through concerted action of neurons and skeletal muscle. General anaesthetics prevent movement and cause loss of consciousness by blocking neural function. Anaesthetics of the amino amide-class are thought to act by blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels. In fish, the commonly used anaesthetic tricaine methanesulphonate, also known as 3-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester, metacaine or MS-222, causes loss of consciousness. However, its role in blocking action potentials in distinct excitable cells is unclear, raising the possibility that tricaine could act as a neuromuscular blocking agent directly causing paralysis. Here we use evoked electrical stimulation to show that tricaine efficiently blocks neural action potentials, but does not prevent directly evoked muscle contraction. Nifedipine-sensitive L-type Cav channels affecting movement are also primarily neural, suggesting that