Science.gov

Sample records for abdominal obesity elevated

  1. Elevated fasting insulin levels increase the risk of abdominal obesity in Korean men.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Taegi; Choi, Young-Jun; Chung, Ju Youn; Ryoo, Jae-Hong

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether an elevated fasting insulin level predicts abdominal obesity. A cohort study was conducted with 13,707 non-obese Korean men. They were categorized into 4 groups according to the quartile of fasting insulin level, and followed up from 2005 to 2010. Incidence rates of obesity were compared among the 4 groups during follow-up, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for abdominal obesity according to fasting insulin level. The overall incidence rate of obesity was 16.2%, but the rate increased in proportion to the fasting insulin level (quartiles 1-4: 9.8%, 12.4%, 16.9%, 25.5%, P<0.001). When HR of the 1st quartile was regarded as the reference, HRs for abdominal obesity increased proportionally to baseline fasting insulin level in an unadjusted model. However, after adjustment for covariates, including baseline waist circumference (WC), only in the quartile 4 group was the statistical significance of the association maintained [quartile 2-4; abdominal obesity: 0.89 (0.76-1.02), 1.00 (0.86-1.14) and 1.24 (1.08-1.43), P for trend <0.001]. Although the risk of incident abdominal obesity was highest in the group with the highest fasting insulin levels, an overall proportional relationship between fasting insulin level and incident abdominal obesity was not found. Additionally, this association was largely accounted for by baseline WC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Abdominal obesity validates the association between elevated alanine aminotransferase and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yueh, Chen-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Sung, Yi-Ting; Lee, Li-Wen

    2014-01-01

    To examine how elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) could be associated with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis on a mass health examination. The odds ratios (ORs) for diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus were compared between people with and without abdominal obesity, together with and without elevated ALT levels. 5499 people were included in this study. Two hundred fifty two (4.6%) fulfilled the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus with 178 (3.2%) undiagnosed before. Metabolic syndrome was vigorously associated with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (12.4% vs. 1.4% and 9.0% vs. 0.9%), but elevated ALT alone was not. However, coexisting with obesity, elevated ALTs were robustly associated with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. For the incidence of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, in comparison to non-obese people with normal ALT (1.7%, OR = 1), obese people especially with elevated ALT levels had significantly higher ORs (obese with ALT ≤ 40 U/L: 4.7%, OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.08-2.77, P 0.023; ALT 41-80 U/L: 6.8%, OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.20-3.55, P 0.009; ALT 81-120 U/L: 8.8%, OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.38-6.84, P 0.006; ALT > 120 U/L: 18.2%, OR 7.44, 95% CI 3.04-18.18, P < 0.001). Abdominal obesity validates the association between elevated alanine aminotransferase and diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. People with abdominal obesity, especially with coexisting elevated ALT levels should be screened for undiagnosed diabetes mellitus.

  3. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  4. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  5. [Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children].

    PubMed

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-12-01

    To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos/SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-0 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome: exercise as medicine?

    PubMed

    Paley, Carole A; Johnson, Mark I

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a cluster of at least three out of five clinical risk factors: abdominal (visceral) obesity, hypertension, elevated serum triglycerides, low serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and insulin resistance. It is estimated to affect over 20% of the global adult population. Abdominal (visceral) obesity is thought to be the predominant risk factor for metabolic syndrome and as predictions estimate that 50% of adults will be classified as obese by 2030 it is likely that metabolic syndrome will be a significant problem for health services and a drain on health economies.Evidence shows that regular and consistent exercise reduces abdominal obesity and results in favourable changes in body composition. It has therefore been suggested that exercise is a medicine in its own right and should be prescribed as such. This review provides a summary of the current evidence on the pathophysiology of dysfunctional adipose tissue (adiposopathy). It describes the relationship of adiposopathy to metabolic syndrome and how exercise may mediate these processes, and evaluates current evidence on the clinical efficacy of exercise in the management of abdominal obesity. The review also discusses the type and dose of exercise needed for optimal improvements in health status in relation to the available evidence and considers the difficulty in achieving adherence to exercise programmes. There is moderate evidence supporting the use of programmes of exercise to reverse metabolic syndrome although at present the optimal dose and type of exercise is unknown. The main challenge for health care professionals is how to motivate individuals to participate and adherence to programmes of exercise used prophylactically and as a treatment for metabolic syndrome.

  7. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lihua; Huang, Xiao; You, Chunjiao; Li, Juxiang; Hong, Kui; Li, Ping; Wu, Yanqing; Wu, Qinhua; Wang, Zengwu; Gao, Runlin; Bao, Huihui; Cheng, Xiaoshu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China. A cross-sectional survey of 15,364 participants aged 15 years and older was conducted from November 2013 to August 2014 in Jiangxi Province, China, using questionnaire forms and physical measurements. The physical measurements included body height, weight, waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BFP) and visceral adipose index (VAI). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors for overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. The prevalence of overweight was 25.8% (25.9% in males and 25.7% in females), while that of obesity was 7.9% (8.4% in males and 7.6% in females). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 10.2% (8.6% in males and 11.3% in females). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 37.1% in urban residents and 30.2% in rural residents, and this difference was significant (P < 0.001). Urban residents had a significantly higher prevalence of abdominal obesity than rural residents (11.6% vs 8.7%, P < 0.001). Among the participants with an underweight/normal body mass index (BMI), 1.3% still had abdominal obesity, 16.1% had a high BFP and 1.0% had a high VAI. Moreover, among obese participants, 9.7% had a low /normal WC, 0.8% had a normal BFP and 15.9% had a normal VAI. Meanwhile, the partial correlation analysis indicated that the correlation coefficients between VAI and BMI, VAI and WC, and BMI and WC were 0.700, 0.666, and 0.721, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that being female and having a high BFP and a high VAI were significantly associated with an increased risk of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. In addition, living in an urban area and older age correlated with overweight/obesity. This study revealed that obesity and abdominal obesity, which differed by gender and age, are epidemic in southern China. Moreover, there

  8. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lihua; Huang, Xiao; You, Chunjiao; Li, Juxiang; Hong, Kui; Li, Ping; Wu, Yanqing; Wu, Qinhua; Wang, Zengwu; Gao, Runlin; Bao, Huihui

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 15,364 participants aged 15 years and older was conducted from November 2013 to August 2014 in Jiangxi Province, China, using questionnaire forms and physical measurements. The physical measurements included body height, weight, waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BFP) and visceral adipose index (VAI). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors for overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. Results The prevalence of overweight was 25.8% (25.9% in males and 25.7% in females), while that of obesity was 7.9% (8.4% in males and 7.6% in females). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 10.2% (8.6% in males and 11.3% in females). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 37.1% in urban residents and 30.2% in rural residents, and this difference was significant (P < 0.001). Urban residents had a significantly higher prevalence of abdominal obesity than rural residents (11.6% vs 8.7%, P < 0.001). Among the participants with an underweight/normal body mass index (BMI), 1.3% still had abdominal obesity, 16.1% had a high BFP and 1.0% had a high VAI. Moreover, among obese participants, 9.7% had a low /normal WC, 0.8% had a normal BFP and 15.9% had a normal VAI. Meanwhile, the partial correlation analysis indicated that the correlation coefficients between VAI and BMI, VAI and WC, and BMI and WC were 0.700, 0.666, and 0.721, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that being female and having a high BFP and a high VAI were significantly associated with an increased risk of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. In addition, living in an urban area and older age correlated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion This study revealed that obesity and abdominal obesity, which differed by gender and age, are

  9. [Excess weight and abdominal obesity in Galician children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Leis, Rosaura; Martínez, Ana; Malvar, Alberto; Hervada, Xurxo; Suanzes, Jorge

    2017-12-06

    The excess of weight, mainly obesity, during childhood and adolescence increases morbimortality risk in adulthood. The aim of this article is to estimate both the overall prevalence, as well as according to age and gender, of underweight, overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity among schoolchildren aged between 6-15-years-old in the school year 2013-2014. Data were taken from a cross-sectional community-based study carried out on a representative sample, by gender and age, of the Galician population aged between 6 and 15 years-old. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obese children (Cole's cut-off criteria) and abdominal obesity (Taylor's cut-off criteria) were estimated after performing objective measurements of height, weight and waist circumference at school. A total of 7,438 students were weighed and measured in 137 schools. The prevalence of overweight and obese individuals was 24.9% and 8.2%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 25.8%, with 4% of children with normal weight having abdominal obesity. These data highlight the need to promote primary prevention measures at early ages in order to decrease the occurrence of the premature onset of disease in the future. The prevalence of excess weight is underestimated if abdominal obesity is not taken into consideration. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  10. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, abdominal-obesity and short stature of adult population of Rosario, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Zapata, María Elisa; Bibiloni, María Del Mar; Tur, Josep A

    2016-09-20

    The aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity, abdominal-obesity and short stature among Rosario (Argentina) adult population. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in Rosario (2012-2013). A random sample (n = 1194) of adult population (18-70 years old) was interviewed. Anthropometric measurements and a general questionnaire incorporating questions related to socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, education level and physical activity were used. The current study detected a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among adult population in Rosario. The prevalence of overweight was 32.7% (43.9% in men and 27.6% in women, p < 0.001), of obesity was 23.5% (21.6% in men and 24.3% in women), and of abdominal obesity was 57.5% (63.5% in men vs.54.8% in women, p < 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that the prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity increased according the age and abdominal obesity decreased with high physical activity in men. In women prevalence of overweight/obesity, and abdominal obesity increased with age, marital status (married or coupled), presence of at least one child at home and low educational level. The prevalence of short stature was higher in women (16.4% vs. 8.4%, p < 0.001) and was related with age, overweight and abdominal obesity.

  11. Yogurt consumption and abdominal obesity reversion in the PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    Santiago, S; Sayón-Orea, C; Babio, N; Ruiz-Canela, M; Martí, A; Corella, D; Estruch, R; Fitó, M; Aros, F; Ros, E; Gómez-García, E; Fiol, M; Lapetra, J; Serra-Majem, Ll; Becerra-Tomás, N; Salas-Salvadó, J; Pinto, X; Schröder, H; Martínez, J A

    2016-06-01

    Evidence on the association yogurt consumption and obesity is not conclusive. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the association between yogurt consumption, reversion of abdominal obesity status and waist circumference change in elderly. 4545 individuals at high cardiovascular risk were prospectively followed. Total, whole-fat and low-fat yogurt consumption were assessed using food frequency questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the association between yogurt consumption and waist circumference change (measured at baseline and yearly during the follow-up). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of the reversion rate of abdominal obesity for each quintile of yogurt consumption compared with the lowest quintile. After multivariable adjustment, the average yearly waist circumference change in the quintiles of whole-fat yogurt consumption was: Q1: 0.00, Q2: 0.00 (-0.23 to 0.23), Q3: -0.15 (-0.42 to 0.13), Q4: 0.10 (-0.21 to 0.42), and Q5: -0.23 (-0.46 to -0.00) cm; p for trend = 0.05. The ORs for the reversion of abdominal obesity for whole-fat yogurt consumption were Q1: 1.00, Q2: 1.40 (1.04-1.90), Q3: 1.33 (0.94-1.89), Q4: 1.21 (0.83-1.77), and Q5: 1.43 (1.06-1.93); p for trend = 0.26. Total yogurt consumption was not significantly associated with reversion of abdominal obesity status and a lower waist circumference. However, consumption of whole-fat yogurt was associated with changes in waist circumference and higher probability for reversion of abdominal obesity. Therefore, it seems that whole-fat yogurt has more beneficial effects in management of abdominal obesity in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Abdominal obesity, ethnicity and gastro‐oesophageal reflux symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Corley, Douglas A; Kubo, Ai; Zhao, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations between abdominal obesity and gastro‐oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), and their interactions with ethnicity and gender. Design A cross‐sectional study. Participants completed detailed symptom questionnaires and underwent a standardised examination, including anthropometric measurements. Setting A large integrated healthcare system. Patients 80 110 members of the Kaiser Permanente multiphasic health check‐up cohort. Main outcome measures Gastro‐oesophageal reflux‐type symptoms. Results Recent reflux‐type symptoms were present in 11% of the population. The multivariate OR for symptoms with an abdominal diameter (adjusted for body mass index (BMI)) of ⩾26 vs <16.3 cm was 1.85 (95% CI 1.55 to 2.21) for the white population, 0.95 (95% CI 0.61 to 1.48) for the black population and 0.64 (95% CI 0.18 to 2.30) for Asians. The mean abdominal diameter was greater in men (22.0 cm, 95% CI 21.9 to 22.0) than in women (20.1 cm, 95% CI 20.0 to 20.1, p<0.01), but the risk of symptoms for any given diameter did not differ markedly by gender. The association between increasing BMI and symptoms was also much stronger among the white population than among the black population. The association between BMI and reflux‐type symptoms was partially mediated through abdominal diameter. Conclusions There was a consistent association between abdominal diameter (independent of BMI) and reflux‐type symptoms in the white population, but no consistent associations in the black population or Asians. The BMI association was also strongest among the white population. These findings, combined with the increased prevalence of abdominal obesity in male subjects, suggest that an increased obesity may disproportionately increase GORD‐type symptoms in the white population and in male subjects. PMID:17047097

  13. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Abdominal Obesity among Urban Saudi Adolescents: Gender and Regional Variations

    PubMed Central

    Abahussain, Nada A.; Al-Sobayel, Hana I.; Qahwaji, Dina M.; Alsulaiman, Nouf A.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nutrition transition with associated lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases has rapidly reached many developing countries, including Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity among Saudi adolescents. This school-based multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010 in three major cities in Saudi Arabia: Al-Khobar, Jeddah, and Riyadh. Participants included 2,908 students of secondary schools (1,401 males and 1,507 females) aged 14 to 19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster-sampling technique. Weight, height, and waist-circumference were measured; prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined using age- and sex-specific BMI cutoff reference standards of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Abdominal obesity was determined using waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cutoffs (above 0.5). The prevalence of overweight was 19.5% in males and 20.8% in females while that of obesity was 24.1% in males and 14% in females. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in males and females was 35.9% and 30.3% respectively. Higher prevalence of obesity was observed among adolescents in private schools. Across all ages, overweight and obesity ranged from 39.9% to 45.6% in males and from 30.4% to 38.7% in females. ANCOVA, controlling for age, showed significant interaction effects (city by gender). It is concluded that the proportions of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity, observed among Saudi adolescents were remarkably high. Such high prevalence of overweight and obesity is a major public-health concern. PMID:25895197

  14. Dietary patterns and their associations with general obesity and abdominal obesity among young Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J G; Wang, Z H; Wang, H J; Du, W W; Su, C; Zhang, J; Jiang, H R; Zhai, F Y; Zhang, B

    2015-09-01

    Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods and efficaciously illustrate the impact of diet on health outcomes. This study identified the dietary patterns and determined their relationships with obesity among young Chinese women. In 2011, the China Health and Nutrition Survey included 2363 young women aged 18-44 years. Factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls identified the dietary patterns. Weight, height and waist circumstance (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. General obesity was defined as BMI ⩾28 kg/m(2) and abdominal obesity as WC ⩾85 cm. Four dietary patterns were identified: traditional south; traditional north; snack; and high protein. After adjusting for confounders and energy intake, women in the highest-score quintiles of the traditional south pattern were less likely to have general obesity (odds ratio (OR)=0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29-0.78) and abdominal obesity (OR=0.64; 95% CI 0.46-0.90). Subjects in the highest-score quintiles of the traditional north pattern had significantly greater risk of general obesity (OR=2.28; 95% CI 1.38-3.74) and of abdominal obesity (OR=2.32; 95% CI 1.66-3.24). The traditional south pattern of rice as the major staple food with pork and vegetable dishes is associated with lower risk of general and abdominal obesity. The traditional north pattern of high intake of wheat, other cereals and tubers is positively associated with general and abdominal obesity. This provides important information for interventions and policies addressing obesity prevention among young Chinese women.

  15. Trends in obesity and abdominal obesity in the older adult population of Spain (2000-2010).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan Luis; León-Muñoz, Luz M; Regidor, Enrique; Banegas, Josér; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This work examines the trend in obesity and abdominal obesity in the Spanish population aged 60 years and over during the first decade of the 21st century. We analyze data from a representative study of the Spanish population aged 60 years and older conducted in 2000-2001 and from the Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain (ENRICA) conducted in 2008-2010. In men, the distribution of BMI did not vary in the period 2000-2010. In contrast, in women there was a reduction in both mean BMI--from 29.3 to 28.8 kg/m2--and the prevalence of obesity--from 40.8 to 36.3%. This decline was greatest in women aged 60-69 years. In men, no significant changes were observed in mean waist circumference (WC) or in the prevalence of abdominal obesity. In contrast, WC decreased by 3.6 cm and abdominal obesity prevalence by 12.7% in women. The decline was greatest in women aged 60-69 years, in whom mean WC decreased by 5.1 cm and abdominal obesity prevalence by 18.6%. These findings show that the frequency of obesity has begun to decline in Spanish women aged 60 and over. The causes of this decline are unclear.

  16. Obesity, abdominal obesity, physical activity, and caloric intake in US adults: 1988 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Ladabaum, Uri; Mannalithara, Ajitha; Myer, Parvathi A; Singh, Gurkirpal

    2014-08-01

    Obesity and abdominal obesity are associated independently with morbidity and mortality. Physical activity attenuates these risks. We examined trends in obesity, abdominal obesity, physical activity, and caloric intake in US adults from 1988 to 2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Average body mass index (BMI) increased by 0.37% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.44) per year in both women and men. Average waist circumference increased by 0.37% (95% CI, 0.30-0.43) and 0.27% (95% CI, 0.22-0.32) per year in women and men, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity increased substantially, as did the prevalence of abdominal obesity among overweight adults. Younger women experienced the greatest increases. The proportion of adults who reported no leisure-time physical activity increased from 19.1% (95% CI, 17.3-21.0) to 51.7% (95% CI, 48.9-54.5) in women, and from 11.4% (95% CI, 10.0-12.8) to 43.5% (95% CI, 40.7-46.3) in men. Average daily caloric intake did not change significantly. BMI and waist circumference trends were associated with physical activity level but not caloric intake. The associated changes in adjusted BMIs were 8.3% (95% CI, 6.9-9.6) higher among women and 1.7% (95% CI, 0.68-2.8) higher among men with no leisure-time physical activity compared with those with an ideal level of leisure-time physical activity. Our analyses highlight important dimensions of the public health problem of obesity, including trends in younger women and in abdominal obesity, and lend support to the emphasis placed on physical activity by the Institute of Medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Obesity, Abdominal Obesity, Physical Activity, and Caloric Intake in U.S. Adults: 1988-2010

    PubMed Central

    Ladabaum, Uri; Mannalithara, Ajitha; Myer, Parvathi A.; Singh, Gurkirpal

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity and abdominal obesity are independently associated with morbidity and mortality. Physical activity attenuates these risks. We examined trends in obesity, abdominal obesity, physical activity, and caloric intake in U.S. adults from 1988 to 2010. Methods Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Results Average body-mass index (BMI) increased by 0.37% (95% CI, 0.30-0.44%) per year in both women and men. Average waist circumference increased by 0.37% (95% CI, 0.30-0.43%) and 0.27% (95% CI, 0.22-0.32%) per year in women and men, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity increased substantially, as did the prevalence of abdominal obesity among overweight adults. Younger women experienced the greatest increases. The proportion of adults who reported no leisure-time physical activity increased from 19.1% (95% CI, 17.3-21.0%) to 51.7% (95% CI, 48.9-54.5%) in women, and from 11.4% (95% CI, 10.0-12.8%) to 43.5% (95% CI, 40.7-46.3%) in men. Average daily caloric intake did not change significantly. BMI and waist circumference trends were associated with physical activity level, but not caloric intake. The associated changes in adjusted BMIs were 8.3% (95% CI, 6.9-9.6%) higher among women and 1.7% (95% CI, 0.68-2.8%) higher among men with no leisure-time physical activity compared to those with an ideal level of leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions Our analyses highlight important dimensions of the public health problem of obesity, including trends in younger women and in abdominal obesity, and lend support to the emphasis placed on physical activity by the Institute of Medicine. PMID:24631411

  18. Prevalence of abdominal obesity among Chinese adults in 2011.

    PubMed

    Du, Pei; Wang, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Bing; Qi, Su-Fen; Mi, Ying-Jun; Liu, Dian-Wu; Tian, Qing-Bao

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of abdominal obesity is increasing dramatically worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the current prevalence of abdominal obesity from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) and compare the data with other countries. Waist circumference (WC) of 12,326 Chinese adults (aged 20 years or older) from the 2011 CHNS were analyzed by age group and region. Abdominal obesity was defined as a WC ≥90 cm for men and WC ≥80 cm for women based on World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for Asians. In 2011, the age-adjusted mean WC was 85.9 cm (95% confidence interval [CI], 85.6-86.2 cm) for men and 80.7 cm (95% CI, 80.4-80.9 cm) for women. Based on the WHO recommendations, the age-adjusted prevalence of abdominal obesity was 44.0% (95% CI, 43.1%-44.8%) overall, 35.3% (95% CI, 34.1%-36.6%) in men, and 51.7% (95% CI, 50.5%-52.9%) in women. Moreover, the age-adjusted prevalence was 44.0% (95% CI, 42.7%-45.2%) in rural populations, 42.5% (95% CI, 40.7%-44.2%) in urban populations, and 45.2% (95% CI, 43.5%-46.9%) in megacity populations. The prevalence in China (35.3% for men and 51.7% for women) was lower than in Japan (50.8% for men) and the United States (43.5% for men and 64.7% for women). Similar results were observed when applying the criteria suggested by the Working Group on Obesity in China. In 2011, the age-adjusted prevalence of abdominal obesity in China was 35.3% in men and 51.7% in women. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence and predictors of alanine aminotransferase elevation among normal weight, overweight and obese youth in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Maura; Flores, Yvonne N; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Salmeron, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels among a sample of normal weight, overweight and obese youth from two urban populations in Central Mexico. Baseline data from 1262 youth aged 8-19 years who participated in the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study from March 2004 to April 2006 were reviewed, including 680 girls and 582 boys, with a total of 83 participants with elevated ALT level (>40 U/L). Information was obtained from self-administered questionnaires, anthropometric results and clinical measurements. Associations of interest were examined using multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 3.8% of girls and 9.8% of boys had elevated ALT levels. Elevated ALT was observed in 28.9% of the obese and 14.2% of the overweight participants. Metabolic syndrome (MS) occurred in 6.1% of the study population and those with MS had a high percentage of elevated ALT (14.5% of girls and 40.0% of boys, respectively). Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were also associated with a greater risk of elevated ALT. Obesity and certain metabolic risk factors are important predictors for elevated ALT. Screening for ALT levels in obese youth could help to identify those at risk and reduce the possibility of future liver diseases. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  20. Stress, abdominal obesity and intrarenal resistive index in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Trovato, G M; Pace, P; Martines, G F; Trovato, F M; Pirri, C; Catalano, D

    2012-07-01

    Although it is commonly believed that a strong causal link exists between psychological stress and hypertension, as well with other factors, such as obesity, just what kind of empirical evidence supports this assumption is still controversial. The aim of the study is to investigate if perceived stress have any interference with intrarenal resistance and hence with mechanisms related to Essential Hypertension (EH) and if Anxiety, Depression, Self efficacy and Illness Perception can account for perceived stress. Obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA), Doppler Renal Resistive Index (RRI) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are studied along with Psychological Stress Measure (PSM), Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R), Generalized Self-Efficacy scale (GSE) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in 119 hypertensive patients referred for stable lasting EH, and 150 normal controls. Lower salt/lower calories Mediterranean diet, physical activity increase and smoking withdrawal counseling were provided. By Odds Ratios, higher risk of EH is associated with greater perceived stress, older age, lower GFR, obesity, greater RRI and insulin resistance. By Multiple Linear Regression the most significant variable that accounts for higher RRI are abdominal obesity and arterial pulse pressure; the only significant independent psychological variable that accounts for abdominal obesity are PSM and identity IPQ subscale. Self-Efficacy anxiety and Illness perception subscales (IPQr), accounts significantly for 62.0% of the variance to PSM, with possible effects on RRI and on the pathophysiological hypertension cascade. Worst identity and treatment control perceptions of EH, and a lower self-efficacy are the main psychological factors accounting for a greater stress. Interventions aimed to reduce perceived stress can be warranted in EH.

  1. [Abdominal obesity and coronary heart disease. Pathophysiology and clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Hauner, H

    1995-02-01

    The relationship between overweight and cardiovascular disease was a matter of debate for many years. Recent studies have demonstrated that obesity defined as body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or higher is associated with an exponential increase of cardiovascular complications. This effect is largely mediated by the induction of established risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, there is growing evidence that the occurrence of most complications of obesity depends not only on the degree of overweight but also on the pattern of body fat distribution. Many data suggest that the anatomical localization of body fat is more important for the risk of developing complications than the adipose tissue mass per se. An abdominal, upper-body type of fat distribution, which can be easily determined by the measurement of waist and hip circumferences (waist/hip ratio = WHR), is also a confirmed risk factor for metabolic disturbances, hypertension and atherosclerosis, independent of body weight. However, the clinical appearance of these disturbances is frequently associated with the development of obesity. This network of metabolic disorders and their vascular complications is termed "metabolic syndrome" or "syndrome X" (Table 2). Abdominal obesity is now known to be closely associated with the metabolic syndrome and is regarded to represent its readily recognizable phenotypic feature. The components of the metabolic syndrome are characterized by varying forms and degrees of insulin resistance. It is assumed that insulin resistance, defined as diminished biological response to the action of insulin, represents the primary defect or at least the common pathogenetic link between these disturbances.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Abdominal obesity and circulating metabolites: A twin study approach.

    PubMed

    Bogl, Leonie H; Kaye, Sanna M; Rämö, Joel T; Kangas, Antti J; Soininen, Pasi; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Ortega-Alonso, Alfredo; Rissanen, Aila; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H

    2016-03-01

    To investigate how obesity, insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation link to circulating metabolites, and whether the connections are due to genetic or environmental factors. Circulating serum metabolites were determined by proton NMR spectroscopy. Data from 1368 (531 monozygotic (MZ) and 837 dizygotic (DZ)) twins were used for bivariate twin modeling to derive the genetic (rg) and environmental (re) correlations between waist circumference (WC) and serum metabolites. Detailed examination of the associations between fat distribution (DEXA) and metabolic health (HOMA-IR, CRP) was performed among 286 twins including 33 BMI-discordant MZ pairs (intrapair BMI difference ≥3 kg/m(2)). Fat, especially in the abdominal area (i.e. WC, android fat % and android to gynoid fat ratio), together with HOMA-IR and CRP correlated significantly with an atherogenic lipoprotein profile, higher levels of branched-chain (BCAA) and aromatic amino acids, higher levels of glycoprotein, and a more saturated fatty acid profile. In contrast, a higher proportion of gynoid to total fat associated with a favorable metabolite profile. There was a significant genetic overlap between WC and several metabolites, most strongly with phenylalanine (rg=0.40), glycoprotein (rg=0.37), serum triglycerides (rg=0.36), BCAAs (rg=0.30-0.40), HDL particle diameter (rg=-0.33) and HDL cholesterol (rg=-0.30). The effect of acquired obesity within the discordant MZ pairs was particularly strong for atherogenic lipoproteins. A wide range of unfavorable alterations in the serum metabolome was associated with abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation. Twin modeling and obesity-discordant twin analysis suggest that these associations are partly explained by shared genes but also reflect mechanisms independent of genetic liability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Corticotropic axis and chronic stress in abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Boullu-Ciocca, S; Verger, P; Bocquier, A; Oliver, C

    2005-12-03

    Several indicators of corticotropic axis hyperactivity have been observed in common abdominal obesity, which is clinically similar to the obesity found in Cushing's syndrome. Corticotropic axis hyperactivity may be involved in the development and metabolic and cardiovascular complications of abdominal obesity. Several mechanisms may be responsible for this hormonal dysregulation: genetic, lifestyle, and nutritional factors, and chronic stress. We note the necessity of methodologically-impeccable clinical studies for an objective evaluation of the role of stress in obesity.

  4. Relationship of abdominal obesity with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia in Spain.

    PubMed

    Casanueva, Felipe F; Moreno, Basilio; Rodríguez-Azeredo, Rosario; Massien, Christine; Conthe, Pedro; Formiguera, Xavier; Barrios, Vivencio; Balkau, Beberly

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the relevance of obesity and abdominal obesity in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension in primary care patients and to ascertain whether waist circumference (WC) measurement should be included in routine clinical practice in addition to body mass index (BMI). As part of the IDEA study, primary care physicians from Spain recruited patients aged 18-80 years. WC and BMI and the presence of CVD, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension were recorded. Finally, 17 980 were analysed. An age-related increase in adiposity was observed. Overall 33% were obese by BMI, and 51% of subjects presented abdominal obesity by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) (WC > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women). Although there was a correlation between BMI and WC, they presented different distribution patterns. Women, but not men, with a high level of education, professional activity and smoking were associated with a lower WC. Abdominal obesity was significantly associated with CVD. Some subjects with abdominal obesity but lean by BMI, showed an increased prevalence of CVD and diabetes. Furthermore, abdominal obesity was strongly associated with dyslipidaemia and hypertension. Half of the primary care patients studied showed abdominal obesity as measured by WC, whereas one-third was obese by BMI. Abdominal obesity was strongly associated with CVD and diabetes, even in patients lean by BMI. WC should be included in the routine clinical practice in addition to BMI.

  5. Effect of abdominal resistance exercise on abdominal subcutaneous fat of obese women: a randomized controlled trial using ultrasound imaging assessments.

    PubMed

    Kordi, Ramin; Dehghani, Saeed; Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Rostami, Mohsen; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of diet and an abdominal resistance training program to diet alone on abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and waist circumference of overweight and obese women. This randomized clinical trial included 40 overweight and obese women randomly divided into 2 groups: diet only and diet combined with 12 weeks of abdominal resistance training. Waist and hip circumferences and abdominal skin folds of the subjects were measured at the beginning and 12 weeks after the interventions. In addition, abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness of the subjects was measured using ultrasonography. Percentage body fat and lean body mass of all the subjects were also measured using a bioelectric impedance device. After 12 weeks of intervention, the weight of participants in both groups decreased; but the difference between the 2 groups was not significant (P = .45). Similarly, other variables including abdominal subcutaneous fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, body fat percentage, and skin fold thickness were reduced in both groups; but there were no significant differences between the groups. This study found that abdominal resistance training besides diet did not reduce abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness compared to diet alone in overweight or obese women. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of abdominal obesity in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome on metabolic parameters.

    PubMed

    Franik, G; Bizoń, A; Włoch, S; Pluta, D; Blukacz, Ł; Milnerowicz, H; Madej, P

    2017-11-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome and obesity contribute to the metabolic complications for women of reproductive age. The aim of present study was to analyze the effect of abdominal obesity expressed using waist/hip ratio (WHR) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome on metabolic parameters. The study included 659 women with PCOS with WHR <0.8 and ≥0.8 aged between 17 and 44 years. Patients were tested for follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, 17-beta-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione, sex hormone binding globulin, and total lipid profile during the follicular phase (within 3 and 5 days of their menstrual cycle). Also, fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, and after, oral-glucose glucose administration, were determinate. De Ritis and Castelli index I and II were calculated. Women with WHR ≥0.8 had higher concentration of glucose and  insulin (both fasting and after 120 min of oral administration of 75 g glucose), as well as HOMA-IR value, than women with WHR value < 0.8. Also, abdominal obesity disorders hormonal parameters. Higher free androgen index and lower concentration of sex hormone binding globulin and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were found in female with WHR ≥ 0.8. Follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, androstenedione, and 17-beta-estradiol, were on similar level in both groups. Elevation in triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein levels, as well as decrease in high density lipoprotein level in serum of women with WHR value ≥ 0.8, were found when compared to women with WHR < 0.8. A statistically significant correlation was found between WHR value and glucose, insulin, sex hormone binding globulin, free androgen index and lipid profile parameters. Abdominal obesity causes additional disorders in metabolic and hormonal parameters in PCOS women, which confirmed changes in analyzed parameters between PCOS women with WHR < 0.8 and WHR ≥ 0.8 and statistically

  7. Predictors of urinary incontinence between abdominal obesity and non-obese male adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongmei; Xu, Yi; Nie, Qingbin; Li, Yan; Mao, Gengsheng

    2017-09-01

    To investigate factors that may be associated with urinary incontinence (UI) in abdominal obese and non-obese adult males. Data were analyzed for 2671 men (≥40 years of age) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008). We define abdominal obesity as a waist circumference >102 cm. Men with Incontinence Severity Index ≥3 were defined as having UI. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with stress and urge UI. Multivariate analysis found that in abdominal obese men, stress UI was associated with enlarged prostate (odds ratio [OR] = 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-4.16), chronic respiratory tract disease (OR = 2.78, 95% CI: 1.55-4.97), and major depression (OR = 4.79, 95% CI: 1.79-12.84). In non-obese men, arthritis was associated with stress UI (odds ratio = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.06-10.73). Urge UI in abdominally obese men was associated with age ≥65 years (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.05-2.67), being non-Hispanic black (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.06-2.52), and with enlarged prostate (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.54-3.40), arthritis (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.03-1.88), and major depression (OR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.89-4.64). Urge UI in non-obese men was associated with current smoking (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.01-3.17), major depression (OR = 2.60, 95% CI: 1.33-5.09) and vitamin D deficiency (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.01-2.59). Factors associated with urinary incontinence varied with abdominal obesity status and type of UI. The findings identify important contributors to urinary incontinence that clinicians should consider to help manage and effectively treat the condition.

  8. Abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome: a surgeon's perspective.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Patrick

    2008-09-01

    Over the past decade, a major shift in the clinical risk factors in the population undergoing a cardiac surgery has been observed. In the general population, an increasing prevalence of obesity has largely contributed to the development of cardiovascular disorders. Obesity is a heterogeneous condition in which body fat distribution largely determines metabolic perturbations. Consequently, individuals characterized by increased abdominal fat deposition and the so-called metabolic syndrome (MetS) have a higher risk of developing coronary artery disease. Recent studies have also emphasized that visceral obesity is a strong risk factor for the development of heart valve diseases. In fact, individuals characterized by visceral obesity and its metabolic consequences, such as the small dense low-density lipoprotein phenotype, have a faster progression rate of aortic stenosis, which is related to increased valvular inflammation. Furthermore, the degenerative process of implanted bioprostheses is increased in subjects with the MetS and/or diabetes, suggesting that a process akin to atherosclerosis could be involved in the failure of bioprostheses. In addition to being an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disorders, the MetS is increasing the operative mortality risk following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Thus, recent evidence supports visceral obesity as a global risk factor that is affecting the development of many heart disorders, and that is also impacting negatively on the results of patients undergoing surgical treatment for cardiovascular diseases. In the present paper, recent concepts surrounding the MetS and its implications in various cardiovascular disorders are reviewed along with the clinical implications.

  9. FREQUENCY OF ABDOMINAL OBESITY AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH DIABETES MELLITUS AMONG PEOPLE OF PESHAWAR.

    PubMed

    Khan, Attaullah; Faheem, Muhammad; Shah, Syed Tahir; Hadi, Abdul; Rafiullah; Ahmad, Salman; Gul, Adnan Mahmood; Shah, Sayyad Farhat Abbas; Jan, Hikmatullah; Hafizullah, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Increased body weight is a major risk factor for the metabolic syndrome which is a cluster of coronary heart disease risk factors, like: hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of abdominal obesity and diabetes mellitus in the population of Peshawar and association between them. This was a cross sectional study, performed by the Cardiology Department, Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar, in the population of Peshawar. All participants were interviewed in detail regarding known risk factors for coronary artery disease. Waist circumference (≥102 cm in male and ≥88 cm in females) was used as the surrogate marker for abdominal obesity in already diagnosed patients of type-2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 2548 individuals were included, 71.1% were male. Mean age was 37.94±12.59 years. Mean waist circumference was 90.25±13.45cm in males and 90.52±12.52cm in females. Diabetes was present in 4.4% of the participants and abdominal obesity in 56.6% Among the male, abdominal obesity was present in 39.4% and diabetes in 2.9%. Out of 39.4% males with abdominal obesity, 2% were diabetic. Out of 38.6% males with no abdominal obesity, 0.9% was diabetic. Amongst the total 559 (21.1%) female subjects, 17.2% were having abdominal obesity and 1.4% was diabetics. Among 123 (4.8%) females with no abdominal obesity, 0.1% was diabetic. A positive association was established between abdominal obesity and diabetes mellitus with a significant p-valve (<0.05). Abdominal obesity is more common in the local population of Peshawar and associated with type-2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Skeletal muscle ceramide species in men with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    de la Maza, M P; Rodriguez, J M; Hirsch, S; Leiva, L; Barrera, G; Bunout, D

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and its consequences, including accelerated ageing and mortality. The underlying factor could be accumulation of certain lipid moieties, such as ceramides (CER) and diacylgycerol (DAG) within muscle tissue, which are known to promote insulin resistance (IR), induce inflammation and oxidative injury, ultimately altering muscle function. First, to study the relationship between body composition and age (independent variables) with skeletal muscle accumulation of lipid species, oxidative injury and strength. Second, to analyze the relationship between muscle tissue metabolites and insulin resistance, inflammation and lymphocyte telomere length, the latter as an indicator of ageing. The sample included 56 healthy sedentary males, scheduled for inguinal hernia surgery, aged 27 to 80 y. Each individual was subject to anthropometric measurements, body composition assessment through radiologic densitometry (DEXA), measurement of handgrip and quadriceps strength, serum biochemical parameters (lipoproteins, creatinine, high sensitivity C reactive protein [hsCRP], fasting and post glucose insulin and glucose concentrations for calculation of IR through the Matsuda and HOMA-IR indexes), and extraction of peripheral leukocytes for measurement of telomere length. During the surgical procedure, a sample of muscle tissue was obtained (anterior abdominal oblique) in order to measure CER and DAG (and sub species according to chain length and saturation) by mass spectrometry, 4 hydroxy-2-nonenal adducts (4-HNE) using electron microscopy immunohistochemistry, and carboxymethyl-lisine (CML) by immunohistochemistry, the latter as indicators of oxidative stress (OS). Body mass index (BMI) of twenty six individuals was > 25 k/m2, while BMI of 7 was > 30 k/m2. Overweight/obese individuals, did not exhibit differences in skeletal muscle lipid metabolites, however total CER and specific long chain CER sub-species (20 and 22 carbon) increased

  11. [BO's abdominal acupuncture for obese type-2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; Liu, Yunxia

    2015-04-01

    To observe the clinical efficacy of BO's abdominal acupuncture for obese type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sixty patients of obese T2DM were randomly divided into an acupuncture group and a medication group, 30 cases in each one. Patients in the medication group were treated with basic treatment combined with oral administration of regular antidiabetics, three weeks as one session. Patients in the acupuncture group, based on the medication group, were treated with abdominal acupuncture at Yinqiguiyuan [Zhongwan (CV 12), Xiawan (CV 10), Qihai (CV 6), Guanguan (CV 4)], Fusiguan [Huaroumen (ST 24), Wailing (TE 5)], Tianshu (ST 25), Daheng (SP 15), Qixue (KI 13), etc.; the treatment was given three times per week, 3 weeks as one session. The systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, body mass index (BI) were observed before and after treatment in the two groups, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), 2-hours postprandial blood glucose by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), HOMA-IR of insulin resistance index were calculated and adverge events were recorded. Compared before the treatment, SBP, WC, body weight, BMI, FPG, OG-TT2hBG, FINS, GTT2h insulin, HOMA-IR, TC and LDL-C in the acupuncture group were all significantly reduced (all P <0. 05), while FPG, OGTT2H insulin and TG were increased in the medication group (all P<0. 05)'. The differences of reducing SBP, WC, FPG, OGTT2H insulin, HOMA-IR, TC, TG and LDL-C were statistically significant between the two groups (all P<0. 05). The total effective rate was 93. 3% (28/30) in the acupuncture group, which was significantly superior to 23. 3% (7/30) in the medication group (P<0. 01). BO's abdominal acupuncture has obvious clinical efficacy for obese type-2 diabetes mellitus

  12. Educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity: Pró-Saúde Study

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Ronaldo Fernandes Santos; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the degree of educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity in a population of non-faculty civil servants at university campi. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we used data from 3,117 subjects of both genders aged 24 to 65-years old, regarding the baseline of Pró-Saúde Study, 1999-2001. Abdominal obesity was defined according to abdominal circumference thresholds of 88 cm for women and 102 cm for men. A multi-dimensional, self-administered questionnaire was used to evaluate education levels and demographic variables. Slope and relative indices of inequality, and Chi-squared test for linear trend were used in the data analysis. All analyses were stratified by genders, and the indices of inequality were standardized by age. RESULTS Abdominal obesity was the most prevalent among women (43.5%; 95%CI 41.2;45.9), as compared to men (24.3%; 95%CI 22.1;26.7), in all educational strata and age ranges. The association between education levels and abdominal obesity was an inverse one among women (p < 0.001); it was not statistically significant among men (p = 0.436). The educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity in the female population, in absolute terms (slope index of inequality), was 24.0% (95%CI 15.5;32.6). In relative terms (relative index of inequality), it was 2.8 (95%CI 1.9;4.1), after the age adjustment. CONCLUSIONS Gender inequality in the prevalence of abdominal obesity increases with older age and lower education. The slope and relative indices of inequality summarize the strictly monotonous trend between education levels and abdominal obesity, and it described educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity among women. Such indices provide relevant quantitative estimates for monitoring abdominal obesity and dealing with health inequalities. PMID:26465669

  13. Abdominal obesity is associated with heart disease in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between overall obesity and fat distribution in dogs and the development of heart disease is unclear. In the present study we evaluated the association between overall obesity and fat distribution and clinical heart disease by morphometric and computed tomography (CT)-based measurements. Body condition score (BCS), modified body mass index (MBMI, kg/m2), waist-to-hock-to-stifle distance ratio (WHSDR), waist-to-ilium wing distance ratio (WIWDR), and waist-to-truncal length ratio (WTLR) were compared between dogs with (n = 44) and without (n = 43) heart disease using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous fat (SQF) were measured in dogs with (n = 8) and without (n = 9) heart disease at the center of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae by CT. Results BCS was similar between heart disease and healthy groups (3.6 ± 0.2 vs. 3.3 ± 0.1, P = 0.126). The following morphometric measurements were greater in the heart disease group compared with healthy canines: MBMI (65.0 ± 4.5 vs. 52.5 ± 3.7 kg/m2, respectively, P = 0.035); WIWDR (4.1 ± 0.1 vs. 3.1 ± 0.1, P < 0.01); and WTLR (1.25 ± 0.04 vs. 1.05 ± 0.04, P < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in WHSDR (3.6 ± 0.1 vs. 3.7 ± 0.2, P = 0.875). Interestingly, IAF was significantly increased in dogs with heart disease compared with healthy dogs (23.5 ± 1.5% vs. 19.4 ± 1.2%, P = 0.039) whereas SQF was similar between two groups (35.5 ± 2.7% vs. 38.6 ± 3.5%, P = 0.496). Of the five morphometric indices studied, WIWDR and WTLR provided acceptable discrimination for diagnosing heart disease in dogs, with areas under the ROC curve of 0.778 (95% confidence interval [CI]:0.683-0.874) and 0.727 (95% CI:0.619-0.835), respectively. Conclusions Our data indicate that abdominal obesity, rather than overall obesity, is associated

  14. Abdominal obesity is associated with heart disease in dogs.

    PubMed

    Thengchaisri, Naris; Theerapun, Wutthiwong; Kaewmokul, Santi; Sastravaha, Amornrate

    2014-06-13

    The relationship between overall obesity and fat distribution in dogs and the development of heart disease is unclear. In the present study we evaluated the association between overall obesity and fat distribution and clinical heart disease by morphometric and computed tomography (CT)-based measurements. Body condition score (BCS), modified body mass index (MBMI, kg/m2), waist-to-hock-to-stifle distance ratio (WHSDR), waist-to-ilium wing distance ratio (WIWDR), and waist-to-truncal length ratio (WTLR) were compared between dogs with (n = 44) and without (n = 43) heart disease using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous fat (SQF) were measured in dogs with (n = 8) and without (n = 9) heart disease at the center of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae by CT. BCS was similar between heart disease and healthy groups (3.6 ± 0.2 vs. 3.3 ± 0.1, P = 0.126). The following morphometric measurements were greater in the heart disease group compared with healthy canines: MBMI (65.0 ± 4.5 vs. 52.5 ± 3.7 kg/m2, respectively, P = 0.035); WIWDR (4.1 ± 0.1 vs. 3.1 ± 0.1, P < 0.01); and WTLR (1.25 ± 0.04 vs. 1.05 ± 0.04, P < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in WHSDR (3.6 ± 0.1 vs. 3.7 ± 0.2, P = 0.875). Interestingly, IAF was significantly increased in dogs with heart disease compared with healthy dogs (23.5 ± 1.5% vs. 19.4 ± 1.2%, P = 0.039) whereas SQF was similar between two groups (35.5 ± 2.7% vs. 38.6 ± 3.5%, P = 0.496). Of the five morphometric indices studied, WIWDR and WTLR provided acceptable discrimination for diagnosing heart disease in dogs, with areas under the ROC curve of 0.778 (95% confidence interval [CI]:0.683-0.874) and 0.727 (95% CI:0.619-0.835), respectively. Our data indicate that abdominal obesity, rather than overall obesity, is associated with heart disease in dogs

  15. The prevalence of abdominal obesity is remarkable for underweight and normal weight adolescent girls

    PubMed

    Acar Tek, Nilüfer; Şanlıer, Nevin; Türközü, Duygu

    2017-08-23

    Background/aim: Obesity is a global public health challenge. This study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity in Turkish adolescent girls. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of 1111 adolescent girls aged 12?18 years. The subjects were classified into four groups: underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Abdominal obesity was defined according to waist circumference (WC) ≥ 90th percentile for Turkish adolescent population references (12-17 years) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ≥ 0.5. Results: The prevalence of underweight was 17.4%, normal weight 68.5%, overweight 12.1%, and obese 2.0%. A total of 16.9% subjects were abdominal obese based on WC and 10.4% based on WHtR. When the four groups were evaluated in terms of abdominal obesity status, prevalence was 6.4% and 2.6% in the underweight, 14.6% and 5.8% in the normal, 60.0% and 37.3% in the overweight, and 88.8% and 77.3% in the obese groups according to WC and WHtR, respectively. Both WC (r: 0.332) and WHtR (r: 0.156) were positively correlated with age (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of abdominal obesity was found at high levels for overweight and obese adolescents. It should be emphasized that abdominal obesity is a condition that should be considered for underweight and normal adolescents as well. Therefore, abdominal obesity should be regularly assessed for nonobese adolescents to prevent cardiovascular risks, metabolic syndrome, and other related disease.

  16. Abdominal obesity and mortality risk among men in nineteenth-century North America.

    PubMed

    Kahn, H S; Williamson, D F

    1994-10-01

    The health consequences of an adverse body-fat distribution (e.g., android, upper-body, visceral) have only recently concerned the medical community. Ninety years ago, however, actuarial study demonstrated the relationship of body-fat distribution to the mortality experience of insured, North American men. Thirty-four insurance companies pooled their data on males issued life policies between 1870 and 1899. Special classes of risk were defined by weight for height at baseline or by the observation that abdominal girth exceeded the girth of the expanded chest (abdominal obesity). The mortality experience of each risk class was compared to an age-stratified, actuarial table of the period. We present new analyses of these historical data relating specifically to the mortality impact of abdominal obesity. Among 163,567 overweight men, the prevalence of abdominal obesity increased with age and with degree of overweight. Among moderately overweight men, those with abdominal obesity experienced 133% of the expected mortality rate compared to 112% of the expected mortality for those who were not abdominally obese. Severely overweight men with abdominal obesity experienced 152% of the expected mortality compared to 135% of the expected mortality for severely overweight men who were not abdominally obese. We believe this nineteenth-century, acturial study of waist and chest girths was the first demonstration that body-fat distribution can influence longevity. These early actuarial findings, taken with more recent reports, establish that abdominal enlargement, but not necessarily an 'upper-body' fat distribution, constitutes a major health hazard. Future research must establish which abdominal-obesity index best predicts disease outcomes.

  17. The effect of abdominal resistance training and energy restricted diet on lateral abdominal muscles thickness of overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Kordi, Ramin; Dehghani, Saeed; Rostami, Mohsen

    2012-07-01

    The role of transabdominal muscles (external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis) on core stability has been shown previously. Energy restricted diet and abdominal resistance training are commonly used by overweight and obese people to reduce their weight. In this study we investigated the impact of 12 weeks concurrent energy restricted diet and abdominal resistance training on the thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles of 19 obese and overweight women employing ultrasonography in resting and drawing-in maneuvers. The results showed significant increase of the muscle thicknesses during drawing-in maneuver after 12 weeks intervention. Based on our findings, it can be concluded that 12 weeks concurrent abdominal resistance training and energy restricted diet in addition to weight loss lead to improvement of transabdominal muscles thickness in obese and overweight people. Considering the role of these muscles in core stability, using this therapeutic protocol in obese people, particularly in those who have weakness of these muscles might be helpful. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vegetarian diet reduces the risk of hypertension independent of abdominal obesity and inflammation: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chiu, Tina H T; Lee, Chun-Yi; Liu, Ting-Ting; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Hsiung, Chao A; Chiu, Yen-Feng

    2016-11-01

    A vegetarian diet may prevent elevation of blood pressures and lower the risk for hypertension through lower degrees of obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. This study investigated the association between a vegetarian diet and hypertension incidence in a cohort of Taiwanese adult nonsmokers and examined whether this association was mediated through inflammation, abdominal obesity, or insulin resistance (using fasting glucose as a proxy). This matched cohort study was from the 1994-2008 MJ Health Screening Database. Each vegetarian was matched with five nonvegetarians by age, sex, and study site. The analysis included 4109 nonsmokers (3423 nonvegetarians and 686 vegetarians), followed for a median of 1.61 years. The outcome includes hypertension incidence, as well as SBP and DBP levels. Regression analysis was performed to assess the association between vegetarian diet and hypertension incidence or future blood pressure levels in the presence/absence of potential mediators. Vegetarians had a 34% lower risk for hypertension, adjusting for age and sex (odds ratio: 0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.50-0.87; SBP: -3.3 mmHg, P < 0.001; DBP: -1.5 mmHg, P < 0.001). The results stay statistically significant after further adjustment for C-reactive protein, waist circumference, and fasting glucose (odds ratio: 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.55-0.86; SBP: -2.4 mmHg, P < 0.05; DBP: -1.1 mmHg, P < 0.05). The protective association between vegetarian diet and hypertension appeared to be consistent across age groups. Taiwanese vegetarians had lower incidence of hypertension than nonvegetarians. Vegetarian diets may protect against hypertension beyond lower abdominal obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance.

  19. Relationships of occupational and non-occupational physical activity to abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Steeves, J A; Bassett, D R; Thompson, D L; Fitzhugh, E C

    2012-01-01

    Physically active occupations may protect against the risk of abdominal obesity. This study assessed the interaction between non-occupational physical activity (NOA) (leisure-time, transport and domestic activity) and occupational activity (OA) in relation to abdominal obesity. A total of 3539 adults over the age of 20, with no work limitations, employed in one of the 17 occupations classified as low OA (LOA) or high OA (HOA) were identified in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Waist circumference (WC) was used to categorize individuals into either non-obese or abdominally obese (WC>88 cm in women and >102 cm in men) categories. NOA was divided into three categories based upon physical activity guidelines: (1) no NOA; (2) insufficient NOA; and (3) sufficient NOA. Logistic regression was used to examine possible associations between NOA, OA and abdominal obesity. In those who are sedentary outside of work, a high-activity occupation reduces the odds risk ratio of being categorized with abdominal obesity to 0.37 in comparison with those who work in low-activity occupations. For people working in low-activity occupations, there was a clear association with activity outside of work and the odds risk ratio of being categorized with abdominal obesity. In these adults, a reduced odds ratio was found only among those who met the physical activity guidelines through NOA (odds ratio=0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.40-0.75). HOA is associated with a reduced risk of abdominal obesity. Thus, it is important to include OA in studies seeking to understand the association between physical activity and abdominal adiposity.

  20. Aldosterone Is Not Associated With Metabolic and Microvascular Insulin Sensitivity in Abdominally Obese Men.

    PubMed

    Schütten, Monica T J; Kusters, Yvo H A M; Houben, Alfons J H M; Scheijen, Jean L J M; van de Waarenburg, Marjo P H; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Joris, Peter J; Plat, Jogchum; Mensink, Ronald P; de Leeuw, Peter W; Stehouwer, Coen D A

    2018-02-01

    Impaired insulin-mediated muscle microvascular recruitment (IMMR) may add to the development of insulin resistance and hypertension. Increased aldosterone levels have been linked to these obesity-related complications in severely to morbidly obese individuals and to impaired microvascular function in experimental studies. To investigate whether aldosterone levels are associated with IMMR, insulin sensitivity, and blood pressure in lean and moderately abdominally obese men, and to study the effect of weight loss. In 25 lean and 53 abdominally obese men, 24-hour blood pressure measurement was performed, and aldosterone levels were measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by determining whole-body glucose disposal during a hyperinsulinemic clamp. IMMR in forearm skeletal muscle was measured with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. These assessments were repeated in the abdominally obese men following an 8-week weight loss or weight stable period. Sodium excretion and aldosterone levels were similar in lean and abdominally obese participants, but sodium excretion was inversely associated with aldosterone concentration only in the lean individuals [lean, β/100 mmol sodium excretion (adjusted for age and urinary potassium excretion) = -0.481 (95% confidence interval, -0.949 to -0.013); abdominally obese, β/100 mmol sodium excretion = -0.081 (95% confidence interval, -0.433 to 0.271); P for interaction = 0.02]. Aldosterone was not associated with IMMR, insulin sensitivity, or blood pressure and was unaffected by weight loss. In moderately abdominally obese men, the inverse relationship between sodium excretion and aldosterone concentration is less than that in lean men but does not translate into higher aldosterone levels. The absolute aldosterone level does not explain differences in microvascular and metabolic insulin sensitivity and blood pressure between lean and moderately abdominally obese men

  1. Does abdominal obesity accelerate the effect of hypertriglyceridemia on impaired fasting glucose?

    PubMed

    Lee, Soojin; Chun, Kihong; Lee, Soonyoung; Kim, Daejung

    2010-05-01

    This study sought to determine whether abdominal obesity is a risk factor for impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and hypertriglyceridemia and to verify whether moderate effect of abdominal obesity on the relationship between IFG and hypertriglyceridemia in Korea. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used for the analysis. The study population included 5,938 subjects aged 20 year old drawn from non-diabetic participants in a health examination survey. The subjects were classified according to the presence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumference, IFG based on their fasting blood glucose level, and hypertriglyceridemia on their fasting triglyceride. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for the occurrence of hypertriglyceridemia were 2.91 in the abdominal obesity group as compared with the nonobesity group and 1.31 in subjects with IFG compared with the normoglycemia controls. Abdominal obesity was found to be positively moderated in the interaction between waist circumference and fasting blood sugar. The moderate effect between abdominal obesity and IFG contributes to the development of hypertriglyceridemia in Korea.

  2. Abdominal Obesity Indicators: Waist Circumference or Waist-to-hip Ratio in Malaysian Adults Population.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Norfazilah; Adam, Samia Ibrahim Mohamed; Nawi, Azmawati Mohammed; Hassan, Mohd Rohaizat; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is an accurate and simple measure of abdominal obesity as compared to waist-hip ratio (WHR). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between body mass index (BMI) with WC and WHR and suggest cutoff points for WC among Rural Malaysian adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 669 respondents from three villages in Tanjung Karang, located in the district of Kuala Selangor. Data collection was carried out by guided questionnaires and anthropometric measures. The prevalence of abdominal obesity for BMI was almost similar for both gender across Caucasian and Asian BMI cutoff points. Based on Caucasian cutoff points, the prevalence of abdominal obesity for WC was 23.8% (male) and 66.4% (female) while for WHR was 6.2% (male) and 54.2% (female). Asian cutoff points gave higher prevalence of abdominal obesity compared to that of WC among male respondents and WHR for both genders. WC showed strong and positive correlation with BMI compared to WHR (in male WC r = 0.78, WHR r = 0.24 and in female WC r = 0.72, WHR r = 0.19; P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested WC cutoff points of 92.5 cm in men and 85.5 cm in women is the optimal number for detection of abdominal obesity. WC is the best indicator as compared with WHR for abdominal obesity for Malaysian adults.

  3. Determinants and definition of abdominal obesity as related to risk of diabetes, metabolic syndrome and coronary disease in Turkish men: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Onat, Altan; Uyarel, Hüseyin; Hergenç, Gülay; Karabulut, Ahmet; Albayrak, Sinan; Can, Günay

    2007-03-01

    We aimed to investigate determinants of abdominal obesity and its clinical impact on metabolic syndrome (MS), diabetes (DM) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in men. Prospective evaluation of 1638 male participants (aged 48.5+/-12.3), representative of Turkey's men who have a high prevalence of MS. For components of MS, criteria of NCEP guidelines were adopted, modified for abdominal obesity. Follow-up constituted 9650 person-years. Insulin level (relative risk [RR] 1.40 for doubling), C-reactive protein (CRP) and heavy smoking (protective) were independent predictors of newly developing abdominal obesity. High triglyceride and low HDL-cholesterol were significantly associated already with waist girth quartile II, apolipoprotein B with quartile III. Waist girth significantly predicted future MS from quartile II on, independent of insulin resistance (IR) by homeostatic model assessment, whereby its hazard ratio (HR, 2.6) exceeded double that of HOMA. CRP independently predicted MS. Age-adjusted HR of waist girth (1.59) was significant in predicting DM. Age- and smoking-adjusted top waist quartile conferred significant risk for incident CHD (RR 1.71) but not for overall mortality. As judged by sensitivity and specificity rates for future CHD, DM and MS, abdominal obesity was most appropriately defined with a waist girth of >or=95 cm, and an action level 1 of >or=87 cm was proposed for MS in this population. Serum insulin, CRP levels and (inversely) heavy smoking are predictors for abdominal obesity in Turkish men. Atherogenic dyslipidemia and elevated blood pressure are associated significantly already with modest rises in waist girth adjusted for age and smoking. Abdominal obesity shows substantial independence of IR in the development of MS. Increasing waist girth was predictive of MS, more strongly than of DM. Risk for CHD imparted by abdominal obesity is essentially mediated by risk factors it induces.

  4. [Project to improve abdominal obesity in day care ward psychiatric patients].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Chieh; Wang, Hui-Yu; Huang, Hui-Ling; Chen, Min-Li

    2011-06-01

    Over half (57.14%) of patients in our ward suffer from abdominal obesity. This rate is on a continuing upward trend. Reasons for such obesity include lack of physical activity classes, inadequate physical activity, high calorie diets and unhealthy eating habits, chronic diseases and drug side effects, poor motivation to reduce weight, and lack of crisis awareness of abdominal obesity. This project was designed to lessen the problem of abdominal obesity among psychiatric day care inpatients. Resolution measures implemented included: (1) arranging aerobic exercise classes; (2) scheduling classes to teach patients healthy diet habits and knowledge regarding diseases and drugs; (3) holding a waistline reduction competition; (4) displaying health education bulletin boards; (5) holding a quiz contest with prizes for correct answers. The eight abdominally obese patients in the ward achieved an average waist circumference reduction of 2.9 cm and the overall abdominal obesity rate in the ward fell to 35.7%. BMI, eating habits, and awareness of weight loss importance and motivation all improved. The outcome achieved targeted project objectives. We recommend the integration of obesity prevention into routine ward activities and quality control indicators. Nurses should provide patients with weight loss concepts, regularly monitor risk factors, and encourage patient family cooperation to maintain medical care quality.

  5. Sitting Time and Obesity or Abdominal Obesity in Older South Koreans: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Minsung; Cho, Kyung-Hwan; Han, Kyung-Do; Choi, Mankyu; Kim, Yang-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    We examined relationships between sitting time and obesity or abdominal obesity according to sex and socioeconomic status in elderly people. We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013, and 1565 participants were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine relationships between sitting time and obesity or abdominal obesity according to sex and socioeconomic status. Sitting time was positively correlated with body mass index in men and women and waist circumference in men. When considering socioeconomic factors, men who sat for 5 hours or longer and fell within the lowest income were more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity relative to men who sat for 5 hours or shorter and earned higher incomes (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.80 [1.14-2.84] and 1.63 [1.02-2.61] respectively), and women who sat for 5 hours or longer and fell within the lowest educational level were more likely to have obesity relative to women who sat for 5 hours or less and were educated to a higher level (1.24 [1.01-1.85]). Strategies to reduce sedentary behavior would help to prevent obesity in older men who earn low incomes and women with lower levels of educational attainment.

  6. The high burden of obesity and abdominal obesity in urban Indian schoolchildren: a multicentric study of 38,296 children.

    PubMed

    Misra, Anoop; Shah, Priyali; Goel, Kashish; Hazra, Daya Kishore; Gupta, Rajeev; Seth, Payal; Tallikoti, Pooja; Mohan, Indu; Bhargava, Rooma; Bajaj, Sarita; Madan, Jagmeet; Gulati, Seema; Bhardwaj, Swati; Sharma, Rekha; Gupta, Nidhi; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity and their associated factors in a large sample of urban Indian schoolchildren. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in 5 cities in India. Height and weight were measured in 38,296 children and waist circumference was measured in 29,244 children aged 8-18 years. The prevalence was compared with respect to age, gender, type of school and city of residence. The mean ± standard deviation for age was 13.3 ± 2.4 years and 18.3 ± 4.3 kg/m(2) for BMI. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in 8- to 18-year-old children, respectively, was 14.4 and 2.8% by IOTF cutoffs, 14.5 and 4.8% by CDC cutoffs and 18.5 and 5.3% by WHO cutoffs. When applying the cutoffs specific for Indian ethnicity in 14- to 18-year-old children, the prevalence was higher (21.1 and 12.3%, respectively) as compared to the IOTF, WHO and CDC cutoffs. The overall prevalence of abdominal obesity in urban Indian schoolchildren was 4.5%. The prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity was significantly higher in females than males (p < 0.001). High socioeconomic status and residing in cities with a population greater than 4 million were independently associated with overweight and abdominal obesity (p < 0.001). On extrapolating these data, more than 15 million children would currently be overweight and 4 million abdominally obese in urban India. There is a substantial burden of childhood obesity in India, which necessitates comprehensive urban-based campaigns for its prevention and control. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. RISK FACTORS FOR ABDOMINAL OBESITY IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS FROM CRACOW, POLAND (1983-2000).

    PubMed

    Suder, Agnieszka; Chrzanowska, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine abdominal obesity risk factors in two successive cohorts of children and adolescents aged 4-18 from Cracow, Poland, examined during the years of political transformation. The influence of biological, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors on abdominal obesity was analysed by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using logistic regression analysis. It was found that for girls obesity in both parents (OR=4.31; 95% CI 1.73-20.70) and high birth weight (OR=1.78; 95% CI 1.12-2.82) were significant risk factors for abdominal obesity in the 1983 cohort. In the 2000 cohort obesity in both parents for boys and girls (boys: OR=5.85; 95% CI 1.36-25.10; girls: OR=4.82; 95% CI 1.17-19.77), low level of parental education in girls (OR=2.06; 95% CI 1.15-3.69), having only one son (OR=1.96; 95% CI 1.36-3.40), parents' smoking habits in girls (OR=2.94; 95% CI 1.46-5.91) and lack of undertaking physical activity in sport clubs in boys (OR=6.11; 95% CI 1.46-25.47) were significant abdominal obesity risk factors. Higher number of hours of leisure time physical activity (OR=0.89; 95% CI 0.81-0.97) significantly lowered the risk of abdominal obesity in boys in the 2000 cohort. The greater differentiation of abdominal obesity risk factors in the 2000 cohort in comparison to the 1983 cohort may have resulted from the social and economic changes taking place in Poland at the end of the 20th century.

  8. Prevalence and geographic variation of abdominal obesity in 7- and 9-year-old children in Greece; World Health Organization Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative 2010.

    PubMed

    Hassapidou, Maria; Tzotzas, Themistoklis; Makri, Evangelia; Pagkalos, Ioannis; Kaklamanos, Ioannis; Kapantais, Efthymios; Abrahamian, Annet; Polymeris, Antonis; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-28

    In children, abdominal obesity is a better predictor of the presence of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index (BMI)-defined obesity. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in the Greek pediatric population and to assess the impact of residence on the prevalence of both BMI-defined and abdominal obesity. In the context of the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative of the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe, a national representative sample of 7.0-7.9 and 9.0-9.9-year-old children was evaluated (n = 2,531 and 2,700, respectively). Overweight and obesity according to BMI were estimated using both the WHO and International Obesity Task Force cut-off points. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference/height ratio >0.5. The prevalence of abdominal obesity did not differ between 7-year-old boys and girls (25.2 and 25.3%, respectively; p = NS). Among 9-year-old children, abdominal obesity was more prevalent in boys than in girls (33.2 and 28.2%, respectively; p = 0.005). Among normal weight and overweight children, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 1.6-6.8 and 21.8-49.1%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal and BMI-defined obesity did not differ between children living in the mainland, in Crete and in other islands except in 7-year-old girls, where the prevalence of BMI-defined obesity was highest in those living in Crete, intermediate in those living in other islands and lowest in those living in the mainland. In 9-year-old boys and in 7- and 9-year-old girls, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was highest in children living in Athens and lowest in children living in Thessaloniki, whereas children living in other cities and in villages showed intermediate rates. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in 7-year-old boys and the prevalence of BMI-defined obesity did not differ between children living in cities and villages. The prevalence of pediatric abdominal obesity in Greece is among

  9. Abdominal Obesity, Race and Chronic Kidney Disease in Young Adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2010

    PubMed Central

    Sarathy, Harini; Henriquez, Gabriela; Abramowitz, Matthew K.; Kramer, Holly; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Johns, Tanya; Kumar, Juhi; Skversky, Amy; Kaskel, Frederick; Melamed, Michal L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Kidney dysfunction in obesity may be independent of and may precede the development of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine if abdominal obesity is associated with early markers of CKD in a young healthy population and whether these associations differ by race and/or ethnicity. Methods We analyzed data from the NHANES 1999–2010 for 6918 young adults ages 20–40 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by gender criteria of waist circumference. CKD markers included estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. Race stratified analyses were done overall and in subgroups with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin sensitivity. Awareness of CKD was assessed in participants with albuminuria. Results Abdominal obesity was present in over one-third of all young adults and was more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks (45.4%) versus Mexican-Americans (40.6%) or non-Hispanic whites (37.4%) (P-value = 0.004). Mexican-American young adults with abdominal obesity had a higher odds of albuminuria even among those with normal blood pressure, normal glucose, and normal insulin sensitivity [adjusted odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval (1.6–12.2), p = 0.004]. Less than 5% of young adults with albuminuria of all races and ethnicities had been told they had kidney disease. Conclusion Abdominal obesity in young adults, especially in Mexican-Americans, is independently associated with albuminuria even with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin levels. Greater awareness of CKD is needed to protect this young population from long-standing exposure to abdominal obesity and early progressive renal disease. PMID:27224643

  10. Associations of polymorphisms in circadian genes with abdominal obesity in Chinese adult population.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ding; Cai, Shaofang; Jiang, Xiyi; Ding, Ye; Chen, Kun; Fan, Chunhong; Jin, Mingjuan

    2016-09-01

    Circadian rhythm, which is controlled by circadian genes, regulates metabolic balance including the circulating levels of glucose, fatty acids, triglycerides, various hormones and so on. The study aimed to investigate the impact of potential polymorphisms in circadian genes on abdominal obesity among Chinese Han adults. A total of 260 cases with abdominal obesity and 260 controls were recruited by individual matching. Demographic characteristics and lifestyle information were collected by a validated questionnaire, and anthropometric parameters was measured by physical examination. Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three circadian genes, CLOCK, CRY1 and CRY2, were genotyped by MassArray technique. Five SNPs significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) among controls, so eighteen SNPs were taken into logistic regression analysis. Independently, CLOCK rs10002541 (CC genotype vs. TT genotype: OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.23-0.86), CLOCK rs6850524 (CC genotype vs. GG genotype: OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.25-0.99) and CRY1 rs10861688 (TT genotype vs. CC genotype: OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.25-0.97) were negatively associated with the risk of abdominal obesity. Haplotype analysis showed that the haplotypes of CG and TG for CLOCK rs10002541 and rs4864546 had significant associations with abdominal obesity. Compared with the carriers of TA, those of CG were observed to have a lower risk (OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56-0.99) of abdominal obesity, and those of TG presented a higher risk (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.03-2.81). Our findings suggest that CLOCK and CRY1 polymorphisms might be involved in individual susceptibility to abdominal obesity in Chinese Han population. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Elevated serum advanced glycation endproducts in obese indicate risk for the metabolic syndrome: a link between healthy and unhealthy obesity?

    PubMed

    Uribarri, Jaime; Cai, Weijing; Woodward, Mark; Tripp, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Laurie; Pyzik, Renata; Yee, Kalle; Tansman, Laurie; Chen, Xue; Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi A; Vlassara, Helen

    2015-05-01

    Although obesity can predispose to the metabolic syndrome (MS), diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, not all obese subjects develop MS, hence the need for new indicators of risk for this syndrome. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) correlate with factors involved in the MS, including inflammation and insulin resistance (IR). Because AGEs can be derived from food and are modifiable, it is important to determine whether they are a risk factor for MS. The objective of this study was to assess the association of endogenous and exogenous AGEs with MS criteria. The following data were collected in a cross-sectional study of subjects with and without the MS: serum AGEs (sAGEs) and mononuclear cell AGEs, metabolites, pro- and antiinflammatory markers, body fat mass measures, including abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, and caloric and dietary AGE (dAGE) consumption. The study was conducted in the general community. Participants included 130 MS and 139 non-MS subjects of both sexes, older than 50 years. sAGEs ((ϵ)N-carboxymethyllysine, methylglyoxal) were markedly elevated in obese persons with more than one other MS criteria but not in obese without MS criteria. sAGEs directly correlated with markers of IR (HOMA) and inflammation (leptin, TNFα, RAGE) and inversely with innate defenses (SIRT1, AGE receptor 1 [AGER1], glyoxalase-I, adiponectin). sAGEs correlated with dAGEs but not with calories, nutrient consumption, or fat mass measures. Consumption of dAGE, but not of calories, was markedly higher in MS than in non-MS. High sAGEs, a modifiable risk factor for IR, may indicate risk for the MS, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. High dietary AGE consumption and serum AGE levels may link healthy obesity to at-risk obesity.

  12. Anxiety Independently Contributes to Elevated Inflammation in Humans with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Gary L.; Kalil, Graziela Z.; Ajibewa, Tiwaloluwa; Holwerda, Seth W.; Persons, Jane; Moser, David J.; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Anxious and depressive states are associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and a proinflammatory phenotype, although the latter appears to be at least partially explained by adiposity. We hypothesized that depression and anxiety would be associated with elevated inflammation independent of adiposity in persons with obesity at high risk of CVD. Methods We explored the relation between baseline anxiety as measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and baseline serum c-reactive protein (CRP) in a cross-sectional sample of 100 participants [mean (SD) age 57.8 (7.7) years; 64% female] with obesity [mean (SD) body mass index, BMI 37.3 (5.5) kg/m2] enrolled in a clinical trial for pharmacological weight loss interventions. Results BAI, but not BDI-II, scores were significantly correlated with CRP (rho=0.28, p=0.005). BMI was also highly correlated with CRP (rho=0.42, p<0.0001). In multivariate models, the relation between anxiety and CRP remained significant (p=0.038), independent of BMI, age and sex. Conclusion Anxiety, but not depression, is associated with elevated inflammation in persons with obesity beyond that attributable to higher BMI. Further study is warranted to assess whether anxiety represents a potential therapeutic target to mitigate corresponding CVD risk associated with elevated inflammation in persons with obesity. PMID:28000423

  13. Association between meal intake behaviour and abdominal obesity in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, Margarita M

    2015-09-01

    The study aims to evaluate the association between abdominal obesity with meal intake behaviour such as having a forenoon meal, having an afternoon meal and snacking. This cross-sectional study includes n = 1314 participants aged 20-79 who were interviewed during the Cardiac health "Semanas del Corazon" events in four Spanish cities (Madrid, Las Palmas, Seville and Valencia) in 2008. Waist circumference, weight and height were assessed to determine abdominal obesity (waist circumference: ≥88 cm in women and ≥102 cm in men) and BMI, respectively. The intake of forenoon and afternoon meal and snacking between the participants' regular meals were assessed with a questionnaire that also included individual risk factors. The information obtained about diet was required to calculate an Unhealthy Habit Score and a score reflecting the Achievement of Dietary Guidelines. Adjusted logistic regressions were used to examine the association between abdominal obesity and the mentioned meal intake behaviour controlling for sex, age, individual risk factors, BMI and diet. Having an afternoon meal (OR 0.60; 95% CI (0.41-0.88)) was negatively associated with abdominal obesity after adjusting for all confounders, whereas the positive association of snacking (OR 1.39; 95% CI (1.05-1.85)) was not independent of BMI (OR 1.25; 95% CI (0.84-1.87)). Taking a forenoon meal did not show any associations (OR 0.92; 95% CI (0.63-1.34)) with abdominal obesity. The results obtained could be helpful in the promotion of healthy habits in nutritional education programmes and also in health programmes preventing abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Rational therapy of patients with essential hypertension and abdominal obesity with concomitant subclinical hypothyroidism].

    PubMed

    Pligovka, V M

    2014-11-01

    It was determined the characteristics of lipid status of patients with essential hypertension, abdominal obesity with concomitant subclinical hypothyroidism--mostly increased levels of total and LDL cholesterol. In assessing the effectiveness of statin therapy in combination with levothyroxine replacement therapy compared with statin monotherapy, combination therapy showed the best result in terms of achievement of target levels of both total cholesterol and LDL. The obtained results allow us to recommend the use of combination therapy for patients with hypertension, abdominal obesity with concomitant subclinical hypothyroidism in order to achieve the target values of LDL and thus to reduce the cardiovascular risk of these patients.

  15. Physical activity level of postmenopausal women in Nigeria: Association with self-rated health status, overall obesity, and abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Adeniyi, Ade F; Orogbemi, Oluwakemi O

    2016-07-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) has been shown to have many health benefits in various populations, including postmenopausal women (n = 310). Self-rated health has been positively associated with PA. This cross-sectional survey of postmenopausal women in Nigeria was conducted from April to September 2012 to investigate associations among PA level, self-rated health, overall obesity (body mass index [BMI]), and abdominal obesity (waist-height ratio, waist-hip ratio, and waist circumference). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to classify PA. Chi-square and logistic regression were used for analyses with level of significance set at .05. Participants were aged 53.0 ± 4.2 years; moderate to vigorous PA was reported by 188 (60.0%), while 26 (8.4%) self-rated their health as poor/fair, and 242 (78.1%) were either predominantly overweight or obese when classified according to BMI. Participants with fair/poor self-rated health had less odds of involvement in moderate to vigorous PA. Obese postmenopausal women had greater odds of reporting lower PA. PA was positively related to self-rated health, which was negatively associated with overall obesity but not abdominal obesity. Measures to control obesity among postmenopausal women are essential in view of its direct association with poor self-rated health and low PA in this group of women.

  16. Elevated hypothalamic TCPTP in obesity contributes to cellular leptin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Kim; Fukushima, Atsushi; Zhang, Xinmei; Galic, Sandra; Briggs, Dana; Enriori, Pablo J.; Simonds, Stephanie; Wiede, Florian; Reichenbach, Alexander; Hauser, Christine; Sims, Natalie A.; Bence, Kendra K.; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Kahn, Barbara B.; Neel, Benjamin G.; Andrews, Zane B.; Cowley, Michael A.; Tiganis, Tony

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY In obesity, anorectic responses to leptin are diminished, giving rise to the concept of ‘leptin resistance’. Increased expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been associated with the attenuation of leptin signaling and development of cellular leptin resistance. Here we report that hypothalamic levels of the tyrosine phosphatase TCPTP are also elevated in obesity to attenuate the leptin response. We show that mice that lack TCPTP in neuronal cells have enhanced leptin sensitivity and are resistant to high fat diet-induced weight gain and the development of leptin resistance. Also, intracerebroventricular administration of a TCPTP inhibitor enhances leptin signaling and responses in mice. Moreover, the combined deletion of TCPTP and PTP1B in neuronal cells has additive effects in the prevention of diet-induced obesity. Our results identify TCPTP as a critical negative regulator of hypothalamic leptin signaling and causally link elevated TCPTP to the development of cellular leptin resistance in obesity. PMID:22000926

  17. Association of General and Abdominal Obesity With Hypertension, Dyslipidemia and Prediabetes in the PREDAPS Study.

    PubMed

    Sangrós, F Javier; Torrecilla, Jesús; Giráldez-García, Carolina; Carrillo, Lourdes; Mancera, José; Mur, Teresa; Franch, Josep; Díez, Javier; Goday, Albert; Serrano, Rosario; García-Soidán, F Javier; Cuatrecasas, Gabriel; Igual, Dimas; Moreno, Ana; Millaruelo, J Manuel; Carramiñana, Francisco; Ruiz, Manuel Antonio; Pérez, Francisco Carlos; Iriarte, Yon; Lorenzo, Ángela; González, María; Álvarez, Beatriz; Barutell, Lourdes; Mayayo, M Soledad; Del Castillo, Mercedes; Navarro, Emma; Malo, Fernando; Cambra, Ainhoa; López, Riánsares; Gutiérrez, M Ángel; Gutiérrez, Luisa; Boente, Carmen; Mediavilla, J Javier; Prieto, Luis; Mendo, Luis; Mansilla, M José; Ortega, Francisco Javier; Borras, Antonia; Sánchez, L Gabriel; Obaya, J Carlos; Alonso, Margarita; García, Francisco; Gutiérrez, Ángela Trinidad; Hernández, Ana M; Suárez, Dulce; Álvarez, J Carlos; Sáenz, Isabel; Martínez, F Javier; Casorrán, Ana; Ripoll, Jazmín; Salanova, Alejandro; Marín, M Teresa; Gutiérrez, Félix; Innerárity, Jaime; Álvarez, M Del Mar; Artola, Sara; Bedoya, M Jesús; Poveda, Santiago; Álvarez, Fernando; Brito, M Jesús; Iglesias, Rosario; Paniagua, Francisca; Nogales, Pedro; Gómez, Ángel; Rubio, José Félix; Durán, M Carmen; Sagredo, Julio; Gijón, M Teresa; Rollán, M Ángeles; Pérez, Pedro P; Gamarra, Javier; Carbonell, Francisco; García-Giralda, Luis; Antón, J Joaquín; de la Flor, Manuel; Martínez, Rosario; Pardo, José Luis; Ruiz, Antonio; Plana, Raquel; Macía, Ramón; Villaró, Mercè; Babace, Carmen; Torres, José Luis; Blanco, Concepción; Jurado, Ángeles; Martín, José Luis; Navarro, Jorge; Sanz, Gloria; Colas, Rafael; Cordero, Blanca; de Castro, Cristina; Ibáñez, Mercedes; Monzón, Alicia; Porta, Nuria; Gómez, María Del Carmen; Llanes, Rafael; Rodríguez, J José; Granero, Esteban; Sánchez, Manuel; Martínez, Juan; Ezkurra, Patxi; Ávila, Luis; de la Sen, Carlos; Rodríguez, Antonio; Buil, Pilar; Gabriel, Paula; Roura, Pilar; Tarragó, Eduard; Mundet, Xavier; Bosch, Remei; González, J Carles; Bobé, M Isabel; Mata, Manel; Ruiz, Irene; López, Flora; Birules, Marti; Armengol, Oriol; de Miguel, Rosa Mar; Romera, Laura; Benito, Belén; Piulats, Neus; Bilbeny, Beatriz; Cabré, J José; Cos, Xavier; Pujol, Ramón; Seguí, Mateu; Losada, Carmen; de Santiago, A María; Muñoz, Pedro; Regidor, Enrique

    2018-03-01

    Some anthropometric measurements show a greater capacity than others to identify the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. This study estimated the magnitude of the association of different anthropometric indicators of obesity with hypertension, dyslipidemia, and prediabetes (altered fasting plasma glucose and/or glycosylated hemoglobin). Cross-sectional analysis of information collected from 2022 participants in the PREDAPS study (baseline phase). General obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 30kg/m 2 and abdominal obesity was defined with 2 criteria: a) waist circumference (WC) ≥ 102cm in men/WC ≥ 88cm in women, and b) waist-height ratio (WHtR) ≥ 0.55. The magnitude of the association was estimated by logistic regression. Hypertension showed the strongest association with general obesity in women (OR, 3.01; 95%CI, 2.24-4.04) and with abdominal obesity based on the WHtR criterion in men (OR, 3.65; 95%CI, 2.66-5.01). Hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol showed the strongest association with abdominal obesity based on the WHtR criterion in women (OR, 2.49; 95%CI, 1.68-3.67 and OR, 2.70; 95%CI, 1.89-3.86) and with general obesity in men (OR, 2.06; 95%CI, 1.56-2.73 and OR, 1.68; 95%CI, 1.21-2.33). Prediabetes showed the strongest association with abdominal obesity based on the WHtR criterion in women (OR, 2.48; 95%CI, 1.85-3.33) and with abdominal obesity based on the WC criterion in men (OR, 2.33; 95%CI, 1.75-3.08). Abdominal obesity indicators showed the strongest association with the presence of prediabetes. The association of anthropometric indicators with hypertension and dyslipidemia showed heterogeneous results. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Household food insecurity is associated with abdominal but not general obesity among Iranian children.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Fateme; Ehsani, Simin; Nadjarzadeh, Azadeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Noori-Shadkam, Mahmood; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin

    2017-04-21

    Childhood obesity is increasing all over the world. Food insecurity is mentioned as a possible risk factor; however, previous studies have led to inconsistent results in different societies while data are lacking for the Middle East. We aimed to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and general or abdominal obesity in Iranian children in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data including height, weight, and waist circumference were measured by trained nutritionists. General and abdominal obesity were defined based on world health organization (WHO) and Iranian reference curves for age and gender, respectively. Radimer/Cornell food security questionnaire was filled by parents. Data about the physical activity of participants, family socio-economic status, parental obesity and data about perinatal period were also gathered using self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression was incorporated to investigate the association between food insecurity and obesity in crude and multi-variable adjusted models. A total of 587 children aged 9.30 ± 1.49 years had complete data for analysis. Food insecurity at household level was significantly associated with abdominal obesity (odds ratio (OR) = 1.54; confidence interval (CI):1.01-2.34, p <0.05) and the relationship remained significant after adjusting for all potential confounding variables (OR = 2.02; CI:1.01-4.03, p <0.05). Food insecurity was associated with general obesity neither in crude analysis and multi-variable adjusted models. The slight levels of food insecurity might increase the likelihood of abdominal obesity in Iranian children and macroeconomic policies to improve the food security are necessary. Large-scale prospective studies, particularly in the Middle East, are highly recommended to confirm our results.

  19. Abdominal obesity: a marker of ectopic fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    In the early 1980s, we analyzed the metabolic profile of 930 men and women and concluded that an abdominal distribution of fat for a given BMI is associated with increased insulin resistance and risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The correlation between abdominal fat and metabolic dysfunction has since been validated in many studies, and waist circumference is now a criterion for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Several mechanisms for this relationship have been postulated; however, we now know that visceral fat is only one of many ectopic fat depots used when the subcutaneous adipose tissue cannot accommodate excess fat because of its limited expandability.

  20. The prevalence of abdominal obesity among pupils with visual impairment in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wrzesińska, Magdalena; Urzędowicz, Beata; Nawarycz, Tadeusz; Motylewski, Sławomir; Pawlicki, Lucjan

    2017-10-01

    Obesity particularly affects young people with disabilities, whose ability to participate in health promotion programs is reduced. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity among students with visual impairment in Poland according to waist-to-height ratio, including indicators such as gender, age or certain additional coexisting disabilities or disorders. A total of 238 students who were blind or partially-sighted, aged 7.35-23.35 years (mean age 15.5; ±3.9 years), were included in the study. Abdominal obesity was estimated using waist-to-height ratio; a cutoff point of ≥0.50 was determined as central obesity. Abdominal obesity was identified among 26.9% [N = 64] of the participants: 33.1% [N = 41] of male students and 20.2% [N = 23] of female students (ch2 = 5.02; p = 0.025; Phi = 0.145). Of all the students, the multivariate logistic regression showed that abdominal obesity was one and a half times more likely to be detected in the 7-9 year age group (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 0.58-4.18; P = 0.376) than the 19-23 year age group. However, among the female subjects, abdominal obesity was over six times more common in the 7-9 year group (OR = 6.48; 95% CI 1.29-32.5; P = 0.022) than in the group of early adults. Central obesity was detected almost three times more frequently among students with visual impairment and additional intellectual disability (OR = 2.99; 95% CI 0.52-17.1; P = 0.215) than those with only visual impairment. Prevention programs aimed at reducing abdominal obesity among pupils with visual impairment from special schools are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of abdominal obesity and its association with cardio metabolic risk factors among older adults in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Orces, Carlos H; Montalvan, Martha; Tettamanti, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of abdominal obesity and its association with cardio metabolic risk factors among older adults in Ecuador. The present study used data from the National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging survey to examine the prevalence of abdominal obesity according to certain demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics of the participants. Logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders were used to evaluate the association of abdominal obesity with cardio metabolic risk factors. Of 2053 participants aged 60 years and older, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 65.9% (95% CI; 62.2%, 69.4%) in women and 16.3% (95% CI; 13.8%, 19.2%) in men. Notably, a higher prevalence of abdominal obesity was seen among residents in the urban areas of the country, those who reported their race as black or mulatto, individuals with sedentary lifestyle and obesity, and older adults with greater number of comorbidities. Moreover, after adjustment for potential confounders, women with abdominal obesity were 2.0, 2.8, and 1.6 times more likely to have diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and hypertriglyceridemia as compared with those without, respectively. Likewise, men with abdominal obesity had 51% and 22% higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than their non-obese counterparts, respectively. the prevalence of abdominal obesity is high among older adults in Ecuador. Moreover, abdominal obesity is significantly associated with cardio metabolic risk factors. Therefore, further research is needed to evaluate sociodemographic and nutritional determinants of this emerging public health burden among older Ecuadorians. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Abdominal obesity is strongly associated to blood pressure in young Mexicans.

    PubMed

    Urquidez Romero, Rene; Murguía Romero, Miguel; Esparza Romero, Julián; Díaz Torres, Beatriz Araceli; Rodríguez Tadeo, Alejandra; Medrano Donlucas, Gabriel; Ramos Jiménez, Arnulfo; Wall Medrano, Abraham; Gallardo Ortíz, Itzell A; Tapia Pancardo, Diana C Tapia-Pancardo C; Méndez Cruz, A René; Jiménez Flores, J Rafael; Villalobos Molina, Rafael

    2017-03-30

    The objective of this study was to determine associations between abdominal obesity (AOb) and the other components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young Mexicans in a cross-sectional survey completed during a 4 year period. This cross-sectional study reports on components and prevalence of MetS by using Alberti et al. (16) criteria, as well as association between AOb and elevated blood pressure (BP) of 2,993 Mexican university students, ages 17 to 25 years (66% women) from central and northern Mexico, over a 4-year survey (2010-2013). The most prevalent MetS components in the total sample were low HDL-C concentration (43.6%) and AOb (41.1%). MetS prevalence was 11.8%, more men than women were classified with MetS (14.3% vs. 10.5%, p < 0.01). BP was the MetS component with the lowest prevalence (8.6%). A strong association between AOb and altered BP with in both men and women was found (OR 4.3, IC95% 2.5-7.4). Even BP was the component with the lowest prevalence, AOb was more strongly associated with it. This fact, could explain the prevalence of hypertension among young Mexican adults.

  3. Association between general and abdominal obesity with high blood pressure: difference between genders.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alison O; Silva, Micaelly V; Pereira, Lisley K N; Feitosa, Wallacy M N; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M; Diniz, Paula R B; Oliveira, Luciano M F T

    2016-01-01

    To assess the association between general and abdominal obesity with high blood pressure in adolescents of both genders from the public school system. This was an epidemiological, descriptive, exploratory study, with a quantitative approach and local scope whose sample consisted of 481 high school students (aged 14-19), selected by using a random cluster sampling strategy. Blood pressure was measured through the use of automated monitor and was considered high when the pressure values were at or above the 95th percentile. The analyses were performed using the chi-squared test and binary logistic regression. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 6.4%, and it was higher among boys (9.0% vs. 4.7%, p<0.05). There was no significant difference between general (p=0.903) and abdominal obesity (p=0.157) when genders were compared. After adjusting for age, high blood pressure was associated with general (OR=6.4; p<0.001) and abdominal obesity (OR=7.0; p<0.001) only among boys, when comparing the fourth quartile with the first quartile of body mass index (≤ 18.6 kg/m(2)vs. ≥ 23.5 kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (≤ 69 cm vs. ≥ 80.1cm). It was observed that general and abdominal obesity are associated with high blood pressure only in boys, regardless of age. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Gestational diabetes predicts the risk of childhood overweight and abdominal circumference independent of maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Nehring, I; Chmitorz, A; Reulen, H; von Kries, R; Ensenauer, R

    2013-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is believed to be a risk factor for childhood overweight/obesity. We aimed to assess whether this association is either a reflection or independent of confounding by maternal BMI. Data from 7355 mother-child dyads of the German Perinatal Prevention of Obesity cohort with full anthropometric information on mothers and children, gestational diabetes and confounding factors were obtained at school entry health examination. We calculated crude and adjusted logistic regression models for the association of gestational diabetes and childhood overweight/obesity and abdominal adiposity defined by age- and sex-specific percentiles for BMI and waist circumference. Among all children (mean age 5.8 years), 8.1% were overweight, 2.6% were obese and 15.5% had abdominal adiposity. The prevalence of overweight (obesity) was 21% (8.2%) in children of mothers with gestational diabetes and 10.4% (2.4%) in children of healthy mothers. Analyses with adjustment for maternal BMI and other potential confounders yielded an odds ratio of 1.81 (95% CI 1.23-2.65) and 2.80 (95% CI 1.58-4.99) for the impact of gestational diabetes on childhood overweight and obesity, respectively. Similar results were obtained for the risk of childhood abdominal adiposity (odds ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.16-2.33) by maternal gestational diabetes. The postulated increased risk of overweight and abdominal adiposity in offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes cannot be explained by maternal BMI alone and may be stronger for childhood obesity than for overweight. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  5. The influence of abdominal obesity and chronic work stress on ambulatory blood pressure in men and women.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, A; Cropley, M; Griffith, J; Joekes, K

    1999-11-01

    To assess the influence of abdominal obesity and work stress (operationalised as low control over work) on ambulatory blood pressure on a working day and evening. 156 school teachers (58 men and 98 women) carried out ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate monitoring on a work day and evening. Cardiovascular activity was also measured under baseline conditions on another occasion, when body weight, height, waist and hip circumference were assessed. Perceived control over work was assessed by questionnaire, along with mental health, anger expression and social support. 126 participants repeated the protocol after 12 months. Waist/hip ratio was used as the index of abdominal obesity. Baseline blood pressure was positively associated with waist/hip ratio in men, but ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate were not independently related to waist/hip ratio or job control. However, blood pressure and heart rate recorded during the working day and evening were elevated in men with high waist/hip ratio who experienced low job control, independently of age and body weight. Effects for diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were replicated after 12 months. Body mass index was not related to blood pressure or heart rate during the day or evening after adjustment for age and waist circumference. Low job control was associated with poor psychological well-being, negative mood and lack of social support. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that abdominal obesity in men is characterised by a tendency towards heightened stress-induced physiological activation, but that this tendency will only be manifest in the presence of appropriate environmental challenges such as chronic work stress.

  6. Prevalence of Prediabetes and Abdominal Obesity Among Healthy-Weight Adults: 18-Year Trend.

    PubMed

    Mainous, Arch G; Tanner, Rebecca J; Jo, Ara; Anton, Stephen D

    2016-07-01

    Trends in sedentary lifestyle may have influenced adult body composition and metabolic health among individuals at presumably healthy weights. This study examines the nationally representative prevalence of prediabetes and abdominal obesity among healthy-weight adults in 1988 through 2012. We analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988-1994) and NHANES for the years 1999 to 2012, focusing on adults aged 20 years and older who have a body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to 24.99 and do not have diabetes, either diagnosed or undiagnosed. We defined prediabetes using glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ranges from 5.7% to 6.4%, as specified by the American Diabetes Association. Abdominal obesity was measured by waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio. The prevalence of prediabetes among healthy-weight adults, aged 20 years and older and without diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, increased from 10.2% in 1988-1994 to 18.5% in 2012. Among individuals aged 45 years and older, the prevalence of prediabetes increased from 22.0% to 33.1%. The percentage of adults aged 20 years and older with an unhealthy waist circumference increased from 5.6% in 1988-1994 to 7.6% in 2012. The percentage of individuals with an unhealthy waist-to-height ratio increased from 27.2% in 1988-1994 to 33.7% in 2012. Adjusted models found that measures of abdominal obesity were not independent predictors of prediabetes among adults with a healthy BMI. Among individuals within a healthy BMI range, the prevalence of prediabetes and abdominal obesity has substantially increased. Abdominal obesity does not appear to be the primary cause of the increase. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  7. Prevalence of Prediabetes and Abdominal Obesity Among Healthy-Weight Adults: 18-Year Trend

    PubMed Central

    Mainous, Arch G.; Tanner, Rebecca J.; Jo, Ara; Anton, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Trends in sedentary lifestyle may have influenced adult body composition and metabolic health among individuals at presumably healthy weights. This study examines the nationally representative prevalence of prediabetes and abdominal obesity among healthy-weight adults in 1988 through 2012. METHODS We analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988–1994) and NHANES for the years 1999 to 2012, focusing on adults aged 20 years and older who have a body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to 24.99 and do not have diabetes, either diagnosed or undiagnosed. We defined prediabetes using glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ranges from 5.7% to 6.4%, as specified by the American Diabetes Association. Abdominal obesity was measured by waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio. RESULTS The prevalence of prediabetes among healthy-weight adults, aged 20 years and older and without diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, increased from 10.2% in 1988–1994 to 18.5% in 2012. Among individuals aged 45 years and older, the prevalence of prediabetes increased from 22.0% to 33.1%. The percentage of adults aged 20 years and older with an unhealthy waist circumference increased from 5.6% in 1988–1994 to 7.6% in 2012. The percentage of individuals with an unhealthy waist-to-height ratio increased from 27.2% in 1988–1994 to 33.7% in 2012. Adjusted models found that measures of abdominal obesity were not independent predictors of prediabetes among adults with a healthy BMI. CONCLUSIONS Among individuals within a healthy BMI range, the prevalence of prediabetes and abdominal obesity has substantially increased. Abdominal obesity does not appear to be the primary cause of the increase. PMID:27401417

  8. Fatty and lean red meat consumption in China: differential association with Chinese abdominal obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Zhang, B.; Zhai, F.; Wang, H.; Zhang, J.; Du, W.; Su, C.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, H.; Popkin, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim We examined the longitudinal association between red meat (RM) consumption and the risk of abdominal obesity in Chinese adults. Methods and results Our data are from 16,822 adults aged 18 to 75 in the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1993 to 2011. We assessed RM intake with three 24-hour dietary recalls. We defined abdominal obesity as a waist circumference (WC) ≥ 85 centimeters (cm) for men and ≥ 80 cm for women. Multilevel mixed-effect regression models showed that men experienced WC increases of 0.74 cm (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39–1.09) from a higher total intake of fresh RM and 0.59 cm (95% CI: 0.24–0. 95) from a higher intake of fatty fresh RM but 0.14 cm (95% CI: −0.39–0.66) from a higher intake of lean fresh RM in the top versus the bottom quartile when adjusted for potential confounders. In contrast, after additional adjustment for baseline WC, the odds ratios of abdominal obesity in men were attenuated for total fresh RM (1.25 [95% CI: 1.06–1.47]) and fatty fresh RM (1.22 [95% CI: 1.03–1.44]) but were still not affected by lean fresh RM (0.95 [95% CI: 0.75–1.22]). Women also showed a positive association of fatty fresh RM intake with abdominal obesity. Conclusion Greater intake of fatty fresh RM was significantly associated with higher WC (men only) and abdominal obesity risk in Chinese adults. The gender-specific differential association of fatty versus lean fresh RM warrants further study. PMID:24795160

  9. Fatty and lean red meat consumption in China: differential association with Chinese abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Zhang, B; Zhai, F; Wang, H; Zhang, J; Du, W; Su, C; Zhang, J; Jiang, H; Popkin, B M

    2014-08-01

    We examined the longitudinal association between red meat (RM) consumption and the risk of abdominal obesity in Chinese adults. Our data are from 16,822 adults aged 18-75 in the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1993 to 2011. We assessed RM intake with three 24-h dietary recalls. We defined abdominal obesity as a waist circumference (WC) ≥85 centimeters (cm) for men and ≥80 cm for women. Multilevel mixed-effect regression models showed that men experienced WC increases of 0.74 cm (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-1.09) from a higher total intake of fresh RM and 0.59 cm (95% CI: 0.24-0. 95) from a higher intake of fatty fresh RM but 0.14 cm (95% CI: -0.39 to 0.66) from a higher intake of lean fresh RM in the top quartile versus non-consumers when adjusted for potential confounders. In contrast, after additional adjustment for baseline WC, the odds ratios of abdominal obesity in men were attenuated for total fresh RM (1.25 [95% CI: 1.06-1.47]) and fatty fresh RM (1.22 [95% CI: 1.03-1.44]) but were still not affected by lean fresh RM (0.95 [95% CI: 0.75-1.22]). Women also showed a positive association of fatty fresh RM intake with abdominal obesity. Greater intake of fatty fresh RM was significantly associated with higher WC (men only) and abdominal obesity risk in Chinese adults. The gender-specific differential association of fatty versus lean fresh RM warrants further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. First national epidemiological survey on the prevalence of obesity and abdominal fat distribution in Greek adults.

    PubMed

    Kapantais, E; Tzotzas, T; Ioannidis, I; Mortoglou, A; Bakatselos, S; Kaklamanou, M; Lanaras, L; Kaklamanos, I

    2006-01-01

    To provide estimates of the prevalence of obesity, overweight and body fat distribution among the adult population of Greece. Epidemiological, cross-sectional nationwide survey providing self-reported data. A total of 17,341 men and women aged from 20 to 70 years and classified into five 10-year age groups participated. The selection was conducted by stratified sampling through household family members of Greek children attending school. The participants reported data on weight, height, waist and hip circumference. BMI and waist-to-hip ratio were calculated. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference > or = 102 cm in men and > or = 88 cm in women. In the total population, the mean BMI was 26.5 kg/m2, (27.3 in men, 25.7 in women). The overall prevalence of obesity was 22.5%, (26% in men, 18.2% in women) while that of overweight was 35.2% (41.1% in men, 29.9% in women). The percentages of obesity and overweight in men were similar in almost all age groups, while in women they progressively increased with age. Abdominal obesity was more frequent among women than men (35.8 vs. 26.6%, respectively), especially after the age of 50. Excess body weight is reaching epidemic proportions in Greece and obesity rates are among the highest, if not the highest, in Western society. The problem affects particularly men, and women after menopause. Interestingly, more women than men present with abdominal obesity. Preventive and treatment strategies are urgently needed to stop the obesity epidemic in this Mediterranean European country. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Survey of abdominal obesities in an adult urban population of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kasiam Lasi On’kin, JB; Longo-Mbenza, B; Okwe, A Nge; Kabangu, N Kangola

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background The prevalence of overweight/obesity, which is an important cardiovascular risk factor, is rapidly increasing worldwide. Abdominal obesity, a fundamental component of the metabolic syndrome, is not defined by appropriate cutoff points for sub-Saharan Africa. Objective To provide baseline and reference data on the anthropometry/body composition and the prevalence rates of obesity types and levels in the adult urban population of Kinshasa, DRC, Central Africa. Methods During this cross-sectional study carried out within a random sample of adults in Kinshasa town, body mass index, waist circumference and fatty mass were measured using standard methods. Their reference and local thresholds (cut-off points) were compared with those of WHO, NCEP and IFD to define the types and levels of obesity in the population. Results From this sample of 11 511 subjects (5 676 men and 5 835 women), the men presented with similar body mass index and fatty mass values to those of the women, but higher waist measurements. The international thresholds overestimated the prevalence of denutrition, but underscored that of general and abdominal obesity. The two types of obesity were more prevalent among women than men when using both international and local thresholds. Body mass index was negatively associated with age; but abdominal obesity was more frequent before 20 years of age and between 40 and 60 years old. Local thresholds of body mass index (≥ 23, ≥ 27 and ≥ 30 kg/m2) and waist measurement (≥ 80, ≥ 90 and ≥ 94 cm) defined epidemic rates of overweight/general obesity (52%) and abdominal obesity (40.9%). The threshold of waist circumference ≥ 94 cm (90th percentile) corresponding to the threshold of the body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 (90th percentile) was proposed as the specific threshold of definition of the metabolic syndrome, without reference to gender, for the cities of sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion Further studies are required to define the

  12. Prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity from four to 16 years old children living in the Mexico-USA border.

    PubMed

    Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jones, Elizabeth G; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among Mexicans is alarming in both the child and adult populations. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity in pre-school (PS), elementary (ES), and middle high (MHS) public school children from Tijuana. From February to April of 2011, a bietapic random sample was selected by cluster method of 30 PS, 30 ES, and 30 MHS children. And a sample of 30 groups for each level was chosen. Twenty elementary teachers and eight graduate students were trained at one central location on how to take anthropometric measurements using a portable scale, a stadiometer, and a measuring tape to determine weight, height, and waist circumference. Body Mass Index values were computed and compared to age/gender BMI percentiles according to WHO criteria. Waist circumference for-age at the 90th percentile from NHANES III (Mexican-American) was used to define abdominal obesity. The sample was composed of 646 PS children, 961 ES children, and 1,095 MHS children. Their ages ranged from 4- 16 years. Results showed an overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in younger than 5y preschool children (> 2 SD) of 23.1%, in ≥ 5 y PS (> 1 SD) of 33.8%, in ES children of 46.3%, and in MHS children of 41.9%. Abdominal obesity in PS children was 18%, in ES children was 16.7%, and in MHS children was 15.2%. These results warrant immediate and comprehensive actions to prevent a critical public health problem in Mexico. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Abdominal obesity in older women: potential role for disrupted fatty acid reesterification in insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Yeckel, Catherine W; Dziura, James; DiPietro, Loretta

    2008-04-01

    Excess abdominal adiposity is a primary factor for insulin resistance in older age. Our objectives were to examine the role of abdominal obesity on adipose tissue, hepatic, and peripheral insulin resistance in aging, and to examine impaired free fatty acid metabolism as a mechanism in these relations. This was a cross-sectional study. The study was performed at a General Clinical Research Center. Healthy, inactive older (>60 yr) women (n = 25) who were not on hormone replacement therapy or glucose-lowering medication were included in the study. Women with abdominal circumference values above the median (>97.5 cm) were considered abdominally obese. Whole-body peripheral glucose utilization, adipose tissue lipolysis, and hepatic glucose production were measured using in vivo techniques according to a priori hypotheses. In the simple analysis, glucose utilization at the 40 mU insulin dose (6.3 +/- 2.8 vs. 9.1 +/- 3.4; P < 0.05), the index of the insulin resistance of basal hepatic glucose production (23.6 +/- 13.0 vs. 15.1 +/- 6.0; P < 0.05), and insulin-stimulated suppression of lipolysis (35 vs. 54%; P < 0.05) were significantly different between women with and without abdominal obesity, respectively. Using the glycerol appearance rate to free fatty acid ratio as an index of fatty acid reesterification revealed markedly blunted reesterification in the women with abdominal adiposity under all conditions: basal (0.95 +/- 0.29 vs. 1.35 +/- 0.47; P < 0.02); low- (2.58 +/- 2.76 vs. 6.95 +/- 5.56; P < 0.02); and high-dose (4.46 +/- 3.70 vs. 12.22 +/- 7.13; P < 0.01) hyperinsulinemia. Importantly, fatty acid reesterification was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with abdominal circumference and hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance, regardless of total body fat. These findings support the premise of dysregulated fatty acid reesterification with abdominal obesity as a pathophysiological link to perturbed glucose metabolism across multiple tissues in aging.

  14. Socioeconomic inequality in abdominal obesity among older people in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia - a decomposition analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Pujilestari, Cahya Utamie; Nyström, Lennarth; Norberg, Margareta; Weinehall, Lars; Hakimi, Mohammad; Ng, Nawi

    2017-12-12

    Obesity has become a global health challenge as its prevalence has increased globally in recent decades. Studies in high-income countries have shown that obesity is more prevalent among the poor. In contrast, obesity is more prevalent among the rich in low- and middle-income countries, hence requiring different focal points to design public health policies in the latter contexts. We examined socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia and identified factors contributing to the inequalities. We utilised data from the WHO-INDEPTH Study on global AGEing and adult health (WHO-INDEPTH SAGE) conducted in the Purworejo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Purworejo District, Indonesia in 2010. The study included 14,235 individuals aged 50 years and older. Inequalities in abdominal obesity across wealth groups were assessed separately for men and women using concentration indexes. Decomposition analysis was conducted to assess the determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity. Abdominal obesity was five-fold more prevalent among women than in men (30% vs. 6.1%; p < 0.001). The concentration index (CI) analysis showed that socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity were less prominent among women (CI = 0.26, SE = 0.02, p < 0.001) compared to men (CI = 0.49, SE = 0.04, p < 0.001). Decomposition analysis showed that physical labour was the major determinant of socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity among men, explaining 47% of the inequalities, followed by poor socioeconomic status (31%), ≤ 6 years of education (15%) and current smoking (11%). The three major determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity among women were poor socio-economic status (48%), physical labour (17%) and no formal education (16%). Abdominal obesity was more prevalent among older women in a rural Indonesian setting. Socioeconomic inequality in

  15. Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography Correlates with Hyperlipidemia and Steatohepatitis in Obese Children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hyun; Kim, Dongwan; Baek, Min Young; Tchah, Hann; Kim, Yeon Sun; Ryoo, Eell; Kim, Yun Mi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured by ultrasonography (US) and serum lipid profile and liver transaminases in obese children. One hundred and sixty-six children diagnosed with obesity from May 2001 to December 2013 were included in this study. Data on serum lipid profile and liver transaminases were collected from clinical records. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and grade of hepatic steatosis were evaluated by US. Of the 166 children, 107 were diagnosed with hepatic steatosis by US, 46 with grade I, 56 with grade II, and five children with grade III. According to the grade of hepatic steasosis, the average values of midline abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and right flank abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured 2.9±0.8 cm and 1.9±0.7 cm in the normal group, 3.3±0.8 cm and 2.0±0.7 cm in grade I, 3.8±0.8 cm and 2.3±0.8 cm in grade II, and 4.1±0.8 cm and 2.8±1.4 cm in grade III, respectively. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness correlated with grade of hepatic steatosis (p<0.01). In addition, abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness correlated with concentration of serum lipids and liver transaminases in the age group of 12-14 years (p<0.01). Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured by US can be used as a reliable predictor of possible hyperlipidemia and steatohepatitis in children, especially during the adolescent stage.

  16. Abdominal Pain After Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass for Morbid Obesity.

    PubMed

    Mala, Tom; Høgestøl, Ingvild

    2018-05-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is widely used as treatment of morbid obesity. Weight loss, effects on obesity-related co-morbidities and quality of life are well documented post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Other outcome measures are less well studied. This review explores aspects of prevalence, diagnostic evaluations, etiology, and treatment of abdominal pain specific to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The review is based on PubMed searches and clinical experience with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Symptoms in the early postoperative phase (<30 days) were not included. Based on limited evidence, up to about 30% of the patients may perceive recurrent abdominal pain post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in the long term. A substantial subset of patients will need health-care evaluation for acute abdominal pain and hospital admission. The etiology of abdominal pain is heterogeneous and includes gallstone-related disease, intestinal obstruction, anastomotic ulcerations and strictures, intestinal dysmotility, dysfunctional eating, and food intolerance. Surgical treatment and guidance on diet and eating habits may allow symptom relief. The cause of pain remains undefined for a subset of patients. Impact of abdominal pain post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on the perception of well-being, quality of life, and patient satisfaction with the procedure needs to be further evaluated and may be influenced by complex interactions between new symptoms post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and relief of pre-existing symptoms. Abdominal pain should be part of follow-up consultations post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Future studies should focus on combined evaluations before and after surgery to enlighten potential casual relationships between abdominal pain and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  17. Obese Mexican American children have elevated MCP-1, TNF-alpha, monocyte concentration, and dyslipidemia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic disease. The prevalence of obesity is especially high among Mexican American children. Peripheral blood monocytes are altered with obesity contributing to elevated systemic inflammation and increased risk of chronic disease. In addition, obesity alte...

  18. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria: results of a population-based house-to-house survey.

    PubMed

    Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk.

  19. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria: results of a population-based house-to-house survey

    PubMed Central

    Ijezie, Innocent Chukwuonye; Chuku, Abali; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and methods We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Results Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:23946664

  20. Abdominal obesity and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Postorino, Maurizio; Marino, Carmen; Tripepi, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine

    2009-04-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value for all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) death of anthropometric measurements of abdominal obesity in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Surrogate measures of abdominal obesity and segmental fat distribution (waist circumference and waist/hip ratio [WHR]) are stronger predictors of all-cause and CV death than body mass index (BMI) in the general population, but the issue has never been investigated in patients with ESRD. We performed a prospective cohort study in 537 patients with ESRD (age 63 +/- 15 years). In BMI-adjusted Cox models, waist circumference was a direct predictor of all-cause and CV mortality (p < 0.001), whereas BMI showed an inverse relationship (p < 0.001) with these outcomes. The incidence rates of overall and CV death were maximal in patients with relatively lower BMI scores (below the median) and higher waist circumferences (at least the median) and minimal in patients with higher BMI scores (at least the median) and small waist circumferences (below the median). The prognostic power of waist circumference for all-cause (hazard ratio [HR] [10-cm increase]: 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02 to 1.47; p = 0.03) and CV mortality (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.73; p = 0.006) remained significant after adjustment for CV comorbidities and traditional and emerging risk factors. WHR was found to be related to all-cause (p = 0.009) and CV mortality (p = 0.07). Abdominal obesity underlies a high risk of all-cause and CV mortality in patients with ESRD. Redefinition of nutritional status by combining the metrics of abdominal obesity and BMI may refine prognosis in the ESRD population.

  1. Gender differences in the prevalence and development of metabolic syndrome in Chinese population with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shaoyong; Gao, Bin; Xing, Ying; Ming, Jie; Bao, Junxiang; Zhang, Qiang; Wan, Yi; Ji, Qiuhe

    2013-01-01

    Not all the people with metabolic syndrome (MS) have abdominal obesity (AO). The study aimed to investigate gender differences in the prevalence and development of MS in Chinese population with abdominal obesity, which has rarely been reported. Data were obtained from the 2007-08 China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study, and participants were divided into two samples for analysis. Sample 1 consisted of 19,046 people with abdominal obesity, while sample 2 included 2,124 people meeting pre-specified requirements. Survival analysis was used to analyze the development of MS. The age-standardized prevalence of MS in Chinese population with AO was 49.5%. The prevalence in males (73.7%) was significantly higher than that in females (36.9%). Males had significantly higher proportions of combinations of three or four MS components than females (36.4% vs. 30.2% and 18.4% vs. 5%, respectively). MS developed quick at first and became slow down later. Half of the participants with AO developed to MS after 3.9 years (95% CI: 3.7-4.1) from the initial metabolic abnormal component, whereas 75% developed to MS after 7.7 years (95% CI: 7.5-7.9). Compared with females, Chinese males with AO should receive more attention because of their higher prevalence of MS and its components, more complex and risky combinations of abnormal components, and faster development of MS.

  2. Association of acrylamide hemoglobin biomarkers with obesity, abdominal obesity and overweight in general US population: NHANES 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mengmeng; Zhuang, Pan; Jiao, Jingjing; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yu

    2018-08-01

    Exposure to chemical contaminants is considered as one of risk factors to the current epidemic of obesity. Acrylamide (AA) is a ubiquitous chemical contaminant in environmental waste, mainstream cigarette smoke and carbohydrate-rich foods, and widely used in industrial manufacturers and cosmetics. Few studies have highlighted the association of daily exposure to AA with obesity-related outcomes. We analyzed data from 8364 participants who aged 20-85years and were recruited in National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2003-2006. We established the model of PROC Survey Logistic regressions via using AA biomarkers in blood, hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide (HbAA and HbGA), as the measure of internal exposure to AA, and assessing obesity, abdominal obesity and overweight with body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). After the adjustment of sociodemographic variables, lifestyle behaviors, and health-related factors, the ratio of HbGA to HbAA (HbGA/HbAA) was significantly associated with obesity (p for trend<0.0001). The odd ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of HbGA/HbAA across increasing quartiles were 1.740 (1.413-2.144), 2.604 (2.157-3.144), and 2.863 (2.425-3.380) compared with the lowest quartile. HbGA was positively associated with obesity [OR (95% CI): 1.226 (1.041-1.443), 1.283 (1.121-1.468), and 1.398 (1.165-1.679); p for trend=0.0004], while HbAA was inversely associated with obesity [OR (95% CI): 0.839 (0.718-0.980), 0.713 (0.600-0.848), and 0.671 (0.554-0.811); p for trend<0.0001]. Negative associations were found between the sum of HbAA and HbGA (HbAA+HbGA) and the body weight outcomes. Similar associations were also observed between the hemoglobin biomarkers of AA and abdominal obesity as well as overweight. Thus, the hemoglobin adducts of AA as long-term internal exposure biomarkers are strongly associated with obesity-related outcomes in a population of US adults. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  3. Abdominal obesity and its association with socioeconomic factors among adolescents from different living environments.

    PubMed

    Costa de Oliveira Forkert, E; de Moraes, A C F; Carvalho, H B; Kafatos, A; Manios, Y; Sjöström, M; González-Gross, M; Gottrand, F; Beghin, L; Censi, L; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A

    2017-04-01

    Socioeconomic status has been associated with obesity in children and adolescents. This association may be dependent according with where adolescents lives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between different socioeconomic indicators such as parental education and occupation and socioeconomic status with abdominal obesity in adolescents from two observational studies: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence cross-sectional study (HELENA-CSS) and the Brazilian Cardiovascular Adolescent Health (BRACAH) study. European (n = 3192, aged 12.5-17.5 years, with 53.1% girls from HELENA-CSS) and Brazilian (n = 991, aged 14-18 years, with 54.5% girls from BRACAH study) adolescents from two cross-sectional studies were included in this analysis. Complete data on waist circumference (WC), height, socioeconomic status indicators and several confounders were collected. Socioeconomic indicators were measured using a self-reported questionnaire in order to assess the family social status of the adolescents. Multilevel linear regression models were used to examine associations, and results were adjusted for potential confounders. Adjusted results showed inverse associations between mother's and father's education levels (p < 0.001) and father's occupation level (p < 0.001) with waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and WC in HELENA-CSS girls. Similarly in European girls, socioeconomic indicators by socioeconomic status and maternal occupation level were associated with WHtR. In HELENA-CSS boys, the same significant association was found between WHtR and WC with maternal occupation level. Moreover, in European boys WHtR was also associated with parental education. In Brazilian adolescents, both indicators of abdominal obesity did not remain associated with the independents variables, after adjustment for potential confounders. Abdominal obesity was associated with socioeconomic indicators in higher-income countries, but this

  4. Regional Differences in Adipose Tissue Hormone/Cytokine Production Before and After Weight Loss in Abdominally Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    You, Tongjian; Wang, Xuewen; Murphy, Karin M.; Lyles, Mary F.; Demons, Jamehl L.; Yang, Rongze; Gong, Da-Wei; Nicklas, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the regional differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue hormone/cytokine production in abdominally obese women during weight loss. Design and Methods Forty-two abdominally obese, older women underwent a 20-week weight loss intervention composed of hypocaloric diet with or without aerobic exercise (total energy expenditure: ~2800 kcal/week). Subcutaneous (gluteal and abdominal) adipose tissue biopsies were conducted before and after the intervention. Results Adipose tissue gene expression and release of leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were determined. The intervention resulted in significant weight loss (−10.1 ±0.7 kg, P<0.001). At baseline, gene expression of adiponectin were higher (P<0.01), and gene expression and release of IL-6 were lower (both P<0.05) in abdominal than in gluteal adipose tissue. After intervention, leptin gene expression and release were lower in both gluteal and abdominal adipose tissue compared to baseline (P<0.05 to P<0.01). Abdominal, but not gluteal, adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression and release increased after intervention (both P<0.05). Conclusion A 20-week weight loss program decreased leptin production in both gluteal and abdominal adipose tissue, but only increased adiponectin production from abdominal adipose tissue in obese women. This depot-specific effect may be of importance for the treatment of health complications associated with abdominal adiposity. PMID:24634403

  5. The combination of dynapenia and abdominal obesity as a risk factor for worse trajectories of IADL disability among older adults.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Scholes, Shaun; Ferreira Santos, Jair Licio; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Cesar

    2017-10-02

    The concept of dynapenic obesity has been gaining great attention recently. However, there is little epidemiological evidence demonstrating that dynapenic abdominal obese individuals have worse trajectories of disability than those with dynapenia and abdominal obesity alone. Our aim was to investigate whether dynapenia combined with abdominal obesity can result in worse trajectories of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) among English and Brazilian older adults over eight and ten years of follow-up, respectively. We used longitudinal data from 3374 participants from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and 1040 participants from the Brazilian Health, Well-being and Aging Study (SABE) who were free from disability as assessed by IADL at baseline. IADL disability was defined herein as a difficulty to perform the following: preparing meals, managing money, using transportation, shopping, using the telephone, house cleaning, washing clothes, and taking medications according to the Lawton IADL modified scale. The study population in each country was categorized into non-dynapenic/non-abdominal obese (reference group), abdominal obese, dynapenic and dynapenic abdominal obese according to their handgrip strength (<26 kg for men and <16 kg for women) and waist circumference (>102 cm for men and >88 cm for women). We used generalized linear mixed models with IADL as the outcome. The estimated change over time in IADL disability was significantly higher for participants with dynapenic abdominal obesity compared to those with neither condition in both cohorts (ELSA: +0.023, 95% CI = 0.012-0.034, p < 0.001; SABE: +0.065, 95% CI = 0.038-0.091, p < 0.001). Abdominal obesity was also associated with changes over time in IADL disability (ELSA: +0.009, 95% CI = 0.002-0.015, p < 0.05; SABE: +0.021, 95% CI = 0.002-0.041, p < 0.05), which was not observed for dynapenia. Abdominal obesity is an important risk factor for IADL decline but

  6. Educational inequalities in obesity, abdominal obesity, and metabolic syndrome in seven Latin American cities: the CARMELA Study.

    PubMed

    Boissonnet, Carlos; Schargrodsky, Herman; Pellegrini, Fabio; Macchia, Alejandro; Marcet Champagne, Beatriz; Wilson, Elinor; Tognoni, Gianni

    2011-08-01

    Earlier reviews have found that the proportion of inverse associations between socioeconomic status and obesity increased according to the level of development of the studied country. Based on this finding, it has been hypothesized that in low- to middle- income countries the burden of obesity shifts to disadvantaged groups as a country develops. CARMELA is a cross-sectional, population-based observational study that sampled 11,550 women and men age 25-64 from seven major Latin American cities. We analyzed by gender the association of educational attainments (as proxy of socioeconomic status) with body mass index, waist circumference and metabolic syndrome. Participating cities were divided by country Human Development Index (HDI). An inverse gradient between socioeconomic status and body mass index in women was uniformly present in High HDI cities (Buenos Aires, Santiago, Mexico) but not in Medium HDI group (Barquisimeto, Bogota, Lima, Quito), where two cities showed an inverse gradient and two cities did not. In men, no clear socioeconomic gradients were found. Findings regarding waist circumference and metabolic syndrome closely mirrored those about body mass index. In women but not men, these results give support to the hypothesis of obesity shifting to the poor and extend it to the related concepts of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. Obesity should be considered as a socially-generated disease and an indicator of socioeconomic disadvantage, to be approached by comprehensive strategies that bear in mind this perspective.

  7. Endocannabinoid antagonism: blocking the excess in the treatment of high-risk abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Danielle; Rader, Daniel

    2007-02-01

    Abdominal obesity is a prevalent, worldwide problem linked to cardiometabolic comorbidities and an increased risk of coronary heart disease. First-line therapy to reduce such risk revolves around diet and exercise; however, such changes are often difficult to implement and unsuccessful. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology of underlying metabolic derangements could provide new targets for pharmacologic therapy. One system that has gained recent attention is the endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system has a significant role in central appetite control and peripheral lipogenesis and is up-regulated in diet-induced obesity. Rimonabant is a selective cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonist and is the first compound of its type to test the hypothesis that down-regulating an overactive endocannabinoid system could have therapeutic benefit not only for weight loss but also for the atherogenic dyslipidemia and insulin resistance that cluster with abdominal obesity in particular. Animal models have been critical for elucidating the role of the endocannabinoid system in obesity and in demonstrating that antagonism with rimonabant can induce loss of visceral fat and improve insulin sensitivity. Early human trials with rimonabant have confirmed significant reductions in weight, as well as favorable changes in atherogenic dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and markers of inflammation. Interestingly, some of these beneficial metabolic effects are partially weight-loss-independent, confirming the importance of peripheral endocannabinoid system effects in addition to central effects.

  8. Abdominal obesity and gastroesophageal cancer risk: systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Du, Xuan; Hidayat, Khemayanto; Shi, Bi-Min

    2017-06-30

    To systematically and quantitatively review the relation of abdominal obesity, as measured by waist circumference (WC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR), to total gastroesophageal cancer, gastric cancer (GC), and esophageal cancer. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for studies assessing the association between abdominal obesity and gastroesophageal cancer (GC and/or esophageal cancer) up to August 2016. A random-effect model was used to calculate the summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Seven prospective cohort studies - one publication included two separate cohorts - from six publications were included in the final analysis. A total of 2130 gastroesophageal cancer cases diagnosed amongst 913182 participants. Higher WC and WHR were significantly associated with increased risk of total gastroesophageal cancer (WC: RR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.38, 2.04; WHR: RR 1.49, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.88), GC (WC: RR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.24, 1.78; WHR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.70), and esophageal cancer (WC: RR 2.06, 95% CI: 1.30, 3.24; WHR: RR 1.99, 95% CI: 1.05, 3.75).Findings from our subgroup analyses showed non-significant positive associations between gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) and both measures of abdominal adiposity, while gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) was positively associated with WC but not with WHR. On analysis restricted to studies that adjusted for body mass index (BMI), WC was positively associated with GC and esophageal cancer, whereas WHR was positively associated with risk of GC only. Although limited, the findings from our meta-analysis suggest the potential role of abdominal obesity in the etiology of gastric and esophageal cancers. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Abdominal obesity and gastroesophageal cancer risk: systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xuan; Hidayat, Khemayanto

    2017-01-01

    To systematically and quantitatively review the relation of abdominal obesity, as measured by waist circumference (WC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR), to total gastroesophageal cancer, gastric cancer (GC), and esophageal cancer. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for studies assessing the association between abdominal obesity and gastroesophageal cancer (GC and/or esophageal cancer) up to August 2016. A random-effect model was used to calculate the summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Seven prospective cohort studies – one publication included two separate cohorts – from six publications were included in the final analysis. A total of 2130 gastroesophageal cancer cases diagnosed amongst 913182 participants. Higher WC and WHR were significantly associated with increased risk of total gastroesophageal cancer (WC: RR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.38, 2.04; WHR: RR 1.49, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.88), GC (WC: RR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.24, 1.78; WHR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.70), and esophageal cancer (WC: RR 2.06, 95% CI: 1.30, 3.24; WHR: RR 1.99, 95% CI: 1.05, 3.75).Findings from our subgroup analyses showed non-significant positive associations between gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) and both measures of abdominal adiposity, while gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) was positively associated with WC but not with WHR. On analysis restricted to studies that adjusted for body mass index (BMI), WC was positively associated with GC and esophageal cancer, whereas WHR was positively associated with risk of GC only. Although limited, the findings from our meta-analysis suggest the potential role of abdominal obesity in the etiology of gastric and esophageal cancers. PMID:28336766

  10. Green tea consumption, abdominal obesity as related factors of lacunar infarction in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Ko, S-G; Go, H; Sun, S; Lee, S; Park, W; Choi, Y; Song, Y; Hwang, G; Kim, G; Jeon, C; Park, J; Lee, K; Cha, M; Bang, O; Jung, H; Kim, N; Shin, Y-C

    2011-08-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate interaction of green tea consumption and abdominal obesity as related factors for lacunar infarction in Korean women. A hospital-based, incident case-control study. The Prevention and Managements of Stroke in Women study. Cases (n=233) of first incident lacunar infarction were enrolled and matched by age to stroke-free hospital controls (n=204). The data were collected through face-to-face interviews by well trained research assistants to assess demographic, medical, lifestyle, marital status, religions status, green tea consumptions, family history of stroke, smoking status, alcohol consumption, meat and vegetable intake frequency, and past history of hypertension. Biochemical analysis, fasting blood specimens for lipid, glucose, and cholesterol level were acquired. Compared with the non green tea consumer and obese women group, only the green tea consumption and non obese women group had a protective effect of lacunar infarction when adjusted for age, and age plus diet factors (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.09, 0.59; OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.08, 0.56 respectively), but lost their significance after adjustment for age, diet factors, vascular risk factors and full model included atherogenic index factors (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.09 to 1.01; OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.12, 1.89 respectively). The interaction of green tea consumption and non obesity have reduced risk of lacunar infarction, but not after adjustment for age, diet factors, vascular risk factors and atherogenic index. Also individually green tea consumption and abdominal obesity have failed to find an independent relationship with lacunar infarction after adjustment by all risk factors. Green tea consumption and green tea consumption with non obese group seemed to have a protective effect for lacunar infarction. In the results of our study, these results still remain controversial, and then we need further and larger study to get at the root of real causal effect of both relationships.

  11. Neuropeptide Y genotype, central obesity, and abdominal fat distribution: the POUNDS LOST trial1,2

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaochen; Qi, Qibin; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Liang, Liming; Qi, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neuropeptide Y is a key peptide affecting adiposity and has been related to obesity risk. However, little is known about the role of NPY variations in diet-induced change in adiposity. Objective: The objective was to examine the effects of NPY variant rs16147 on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution in response to dietary interventions. Design: We genotyped a functional NPY variant rs16147 among 723 participants in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial. Changes in waist circumference (WC), total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from baseline to 6 and 24 mo were evaluated with respect to the rs16147 genotypes. Genotype–dietary fat interaction was also examined. Results: The rs16147 C allele was associated with a greater reduction in WC at 6 mo (P < 0.001). In addition, the genotypes showed a statistically significant interaction with dietary fat in relation to WC and SAT (P-interaction = 0.01 and 0.04): the association was stronger in individuals with high-fat intake than in those with low-fat intake. At 24 mo, the association remained statistically significant for WC in the high-fat diet group (P = 0.02), although the gene–dietary fat interaction became nonsignificant (P = 0.30). In addition, we found statistically significant genotype–dietary fat interaction on the change in total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and SAT at 24 mo (P = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.04): the rs16147 T allele appeared to associate with more adverse change in the abdominal fat deposition in the high-fat diet group than in the low-fat diet group. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the NPY rs16147 genotypes affect the change in abdominal adiposity in response to dietary interventions, and the effects of the rs16147 single-nucleotide polymorphism on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution were modified by dietary fat. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as

  12. Neuropeptide Y genotype, central obesity, and abdominal fat distribution: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaochen; Qi, Qibin; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Liang, Liming; Qi, Lu

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y is a key peptide affecting adiposity and has been related to obesity risk. However, little is known about the role of NPY variations in diet-induced change in adiposity. The objective was to examine the effects of NPY variant rs16147 on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution in response to dietary interventions. We genotyped a functional NPY variant rs16147 among 723 participants in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial. Changes in waist circumference (WC), total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from baseline to 6 and 24 mo were evaluated with respect to the rs16147 genotypes. Genotype-dietary fat interaction was also examined. The rs16147 C allele was associated with a greater reduction in WC at 6 mo (P < 0.001). In addition, the genotypes showed a statistically significant interaction with dietary fat in relation to WC and SAT (P-interaction = 0.01 and 0.04): the association was stronger in individuals with high-fat intake than in those with low-fat intake. At 24 mo, the association remained statistically significant for WC in the high-fat diet group (P = 0.02), although the gene-dietary fat interaction became nonsignificant (P = 0.30). In addition, we found statistically significant genotype-dietary fat interaction on the change in total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and SAT at 24 mo (P = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.04): the rs16147 T allele appeared to associate with more adverse change in the abdominal fat deposition in the high-fat diet group than in the low-fat diet group. Our data indicate that the NPY rs16147 genotypes affect the change in abdominal adiposity in response to dietary interventions, and the effects of the rs16147 single-nucleotide polymorphism on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution were modified by dietary fat. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Effects of combined physical activity and dietary intervention on obesity and metabolic parameters in adults with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Soon, Heng Kiang; Saad, Hazizi Abu; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Rahman, Hejar Abd; Mun, Chan Yoke

    2013-03-01

    A twelve-week controlled intervention trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of combined physical activity and dietary intervention on obesity and metabolic risk factors among employees of Universiti Putra Malaysia. Participants consisted of adults aged 25-55 years with no reported chronic diseases but with abdominal obesity. They were assigned to either a combined physical activity and dietary intervention group or a control group. The final sample consisted of 56 participants, with an equal number of 28 for each study group. No significant group effect was observed for any variable except for hip circumference (HC) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). There was a significant increase in HC (p=0.007) and reduction in FPG (p=0.02) in the intervention group compared to the control group. In the intervention group, HC (p=0.002), triglycerides (TG) (p=0.0001), total cholesterol (TC) (p=0.0001), LDL cholesterol (LDLC) (p=0.0001) and FPG (p=0.005) were significantly reduced, while waist circumference (WC) (p=0.025) and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (p=0.027) were significantly reduced in the control group. No significant change in steps/day or calorie intake'was observed in either group. Taken together, these data indicate that the combined physical activity and dietary intervention was not effective at improving diet or physical activity level. However, the intervention was effective in improving FPG among participants with abdominal obesity. The significant increase in HC in the interventions group warrants further study. These findings will be useful to further improve group-based intervention for the prevention and management of obesity.

  14. Impact of abdominal obesity and ambulatory blood pressure in the diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy in never treated hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, José A; Martín, Joaquin; González, Carmen; Pascual, Jose M; Redon, Josep

    2014-03-20

    The principal objective was to assess the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertensive, never treated patients, depending on adjustment for body surface or height. Secondary objectives were to determine geometric alterations of the left ventricle and to analyze the interdependence of hypertension and obesity to induce LVH. Cross-sectional study that included 750 patients (387 men) aged 47 (13, SD) years who underwent ambulatory blood pressure (ABPM) monitoring and echocardiography. The prevalence of LVH was 40.4% (303 patients), adjusted for body surface area (BSA, LVHBSA), and 61.7% (463 patients), adjusted for height(2.7) (LVHheight(2.7)). In a multivariate logistic analysis, systolic BP24h, gender and presence of elevated microalbuminuria were associated with both LVHBSA and LVHheight(2.7). Increased waist circumference was the strongest independent predictor of LVHheight(2.7), but was not associated with LVHBSA. We found a significant interaction between abdominal obesity and systolic BP24h in LVHheight(2.7). Concentric remodelling seems to be the most prevalent alteration of left ventricular geometry in early stages of hypertension (37.5%). The impact of obesity as predictor of LVH in never treated hypertensives is present only when left ventricular mass (LVM) is indexed to height(2.7). Obesity interacts with systolic BP24h in an additive but not merely synergistic manner. Systolic BP24h is the strongest determinant of LVH when indexed for BSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome and atypical cardiometabolic phenotypes in the adult Romanian population: PREDATORR study.

    PubMed

    Popa, S; Moţa, M; Popa, A; Moţa, E; Serafinceanu, C; Guja, C; Catrinoiu, D; Hâncu, N; Lichiardopol, R; Bala, C; Popa, A; Roman, G; Radulian, G; Timar, R; Mihai, B

    2016-09-01

    The objectives were to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and to evaluate the characteristics of the metabolically unhealthy lean (MUHL) and metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) phenotypes in a Romanian population-based sample from the PREDATORR study. PREDATORR was an epidemiological study with a stratified, cross-sectional, cluster random sampling design. Participants were classified into four cardiometabolic phenotypes based on the BMI, the cut-off value being 25 kg/m(2), and the presence of MetS (defined according to the Harmonization definition 2009): MUHL, MHO, metabolically healthy lean (MHL) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUHO). Overall, 2681 subjects aged 20-79 years were included in the analysis. The overall age and sex-adjusted prevalence of obesity was 31.90 %, overweight was 34.7 %, abdominal obesity was 73.90 % and MetS was 38.50 %. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of MHO phenotype was 31.60 %, while MUHL phenotype prevalence was 3.90 %. MUHL and MHO participants had a cardiometabolic profile, kidney function and CVD risk intermediary between MHL and MUHO. MUHL had higher odds of being associated with CVD risk (OR 5.8; p < 0.001), abdominal obesity, prediabetes, diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia than MHL, while MHO phenotype was associated with hypo-HDL cholesterolemia (OR 3.1; p = 0.002), prediabetes (OR 2.9; p < 0.001) and abdominal obesity. PREDATORR study showed a high prevalence of obesity/overweight, abdominal obesity and MetS in the adult Romanian population, and their association with kidney function and several cardiometabolic factors.

  16. Integrated circuit detector technology in abdominal CT: added value in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Morsbach, Fabian; Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Rätzer, Susan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to assess the effect of an integrated circuit (IC) detector for abdominal CT on image quality. In the first study part, an abdominal phantom was scanned with various extension rings using a CT scanner equipped with a conventional discrete circuit (DC) detector and on the same scanner with an IC detector (120 kVp, 150 effective mAs, and 75 effective mAs). In the second study part, 20 patients were included who underwent abdominal CT both with the IC detector and previously at similar protocol parameters (120 kVp tube current-time product and 150 reference mAs using automated tube current modulation) with the DC detector. Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection. Image quality in the phantom was higher for images acquired with the IC compared with the DC detector. There was a gradually increasing noise reduction with increasing phantom sizes, with the highest (37% in the largest phantom) at 75 effective mAs (p < 0.001). In patients, noise was overall significantly (p = 0.025) reduced by 6.4% using the IC detector. Similar to the phantom, there was a gradual increase in noise reduction to 7.9% in patients with a body mass index of 25 kg/m(2) or lower (p = 0.008). Significant correlation was found in patients between noise and abdominal diameter in DC detector images (r = 0.604, p = 0.005), whereas no such correlation was found for the IC detector (r = 0.427, p = 0.060). Use of an IC detector in abdominal CT improves image quality and reduces image noise, particularly in overweight and obese patients. This noise reduction has the potential for dose reduction in abdominal CT.

  17. Pediatric FAST and elevated liver transaminases: An effective screening tool in blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Sola, Juan E; Cheung, Michael C; Yang, Relin; Koslow, Starr; Lanuti, Emma; Seaver, Chris; Neville, Holly L; Schulman, Carl I

    2009-11-01

    The current standard for the evaluation of children with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) consists of physical examination, screening lab values, and computed tomography (CT) scan. We sought to determine if the focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) combined with elevated liver transaminases (AST/ALT) could be used as a screening tool for intra-abdominal injury (IAI) in pediatric patients with BAT. Registry data at a level 1 trauma center was retrospectively reviewed from 1991-2007. Data collected on BAT patients under the age of 16 y included demographics, injury mechanism, ISS, GCS, imaging studies, serum ALT and AST levels, and disposition. AST and ALT were considered positive if either one was >100 IU/L. Overall, 3171 cases were identified. A total of 1008 (31.8%) patients received CT scan, 1148 (36.2%) had FAST, and 497 (15.7%) patients received both. Of the 497 patients, 400 (87.1%) also had AST and ALT measured. FAST was 50% sensitive, 91% specific, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 68%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 83%, and accuracy of 80%. Combining FAST with elevated AST or ALT resulted in a statistically significant increase in all measures (sensitivity 88%, specificity 98%, PPV 94%, NPV 96%, accuracy 96%). FAST combined with AST or ALT > 100 IU/L is an effective screening tool for IAI in children following BAT. Pediatric patients with a negative FAST and liver transaminases < 100 IU/L should be observed rather than subjected to the radiation risk of CT.

  18. Normal Weight but Low Muscle Mass and Abdominally Obese: Implications for the Cardiometabolic Risk Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Beijers, Rosanne J H C G; van de Bool, Coby; van den Borst, Bram; Franssen, Frits M E; Wouters, Emiel F M; Schols, Annemie M W J

    2017-06-01

    It is well established that low muscle mass affects physical performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesize that combined low muscle mass and abdominal obesity may also adversely influence the cardiometabolic risk profile in COPD, even in those with normal weight. The cardiometabolic risk profile and the responsiveness to 4 months high-intensity exercise training was assessed in normal-weight patients with COPD with low muscle mass stratified by abdominal obesity. This is a cross-sectional study including 81 clinically stable patients with COPD (age 62.5 ± 8.2 years; 50.6% males; forced expiratory volume in 1 second 55.1 ± 19.5 percentage predicted) with fat-free mass index <25th percentile eligible for outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation. Body composition, blood biomarkers, blood pressure, physical activity level, dietary intake, and physical performance were assessed at baseline and in a subgroup after 4 months of exercise training. Mean body mass index was 22.7 ± 2.7 kg/m 2 , and 75% of patients had abdominal obesity. Abdominally obese patients had higher glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), branched chain amino acids and a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared with those without abdominal obesity. Exercise training improved cycling endurance time and quadriceps strength, but did not yield a clinically meaningful improvement of the cardiometabolic risk profile. Triglycerides showed a significant decrease, while the HOMA-IR increased. Abdominal obesity is highly prevalent in normal-weight patients with COPD with low muscle mass who showed an increased cardiometabolic risk compared with patients without abdominal obesity. This cardiometabolic risk profile was not altered after 4 months of exercise training. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Elevation of QT dispersion after obesity drug sibutramine.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Ahmet A; Yavuz, Bunyamin; Ertugrul, Derun T; Algul, Beyza; Yilmaz, Hamiyet; Deveci, Onur S; Kucukazman, Metin; Ata, Naim; Demirel, Gokhan; Dal, Kursat; Tutal, Emre

    2010-11-01

    QT dispersion (QTd) is an arrhythmia parameter that can be used to assess homogeneity of cardiac repolarization. An antiobesity drug sibutramine is linked with several cardiovascular adverse events, including arrhythmias. Previous studies showed that sibutramine may prolong the QT interval and may be associated with cardiac arrest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sibutramine on QTd. The study group consisted of 65 consecutive patients with obesity. All patients were to receive 15 mg of sibutramine once a day in addition to standard care for lifestyle change. Twelve-lead ECG was performed before the onset of the medication and after 16 weeks of treatment. QTd was calculated. Three individuals were withdrawn from the study because of the adverse effects of sibutramine. Sixty-two patients with obesity were recruited into the study. All patients were women (62, 100%). Body weight (106.3 ± 15.0 kg vs. 101.6 ± 16.9 kg, P < 0.001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (128.4 ± 29.7 mg/dl vs. 111.6 ± 24.6 mg/dl, P < 0.001) levels were significantly decreased whereas QTd (46.1 ± 22.6 ms vs. 53.7 ± 16.7 ms, P = 0.026) was significantly increased after 16 weeks of sibutramine treatment. The increase in QTd was not correlated with the decrease in body weight. There was no correlation between QTd and any conditions such as diabetes or hypertension. This study has shown an elevation in QTd, which may lead to cardiac arrhythmias, after sibutramine treatment. Molecular mechanisms may play role in increasing QTd. Further randomized studies are needed to clarify cardiac adverse events of the sibutramine.

  20. Outcomes after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in obese versus nonobese patients.

    PubMed

    Locham, Satinderjit; Rizwan, Muhammad; Dakour-Aridi, Hanaa; Faateh, Muhammad; Nejim, Besma; Malas, Mahmoud

    2018-06-07

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, particularly in Western society. It predisposes surgical patients to an increased risk of adverse outcomes. The aim of our study was to use a nationally representative vascular database and to compare in-hospital outcomes in obese vs nonobese patients undergoing elective open aortic repair (OAR) and endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). All patients undergoing elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair were identified in the Vascular Quality Initiative database (2003-2017). Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m 2 . Univariable (Student t-test and χ 2  test) and multivariable (logistic regression) analyses were implemented to compare in-hospital mortality and any major complications (wound infection, renal failure, and cardiopulmonary failure) in obese vs nonobese patients. We identified a total of 33,082 patients undergoing elective OAR (nonobese, n = 4605 [72.4%]; obese, n = 1754 [27.6%]) and EVAR (nonobese, n = 18,338 [68.6%]; obese, n = 8385 [31.4%]). Obese patients undergoing OAR and EVAR were relatively younger compared with nonobese patients (mean age [standard deviation], 67.55 [8.26] years vs 70.27 [8.30] years and 71.06 [8.22] years vs 74.55 [8.55] years), respectively; (both P < .001). Regardless of approach, obese patients had slightly longer operative time (OAR, 259.02 [109.97] minutes vs 239.37 [99.78] minutes; EVAR, 138.27 [70.64] minutes vs 134.34 [69.98] minutes) and higher blood loss (OAR, 2030 [1823] mL vs 1619 [1642] mL; EVAR, 228 [354] mL vs 207 [312] mL; both P < .001). There was no significant difference in mortality between the two groups undergoing OAR and EVAR (OAR, 2.9% vs 3.2% [P = .50]; EVAR, 0.5% vs 0.6% [P = .76]). On multivariable analysis, obese patients undergoing OAR had 33% higher odds of renal failure (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.63; P = .006) and 75% higher odds of wound infections (adjusted OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.11-2.76; P = .02

  1. Bicycling but not walking is independently associated with fasting insulin in abdominally obese women.

    PubMed

    Hemmingsson, Erik; Ekelund, Ulf; Udden, Joanna

    2011-08-01

    The impact of walking and bicycling on insulin resistance (IR) in women with abdominal obesity is unclear. Pooled analysis of data from a randomized trial on physically active commuting (bicycling + walking vs walking only) in women with abdominal obesity [n = 98; age:47.3 ± 7.6 yrs; waist circumference (WC):103.1 ± 7.8 cm]. Bicycling and walking data were collected during 7 consecutive days by trip meters (Trelock FC-410) and pedometers (Yamax digiwalker SW-200) at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 months. Owing to a skew distribution we analyzed bicycling as a binary dummy variable with a 10 km/week cut-off. Fasting serum insulin and homeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were assessed at baseline and 6 months, as were body mass index (BMI), WC, and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-assessed % whole-body fat. Increased bicycling by 10 km/wk was associated with reductions in fasting serum insulin at follow-up independent of age, treatment allocation, baseline phenotype, Δ walking, and Δ % body fat (β = -10.9, P = .042), but not HOMA-IR (β = -2.0, P = .13). Increased walking was not associated with fasting serum insulin (P = .33) or HOMA-IR (P = .44) at follow-up, after adjustment for the same covariates and Δ bicycling. Increased bicycling but not walking was associated with reduced insulin levels at follow-up. Bicycling may be more effective than walking for reducing insulin levels in abdominally obese women.

  2. Physical activity in adolescence and abdominal obesity in adulthood: a case-control study among women shift workers.

    PubMed

    Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Canuto, Raquel; Olinto, Beatriz Anselmo; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity may have a protective effect against abdominal obesity, an important risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the association between the practice of physical activities in adolescence and abdominal obesity in adulthood among women shift workers in Southern Brazil in 2011. This case-control study included 215 cases (waist circumference greater than or equal to 88 cm) and 326 controls. For both the case and control groups, participation in leisure-time physical activities was most frequent in adolescence and was significantly less in adulthood. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, women who participated in five or more physical activities in adolescence were 50 percent less likely to have abdominal obesity than women who participated in one activity or no physical activities (Odds Ratio = 0.50; 95% confidential interval: 0.27-0.93, p value = .029). Participation in various types of leisure-time physical activities in adolescence may protect against abdominal obesity in adulthood, even if the number of physical activities decreases over time. This finding demonstrated the importance of physical activity as well as the period of life in which these should be encouraged for the prevention of health disorders, such as abdominal obesity.

  3. Abdominal obesity and risk of ischemic stroke: the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study.

    PubMed

    Suk, Seung-Han; Sacco, Ralph L; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Cheun, Jian F; Pittman, John G; Elkind, Mitchell S; Paik, Myunghee C

    2003-07-01

    Obesity is well recognized as a risk factor for coronary heart disease and mortality. The relationship between abdominal obesity and ischemic stroke remains less clear. Our aim was to evaluate abdominal obesity as an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke in a multiethnic community. A population-based, incident case-control study was conducted July 1993 through June 1997 in northern Manhattan, New York, NY. Cases (n=576) of first ischemic stroke (66% >or=BORDER="0">65 years of age; 56% women; 17% whites; 26% blacks; 55% Hispanics) were enrolled and matched by age, sex, and race-ethnicity to stroke-free community controls (n=1142). All subjects were interviewed and examined and had measurements of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Odds ratios (ORs) of ischemic stroke were calculated with gender-specific quartiles (GQs) and gender-specific medians of WHR adjusted for stroke risk factors and body mass index (BMI). Compared with the first quartile, the third and fourth quartiles of WHR had an increased risk of stroke (GQ3: OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.9; GQ4: OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.8 to 4.8) adjusted for other risk factors and BMI. Those with WHR equal to or greater than the median had an overall OR of 3.0 (95% CI, 2.1 to 4.2) for ischemic stroke even after adjustment for other risk factors and BMI. Increased WHR was associated with a greater risk of stroke in men and women and in all race-ethnic groups. The effect of WHR was stronger among younger persons (test for heterogeneity, P<0.0002) (<65 years of age: OR, 4.4; 95%CI, 2.2 to 9.0; >or=65 years of age: OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.2). WHR was associated with an increased risk among those with and without large-artery atherosclerotic stroke. Abdominal obesity is an independent, potent risk factor for ischemic stroke in all race-ethnic groups. It is a stronger risk factor than BMI and has a greater effect among younger persons. Prevention of obesity and weight reduction need greater emphasis in stroke prevention programs.

  4. Changes in abdominal obesity in Chilean university students stratified by body mass index.

    PubMed

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Vilchez-Avaca, Catalina; Contreras-Mellado, Victor; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Gómez-Campos, Rossana

    2016-01-13

    Studies based on Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are generally used to examine the prevalence and tendency of overweight and obesity. These studies help determine the socioeconomic development of a country and improve public health policies. Therefore, the goal of this research was to determine the trend of change in abdominal obesity of Chilean university students according to the Body Mass Index (BMI) measured in intervals of three and six years. For this study, a total of 1598 students of both sexes ranging in age from 18 to 26 from a Chilean university were evaluated. Students were assessed commencing in 2007 (372 males and 315 females), 2010 (250 males and 330 females), and ending in 2013 (153 males and 178 females). During the three transversal assessments, weight, height, and waist circumference were evaluated. BMI was calculated for both sexes. No significant differences were found in age and BMI during the three years evaluated (2007, 2010, and 2013). In 2013, waist circumference (WC) increased significantly (p < 0.001 for both sexes). Moreover, in 2013, in all the percentiles evaluated, high values of WC were compared in relation to previous years. Furthermore, in 2013, in all four BMI categories (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese), the university students showed significant increases in WC (Females: p = 0.004; Males: p = 0.035) whereas in 2007 and 2010, the values remained relatively stable. BMI remained constant during 2007, 2010, and 2013. However, the university students of both sexes showed greater risk of abdominal obesity as a result of increased WC in 2013.

  5. The Third National Health and Morbidity Survey: prevalence of obesity, and abdominal obesity among the Malaysian elderly population.

    PubMed

    Suzana, S; Kee, C C; Jamaludin, A R; Noor Safiza, M N; Khor, G L; Jamaiyah, H; Geeta, A; Ahmad Ali, Z; Rahmah, R; Ruzita, A T; Ahmad Fauzi, Y

    2012-03-01

    Obesity is an emerging public health threat in the elderly population in developing countries. Hence, the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey has assessed 4746 individuals aged 60 years and older recruited through a household survey to determine the prevalence of adiposity using body mass index and waist circumference. The national's prevalence of overweight and obesity in men was 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 27.2-31.3) and 7.4% (95% CI = 6.4-8.6), respectively. However, the prevalence decreased with age. The figures in women were 30.3% (95% CI = 28.5-32.1) and 13.8% (95% CI = 12.5-15.2), respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 21.4% (95%CI = 20.2-22.6), with 7.7% (95% CI = 6.7-9.0) in men and 33.4% (95% CI = 31.4-35.3) in women. Predictors of adiposity include the following: Malay and Indian ethnicity, higher education level, higher household income, from urban area, and being married. In conclusion, adiposity affects about one third of the Malaysian elderly population, especially those of the younger age group, women, and those with higher socioeconomic status.

  6. Abdominal obesity, an independent cardiovascular risk factor in Indian subcontinent: A clinico epidemiological evidence summary.

    PubMed

    Prasad, D S; Kabir, Zubair; Dash, A K; Das, B C

    2011-10-01

    Evidence is emerging that obesity-associated cardiovascular disorders (CVD) show variations across regions and ethnicities. However, it is unclear if there are distinctive patterns of abdominal obesity contributing to an increased CVD risk in South Asians. Also, potential underlying mechanistic pathways of such unique patterns are not comprehensively reported in South Asians. This review sets out to examine both. A comprehensive database search strategy was undertaken, namely, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library, applying specific search terms for potentially relevant published literature in English language. Grey literature, including scientific meeting abstracts, expert consultations, text books and government/non-government publications were also retrieved. South Asians have 3-5% higher body fat than whites, at any given body mass index. Additional distinctive features, such as South Asian phenotype, low adipokine production, lower lean body mass, ethno-specific socio-cultural and economic factors, were considered as potential contributors to an early age-onset of obesity-linked CVD risk in South Asians. Proven cost-effective anti-obesity strategies, including the development of ethno-specific clinical risk assessment tools, should be adopted early in the life-course to prevent premature CVD deaths and morbidity in South Asians.

  7. Abdominal obesity and structure and function of the heart in healthy male Koreans: The ARIRANG study.

    PubMed

    Son, Jung-Woo; Sung, Joong Kyung; Lee, Jun-Won; Youn, Young Jin; Ahn, Min-Soo; Ahn, Sung Gyun; Yoo, Byung-Su; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Junghan; Koh, Sang Baek; Kim, Jang-Young

    2016-09-01

    Although central obesity is a more powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than general obesity, there is limited information on structural and functional changes of the heart in central obesity. Therefore, we evaluated the association between abdominal obesity and geometric and functional changes of the heart in healthy males. A total of 1460 healthy males aged 40 to 70 years without known CVD from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population were included. All individuals underwent conventional 2-dimensional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging to measure left atrial (LA) and left ventricle (LV) geometry and function. Increasing tertiles of waist circumference (WC) were associated with stepwise increases in LA volume, LV end-diastolic dimension, LV mass to height, deceleration time of E wave, and lower E/A ratio (all P trends <0.001). In multivariable logistic regression models, the odds ratios for LA enlargement, LV hypertrophy, LV enlargement, and diastolic dysfunction comparing the upper tertile of WC (>89 cm) to the lowest tertile (<82 cm) were 2.81 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.24-3.54), 3.65 (95% CI 2.54-5.26), 4.23 (95% CI 2.61-6.87), and 1.75 (95% CI 1.37-2.22), respectively. LV ejection fraction and relative wall thickness were not increased with increasing WC. The association between WC and LA enlargement, LV enlargement, and diastolic dysfunction persisted after stratification by body mass index tertiles. Central obesity may be a stronger predictor than general obesity of geometric and functional changes in the LV and LA.

  8. Consensus statement for diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome for Asian Indians and recommendations for physical activity, medical and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Misra, A; Chowbey, P; Makkar, B M; Vikram, N K; Wasir, J S; Chadha, D; Joshi, Shashank R; Sadikot, S; Gupta, R; Gulati, Seema; Munjal, Y P

    2009-02-01

    Asian Indians exhibit unique features of obesity; excess body fat, abdominal adiposity, increased subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat, and deposition of fat in ectopic sites (liver, muscle, etc.). Obesity is a major driver for the widely prevalent metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Asian Indians in India and those residing in other countries. Based on percentage body fat and morbidity data, limits of normal BMI are narrower and lower in Asian Indians than in white Caucasians. In this consensus statement, we present revised guidelines for diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity, the metabolic syndrome, physical activity, and drug therapy and bariatric surgery for obesity in Asian Indians after consultations with experts from various regions of India belonging to the following medical disciplines; internal medicine, metabolic diseases, endocrinology, nutrition, cardiology, exercise physiology, sports medicine and bariatric surgery, and representing reputed medical institutions, hospitals, government funded research institutions, and policy making bodies. It is estimated that by application of these guidelines, additional 10-15% of Indian population would be labeled as overweight/obese and would require appropriate management. Application of these guidelines on countrywide basis is also likely to have a deceleration effect on the escalating problem of T2DM and cardiovascular disease. These guidelines could be revised in future as appropriate, after another large and countrywide consensus process. Till that time, these should be used by clinicians, researchers and policymakers dealing with obesity and related diseases.

  9. PERIOD2 variants are associated with abdominal obesity, psycho-behavioral factors, and attrition in the dietary treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Garaulet, Marta; Corbalán-Tutau, M Dolores; Madrid, Juan A; Baraza, Juan C; Parnell, Laurence D; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovas, Jose M

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to test for association between polymorphisms in the circadian clock-related gene PERIOD2 (PER2) and attrition in patients prone to withdrawal from a behavioral weight-reduction program based on the Mediterranean diet. A total of 454 overweight/obese participants (women=380, men=74), aged 20 to 65 years, who attended outpatient clinics specializing in obesity between January and December 2008, were studied. Anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary-intake variables were analyzed. Effectiveness of the program was assessed, and a questionnaire of barriers to weight loss was considered. Multivariate analysis and logistic regression models were performed. Results indicate that PER2 polymorphisms rs2304672C>G and rs4663302C>T were associated with abdominal obesity (P<0.05). Participants who withdrew from treatment were significantly more obese and had more barriers to lose weight (P<0.05). They also displayed a lower likelihood of planning eating in advance and experiencing stress with dieting than those who completed treatment. Frequency of rs4663307 minor allele was significantly greater in withdrawers than in those who successfully completed treatment (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that rs2304672 C>G minor allele carriers had a greater probability of dropping out, displaying extreme snacking, experiencing stress with dieting, eating when bored, and skipping breakfast than noncarriers. PER2 is implicated in attrition in weight-loss treatment and may modulate eating-behavior-related phenotypes. These findings could represent a step toward personalized health care and nutrition based on a combination of genotyping and psycho-behavioral characterization. 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. One elevated bladder pressure measurement may not be enough to diagnose abdominal compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew Joseph; Weber, William; Wolfe, Luke; Ivatury, Rao R; Duane, Therese Marie

    2013-02-01

    Bladder pressure measurements (BPMs) are considered a key component in the diagnosis of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). The purpose of this observational review was to determine risk factors of ACS and associated mortality with particular focus on the role of BPM. A retrospective trauma registry and chart review was performed on trauma patients from January 2003 through December 2010. Comparisons were made between patients with and without ACS. There were 3172 patients included in the study of whom 46 had ACS. Patients with ACS were younger, more severely injured, with longer lengths of stay. Logistic regression determined Injury Severity Score (ISS) and urinary catheter days as independent predictors of ACS, whereas independent predictors of mortality included age, ISS, and ACS. Subset analysis demonstrated no association between BPM 20 mmHg or greater and diagnosis of ACS versus no ACS. Logistic regression indicated independent predictors of mortality were number of BPM 20 mmHg or greater and age. Patients with ACS are more severely injured with worse outcomes. An isolated BPM 20 mmHg or greater was not associated with ACS and may be inadequate to independently diagnose ACS. These findings suggest the need for repeat measurements with early intervention if they remain elevated in an effort to decrease mortality associated with ACS.

  11. Fatty liver disease in severe obese patients: Diagnostic value of abdominal ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    de Moura Almeida, Alessandro; Cotrim, Helma Pinchemel; Barbosa, Daniel Batista Valente; de Athayde, Luciana Gordilho Matteoni; Santos, Adimeia Souza; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; de Freitas, Luiz Antonio Rodrigues; Rios, Adriano; Alves, Erivaldo

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of abdominal ultrasound (US) for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in severe obese subjects and its relation to histological grade of steatosis. METHODS: A consecutive series of obese patients, who underwent bariatric surgery from October 2004 to May 2005, was selected. Ultrasonography was performed in all patients as part of routine preoperative time and an intraoperative wedge biopsy was obtained at the beginning of the bariatric surgery. The US and histological findings of steatosis were compared, considering histology as the gold standard. RESULTS: The study included 105 patients. The mean age was 37.2 ± 10.6 years and 75.2% were female. The histological prevalence of steatosis was 89.5%. The sensitivity and specificity of US in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis were, respectively, 64.9% (95% CI: 54.9-74.3) and 90.9% (95% CI: 57.1-99.5). The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were, respectively, 98.4% (95% CI: 90.2-99.9) and 23.3% (95% CI: 12.3-39.0). The presence of steatosis on US was associated to advanced grades of steatosis on histology (P = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Preoperative abdominal US in our series has not shown to be an accurate method for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in severe obese patients. Until another non-invasive method demonstrates better sensitivity and specificity values, histological evaluation may be recommended to these patients undergoing bariatric surgery. PMID:18322958

  12. Overall and abdominal obesity and incident aortic valve stenosis: two prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Susanna C.; Wolk, Alicja; Håkansson, Niclas; Bäck, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to examine the association of overall and abdominal obesity with aortic valve stenosis (AVS) incidence in two prospective cohorts. Methods and results We used data from the Cohort of Swedish Men and the Swedish Mammography Cohort, involving 71 817 men and women who were free of cardiovascular disease and had reported their anthropometric measures in 1997. Aortic valve stenosis cases were ascertained through linkage with nationwide registers on hospitalization and causes of death. Data were analysed using Cox proportional hazards regression. During a mean follow-up of 15.3 years, 1297 incident AVS cases (771 in men; 526 in women) were ascertained. Both overall and abdominal obesity, measured as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, respectively, was associated with AVS incidence, with similar associations in men and women. Compared with BMI 18.5–22.5 kg/m2, the multivariable hazard ratios were 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.48) for overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.47–2.23) for obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). The hazard ratio for substantially increased waist circumference (men: ≥102 cm; women: ≥88 cm) compared with normal waist circumference (men: <94 cm; women: <80 cm) was 1.30 (95% CI 1.12–1.51). The proportion of AVS cases estimated to be attributed to overweight and obesity combined (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) was 10.8% (95% CI 5.2–16.4%). Conclusion These findings indicate that obesity is associated with an increased risk of AVS and that a large proportion of the cases may be prevented if the population maintained a healthy BMI. PMID:28402538

  13. Changes in abdominal obesity and age-related macular degeneration: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Anna; Magliano, Dianna J; Stevens, June; Duncan, Bruce B; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Tien Y

    2008-11-01

    To examine the association between changes in waist-hip ratio (WHR), a measure of abdominal obesity, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A total of 12 515 persons from a population-based cohort study, aged 45 to 64 years in 1987 to 1989, were followed up over 6 years. The percentage change in WHR during follow-up was ranked into sex-specific deciles; an increase in WHR was defined as the top 10% of change and a decrease in WHR as the bottom 10%. The association of increased or decreased WHR and presence of AMD at follow-up was determined using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. The average change in WHR was an increase of 2%, ranging from a decrease of 44% to an increase of 102%. A decrease in WHR of 3% or more was associated with 29% lower odds of any AMD (odds ratio = 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.97). This effect was most pronounced among obese participants at baseline, where a decrease in WHR was associated with 59% lower odds of AMD (odds ratio = 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.82). Middle-aged persons who had a 3% or greater reduction in WHR over time were less likely to have AMD, particularly among those who were initially obese.

  14. Epidemiology of general obesity, abdominal obesity and related risk factors in urban adults from 33 communities of northeast china: the CHPSNE study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity increases the risk of many diseases. However, there has been little literature about the epidemiology of obesity classified by body mass index (BMI) or waist (abdominal obesity) among urban Chinese adults. This study is to fill the gap by assessing the prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among urban Chinese adults. Methods A representative sample of 25,196 urban adults aged 18 to 74 years in Northeast China was selected and measurements of height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were taken from 2009–2010. Definitions of overweight and obesity by the World Health Organization (WHO) were used. Results The overall prevalence rates of general obesity and overweight classified by BMI were 15.0% (15.7% for men and 14.3% for women, p<0.01) and 19.2% (20.8% for men and 17.7% for women, p<0.01), respectively, and the overall prevalence rate of abdominal obesity was 37.6% (31.1% for men and women 43.9% for women, p<0.01). Multivariable logistic regression showed that the elderly and those who had a history of parental obesity, alcohol drinking, or former cigarette smoking were at high risk of obesity classified by BMI or WC, whereas those with a higher level of education, higher family income, or a healthy and balanced diet were at low risk of obesity. Analysis stratified by gender showed that men with a higher level education level, a white-collar job, a cadre job, or higher family income were the high risk group, and women with a higher level of education or higher family income were the low risk group. Conclusions Obesity and overweight have become epidemic in urban populations in China; associations of risk factors with obesity differ between men and women. PMID:23146089

  15. Dynapenic Abdominal Obesity Increases Mortality Risk among English and Brazilian Older Adults: A 10-Year Follow-Up of the ELSA and SABE Studies.

    PubMed

    da Silva Alexandre, T; Scholes, S; Ferreira Santos, J L; de Oliveira Duarte, Y A; de Oliveira, C

    2018-01-01

    There is little epidemiological evidence demonstrating that dynapenic abdominal obesity has higher mortality risk than dynapenia and abdominal obesity alone. Our main aim was to investigate whether dynapenia combined with abdominal obesity increases mortality risk among English and Brazilian older adults over ten-year follow-up. Cohort study. United Kingdom and Brazil. Data came from 4,683 individuals from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and 1,490 from the Brazilian Health, Well-being and Aging study (SABE), hence the final sample of this study was 6,173 older adults. The study population was categorized into the following groups: non-dynapenic/non-abdominal obese, abdominal obese, dynapenic, and dynapenic abdominal obese according to their handgrip strength (< 26 kg for men and < 16 kg for women) and waist circumference (> 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women). The outcome was all-cause mortality over a ten-year follow-up. Adjusted hazard ratios by sociodemographic, behavioural and clinical characteristics were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. The fully adjusted model showed that dynapenic abdominal obesity has a higher mortality risk among the groups. The hazard ratios (HR) were 1.37 for dynapenic abdominal obesity (95% CI = 1.12 - 1.68), 1.15 for abdominal obesity (95% CI = 0.98 - 1.35), and 1.23 for dynapenia (95% CI = 1.04 - 1.45). Dynapenia is an important risk factor for mortality but dynapenic abdominal obesity has the highest mortality risk among English and Brazilian older adults.

  16. Effects of exercise amount and intensity on abdominal obesity and glucose tolerance in obese adults: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert; Hudson, Robert; Stotz, Paula J; Lam, Miu

    2015-03-03

    Exercise reduces obesity and related glucose tolerance, but whether increasing exercise intensity offers additional benefit at fixed exercise amounts is unknown. To determine the separate effects of exercise amount and intensity on abdominal obesity and glucose tolerance. 24-week, single-center, parallel-group trial from 2009 to 2013. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00955071). Kingston, Ontario, Canada. 300 abdominally obese adults. Control (no exercise) (n = 75) or 5 weekly sessions of low-amount, low-intensity exercise (LALI) (180 and 300 kcal/session for women and men, respectively, at 50% of maximum oxygen consumption [V̇o2peak]) (n = 73); high-amount, low-intensity exercise (HALI) (360 and 600 kcal/session, respectively, at 50% of V̇o2peak) (n = 76); or high-amount, high-intensity exercise (HAHI) (360 and 600 kcal/session, respectively, at 75% of V̇o2peak) (n = 76). Daily unsupervised physical activity and sedentary time were measured by accelerometer. Waist circumference and 2-hour glucose level (primary outcomes) and cardiorespiratory fitness and measures of insulin action (secondary measurements). 217 participants (72.3%) completed the intervention. Mean exercise time in minutes per session was 31 (SD, 4.4) for LALI, 58 (SD, 7.6) for HALI, and 40 (SD, 6.2) for HAHI. Daily unsupervised physical activity and sedentary time did not change in any exercise group versus control (P > 0.33). After adjustment for age and sex in a linear mixed model, reductions in waist circumference were greater in the LALI (-3.9 cm [95% CI, -5.6 to -2.3 cm]; P < 0.001), HALI (-4.6 cm [CI, -6.2 to -3.0 cm]; P < 0.001), and HAHI (-4.6 cm [CI, -6.3 to -2.9 cm]; P < 0.001) groups than the control group but did not differ among the exercise groups (P > 0.43). After adjustment for covariates, reductions in 2-hour glucose level were greater in the HAHI group (-0.7 mmol/L [-12.5 mg/dL] [CI, -1.3 to -0.1 mmol/L {-23.5 to -1.5 mg/dL}]; P = 0.027) than the control group but did not differ for the

  17. The Gradual Shift of Overweight, Obesity, and Abdominal Obesity Towards the Poor in a Multi-ethnic Developing Country: Findings From the Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Surveys.

    PubMed

    Mariapun, Jeevitha; Ng, Chiu-Wan; Hairi, Noran N

    2018-06-05

    Economic development is known to shift the distribution of obesity from the socioeconomically more advantaged to the less advantaged. We assessed the socioeconomic trends in overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity across a period of significant economic growth. We used the Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Survey data sets for the years 1996, 2006, and 2011 to analyze the trends among adults aged 30 years and above. The World Health Organization's Asian body mass index cut-off points of ≥23.0 kg/m 2 and ≥27.5 kg/m 2 were used to define overweight and obesity, respectively. Abdominal obesity was defined as having a waist circumference of ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women. Household per-capita income was used as a measure of socioeconomic position. As a summary measure of inequality, we computed the concentration index. Women in Peninsular Malaysia demonstrated patterns that were similar to that of developed countries in which the distributions for overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity became concentrated among the poor. For women in East Malaysia, distributions became neither concentrated among the rich nor poor, while distributions for men were still concentrated among the rich. Chinese women, particularly from the richest quintile, had the lowest rates and lowest increase in overweight and obesity. All distributions of Chinese women were concentrated among the poor. The distributions of Malay men were still concentrated among the rich, while distributions for Chinese and Indian men and Malay and Indian women were neither concentrated among the rich nor poor. As the country continues to progress, increasing risks of overweight and obesity among the socioeconomically less advantaged is expected.

  18. The Gradual Shift of Overweight, Obesity, and Abdominal Obesity Towards the Poor in a Multi-ethnic Developing Country: Findings From the Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Mariapun, Jeevitha; Ng, Chiu-Wan; Hairi, Noran N.

    2018-01-01

    Background Economic development is known to shift the distribution of obesity from the socioeconomically more advantaged to the less advantaged. We assessed the socioeconomic trends in overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity across a period of significant economic growth. Methods We used the Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Survey data sets for the years 1996, 2006, and 2011 to analyze the trends among adults aged 30 years and above. The World Health Organization’s Asian body mass index cut-off points of ≥23.0 kg/m2 and ≥27.5 kg/m2 were used to define overweight and obesity, respectively. Abdominal obesity was defined as having a waist circumference of ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women. Household per-capita income was used as a measure of socioeconomic position. As a summary measure of inequality, we computed the concentration index. Results Women in Peninsular Malaysia demonstrated patterns that were similar to that of developed countries in which the distributions for overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity became concentrated among the poor. For women in East Malaysia, distributions became neither concentrated among the rich nor poor, while distributions for men were still concentrated among the rich. Chinese women, particularly from the richest quintile, had the lowest rates and lowest increase in overweight and obesity. All distributions of Chinese women were concentrated among the poor. The distributions of Malay men were still concentrated among the rich, while distributions for Chinese and Indian men and Malay and Indian women were neither concentrated among the rich nor poor. Conclusion As the country continues to progress, increasing risks of overweight and obesity among the socioeconomically less advantaged is expected. PMID:29657257

  19. Elevated serum level of human alkaline phosphatase in obesity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Rehman; Awan, Fazli Rabbi; Najam, Syeda Sadia; Islam, Mehboob; Siddique, Tehmina; Zain, Maryam

    2015-11-01

    To investigate a correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase level and body mass index in human subjects. The comparative cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from April 2012 to June 2013. Blood serum alkaline phosphatase levels were estimated and the subjects were divided into three sub-groups on the basis of their body mass. normal weight (<25kg/m2), overweight (25-27kg/m2) and obese (>27kg/m2) subjects. The serum samples were used for the estimation of clinically important biochemical parameters, using commercial kits on clinical chemistry analyser. Of the 197 subjects, 97(49%) were obese and 100(51%) were non-obese. The serum alkaline phosphatase level increased in obese (214±6.4 IU/L) compared to the non-obese subjects (184.5±5 IU/L). Furthermore, a significant linear relationship (r=0.3;p-0.0001) was found between serum alkaline phosphatase and body mass index. Other biochemical variables were not correlated to the body mass index. Over activity and higher amounts of alkaline phosphatase were linked to the development of obesity.

  20. Population-attributable fraction of hypertension associated with obesity, abdominal obesity, and the joint effect of both in the Central Provinces of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Masoud; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in Iran over the past decade. This study aimed to determine the population-attributable fraction (PAF) of hypertension associated with obesity, abdominal obesity, and the joint effect of both in the central provinces of Iran. Prevalence of hypertension was extracted from the Iranian Ministry of Health Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor InfoBase 2009. Measure of association between obesity and hypertension was extracted from Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, for males and females, in order to calculate the PAF of hypertension associated with obesity. Age standardization of the reported prevalence of obesity was done using the World Health Organization method. The PAF of hypertension associated with the joint effect of obesity and abdominal obesity in females was highest in Semnan Province: 22.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.2-35.6], followed by Qom 21.09 (95% CI: 3.7-33.1), and Yazd 20.3 (95% CI: 3.5-32.1). In males, the highest PAF was observed in Qom Province 31.07 (95% CI: 16.7-41.1), followed by Semnan 29.6 (95% CI: 15.9-39.3), Qazvin 25.9 (95% CI: 13.7-34.5), Tehran 24.2 (95% CI: 12.7-32.3), and Isfahan 20.4 (95% CI: 3.5-27.4). Prevalence of hypertension is higher in more developed provinces. PAFs suggest that a sizable share of hypertension in these provinces is associated with obesity. It is recommended that health promotion programs focus on obesity in the provinces with a higher share of hypertension due to obesity. Copyright © 2016 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary Patterns of Women Are Associated with Incident Abdominal Obesity but Not Metabolic Syndrome123

    PubMed Central

    Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Gona, Philimon; Zhu, Lei; Newby, P. K.; Millen, Barbara E.; Brown, Lisa S.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Fung, Teresa T.

    2012-01-01

    Data on the relationship between empirical dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in prospective study designs are limited. In addition, demographic and lifestyle determinants of MetS may modify the association between dietary patterns and the syndrome. We prospectively examined the relationship between empirically derived patterns and MetS and MetS components among 1146 women in the Framingham Offspring/Spouse cohort. They were aged 25–77 y with BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2 and free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and MetS at baseline, and followed for a mean of 7 y. Five dietary patterns, Heart Healthier, Lighter Eating, Wine and Moderate Eating, Higher Fat, and Empty Calorie, were previously identified using cluster analysis from food intake collected using a FFQ. After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed lower odds for abdominal obesity for Higher Fat [OR = 0.48 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.91)] and Wine and Moderate Eating clusters [OR = 0.28 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.72)] compared with the Empty Calorie cluster. Additional adjustment for BMI somewhat attenuated these OR [Higher Fat OR = 0.52 (95% CI: 0.27, 1.00); Wine and Moderate Eating OR = 0.34 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.89)]. None of the clusters was associated with MetS or other MetS components. Baseline smoking status and age did not modify the relation between dietary patterns and MetS. The Higher Fat and Wine and Moderate Eating patterns showed an inverse association with abdominal obesity; certain foods might be targeted in these habitual patterns to achieve optimal dietary patterns for MetS prevention. PMID:22833658

  2. Efficacy of octreotide-LAR in dieting women with abdominal obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gambineri, Alessandra; Patton, Laura; De Iasio, Rosaria; Cantelli, Barbara; Cognini, Graciela Estela; Filicori, Marco; Barreca, Antonina; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Pagotto, Uberto; Pasquali, Renato

    2005-07-01

    Somatostatin reduces LH, GH, and insulin, and somatostatin receptors are present at the ovarian level; somatostatin analogs are thus potential candidates for treatment of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of octreotide-LAR, a long-acting somatostatin analog, in anovulatory abdominal obese women with PCOS. A single-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed, lasting for 7 months. The patients were ambulatory throughout the study. Twenty PCOS subjects were enrolled. Eighteen completed the study. A low-calorie diet was given during the first month, a low-calorie diet plus octreotide-LAR (10 mg; n = 10 subjects) or placebo (n = 10 subjects) was then given, with one im injection every 28 d (for 6 months). The main outcome measures were clinical features, computerized tomography measurement of fat distribution, androgens, GH, IGF-I, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), fasting and glucose-stimulated insulin, and ovulation. Octreotide had no additional effect in reducing body fat or improving fat distribution than placebo. Conversely, octreotide produced an additional decrease in fasting (P = 0.018) and glucose-stimulated (P = 0.038) insulin levels, an increase in IGFBP-2 (P = 0.042) and IGFBP-3 (P = 0.047), and an improvement in hirsutism (P = 0.004). Moreover, a trend toward greater reductions in testosterone (P = 0.061) and androstenedione (P = 0.069) was observed in women treated with octreotide-LAR compared with those given placebo. All women treated with octreotide ovulated at the end of the study compared with only one of those receiving placebo (P < 0.001). Octreotide-LAR may be usefully applied to hypocalorically dieting, abdominal obese PCOS women to improve hyperandrogenism and the insulin-IGF-I system. Restoration of ovulatory menstrual cycles appears to be another advantage of this treatment.

  3. Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Assunção, Monica L; Ferreira, Haroldo S; dos Santos, Aldenir F; Cabral, Cyro R; Florêncio, Telma M M T

    2009-07-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting waist circumferences (WC) >88 cm (abdominal obesity) were investigated. The randomised, double-blind, clinical trial involved 40 women aged 20-40 years. Groups received daily dietary supplements comprising 30 mL of either soy bean oil (group S; n = 20) or coconut oil (group C; n = 20) over a 12-week period, during which all subjects were instructed to follow a balanced hypocaloric diet and to walk for 50 min per day. Data were collected 1 week before (T1) and 1 week after (T2) dietary intervention. Energy intake and amount of carbohydrate ingested by both groups diminished over the trial, whereas the consumption of protein and fibre increased and lipid ingestion remained unchanged. At T1 there were no differences in biochemical or anthropometric characteristics between the groups, whereas at T2 group C presented a higher level of HDL (48.7 +/- 2.4 vs. 45.00 +/- 5.6; P = 0.01) and a lower LDL:HDL ratio (2.41 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.8; P = 0.04). Reductions in BMI were observed in both groups at T2 (P < 0.05), but only group C exhibited a reduction in WC (P = 0.005). Group S presented an increase (P < 0.05) in total cholesterol, LDL and LDL:HDL ratio, whilst HDL diminished (P = 0.03). Such alterations were not observed in group C. It appears that dietetic supplementation with coconut oil does not cause dyslipidemia and seems to promote a reduction in abdominal obesity.

  4. A painful pulsatile abdominal mass in a young man with elevated blood pressures: an unusual presentation of phaeochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, B M K; Ti, L K

    2002-08-01

    We report an unusual presentation of phaeochromocytoma in a young man with a painful, pulsatile abdominal mass and elevated blood pressures. This led to a delay in diagnosis and resulted in the administration of triggers of catecholamine release, possibly causing a catecholamine surge. This caused the development of catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy and multiple organ failure, requiring inotropic and ventilatory support, intra-aortic balloon pump and dialysis. Fortunately, his condition reversed with supportive treatment and alpha-adrenergic blockade. This illustrates the importance of having a high index of suspicion of phaeochromocytoma, especially in young patients with elevated blood pressures.

  5. Impact of a 1-year lifestyle modification program on cholesterol efflux capacities in men with abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Marjorie; Mitchell, Patricia L; Poirier, Dr Paul; Alméras, Natalie; Tremblay, Angelo; Bergeron, Jean; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Arsenault, Benoit J

    2018-06-05

    Cholesterol efflux capacities (CECs) are negatively associated with cardiovascular disease risk, irrespective of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. Whether interventions targeting lifestyle improve HDL-CECs is unknown. Our objective was to determine whether improving dietary quality and increasing physical activity levels improves HDL-CECs in abdominally obese men with dyslipidemia. Our study sample included men (488.5 years) with an elevated waist circumference ({greater than or equal to}90 cm) associated with dyslipidemia (triglycerides {greater than or equal to}1.69 and/or HDL cholesterol <1.03 mmol/l); 113 men completed a 1-year intervention, consisting of a healthy eating and physical activity/exercise program and 32 were included in a control group. An oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT) was performed in a subsample of 28 men who completed the intervention and blood was collected every 2 hours during 8 hours. HDL-CECs were measured using 3 H cholesterol labeled J774 macrophages and HepG2 hepatocytes. The lifestyle modification program led to an overall improvement in the cardiometabolic risk profile, increases in J774-HDL-CEC by 14.1% (+0.881.09%, p<0.0001), HepG2-HDL-CEC by 3.4% (+0.170.75%, p=0.01), HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 levels (13.5%, p<0.0001 and 14.9%, p<0.0001, respectively). J774-HDL-CECs and HepG2-HDL-CECs did not change in the control group. The best predictor for changes in HDL-CEC was Apo A1 level. The lifestyle modification program also improved HDL-CECs response in postprandial lipemia during an OLTT. HDL-CEC did not change during the OLTT. Our results suggest that increasing physical activity levels and improving diet quality can have a positive impact on both HDL quantity and quality in abdominally obese men with dyslipidemia.

  6. Elevated ambulatory blood pressure in a multi-ethnic population of obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Alexandra; Ostrow, Vlady; De Luca, Francesco; Suarez, Elizabeth

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship among ambulatory blood pressure (ABP), body mass index (BMI), and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) in a multi-ethnic population of obese children with clinic blood pressure in the reference range. A total of 43 obese normotensive children (7-17 years old) were recruited. ABP monitoring, oral glucose tolerance test, lipid levels, and urine microalbumin levels were obtained. Fourteen percent of the subjects had elevated 24-hour systolic blood pressure (SBP), 9.3% had elevated daytime SBP, and 32.6 % elevated nighttime SBP. For diastolic blood pressure, 4.7% of the sample had an elevated mean nighttime value. Children with more severe obesity (BMI SD score >2.5) had higher 24-hour and nighttime SBP than children with less severe obesity (BMI SD score < or =2.5). Children with HOMA values in the highest quartile had larger waist circumference and higher clinic blood pressure than children with HOMA values in the lowest quartile, and no difference in the mean ABP values was found in the 2 groups . Multiple linear regression analysis showed that 24-hour and nighttime SBP were significantly correlated with BMI SD score. Obese children with normal clinic blood pressure often exhibit elevated ABP. The risk for ambulatory hypertension appears to be correlated with the degree of obesity. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationships between metabolic profile, hypertension and uric acid with cardiometabolic risk in adolescents with abdominal obesity: impact of geodemographic factors on the prevalence of abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Bouhenni, Hamida; Daoudi, Hadjer; Djemai, Haidar; Noirez, Philippe; Rouabah, Abdelkader; Vitiello, Damien; Rouabah, Leila

    2017-11-23

    Background Association of hyperuricemia, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure (BP) among adolescents with high waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) remains not fully addressed and could represent a new way to diagnose adolescents early with cardiometabolic risk. Objective We aimed to determine abdominal obesity (AO) prevalence and investigate relations between AO, uric acid (UA), lipid profiles, BP and geographical patterns in adolescents. Subjects 577 and 204 Algerian students aged between 10 and 19 years were included in our epidemiological and biochemical studies, respectively. Methods Height, weight, waist circumference (Wc) and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI) and BP were measured. Fasting blood sampling was performed to measure glycemia, lipid profile, uricemia, insulinemia and leptinemia. The WHtR ≥0.50 was applied for the diagnosis of AO and geodemographics was evaluated. Results The prevalence of AO was 12.13% among all students, 19.17% and 16.39% among students living in urban and plain areas, respectively. The risk of AO may be reduced in rural and mountainous areas. Lipid parameters, UA, insulin and leptin serum concentrations were significantly increased in adolescents with WHtR ≥0.50 compared to those with WHtR <0.50. Cardiometabolic risk was increased with WHtR ≥0.50 and BMI >26. Means of BMI, Wc, BP, and lipid parameters were significantly increased in the fourth quartiles compared to the first quartile of UA. Conclusion Urban areas and plains represent factors contributing to AO and WHtR ≥0.50 may be used as a cut-off point to define risks of high BP, lipid abnormalities and UA serum level in Algerian adolescents.

  8. The Effects of Combined Exercise on Health-Related Fitness, Endotoxin, and Immune Function of Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Obesity.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Mo; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Ji, Jin-Goo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of combined exercise on health-related fitness, endotoxin concentrations, and immune functions of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. 20 voluntary participants were recruited and they were randomly allocated to the combined exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio ≥ 0.4 based on computed tomography (CT) results. Body composition, exercise stress testing, fitness measurement, CT scan, and blood variables were analyzed to elucidate the effects of combined exercise. The SPSS Statistics 18.0 program was used to calculate means and standard deviations for all variables. Significant differences between the exercise group and control group were determined with 2-way ANOVA and paired t-tests. The exercise group's abdominal obesity was mitigated due to visceral fat reduction; grip strength, push-ups, and oxygen uptake per weight improved; and HDL-C and IgA level also increased, while TNF-α, CD14, and endotoxin levels decreased. Lowered TNF-α after exercise might have an important role in the obesity reduction. Therefore, we can conclude that combined exercise is effective in mitigating abdominal obesity, preventing metabolic diseases, and enhancing immune function.

  9. Leptin Elevation as a Risk Factor for Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis Independent of Obesity Status.

    PubMed

    Halverson, Schuyler J; Warhoover, Tracy; Mencio, Gregory A; Lovejoy, Steven A; Martus, Jeffrey E; Schoenecker, Jonathan G

    2017-05-17

    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is strongly associated with childhood obesity, yet the prevalence of obesity is orders of magnitude greater than the prevalence of SCFE. Therefore, it is hypothesized that obesity is not, by itself, a sufficient condition for SCFE, but rather one component of a multifactorial process requiring preexisting physeal pathology. Leptin elevation is seen to varying degrees in patients with obesity, and as leptin has been shown to cause physeal pathology similar to the changes seen in SCFE, we propose that leptin may be a factor distinguishing between patients with SCFE and equally obese children without hip abnormalities. Serum leptin levels were obtained from 40 patients with SCFE and 30 control patients with approximate body mass index (BMI) matching. BMI percentiles were calculated according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention population data by patient age and sex. Patients were compared by demographic characteristics, leptin levels, odds of leptin elevation, and odds of SCFE. The odds of developing SCFE was increased by an odds ratio of 4.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31 to 18.48; p < 0.02) in patients with elevated leptin levels, regardless of obesity status, sex, and race. When grouping patients by their obesity status, non-obese patients with SCFE showed elevated median leptin levels at 5.8 ng/mL compared with non-obese controls at 1.7 ng/mL (p = 0.006). Similarly, obese patients with SCFE showed elevated median leptin levels at 17.9 ng/mL compared with equally obese controls at 10.5 ng/mL (p = 0.039). Serum leptin levels increased in association with obesity (p < 0.001), with an increase in leptin of 0.17 ng/mL (95% CI, 0.07 to 0.27 ng/mL) per BMI percentile point. To our knowledge, this study is the first to clinically demonstrate an association between elevated serum leptin levels and SCFE, regardless of BMI. This adds to existing literature suggesting that SCFE is a multifactorial process and that leptin

  10. Association between duration of overall and abdominal obesity beginning in young adulthood and coronary artery calcification in middle age.

    PubMed

    Reis, Jared P; Loria, Catherine M; Lewis, Cora E; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Wei, Gina S; Carr, J Jeffrey; Terry, James G; Liu, Kiang

    2013-07-17

    Younger individuals are experiencing a greater cumulative exposure to excess adiposity over their lifetime. However, few studies have determined the consequences of long-term obesity. To examine whether the duration of overall and abdominal obesity was associated with the presence and 10-year progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a subclinical predictor of coronary heart disease. Prospective study of 3275 white and black adults aged 18 to 30 years at baseline in 1985-1986 who did not initially have overall obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30) or abdominal obesity (men: waist circumference [WC] >102 cm; women: >88 cm) in the multicenter, community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Participants completed computed tomography scanning for the presence of CAC during the 15-, 20-, or 25-year follow-up examinations. Duration of overall and abdominal obesity was calculated using repeat measurements of BMI and WC, respectively, performed 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years after baseline. Presence of CAC was measured by computed tomography at the year 15 (2000-2001), year 20 (2005-2006), or year 25 (2010-2011) follow-up examinations. Ten-year progression of CAC (2000-2001 to 2010-2011) was defined as incident CAC in 2010-2011 or an increase in CAC score of 20 Agatston units or greater. During follow-up, 40.4% and 41.0% developed overall and abdominal obesity, respectively. Rates of CAC per 1000 person-years were higher for those who experienced more than 20 years vs 0 years of overall obesity (16.0 vs 11.0, respectively) and abdominal obesity (16.7 vs 11.0). Approximately 25.2% and 27.7% of those with more than 20 years of overall and abdominal obesity, respectively, experienced progression of CAC vs 20.2% and 19.5% of those with 0 years. After adjustment for BMI or WC and potential confounders, the hazard ratios for CAC for each additional year of overall or abdominal obesity were 1.02 (95% CI, 1.01-1.03) and 1.03 (95% CI

  11. Association Between Duration of Overall and Abdominal Obesity Beginning in Young Adulthood and Coronary Artery Calcification in Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Jared P.; Loria, Catherine M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Wei, Gina S.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Terry, James G.; Liu, Kiang

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Younger individuals are experiencing a greater cumulative exposure to excess adiposity over their lifetime. However, few studies have determined the consequences of long-term obesity. OBJECTIVE To examine whether the duration of overall and abdominal obesity was associated with the presence and 10-year progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a subclinical predictor of coronary heart disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective study of 3275 white and black adults aged 18 to 30 years at baseline in 1985–1986 who did not initially have overall obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30) or abdominal obesity (men: waist circumference [WC] >102 cm; women: >88 cm) in the multicenter, community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Participants completed computed tomography scanning for the presence of CAC during the 15-, 20-, or 25-year follow-up examinations. Duration of overall and abdominal obesity was calculated using repeat measurements of BMI and WC, respectively, performed 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years after baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Presence of CAC was measured by computed tomography at the year 15 (2000–2001), year 20 (2005–2006), or year 25 (2010–2011) follow-up examinations. Ten-year progression of CAC (2000–2001 to 2010–2011) was defined as incident CAC in 2010–2011 or an increase in CAC score of 20 Agatston units or greater. RESULTS During follow-up, 40.4% and 41.0% developed overall and abdominal obesity, respectively. Rates of CAC per 1000 person-years were higher for those who experienced more than 20 years vs 0 years of overall obesity (16.0 vs 11.0, respectively) and abdominal obesity (16.7 vs 11.0). Approximately 25.2% and 27.7% of those with more than 20 years of overall and abdominal obesity, respectively, experienced progression of CAC vs 20.2% and 19.5% of those with 0 years. After adjustment for BMI or WC and potential confounders, the hazard ratios for CAC

  12. Associations of Diabetes and Obesity with Risk of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Men.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Djousse, Luc; Song, Yiqing; Akinkuolie, Akintunde O; Matsumoto, Chisa; Manson, JoAnn E; Gaziano, J Michael; Sesso, Howard D

    2017-01-01

    Background. The associations of diabetes and obesity with the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are inconclusive in previous studies. Subjects/Methods. We conducted prospective analysis in the Physicians' Health Study. Among 25,554 male physicians aged ≥ 50 years who reported no AAA at baseline, 471 reported a newly diagnosed AAA during a mean of 10.4 years' follow-up. Results. Compared with men who had baseline body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m 2 , the multivariable hazard ratio (HR [95% CI]) of newly diagnosed AAA was 1.30 [1.06-1.59] for BMI 25-<30 kg/m 2 and 1.69 [1.24-2.30] for BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 . The risk of diagnosed AAA was significantly higher by 6% with each unit increase in baseline BMI. This association was consistent regardless of the other known AAA risk factors and preexisting vascular diseases. Overall, baseline history of diabetes tended to be associated with a lower risk of diagnosed AAA (HR = 0.79 [0.57-1.11]); this association appeared to vary by follow-up time (HR = 1.56 and 0.63 during ≤ and >2 years' follow-up, resp.). Conclusion. In a large cohort of middle-aged and older men, obesity was associated with a higher risk, while history of diabetes tended to associate with a lower risk of diagnosed AAA, particularly over longer follow-up.

  13. Abdominal Obesity and Risk of Hip Fracture: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Omid; Saneei, Parvaneh; Nasiri, Morteza; Larijani, Bagher; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Data on the association between general obesity and hip fracture were summarized in a 2013 meta-analysis; however, to our knowledge, no study has examined the association between abdominal obesity and the risk of hip fracture. The present systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies was undertaken to summarize the association between abdominal obesity and the risk of hip fracture. We searched online databases for relevant publications up to February 2017, using relevant keywords. In total, 14 studies were included in the systematic review and 9 studies, with a total sample size of 295,674 individuals (129,964 men and 165,703 women), were included in the meta-analysis. Participants were apparently healthy and aged ≥40 y. We found that abdominal obesity (defined by various waist-hip ratios) was positively associated with the risk of hip fracture (combined RR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.46, P = 0.01). Combining 8 effect sizes from 6 studies, we noted a marginally significant positive association between abdominal obesity (defined by various waist circumferences) and the risk of hip fracture (combined RR: 1.36; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.89, P = 0.07). This association became significant in a fixed-effects model (combined effect size: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.58, P < 0.001). Based on 5 effect sizes, we found that a 0.1-U increase in the waist-hip ratio was associated with a 16% increase in the risk of hip fracture (combined RR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.29, P = 0.007), whereas a 10-cm increase in waist circumference was not significantly associated with a higher risk of hip fracture (combined RR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.36, P = 0.19). This association became significant, however, when we applied a fixed-effects model (combined effect size: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.27, P < 0.001). We found that abdominal obesity was associated with a higher risk of hip fracture in 295,674 individuals. Further studies are needed to test whether there are associations between abdominal obesity and

  14. Changes in visceral adiposity and serum cholesterol with a novel viscous polysaccharide in Japanese adults with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Raylene A; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Eller, Lindsay K; Lyon, Michael R; Gahler, Roland J; Kacinik, Veronica; Juneja, Prateek; Wood, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Evidence supports the role of dietary fiber in improving metabolic health. PolyGlycopleX (PGX), a viscous functional polysaccharide improves lipidemia and glycemia in healthy adults. Our objective was to examine the effects of PGX on risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in Japanese adults with abdominal obesity. Sixty four subjects assigned to 14 weeks of 15 g day(-1) of PGX or placebo were assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial. At week 0 and 14, primary outcome measures were serum lipids, abdominal adiposity, glucose tolerance and blood pressure. Total and LDL cholesterol were reduced at week 14 with PGX but not placebo (P < 0.05). The reduction in waist circumference at week 14 was greater with PGX versus placebo (P < 0.05). In females, abdominal visceral fat was decreased to a greater extent with PGX versus placebo (P < 0.05). While glucose tolerance worsened with placebo over time, PGX reduced glucose total area under the curve from week 0 to 6 (P = 0.039). Serum concentrations of resistin and IL6 increased slightly in placebo and decreased slightly with PGX . PGX is a functional fiber that shows promise in reducing risk factors related to the metabolic syndrome in Japanese adults with abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  15. Serum Fatty Acids, Desaturase Activities and Abdominal Obesity – A Population-Based Study of 60-Year Old Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Alsharari, Zayed D.; Risérus, Ulf; Leander, Karin; Sjögren, Per; Carlsson, Axel C.; Vikström, Max; Laguzzi, Federica; Gigante, Bruna; Cederholm, Tommy; De Faire, Ulf; Hellénius, Mai-Lis

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is a key contributor of metabolic disease. Recent trials suggest that dietary fat quality affects abdominal fat content, where palmitic acid and linoleic acid influence abdominal obesity differently, while effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are less studied. Also, fatty acid desaturation may be altered in abdominal obesity. We aimed to investigate cross-sectional associations of serum fatty acids and desaturases with abdominal obesity prevalence in a population-based cohort study. Serum cholesteryl ester fatty acids composition was measured by gas chromatography in 60-year old men (n = 1883) and women (n = 2015). Cross-sectional associations of fatty acids with abdominal obesity prevalence and anthropometric measures (e.g., sagittal abdominal diameter) were evaluated in multivariable-adjusted logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Similar models were employed to investigate relations between desaturase activities (estimated by fatty acid ratios) and abdominal obesity. In logistic regression analyses, palmitic acid, stearoyl-CoA-desaturase and Δ6-desaturase indices were associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for highest versus lowest quartiles were 1.45 (1.19–1.76), 4.06 (3.27–5.05), and 3.07 (2.51–3.75), respectively. Linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, docohexaenoic acid, and Δ5-desaturase were inversely associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 0.39 (0.32–0.48), 0.74 (0.61–0.89), 0.76 (0.62–0.93), and 0.40 (0.33–0.49), respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid was not associated with abdominal obesity. Similar results were obtained from linear regression models evaluating associations with different anthropometric measures. Sex-specific and linear associations were mainly observed for n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, while associations of the other exposures were generally non-linear and similar across

  16. Obesity indices are predictive of elevated C-reactive protein in long-haul truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Wideman, Laurie; Oberlin, Douglas J; Sönmez, Sevil; Labban, Jeffrey; Lemke, Michael Kenneth; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos

    2016-08-01

    Obesity rates in long-haul truck drivers have been shown to be significantly higher than the general population. We hypothesized that commercial drivers with the highest levels of general obesity and abdominal adiposity would have higher concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation. Survey and anthropometric data were collected from 262 commercial drivers. Weight, circumference measures, and blood analysis for CRP (N = 115) were conducted and compared to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. CRP values were non-normally distributed and logarithmically transformed for statistical analyses. BMI, waist circumference, sagittal abdominal diameter, and CRP were significantly higher than in the general population. Anthropometric indices that included height (BMI, waist-to-height ratio, and sagittal diameter-to-height ratio), were most predictive of CRP values. Abdominal obesity is prevalent in commercial vehicle drivers and is an important indicator of the presence of inflammation in this population. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:665-675, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Copy Number Variations in Candidate Genes and Intergenic Regions Affect Body Mass Index and Abdominal Obesity in Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Burguete-García, Ana Isabel; Bonnefond, Amélie; Peralta-Romero, Jesús; Froguel, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Increase in body weight is a gradual process that usually begins in childhood and in adolescence as a result of multiple interactions among environmental and genetic factors. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between copy number variants (CNVs) in five genes and four intergenic regions with obesity in Mexican children. Methods. We studied 1423 children aged 6–12 years. Anthropometric measurements and blood levels of biochemical parameters were obtained. Identification of CNVs was performed by real-time PCR. The effect of CNVs on obesity or body composition was assessed using regression models adjusted for age, gender, and family history of obesity. Results. Gains in copy numbers of LEPR and NEGR1 were associated with decreased body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and risk of abdominal obesity, whereas gain in ARHGEF4 and CPXCR1 and the intergenic regions 12q15c, 15q21.1a, and 22q11.21d and losses in INS were associated with increased BMI and WC. Conclusion. Our results indicate a possible contribution of CNVs in LEPR, NEGR1, ARHGEF4, and CPXCR1 and the intergenic regions 12q15c, 15q21.1a, and 22q11.21d to the development of obesity, particularly abdominal obesity in Mexican children. PMID:28428959

  18. The effects of body mass index on complications and mortality after emergency abdominal operations: The obesity paradox.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Elizabeth R; Dilektasli, Evren; Haltmeier, Tobias; Beale, Elizabeth; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2017-11-01

    Recent literature suggests that obesity is protective in critically illness. This study addresses the effect of BMI on outcomes after emergency abdominal surgery (EAS). Retrospective, ACS-NSQIP analysis. All patients that underwent EAS were included. The study population was divided into five groups based on BMI; regression models were used to evaluate the role of obesity in morbidity and mortality. 101,078 patients underwent EAS; morbidity and mortality were 19.5% and 4.5%, respectively. Adjusted mortality was higher in underweight patients (AOR 1.92), but significantly lower in all obesity groups (AOR's 0.73, 0.66, 0.70, 0.70 respectively). Underweight and class III obesity was associated with increased complications (AOR 1.47 and 1.30), while mild obesity was protective (AOR 0.92). Underweight patients undergoing EAS have increased morbidity and mortality. Although class III obesity is associated with increased morbidity, overweight and class I obesity were protective. All grades of obesity may be protective against mortality after EAS relative to normal weight patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Socio-Demographic and Dietary Factors Associated with Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity among Resettled Bhutanese Refugee Women in Northeast Ohio, United States

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Madhav P.; Assad, Lori; Shakya, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm) in a community-based sample of 18–65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary factors. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to define excess body weight and abdominal obesity. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the 108 participants was 36.5 (±12.2) years and length of time in the U.S. was 19.4 (±11.9) months. Overall, 64.8% and 69.4% of the women had excess body weight and abdominal obesity, respectively. Age was significantly associated with both excess body weight (odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.05–1.16) and abdominal obesity (1.09; 1.04–1.14). Consuming meat (4.01; 1.14–14.60) was significantly associated with excess body weight but not abdominal obesity. These findings suggest the need for lifestyle and dietary change education programs among this new and vulnerable group to reduce the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity and their health consequences. PMID:24968209

  20. Overweight and abdominal obesity in women of childbearing age of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin and the general Finnish population.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Tarja I; Skogberg, Natalia; Härkänen, Tommi; Lundqvist, Annamari; Laatikainen, Tiina; Koponen, Päivikki

    2017-05-15

    Migrant background and higher parity may increase the risk of being overweight. We compared the prevalence of overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist-to-height ratio ≥0.5) between non-pregnant migrant and Finnish women aged 18-45 years. The participants were 165 Russian, 164 Somali and 179 Kurdish origin women from the cross-sectional Migrant Health and Wellbeing study. The reference group included 388 women from the general Finnish population. Body anthropometrics were measured. The main statistical methods were logistic regression adjusted for sociodemographic and reproductive variables. The unadjusted prevalence of overweight and obesity, respectively, were higher among Somali (32.9%, 30.9%, P < 0.001) and Kurdish women (41.1%, 19.5%, P < 0.001) than among Finnish women (19.9%, 9.8%). The adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for overweight (including obesity) were 0.54 (0.33; 0.89) for Russian, 2.89 (1.66; 5.03) for Somali and 2.56 (1.64; 4.00) for Kurdish women compared with Finnish women. Kurdish women had 2.96-fold (1.75; 5.00) adjusted odds ratio for abdominal obesity compared with Finnish women. Being parous was associated with overweight and abdominal obesity among Kurdish women. Overweight and obesity were very common among Somali and Kurdish origin women. Information on diet and physical activity in these groups is needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Prevalence of General Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in the Spanish Adult Population (Aged 25-64 Years) 2014-2015: The ENPE Study.

    PubMed

    Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Alberdi-Aresti, Goiuri; Ramos-Carrera, Natalia; Lázaro-Masedo, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    According to the 2013 analysis of the Institute of Health Metrics, high body mass index values are the most important risk factor for disease in Spain. Consequently, we describe the prevalence of total obesity and abdominal obesity in the Spanish adult population (25-64 years) for 2014-2015. The sample was taken from the ENPE study, a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population (n = 6800) carried out between May 2014 and May 2015. This analysis refers to the population between age 25 and 64 years (n = 3966). The anthropometric measurements were performed by trained observers at participants' homes according to standard international protocols. Body mass index ≥ 25 was defined as overweight and ≥ 30 as obesity. Abdominal obesity was classified as waist > 102 cm in men and > 88 cm in women. The estimated prevalence of overweight in the Spanish adult population (25-64 years) was 39.3% 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 35.7%-42.9%). The prevalence of general obesity was 21.6% (95%CI, 19.0%-24.2%) and, more specifically, was 22.8% (95%CI, 20.6%-25.0%) among men and 20.5% (95%CI, 18.5%-22.5%) among women, and rose with age. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was estimated at 33.4% (95%CI, 31.1%-35.7%) and was higher among women (43.3%; 95%CI, 41.1%-45.8%) than among men (23.3%; 95%CI, 20.9%-25.5%), and also rose with age. The prevalence of general obesity and abdominal obesity in Spain is high, although the distribution differs according to autonomous community. A comparison with earlier data reveals a considerable increase in overweight, indicating the need for routine monitoring and comprehensive initiatives. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Gender, alexithymia and physical inactivity associated with abdominal obesity in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a cross sectional study at a secondary care hospital diabetes clinic.

    PubMed

    Melin, Eva O; Svensson, Ralph; Thunander, Maria; Hillman, Magnus; Thulesius, Hans O; Landin-Olsson, Mona

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is linked to cardiovascular diseases and increasingly common in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) since the introduction of intensified insulin therapy. Our main aim was to explore associations between obesity and depression, anxiety, alexithymia and self-image measures and to control for lifestyle variables in a sample of persons with T1DM. Secondary aims were to explore associations between abdominal and general obesity and cardiovascular complications in T1DM. Cross sectional study of 284 persons with T1DM (age 18-59 years, men 56%), consecutively recruited from one secondary care hospital diabetes clinic in Sweden. Assessments were performed with self-report instruments (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 items and Structural Analysis of Social Behavior). Anthropometrics and blood samples were collected for this study and supplemented with data from the patients' medical records. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference men/women (meters): ≥1.02/≥0.88, and general obesity as BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 for both genders. Abdominal obesity was chosen in the analyses due to the high association with cardiovascular complications. Different explanatory logistic regression models were elaborated for the associations and calibrated and validated for goodness of fit with the data variables. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 49/284 (17%), men/women: 8%/29% ( P  < 0.001). Abdominal obesity was associated with women (AOR 4.9), physical inactivity (AOR 3.1), alexithymia (AOR 2.6) and age (per year) (AOR 1.04). One of the three alexithymia sub factors, "difficulty identifying feelings" (AOR 3.1), was associated with abdominal obesity. Gender analyses showed that abdominal obesity in men was associated with "difficulty identifying feelings" (AOR 7.7), and in women with use of antidepressants (AOR 4.3) and physical inactivity (AOR 3.6). Cardiovascular complications were associated with abdominal obesity (AOR 5

  3. Joint association of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor variants with abdominal obesity in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Yang, Jingyun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A; Haack, Karin; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a strong risk factor for obesity and cardiovascular disease. The effect of genetic variants involved in nicotine metabolism on obesity or body composition has not been well studied. Though many genetic variants have previously been associated with adiposity or body fat distribution, a single variant usually confers a minimal individual risk. The goal of this study is to evaluate the joint association of multiple variants involved in cigarette smoke or nicotine dependence with obesity-related phenotypes in American Indians. To achieve this goal, we genotyped 61 tagSNPs in seven genes encoding nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in 3,665 American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Single SNP association with obesity-related traits was tested using family-based association, adjusting for traditional risk factors including smoking. Joint association of all SNPs in the seven nAChRs genes were examined by gene-family analysis based on weighted truncated product method (TPM). Multiple testing was controlled by false discovery rate (FDR). Results demonstrate that multiple SNPs showed weak individual association with one or more measures of obesity, but none survived correction for multiple testing. However, gene-family analysis revealed significant associations with waist circumference (p = 0.0001) and waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.0001), but not body mass index (p = 0.20) and percent body fat (p = 0.29), indicating that genetic variants are jointly associated with abdominal, but not general, obesity among American Indians. The observed combined genetic effect is independent of cigarette smoking per se. In conclusion, multiple variants in the nAChR gene family are jointly associated with abdominal obesity in American Indians, independent of general obesity and cigarette smoking per se.

  4. Association of Major Dietary Patterns with General and Abdominal Obesity in Iranian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ghane Basiri, Marjan; Sotoudeh, Gity; Djalali, Mahmood; Reza Eshraghian, Mohammad; Noorshahi, Neda; Rafiee, Masoumeh; Nikbazm, Ronak; Karimi, Zeinab; Koohdani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns associated with general and abdominal obesity in type 2 diabetic patients. We included 728 patients (35 - 65 years) with type 2 diabetes mellitus in this cross-sectional study. The usual dietary intake of individuals over 1 year was collected using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured according to standard protocol. The two major dietary patterns identified by factor analysis were healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns. After adjustment for potential confounders, subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern scores had a lower odds ratio for the general obesity when compared to the lowest quintile (OR = 0.45, 95 % CI = 0.26 - 0.79, P for trend = 0.02), while patients in the highest quintile of the unhealthy dietary pattern scores had greater odds for the general obesity (OR = 3.2, 95 % CI = 1.8 - 5.9, P for trend < 0.001). There were no significant associations between major dietary patterns and abdominal obesity, even after adjusting for confounding factors. This study shows that in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a healthy dietary pattern is inversely associated and an unhealthy dietary pattern is directly associated with general obesity.

  5. A Study of Physicochemical Properties of Subcutaneous Fat of the Abdomen and its Implication in Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pramod; Kodavoor, Srinivas Aithal; Kotian, Sushma Rama; Yathdaka, Sudhakar Narahari; Nayak, Dayanand; Souza, Anne D; Souza, Antony Sylvan D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The lower abdominal obesity is more resistant to absorption as compared to that of upper abdomen. Differences in the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of the upper and lower abdomen may be responsible for this variation. There is paucity of the scientific literature on the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of abdomen. Aim The present study was undertaken to create a database of physicochemical properties of abdominal subcutaneous fat. Materials and Methods The samples of subcutaneous fat from upper and lower abdomen were collected from 40 fresh autopsied bodies (males 33, females 7). The samples were prepared for physicochemical analysis using organic and inorganic solvents. Various physicochemical properties of the fat samples analysed were surface tension, viscosity, specific gravity, specific conductivity, iodine value and thermal properties. Data was analysed by paired and independent sample t-tests. Results There was a statistically significant difference in all the physicochemical parameters between males and females except surface tension (organic) and surface tension (inorganic) of upper abdominal fat, and surface tension (organic) of lower abdominal fat. In males, viscosity of upper abdominal fat was more compared to that of lower abdomen (both organic and inorganic) unlike the specific conductivity that was higher for the lower abdominal fat as compared to that of the upper abdomen. In females there were statistically significant higher values of surface tension (inorganic) and specific gravity (organic) of the upper abdomen fat as compared to that of lower abdomen. The initial and final weight loss of the lower abdominal fat as indicated by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was significantly more in males than in female Conclusion The difference in the physicochemical properties of subcutaneous fat between upper and lower abdomen and between males and females could be responsible for the variant behaviour of

  6. A Study of Physicochemical Properties of Subcutaneous Fat of the Abdomen and its Implication in Abdominal Obesity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Pramod; Kodavoor, Srinivas Aithal; Kotian, Sushma Rama; Yathdaka, Sudhakar Narahari; Nayak, Dayanand; Souza, Anne D; Souza, Antony Sylvan D

    2016-05-01

    The lower abdominal obesity is more resistant to absorption as compared to that of upper abdomen. Differences in the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of the upper and lower abdomen may be responsible for this variation. There is paucity of the scientific literature on the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of abdomen. The present study was undertaken to create a database of physicochemical properties of abdominal subcutaneous fat. The samples of subcutaneous fat from upper and lower abdomen were collected from 40 fresh autopsied bodies (males 33, females 7). The samples were prepared for physicochemical analysis using organic and inorganic solvents. Various physicochemical properties of the fat samples analysed were surface tension, viscosity, specific gravity, specific conductivity, iodine value and thermal properties. Data was analysed by paired and independent sample t-tests. There was a statistically significant difference in all the physicochemical parameters between males and females except surface tension (organic) and surface tension (inorganic) of upper abdominal fat, and surface tension (organic) of lower abdominal fat. In males, viscosity of upper abdominal fat was more compared to that of lower abdomen (both organic and inorganic) unlike the specific conductivity that was higher for the lower abdominal fat as compared to that of the upper abdomen. In females there were statistically significant higher values of surface tension (inorganic) and specific gravity (organic) of the upper abdomen fat as compared to that of lower abdomen. The initial and final weight loss of the lower abdominal fat as indicated by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was significantly more in males than in female. The difference in the physicochemical properties of subcutaneous fat between upper and lower abdomen and between males and females could be responsible for the variant behaviour of subcutaneous abdominal fat towards resorption.

  7. The subcutaneous abdominal fat and not the intraabdominal fat compartment is associated with anovulation in women with obesity and infertility.

    PubMed

    Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; Groen, Henk; Zijlstra, Tineke M; Bolster, Johanna H T; Slart, Riemer H J; van der Jagt, Erik J; Kobold, Anneke C Muller; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Land, Jolande A; Hoek, Annemieke

    2010-05-01

    Abdominal fat contributes to anovulation. We compared body fat distribution measurements and their contribution to anovulation in obese ovulatory and anovulatory infertile women. Seventeen ovulatory and 40 anovulatory women (age, 30 +/- 4 yr; body mass index, 37.7 +/- 6.1 kg/m(2)) participated. Body fat distribution was measured by anthropometrics, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and single-sliced abdominal computed tomography scan. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to determine which fat compartments significantly contributed to anovulation. Anovulatory women had a higher waist circumference (113 +/- 11 vs. 104 +/- 9 cm; P < 0.01) and significantly more trunk fat (23.0 +/- 5.3 vs. 19.1 +/- 4.2 kg; P < 0.01) and abdominal fat (4.4 +/- 1.3 kg vs. 3.5 +/- 0.9 kg; P < 0.05) on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan than ovulatory women despite similar body mass index. The volume of intraabdominal fat on single-sliced abdominal computed tomography scan was not significantly different between the two groups (203 +/- 56 vs. 195 +/- 71 cm(3); P = 0.65), but anovulatory women had significantly more sc abdominal fat (SAF) (992 +/- 198 vs. 864 +/- 146 cm(3); P < 0.05). After multiple logistic regression analysis, only trunk fat, abdominal fat, and SAF were associated with anovulation. Abdominal fat is increased in anovulatory women due to a significant increase in SAF and not in intraabdominal fat. SAF and especially abdominal and trunk fat accumulation are associated with anovulation.

  8. [Evaluate the Efficacy of Electroacupuncture Therapy on Abdominal Fat in Obese Women by Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging].

    PubMed

    Lei, Hong; Chen, Xiao; Hu, Dong-Gang; Chen, Yu-Ting; Feng, Li-Cheng; Chen, Zhen-Yan; Li, Fang

    2016-10-25

    To evaluate the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) therapy on abdominal fat in obese women by using magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). Thirty abdominal obesity women patients were randomly divided into control group ( n =15) and EA group ( n =15). The obesity patients of the control group did not receive any treatment for weight reduction, and those of the EA group were treated by EA stimulation of bilateral Neiting (ST 44), Fenglong (ST 40), Zusanli (ST 36), Huaroumen (ST 24), Tianshu (ST 25), Wailing (ST 26), Shuidao (ST 28), Fujie (SP 14), Daheng (SP 13), etc. for 25 min, once every other day, 3 times per week for 3 months. The patient's body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) were mea-sured with different devices, and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated, and the subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the inferior edges of L 4 , L 5 and S 3 and the superior edge of the pubic symphysis and the total abdominal fat volume between the L 4 and S 3 levels were detected using MRI systems before and after the treatment. The effects of the EA group were significantly superior to those of the control group in lowering difference values (between pre- and post-treatment) of BMI, WC and subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the levels of the inferior edges of L 4 , L 5 , S 3 and the superior edge of the pubic symphysis(all P <0.01)and in reducing total abdominal fat volume between L 4 and S 3 (all P <0.01). After the treatment, the subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the superior edge of the pubic symphysis ( P <0.01) and the total abdominal fat volume between L 4 and S 3 ( P <0.05) were significantly decreased in the EA group compared to pre-treatment. There were no significant differences between post- and pre-treatment in BMI, WC, subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the levels of the L 4 , L 5 and S 3 in both EA and control groups and in the subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the level of the superior edge of the pubic symphysis and the

  9. Association of Rotating Night Shift Work with BMI and Abdominal Obesity among Nurses and Midwives.

    PubMed

    Peplonska, Beata; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Sobala, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Mounting epidemiological evidence suggests that night shift work may contribute to the etiology of increased body weight. The present study aimed to examine association between rotating night shift work and body mass index (BMI), and abdominal adiposity respectively among nurses and midwives. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 724 female nurses and midwives, aged 40-60 years (354 rotating night shift and 370 daytime workers) in Łódź, Poland, between 2008 and 2011. Information about occupational history and potential confounders was collected during personal interviews. Anthropometric measurements of body weight, height, waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumference were made, and body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. GLM regression models and multinomial logit regression models were fitted to explore the association between night shift work and anthropometric parameters, with adjustment for age, body silhouette at age 20, current smoking status, packyears, marital status, and menopausal hormone therapy use. Cumulative night shift work showed significant associations with BMI, WC, HC and WHtR, with BMI increasing by 0.477 kg/m2 per 1000 night duties and by 0.432 kg/m2 per 10000 night shift hours, WC increasing respectively by 1.089 cm and 0.99 cm, and HC by 0.72 cm and WHtR by 0.007 cm for both metrics. Both current and cumulative night work was associated with obesity (BMI≥30kg/m2), with OR=3.9 (95%CI:1.5-9.9), in women reporting eight or more night shifts per month. The results of the study support the previously reported relations between night shift work and development of obesity.

  10. Association of Rotating Night Shift Work with BMI and Abdominal Obesity among Nurses and Midwives

    PubMed Central

    Peplonska, Beata; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Sobala, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Background Mounting epidemiological evidence suggests that night shift work may contribute to the etiology of increased body weight. The present study aimed to examine association between rotating night shift work and body mass index (BMI), and abdominal adiposity respectively among nurses and midwives. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 724 female nurses and midwives, aged 40-60 years (354 rotating night shift and 370 daytime workers) in Łódź, Poland, between 2008 and 2011. Information about occupational history and potential confounders was collected during personal interviews. Anthropometric measurements of body weight, height, waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumference were made, and body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. GLM regression models and multinomial logit regression models were fitted to explore the association between night shift work and anthropometric parameters, with adjustment for age, body silhouette at age 20, current smoking status, packyears, marital status, and menopausal hormone therapy use. Results Cumulative night shift work showed significant associations with BMI, WC, HC and WHtR, with BMI increasing by 0.477 kg/m2 per 1000 night duties and by 0.432 kg/m2 per 10000 night shift hours, WC increasing respectively by 1.089 cm and 0.99 cm, and HC by 0.72 cm and WHtR by 0.007 cm for both metrics. Both current and cumulative night work was associated with obesity (BMI≥30kg/m2), with OR=3.9 (95%CI:1.5-9.9), in women reporting eight or more night shifts per month. Conclusion The results of the study support the previously reported relations between night shift work and development of obesity. PMID:26196859

  11. Associations of Diabetes and Obesity with Risk of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Men

    PubMed Central

    Djousse, Luc; Song, Yiqing; Akinkuolie, Akintunde O.; Matsumoto, Chisa; Manson, JoAnn E.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Sesso, Howard D.

    2017-01-01

    Background. The associations of diabetes and obesity with the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are inconclusive in previous studies. Subjects/Methods. We conducted prospective analysis in the Physicians' Health Study. Among 25,554 male physicians aged ≥ 50 years who reported no AAA at baseline, 471 reported a newly diagnosed AAA during a mean of 10.4 years' follow-up. Results. Compared with men who had baseline body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2, the multivariable hazard ratio (HR [95% CI]) of newly diagnosed AAA was 1.30 [1.06–1.59] for BMI 25–<30 kg/m2 and 1.69 [1.24–2.30] for BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. The risk of diagnosed AAA was significantly higher by 6% with each unit increase in baseline BMI. This association was consistent regardless of the other known AAA risk factors and preexisting vascular diseases. Overall, baseline history of diabetes tended to be associated with a lower risk of diagnosed AAA (HR = 0.79 [0.57–1.11]); this association appeared to vary by follow-up time (HR = 1.56 and 0.63 during ≤ and >2 years' follow-up, resp.). Conclusion. In a large cohort of middle-aged and older men, obesity was associated with a higher risk, while history of diabetes tended to associate with a lower risk of diagnosed AAA, particularly over longer follow-up. PMID:28326193

  12. Interactive relations of type 2 diabetes and abdominal obesity to cognitive impairment: A cross-sectional study in rural area of Xi'an in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbo; Shang, Suhang; Fei, Yulang; Chen, Chen; Jiang, Yu; Dang, Liangjun; Liu, Jie; Ma, Louyan; Wei, Meng; Qu, Qiumin

    2018-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity, which are frequently comorbid, have been associated with cognitive impairment. We aim to examine the potential modulating effect between obesity and diabetes on cognitive impairment. We recruited 865 adults (aged ≥55years) lived in a village of Xi'an in China from October 2014 to March 2015. All participants underwent biomedical and neuropsychological assessment. Relations of diabetes and abdominal obesity to cognitive impairment were examined in multiple regression models. A total of 155 participants (17.9%) presented with the diagnosis of cognitive impairment. Diabetes or obesity alone wasn't significantly associated with cognitive impairment. Interaction analysis showed a significant interaction between abdominal obesity and diabetes on cognitive impairment. Stratified multivariate analysis revealed that the association between diabetes and cognitive impairment was positive in participants with abdominal obesity (OR 2.436, 95% CI 1.345-4.411, p=0.003, in diabetics with high WC, and OR 2.348, 95% CI 1.373-4.014, p=0.002, in diabetics with high WHR), but negative in those without abdominal obesity. Type 2 diabetes interacts with abdominal obesity to be associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment by more than two times. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fatty Acid Content of Plasma Triglycerides May Contribute to the Heterogeneity in the Relationship Between Abdominal Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aristizabal, Juan C; Barona, Jacqueline; Gonzalez-Zapata, Laura I; Deossa, Gloria C; Estrada, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    About one-third of the people with abdominal obesity do not exhibit the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Fatty acids in plasma triglycerides (TGs) may help to explain part of this heterogeneity. This study compared TG fatty acid profile of adults with and without abdominal obesity and examined the associations of these fatty acids with MetS components. Fifty-four abdominally obese subjects were matched by age and sex with 54 adults without abdominal obesity. People were classified with MetS according to the harmonizing criteria for MetS. Fatty acids in plasma TGs were analyzed by gas chromatography. There were no differences in fatty acids of plasma TGs between people with and without abdominal obesity. However, there were differences between abdominally obese people with and without MetS. The abdominally obese group with MetS had higher palmitic (+2.9%; P = 0.012) and oleic (+4.0%; P = 0.001) acids and lower linoleic (-6.4%; P = 0.018) and arachidonic (-1.2%; P = 0.004) acids. After adjustment for abdominal obesity, age, and sex, a stepwise regression analysis showed that palmitic acid positively contributed to the variance in insulin (β = +1.08 ± 1.01; P = 0.000) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index (β = +1.09 ± 1.01; P = 0.000) and myristic acid positively contributed to the variance in systolic blood pressure (β = +1.09 ± 1.03; P = 0.006). In contrast, linoleic acid negatively contributed to the variance in glucose (β = -0.321 ± 0.09; P = 0.001) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; β = -1.05 ± 1.01; P = 0.000). There were no differences in the plasma TG fatty acid profile between people with and without abdominal obesity. Likewise, fatty acids in plasma TGs associated with many of the MetS variables independently of abdominal obesity. These results suggest that the plasma TG fatty acid profile may help to explain part of the heterogeneity

  14. Abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia mask the effect of a common APOC3 haplotype on the risk of myocardial infarction123

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Sacks, Frank M; Campos, Hannia

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasma apolipoprotein (apo) C-III strongly predicts myocardial infarction (MI) and directly activates atherogenic processes invascularcells.Geneticvariationintheinsulinresponseelementofthe APOC3 promoter is associated with an increased risk of MI. Objective The objective was to determine whether the APOC3 promoter variation affects plasma apo C-III concentrations and MI only when insulin sensitivity is normal. Design TheAPOC3*222haplotype,definedbytheminorallelesofthe single nucleotide polymorphisms 3238C→G, –455T→C, and –482C→T, was studied in 1703 matched nonfatal case-control pairs with MI in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. We used fasting hyper-glycemia and abdominal obesity as surrogates for insulin sensitivity. Results The APOC3*222 haplotype was associated with higher apo C-III concentrations only in those with the lowest waist circumference or fasting glucose concentration. The association between the APOC3*222 haplotype and nonfatal MI, previously reported in this population, was strongly influenced by fasting hyperglycemia and abdominal obesity. The odds ratios for MI for the APOC3*222 haplotype were 1.72 (95% CI: 1.16, 2.54) and 1.84 (1.31, 2.59) in subjects in the lowest quintiles of abdominal obesity and fasting hyperglycemia, respectively, and were 0.75 (0.54, 1.05) and 1.16 (0.85, 1.59) in subjects in the highest quintiles, respectively (P for interaction <0.05). Conclusion The results support the concept that mutations in the APOC3 promoter inhibit the down-regulation of APOC3 expression by insulin. This cardioprotective system becomes dysfunctional in abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia. PMID:18541587

  15. Abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia mask the effect of a common APOC3 haplotype on the risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Sacks, Frank M; Campos, Hannia

    2008-06-01

    Plasma apolipoprotein (apo) C-III strongly predicts myocardial infarction (MI) and directly activates atherogenic processes in vascular cells. Genetic variation in the insulin response element of the APOC3 promoter is associated with an increased risk of MI. The objective was to determine whether the APOC3 promoter variation affects plasma apo C-III concentrations and MI only when insulin sensitivity is normal. The APOC3*222 haplotype, defined by the minor alleles of the single nucleotide polymorphisms 3238C-->G, -455T-->C, and -482C-->T, was studied in 1703 matched nonfatal case-control pairs with MI in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. We used fasting hyperglycemia and abdominal obesity as surrogates for insulin sensitivity. The APOC3*222 haplotype was associated with higher apo C-III concentrations only in those with the lowest waist circumference or fasting glucose concentration. The association between the APOC3*222 haplotype and nonfatal MI, previously reported in this population, was strongly influenced by fasting hyperglycemia and abdominal obesity. The odds ratios for MI for the APOC3*222 haplotype were 1.72 (95% CI: 1.16, 2.54) and 1.84 (1.31, 2.59) in subjects in the lowest quintiles of abdominal obesity and fasting hyperglycemia, respectively, and were 0.75 (0.54, 1.05) and 1.16 (0.85, 1.59) in subjects in the highest quintiles, respectively (P for interaction <0.05). The results support the concept that mutations in the APOC3 promoter inhibit the down-regulation of APOC3 expression by insulin. This cardioprotective system becomes dysfunctional in abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia.

  16. Discordance of metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity prevalence according to different criteria in Andean highlanders: A community-based study.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Enriquez, Karela; Narvaez-Guerra, Offdan

    2017-11-01

    There is no consensus as to which Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) definition to use for South-American populations. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of MetS and abdominal obesity using different criteria in Andean adults aged 40 and older living permanently at high altitude. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Chivay (Andean highlands). 237 participants were included. Anthropometric measurements, glucose and lipid assessments were done in all subjects. Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria for MetS were used. Abdominal obesity prevalence was determined using the American Diabetes Association (ADA), IDF, and PREVENCION Study criteria. Cohen's Kappa coefficient (κ) was analyzed to assess agreement level between different criteria. Multiple regression analyses were performed to find predictors for waist circumference. MetS was identified in 28.7% (95%CI=23.8-33.5) using ATPIII criteria, and 37.9% (95%CI=32.7-43.0) using IDF criteria, with higher prevalence in women. The κ statistics for agreement between both criteria was 0.775 (95%CI=0.690-0.859). Abdominal obesity prevalence according to ADA, IDF, and PREVENCION criteria was 35.9% (95%CI=29.7-42.0), 75.9% (95%CI=70.5-81.4), and 42.6% (95%CI=36.3-49.0), respectively. Agreement between ADA and PREVENCION criteria was highest (κ=0.859, 95%CI=0.792-0.925). The strongest predictors for higher waist circumference values were triglycerides and BMI in women, and systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, and HDL-cholesterol in men. MetS according to ATP III and IDF criteria was highly prevalent. IDF criteria identified a larger number of subjects with MetS. Different abdominal obesity criteria tended to show variation when applied to our sample population. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Abdominal adiposity, general obesity, and subclinical systolic dysfunction in the elderly: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Russo, Cesare; Sera, Fusako; Jin, Zhezhen; Palmieri, Vittorio; Homma, Shunichi; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2016-05-01

    General obesity, measured by body mass index (BMI), and abdominal adiposity, measured as waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), are associated with heart failure and cardiovascular events. However, the relationship of general and abdominal obesity with subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is unknown. We assessed the association of general and abdominal obesity with subclinical LV systolic dysfunction in a population-based elderly cohort. Participants from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions study underwent measurement of BMI, WC, and WHR. Left ventricular systolic function was assessed by two-dimensional echocardiographic LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and speckle-tracking global longitudinal strain (GLS). The study population included 729 participants (mean age 71 ± 9 years, 60% women). In multivariate analysis, higher BMI (but not WC and WHR) was associated with higher LVEF (β = 0.11, P = 0.003). Higher WC (β = 0.08, P = 0.038) and higher WHR (β = 0.15, P < 0.001) were associated with lower GLS, whereas BMI was not (P = 0.720). Compared with normal WHR, high WHR was associated with lower GLS in all BMI categories (normal, overweight, and obese), and was associated with subclinical LV dysfunction by GLS both in participants without [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.6, P = 0.020] and with general obesity (adjusted OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.1-25.9, P = 0.034). WHR was incremental to BMI and risk factors in predicting LV dysfunction. Abdominal adiposity was independently associated with subclinical LV systolic dysfunction by GLS in all BMI categories. BMI was not associated with LV dysfunction. Increased abdominal adiposity may be a risk factor for LV dysfunction regardless of the presence of general obesity. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  18. Abdominal obesity and its association with health-related quality of life in adults: a population-based study in five Chinese cities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity and its association with the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a randomly selected Chinese sample. Methods A population-based sample of 3,600 residents aged 18–80 years was selected randomly from 5 Chinese cities. Demographic information, and waist and hip circumference measurements were obtained. The Mandarin version of the Short Form 36 Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36) was used to assess the HRQOL. Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were used as measures of abdominal obesity, and the prevalence of abdominal obesity and its association with HRQOL were analysed. Results Among the 3,184 participants included in the analysis, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was about 45% in both women and men as evaluated by WC, and about 40% in women and 33% in men as evaluated by WHR. The prevalence varied by city, region, age, marital status, education level, family income, smoking, and the presence of chronic diseases. Both WC and WHR increased with age, and men had larger WC and WHR than women in most age groups. In women, abdominal obesity, as determined by both WC and WHR, was associated with meaningful impairments in 4 physical health scales and 2 mental health scales. In men, abdominal obesity, as determined by WC, was associated with 1 physical health scale and 1 mental health scale, and it was associated with 2 physical health scales based on WHR. Conclusions Physical health, but not mental health, was more vulnerable to impairment with abdominal obesity, and the impairments varied between genders. Public health agencies should emphasize that abdominal obesity impairs physical health. PMID:24925310

  19. Cross-sectional association between cigarette smoking and abdominal obesity among Austrian bank employees.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Fontes Gasperin, Lizia; Neuberger, Manfred; Tichy, Alexander; Moshammer, Hans

    2014-07-29

    There is increasing evidence that smoking is associated with abdominal obesity and other risk factors for the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to investigate these associations in a sample of healthy Austrian adults. Data of 986 employees of an Austrian company (405 men and 581 women; participation rate approximately 80%) obtained during their annual medical check-up at the workplace were analysed. Information on smoking status, education level, physical activity, diet, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and biochemical parameters was obtained. The influence of smoking on health and anthropometric measures was investigated. No differences in total body fat and/or body fat distribution were found between non-smokers, smokers and former smokers; however, among daily smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked per day was significantly associated with higher body weight (p=0.001) and BMI (p=0.009). Male and female smokers had significantly higher white cell count than non-smokers and former smokers. Heavy smokers also had an unhealthier lipid profile (lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and higher fasting glucose levels even after controlling for physical activity and calorie intake. Contrary to the beliefs of many smokers, heavy smoking is associated with higher body weight and unfavourable metabolic changes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Optimal definitions for abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome in Andean Hispanics: the PREVENCION study.

    PubMed

    Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Pastorius, Catherine A; Zea-Diaz, Humberto; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Corrales-Medina, Fernando; Morey-Vargas, Oscar Leopoldo; Chirinos, Diana Andrea; Muñoz-Atahualpa, Edgar; Chirinos-Pacheco, Julio; Chirinos, Julio Alonso

    2010-06-01

    We aimed to establish optimal definitions for abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Andean adults. Among 1,448 Andean adults, we assessed the relationship between waist circumference and subclinical vascular disease assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and manifest cardiovascular disease (M-CVD). Optimal waist circumference cutoffs to classify individuals with abnormal cIMT or M-CVD were >97 and >87 cm in men and women, respectively. With these cutoffs, there was substantial disagreement between the original American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) and the recently updated MetS definition, particularly among men (kappa = 0.85). Subjects with MetS identified by the updated definition but not meeting the original AHA/NHLBI MetS criteria demonstrated significantly increased cIMT (P < 0.001) compared with subjects who did not meet the MetS criteria by either definition. Our findings support the use of ethnic-specific waist circumference cutoffs and the updated MetS definition in Andean adults.

  1. Cross-sectional association between cigarette smoking and abdominal obesity among Austrian bank employees

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Fontes Gasperin, Lizia; Neuberger, Manfred; Tichy, Alexander; Moshammer, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Objectives There is increasing evidence that smoking is associated with abdominal obesity and other risk factors for the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to investigate these associations in a sample of healthy Austrian adults. Setting and participants Data of 986 employees of an Austrian company (405 men and 581 women; participation rate approximately 80%) obtained during their annual medical check-up at the workplace were analysed. Primary and secondary outcome measures Information on smoking status, education level, physical activity, diet, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and biochemical parameters was obtained. The influence of smoking on health and anthropometric measures was investigated. Results No differences in total body fat and/or body fat distribution were found between non-smokers, smokers and former smokers; however, among daily smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked per day was significantly associated with higher body weight (p=0.001) and BMI (p=0.009). Male and female smokers had significantly higher white cell count than non-smokers and former smokers. Heavy smokers also had an unhealthier lipid profile (lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and higher fasting glucose levels even after controlling for physical activity and calorie intake. Conclusions Contrary to the beliefs of many smokers, heavy smoking is associated with higher body weight and unfavourable metabolic changes. PMID:25079922

  2. [PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL PROGRAM AS A WAY OF CORRECTING MOTIVATIONAL COMPONENTS IN PATIENTS WITH PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA WITH ABDOMINAL OBESITY].

    PubMed

    Sinayko, V; Korovina, L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of motivational and targeted psychoeducational programs designed for patients with paranoid schizophrenia with abdominal obesity. We observed 34 women aged 18-42 with continuous-flow type paranoid schizophrenia. All patients had a concomitant abdominal obesity, which developed secondarily after long-term administration of second generation antipsychotic medications (at least 1 year). Based on clinical-psychopathological and psychometric methods of assessment and on the analysis of Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire we have developed modules for psychoeducational programs. Based on the results of the treatment we conclude that the application of psychoeducational programs is an effective component of complex treatment of patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Abdominal obesity should be regarded as an important and the main side effect of long-term therapy with atypical antipsychotic medications. It has a marked negative effect on subjective assessment of patients and decreases the level of their mental and social adaptation. This factor should be the basis for the formation of re-socialization and compliance-oriented actions.

  3. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  4. Functional abdominal pain syndrome in morbidly obese patients following laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Eidy, Mohammad; Pazouki, Abdolreza; Raygan, Fahimeh; Ariyazand, Yazdan; Pishgahroudsari, Mohadeseh; Jesmi, Fatemeh

    2014-03-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGBP) is one of the most common bariatric surgeries, which is being performed using various techniques like gastrojejunostomy by hand swen, linear or circular stapler. Abdominal pain is a common complaint following laparoscopic gastric bypass procedure (LGBP), which has different aetiologies, such as overeating, adhesion, internal herniation, bile reflux and many more. In this study LGBP was performed in an ante-colic ante-gastric pattern in a double loop manner and the prevalence and distribution of pain in morbidly obese patients undergoing LGBP was assessed. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and frequency of post LGBP pain in morbidly obese patients. This study was performed on 190 morbidly obese patients referred to Hazrat Rasoul Hospital in Tehran. After LGBP, pain was measured in the following intervals: 24 hours, one week and one month after the operation. Before the operation onset, 2 mg Keflin and 5000 IU subcutaneous heparin were administered as prophylaxis. LGBP was performed using five ports including: one 11 mm port was placed 15-20 cm far from the xiphoid, one 12-mm port in mid-clavicular line at the level of camera port, one 5-mm port in subcostal area in ante-axillary region in the left, another 5-mm port in the right mid-clavicular area and a 5-mm port in sub-xyphoid. All operations were done by the same team. Staple was used for all anastomoses and hand sewn technique to close the staple insertion site. The mesenteric defect was left open and no effort was made to repair it. The results of this study showed that 99.94 % of the patients had complains of pain in the first 24 hours of post operation, about 60% after one week and 29.5 % still had pain after one month. In addition, left upper quadrant (LUQ) was found to be the most prevalent site for the pain in 53.7% of the patients in the first 24 hours, 59.6% after one week and 16.8% after one month (except for obscure pain) with a significance

  5. Association of white and red meat consumption with general and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study among a population of Iranian military families in 2016.

    PubMed

    Dabbagh-Moghadam, Arasb; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Nasiri, Morteza; Miri, Ali; Rahdar, Maliehe; Sadeghi, Omid

    2017-12-01

    To assess the association of red and white meat consumption with general and abdominal obesity among Iranian military families. In this cross-sectional study, 525 subjects with age range of 19-55 years belong to military families of Army of Islamic Republic of Iran were recruited during 2016. Dietary data were collected using semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics and anthropometric measurements. General obesity was defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 and abdominal obesity as waist circumference ≥80 cm for women and ≥ 94 cm for men. Finally, we had complete data on 170 subjects for analysis. Mean age of subjects was 33.78 ± 6.48. We found a significant positive association between red meat consumption and abdominal obesity in fully adjusted model, so that subjects in the fourth quartile had 4.51 more odds to be abdominally obese compared with those in the first quartile of red meat consumption (OR 4.51, 95% CI 1.32-15.40). Such relationship was not seen for general obesity. In addition, white meat consumption was not associated with general and abdominal obesity either before or after adjustment for covariates. Red meat consumption was positively associated with abdominal obesity. No significant relationship was found between white meat consumption, and general and abdominal obesity. Therefore, further studies are needed to shed light our findings.

  6. The Burden of Obesity, Elevated Blood Pressure, and Diabetes in Uninsured and Underinsured Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Staiano, Amanda E; Morrell, Madeline; Hsia, Daniel S; Hu, Gang; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2016-11-01

    Obesity, elevated blood pressure (BP), and diabetes mellitus are rising among the general U.S. adolescent population, but prevalence estimates are not available for uninsured or Medicaid populations. This retrospective epidemiological study extracted 155,139 electronic medical records collected between 1998 and 2012 on patients aged 10-19 years, from a clinical population predominantly uninsured or insured by Medicaid. Age, sex, race, height, weight, BP, and insurance type were captured at first clinic visit. Classifications included obesity (≥95th body mass index percentile), elevated BP (≥90th percentile), and diabetes mellitus (ICD-9-250.xx). Among the 26,696 patients with complete data at first clinic visit, 24.4% were classified as obese and 39.5% had elevated BP. In logistic regression analyses, odds of obesity were significantly higher among uninsured versus commercially insured patients (odds ratio [OR]: 1.1 [95% confidence interval: 1.0-1.2]) and girls (OR: 1.3 [1.2-1.4]), but lower among older adolescents (for 15-17 years, OR: 0.7 [0.6-0.7]; for 18-19 years, OR: 0.7 [0.7-0.8]). Odds of elevated BP were significantly higher among Medicaid (OR: 1.1 [1.0-1.2]) and uninsured (OR: 1.2 [1.1-1.4]) versus commercially insured patients, but lower among African American versus White youth (OR: 0.9 [0.8-0.9]). Prevalence of type 1 diabetes was 1.46 per 1000 and prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 1.68 per 1000, with both occurring more often in girls versus boys and in Whites versus African Americans. In this low-income clinical population, prevalence of obesity and elevated BP were higher than national estimates. The provision of preventive healthcare to all Medicaid and uninsured youth should remain a priority.

  7. The Combined Effects of Obesity, Abdominal Obesity and Major Depression/Anxiety on Health-Related Quality of Life: the LifeLines Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Nigatu, Yeshambel T; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Jonge, Peter; van Rossum, Elisabeth; Bültmann, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD)/anxiety disorders often co-occur and aggravate each other resulting in adverse health-related outcomes. As little is known about the potential effects of interaction between obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), this study was aimed at examining these combined effects. We collected data among N = 89,332 participants from the LifeLines cohort study. We categorized body weight using body mass index (kg/m2) as normal weight (18.5-24.99), overweight (25-29.9), mild obesity (30-34.9) and moderate/severe obesity (≥ 35); we measured abdominal obesity using a waist circumference of ≥102 and ≥ 88 cm for males and females, respectively. MDD and anxiety disorders were diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. HR-QoL was assessed using the RAND-36 questionnaire to compute physical and mental quality of life scores. We used binary logistic and linear regression analyses. The combined effect of obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders on physical QoL was larger than the sum of their separate effects; regression coefficients, B (95%-confidence interval, 95%-CI) were: - 1.32 (-1.75; -0.90). However, the combined effect of obesity and major depression alone on mental QoL was less than the additive effect. With increasing body weight participants report poorer physical QoL; when they also have MDD and/or anxiety disorders participants report even poorer physical QoL. In persons without MDD and/or anxiety disorders, obesity was associated with a better mental QoL. Obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders act synergistically on physical and mental QoL. The management of MDD and/or anxiety disorders and weight loss may be important routes to improve HR-QoL.

  8. Sex-Specific Difference in the Association Between Poor Sleep Quality and Abdominal Obesity in Rural Chinese: A Large Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ru-Qing; Qian, Zhengmin; Wang, Si-Quan; Vaughn, Michael G; Geiger, Sarah Dee; Xian, Hong; Lin, Shao; Paul, Gunther; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Yang, Bo-Yi; Hu, Li-Wen; Xu, Shu-Li; Yang, Mo; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-04-15

    Existing studies on sleep quality and associated obesity are inconsistent, and few studies have prospectively evaluated the association between sleep quality and abdominal obesity among Chinese individuals. To fill this void, the current study aimed to assess the association between sleep quality and abdominal obesity in a rural Chinese population. A representative sample of 9,404 adults aged 20-93 years in northeastern China was selected between 2012 and 2013 by a multistage cluster and random sampling method. Sleep quality was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), where a score of 6 or higher indicated sleep disorder. Abdominal obesity was measured by waist circumference (WC), with abdominal obesity defined as WC > 90 cm for men and WC > 80 cm for women. Male participants with abdominal obesity had higher global PSQI scores in addition to higher subscores in almost all of the elements compared to normal values. The odds ratios of abdominal obesity among participants with sleep disorders were 1.64 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39-1.95) and 1.14 (95% CI: 0.98-1.32) for males and females compared to the reference group. The risk in all sleep elements was significantly increased, with odds ratios ranging from 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08-1.51) to 5.81 (95% CI: 3.54-9.53) for males. The risk only in four elements was significantly increased, from 1.28 (95% CI: 1.12-1.47) to 2.27 (95% CI: 1.36-3.80) for females. Poor sleep quality was associated with abdominal obesity in Chinese. Furthermore, effects in males were larger than those in females. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  9. Snacking is associated with reduced risk of overweight and reduced abdominal obesity in adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Snacking is common in adolescents; however, it is unclear if there is an association between snacking and overweight or obesity within the context of the overall diet. This study examined the associations of snacking with weight status and abdominal obesity in adolescents 12–18 y of age (n = 5811). ...

  10. Importance of Different Grades of Abdominal Obesity on Testosterone Level, Erectile Dysfunction, and Clinical Coincidence.

    PubMed

    Fillo, Juraj; Levcikova, Michaela; Ondrusova, Martina; Breza, Jan; Labas, Peter

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of different grades of abdominal obesity (AO) on the prevalence of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS), erectile dysfunction (ED), and metabolic syndrome (MetS). In a cross-sectional descriptive study, a total of 216 males underwent a complete urological, internal, and hormonal evaluation. Males were divided according to waist circumference into five groups: less than 94 cm (Grade [G] 0), 94 to 101 cm (G1), 102 to 109 cm (G2), 110 to 119 cm (G3), and more than 120 cm (G4). Incidence of ED, TDS, and MetS was compared in these groups and in participants without AO. Some degree of ED was identified in 74.7% of males with AO. In G1, there were 61% of males with ED, in G2 68%, in G3 83%, and in G4 87%. A strong correlation between testosterone (TST) level and AO was identified. Ninety-eight out of 198 (49.5%) males with AO and 1/18 (5.5%) males without AO had TDS. There were significant differences between individual groups. In the group of males with AO G4 (more than 120 cm), 87.1% had TDS. MetS was diagnosed in 105/198 (53.0%) males with AO, but in G4, 83.9% of males with AO had MetS. Males older than 40 years of age with AO have a higher incidence of ED, TDS, and MetS. Dividing males into five groups according to waist circumference seems to be reasonable. With growing AO, there were significantly more males with ED, TDS, and MetS.

  11. Risk factors associated with abdominal obesity in suburban adolescents from a Malaysian district.

    PubMed

    Chew, Wai Fong; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Yap, Sook Fan; Yasmin, A Malik; Choo, Kong Bung; Low, Gary Kim Kuan; Boo, Nem Yun

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to determine the risk factors associated with abdominal obesity (AO) in suburban adolescents. This cross-sectional study included adolescents aged 15-17 years from five randomly selected secondary schools in the Hulu Langat district of Selangor state, Malaysia. Waist circumference (WC) was measured at the midpoint between the lower margin of the last palpable rib and the top of the iliac crest. Information on sociodemographic data, dietary habits, physical activity levels and duration of sleep was obtained via interviewer-administered questionnaires. Participants' habitual food intake was determined using a 73-item Food Frequency Questionnaire. Among 832 participants, 56.0% were girls; 48.4% were Malay, 40.5% Chinese, 10.2% Indian and 0.8% of other ethnic groups. Median age and WC were 16 (interquartile range [IQR] 15-16) years and 67.9 (IQR 63.0-74.6) cm, respectively. Overall prevalence of AO (> 90th percentile on the WC chart) was 11.3%. A higher proportion (22.4%) of Indian adolescents were found to have AO compared with Malay and Chinese adolescents. Logistic regression analysis showed that female gender (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 7.064, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.087-23.913; p = 0.002), Indian ethnicity (adjusted OR 10.164, 95% CI 2.182-47.346; p = 0.003), irregular meals (adjusted OR 3.193, 95% CI 1.043-9.774; p = 0.042) and increasing body mass index (BMI) (adjusted OR 2.867, 95% CI 2.216-3.710; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with AO. AO was common among Malaysian adolescents. Female gender, Indian ethnicity, irregular meals and increasing BMI were significant risk factors. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  12. Abdominal obesity modifies the risk of hypertriglyceridemia for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Postorino, Maurizio; Marino, Carmen; Tripepi, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine

    2011-04-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is the most prevalent lipid alteration in end-stage renal disease, and we studied the relationship between serum triglycerides and all-cause and cardiovascular death in these patients. Since abdominal fat modifies the effect of lipids on atherosclerosis, we analyzed the interaction between serum lipids and waist circumference (WC) as a metric of abdominal obesity. In a cohort of 537 hemodialysis patients, 182 died, 113 from cardiovascular causes, over an average follow-up of 29 months. In Cox models that included traditional and nontraditional risk factors, there were significant strong interactions between triglycerides and WC to both all-cause and cardiovascular death. A fixed (50 mg/dl) excess in triglycerides was associated with a progressive lower risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with threshold WC <95 cm but with a progressive increased risk in those above this threshold. A significant interaction between cholesterol and WC with all-cause and cardiovascular death emerged only in models excluding the triglycerides-WC interaction. Neither high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nor non-HDL cholesterol or their interaction terms with WC were associated with study outcomes. Thus, the predictive value of triglycerides and cholesterol for survival and atherosclerotic complications in hemodialysis patients is critically dependent on WC. Hence, intervention studies in end-stage renal disease should specifically target patients with abdominal obesity and hyperlipidemia.

  13. Cardiovascular risk assessment according to the Framingham score and abdominal obesity in individuals seen by a clinical school of nutrition.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alane Cabral Menezes de; Ferreira, Raphaela Costa; Santos, Arianne Albuquerque

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the relation of abdominal obesity on cardiovascular risk in individuals seen by a clinic school of nutrition, classifying them based on Framingham score. Cross-sectional study, conducted at the nutrition clinic of a private college in the city of Maceió, Alagoas. We included randomly selected adults and elderly individuals with abdominal obesity, of both sexes, treated from August to December of 2009, with no history of cardiomyopathy or cardiovascular events. To determine the cardiovascular risk, the Framingham score was calculated. All analyzes were performed with SPSS software version 20.0, with p <0.05 as significative. We studied 54 subjects, 83% female, the mean age was 48 years old, ranging from 31 to 73 years. No correlation was observed between measurements of waist circumference and cardiovascular risk in the subjects studied (r=0.065, p=0.048), and there was no relationship between these parameters. Abdominal fat distribution was weakly related to cardiovascular risk in patients seen by a clinical school of nutrition.

  14. Affect and eating behavior in obese adults with and without elevated depression symptoms.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Crow, Scott J; Cao, Li; Peterson, Carol B; Durkin, Nora

    2014-04-01

    Although there is a modest relation between obesity and depression, mechanisms that contribute to this co-occurrence are unclear. This study examined mood and eating behavior among obese adults with and without elevated depression symptoms. Obese adults (N = 50) were subtyped according to a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) cutoff of 14, indicating "probable depression." Participants with (BDI ≥ 14; n = 15) and without (BDI < 14; n = 35) elevated depression symptoms were compared on affect- and eating-related variables measured via questionnaire and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using ANCOVA and mixed model regression. After adjusting for group differences in body mass index (BMI; p = .03), participants with elevated depression symptoms reported greater emotional eating via self-report questionnaire [F(1,50) = 4.3; p = .04], as well as more frequent binge eating (Wald χ(2)  = 13.8; p < .001) and higher daily negative affect (Wald χ(2)  = 7.7; p = .005) on EMA recordings. Emotional eating mediated the relationship between depression status and BMI (indirect effect estimate = 3.79; 95% CI = 1.02-7.46). Emotional eating and binge eating were more commonly reported by obese adults with elevated depression symptoms compared to those without and may occur against a general backdrop of overall low mood. Intervention and prevention programs for obesity and/or depression should address disordered eating to prevent or minimize adverse health consequences. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Consumption of a liquid high-fat meal increases triglycerides but decreases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Lu, Huixia; Liu, Fukang; Cai, Huizhen; Xia, Hui; Guo, Fei; Xie, Yulan; Huang, Guiling; Miao, Miao; Shu, Guofang; Sun, Guiju

    2017-07-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance, which may be a potential contributor to dyslipidemia. However, the relationship between postprandial insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in abdominally obese subjects remains unknown. We hypothesized that postprandial dyslipidemia would be exaggerated in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance. To test this hypothesis, serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were measured at baseline and postprandial state at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after a liquid high-fat meal in non-abdominally obese controls (n=44) and abdominally obese subjects with low (AO-LPIR, n=40), middle (n=40), and high postprandial insulin resistance (AO-HPIR, n=40) based on the tertiles ratio of the insulin to glucose areas under the curve (AUC). Their serum adipokines were tested at baseline only. Fasting serum leptin was higher (P<.05) in AO-HPIR than that in AO-LPIR and controls. Postprandial triglycerides AUC was higher (P<.05), whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol AUC was lower (P<.05), in AO-HPIR than those in AO-LPIR and controls. Postprandial AUCs for total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were similar in abdominally obese subjects with different degrees of postprandial insulin resistance and controls. The present study indicated that the higher degree of postprandial insulin resistance, the more adverse lipid profiles in abdominally obese subjects, which provides insight into opportunity for screening in health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Obese ZDF rats fermented resistant starch with effects on gut microbiota but no reduction in abdominal fat.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Felicia; Guice, Justin; Page, Ryan; Welsh, David A; Taylor, Christopher M; Blanchard, Eugene E; Luo, Meng; Raggio, Anne M; Stout, Rhett W; Carvajal-Aldaz, Diana; Gaither, Amanda; Pelkman, Christine; Ye, Jianping; Martin, Roy J; Geaghan, James; Durham, Holiday A; Coulon, Diana; Keenan, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    To determine if whole-grain (WG) flour with resistant starch (RS) will produce greater fermentation than isolated RS in obese Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, and whether greater fermentation results in different microbiota, reduced abdominal fat, and increased insulin sensitivity. This study utilized four groups fed diets made with either isolated digestible control starch, WG control flour (6.9% RS), isolated RS-rich corn starch (25% RS), or WG corn flour (25% RS). ZDF rats fermented RS and RS-rich WG flour to greatest extent among groups. High-RS groups had increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) active. Feeding isolated RS showed greater Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes phyla among groups, and rats consuming low RS diets possessed more bacteria in Lactobacillus genus. However, no differences in abdominal fat were observed, but rats with isolated RS had greatest insulin sensitivity among groups. Data demonstrated ZDF rats (i) possess a microbiota that fermented RS, and (ii) WG high-RS fermented better than purified RS. However, fermentation and microbiota changes did not translate into reduced abdominal fat. The defective leptin receptor may limit ZDF rats from responding to increased GLP-1 and different microbiota for reducing abdominal fat, but did not prevent improved insulin sensitivity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effects of Endurance and Endurance Strength Training on Body Composition and Physical Capacity in Women with Abdominal Obesity.

    PubMed

    Skrypnik, Damian; Bogdański, Paweł; Mądry, Edyta; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Ratajczak, Marzena; Kryściak, Jakub; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of endurance training with endurance strength training on the anthropometric, body composition, physical capacity, and circulatory parameters in obese women. 44 women with abdominal obesity were randomized into groups A and B, and asked to perform endurance (A) and endurance strength training (B) for 3 months, 3 times/week, for 60 min. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and Graded Exercise Test were performed before and after training. Significant decreases in body mass, BMI, total body fat, total body fat mass, and waist and hip circumference were observed after both types of intervention. Marked increases in total body lean and total body fat-free mass were documented in group B. In both groups, significant increases in peak oxygen uptake, time to exhaustion, maximal work rate, and work rate at ventilatory threshold were accompanied by noticeably decreased resting heart rate, resting systolic blood pressure, and resting and exercise diastolic blood pressure. No significant differences were noticed between groups for the investigated parameters. Our findings demonstrate evidence for a favorable and comparable effect of 3-month endurance and endurance strength training on anthropometric parameters, body composition, physical capacity, and circulatory system function in women with abdominal obesity. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  18. Effects of Endurance and Endurance Strength Training on Body Composition and Physical Capacity in Women with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Skrypnik, Damian; Bogdański, Paweł; Mądry, Edyta; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Ratajczak, Marzena; Kryściak, Jakub; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Aims To compare the effects of endurance training with endurance strength training on the anthropometric, body composition, physical capacity, and circulatory parameters in obese women. Methods 44 women with abdominal obesity were randomized into groups A and B, and asked to perform endurance (A) and endurance strength training (B) for 3 months, 3 times/week, for 60 min. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and Graded Exercise Test were performed before and after training. Results Significant decreases in body mass, BMI, total body fat, total body fat mass, and waist and hip circumference were observed after both types of intervention. Marked increases in total body lean and total body fat-free mass were documented in group B. In both groups, significant increases in peak oxygen uptake, time to exhaustion, maximal work rate, and work rate at ventilatory threshold were accompanied by noticeably decreased resting heart rate, resting systolic blood pressure, and resting and exercise diastolic blood pressure. No significant differences were noticed between groups for the investigated parameters. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate evidence for a favorable and comparable effect of 3-month endurance and endurance strength training on anthropometric parameters, body composition, physical capacity, and circulatory system function in women with abdominal obesity. PMID:25968470

  19. Effects of endurance and endurance-strength exercise on biochemical parameters of liver function in women with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Skrypnik, Damian; Ratajczak, Marzena; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Mądry, Edyta; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Hansdorfer-Korzon, Rita; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Bogdański, Paweł

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although the standard therapy for obesity involves physical exercise, well-planned studies of the changes in liver function in response to different exercise intensities in obese subjects are scarce. The aim of the present study was to examine a question of how does exercise mode affect the liver function. 44 women with abdominal obesity were randomized into two exercise groups: endurance (group A) and endurance-strength (group B). Women in each group exercised for 60min 3 times/week for a 3-month period. Markers of liver function: serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and bilirubin levels were quantified. We found significant differences in ALT (p<0.01) and AST (p<0.05) activities between group A and B after training exercise. Blood ALT and AST tended to decrease in group B, increase in group A. Significant reduction in serum GGT level after exercise in both groups was observed (p<0.001, group A; p<0.01, group B). Neither endurance nor endurance-strength exercise led to changes in serum ALP activity and total or direct bilirubin level. However, endurance-strength training resulted in significant decreases in serum indirect bilirubin (p<0.05). Strong positive correlations between serum indirect bilirubin and body mass (r=0.615; p=0.0085) and BMI (r=0.576; p=0.0154) were found after endurance-strength exercise (group B). The mode of exercise does matter: endurance-strength exercise led to a greater improvement, compared to endurance exercise, in the liver function in women with abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Mediterranean dietary pattern in pregnant women and offspring risk of overweight and abdominal obesity in early childhood: the INMA birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Barrés, S; Romaguera, D; Valvi, D; Martínez, D; Vioque, J; Navarrete-Muñoz, E M; Amiano, P; Gonzalez-Palacios, S; Guxens, M; Pereda, E; Riaño, I; Tardón, A; Iñiguez, C; Arija, V; Sunyer, J; Vrijheid, M

    2016-12-01

    Animal models have suggested that maternal diet quality may reduce offspring obesity risk regardless of maternal body weight; however, evidence from human studies is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) during pregnancy and childhood overweight and abdominal obesity risk at 4 years of age. We analysed 1827 mother-child pairs from the Spanish 'Infancia y Medio Ambiente' cohort study, recruited between 2003 and 2008. Diet was assessed during pregnancy using a food frequency questionnaire and MD adherence by the relative Mediterranean diet score (rMED). Overweight (including obesity) was defined as an age-specific and sex-specific body mass index ≥85th percentile (World Health Organization referent), and abdominal obesity as a waist circumference (WC) >90th percentile. Multivariate adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between pregnancy rMED and offspring overweight and abdominal obesity. There was no association between rMED and body mass index z-score, whereas there was a significant association between higher adherence to MD and lower WC (β of high vs. low rMED: -0.62 cm; 95% confidence interval: -1.10, -0.14 cm, P for trend = 0.009). Pregnancy adherence to the MD was not associated with childhood overweight risk, but it was associated with lower WC, a marker of abdominal obesity. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  1. Association of the Myostatin gene with obesity, abdominal obesity and low lean body mass and in non-diabetic Asian Indians in north India.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Nigam, Priyanka; Misra, Anoop; Guleria, Randeep; Luthra, Kalpana; Jain, S K; Qadar Pasha, M A

    2012-01-01

    To determine the association of the A55T and K153R polymorphisms of the Myostatin gene with obesity, abdominal obesity and lean body mass (LBM) in Asian Indians in north India. A total of 335 subjects (238 men and 97 women) were assessed for anthropometry, % body fat (BF), LBM and biochemical parameters. Associations of Myostatin gene polymorphisms were evaluated with anthropometric, body composition and biochemical parameters. In A55T polymorphism, BMI (p=0.04), suprailiac skinfold (p=0.05), total skinfold (p=0.008), %BF (p=0.002) and total fat mass (p=0.003) were highest and % LBM (p=0.03) and total LBM (Kg) were lowest (p=0.04) in subjects with Thr/Thr genotype as compared to other genotypes. Association analysis of K153R polymorphism showed that subjects with R/R genotype had significantly higher BMI (p=0.05), waist circumference (p=0.04), %BF (p=0.04) and total fat mass (p=0.03), and lower %LBM (p=0.02) and total LBM [(Kg), (p=0.04)] as compared to other genotypes. Using a multivariate logistic regression model after adjusting for age and sex, subjects with Thr/Thr genotype of A55T showed high risk for high %BF (OR, 3.92, 95% Cl: 2.61-12.41), truncal subcutaneous adiposity (OR, 2.9, 95% Cl: 1.57-6.60)] and low LBM (OR, 0.64, 95% CI: 0.33-0.89) whereas R/R genotype of K153R showed high risk of obesity (BMI; OR, 3.2, 95% CI: 1.2-12.9; %BF, OR, 3.6, 95% CI: 1.04-12.4), abdominal obesity (OR, 2.12, 95% CI: 2.71-14.23) and low LBM (OR, 0.61, 95% CI: 0.29-0.79). We report that variants of Myostatin gene predispose to obesity, abdominal obesity and low lean body mass in Asian Indians in north India.

  2. Association of perceived ethnic discrimination with general and abdominal obesity in ethnic minority groups: the HELIUS study.

    PubMed

    Schmengler, Heiko; Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; Kunst, Anton E; Agyemang, Charles

    2017-05-01

    Discrimination is associated with obesity, but this may differ according to the type of obesity and ethnic group. This study examines the association of perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) with general and abdominal obesity in 5 ethnic minority groups. We used cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study, collected from 2011 to 2015. The study sample included 2297 Ghanaians, 4110 African Surinamese, 3021 South-Asian Surinamese, 3562 Turks and 3868 Moroccans aged 18-70 years residing in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure for general obesity, and waist circumference (WC) for abdominal obesity. PED was measured using the Everyday Discrimination Scale. We used linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographics, psychosocial stressors and health behaviours. In additional analysis, we used standardised variables to compare the strength of the associations. In adjusted models, PED was significantly, positively associated with BMI in the South-Asian Surinamese (β coefficient 0.338; 95% CI 0.106 to 0.570), African Surinamese (0.394; 0.171 to 0.618) and Turks (0.269; 0.027 to 0.510). For WC, a similar pattern was seen: positive associations in the South-Asian Surinamese (0.759; 0.166 to 1.353), African Surinamese (0.833; 0.278 to 1.388) and Turks (0.870; 0.299 to 1.440). When stratified by sex, we found positive associations in Surinamese women, Turkish men and Moroccan men. The strength of the associations with BMI and WC was comparable in the groups. Among the Ghanaians, no significant associations were observed. Ethnic and sex variations are observed in the association of PED with both general and abdominal obesity. Further research on psychosocial buffers and underlying biological mechanisms might help in understanding these variations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Dependence of Cardiac Systolic Function on Elevated Fatty Acid Availability in Obese, Insulin-Resistant Rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Wayne; Norton, Gavin R; Woodiwiss, Angela J; Lochner, Amanda; du Toit, Eugene F

    2016-07-01

    Clinical data advocating an adverse effect of obesity on left ventricular (LV) systolic function independent of comorbidities is controversial. We hypothesized that in obesity with prediabetic insulin resistance, circulating fatty acids (FAs) become a valuable fuel source in the maintenance of normal systolic function. Male Wistar rats were fed a high caloric diet for 32 weeks to induce obesity. Myocardial LV systolic function was assessed using echocardiography and isolated heart preparations. Aortic output was reduced in obese rat hearts over a range of filling pressures (for example: 15 cmH2O, obese: 32.6 ± 1.2 ml/min vs control: 46.2 ± 0.9 ml/min, P < .05) when perfused with glucose alone. Similarly, the slope of the LV end-systolic pressure-volume relationship decreased, and there was a right shift in the LV end-systolic stress-strain relationship as determined in Langendorff perfused, isovolumic rat heart preparations in the presence of isoproterenol (10(-8)M) (LV systolic stress-strain relationship and a reduced load-independent intrinsic systolic myocardial function, obese: 791 ± 62 g/cm(2) vs control: 1186 ± 74 g/cm(2), P < .01). The addition of insulin to the perfusion buffer improved aortic output, whereas the addition of FAs completely normalized aortic output. LV function was maintained in obese animals in vivo during an inotropic challenge. Elevated circulating FA levels may be important to maintain myocardial systolic function in the initial stages of obesity and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. NHANES 1999-2006

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this study was to examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight /obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome. Three breakfast groups were identified (breakfast skippers, ready-to-eat-cereal ...

  5. Association of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress in adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Xu, Wen Ming; Zhang, Dan

    2014-10-01

    To study the expression of insulin signaling-related genes and oxidative stress markers in the visceral adipose tissue obtained from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and healthy control subjects and to investigate the relationships among abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress at the tissue level. Case-control study. University teaching hospital. In total, 30 PCOS patients and 30 healthy control subjects, who underwent laparoscopic surgery, were included in the study. Abdominal obesity was defined based on waist circumference (WC). The homeostasis model index was used to assess insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Gene expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the parameters of oxidative stress, such as superoxide dismutase, enzyme glutathione reductase, and dimethylarginine, were measured, and the expression of protein oxidative damage product 3-nitro-tyrosine residues (nitrotyrosine) in VAT was identified with the use of immunohistochemistry. PCOS was associated with lower expression of GLUT4 and IRS1 and a higher level of oxidative stress in VAT, which was strongly correlated with WC and HOMA-IR. Presence of abdominal obesity further intensified the correlations observed in our measurements. The nitrotyrosine expression in VAT was stronger in PCOS patients. The strong correlation of insulin resistance with oxidative stress at the VAT level suggests that local oxidative stress and abnormalities of insulin signaling in adipose tissue play critical roles in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation.

    PubMed

    Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; Groen, Henk; van Asselt, Sophie J; Bolster, Johanna H T; Zwerver, J; Slart, Riemer H J; Vd Jagt, Erik J; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Land, Jolande A; Hoek, Annemieke

    2011-09-01

    It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) between a group of anovulatory women with PCOS and obesity who resume ovulation (RO+) to those who remain anovulatory (RO-) during a lifestyle program. In a prospective pilot cohort study, anovulatory women with PCOS underwent a 6 month lifestyle program in a tertiary fertility clinic. Body fat distribution was assessed by anthropometrics, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and single slice abdominal CT scan at intake, after 3 months and after 6 months. Baseline-corrected changes over time were analysed using generalized estimating equations longitudinal regression analysis. In 32 anovulatory women with PCOS (age, 28 ± 4 years; BMI, 37.5 ± 5.0 kg/m²), there were no significant baseline differences in anthropometrics and biochemical assessment between 14 RO+ participants and 18 RO- participants. RO+ women lost more weight (6.3 versus 3.0%) and abdominal fat on DEXA (15.0 versus 4.3%) compared with RO- women. Resumption of ovulation was associated with early and consistent loss of IAF (12.4 versus 5.0% at 3 months and 18.5 versus 8.6% at 6 months). Loss of SAF between the RO+ women and the RO- women was similar at 3 months (6.2 versus 6.1%) but did not change any further in RO- women (6.1%) as it did in RO+ women (11.4%) at 6 months. In anovulatory women with PCOS and obesity undergoing a lifestyle program, RO+ women lose more body weight and abdominal fat on DEXA than RO- women. In addition, this study shows that early and consistent loss of IAF is associated with resumption of ovulation. Future studies should address the mechanisms behind these changes and should assess interventions aimed at loss of IAF to facilitate resumption of ovulation.

  7. Takeaway food consumption and its associations with diet quality and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Gall, Seana L; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J

    2009-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the associations of takeaway food consumption with overall diet quality and abdominal obesity. Young adults are high consumers of takeaway food so we aimed to examine these associations in a national study of young Australian adults. Methods A national sample of 1,277 men and 1,585 women aged 26–36 completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and lifestyle factors, a 127 item food frequency questionnaire, usual daily frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and usual weekly frequency of takeaway food consumption. Dietary intake was compared with the dietary recommendations from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Waist circumference was measured for 1,065 men and 1,129 women. Moderate abdominal obesity was defined as ≥ 94 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using log binomial regression. Takeaway food consumption was dichotomised, with once a week or less as the reference group. Results Consumption of takeaway food twice a week or more was reported by more men (37.9%) than women (17.7%, P < 0.001). Compared with those eating takeaway once a week or less, men eating takeaway twice a week or more were significantly more likely to be single, younger, current smokers and spend more time watching TV and sitting, whereas women were more likely to be in the workforce and spend more time watching TV and sitting. Participants eating takeaway food at least twice a week were less likely (P < 0.05) to meet the dietary recommendation for vegetables, fruit, dairy, extra foods, breads and cereals (men only), lean meat and alternatives (women only) and overall met significantly fewer dietary recommendations (P < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables (age, leisure time physical activity, TV viewing and employment status), consuming takeaway food twice a week or more was associated with a 31% higher prevalence of moderate abdominal obesity in men (PR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1

  8. Evidence for negative effects of elevated intra-abdominal pressure on pulmonary mechanics and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Davarcı, I; Karcıoğlu, M; Tuzcu, K; İnanoğlu, K; Yetim, T D; Motor, S; Ulutaş, K T; Yüksel, R

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of pneumoperitoneum on lung mechanics, end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2), arterial blood gases (ABG), and oxidative stress markers in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) by using lung-protective ventilation strategy. Forty-six patients undergoing LC and abdominal wall hernia (AWH) surgery were assigned into 2 groups. Measurements and blood samples were obtained before, during pneumoperitoneum, and at the end of surgery. BALF samples were obtained after anesthesia induction and at the end of surgery. Peak inspiratory pressure, ETCO2, and pCO2 values at the 30th minute were significantly increased, while there was a significant decrease in dynamic lung compliance, pH, and pO2 values in LC group. In BALF samples, total oxidant status (TOS), arylesterase, paraoxonase, and malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased; the glutathione peroxidase levels were significantly decreased in LC group. The serum levels of TOS and paraoxonase were significantly higher at the end of surgery in LC group. In addition, arylesterase level in the 30th minute was increased compared to baseline. Serum paraoxonase level at the end of surgery was significantly increased when compared to AWH group. Our study showed negative effects of pneumoperitoneum in both lung and systemic levels despite lung-protective ventilation strategy.

  9. Visceral obesity, not elevated BMI, is strongly associated with incisional hernia after colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Aquina, Christopher T; Rickles, Aaron S; Probst, Christian P; Kelly, Kristin N; Deeb, Andrew-Paul; Monson, John R T; Fleming, Fergal J

    2015-02-01

    High BMI is often used as a proxy for obesity and has been considered a risk factor for the development of an incisional hernia after abdominal surgery. However, BMI does not accurately reflect fat distribution. The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship among different obesity measurements and the risk of incisional hernia. This was a retrospective cohort study. The study included a single academic institution in New York from 2003 to 2010. The study consists of 193 patients who underwent colorectal cancer resection. Preoperative CT scans were used to measure visceral fat volume, subcutaneous fat volume, total fat volume, and waist circumference. A diagnosis of incisional hernia was made either through physical examination in medical chart documentation or CT scan. Forty-one patients (21.2%) developed an incisional hernia. The median time to hernia was 12.4 months. After adjusting for patient and surgical characteristics using Cox regression analysis, visceral obesity (HR 2.04, 95% CI 1.07-3.91) and history of an inguinal hernia (HR 2.40, 95% CI 1.09-5.25) were significant risk factors for incisional hernia. Laparoscopic resection using a transverse extraction site led to a >75% reduction in the risk of incisional hernia (HR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.76). BMI > 30 kg/m was not significantly associated with incisional hernia development. Limitations include the retrospective design without standardized follow-up to detect hernias and the small sample size attributed to inadequate or unavailable CT scans. Visceral obesity, history of inguinal hernia, and location of specimen extraction site are significantly associated with the development of an incisional hernia, whereas BMI is poorly associated with hernia development. These findings suggest that a lateral transverse location is the incision site of choice and that new strategies, such as prophylactic mesh placement, should be considered in viscerally obese patients.

  10. The potential impact of animal protein intake on global and abdominal obesity: evidence from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study.

    PubMed

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Buckley, Jonathan D; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Albert, Adelin; Guillaume, Michèle; Crichton, Georgina E

    2015-07-01

    To examine the association of total animal protein intake and protein derived from different dietary sources (meat; fish and shellfish; eggs; milk products) with global and abdominal obesity among adults in Luxembourg. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between animal protein intake (as a percentage of total energy intake) and global obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2)) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥ 102 cm for men and ≥ 88 cm for women), after controlling for potential confounders. Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study. The study population was derived from a national cross-sectional stratified sample of 1152 individuals aged 18-69 years, recruited between November 2007 and January 2009. There was an independent positive association between total animal protein intake and both global (OR = 1.18; 95% CI 1.12, 1.25) and abdominal obesity (OR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.08, 1.20) after adjustment for age, gender, education, smoking, physical activity and intakes of total fat, carbohydrate, fibre, and fruit and vegetables. Protein intakes from meat, fish and shellfish were positively associated with global and abdominal obesity with further adjustment for vegetal protein and other sources of animal-derived protein (all P < 0.01). Protein derived from eggs or milk products was unrelated to global or abdominal obesity. Our findings suggest that protein derived from animal sources, in particular from meat, fish and shellfish, may be associated with increased risk of both global and abdominal obesity among presumably healthy adults in Luxembourg. These findings suggest that lower animal protein intakes may be important for maintenance of healthy body weight.

  11. Could the Sasang constitution itself be a risk factor of abdominal obesity?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Abdominal obesity (AO) is a medical condition in which excess body fat accumulates in the abdomen. It may cause adverse effects on health and result in reduced life expectancy or increased health problems. While various genetic approaches have explained the risks of AO in Western society, the Sasang constitution (SC) has been identified as a risk factor in Korean medicine. Different SC types are associated with different fat distribution, body shapes and susceptibility to diseases. We evaluated whether the SC type could be a risk for AO in a cross-sectional study among Koreans. Methods In total, 2,528 subjects aged over 30 years were recruited from 23 medical clinics. We collected waist circumference (WC), weight, height, and some clinical information for AO from the subjects. A Chi-square test and a one-way ANOVA were performed according to SC type (p < .05), while multiple logistic regression was used to produce odds ratios (ORs). Results The rates of AO in Tae-eumin (TE), Soeumin (SE), and Soyangin (SY) types were 63.7%, 14.7%, and 32.8% in males and 84.8%, 41.7%, and 52.8% in females, respectively. The TE type was associated with increased AO prevalence compared with the SE and SY types in males (OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.02–3.15, p = 0.044 and OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.18–2.58, p = 0.006, respectively) and females (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.03–2.23, p = 0.037 and OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.32–2.68, p < 0.001, respectively) after adjusting for age, BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL cholesterol. Conclusions This study suggested that SC, particularly the TE type, might be significantly and independently associated with AO and could be considered a risk factor in predicting AO. PMID:23548105

  12. Waist circumference cut-off points for identification of abdominal obesity among the tunisian adult population.

    PubMed

    Bouguerra, R; Alberti, H; Smida, H; Salem, L B; Rayana, C B; El Atti, J; Achour, A; Gaigi, S; Slama, C B; Zouari, B; Alberti, K G M M

    2007-11-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is a convenient measure of abdominal adipose tissue. It itself is a cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes-risk factor and is strongly linked to other CVD risk factors. There are, however, ethnic differences in the relationship of WC to the other risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal cut-off points of WC and body mass index (BMI) at which cardiovascular risk factors can be identified with maximum sensitivity and specificity in a representative sample of the Tunisian adult population and to investigate any correlation between WC and BMI. We used a sample of the Tunisian National Nutrition Survey, a cross-sectional population-based survey, conducted in 1996 on a large nationally representative sample, which included 3435 adults (1244 men and 2191 women) of 20 years or older. WC, BMI, blood pressure and fasting blood measurements (plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides) were recorded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify optimal cut-off values of WC and BMI to identify with maximum sensitivity and specificity the detection of high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, high blood cholesterol and hypertriglyceridaemia. ROC curve analysis suggested WC cut-off points of 85 cm in men and 85 cm in women for the optimum detection of high blood pressure, diabetes and dyslipidaemia. The optimum BMI cut-off points for predicting cardiovascular risk factors were 24 kg/m(2) in men and 27 kg/m(2) in women. The cut-off points recommended for the Caucasian population differ from those appropriate for the Tunisian population. The data show a continuous increase in odds ratios of each cardiovascular risk factor, with increasing level of WC and BMI. WC exceeding 85 cm in men and 79 cm in women correctly identified subjects with a BMI of >/=25 kg/m(2), sensitivity of >90% and specificity of >83%. Based on the ROC analysis, we suggest a WC of 85 cm for both men and women as appropriate cut

  13. Intake and Dietary Food Sources of Fibre in Spain: Differences with Regard to the Prevalence of Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity in Adults of the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    González-Rodríguez, Liliana G.; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to study the intake and food sources of fibre in a representative sample of Spanish adults and to analyse its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity. A sample of 1655 adults (18–64 years) from the ANIBES (“Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles”) cross-sectional study was analysed. Fibre intake and dietary food sources were determined by using a three-day dietary record. Misreporters were identified using the protocol of the European Food Safety Authority. Mean (standard deviation) fibre intake was 12.59 (5.66) g/day in the whole sample and 15.88 (6.29) g/day in the plausible reporters. Mean fibre intake, both in the whole sample and the plausible reporters, was below the adequate intake established by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Institute of Medicine of the United States (IOM). Main fibre dietary food sources were grains, followed by vegetables, fruits, and pulses. In the whole sample, considering sex, and after adjusting for age and physical activity, mean (standard error) fibre intake (adjusted by energy intake) was higher in subjects who had normal weight (NW) 13.40 (0.184) g/day, without abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.192) g/day or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.207) g/day compared to those who were overweight (OW) 12.31 (0.195) g/day, p < 0.001 or obese (OB) 11.83 (0.266) g/day, p < 0.001, with abdominal obesity 12.09 (0.157) g/day, p < 0.001 or with excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity 12.22 (0.148) g/day, p < 0.001. There were no significant differences in relation with the fibre intake according to the body mass index (BMI), presence or absence of abdominal obesity or excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity in the plausible reporters. Fibre from afternoon snacks was higher in subjects with NW (6.92%) and without abdominal obesity (6.97%) or without excess body weight and

  14. Intake and Dietary Food Sources of Fibre in Spain: Differences with Regard to the Prevalence of Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity in Adults of the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, Liliana G; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M

    2017-03-25

    The aim was to study the intake and food sources of fibre in a representative sample of Spanish adults and to analyse its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity. A sample of 1655 adults (18-64 years) from the ANIBES ("Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles") cross-sectional study was analysed. Fibre intake and dietary food sources were determined by using a three-day dietary record. Misreporters were identified using the protocol of the European Food Safety Authority. Mean (standard deviation) fibre intake was 12.59 (5.66) g/day in the whole sample and 15.88 (6.29) g/day in the plausible reporters. Mean fibre intake, both in the whole sample and the plausible reporters, was below the adequate intake established by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Institute of Medicine of the United States (IOM). Main fibre dietary food sources were grains, followed by vegetables, fruits, and pulses. In the whole sample, considering sex, and after adjusting for age and physical activity, mean (standard error) fibre intake (adjusted by energy intake) was higher in subjects who had normal weight (NW) 13.40 (0.184) g/day, without abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.192) g/day or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.207) g/day compared to those who were overweight (OW) 12.31 (0.195) g/day, p < 0.001 or obese (OB) 11.83 (0.266) g/day, p < 0.001, with abdominal obesity 12.09 (0.157) g/day, p < 0.001 or with excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity 12.22 (0.148) g/day, p < 0.001. There were no significant differences in relation with the fibre intake according to the body mass index (BMI), presence or absence of abdominal obesity or excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity in the plausible reporters. Fibre from afternoon snacks was higher in subjects with NW (6.92%) and without abdominal obesity (6.97%) or without excess body weight and/or abdominal

  15. The Combined Effects of Obesity, Abdominal Obesity and Major Depression/Anxiety on Health-Related Quality of Life: the LifeLines Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nigatu, Yeshambel T.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; de Jonge, Peter; van Rossum, Elisabeth; Bültmann, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD)/anxiety disorders often co-occur and aggravate each other resulting in adverse health-related outcomes. As little is known about the potential effects of interaction between obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), this study was aimed at examining these combined effects. Methods We collected data among N = 89,332 participants from the LifeLines cohort study. We categorized body weight using body mass index (kg/m2) as normal weight (18.5–24.99), overweight (25–29.9), mild obesity (30–34.9) and moderate/severe obesity (≥ 35); we measured abdominal obesity using a waist circumference of ≥102 and ≥ 88 cm for males and females, respectively. MDD and anxiety disorders were diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. HR-QoL was assessed using the RAND-36 questionnaire to compute physical and mental quality of life scores. We used binary logistic and linear regression analyses. Results The combined effect of obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders on physical QoL was larger than the sum of their separate effects; regression coefficients, B (95%-confidence interval, 95%-CI) were: - 1.32 (-1.75; -0.90). However, the combined effect of obesity and major depression alone on mental QoL was less than the additive effect. With increasing body weight participants report poorer physical QoL; when they also have MDD and/or anxiety disorders participants report even poorer physical QoL. In persons without MDD and/or anxiety disorders, obesity was associated with a better mental QoL. Conclusions Obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders act synergistically on physical and mental QoL. The management of MDD and/or anxiety disorders and weight loss may be important routes to improve HR-QoL. PMID:26866920

  16. Abdominal obesity and physical inactivity are associated with erectile dysfunction independent of body mass index.

    PubMed

    Janiszewski, Peter M; Janssen, Ian; Ross, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is common among men with an elevated body mass index (BMI). However, a high waist circumference (WC) and low levels of physical activity may predict ED independently of BMI. We investigated the independent relationships between BMI, WC, and physical activity with ED. Subjects consisted of 3,941 adult men (age > or = 20 years) with no history of prostate cancer from the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relative odds of ED association with categories of BMI, WC, and physical activity. Established thresholds were used to divide subjects into three WC and BMI categories. Physical activity level was divided into active (> or =150 min/week), moderately active (30-149 min/week), and inactive (<30 min/week) categories. A single survey question was used to assess the presence of ED. After control for potential confounders, men with either a high WC or an obese BMI had an approximately 50% higher odds of having ED compared with men with a low WC or a normal BMI, respectively. Further, moderately active or inactive men had an approximately 40-60% greater odds of ED compared with active men. When all three predictors (WC, BMI, and physical activity level) were entered into the same logistic regression model, both a high WC and low physical activity level (moderately active and inactive) were independently associated with a greater odds of ED, whereas BMI level was not. Maintaining a WC level below 102 cm and achieving the recommended amount of moderate-intensity physical activity (>or =150 min/week) is associated with the maintenance of proper erectile function, regardless of BMI level. These findings suggest that the clinical screening for ED risk should include the assessment of WC and physical activity level in addition to BMI.

  17. Higher association of coronary artery calcification with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than with abdominal obesity in middle-aged Korean men: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Kyung; Park, Hye-Jeong; Jeon, Won Seon; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2015-07-15

    It is uncertain whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or abdominal obesity is more associated with atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether NAFLD or abdominal obesity is more strongly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis represented by coronary artery calcification (CAC). A total of 21,335 male participants in a health screening program (mean age 41 years) were enrolled. Ultrasonographic measurements of fatty liver and multi-detector computed tomography were performed to determine the coronary artery calcium score (CACS). The presence of CAC was defined as CACS > 0. Subjects were divided into four groups according to the presence or absence of NAFLD and/or abdominal obesity as assessed by waist-hip ratio (WHR) > 0.9. The presence of CAC was detected in 2,385 subjects (11.2%). The proportion of subjects with CAC was highest in the abdominal obesity only group (23.2%). After adjustment for age, diabetes history, hypertension, cigarette smoking, and physical inactivity, the odds ratio (OR) for CAC was the highest in the group with both abnormalities [1.465 (1.324-1.623)]. The NAFLD only group showed significantly increased OR for CAC compared to that in the abdominal obesity only group [1.286 (1.151-1.436) vs. 1.076 (0.939-1.233)]. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is more closely associated with CAC than abdominal obesity as assessed by the WHR. NAFLD could be considered an independent determinant of subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by CAC.

  18. Regulation of abdominal adiposity by probiotics (Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055) in adults with obese tendencies in a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kadooka, Y; Sato, M; Imaizumi, K; Ogawa, A; Ikuyama, K; Akai, Y; Okano, M; Kagoshima, M; Tsuchida, T

    2010-06-01

    In spite of the much evidence for the beneficial effects of probiotics, their anti-obesity effects have not been well examined. We evaluated the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) on abdominal adiposity, body weight and other body measures in adults with obese tendencies. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention trial. Subjects (n=87) with higher body mass index (BMI) (24.2-30.7 kg/m(2)) and abdominal visceral fat area (81.2-178.5 cm(2)) were randomly assigned to receive either fermented milk (FM) containing LG2055 (active FM; n=43) or FM without LG2055 (control FM; n=44), and were asked to consume 200 g/day of FM for 12 weeks. Abdominal fat area was determined by computed tomography. In the active FM group, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas significantly (P<0.01) decreased from baseline by an average of 4.6% (mean (confidence interval): -5.8 (-10.0, -1.7) cm(2)) and 3.3% (-7.4 (-11.6, -3.1) cm(2)), respectively. Body weight and other measures also decreased significantly (P<0.001) as follows: body weight, 1.4% (-1.1 (-1.5, -0.7) kg); BMI, 1.5% (-0.4 (-0.5, -0.2) kg/m(2)); waist, 1.8% (-1.7 (-2.1, -1.4) cm); hip, 1.5% (-1.5 (-1.8, -1.1) cm). In the control group, by contrast, none of these parameters decreased significantly. High-molecular weight adiponectin in serum increased significantly (P<0.01) in the active and control groups by 12.7% (0.17 (0.07, 0.26) microg/ml) and 13.6% (0.23 (0.07, 0.38) microg/ml), respectively. The probiotic LG2055 showed lowering effects on abdominal adiposity, body weight and other measures, suggesting its beneficial influence on metabolic disorders.

  19. Effect of beta-adrenergic stimulation on whole-body and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis in lean and obese men.

    PubMed

    Jocken, J W E; Goossens, G H; van Hees, A M J; Frayn, K N; van Baak, M; Stegen, J; Pakbiers, M T W; Saris, W H M; Blaak, E E

    2008-02-01

    Obesity is characterised by increased triacylglycerol storage in adipose tissue. There is in vitro evidence for a blunted beta-adrenergically mediated lipolytic response in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of obese individuals and evidence for this at the whole-body level in vivo. We hypothesised that the beta-adrenergically mediated effect on lipolysis in abdominal SAT is also impaired in vivo in obese humans. We investigated whole-body and abdominal SAT glycerol metabolism in vivo during 3 h and 6 h [2H5]glycerol infusions. Arterio-venous concentration differences were measured in 13 lean and ten obese men after an overnight fast and during intravenous infusion of the non-selective beta-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline [20 ng (kg fat free mass)(-1) min(-1)]. Lean and obese participants showed comparable fasting glycerol uptake by SAT (9.7+/-3.4 vs 9.3+/-2.5% of total release, p=0.92). Furthermore, obese participants showed an increased whole-body beta-adrenergically mediated lipolytic response versus lean participants. However, their fasting lipolysis was blunted [glycerol rate of appearance: 7.3+/-0.6 vs 13.1+/-0.9 micromol (kg fat mass)(-1) min(-1), p<0.01], as was the beta-adrenergically mediated lipolytic response per unit SAT [Delta total glycerol release: 140+/-71 vs 394+/-112 nmol (100 g tissue)(-1) min(-1), p<0.05] compared with lean participants. Net triacylglycerol flux tended to increase in obese compared with lean participants during beta-adrenergic stimulation [Delta net triacylglycerol flux: 75+/-32 vs 16+/-11 nmol (100 g tissue)(-1) min(-1), p=0.06]. We demonstrated in vivo that beta-adrenergically mediated lipolytic response is impaired systematically and in abdominal SAT of obese versus lean men. This may be important in the development or maintenance of increased triacylglycerol stores and obesity.

  20. The Effects of Exercise on Abdominal Fat and Liver Enzymes in Pediatric Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    González-Ruiz, Katherine; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Peterson, Mark D; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    Despite the prevalence of obesity and the multiple position stands promoting exercise for the treatment of obesity and hepatic function, a meta-analytic approach has not previously been used to examine the effects in the pediatric population. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of exercise interventions on abdominal fat, liver enzymes, and intrahepatic fat in overweight and obese youth. A computerized search was made using three databases. The analysis was restricted to studies that examined the effect of supervised exercise interventions on abdominal fat (visceral and subcutaneous fat), liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase), and intrahepatic fat. Fourteen clinical trials (1231 youths) were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Standardized mean difference [SMD] and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Exercise was associated with a significant reduction in visceral (SMD = -0.661; 95% CI, -0.976 to -0.346; p < 0.001), subcutaneous (SMD = -0.352; 95% CI, -0.517 to -0.186; p < 0.001) and intrahepatic fat (SMD = -0.802; 95% CI, -1.124 to -0.480; p < 0.001), as well as gamma-glutamyl transferase (SMD = -0.726; 95% CI, -1.203 to -0.249; p < 0.001), but did not alter any other liver enzyme. Subgroup analysis recommends exercise programs that involve aerobic exercise longer than three sessions per week. This meta-analysis supports current recommendation for physical exercise, mainly aerobic, as an effective intervention for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progression by targeting hepatic lipid composition, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42016042163.

  1. Adherence to the Baltic Sea diet consumed in the Nordic countries is associated with lower abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, Noora; Kaartinen, Niina E; Schwab, Ursula; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Männistö, Satu

    2013-02-14

    Due to differences in food cultures, dietary quality measures, such as the Mediterranean Diet Score, may not be easily adopted by other countries. Recently, the Baltic Sea Diet Pyramid was developed to illustrate healthy choices for the diet consumed in the Nordic countries. We assessed whether the Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) based on the Pyramid is associated with a decreased risk of obesity and abdominal obesity. The population-based cross-sectional study included 4720 Finns (25-74 years) from the National FINRISK 2007 study. Diet was assessed using a validated FFQ. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, ratio of PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat (percentage of energy), and alcohol. Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured and BMI values were calculated. In a multivariable model, men in the highest v. lowest BSDS quintile were more likely to have normal WC (OR 0·48, 95 % CI 0·29, 0·80). In women, this association was similar but not significant (OR 0·65, 95 % CI 0·39, 1·09). The association appeared to be stronger in younger age groups (men: OR 0·23, 95 % CI 0·08, 0·62; women: OR 0·17, 95 % CI 0·05, 0·58) compared with older age groups. Nordic cereals and alcohol were found to be the most important BSDS components related to WC. No association was observed between the BSDS and BMI. The present study suggests that combination of Nordic foods, especially cereals and moderate alcohol consumption, is likely to be inversely associated with abdominal obesity.

  2. Prevalence of severe obesity and its association with elevated blood pressure among children and adolescents in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Shu-Rong; Li, Su-Yun

    2017-12-01

    Childhood obesity has increased markedly during the past decades; however, data on the prevalence of severe obesity in children and adolescents are limited. The present study examined the prevalence of severe obesity and its association with elevated blood pressure (BP) among children and adolescents in Shandong, China. A total of 44 630 (22 404 boys and 22 226 girls) students aged 7-18 years participated in the study. BMI cut-off points recommended by the International Obesity Task Force were used to define class I-III obesity. Relatively high BP status was defined as systolic BP and/or diastolic BP of at least 95th percentile for age and sex. The prevalence rates of class I, class II, and class III obesity were 6.67, 1.47, and 0.42% for boys and 2.88, 0.64, and 0.18% for girls, respectively; boys had a higher prevalence than girls (P<0.01). Substantial urban-rural disparities exist in childhood obesity; urban boys and girls had a higher prevalence of class I and class II obesity than their rural peers (P<0.05). Severe obesity is associated with elevated BP; the prevalence of relatively high BP increased from 39.93% (boys) and 39.53% (girls) in the class I obese group to 50.54% (boys) and 53.66% (girls) in the class III obese group (P<0.05). Although the current prevalence of severe obesity was at a relatively low level, but we should not relax our vigilance to the obesity epidemic. Our findings also emphasize the importance of the prevention of severe obesity to prevent future-related problems such as hypertension in children and adolescents.

  3. PER2 variants are associated with abdominal obesity, psycho-behavioral factors and attrition in the dietary treatment of obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose was to test for association between polymorphisms in the circadian clock-related gene PER2 and attrition in patients prone to withdrawal from a behavioral weight-reduction-program based on the Mediterranean Diet. 454 overweight/obese subjects (women= 380, men= 74), aged 20-65 years, who ...

  4. Diet-induced obesity elevates colonic TNF-α in mice and is accompanied by an activation of Wnt signaling: a mechanism for obesity-associated colorectal cancer✩

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenhua; Brooks, Ryan S.; Ciappio, Eric D.; Kim, Susan J.; Crott, Jimmy W.; Bennett, Grace; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Mason, Joel B.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation associated with obesity may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated whether the Wnt pathway, an intracellular signaling cascade that plays a critical role in colorectal carcinogenesis, is activated by obesity-induced elevation of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Animal studies were conducted on C57BL/6 mice, and obesity was induced by utilizing a high-fat diet (60% kcal). An inflammation-specific microarray was performed, and results were confirmed with real-time polymerase chain reaction. The array revealed that diet-induced obesity increased the expression of TNF-α in the colon by 72% (P=.004) and that of interleukin-18 by 41% (P=.023). The concentration of colonic TNF-α protein, determined by ex vivo culture assay, was nearly doubled in the obese animals (P=.002). The phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), an important intermediary inhibitor of Wnt signaling and a potential target of TNF-α, was quantitated by immunohistochemistry. The inactivated (phosphorylated) form of GSK3β was elevated in the colonic mucosa of obese mice (P<.02). Moreover, β-catenin, the key effector of canonical Wnt signaling, was elevated in the colons of obese mice (P<.05), as was the expression of a downstream target gene, c-myc (P<.05). These data demonstrate that diet-induced obesity produces an elevation in colonic TNF-α and instigates a number of alterations of key components within the Wnt signaling pathway that are protransformational in nature. Thus, these observations offer evidence for a biologically plausible avenue, the Wnt pathway, by which obesity increases the risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:22209007

  5. Diet-induced obesity elevates colonic TNF-α in mice and is accompanied by an activation of Wnt signaling: a mechanism for obesity-associated colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenhua; Brooks, Ryan S; Ciappio, Eric D; Kim, Susan J; Crott, Jimmy W; Bennett, Grace; Greenberg, Andrew S; Mason, Joel B

    2012-10-01

    Inflammation associated with obesity may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated whether the Wnt pathway, an intracellular signaling cascade that plays a critical role in colorectal carcinogenesis, is activated by obesity-induced elevation of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Animal studies were conducted on C57BL/6 mice, and obesity was induced by utilizing a high-fat diet (60% kcal). An inflammation-specific microarray was performed, and results were confirmed with real-time polymerase chain reaction. The array revealed that diet-induced obesity increased the expression of TNF-α in the colon by 72% (P=.004) and that of interleukin-18 by 41% (P=.023). The concentration of colonic TNF-α protein, determined by ex vivo culture assay, was nearly doubled in the obese animals (P=.002). The phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), an important intermediary inhibitor of Wnt signaling and a potential target of TNF-α, was quantitated by immunohistochemistry. The inactivated (phosphorylated) form of GSK3β was elevated in the colonic mucosa of obese mice (P<.02). Moreover, β-catenin, the key effector of canonical Wnt signaling, was elevated in the colons of obese mice (P<.05), as was the expression of a downstream target gene, c-myc (P<.05). These data demonstrate that diet-induced obesity produces an elevation in colonic TNF-α and instigates a number of alterations of key components within the Wnt signaling pathway that are protransformational in nature. Thus, these observations offer evidence for a biologically plausible avenue, the Wnt pathway, by which obesity increases the risk of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 expression in skeletal muscle contributes to abnormal fatty acid partitioning in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Hulver, Matthew W; Berggren, Jason R; Carper, Michael J; Miyazaki, Makoto; Ntambi, James M; Hoffman, Eric P; Thyfault, John P; Stevens, Robert; Dohm, G Lynis; Houmard, Joseph A; Muoio, Deborah M

    2005-10-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are strongly associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and accumulation of intramyocellular triacylglycerol, but the underlying cause of these perturbations are yet unknown. Herein, we show that the lipogenic gene, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), is robustly up-regulated in skeletal muscle from extremely obese humans. High expression and activity of SCD1, an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, corresponded with low rates of fatty acid oxidation, increased triacylglycerol synthesis and increased monounsaturation of muscle lipids. Elevated SCD1 expression and abnormal lipid partitioning were retained in primary skeletal myocytes derived from obese compared to lean donors, implying that these traits might be driven by epigenetic and/or heritable mechanisms. Overexpression of human SCD1 in myotubes from lean subjects was sufficient to mimic the obese phenotype. These results suggest that elevated expression of SCD1 in skeletal muscle contributes to abnormal lipid metabolism and progression of obesity.

  7. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Spanish children and adolescents. Do we need waist circumference measurements in pediatric practice?

    PubMed

    Schröder, Helmut; Ribas, Lourdes; Koebnick, Corinna; Funtikova, Anna; Gomez, Santiago F; Fíto, Montserat; Perez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among normal and overweight individuals was analyzed. Data were obtained from a study conducted from 1998 to 2000 in a representative national sample of 1521 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years (50.0% female) in Spain. WC and WHtR measurements were obtained in addition to BMI. AO was defined as WHtR ≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex and age specific WC≥90(th) percentile (WC-AO1), and sex and age specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). IOTF- based overweight and obsity prevalence was 21.5% and 6.6% in children and 17.4% and 5.2% in adolescents, respectively. Abdominal obesity (AO) was defined as WHtR≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex- and age-specific WC≥90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex- and age-specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). The respective prevalence of WHtR-AO, WC-AO1, and WC-AO2 was 21.3% (24.6% boys; 17.9% girls), 9.4% (9.1% boys; 9.7% girls), and 26.8% (30.6% boys;22.9% girls) in children and 14.3% (20.0% boys; 8.7% girls), 9.6% (9.8% boys; 9.5% girls), and 21.1% (28.8% boys; 13.7% girls) in adolescents. The prevalence of AO in Spanish children and adolescents is of concern. The high proportion of AO observed in young patients who are normal weight or overweight indicates a need to include waist circumference measurements in routine clinical practice.

  8. Prevalence of Abdominal Obesity in Spanish Children and Adolescents. Do We Need Waist Circumference Measurements in Pediatric Practice?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Helmut; Ribas, Lourdes; Koebnick, Corinna; Funtikova, Anna; Gomez, Santiago F.; Fíto, Montserat; Perez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice. Objective This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among normal and overweight individuals was analyzed. Design Data were obtained from a study conducted from 1998 to 2000 in a representative national sample of 1521 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years (50.0% female) in Spain. WC and WHtR measurements were obtained in addition to BMI. AO was defined as WHtR ≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex and age specific WC≥90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex and age specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). Results IOTF- based overweight and obsity prevalence was 21.5% and 6.6% in children and 17.4% and 5.2% in adolescents, respectively. Abdominal obesity (AO) was defined as WHtR≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex- and age-specific WC≥90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex- and age-specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). The respective prevalence of WHtR-AO, WC-AO1, and WC-AO2 was 21.3% (24.6% boys; 17.9% girls), 9.4% (9.1% boys; 9.7% girls), and 26.8% (30.6% boys;22.9% girls) in children and 14.3% (20.0% boys; 8.7% girls), 9.6% (9.8% boys; 9.5% girls), and 21.1% (28.8% boys; 13.7% girls) in adolescents. Conclusion The prevalence of AO in Spanish children and adolescents is of concern. The high proportion of AO observed in young patients who are normal weight or overweight indicates a need to include waist circumference measurements in routine clinical practice. PMID:24475305

  9. Malaysia Shape of the Nation (MySoN): a primary care based study of abdominal obesity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zaki, M; Robaayah, Z; Chan, S P; Vadivale, M; Lim, T O

    2010-06-01

    Abdominal obesity (AO), measured by waist circumference (WC), is a stronger predictor of subsequent development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than generalised obesity, which is measured by body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to measure WC and prevalence of AO in Malaysians visiting primary care physicians. 1893 patients between the ages of 18 and 80 attending primary care clinics in Malaysia were recruited over two days for this multi-centre cross-sectional study. Pregnant women were excluded, their medical history, weight, height and WC were examined. The prevalence of co-morbidities were as follows: (1) CVD-4%, lipid disorder-17%, hypertension-26%, diabetes-14% and any of the clinical characteristics of CVD/lipid disorder/hypertension/diabetes-38%. The mean BMI for men and women was 25.62 +/- 4.73 kg/m2 and 26.63 +/- 5.72 kg/m2, respectively. Based on WHO criteria for BMI (overweight, 25-29.9 kg/m2; obese, > 30 kg/m2), 34.2% were overweight and 20.4% were obese. The mean WC for men and women was 89.03 +/- 13.45 cm and 84.26 +/- 12.78 cm, respectively. Overall, 55.6% had AO and there was higher prevalence among women (based on International Diabetes Federation criteria: WC > or = 90 cm for men and > or = 80 cm for women). AO was present in approximately 71% patients with lipid disorder, in 76% with hypertension and in 75% with diabetes. Patients with AO were also at a higher risk of developing co-morbidities. Malaysia has a high prevalence of AO and associated cardiovascular risk factors. This needs to be addressed by public health programs, which should also include routine measurement of WC.

  10. Effects of canola and high-oleic-acid canola oils on abdominal fat mass in individuals with central obesity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoran; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Lamarche, Benoît; Jenkins, David J A; Fleming, Jennifer A; McCrea, Cindy E; Pu, Shuaihua; Couture, Patrick; Connelly, Philip W; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-11-01

    To determine the effect of diets low in saturated fatty acids and high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) or polyunsaturated fatty acids on body composition in participants at risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study was a randomized, crossover, controlled feeding study. Participants (n = 101, ages 49.5 ± 1.2, BMI 29.4 ± 0.4 kg/m 2 ) were randomized to five isocaloric diets containing treatment oils: Canola, CanolaOleic, CanolaDHA, Corn/Safflower, and Flax/Safflower. Each diet period was 4 weeks followed by a 2- to 4-week washout period. Canola (3.1 kg, P = 0.026) and CanolaOleic oil diets (3.09 kg, P = 0.03) reduced android fat mass compared with the Flax/Saff oil diet (3.2 kg), particularly in men. The decrease in abdominal fat mass was correlated with the reduction in blood pressure after the Canola (systolic blood pressure: r = 0.26, P = 0.062; diastolic blood pressure: r = 0.38, P = 0.0049) and CanolaOleic oil diets (systolic blood pressure: r = 0.39 P = 0.004; diastolic blood pressure: r = 0.45, P = 0.0006). The decrease in abdominal fat mass also was associated with a reduction in triglyceride levels after the CanolaOleic oil diet (r = 0.42, P = 0.002). Diets high in MUFA (compared with PUFA) reduced central obesity with an accompanying improvement in MetS risk factors. Diets high in MUFA may be beneficial for treating and perhaps preventing MetS. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  11. Abdominal obesity as a mediator of the influence of physical activity on insulin resistance in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Díez-Fernández, Ana; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and insulin resistance (IR) in Spanish adults and to examine whether this relationship is mediated by abdominal obesity (waist circumference - WC). The cross-sectional study included 1162 healthy subjects belonging to the EVIDENT study (mean age 55.0±13.3years; 61.8% women) from six different Spanish provinces. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured objectively over 7days using Actigraph accelerometers, collecting data in 60-second epochs, and retaining respondents with ≥4 valid days for the analysis. The homeostasis model of assessment (HOMA-IR) was used to determine IR, and its individual components - fasting glucose and insulin - were determined using standard protocols. Linear regression models were fitted according to Baron and Kenny's procedures for mediation analysis. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR levels were significantly worse in adults who spent fewer minutes in MVPA (first quartile≤30.1 and 22.7min/day in men and women, respectively) after adjusting for age, sex, smoking habits, drinking habits, accelerometer wear time, sedentary time, and Mediterranean diet adherence. However, when WC was added to the ANCOVA models as a covariate, the effects disappeared. Mediation analysis reported that WC acts as a full mediator in the relationship between MVPA and IR (HOMA-IR and fasting insulin). These findings show that WC plays a pivotal role in the relationship between MVPA and IR, and therefore highlights that decreasing abdominal obesity might be considered as an intermediate outcome for evaluating interventions aimed at preventing diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Elevated circulating levels of succinate in human obesity are linked to specific gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Serena, Carolina; Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Victoria; Keiran, Noelia; Queipo-Ortuño, Maria Isabel; Bernal, Rosa; Gomez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Sabater, Mónica; Pérez-Brocal, Vicente; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Moya, Andres; Tinahones, Francisco J; Fernández-Real, Jose Manuel; Vendrell, Joan; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia

    2018-02-12

    Gut microbiota-related metabolites are potential clinical biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Circulating succinate, a metabolite produced by both microbiota and the host, is increased in hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to analyze systemic levels of succinate in obesity, a major risk factor for CVD, and its relationship with gut microbiome. We explored the association of circulating succinate with specific metagenomic signatures in cross-sectional and prospective cohorts of Caucasian Spanish subjects. Obesity was associated with elevated levels of circulating succinate concomitant with impaired glucose metabolism. This increase was associated with specific changes in gut microbiota related to succinate metabolism: a higher relative abundance of succinate-producing Prevotellaceae (P) and Veillonellaceae (V), and a lower relative abundance of succinate-consuming Odoribacteraceae (O) and Clostridaceae (C) in obese individuals, with the (P + V/O + C) ratio being a main determinant of plasma succinate. Weight loss intervention decreased (P + V/O + C) ratio coincident with the reduction in circulating succinate. In the spontaneous evolution after good dietary advice, alterations in circulating succinate levels were linked to specific metagenomic signatures associated with carbohydrate metabolism and energy production with independence of body weight change. Our data support the importance of microbe-microbe interactions for the metabolite signature of gut microbiome and uncover succinate as a potential microbiota-derived metabolite related to CVD risk.

  13. Changes in body weight are significantly associated with changes in fasting plasma glucose and HDL cholesterol in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference < 85 cm).

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji; Kawai, Ryu

    2011-06-01

    The aims are to examine whether changes in body weight (dBW) are associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) < 85 cm) and which anthropometric index, dBW or changes in WC (dWC), is more strongly associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors in men without abdominal obesity. It is a retrospective study in 692 Japanese men without abdominal obesity who took annual health screening tests consecutively over one year. Standardized linear regression coefficients (SRCs) of dBW and dWC were calculated for changes in systolic blood pressure (dSBP), diastolic blood pressure (dDBP), fasting plasma glucose (dFPG), triglycerides (dTG), HDL cholesterol (dHDL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (dCRP). The SRCs of dBW for dFPG and dHDL were significant in all men and in men with each risk factor corresponding to the component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The SRCs of dWC for dTG and dCRP were significant in all men but not in men with each risk factor corresponding to the MetS component. In conclusions, dBW were significantly associated with dFPG and dHDL in Japanese men without abdominal obesity. Therefore, abdominal obesity should not be considered as a necessary component of MetS in Japanese men. dBW may be more useful than dWC as a marker of changes in cardiovascular risk factors in lifestyle intervention programs.

  14. Effects of Endurance and Endurance-strength Exercise on Renal Function in Abdominally Obese Women with Renal Hyperfiltration: A Prospective Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Szulińska, Monika; Skrypnik, Damian; Ratajczak, Marzena; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Madry, Edyta; Musialik, Katarzyna; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Bogdański, Pawel

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is associated with kidney defects. Physical activity is a key element in the treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of endurance and endurance-strength training on kidney function in abdominally obese women. Forty-four abdominally obese women were randomized to endurance training or endurance-strength training, three times a week for 3 months. Before and after the intervention, kidney function was assessed by measuring blood creatinine, urine creatinine, and urine albumin levels, and the albumin-to-creatinine ratio and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were calculated. Renal hyperperfusion was present in both groups before the study. Following both types of physical activity, similar modifications of the investigated parameters were observed, but with no significant between-group differences. Both courses of training led to a significant increase in blood creatinine and a subsequent decrease in the GFR. A significant increase in urine creatinine and album levels, though not exceeding the range for microalbuminuria, was not accompanied by any difference in the albumin-to-creatinine ratio after endurance-strength training alone. Three months of either endurance or endurance-strength training has a favorable and comparable effect on renal function in abdominally obese women with renal hyperfiltration. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  15. Ethnic and gender disparities in adolescent obesity and elevated systolic blood pressure in a rural US population.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Ruben; Mowrer, Jana; Romo, Jessica; Aleman, April; Weffer, Simón E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2010-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) in ethnically diverse adolescents (1064 males; 974 females; 13-17 years) in a rural community. Prevalence of overweight was 20.4% in females and 17.5% in males. In contrast, the prevalence of obesity was 29.4% in males and 14.5% in females. African American males had the highest prevalence of obesity (33.3%) compared with non-Hispanic whites (26.3%). Prevalence of elevated SBP was higher than pre-elevated SBP in males regardless of race/ethnicity, but not in females. Obese females had 4-fold and 9-fold greater odds of developing pre-elevated SBP and elevated SBP, respectively, than their normal weight cohorts. Prevalence of obesity is almost twice that of overweight in males in our rural population suggesting that adolescent males from disadvantaged, rural populations are potentially at a greater risk for metabolic disorders than those in major metropolitan areas.

  16. Total and high molecular weight adiponectin are elevated in patients with Laron syndrome despite marked obesity.

    PubMed

    Kanety, Hannah; Hemi, Rina; Ginsberg, Shira; Pariente, Clara; Yissachar, Eleanor; Barhod, Ehud; Funahashi, Tohru; Laron, Zvi

    2009-12-01

    Patients with Laron syndrome (LS; primary GH insensitivity) caused by molecular defects of the GH receptor gene, are characterized by dwarfism, profound obesity, and hyperlipidemia. The aim of the current study was to evaluate adiponectin levels in LS, as obesity is known to be associated with low adiponectin. We studied nine untreated LS adult patients (5 males, 4 females) and six girls with LS receiving once-daily treatment by IGF1. Total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels, adiponectin multimers distribution, and metabolic indices were analyzed in serum samples obtained during several years of follow-up. Adiponectin levels in the severely obese adult LS patients (percent body fat; females 61.0+/-2.5%, males 40.6+/-8.1%) were two- to three-fold higher than those reported for subjects of corresponding age, gender and degree of adiposity. Total adiponectin was significantly higher in females compared with males (21.4+/-3.5 vs 10.2+/-4.6 microg/ml, P<0.001). The elevated adiponectin in LS subjects was associated with an increased abundance of the HMW isoform, and positively correlated with body fat percentage (r=0.65, P=0.017) and leptin (r=0.65, P=0.012). There was no correlation between adiponectin levels (total and HMW) and the degree of insulin resistance in LS subjects or their blood lipids levels. Adiponectin was also high in young girls with LS (22.9+/-7.4 microg/ml) and did not change during long-term IGF1 replacement therapy. Adiponectin hypersecretion in LS, despite profound obesity, suggests that GH activity may negatively impact adiponectin secretion from adipocytes.

  17. Physical activity and hypocaloric diet recovers osteoblasts homeostasis in women affected by abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Bimonte, Viviana M; Fittipaldi, Simona; Marocco, Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Fornari, Rachele; Guidetti, Laura; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Nicolai, Emanuele; Di Luigi, Luigi; Donini, Lorenzo M; Baldari, Carlo; Lenzi, Andrea; Greco, Emanuela A; Migliaccio, Silvia

    2017-11-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease linked to metabolic chronic disorders such as diabetes, and hypertension. Also, it has recently been associated with skeletal alterations and low bone mineral density. We previously demonstrated that exposure of osteoblasts to sera of sedentary subjects affected by obesity alters cell homeostasis in vitro, leading to disruption of intracellular differentiation pathways and cellular activity. Thus, the purpose of the present study has been to evaluate whether sera of sedentary obese women, subjected to physical activity and hypocaloric diet, could recover osteoblast homeostasis in vitro as compared to the sera of same patients before intervention protocol. To this aim, obese women were evaluated at time 0 and after 4, 6, and 12 months of individualized prescribed physical activity and hypocaloric diet. Dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry measurements were performed at each time point, as well as blood was collected at the same points. Cells were incubated with sera of subjects before and after physical activity as described: obese at baseline and after for 4, 6, and 12 months of physical activity and nutritional protocol intervention. Osteoblasts exposed to sera of patients, who displayed increased lean and decreased fat mass (from 55.5 ± 6.5 to 57.1 ± 5.6% p ≤ 0.05; from 44.5 ± 1.1 to 40.9 ± 2.6% p ≤ 0.01 respectively), showed a time-dependent increase of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, versus cells exposed to sera of obese patients before intervention protocol, suggesting recovery of osteoblast homeostasis upon improvement of body composition. An increase in β-catenin nuclear accumulation and nuclear translocation was also observed, accompanied by an increase in Adiponectin receptor 1 protein expression, suggesting positive effect on cell differentiation program. Furthermore, a decrease in sclerostin amount and an increase of type 1 procollagen amino-terminal-propeptide were depicted as compared to

  18. The Prevalence of Obesity and Elevated Blood Pressure in Adolescent Student Athletes From the State of Mississippi

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Eric C.; Field, Larry; Replogle, William; McIntyre, Louis; Igboechi, Oduche; Savoie, Felix H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past 30 years, there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity and hypertension in the United States. The prevalence of these diagnoses among individuals participating in school-sanctioned sports has not been clearly defined. Purpose: To identify the prevalence of obesity and elevated blood pressure (BP) among student athletes and investigate associations between race, sex, type and number of sports played, and the prevalence of these diseases. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Pre–sports participation medical examinations (N = 7705) performed between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed to identify the prevalence of obesity and elevated BP and examine relationships between the type of sports played, participation in multiple sports versus a single sport, and the athlete’s body weight and body mass index (BMI). Results: The prevalence of obesity was 23.5%. There was a significant association (P < .001) between the number of sports played by the student and BMI. The risk of obesity among single-sport athletes was more than 2-fold the risk (relative risk [RR], 2.13) compared with ≥3-sport athletes and 1.42 times greater compared with 2-sport athletes (RR, 1.42). The prevalence of elevated BP was 21.2%. There was a significant association (P < .001) between the number of sports played by the student and elevated BP. The risk of elevated BP among single-sport athletes was 1.59 times greater (RR, 1.59) than ≥3-sport athletes and 1.30 times greater compared with 2-sport athletes (RR, 1.30). Finally, obese students were 2.40 times more likely to have elevated BP compared with nonobese students (P < .001). Conclusion: The result of this study confirms the progressive nature of the obesity epidemic and identifies the contribution of obesity to the worsening cardiometabolic profiles in student athletes. The study also identifies that participation in multiple sports and running sports decreases

  19. Effects of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Peng, Yun; Liu, ZuXiang; Li, Shilian; Lv, Zhongli; Tian, LiFang; Zhu, Jie; Zhao, XuNa; Chen, Min

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to study the influence of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children. The design was a longitudinal, clinical intervention study of acupuncture therapy. SUBJECTS were 10 healthy, obese children (age: 11.4 ± 1.65 years, body-mass index [BMI]: 29.03 ± 4.81 kg/m(2)). Measurements included various anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat (assessed by MRI) and hepatic fat content (assessed by (1)H-MRS) at baseline and after 1 month of acupuncture therapy. One (1) month of acupuncture therapy significantly reduced the subjects' BMI by 3.5% (p = 0.005), abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume by 16.04% (p < 0.0001), abdominal total adipose tissue volume by 10.45% (p = 0.001), and abdominal visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio by 10.59% (p = 0.007). Decreases in body weight (-2.13%), waist circumference (-1.44%), hip circumference (-0.33%), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (-0.99%), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume (-5.63%), and intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content (-9.03%) were also observed, although these were not significant (p > 0.05). There was a significant correlation between the level of abdominal fat (SAT, VAT) and anthropometric parameters (weight, BMI, waist circumferences, hip circumferences). There was no statistically significant correlation between IHTG and anthropometric parameters or abdominal fat content. The first direct experimental evidence is provided demonstrating that acupuncture therapy significantly reduces BMI and abdominal adipose tissue by reducing abdominal VAT content without significant changes in body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, abdominal SAT, or IHTG content. Thus, the use of acupuncture therapy to selectively target a reduction in abdominal VAT content should become more important and more popular in

  20. Effects of exchanging carbohydrate or monounsaturated fat with saturated fat on inflammatory and thrombogenic responses in subjects with abdominal obesity: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Teng, Kim-Tiu; Chang, Lin Faun; Vethakkan, Shireene Ratna; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Sanders, Tom A B

    2017-10-01

    Modification of the amount and type of dietary fat has diverse effects on cardiovascular risk. We recruited 54 abdominally obese subjects to participate in a prospective cross-over design, single-blind trial comparing isocaloric 2000 kcal MUFA or carbohydrate-enriched diet with SFA-enriched diet (control). The control diet consisted of 15E% protein, 53E% carbohydrate and 32E% fat (12E% SFA, 13E% MUFA). A total of ∼7E% of MUFA or refined carbohydrate was exchanged with SFA in the MUFA-rich and carbohydrate-rich diets respectively for 6-weeks. Blood samples were collected at fasting upon trial commencement and at week-5 and 6 of each dietary-intervention phase to measure levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β), C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombogenic markers (E-selectin, PAI-1, D-dimer) and lipid subfractions. Radial pulse wave analysis and a 6-h postprandial mixed meal challenge were carried out at week-6 of each dietary intervention. Blood samples were collected at fasting, 15 and 30 min and hourly intervals thereafter till 6 h after a mixed meal challenge (muffin and milkshake) with SFA or MUFA (872.5 kcal, 50 g fat, 88 g carbohydrates) or CARB (881.3 kcal, 20 g fat, 158 g carbohydrates)- enrichment corresponding to the background diets. No significant differences in fasting inflammatory and thrombogenic factors were noted between diets (P > 0.05). CARB meal was found to increase plasma IL-6 whereas MUFA meal elevated plasma D-dimer postprandially compared with SAFA meal (P < 0.05). Comparing the 3 meals, there were similar postprandial elevations in IL-6 and D-dimer and postprandial reductions in PAI-1, augmentation index and pressure (time effect: P < 0.05). CARB diet was found to reduce HDL 3 by 7.8% and increase small dense HDL (sdHDL) by 8.6% compared with SFA diet (P < 0.05). SFA diet increased large HDL subfractions compared with both CARB and MUFA diets by 4.9% and 6.6% (P < 0.05), respectively. Overall, the evidence presented in this study

  1. Differential Association of Generalized and Abdominal Obesity With Diabetic Retinopathy in Asian Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Man, Ryan Eyn Kidd; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Li, Ling-Jun; Noonan, Jonathan Edward; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheung, Gemmy Chui-Ming; Tan, Gavin Siew Wei; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2016-03-01

    The association between obesity and diabetic retinopathy (DR) is equivocal, possibly owing to the strong interrelation between generalized and abdominal obesity leading to a mutually confounding effect. To our knowledge, no study in Asia has investigated the independent associations of these 2 parameters with DR to date. To investigate the associations of generalized (defined by body mass index [BMI], calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and abdominal obesity (assessed by waist to hip ratio [WHR]) with DR in a clinical sample of Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This cross-sectional clinic-based study was conducted at the Singapore National Eye Centre, a tertiary eye care institution in Singapore, from December 2010 to September 2013. We recruited 498 patients with diabetes. After exclusion of participants with ungradable retinal images and type 1 diabetes, 420 patients (mean [SD] age, 57.8 [7.5] years; 32.1% women) were included in the analyses. Body mass index and WHR as waist/hip circumference (in centimeters). The presence and severity of DR were graded from retinal images using the modified Airlie House Classification into none (n = 189), mild-moderate (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale score, 20-41; n = 125), and severe DR (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale score ≥53; n = 118). The associations of BMI and WHR with DR were assessed using multinomial logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, traditional risk factors, and mutually for BMI and WHR. Among the total of 420 patients, the median (interquartile range) for BMI and WHR were 25.7 (5.7) and 0.94 (0.08), respectively. In multivariable models, BMI was inversely associated with mild-moderate and severe DR (odds ratio [OR], 0.90 [95% CI, 0.84-0.97] and OR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.85-0.99] per 1-unit increase, respectively), while WHR was positively associated with mild-moderate and severe DR (OR, 3.49 [95% CI, 1.50-8.10] and OR, 2

  2. Concentrations of Plasma Free Palmitoleic and Dihomo-Gamma Linoleic Fatty Acids Are Higher in Children with Abdominal Obesity.

    PubMed

    Aristizabal, Juan C; González-Zapata, Laura I; Estrada-Restrepo, Alejandro; Monsalve-Alvarez, Julia; Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra L; Gaitán, Diego

    2018-01-01

    Increased plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity (AO). However, this association remains controversial in children. This study analyzed plasma FFA concentration in children with and without AO. Twenty-nine children classified with AO were matched by age and sex with 29 non-obese individuals. Blood samples were collected after fasting for 10-12 h. Plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined by automatized methods. FFAs were analyzed by gas chromatography. Children with and without AO had similar age (7.1 ± 2.6 vs. 7.2 ± 2.7 years; p > 0.05) but obese children showed higher ( p < 0.05) body mass index (BMI) (+4.3 kg/m²), systolic blood pressure (+5.1 mmHg), and insulin (+27.8 pmol/L). There were no significant differences in plasma total FFA concentration between groups (1.02 ± 0.61 vs. 0.89 ± 0.37 mmol/L; p > 0.05). However, children with AO had higher palmitoleic acid (0.94 vs. 0.70 wt %; p < 0.05) and dihomo-gamma linoleic acid (DHGL) (2.76 vs. 2.07 wt %; p < 0.05). Palmitoleic and DHGL acids correlated ( p < 0.05) with BMI ( r = 0.397; r = 0.296, respectively) and with waist circumference ( r = 0.380; r = 0.276, respectively). Palmitoleic acid correlated positively with systolic blood pressure ( r = 0.386; p < 0.05) and negatively with HDL-C (-0.572; p < 0.01). In summary, children with AO have higher plasmatic concentrations of free palmitoleic and DHGL fatty acids, which correlate with cardiometabolic risk factors.

  3. Concentrations of Plasma Free Palmitoleic and Dihomo-Gamma Linoleic Fatty Acids Are Higher in Children with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    González-Zapata, Laura I.; Estrada-Restrepo, Alejandro; Monsalve-Alvarez, Julia; Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra L.; Gaitán, Diego

    2018-01-01

    Increased plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity (AO). However, this association remains controversial in children. This study analyzed plasma FFA concentration in children with and without AO. Twenty-nine children classified with AO were matched by age and sex with 29 non-obese individuals. Blood samples were collected after fasting for 10–12 h. Plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined by automatized methods. FFAs were analyzed by gas chromatography. Children with and without AO had similar age (7.1 ± 2.6 vs. 7.2 ± 2.7 years; p > 0.05) but obese children showed higher (p < 0.05) body mass index (BMI) (+4.3 kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (+5.1 mmHg), and insulin (+27.8 pmol/L). There were no significant differences in plasma total FFA concentration between groups (1.02 ± 0.61 vs. 0.89 ± 0.37 mmol/L; p > 0.05). However, children with AO had higher palmitoleic acid (0.94 vs. 0.70 wt %; p < 0.05) and dihomo-gamma linoleic acid (DHGL) (2.76 vs. 2.07 wt %; p < 0.05). Palmitoleic and DHGL acids correlated (p < 0.05) with BMI (r = 0.397; r = 0.296, respectively) and with waist circumference (r = 0.380; r = 0.276, respectively). Palmitoleic acid correlated positively with systolic blood pressure (r = 0.386; p < 0.05) and negatively with HDL-C (−0.572; p < 0.01). In summary, children with AO have higher plasmatic concentrations of free palmitoleic and DHGL fatty acids, which correlate with cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:29301242

  4. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

  5. Body composition in 13-year-old adolescents with abdominal obesity, depending on the BMI value.

    PubMed

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna S; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2017-09-01

    Excessive adipocyte growth during the pubertal transition predisposes to the development and persistence of obesity in adulthood. Visceral accumulation of body fat is particularly disadvantageous when it is correlated with insulin resistance, secondary hyperinsulinaemia, dysglicaemia, and atherogenic dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to conduct a nutritional status assessment and body composition analysis in 13-year-old adolescents of both genders with visceral fat accumulation (WC ≥ 90th percentile) and different BMI values. The evaluation of state of nutrition of 1,738 Polish boys (n = 882) and girls (n = 856) aged 13 was done based on anthropometric measurements and calculated BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference) and WHtR indices (waist-to-height ratio). Taking into consideration the value of WC ≥ 90 pc, 353 people were designated (20.3 % of the total) with visceral obesity (but with various BMI), whose body composition was examined by the method of bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). A total of 249 adolescents of both sexes (70.5% of the selected, 102 boys and 147 girls) and their parents agreed to the study. In adolescents with visceral obesity a significant change of body content was ascertained depending on the value of the BMI. Even in the people with a proper value of the BMI, a significantly higher than standard increase of the percentage of total body fat (TBF) and decrease of both the percentage of body lean (BL) and the content of total body water (TBW) in the body was observed. The values of the BMI, WC and WHtR in adolescents were significantly correlated with each other as well as with TBF, BL and TBW, and the strength of correlation was dependent on sex. The state of nutrition in adolescents with visceral obesity, even with a proper BMI, might contribute to the development of a metabolic syndrome.

  6. Elevated blood pressure and obesity in childhood: a cross-sectional evaluation of 4,609 schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Rosaneli, Caroline Filla; Baena, Cristina Pellegrio; Auler, Flavia; Nakashima, Alika Terumi Arasaki; Netto-Oliveira, Edna Regina; Oliveira, Amauri Bássoli; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César; Olandoski, Marcia; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of obesity in children is increasing worldwide, primarily in urbanized, high-income countries, and hypertension development is a detrimental effect of this phenomenon. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the prevalence of excess weight and its association with high blood pressure (BP) in schoolchildren. Here 4,609 male and female children, aged 6 to 11 years, from 24 public and private schools in Maringa, Brazil, were evaluated. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI) according to cutoff points adjusted for sex and age. Blood pressure (BP) levels above 90th percentile for gender, age and height percentile were considered elevated. The prevalence of excess weight among the schoolchildren was 24.5%; 16.9% were overweight, and 7.6% were obese. Sex and socioeconomic characteristics were not associated with elevated BP. In all age groups, systolic and diastolic BP correlated with BMI and waist and hip measurements, but not with waist-hip ratio. The prevalence of elevated BP was 11.2% in eutrophic children, 20.6% in overweight children [odds ratio (OR), 1.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.61-2.45], and 39.7% in obese children (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 4.23-6.89). Obese and overweight children had a higher prevalence of elevated BP than normal-weight children. Our data confirm that the growing worldwide epidemic of excess weight and elevated BP in schoolchildren may also be ongoing in Brazil.

  7. Elevated Hypothalamic Glucocorticoid Levels Are Associated With Obesity and Hyperphagia in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Sefton, Charlotte; Harno, Erika; Davies, Alison; Small, Helen; Allen, Tiffany-Jayne; Wray, Jonathan R; Lawrence, Catherine B; Coll, Anthony P; White, Anne

    2016-11-01

    Glucocorticoid (Gc) excess, from endogenous overproduction in disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or exogenous medical therapy, is recognized to cause adverse metabolic side effects. The Gc receptor (GR) is widely expressed throughout the body, including brain regions such as the hypothalamus. However, the extent to which chronic Gcs affect Gc concentrations in the hypothalamus and impact on GR and target genes is unknown. To investigate this, we used a murine model of corticosterone (Cort)-induced obesity and analyzed Cort levels in the hypothalamus and expression of genes relevant to Gc action. Mice were administered Cort (75 μg/mL) or ethanol (1%, vehicle) in drinking water for 4 weeks. Cort-treated mice had increased body weight, food intake, and adiposity. As expected, Cort increased plasma Cort levels at both zeitgeber time 1 and zeitgeber time 13, ablating the diurnal rhythm. Liquid chromatography dual tandem mass spectrometry revealed a 4-fold increase in hypothalamic Cort, which correlated with circulating levels and concentrations of Cort in other brain regions. This occurred despite decreased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Hsd11b1) expression, the gene encoding the enzyme that regenerates active Gcs, whereas efflux transporter Abcb1 mRNA was unaltered. In addition, although Cort decreased hypothalamic GR (Nr3c1) expression 2-fold, the Gc-induced leucine zipper (Tsc22d3) mRNA increased, which indicated elevated GR activation. In keeping with the development of hyperphagia and obesity, Cort increased Agrp, but there were no changes in Pomc, Npy, or Cart mRNA in the hypothalamus. In summary, chronic Cort treatment causes chronic increases in hypothalamic Cort levels and a persistent elevation in Agrp, a mediator in the development of metabolic disturbances.

  8. Elevated Hypothalamic Glucocorticoid Levels Are Associated With Obesity and Hyperphagia in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sefton, Charlotte; Harno, Erika; Davies, Alison; Small, Helen; Allen, Tiffany-Jayne; Wray, Jonathan R.; Lawrence, Catherine B.; Coll, Anthony P.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (Gc) excess, from endogenous overproduction in disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or exogenous medical therapy, is recognized to cause adverse metabolic side effects. The Gc receptor (GR) is widely expressed throughout the body, including brain regions such as the hypothalamus. However, the extent to which chronic Gcs affect Gc concentrations in the hypothalamus and impact on GR and target genes is unknown. To investigate this, we used a murine model of corticosterone (Cort)-induced obesity and analyzed Cort levels in the hypothalamus and expression of genes relevant to Gc action. Mice were administered Cort (75 μg/mL) or ethanol (1%, vehicle) in drinking water for 4 weeks. Cort-treated mice had increased body weight, food intake, and adiposity. As expected, Cort increased plasma Cort levels at both zeitgeber time 1 and zeitgeber time 13, ablating the diurnal rhythm. Liquid chromatography dual tandem mass spectrometry revealed a 4-fold increase in hypothalamic Cort, which correlated with circulating levels and concentrations of Cort in other brain regions. This occurred despite decreased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Hsd11b1) expression, the gene encoding the enzyme that regenerates active Gcs, whereas efflux transporter Abcb1 mRNA was unaltered. In addition, although Cort decreased hypothalamic GR (Nr3c1) expression 2-fold, the Gc-induced leucine zipper (Tsc22d3) mRNA increased, which indicated elevated GR activation. In keeping with the development of hyperphagia and obesity, Cort increased Agrp, but there were no changes in Pomc, Npy, or Cart mRNA in the hypothalamus. In summary, chronic Cort treatment causes chronic increases in hypothalamic Cort levels and a persistent elevation in Agrp, a mediator in the development of metabolic disturbances. PMID:27649090

  9. Can you be large and not obese? The distinction between body weight, body fat, and abdominal fat in occupational standards.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E

    2004-10-01

    Weight control is an important early intervention in diabetes, but the nature of the association between weight and disordered metabolism has been confused because fat mass and its distribution are only partly associated with increasing body size. Weight, fat, and regional fat placement, specifically in the abdominal site, may each have distinctly different associations with diabetes risk. Abdominal circumference may be the common marker of poor fitness habits and of increased risk for metabolic diseases such as diabetes. This is an important question for public health policy as well as for occupational standards such as those of the military, which are intended to promote fitness for military missions and include strength and aerobic capacity, as well as military appearance considerations. U.S. soldiers are heavier than ever before, reflecting both increased muscle and fat components. They also have better health care than ever before and are required to exercise regularly, and even the oldest soldiers are required to remain below body fat limits that are more stringent than the current median values of the U.S. population over age 40. The body fat standards assessed by circumference-based equations are 20-26% and 30-36%, for various age groups of men and women, respectively, and the upper limits align with threshold values of waist circumference recommended in national health goals. The basis and effects of the Army standards are presented in this paper. U.S. Army body fat standards may offer practical and reasonable health guidelines suitable for all active Americans that might help stem the increasing prevalence of obesity that is predicted to increase the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes.

  10. Effects of Canola and High-Oleic Acid Canola Oils on Abdominal Fat Mass in Individuals with Central Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoran; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; West, Sheila G.; Lamarche, Benoît; Jenkins, David J. A.; Fleming, Jennifer A.; McCrea, Cindy E.; Pu, Shuaihua; Couture, Patrick; Connelly, Philip W.; Jones, Peter J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of diets low in saturated fatty acids (SFA), high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on body composition in participants at risk for MetS. Methods; The present study is a randomized, crossover, controlled feeding study. Participants (n = 101, ages 49.5 ± 1.2, BMI 29.4 ± 0.4 kg/m2) were randomized to five isocaloric diets contained treatment oils: Canola, CanolaOleic, CanolaDHA, Corn/Safflower and Flax/Safflower. Each diet period was 4-week followed by a 2–4 week washout period. Results Canola (3.1 kg, p=0.026) and CanolaOleic oil diets (3.1 kg, p=0.03) reduced android fat mass compared with the Flax/Saff oil diet (3.2 kg), particularly in males. The decrease in abdominal fat mass was correlated with the reduction in blood pressure after the Canola (SBP r = 0.26, p=0.062; DBP r=0.38, p=0.0049) and CanolaOleic oil diets (SBP r = 0.39 p=0.004; DBP r=0.45, p=0.0006). The decrease in abdominal fat mass also was associated with a reduction in TG levels after the CanolaOleic oil diet (r = 0.42, p=0.002). Conclusion Diets high in MUFA (compared with PUFA) reduced central obesity with an accompanying improvement in MetS risk factors. Our findings demonstrate that diets high in MUFA may be beneficial for treating and perhaps preventing MetS. PMID:27804268

  11. Association between the abdominal obesity anthropometric indicators and metabolic disorders in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Dong, J; Ni, Y-Q; Chu, X; Liu, Y-Q; Liu, G-X; Zhao, J; Yang, Y-B; Yan, Y-X

    2016-02-01

    Obesity has become a major health problem in contemporary society and it is closely related to many chronic diseases, so it is an important issue for measuring adiposity accurately and predicting its future. Prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity has become one of the key prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders. In this study, we compared the ability of the four anthropometric indicators (body mass index, waist circumstance, waist-height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio) to identify metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia) by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses and to provide evidence for clinical practice. In this large scale cross-sectional study, 13,275 Han adults (including 7595 males and 5680 females) received physical examination between January, 2009 and January, 2010 in Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University were investigated by the means of questionnaire, Meanwhile, the physical examination and serological results were recorded. A package known as Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS) was employed to analyse the responses while t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), ROC analysis and chi-square statistical methods were used to test the hypotheses. WC, WHtR, WHR and BMI were all significantly (P < 0.001) correlated with all metabolic risk factors regardless of gender. And the area under the curve (AUC) of WHtR was significantly greater than that of WC, BMI or WHR in the prediction of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia. Our data show that WHtR was the best predictor of various metabolic disorders. The diagnostic value in descending order was WHtR > WHR > WC > BMI. Therefore we recommend WHtR in assessment of obese patients, in order to better assess the risks of their metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical activity reduces the risk of incident type 2 diabetes in general and in abdominally lean and obese men and women: the EPIC-InterAct Study.

    PubMed

    Ekelund, U; Palla, L; Brage, S; Franks, P W; Peters, T; Balkau, B; Diaz, M J T; Huerta, J M; Agnoli, C; Arriola, L; Ardanaz, E; Boeing, H; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Crowe, F; Fagherazzi, G; Groop, L; Føns Johnsen, N; Kaaks, R; Khaw, K T; Key, T J; de Lauzon-Guillain, B; May, A; Monninkhof, E; Navarro, C; Nilsson, P; Nautrup Østergaard, J; Norat, T; Overvad, K; Palli, D; Panico, S; Redondo, M L; Ricceri, F; Rolandsson, O; Romaguera, D; Romieu, I; Sánchez Pérez, M J; Slimani, N; Spijkerman, A; Teucher, B; Tjonneland, A; Travier, N; Tumino, R; Vos, W; Vigl, M; Sharp, S; Langeberg, C; Forouhi, N; Riboli, E; Feskens, E; Wareham, N J

    2012-07-01

    We examined the independent and combined associations of physical activity and obesity with incident type 2 diabetes in men and women. The InterAct case-cohort study consists of 12,403 incident type 2 diabetes cases and a randomly selected subcohort of 16,154 individuals, drawn from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. Physical activity was assessed by a four-category index. Obesity was measured by BMI and waist circumference (WC). Associations between physical activity, obesity and case-ascertained incident type 2 diabetes were analysed by Cox regression after adjusting for educational level, smoking status, alcohol consumption and energy intake. In combined analyses, individuals were stratified according to physical activity level, BMI and WC. A one-category difference in physical activity (equivalent to approximately 460 and 365 kJ/day in men and women, respectively) was independently associated with a 13% (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.80, 0.94) and 7% (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.89, 0.98) relative reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women, respectively. Lower levels of physical activity were associated with an increased risk of diabetes across all strata of BMI. Comparing inactive with active individuals, the HRs were 1.44 (95% CI 1.11, 1.87) and 1.38 (95% CI 1.17, 1.62) in abdominally lean and obese inactive men, respectively, and 1.57 (95% CI 1.19, 2.07) and 1.19 (95% CI 1.01, 1.39) in abdominally lean and obese inactive women, respectively. Physical activity is associated with a reduction in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes across BMI categories in men and women, as well as in abdominally lean and obese men and women.

  13. Influence of non-dietary factors on the prevalence of abdominal obesity as a major component of the metabolic syndrome among 17-18-year-old youth.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Ewa; Broniecka, Anna; Biernat, Jadwiga; Wyka, Joanna; Bronkowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Youth nutrition and their nutritional status are conditioned by many factors, some of the main ones being: economic, social, climatic, cultural, and psychological factors as well as nutritional knowledge. With the growing problem of overweight and obesity among children and young people, the incidence of the metabolic syndrome is also increasing. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of demographic, sociological and psychological factors on the incidence of obesity among 17-18-year-old adolescents from Wroclaw and vicinity as a major risk factor for the development of the metabolic syndrome. The study was conducted in three upper-secondary schools in Wroclaw, Poland. In the surveyed group (17-18 years old, n = 269) girls accounted for 59.5% and boys constituted 40.5%. Majority of young people were Wroclaw citizens (72.9%). Centile charts elaborated by the Children's Memorial Health Institute were adopted for the evaluation of anthropometric parameters. Evaluation of the impact of non-dietary factors on the manner of nutrition was carried out using own questionnaire. Based on the tests, abdominal obesity was determined among 34.5% of adolescents aged 17 years and among 65.5% of these aged 18 years. Obesity was more common in girls carrying genetic burden of the disease. Youth with the largest waist circumference most often declared to use slimming diets - 6.7%, and the lowest hunger sensation in stress - 3.4%. In addition, 30.5% of the adolescents with the smallest waist circumference and 11.5% with the largest waist circumference declared to be non-smoking. Occasional alcohol consumption was declared by 30.1% of young people with the smallest waist circumference, and 13.4% with the largest waist circumference. Youth with abdominal obesity significantly more likely than those with normal waist circumference applied slimming diets. Significant impact on the formation of abdominal obesity among girls had inherited disease burden.

  14. Adverse effects of fructose on cardiometabolic risk factors and hepatic lipid metabolism in subjects with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Taskinen, M-R; Söderlund, S; Bogl, L H; Hakkarainen, A; Matikainen, N; Pietiläinen, K H; Räsänen, S; Lundbom, N; Björnson, E; Eliasson, B; Mancina, R M; Romeo, S; Alméras, N; Pepa, G D; Vetrani, C; Prinster, A; Annuzzi, G; Rivellese, A; Després, J-P; Borén, J

    2017-08-01

    Overconsumption of dietary sugars, fructose in particular, is linked to cardiovascular risk factors such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, clinical studies have to date not clarified whether these adverse cardiometabolic effects are induced directly by dietary sugars, or whether they are secondary to weight gain. To assess the effects of fructose (75 g day -1 ), served with their habitual diet over 12 weeks, on liver fat content and other cardiometabolic risk factors in a large cohort (n = 71) of abdominally obese men. We analysed changes in body composition, dietary intake, an extensive panel of cardiometabolic risk markers, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), liver fat content and postprandial lipid responses after a standardized oral fat tolerance test (OFTT). Fructose consumption had modest adverse effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. However, fructose consumption significantly increased liver fat content and hepatic DNL and decreased β-hydroxybutyrate (a measure of β-oxidation). The individual changes in liver fat were highly variable in subjects matched for the same level of weight change. The increase in liver fat content was significantly more pronounced than the weight gain. The increase in DNL correlated positively with triglyceride area under the curve responses after an OFTT. Our data demonstrated adverse effects of moderate fructose consumption for 12 weeks on multiple cardiometabolic risk factors in particular on liver fat content despite only relative low increases in weight and waist circumference. Our study also indicates that there are remarkable individual differences in susceptibility to visceral adiposity/liver fat after real-world daily consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages over 12 weeks. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  15. Impact of weight loss with or without exercise on abdominal fat and insulin resistance in obese individuals: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Trussardi Fayh, Ana Paula; Lopes, André Luiz; Fernandes, Pablo Rober; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Friedman, Rogério

    2013-08-28

    Evidence supports an important contribution of abdominal obesity and inflammation to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and CVD. Weight loss in obese individuals can reduce inflammation and, consequently, IR, but the role of training remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of body weight reduction with and without exercise over abdominal fat tissue (primary outcome) and IR. In this randomised clinical trial, forty-eight obese individuals (age 31·8 (SD 6·0) years, BMI 34·8 (SD 2·7) kg/m2) were randomised to either a diet-only group (DI) or a diet and exercise group (DI þ EXE). Treatment was maintained until 5% of the initial body weight was lost. At baseline and upon completion, the following parameters were analysed: biochemical parameters such as glycaemia and insulin for the determination of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and abdominal computed tomography for the determination of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. A total of thirteen individuals dropped out before completing the weight-loss intervention and did not repeat the tests. In both the DI (n 18) and DI þ EXE (n 17) groups, we observed significant and similar decreases of visceral adipose tissue (difference between means: 7·9 (95% CI 29·5, 25·2) cm2, P¼0·36), hs-CRP (difference between means: 20·06 (95% CI 20·19, 0·03) mg/l, P¼0·39) and HOMA (difference between means: 20·04 (95% CI 20·17, 0·08), P¼0·53). In the present study, 5% weight loss reduced abdominal fat and IR in obese individuals and exercise did not add to the effect of weight loss on the outcome variables.

  16. A case-control study of rheumatoid arthritis revealed abdominal obesity and environmental risk factor interactions in northern China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lingyu; Zhang, Jianming; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Yao; Cui, Saisai; Chen, Meng

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate new and previously hypothesized environmental risk factors and their interaction with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Four hundred patients recently diagnosed with RA and 400 controls frequency-matched by gender and birth year using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) were selected from northern China. Investigation was performed using self-reported data from interviewer-administered surveys. Associations between exposure variables and risk of RA were evaluated using multifactor non-conditional logistic regression. It showed that damp localities, draft indoor, abdominal obesity (AO), and family history of RA among first-degree relatives were independent risk factors and drinking of milk was independent protective factors for RA. Besides these risk factors, in women, infrequent delivery times, early age at menopause, and late age at menarche were also independent risk factors for RA. Both the additive model and the multiplication model suggested that there was an interaction relationship between AO and damp localities (p < .001), and only the additive model suggested that there was interaction relationship between AO and no milk drinking (p < .001) in our study population. In women, there was interaction relationship between AO and damp localities (p < .001) and between AO and age at menopause (p < .001). In northern China, damp localities, draft indoor, AO, family history of RA among first-degree relatives, and no milk drinking may be important risk factors of RA patients.

  17. Waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio reference percentiles for abdominal obesity among Greek adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bacopoulou, Flora; Efthymiou, Vasiliki; Landis, Georgios; Rentoumis, Anastasios; Chrousos, George P

    2015-05-04

    Indices predictive of adolescent central obesity include waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Such reference data are lacking for Greek adolescents. The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed reference percentiles for abdominal obesity among Greek adolescents aged 12-17 years, to investigate possible obesity cut-offs of WHR and WHtR and to compare WC percentiles to other adolescent populations. A representative sample of 1610 high school adolescents (42.2% boys, 57.8% girls; mean age ± sd 14.4 ± 1.72 years) participated in this cross-sectional study in Attica, Greece, in 2013. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), WC, hip circumference (HC), WHR and WHtR were measured and percentiles were calculated using the LMS method. The relation between WHR, WHtR and general obesity, as defined by the International Obesity Task Force, was investigated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The discriminating power of WHR and WHtR was expressed as area under the curve (AUC). Greek adolescents' WC measurements at the 50th and 90th percentile were compared with their counterparts' smoothed percentiles from Norway, Turkey, Poland, South India, Germany and Kuwait. Boys had significantly higher mean in all measures than girls, except for BMI where there was no statistical difference in terms of gender. BMI, WC and HC showed an increasing trend with age. WC leveled off in both genders at the age of 17 years. WHR and WHtR showed a continuous decrease with advancing age. WHtR was a better predictor for general obesity in both boys and girls (AUC 95% CI 0.945-0.992) than the WHR (AUC 95% CI 0.758-0.870); the WHtR cut-off of 0.5 had sensitivity 91% and specificity 95% for both genders and all age groups combined. International comparisons showed that Greek adolescents had relatively high levels of abdominal obesity in early-middle adolescence but this did not persist at

  18. Freeze-Dried Strawberries Lower Serum Cholesterol and Lipid Peroxidation in Adults with Abdominal Adiposity and Elevated Serum Lipids123

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M.; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)–derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (−3 ± 11 mg/dL, −3 ± 9 mg/dL, and −28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion

  19. Automatic segmentation of abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments in water-fat MRI: Application to weight-loss in obesity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Ott, Beate; Skurk, Thomas; Kooijman, Hendrik; Rummeny, Ernst J; Hauner, Hans; Menze, Bjoern H; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2016-09-01

    To develop a fully automatic algorithm for abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments segmentation and to assess organ and adipose tissue volume changes in longitudinal water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Axial two-point Dixon images were acquired in 20 obese women (age range 24-65, BMI 34.9±3.8kg/m(2)) before and after a four-week calorie restriction. Abdominal organs, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments (abdominal, anterior, posterior), SAT regions along the feet-head direction and regional visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were assessed by a fully automatic algorithm using morphological operations and a multi-atlas-based segmentation method. The accuracy of organ segmentation represented by Dice coefficients ranged from 0.672±0.155 for the pancreas to 0.943±0.023 for the liver. Abdominal SAT changes were significantly greater in the posterior than the anterior SAT compartment (-11.4%±5.1% versus -9.5%±6.3%, p<0.001). The loss of VAT that was not located around any organ (-16.1%±8.9%) was significantly greater than the loss of VAT 5cm around liver, left and right kidney, spleen, and pancreas (p<0.05). The presented fully automatic algorithm showed good performance in abdominal adipose tissue and organ segmentation, and allowed the detection of SAT and VAT subcompartments changes during weight loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An ERβ agonist induces browning of subcutaneous abdominal fat pad in obese female mice.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yi-Fei; Su, Wen; Dai, Yu-Bing; Wu, Wan-Fu; Huang, Bo; Barros, Rodrigo P A; Nguyen, Hao; Maneix, Laure; Guan, You-Fei; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-12-06

    Estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), exerts several beneficial effects on metabolism and energy homeostasis by controlling size, enzymatic activity and hormonal content of adipose tissue. The actions of estrogen on sympathetic ganglia, which are key players in the browning process, are less well known. In the present study we show that ERβ influences browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) via its actions both on sympathetic ganglia and on the SAT itself. A 3-day-treatment with a selective ERβ agonist, LY3201, induced browning of SAT in 1-year-old obese WT and ERα -/- female mice. Browning was associated with increased expression of ERβ in the nuclei of neurons in the sympathetic ganglia, increase in tyrosine hydroxylase in both nerve terminals in the SAT and sympathetic ganglia neurons and an increase of β3-adrenoceptor in the SAT. LY3201 had no effect on browning in young female or male mice. In the case of young females browning was already maximal while in males there was very little expression of ERβ in the SAT and very little expression of the β3-adrenoceptor. The increase in both sympathetic tone and responsiveness of adipocytes to catecholamines reveals a novel role for ERβ in controlling browning of adipose tissue.

  1. An ERβ agonist induces browning of subcutaneous abdominal fat pad in obese female mice

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yi-fei; Su, Wen; Dai, Yu-bing; Wu, Wan-fu; Huang, Bo; Barros, Rodrigo P. A.; Nguyen, Hao; Maneix, Laure; Guan, You-fei; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), exerts several beneficial effects on metabolism and energy homeostasis by controlling size, enzymatic activity and hormonal content of adipose tissue. The actions of estrogen on sympathetic ganglia, which are key players in the browning process, are less well known. In the present study we show that ERβ influences browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) via its actions both on sympathetic ganglia and on the SAT itself. A 3-day-treatment with a selective ERβ agonist, LY3201, induced browning of SAT in 1-year-old obese WT and ERα−/− female mice. Browning was associated with increased expression of ERβ in the nuclei of neurons in the sympathetic ganglia, increase in tyrosine hydroxylase in both nerve terminals in the SAT and sympathetic ganglia neurons and an increase of β3-adrenoceptor in the SAT. LY3201 had no effect on browning in young female or male mice. In the case of young females browning was already maximal while in males there was very little expression of ERβ in the SAT and very little expression of the β3-adrenoceptor. The increase in both sympathetic tone and responsiveness of adipocytes to catecholamines reveals a novel role for ERβ in controlling browning of adipose tissue. PMID:27922125

  2. Elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 expression in skeletal muscle contributes to abnormal fatty acid partitioning in obese humans

    PubMed Central

    Hulver, Matthew W.; Berggren, Jason R.; Carper, Michael J.; Miyazaki, Makoto; Ntambi, James M.; Hoffman, Eric P.; Thyfault, John P.; Stevens, Robert; Dohm, G. Lynis; Houmard, Joseph A.; Muoio, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Obesity and type 2 diabetes are strongly associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and accumulation of intramyocellular triacylglycerol, but the underlying cause of these perturbations are yet unknown. Herein, we show that the lipogenic gene, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), is robustly up-regulated in skeletal muscle from extremely obese humans. High expression and activity of SCD1, an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, corresponded with low rates of fatty acid oxidation, increased triacylglycerol synthesis and increased monounsaturation of muscle lipids. Elevated SCD1 expression and abnormal lipid partitioning were retained in primary skeletal myocytes derived from obese compared to lean donors, implying that these traits might be driven by epigenetic and/or heritable mechanisms. Overexpression of human SCD1 in myotubes from lean subjects was sufficient to mimic the obese phenotype. These results suggest that elevated expression of SCD1 in skeletal muscle contributes to abnormal lipid metabolism and progression of obesity. PMID:16213227

  3. Elevated glucose concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test are associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Sabin, M A; Hunt, L P; Ford, A L; Werther, G A; Crowne, E C; Shield, J P H

    2008-03-01

    To investigate whether changes in glucose concentrations during an OGTT in obese children reflect the presence of peripheral insulin resistance and/or cardiovascular risk factors more closely than single measurements of fasting plasma glucose (FPG). One hundred and twenty-two obese children attending our Paediatric Obesity Service underwent formal OGTTs, following the measurement of blood pressure and fasting levels of insulin, glucose and lipid profiles in the majority. Fasting insulin was used as a surrogate measure of insulin sensitivity. Three different child-specific definitions for metabolic syndrome were used to identify clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in 65 of these children. In the whole group, 10.7% had IGT but changes in glucose during the OGTT were not influenced by age, sex, pubertal status or raw (or age- and sex-adjusted) body mass index (BMI). During the OGTT, FPG, glucose at 60 min and area under the glucose curve correlated highly with fasting insulin. Children with metabolic syndrome (defined using any of three definitions) had comparable FPG levels to those without metabolic syndrome, but they demonstrated significantly elevated glucose levels at 60 min. On sub-group analysis, obese children with normal carbohydrate metabolism were significantly more likely to have a 1 h glucose level > or = 7.8 mmol/l if they had metabolic syndrome (P = 0.026). These data suggest that an elevated 1 h post-load glucose measurement is seen in obese children who have a coexistent clustering of cardiovascular risk factors.

  4. Elevated Expression of Osteopontin May Be Related to Adipose Tissue Macrophage Accumulation and Liver Steatosis in Morbid Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Bertola, Adeline; Deveaux, Vanessa; Bonnafous, Stéphanie; Rousseau, Déborah; Anty, Rodolphe; Wakkach, Abdelilah; Dahman, Moncef; Tordjman, Joan; Clément, Karine; McQuaid, Siobhán E.; Frayn, Keith N.; Huet, Pierre-Michel; Gugenheim, Jean; Lotersztajn, Sophie; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Tran, Albert; Gual, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Osteopontin (OPN) plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance and liver complications in dietary murine models. We aimed to determine the expression pattern of OPN and its receptor CD44 in obese patients and mice according to insulin resistance and liver steatosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—OPN and CD44 expressions were studied in 52 morbidly obese patients and in mice. Cellular studies were performed in HepG2 cells. RESULTS—Hepatic OPN and CD44 expressions were strongly correlated with liver steatosis and insulin resistance in obese patients and mice. This increased OPN expression could be due to the accumulation of triglycerides, since fat loading in HepG2 promotes OPN expression. In contrast, OPN expression in adipose tissue (AT) was enhanced independently of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in obese patients. The elevated OPN expression in AT was paralleled with the AT macrophage infiltration, and both phenomena were reversed after weight loss. The circulating OPN level was slightly elevated in obese patients and was not related to liver steatosis. Further, AT did not appear to secrete OPN. In contrast, bariatric surgery–induced weight loss induced a strong increase in circulating OPN. CONCLUSIONS—The modestly elevated circulating OPN levels in morbidly obese patients were not related to liver steatosis and did not appear to result from adipose tissue secretion. In subcutaneous AT, expression of OPN was directly related to macrophage accumulation independently from liver complications. In contrast, hepatic OPN and CD44 expressions were related to insulin resistance and steatosis, suggesting their local implication in the progression of liver injury. PMID:18952835

  5. Elevated Blood Pressure and Obesity in Childhood: A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of 4,609 Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Rosaneli, Caroline Filla; Baena, Cristina Pellegrio; Auler, Flavia; Nakashima, Alika Terumi Arasaki; Netto-Oliveira, Edna Regina; Oliveira, Amauri Bássoli; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César; Olandoski, Marcia; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of obesity in children is increasing worldwide, primarily in urbanized, high-income countries, and hypertension development is a detrimental effect of this phenomenon. Objective: In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the prevalence of excess weight and its association with high blood pressure (BP) in schoolchildren. Methods: Here 4,609 male and female children, aged 6 to 11 years, from 24 public and private schools in Maringa, Brazil, were evaluated. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI) according to cutoff points adjusted for sex and age. Blood pressure (BP) levels above 90th percentile for gender, age and height percentile were considered elevated. Results: The prevalence of excess weight among the schoolchildren was 24.5%; 16.9% were overweight, and 7.6% were obese. Sex and socioeconomic characteristics were not associated with elevated BP. In all age groups, systolic and diastolic BP correlated with BMI and waist and hip measurements, but not with waist-hip ratio. The prevalence of elevated BP was 11.2% in eutrophic children, 20.6% in overweight children [odds ratio (OR), 1.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.61-2.45], and 39.7% in obese children (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 4.23-6.89). Conclusion: Obese and overweight children had a higher prevalence of elevated BP than normal-weight children. Our data confirm that the growing worldwide epidemic of excess weight and elevated BP in schoolchildren may also be ongoing in Brazil. PMID:25076178

  6. The Effect of Elevated Intra-Abdominal Pressure on TLR4 Signaling in Intestinal Mucosa and on Intestinal Bacterial Translocation in a Rat.

    PubMed

    Strier, Adam; Kravarusic, Dragan; Coran, Arnold G; Srugo, Isaac; Bitterman, Nir; Dorfman, Tatiana; Pollak, Yulia; Matter, Ibrahim; Sukhotnik, Igor

    2017-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) may adversely affect the intestinal barrier function. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) is responsible for the recognition of bacterial endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide and for initiation of the Gram-negative septic shock syndrome. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of elevated IAP on intestinal bacterial translocation (BT) and TLR-4 signaling in intestinal mucosa in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: sham animals (Sham) and IAP animals who were subjected to a 15 mmHg pressure pneumoperitoneum for 30 minutes. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours later. BT to mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, portal vein blood, and peripheral blood was determined at sacrifice. TLR4-related gene and protein expression (TLR-4; myeloid differentiation factor 88 [Myd88] and TNF-α receptor-associated factor 6 [TRAF6]) expression were determined using real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Thirty percent of sham rats developed BT in the mesenteric lymph nodes (level I) and 20% of control rats developed BT in the liver and portal vein (level II). abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) rats demonstrated an 80% BT in the lymph nodes (Level I) and 40% BT in the liver and portal vein (Level II). Elevated BT was accompanied by a significant increase in TLR-4 immunostaining in jejunum (51%) and ileum (35.9%), and in a number of TRAF6-positive cells in jejunum (2.1%) and ileum (24.01%) compared to control animals. ACS rats demonstrated a significant increase in TLR4 and MYD88 protein levels compared to control animals. Twenty-four hours after the induction of elevated IAP in a rat model, increased BT rates were associated with increased TLR4 signaling in intestinal mucosa.

  7. Mexican-American children have different elevation of metabolic biomarkers that is proportional to obesity status

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a health disparity for obesity among Mexican Americans compared with other racial/ethnic groups. In particular, Mexican American children who are obese are likely to become obese adults. The purpose of this study was to examine traditional and nontraditional risk factors in a subset of Mexi...

  8. Obese, Mexican-American children have elevated non-traditional metabolic risk factors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a health disparity for obesity amongst Mexican-Americans compared to other race/ethnic groups. In particular Mexican-American children who are obese are likely to become obese adults. The purpose of this study was to examine traditional and non-traditional risk factors in a subset of Mexica...

  9. Estrogen receptor protein content is different in abdominal than gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Kathleen M; Cooper, Elizabeth E; Hickner, Robert C

    2013-08-01

    Premenopausal women demonstrate a distinctive gynoid body fat distribution and circulating estrogen status is associated with the maintenance of this adiposity patterning. Estrogen's role in modulation of regional adiposity may occur through estrogen receptors (ERs), which are present in human adipose tissue. The purpose of this study was to determine regional differences in the protein content of ERα, ERβ, and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) between the abdominal (AB) and gluteal (GL) subcutaneous adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women. Biopsies of the subcutaneous AB and GL adipose tissue were performed in 15 premenopausal women (7 Caucasian/8 African American, 25.1 ± 1.8 years, BMI 29.5 ± 0.5kg/m(2)). Adipose tissue protein content was measured by western blot analysis and correlation analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between ER protein content and anthropometric indices/body composition measurements. We found that ERα protein was higher in AB than GL (AB 1.0 ± 0.2 vs GL 0.67 ± 0.1 arbitrary units [AU], P=0.02), ERβ protein was higher in GL than AB (AB 0.78 ± 0.12 vs GL 1.3 ± 0.2 AU, P=0.002), ERα/ERβ ratio was higher in AB than GL (AB 1.9 ± 0.4 vs GL 0.58 ± 0.08 AU, P=0.007), and GPER protein content was similar in AB and GL (P=0.80) subcutaneous adipose tissue. Waist-to-hip ratio was inversely related to gluteal ERβ (r(2)=0.315, P=0.03) and positively related to gluteal ERα/ERβ ratio (r(2)=0.406, P=0.01). These results indicate that depot specific ER content may be an important underlying determinant of regional effects of estrogen in upper and lower body adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of testosterone supplementation on whole body and regional fat mass and distribution in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Shalender; Parker, Robert A; Sattler, Fred; Haubrich, Richard; Alston, Beverly; Umbleja, Triin; Shikuma, Cecilia M

    2007-03-01

    Whole body and abdominal obesity are associated with increased risk of diabetes mellitus and heart disease. The effects of testosterone therapy on whole body and visceral fat mass in HIV-infected men with abdominal obesity are unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of testosterone therapy on intraabdominal fat mass and whole body fat distribution in HIV-infected men with abdominal obesity. IN this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, 88 HIV-positive men with abdominal obesity (waist-to-hip ratio > 0.95 or mid-waist circumference > 100 cm) and total testosterone 125-400 ng/dl, or bioavailable testosterone less than 115 ng/dl, or free testosterone less than 50 pg/ml on stable antiretroviral regimen, and HIV RNA less than 10,000 copies per milliliter were randomized to receive 10 g testosterone gel or placebo daily for 24 wk. Fat mass and distribution were determined by abdominal computerized tomography and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry during wk 0, 12, and 24. We used an intention-to-treat approach and nonparametric statistical methods. Baseline characteristics were balanced between groups. In 75 subjects evaluated, median percent change from baseline to wk 24 in visceral fat did not differ significantly between groups (testosterone 0.3%, placebo 3.1%, P = 0.75). Total (testosterone -1.5%, placebo 4.3%, P = 0.04) and sc (testosterone-7.2%, placebo 8.1%, P < 0.001) abdominal fat mass decreased in testosterone-treated men, but increased in placebo group. Testosterone therapy was associated with significant decrease in whole body, trunk, and appendicular fat mass by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (all P < 0.001), whereas whole body and trunk fat increased significantly in the placebo group. The percent of individuals reporting a decrease in abdomen (P = 0.01), neck (P = 0.08), and breast size (P = 0.01) at wk 24 was significantly greater in testosterone-treated than placebo-treated men. Testosterone-treated men

  11. Obese adolescents with polycystic ovarian syndrome have elevated cardiovascular disease risk markers

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sonali S; Truong, Uyen; King, Martina; Ferland, Annie; Moreau, Kerrie L; Dorosz, Jennifer; Hokanson, John E; Wang, Hong; Kinney, Gregory L; Maahs, David M; Eckel, Robert H; Nadeau, Kristen J; Cree-Green, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have evidence of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, insulin resistance, an important factor in the development of CVD in adults, is common in adolescents with PCOS, yet data in adolescents are limited. Therefore, we sought to measure insulin resistance and CVD markers in obese youth with and without PCOS. Thirty-six PCOS and 17 non-PCOS adolescent girls who were obese, sedentary, and non-hypertensive were recruited from clinics located within the Children's Hospital Colorado. Following 3 days of controlled diet and restricted exercise, fasting plasma samples were obtained prior to a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. PCOS girls were more insulin resistant than controls (glucose infusion rate 5.24±1.86 mg/kg/min vs 9.10±2.69; p<0.001). Girls with PCOS had blood pressure in the normal range, but had greater carotid intima–media thickness (cIMT) (0.49±0.07 mm vs 0.44±0.06; p=0.038), beta stiffness index (5.1±1.3 U vs 4.4±0.9; p=0.037), and reduced arterial compliance (1.95±0.47 mm2/mmHg × 10−1 vs 2.13±0.43; p=0.047). PCOS girls had a normal mean lipid profile, yet had a more atherogenic lipoprotein cholesterol distribution and had persistent elevations of free fatty acids despite hyperinsulinemia (68±28 μmol/mL vs 41±10; p=0.001), both potential contributors to CVD. Free fatty acid concentrations correlated best with all CVD markers. In summary, adolescent girls with PCOS have greater cIMT and stiffer arteries than girls without PCOS, perhaps related to altered lipid metabolism, even when clinical measures of blood pressure and cholesterol profiles are ‘normal’. Therefore, management of adolescent PCOS should include assessment of CVD risk factor development. PMID:28095749

  12. Obese adolescents with polycystic ovarian syndrome have elevated cardiovascular disease risk markers.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sonali S; Truong, Uyen; King, Martina; Ferland, Annie; Moreau, Kerrie L; Dorosz, Jennifer; Hokanson, John E; Wang, Hong; Kinney, Gregory L; Maahs, David M; Eckel, Robert H; Nadeau, Kristen J; Cree-Green, Melanie

    2017-04-01

    Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have evidence of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, insulin resistance, an important factor in the development of CVD in adults, is common in adolescents with PCOS, yet data in adolescents are limited. Therefore, we sought to measure insulin resistance and CVD markers in obese youth with and without PCOS. Thirty-six PCOS and 17 non-PCOS adolescent girls who were obese, sedentary, and non-hypertensive were recruited from clinics located within the Children's Hospital Colorado. Following 3 days of controlled diet and restricted exercise, fasting plasma samples were obtained prior to a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. PCOS girls were more insulin resistant than controls (glucose infusion rate 5.24±1.86 mg/kg/min vs 9.10±2.69; p<0.001). Girls with PCOS had blood pressure in the normal range, but had greater carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) (0.49±0.07 mm vs 0.44±0.06; p=0.038), beta stiffness index (5.1±1.3 U vs 4.4±0.9; p=0.037), and reduced arterial compliance (1.95±0.47 mm 2 /mmHg × 10 -1 vs 2.13±0.43; p=0.047). PCOS girls had a normal mean lipid profile, yet had a more atherogenic lipoprotein cholesterol distribution and had persistent elevations of free fatty acids despite hyperinsulinemia (68±28 μmol/mL vs 41±10; p=0.001), both potential contributors to CVD. Free fatty acid concentrations correlated best with all CVD markers. In summary, adolescent girls with PCOS have greater cIMT and stiffer arteries than girls without PCOS, perhaps related to altered lipid metabolism, even when clinical measures of blood pressure and cholesterol profiles are 'normal'. Therefore, management of adolescent PCOS should include assessment of CVD risk factor development.

  13. Hepatocyte growth factor is elevated in amniotic fluid from obese women and regulates placental glucose and fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Visiedo, F; Bugatto, F; Carrasco-Fernández, C; Sáez-Benito, A; Mateos, R M; Cózar-Castellano, I; Bartha, J L; Perdomo, G

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of the pro-inflammatory cytokine hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on the regulation of glucose and lipid placental metabolism. HGF levels were quantified in amniotic fluid and placenta from control and obese women. 2-deoxy-glucose (2-DOG) uptake, glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), fatty acid esterification, de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride levels and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities (CPT) were measured in placental explants upon addition of pathophysiological HGF levels. In obese women, total- and -activated-HGF levels in amniotic fluid were elevated ∼24%, and placental HGF levels were ∼3-fold higher than in control women. At a similar dose to that present in amniotic fluid of obese women, HGF (30 ng/mL) increased Glut-1 levels and 2-DOG uptake by ∼25-30% in placental explants. HGF-mediated effect on 2-DOG uptake was dependent on the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway. In addition, HGF decreased ∼20% FAO, whereas esterification and de novo fatty acid synthesis increased ∼15% and ∼25% respectively, leading to 2-fold triglyceride accumulation in placental explants. In parallel, HGF reduced CPT-I activity ∼70%. HGF is a cytokine elevated in amniotic fluid and placental tissue of obese women, which through its ability to stimulate 2-DOG uptake and metabolism impairs FAO and enhances esterification and de novo fatty acid synthesis, leading to accumulation of placental triglycerides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modified High-Sucrose Diet-Induced Abdominally Obese and Normal-Weight Rats Developed High Plasma Free Fatty Acid and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Li; Liu, Xuehui; Cao, Hongyi; Lv, Qingguo; Tong, Nanwei

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Metabolically obese but normal-weight (MONW) individuals have metabolic features of overt obesity, and abdominal adiposity is common in them. Animal models of MONW individuals are lacking. We aimed to develop an abdominally obese and normal-weight (AONW) rat model. Methods and Results. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow or a modified high-sucrose (HS) diet for 20 weeks. The HS diet induced increased visceral adipose tissue without increased body weight, reduced glucose disposal rates, and increased hepatic glucose output during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, increased plasma glucose during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, and increased plasma free fatty acids. Hepatic lipidosis and hepatocyte mitochondria swelling were found in HS rats through light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; similar impairments were not observed in muscle. RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α increased in muscle of HS rats, while expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A, glucose transporter type 4, and insulin receptor substrate-1 did not change significantly. Conclusion. AONW rats developed metabolic disorders seen in MONW individuals. Steatosis, mitochondrial morphologic changes, and insulin resistance were more serious in liver than in muscle. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial function changed in less impaired muscle. PMID:23320128

  15. Modified high-sucrose diet-induced abdominally obese and normal-weight rats developed high plasma free fatty acid and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Cao, Li; Liu, Xuehui; Cao, Hongyi; Lv, Qingguo; Tong, Nanwei

    2012-01-01

    Metabolically obese but normal-weight (MONW) individuals have metabolic features of overt obesity, and abdominal adiposity is common in them. Animal models of MONW individuals are lacking. We aimed to develop an abdominally obese and normal-weight (AONW) rat model. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow or a modified high-sucrose (HS) diet for 20 weeks. The HS diet induced increased visceral adipose tissue without increased body weight, reduced glucose disposal rates, and increased hepatic glucose output during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, increased plasma glucose during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, and increased plasma free fatty acids. Hepatic lipidosis and hepatocyte mitochondria swelling were found in HS rats through light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; similar impairments were not observed in muscle. RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α increased in muscle of HS rats, while expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A, glucose transporter type 4, and insulin receptor substrate-1 did not change significantly. AONW rats developed metabolic disorders seen in MONW individuals. Steatosis, mitochondrial morphologic changes, and insulin resistance were more serious in liver than in muscle. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial function changed in less impaired muscle.

  16. β-Cell lipotoxicity after an overnight intravenous lipid challenge and free fatty acid elevation in African American versus American white overweight/obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hughan, Kara S; Bonadonna, Riccardo C; Lee, SoJung; Michaliszyn, Sara F; Arslanian, Silva A

    2013-05-01

    Overweight/obese (OW/OB) African American (AA) adolescents have a more diabetogenic insulin secretion/sensitivity pattern compared with their American white (AW) peers. The present study investigated β-cell lipotoxicity to test whether increased free fatty acid (FFA) levels result in greater β-cell dysfunction in AA vs AW OW/OB adolescents. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was modeled, from glucose and C-peptide concentrations during a 2-hour hyperglycemic (225 mg/dL) clamp in 22 AA and 24 AW OW/OB adolescents, on 2 occasions after a 12-hour overnight infusion of either normal saline or intralipid (IL) in a random sequence. β-Cell function relative to insulin sensitivity, the disposition index (DI), was examined during normal saline and IL conditions. Substrate oxidation was evaluated with indirect calorimetry and body composition and abdominal adiposity with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging at L4-L5, respectively. Age, sex, body mass index, total and sc adiposity were similar between racial groups, but visceral adiposity was significantly lower in AAs. During IL infusion, FFAs and fat oxidation increased and insulin sensitivity decreased similarly in AAs and AWs. β-Cell glucose sensitivity of first- and second-phase insulin secretion did not change significantly during IL infusion in either group, but DI in each phase decreased significantly and similarly in AAs and AWs. Overweight/obese AA and AW adolescents respond to an overnight fat infusion with significant declines in insulin sensitivity, DI, and β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity, suggestive of β-cell lipotoxicity. However, contrary to our hypothesis, there does not seem to be a race differential in β-cell lipotoxicity. Longer durations of FFA elevation may unravel such race-related contrasts.

  17. β-Cell Lipotoxicity After an Overnight Intravenous Lipid Challenge and Free Fatty Acid Elevation in African American Versus American White Overweight/Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hughan, Kara S.; Bonadonna, Riccardo C.; Lee, SoJung; Michaliszyn, Sara F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Overweight/obese (OW/OB) African American (AA) adolescents have a more diabetogenic insulin secretion/sensitivity pattern compared with their American white (AW) peers. The present study investigated β-cell lipotoxicity to test whether increased free fatty acid (FFA) levels result in greater β-cell dysfunction in AA vs AW OW/OB adolescents. Research Design and Methods: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was modeled, from glucose and C-peptide concentrations during a 2-hour hyperglycemic (225 mg/dL) clamp in 22 AA and 24 AW OW/OB adolescents, on 2 occasions after a 12-hour overnight infusion of either normal saline or intralipid (IL) in a random sequence. β-Cell function relative to insulin sensitivity, the disposition index (DI), was examined during normal saline and IL conditions. Substrate oxidation was evaluated with indirect calorimetry and body composition and abdominal adiposity with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging at L4-L5, respectively. Results: Age, sex, body mass index, total and sc adiposity were similar between racial groups, but visceral adiposity was significantly lower in AAs. During IL infusion, FFAs and fat oxidation increased and insulin sensitivity decreased similarly in AAs and AWs. β-Cell glucose sensitivity of first- and second-phase insulin secretion did not change significantly during IL infusion in either group, but DI in each phase decreased significantly and similarly in AAs and AWs. Conclusions: Overweight/obese AA and AW adolescents respond to an overnight fat infusion with significant declines in insulin sensitivity, DI, and β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity, suggestive of β-cell lipotoxicity. However, contrary to our hypothesis, there does not seem to be a race differential in β-cell lipotoxicity. Longer durations of FFA elevation may unravel such race-related contrasts. PMID:23526462

  18. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifeng; Tong, Tom K; Qiu, Weifeng; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Shi; Liu, Yang; He, Yuxiu

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session) high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Forty-three participants received either HIIT ( n = 15), MICT ( n = 15), or no training (CON, n = 13) for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA) and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA) of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (-9.1, -9.2 cm 2 ), ASFA (-35, -28.3 cm 2 ), and combined AVFA and ASFA (-44.7, -37.5 cm 2 , p > 0.05) were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (-2.5%, -2.4%), total fat mass (-2.8, -2.8 kg), and fat mass of the android (-0.3, -0.3 kg), gynoid (-0.5, -0.7 kg), and trunk (-1.6, -1.2 kg, p > 0.05) regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency.

  19. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haifeng; Tong, Tom K.; Qiu, Weifeng; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Shi

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session) high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n = 15), MICT (n = 15), or no training (CON, n = 13) for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA) and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA) of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2), ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2), and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p > 0.05) were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%), total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg), and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg), gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg), and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p > 0.05) regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency. PMID:28116314

  20. Predictors of initial weight loss among women with abdominal obesity: a path model using self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviour.

    PubMed

    Choo, Jina; Kang, Hyuncheol

    2015-05-01

    To identify predictors of initial weight loss among women with abdominal obesity by using a path model. Successful weight loss in the initial stages of long-term weight management may promote weight loss maintenance. A longitudinal study design. Study participants were 75 women with abdominal obesity, who were enrolled in a 12-month Community-based Heart and Weight Management Trial and followed until a 6-month assessment. The Weight Efficacy Lifestyle, Exercise Self-Efficacy and Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II measured diet self-efficacy, exercise self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviour respectively. All endogenous and exogenous variables used in our path model were change variables from baseline to 6 months. Data were collected between May 2011-May 2012. Based on the path model, increases in both diet and exercise self-efficacy had significant effects on increases in health-promoting behaviour. Increases in diet self-efficacy had a significant indirect effect on initial weight loss via increases in health-promoting behaviour. Increases in health-promoting behaviour had a significant effect on initial weight loss. Among women with abdominal obesity, increased diet self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviour were predictors of initial weight loss. A mechanism by which increased diet self-efficacy predicts initial weight loss may be partially attributable to health-promoting behavioural change. However, more work is still needed to verify causality. Based on the current findings, intensive nursing strategies for increasing self-efficacy for weight control and health-promoting behaviour may be essential components for better weight loss in the initial stage of a weight management intervention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Quantification of Abdominal Fat in Obese and Healthy Adolescents Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Free Software for Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Eloi, Juliana Cristina; Epifanio, Matias; de Gonçalves, Marília Maia; Pellicioli, Augusto; Vieira, Patricia Froelich Giora; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Bruscato, Neide; Soder, Ricardo Bernardi; Santana, João Carlos Batista; Mouzaki, Marialena; Baldisserotto, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Computed tomography, which uses ionizing radiation and expensive software packages for analysis of scans, can be used to quantify abdominal fat. The objective of this study is to measure abdominal fat with 3T MRI using free software for image analysis and to correlate these findings with anthropometric and laboratory parameters in adolescents. This prospective observational study included 24 overweight/obese and 33 healthy adolescents (mean age 16.55 years). All participants underwent abdominal MRI exams. Visceral and subcutaneous fat area and percentage were correlated with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and insulin resistance. Student's t test and Mann-Whitney's test was applied. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare proportions. To determine associations Pearson's linear correlation or Spearman's correlation were used. In both groups, waist circumference (WC) was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001 and P = 0.01 respectively), and triglycerides were associated with fat percentage (P = 0.046 and P = 0.071 respectively). In obese individuals, total cholesterol/HDL ratio was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.03) and percentage (P = 0.09), and insulin and HOMA-IR were associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001) and percentage (P = 0.005). 3T MRI can provide reliable and good quality images for quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat by using a free software package. The results demonstrate that WC is a good predictor of visceral fat in obese adolescents and visceral fat area is associated with total cholesterol/HDL ratio, insulin and HOMA-IR.

  2. The severity of nocturnal hypoxia but not abdominal adiposity is associated with insulin resistance in non-obese men with sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Monneret, Denis; Tamisier, Renaud; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Faure, Patrice; Levy, Patrick; Halimi, Serge; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Beyond obesity, sleep apnea syndrome is frequently associated with excess abdominal adiposity that could contribute to the deteriorated cardiometabolic risk profile of apneic patients. The present study addressed the respective contribution of the severity of sleep apnea syndrome and excess abdominal adiposity to the cardiometabolic risk profile of 38 non obese men with polysomnography-diagnosed sleep apnea syndrome (apnea-hypopnea index >15 events/hour). These otherwise healthy men performed a 75g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with plasma lipid/inflammatory and redox profiles. Twenty-one apneic men with high-waist circumference (>94 cm) were compared to 17 apneic men with low-waist circumference. Apneic men with high-waist circumference had higher AUC glucose and AUC insulin than apneic men with low-waist circumference. Accordingly, apneic men with high-waist circumference had higher hepatic insulin resistance as reflected by higher HOMA-resistance index, and lower global insulin sensitivity as reflected by lower insulin sensitivity index of Matsuda (derived from OGTT). The sleep structure and the apnea-hypopnea index were not different between the two groups. However, apneic men with high-waist circumference presented with lower mean nocturnal oxyhemoglobin (SpO2). In the 38 men, waist circumference and mean nocturnal SpO2 were inversely correlated (r = -0.43, p = 0.011) and were both associated with plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis indices: the higher the waist circumference, the lower the mean nocturnal SpO2, the lower the insulin-sensitivity. Finally, in multivariable regression model, mean nocturnal SpO2 and not waist circumference was associated with insulin-resistance. Thus, excess abdominal adiposity in non obese apneic men was associated with a deteriorated insulin-sensitivity that could be driven by a more severe nocturnal hypoxemia.

  3. The Severity of Nocturnal Hypoxia but Not Abdominal Adiposity Is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Non-Obese Men with Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Monneret, Denis; Tamisier, Renaud; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Faure, Patrice; Levy, Patrick; Halimi, Serge; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Background Beyond obesity, sleep apnea syndrome is frequently associated with excess abdominal adiposity that could contribute to the deteriorated cardiometabolic risk profile of apneic patients. Methods The present study addressed the respective contribution of the severity of sleep apnea syndrome and excess abdominal adiposity to the cardiometabolic risk profile of 38 non obese men with polysomnography-diagnosed sleep apnea syndrome (apnea-hypopnea index >15 events/hour). These otherwise healthy men performed a 75g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with plasma lipid/inflammatory and redox profiles. Twenty-one apneic men with high-waist circumference (>94 cm) were compared to 17 apneic men with low-waist circumference. Results Apneic men with high-waist circumference had higher AUC glucose and AUC insulin than apneic men with low-waist circumference. Accordingly, apneic men with high-waist circumference had higher hepatic insulin resistance as reflected by higher HOMA-resistance index, and lower global insulin sensitivity as reflected by lower insulin sensitivity index of Matsuda (derived from OGTT). The sleep structure and the apnea-hypopnea index were not different between the two groups. However, apneic men with high-waist circumference presented with lower mean nocturnal oxyhemoglobin (SpO2). In the 38 men, waist circumference and mean nocturnal SpO2 were inversely correlated (r = −0.43, p = 0.011) and were both associated with plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis indices: the higher the waist circumference, the lower the mean nocturnal SpO2, the lower the insulin-sensitivity. Finally, in multivariable regression model, mean nocturnal SpO2 and not waist circumference was associated with insulin-resistance. Conclusion Thus, excess abdominal adiposity in non obese apneic men was associated with a deteriorated insulin-sensitivity that could be driven by a more severe nocturnal hypoxemia. PMID:23951064

  4. Associations between meal and snack frequency and overweight and abdominal obesity in US children and adolescents from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-05-28

    The association between eating frequency (EF) and adiposity in young populations is inconsistent. This cross-sectional study examined associations of EF, meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with adiposity measures in US children aged 6-11 years (n 4346) and adolescents aged 12-19 years (n 6338) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Using data from two 24-h dietary recalls, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 or <15 %), self-report and time (06.00-09.00, 12.00-14.00 and 17.00-20.00 hours or others). When analysed without adjustment for the ratio of reported energy intake:estimated energy requirement (EI:EER), all measures of EF, MF and SF showed inverse or null associations with overweight (BMI≥85th percentile of BMI-for-age) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference≥90th percentile) in both children and adolescents. After adjustment for EI:EER, however, EF and SF, but not MF, showed positive associations in children, irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks. In adolescents, after adjustment for EI:EER, positive associations were observed for EF (abdominal obesity only), SF based on energy contribution and MF based on self-report, whereas there was an inverse association between MF based on energy contribution and overweight. In conclusion, higher SF and EF, but not MF, were associated with higher risks of overweight and abdominal obesity in children, whereas associations varied in adolescents, depending on the definition of meals and snacks. Prospective studies are needed to establish the associations observed here.

  5. Lifetime cigarette smoking is associated with abdominal obesity in a community-based sample of Japanese men: The Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (SESSA).

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Azuma, Koichiro; Tanaka, Sachiko; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Arima, Hisatomi; Kadota, Aya; Miyagawa, Naoko; Takashima, Naoyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Saitoh, Yoshino; Torii, Sayuki; Miyazawa, Itsuko; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2016-12-01

    Studies from Western countries suggest that smokers tend to display greater abdominal obesity than non-smokers, despite showing lower weight. Whether this holds true in a leaner population requires clarification. Using indices of abdominal obesity including visceral adipose tissue, we examined whether lifetime cigarette smoking is associated with unfavorable fat distribution among Japanese men. From 2006 to 2008, we conducted a cross-sectional investigation of a community-based sample of Japanese men at 40-64 years old, free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Areas of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were calculated using computed tomography. We divided participants into four groups: never-smokers; and tertiles of pack-years of smoking among ever-smokers. Using multivariable linear regression, we calculated adjusted means of obesity indices (VAT, SAT, VAT-SAT ratio [VSR], and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) for each group, and mean differences between consecutive groups. We analyzed 513 men (median age, 58.2 years; current smokers, 40.1%). Two-thirds showed body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m(2) (median, 23.5 kg/m(2)). Overall, greater lifetime smoking group was associated with greater WHR and VSR. On average, one higher smoking group was associated with 0.005 higher WHR (95% CI, 0.001-0.008; P = 0.005) and 0.041 greater VSR (95% CI, 0.009-0.073; P = 0.012) after adjustment for potential confounders, including BMI. In this sample of relatively lean Japanese men, greater lifetime smoking was associated with a metabolically more adverse fat distribution. Although smoking is commonly associated with lower BMI, minimizing the amount of lifetime smoking should be advocated.

  6. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clearinghouse What are abdominal adhesions? Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ... Esophagus Stomach Large intestine Adhesion Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ...

  7. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Recurrent or Functional Abdominal Pain (RAP or FAP) What is abdominal pain? Abdominal pain , or stomachache, ... recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) or functional abdominal pain (FAP)? If your health care provider has ruled out ...

  8. Whey and Casein Proteins and Medium-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids from Milk Do Not Increase Low-Grade Inflammation in Abdominally Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Mette; Bjørnshave, Ann; Gregersen, Søren; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation is involved in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammation can be modulated by dietary factors. Dairy products are rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA), which are known to possess pro-inflammatory properties. However, different fatty acid compositions may exert different effects. Other components such as milk proteins may exert anti-inflammatory properties which may compensate for the potential negative effects of SFAs. Generally, the available data suggest a neutral role of dairy product consumption on inflammation. To investigate the effects of, and potential interaction between, a dietary supplementation with whey protein and milk fat, naturally enriched in medium-chain SFA (MC-SFA), on inflammatory markers in abdominal obese adults. The study was a 12-week, randomized, double-blinded, intervention study. Sixty-three adults were equally allocated to one of four groups which received a supplement of either 60 g/day whey or 60 g/day casein plus 63 g/day milk fat either high or low in MC-SFA content. Fifty-two subjects completed the study. Before and after the intervention, changes in plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), adiponectin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured. Changes in inflammatory genes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue were also documented. There were no differences in circulating inflammatory markers between protein types or fatty acid compositions in abdominally obese subjects, with the exception of an increase in adiponectin in response to high compared to low MC-SFA consumption in women. We found that combined dairy proteins and MC-SFAs influenced inflammatory gene expression in adipose tissue, while no effect was detected by dairy proteins or MC-SFA per se. Whey protein compared with casein and MC-SFA-enriched milk fat did not alter circulating markers of low-grade inflammation in

  9. Short stature, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and alterations in lipid profile in very low-income women living in Maceió, north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Florêncio, Telma T; Ferreira, Haroldo S; Cavalcante, Jairo C; Stux, Gabriela R; Sawaya, Ana L

    2007-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that short stature is associated with abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and lipid profile changes. Anthropometric data were collected from 237 women (18-60 years old), residents of a shantytown in Maceió. Biochemical profiles of 60 individuals drawn from this population were determined. Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and insulin resistance rose with increasing waist : hip circumference ratio, particularly in women. Short, overweight individuals exhibited larger biochemical alterations than overweight individuals of average stature. Short stature, when associated with overweight, is a risk factor for increased insulin resistance and alterations in lipid profile.

  10. Effect of exercise intensity on abdominal fat loss during calorie restriction in overweight and obese postmenopausal women: a randomized, controlled trial1234

    PubMed Central

    Nicklas, Barbara J; Wang, Xuewen; You, Tongjian; Lyles, Mary F; Demons, Jamehl; Easter, Linda; Berry, Michael J; Lenchik, Leon; Carr, J Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Background: Exercise intensity may affect the selective loss of abdominal adipose tissue. Objective: This study showed whether aerobic exercise intensity affects the loss of abdominal fat and improvement in cardiovascular disease risk factors under conditions of equal energy deficit in women with abdominal obesity. Design: This was a randomized trial in 112 overweight and obese [body mass index (in kg/m2): 25–40; waist circumference >88 cm], postmenopausal women assigned to one of three 20-wk interventions of equal energy deficit: calorie restriction (CR only), CR plus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (CR + moderate-intensity), or CR plus vigorous-intensity exercise (CR + vigorous-intensity). The diet was a controlled program of underfeeding during which meals were provided at individual calorie levels (≈400 kcal/d). Exercise (3 d/wk) involved treadmill walking at an intensity of 45–50% (moderate-intensity) or 70–75% (vigorous-intensity) of heart rate reserve. The primary outcome was abdominal visceral fat volume. Results: Average weight loss for the 95 women who completed the study was 12.1 kg (±4.5 kg) and was not significantly different across groups. Maximal oxygen uptake (O2max) increased more in the CR + vigorous-intensity group than in either of the other groups (P < 0.05). The CR-only group lost relatively more lean mass than did either exercise group (P < 0.05). All groups showed similar decreases in abdominal visceral fat (≈25%; P < 0.001 for all). However, changes in visceral fat were inversely related to increases in O2max (P < 0.01). Changes in lipids, fasting glucose or insulin, and 2-h glucose and insulin areas during the oral-glucose-tolerance test were similar across treatment groups. Conclusion: With a similar amount of total weight loss, lean mass is preserved, but there is not a preferential loss of abdominal fat when either moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise is performed during caloric restriction. This trial was

  11. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Fenxia; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Chu, Chao; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dan; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Wang, Jun-Kui; Guan, Gong-Chang; Ren, Ke-Yu; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years) were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl), then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day). The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA). High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL) than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL). The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p < 0.01). A positive correlation between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and fasting ghrelin levels was demonstrated. Our data indicate that a high-salt diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity. PMID:27240398

  12. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Fenxia; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Chu, Chao; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dan; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Wang, Jun-Kui; Guan, Gong-Chang; Ren, Ke-Yu; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-05-26

    Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years) were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl), then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day). The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA). High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL) than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL). The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p < 0.01). A positive correlation between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and fasting ghrelin levels was demonstrated. Our data indicate that a high-salt diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity.

  13. Partly replacing meat protein with soy protein alters insulin resistance and blood lipids in postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    van Nielen, Monique; Feskens, Edith J M; Rietman, Annemarie; Siebelink, Els; Mensink, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Increasing protein intake and soy consumption appear to be promising approaches to prevent metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the effect of soy consumption on insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, and other characteristics of MetS is not frequently studied in humans. We aimed to investigate the effects of a 4-wk, strictly controlled, weight-maintaining, moderately high-protein diet rich in soy on insulin sensitivity and other cardiometabolic risk factors. We performed a randomized crossover trial of 2 4-wk diet periods in 15 postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity to test diets with 22 energy percent (En%) protein, 27 En% fat, and 50 En% carbohydrate. One diet contained protein of mixed origin (mainly meat, dairy, and bread), and the other diet partly replaced meat with soy meat analogues and soy nuts containing 30 g/d soy protein. For our primary outcome, a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) was performed at the end of both periods. Plasma total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein were assessed, and blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and intrahepatic lipid content were measured at the start and end of both periods. Compared with the mixed-protein diet, the soy-protein diet resulted in greater insulin sensitivity [FSIGT: insulin sensitivity, 34 ± 29 vs. 22 ± 17 (mU/L)(-1) · min(-1), P = 0.048; disposition index, 4974 ± 2543 vs. 2899 ± 1878, P = 0.038; n = 11]. Total cholesterol was 4% lower after the soy-protein diet than after the mixed-protein diet (4.9 ± 0.7 vs. 5.1 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P = 0.001), and LDL cholesterol was 9% lower (2.9 ± 0.7 vs. 3.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P = 0.004; n = 15). Thus, partly replacing meat with soy in a moderately high-protein diet has clear advantages regarding insulin sensitivity and total and LDL cholesterol. Therefore, partly replacing meat products with soy products could be important in preventing MetS. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  14. Cut off values for abdominal obesity as a criterion of metabolic syndrome in an ethnic Kyrgyz population (Central Asian region).

    PubMed

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E; Lunegova, Olga S; Kerimkulova, Alina S; Moldokeeva, Cholpon B; Nabiev, Malik P; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M

    2012-02-22

    People of different racial and ethnic backgrounds have a distinct pattern of central fat deposition, thus making it necessary to devise a race based approach for the diagnosis and evaluation of abdominal obesity (AO). This is the first study to determine the optimal waist circumference (WC) cutoff values for definition of AO in an ethnic Kyrgyz population. 323 persons of Kyrgyz ethnicity (183 women and 140 men), with a mean age of 51.8 ± 9.5 years old were included in the study. Measurement of blood pressure (BP), anthropometric data (including body mass index calculation and WC measurement), fasting blood sugar, serum lipid parameters and insulin were performed in all examined individuals. Insulin resistance (IR) was considered as HOMA index (insulin × fasting glucose/22.5) ≥ 2.77. Sensitivity and specificity for the presence of IR or two other criteria of MS (according to the international classification, 2009) were calculated by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for men and women separately. The optimal sensitivity and specificity obtained from the ROC curves for IR were 88 cm in women (sensitivity of 0.85, 95%CI (0.72-0.93), specificity of 0.58, 95%CI (0.49-0.66)) and 94 cm for men (sensitivity of 0.8, 95% CI (0.65-0.91), specificity of 0.61, 95% CI (0.51-0.71)). The data from the ROC curve for any two other MS criteria confirmed the results and the WC 88 cm in women (sensitivity of 0.82, 95% CI (0.72-0.9), specificity of 0.72, 95% CI (0.62-0.8)) and 94 cm in men (sensitivity of 0.74, 95% CI (0.62-0.84), specificity of 0.73, 95% CI (0.61-0.83)) were corresponded to the optimal sensitivity and specificity. WC ≥ 88 cm and ≥ 94 cm should be used as a criterion for the diagnosis of AO for Kyrgyz women and men respectively based on these results.

  15. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is associated with decreased abdominal visceral adipose tissue in overweight and obese adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Jennifer L; Castro, Victor M; Moore, Carolyn E; Kaplan, Lee M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that calcium and vitamin D (CaD) may play a role in the regulation of abdominal fat mass. Objective: This study investigated the effect of CaD-supplemented orange juice (OJ) on weight loss and reduction of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in overweight and obese adults (mean ± SD age: 40.0 ± 12.9 y). Design: Two parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were conducted with either regular or reduced-energy (lite) orange juice. For each 16-wk trial, 171 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. The treatment groups consumed three 240-mL glasses of OJ (regular or lite) fortified with 350 mg Ca and 100 IU vitamin D per serving, and the control groups consumed either unfortified regular or lite OJ. Computed tomography scans of VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue were performed by imaging a single cut at the lumbar 4 level. Results: After 16 wk, the average weight loss (∼2.45 kg) did not differ significantly between groups. In the regular OJ trial, the reduction of VAT was significantly greater (P = 0.024) in the CaD group (−12.7 ± 25.0 cm2) than in the control group (−1.3 ± 13.6 cm2). In the lite OJ trial, the reduction of VAT was significantly greater (P = 0.039) in the CaD group (−13.1 ± 18.4 cm2) than in the control group (−6.4 ± 17.5 cm2) after control for baseline VAT. The effect of calcium and vitamin D on VAT remained highly significant when the results of the 2 trials were combined (P = 0.007). Conclusions: The findings suggest that calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation contributes to a beneficial reduction of VAT. This trial is registered at clinicaltrial.gov as NCT00386672, NCT01363115. PMID:22170363

  16. PCOS is associated with increased CD11c expression and crown-like structures in adipose tissue and increased central abdominal fat depots independent of obesity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi Hua; Manickam, Buvana; Ryvkin, Victoria; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Mazzone, Theodore; Sam, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration is a major pathway for obesity-induced insulin resistance but has not been studied as a mechanism for insulin resistance in PCOS. We tested whether polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased ATM infiltration, especially of inflammatory subtype identified by the CD11c marker. We conducted a case-control study at an academic medical center in the United States. Fourteen PCOS and 14 control women of similar age and body mass index (BMI) underwent a gluteal fat biopsy. Markers of ATM, integrins, TNF-α, and adiponectin, were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR using a standard curve method. Crown-like structures (CLS) were identified by immunohistochemistry. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging and frequently sampled i.v. glucose tolerance test were performed to assess abdominal fat and insulin sensitivity (SI). Women with PCOS were compared with control women of similar age and BMI for ATM markers, CLS density, adipose tissue expression of inflammatory cytokines and adiponectin, SI, and abdominal fat depots. Women with PCOS had an increase in CD11c expression (P = 0.03), CLS density (P = 0.001), α5 expression (P = 0.009), borderline increase in TNF-α expression (P = 0.08), and a decrease in adiponectin expression (P = 0.02) in gluteal adipose tissue. Visceral (P = 0.009) and sc abdominal fat (P = 0.005) were increased in PCOS. SI was lower in PCOS (P = 0.008). PCOS is associated with an increase in CD11c expression and CLS density and a decrease in adiponectin expression in sc adipose tissue. Additionally, PCOS is associated with higher central abdominal fat depots independent of BMI. These alterations are present among mostly nonobese women and could represent mechanisms for insulin resistance.

  17. Ability of self-reported estimates of dietary sodium, potassium and protein to detect an association with general and abdominal obesity: comparison with the estimates derived from 24 h urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-28

    As under-reporting of dietary intake, particularly by overweight and obese subjects, is common in dietary surveys, biases inherent in the use of self-reported dietary information may distort true diet-obesity relationships or even create spurious ones. However, empirical evidence of this possibility is limited. The present cross-sectional study compared the relationships of 24 h urine-derived and self-reported intakes of Na, K and protein with obesity. A total of 1043 Japanese women aged 18-22 years completed a 24 h urine collection and a self-administered diet history questionnaire. After adjustment for potential confounders, 24 h urine-derived Na intake was associated with a higher risk of general obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference≥80 cm; both P for trend=0·04). For 24 h urine-derived protein intake, positive associations with general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·02 and 0·053, respectively). For 24 h urine-derived K intake, there was an inverse association with abdominal obesity (P for trend=0·01). Conversely, when self-reported dietary information was used, only inverse associations between K intake and general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·04 and 0·02, respectively), with no associations of Na or protein intake. In conclusion, we found positive associations of Na and protein intakes and inverse associations of K intake with obesity when using 24 h urinary excretion for estimating dietary intakes. However, no association was observed based on using self-reported dietary intakes, except for inverse association of K intake, suggesting that the ability of self-reported dietary information using the diet history questionnaire for investigating diet-obesity relationships is limited.

  18. Association of 25-hydroxy Vitamin D levels with indexes of general and abdominal obesity in Iranian adolescents: The CASPIAN-III study

    PubMed Central

    Jari, Mohsen; Qorbani, Mostafa; Moafi, Mohammad; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Keikha, Mojtaba; Ardalan, Gelayol; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the association of serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels with measures of general and abdominal obesity in Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: This nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted among 1090 students, aged 10-18 years, living in 27 provinces in Iran. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D was analyzed quantitatively by direct competitive immunoassay chemiluminescence method. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were considered as measures of generalized and abdominal obesity, respectively. Results: Study participants consisted of 1090 adolescents (51.9% boy and 67.1% urban residents) with mean age, BMI, and waist circumference of 14.7 (2.6) years, 19.3 (4.2) kg/m2, and 67.82 (12.23) cm, respectively. The median serum 25(OH)D was 13.0 ng/mL (interquartile range: 20.6). Overall, 40% of participants were Vitamin D deficient, and 39% were Vitamin D insufficient. Serum 25(OH)D level was not associated with BMI and WHtR. Conclusion: We did not document any significant association between serum 25(OH)D level and anthropometric measures in adolescents. This finding may be because of considerably high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in the study population. PMID:25983762

  19. Association of 25-hydroxy Vitamin D levels with indexes of general and abdominal obesity in Iranian adolescents: The CASPIAN-III study.

    PubMed

    Jari, Mohsen; Qorbani, Mostafa; Moafi, Mohammad; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Keikha, Mojtaba; Ardalan, Gelayol; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the association of serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels with measures of general and abdominal obesity in Iranian adolescents. This nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted among 1090 students, aged 10-18 years, living in 27 provinces in Iran. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D was analyzed quantitatively by direct competitive immunoassay chemiluminescence method. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were considered as measures of generalized and abdominal obesity, respectively. Study participants consisted of 1090 adolescents (51.9% boy and 67.1% urban residents) with mean age, BMI, and waist circumference of 14.7 (2.6) years, 19.3 (4.2) kg/m(2), and 67.82 (12.23) cm, respectively. The median serum 25(OH)D was 13.0 ng/mL (interquartile range: 20.6). Overall, 40% of participants were Vitamin D deficient, and 39% were Vitamin D insufficient. Serum 25(OH)D level was not associated with BMI and WHtR. We did not document any significant association between serum 25(OH)D level and anthropometric measures in adolescents. This finding may be because of considerably high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in the study population.

  20. Cortisol production rate is similarly elevated in obese women with or without the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M; Pijl, Hanno

    2010-07-01

    The pituitary-adrenal axis in obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is marked by increased urinary excretion of cortisol and its metabolites. It is not as yet clear whether the increased cortisol production in PCOS is related to obesity per se. We investigated 15 obese PCOS women with a body mass index of 30-54 kg/m(2) and 15 healthy obese controls (body mass index 31-60 kg/m(2)) with a regular menstrual cycle. Patients and control women underwent 24-h blood sampling at 20-min intervals. Cortisol concentrations were measured with a sensitive assay. Data were analyzed with a new deconvolution program, approximate entropy, and cosinor regression. Basal, pulsatile, and total cortisol production expressed per liter distribution volume, per square meter body surface, and as absolute amount per 24 h was similar in PCOS patients and matched healthy control women. In addition, the regularity of cortisol secretion and the diurnal properties were identical. Compared with 10 lean control women, mean cortisol production per liter distribution volume was similar in the three groups, but the total 24-h cortisol production was increased in obese control women and PCOS women. This study demonstrates equally increased cortisol production in PCOS women and obese healthy control women.

  1. The feasibility and effectiveness of high-intensity boxing training versus moderate-intensity brisk walking in adults with abdominal obesity: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Birinder S; Davies, Timothy B; Stewart, Matthew; Papalia, Shona; Atlantis, Evan

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed on exercise cycle or treadmill is considered safe and often more beneficial for fat loss and cardiometabolic health than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a 12-week boxing training (HIIT) intervention compared with an equivalent dose of brisk walking (MICT) in obese adults. Men and women with abdominal obesity and body mass index >25 kg/m(2) were randomized to either a boxing group or a brisk walking (control) group for 12 weeks. Each group engaged in 4 training sessions per week, equated for total physical activity. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment rates, assessment of training intensities, adherence and adverse events. Effectiveness was assessed pre and post intervention via pertinent obesity-, cardiovascular-, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes. Nineteen individuals expressed an interest and 63% (n = 12) consented. Recruitment was slower than anticipated (1.3 participants/week). The boxing group trained at a significantly higher intensity each week versus the brisk walking group (p < 0.05). Two participants in the boxing group experienced an adverse event; both continued to exercise with modifications to the exercise program. No other adverse events were noted. The boxing group attended more sessions (79% vs. 55%) and had a lower attrition rate (n = 0 vs. n = 2) than the walking group. Analysis of covariance revealed that the boxing group significantly improved body fat percentage (p = 0.047), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.026), augmentation index (AIx; p < 0.001), absolute VO2max (p = 0.015), and Physical Functioning (p = 0.042) and Vitality (p = 0.024) domains of HRQoL over time. The walking group did not improve any clinical outcomes, and experienced a worsening of Vitality (p = 0.043). Boxing training (HIIT) in adults with abdominal obesity is

  2. Overweight and Abdominal Obesity Association with All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in the Elderly Aged 80 and Over: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    David, C N; Mello, R B; Bruscato, N M; Moriguchi, E H

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the association between overweight and abdominal obesity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the elderly aged 80 and over. A prospective cohort study. A population-based study of community-dwelling very elderly adults in a city in southern Brazil. 236 very elderly adults, number that represents 85% of the population aged 80 and over living in the city in the period (mean age 83.4 ± 3.2). Overweight and abdominal obesity were assessed using recommended cut-off points for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR). The association between these anthropometric measurements and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were independently estimated by Cox proportional hazards model. Kaplan-Meier was used to assess survival time. Increased WC (>80cm F and >94cm M) and WHtR (>0.53 F and >0.52 M) were associated with lower all-cause mortality, but only WHtR remained associated even after controlling for residual confounding (HR 0.55 CI95% 0.36-0.84; p<0.001). Additionally increased WC was independently associated with lower mortality from cardiovascular diseases (HR 0.57 CI95% 0.34-0.95; p<0.030). BMI and WHR did not show significant independent association with mortality in the main analysis. Greater abdominal fat accumulation, as estimated by WC and WHtR, presented an association with lower allcause and cardiovascular mortality in the elderly aged 80 and over, but not by BMI and WHR.

  3. SU-F-J-159: Influence of the Elevated Posterior Position by Using the Customized Vacuum-Bag On the Abdominal MR Image Quality: A Quantitative Phantom Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, O; Yuan, J; Law, M

    Purpose: Signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) of MR abdominal imaging in diagnostic radiology is maximized by minimizing the coil-to-patient distance. However, for radiotherapy applications, customized vacuum-bag is needed for abdominal immobilization at the cost of the increasing distance to the posterior spine coil. This sub-optimized coil setting for RT applications may compromise image quality, such as SNR and homogeneity, thus potentially affect tissue delineation. In this study, we quantitatively evaluate the effect of the vertical position change on SNR and image quality change using an ACR MR phantom. Methods: An ACR MR phantom was placed on the flat couch top. Images were acquiredmore » using an 18-channel body array coil and spine coil on a dedicated 1.5T MR-simulator. The scan was repeated three times with the ACR phantom elevated up to 7.5cm from the couch top, with a step size of 2.5cm. All images were acquired using standard ACR test sequence protocol of 2D spin-echo T1-weighted(TR/TE=500/200ms) and T2-weighted(TR/TE1/TE2=2000/20/80) sequences. For all scans, pre-scan normalization was turned on, and the distance between the phantom and the anterior 18-channel body array coil was kept constant. SNR was calculated using the slice with a large water-only region of the phantom. Percent intensity uniformity(PIU) and low contrast object detectability(LCD) were assessed by following ACR test guidelines. Results: The decrease in image SNR(from 335.8 to 169.3) and LCD(T1: from 31 to 19 spokes, T2: 26 to 16 spokes) were observed with increasing vertical distance. After elevating the phantom by 2.5cm(approximately the thickness of standard vacuum-bag), SNR change(from 335.8 to 275.5) and LCD(T1: 31 to 26 spokes, T2: 26 to 21 spokes) change were noted. However, similar PIU was obtained for all choices of vertical distance (T1: 94.5%–95.0%, T2: 94.4%–96.8%). Conclusion: After elevating the scan object, reduction in SNR level and contrast detectability but no change

  4. Elevated Steroid Hormone Production in the db/db Mouse Model of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Anja; Peitzsch, Mirko; Brunssen, Coy; Mittag, Jennifer; Jannasch, Annett; Frenzel, Annika; Brown, Nicholas; Weldon, Steven M; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Bornstein, Stefan R; Morawietz, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes have become a major public health problem worldwide. Steroid hormone dysfunction appears to be linked to development of obesity and type 2 diabetes and correction of steroid abnormalities may offer new approaches to therapy. We therefore analyzed plasma steroids in 15-16 week old obese and diabetic db/db mice using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Lean db/+ served as controls. Db/db mice developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperleptinemia, and hyperlipidemia. Hepatic triglyceride storage was increased and adiponectin and pancreatic insulin were lowered. Aldosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, and progesterone were respectively increased by 3.6-, 2.9-, 3.4, and 1.7-fold in db/db mice compared to controls. Ratios of aldosterone-to-progesterone and corticosterone-to-progesterone were respectively 2.0- and 1.5-fold higher in db/db mice. Genes associated with steroidogenesis were quantified in the adrenal glands and gonadal adipose tissues. In adrenals, Cyp11b2 , Cyp11b1 , Cyp21a1 , Hsd3b1 , Cyp11a1 , and StAR were all significantly increased in db/db mice compared with db/+ controls. In adipose tissue, no Cyp11b2 or Cyp11b1 transcripts were detected and no differences in Cyp21a1 , Hsd3b1 , Cyp11a1 , or StAR expression were found between db/+ and db/db mice. In conclusion, the present study showed an elevated steroid hormone production and adrenal steroidogenesis in the db/db model of obesity and type 2 diabetes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Loss Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Obesity September 2017 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Durga ... Resources Mayo Clinic MedlinePlus NIDDK (NIH) What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

  6. The role of production of adipsin and leptin in the development of insulin resistance in patients with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Vasilenko, M A; Kirienkova, E V; Skuratovskaia, D A; Zatolokin, P A; Mironyuk, N I; Litvinova, L S

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the tissue-specific features of the production of adipokines (leptin and adipsin) by adipose tissue in obese patients depending on the degree of obesity and the state of carbohydrate metabolism. An increase in the content of adipsin and leptin in the blood plasma was found. In patients with varying degrees of obesity with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM 2), we determined the level of tissue-specific expression of LEP and CFD genes encoding leptin and adipsin, respectively. The contribution of different adipose tissue depots to the blood plasma level of adipsin and leptin in obese patients with and without DM 2 was established. The disturbance of reciprocal relationships between adipsin and leptin in obesity is associated with the development of insulin resistance.

  7. BMI Trajectories Associated With Resolution of Elevated Youth BMI and Incident Adult Obesity.

    PubMed

    Buscot, Marie-Jeanne; Thomson, Russell J; Juonala, Markus; Sabin, Matthew A; Burgner, David P; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma S A; Jokinen, Eero; Tossavainen, Paivi; Laitinen, Tomi; Raitakari, Olli T; Magnussen, Costan G

    2018-01-01

    Youth with high BMI who become nonobese adults have the same cardiovascular risk factor burden as those who were never obese. However, the early-life BMI trajectories for overweight or obese youth who avoid becoming obese adults have not been described. We aimed to determine and compare the young-childhood BMI trajectories of participants according to their BMI status in youth and adulthood. Bayesian hierarchical piecewise regression modeling was used to analyze the BMI trajectories of 2717 young adults who had up to 8 measures of BMI from childhood (ages 3-18 years) to adulthood (ages 34-49 years). Compared with those with persistently high BMI, those who resolved their high youth BMI by adulthood had lower average BMI at age 6 years and slower rates of BMI change from young childhood. In addition, their BMI levels started to plateau at 16 years old for females and 21 years old for males, whereas the BMI of those whose high BMI persisted did not stabilize until 25 years old for male subjects and 27 years for female subjects. Compared with those youth who were not overweight or obese and who remained nonobese in adulthood, those who developed obesity had a higher BMI rate of change from 6 years old, and their BMI continued to increase linearly until age 30 years. Efforts to alter BMI trajectories for adult obesity should ideally commence before age 6 years. The natural resolution of high BMI starts in adolescence for males and early adulthood for females, suggesting a critical window for secondary prevention. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals elevated aortic pulse wave velocity in obese and overweight adolescents.

    PubMed

    Caterini, J E; Banks, L; Wells, G D; Cifra, B; Slorach, C; McCrindle, B W; Seed, M

    2017-12-01

    The aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured via cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can be used to non-invasively assess changes in arterial stiffness and potential underlying vascular dysfunction. This technique could unmask early arterial dysfunction in overweight and obese youth at risk for cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine the association between vascular stiffness, percentage body fat, body mass index (BMI), and cardiac function in adolescents across the weight spectrum through both CMR and standard applanation tonometry (AT)-based PWV measurements. PWV and left-ventricular cardiac function were assessed using 3.0 T CMR in obese and overweight (OB/OW) participants (n = 12) and controls (n = 7). PWV was also estimated via carotid-femoral AT. OB/OW participants did not differ from healthy-weight controls regarding cardiometabolic risk factors or physical activity levels, but there was a trend towards higher levels of triglycerides in obese/overweight participants (P = 0.07). Mean PWV was higher in obese participants when corrected for age and sex (P = 0.01), and was positively associated with BMI (β = 0.51, P = 0.02). PWV estimated through AT was not significantly different between groups. Cardiac function measured by left-ventricular ejection fraction z-score was inversely associated with mean PWV (β = -0.57, P = 0.026). Increasing arterial stiffness and decreasing cardiac function were evident among our overweight and obese cohort. PWV estimated by CMR could detect early increases in arterial stiffness vs. traditional AT measurements of PWV. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  9. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... abdominal cavity ( most often cancer of the ovaries ) Cirrhosis of the liver Damaged bowel Heart disease Infection ...

  10. Elevated tumour necrosis factor-alpha was associated with intima thickening in obese children.

    PubMed

    Bo, Luo; Yi-Can, Yang; Qing, Zhou; Xiao-Hui, Wu; Ke, Huang; Chao-Chun, Zou

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between intima-media thickness (IMT) and immune parameters in obese children from five to 16 years of age. We enrolled 185 obese children with a mean age of 10.65 ± 2.10 years and 211 controls with a mean age of 10.32 ± 1.81 years. Glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, sex hormones, immune indices and carotid IMT were measured. Serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, white blood cells and common and internal carotid artery IMTs in the obese group were higher than those in the control group (p < 0.05, respectively). Bivariate correlation analysis showed that the common carotid arterial IMT was positively correlated with alanine aminotransferase, triglyceride, uric acid, apolipoprotein B, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone. Internal carotid artery IMT was positively correlated with alanine aminotransferase and follicle-stimulating hormone. Both common and internal carotid artery IMTs were inversely correlated with apolipoprotein A1 (p < 0.05, respectively). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that testosterone, alanine aminotransferase and TNF-alpha were the independent determinants of common carotid arterial IMT. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha, alanine aminotransferase and testosterone were associated with intima thickening in the early life in obese children and may increase later risks of premature atherogenicity and adult cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Elevated systemic hepcidin and iron depletion in obese pre-menopausal females.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hepcidin, the body’s main regulator of systemic iron homeostasis, is unregulated in response to inflammation, and is thought to play a role in the manifestation of iron deficiency (ID) observed in obese populations. We determined systemic hepcidin levels and its association with body mass, inflammat...

  12. Left ventricular function impairment in patients with normal-weight obesity: contribution of abdominal fat deposition, profibrotic state, reduced insulin sensitivity, and proinflammatory activation.

    PubMed

    Kosmala, Wojciech; Jedrzejuk, Diana; Derzhko, Roksolana; Przewlocka-Kosmala, Monika; Mysiak, Andrzej; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grazyna

    2012-05-01

    Obesity predisposes to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and heart failure; however, the risk of these complications has not been assessed in patients with a normal body mass index (BMI) but increased body fat content (normal-weight obesity, NWO). We hypothesized that LV performance in NWO may be impaired and sought to investigate potential contributors to cardiac functional abnormalities. One hundred sixty-eight subjects (age, 38±7 years) with BMI <25kg/m(2) and no history of any disease affecting the myocardium were classified on the basis of body fat content into 2 groups: with NWO and without NWO. Echocardiographic indices of LV systolic and diastolic function, including myocardial velocities and deformation, serological fibrosis markers, indicators of proinflammatory activation, and metabolic control, were evaluated. Subjects with NWO demonstrated impaired LV systolic and diastolic function, increased fibrosis intensity (assessed by procollagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide [PICP]), impaired insulin sensitivity, and increased proinflammatory activation as compared with individuals with normal body fat. The independent correlates of LV systolic and diastolic function variables were as follows: for strain, IL-18 (β=-0.17, P<0.006), C-reactive protein (β=-0.20, P<0.002) and abdominal fat deposit (β=-0.20, P<0.003); for tissue S velocity, PICP (β=-0.21, P<0.002) and abdominal fat deposit (β=-0.43, P<0.0001); for tissue E velocity, abdominal fat deposit (β=-0.30, P<0.0001), PICP (β=-0.31, P<0.0001) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA IR; β=-0.20, P<0.002); and for E/e'-PICP, IL-18 (both β=0.18, P<0.01) and HOMA IR (β=0.16, P<0.04). In patients with NWO, subclinical disturbances of LV function are independently associated with the extent of abdominal fat deposit, profibrotic state (as reflected by circulating PICP), reduced insulin sensitivity, and proinflammatory activation.

  13. Elevated microRNA-34a in obesity reduces NAD+ levels and SIRT1 activity by directly targeting NAMPT.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-E; Fu, Ting; Seok, Sunmi; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Yu, Eunkyung; Lee, Kwan-Woo; Kang, Yup; Li, Xiaoling; Kemper, Byron; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2013-12-01

    SIRT1 is an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase that is implicated in prevention of many age-related diseases including metabolic disorders. As SIRT1 deacetylase activity is dependent on NAD(+) levels and the development of compounds that directly activate SIRT1 has been controversial, indirectly activating SIRT1 through enhancing NAD(+) bioavailability has received increasing attention. NAD(+) levels are reduced in obesity and the aged, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We recently showed that hepatic microRNA-34a (miR-34a), which is elevated in obesity, directly targets and decreases SIRT1 expression. Here, we further show that miR-34a reduces NAD(+) levels and SIRT1 activity by targeting NAMPT, the rate-limiting enzyme for NAD(+) biosynthesis. A functional binding site for miR-34a is present in the 3' UTR of NAMPT mRNA. Hepatic overexpression of miR-34a reduced NAMPT/NAD(+) levels, increased acetylation of the SIRT1 target transcriptional regulators, PGC-1α, SREBP-1c, FXR, and NF-κB, and resulted in obesity-mimetic outcomes. The decreased NAMPT/NAD(+) levels were independent of miR-34a effects on SIRT1 levels as they were also observed in SIRT1 liver-specific knockout mice. Further, the miR-34a-mediated decreases were reversed by treatment with the NAD(+) intermediate, nicotinamide mononucleotide. Conversely, antagonism of miR-34a in diet-induced obese mice restored NAMPT/NAD(+) levels and alleviated steatosis, inflammation, and glucose intolerance. Anti-miR-34a-mediated increases in NAD(+) levels were attenuated when NAMPT was downregulated. Our findings reveal a novel function of miR-34a in reducing both SIRT1 expression and activity in obesity. The miR-34a/NAMPT axis presents a potential target for treating obesity- and aging-related diseases involving SIRT1 dysfunction like steatosis and type 2 diabetes. © 2013 the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effect of rimonabant on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) progression in patients with abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome: the AUDITOR Trial.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Daniel H; Reuwer, Anne Q; Nissen, Steven E; Després, Jean-Pierre; Deanfield, John E; Brown, Michael W; Zhou, Rong; Zabbatino, Salvatore M; Job, Bernard; Kastelein, John J P; Visseren, Frank L J

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this trial was to determine whether obese patients benefit from treatment with rimonabant in terms of progression of carotid atherosclerosis. Rimonabant, a selective cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker, reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in patients who are obese. A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Atherosclerosis Underlying Development assessed by Intima-media Thickness in patients On Rimonabant (AUDITOR)) randomised 661 patients with abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome to rimonabant or placebo for 30 months of treatment. The absolute change in the average value for six segments of far wall carotid intima-media thickness from baseline to month 30 was 0.010 ± 0.095 mm in the rimonabant group and 0.012 ± 0.091 mm in the placebo group (p=0.67). The annualised change was an increase of 0.005 ± 0.042 mm for the rimonabant-treated group and 0.007 ± 0.043 mm for the placebo-treated group (p=0.45). There was no difference in atherosclerosis progression between patients receiving rimonabant for 30 months and those receiving placebo for the primary efficacy measure (absolute change in carotid intima-media thickness). These findings are consistent with a similar study using coronary intravascular ultrasound and another study evaluating the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Our findings suggest that a 5% loss of body weight over a 30-month period with rimonabant is insufficient to modify atherosclerosis progression in the carotid artery in obese patients with metabolic syndrome. Clinical trial registration information clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00228176.

  15. Elevated endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels may contribute to hypoadiponectinemia in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Nacci, Carmela; Leo, Valentina; De Benedictis, Leonarda; Carratù, Maria Rosaria; Bartolomeo, Nicola; Altomare, Maria; Giordano, Paola; Faienza, Maria Felicia; Montagnani, Monica

    2013-04-01

    Pediatric obesity is associated with endothelial dysfunction and hypoadiponectinemia, but the relationship between these two conditions remains to be fully clarified. Whether enhanced release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) may directly impair adiponectin (Ad) production in obese children is not known. The aim of the study was to explore whether and how high circulating levels of ET-1 may contribute to impair Ad production, release, and vascular activity. Sixty children were included into obese (Ob; n = 30), overweight (OW; n = 11), and lean (n = 19) groups. Total and high-molecular-weight Ad, ET-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and von Willebrand factor levels were measured in serum samples. Adipocytes were stimulated with exogenous ET-1 or with sera from lean, OW, and Ob, and Ad production and release measured in the absence or in the presence of ETA (BQ-123) and ETB (BQ-788) receptor blockers, p42/44 MAPK inhibitor PD-98059, or c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase inhibitor SP-600125. Vasodilation to Ad was evaluated in rat isolated arteries in the absence or in the presence of BQ-123/788. Total and high-molecular-weight Ad was significantly decreased and ET-1 levels significantly increased in OW (P < .01) and Ob (P < .001) children. A statistically significant linear regression (P < .01) was found between Ad and ET-1. Exposure of adipocytes to exogenous ET-1 or serum from OW and Ob significantly decreased Ad mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.001). The inhibitory effect of ET-1 on Ad was reverted by BQ-123/788 or PD-98059 but not SP-600125. Ad-mediated vasodilation was further increased in arteries pretreated with BQ-123/788. ET-1-mediated inhibition of Ad synthesis via p42/44 MAPK signaling may provide a possible explanation for hypoadiponectinemia in pediatric obesity and contribute to the development of cardiovascular complications.

  16. Did the perils of abdominal obesity affect depiction of feminine beauty in the sixteenth to eighteenth century British literature? Exploring the health and beauty link

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devendra; Renn, Peter; Singh, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    ‘Good gene’ mate selection theory proposes that all individuals share evolved mental mechanisms that identify specific parts of a woman's body as indicators of fertility and health. Depiction of feminine beauty, across time and culture, should therefore emphasize the physical traits indicative of health and fertility. Abdominal obesity, as measured by waist size, is reliably linked to decreased oestrogen, reduced fecundity and increased risk for major diseases. Systematic searches of British literature across the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries reveal that a narrow waist is consistently described as beautiful. Works in ancient Indian and Chinese literature similarly associate feminine attractiveness with a narrow waist. Even without the benefit of modern medical knowledge, both British and Asian writers knew intuitively the biological link between health and beauty. PMID:17251110

  17. Changing relative contribution of abdominal obesity and a family history of diabetes on prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Korean men and women aged 30-49 years from 2001 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bo Kyung; Kim, Sang Wan; Yi, Ka Hee; Park, Kyong Soo; Moon, Min Kyong

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the change in the relative impact of a family history of diabetes (FH) and abdominal obesity on diabetes mellitus (DM) over a 10-year period in Korea. We analyzed data from the 2001, 2005, and 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey that were weighted to represent the entire Korean population in each year. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between DM and FH or abdominal obesity. In men aged 30-49 years, the association between FH and DM was stronger in 2010 than in 2001; the odds ratio (OR) was 1.508 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.814-2.792) in 2001, 3.351 (95% CI, 1.599-7.024) in 2005, and 7.302 (95% CI, 3.451-15.451) in 2010 (P for trend = 0.003). In contrast, the association between abdominal obesity and DM was weaker in 2010 (OR, 0.969 [95% CI, 0.465-2.018]) than in 2001 (OR, 2.532 [95% CI, 1.572-4.080]) (P for trend = 0.037). In women aged 30-49 years, there was no significant change in OR of FH or abdominal obesity during the same period. (P for trend = 0.367 and 0.401, respectively). In Korean men aged 30-49 years, the association between FH and DM has been stronger from 2001 to 2010, whereas abdominal obesity was less important in 2010 compared to 2001. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Abdominal hernias: Radiological features

    PubMed Central

    Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

  19. Effects of Glucomannan-Enriched, Aronia Juice-Based Supplement on Cellular Antioxidant Enzymes and Membrane Lipid Status in Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Petrović-Oggiano, Gordana; Glibetić, Natalija; Zec, Manja; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina; Konić-Ristić, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a 4-week-long consumption of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on anthropometric parameters, membrane fatty acid profile, and status of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes obtained from postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. Twenty women aged 45–65 with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 36.1 ± 4.4 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 104.8 ± 10.1 cm were enrolled. Participants were instructed to consume 100 mL of supplement per day as part of their regular diet. A significant increase in the content of n-3 (P < 0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids was observed, with a marked increase in the level of docosahexaenoic fatty acid (P < 0.05). Accordingly, a decrease in the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids ratio was observed (P < 0.05). The observed effects were accompanied with an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity (P < 0.05). Values for BMI (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) were significantly lower after the intervention. The obtained results indicate a positive impact of tested supplement on cellular oxidative damage, blood pressure, and anthropometric indices of obesity. PMID:25574495

  20. Long-term supplementation of decaffeinated green tea extract does not modify body weight or abdominal obesity in a randomized trial of men at high risk for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nagi B.; Patel, Roshni; Pow-Sang, Julio; Spiess, Philippe E.; Salup, Raoul; Williams, Christopher R.; Schell, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Evidence continues to demonstrate the role of obesity in prostate carcinogenesis and prognosis, underscoring the need to identify and continue to evaluate the effective interventions to reduce obesity in populations at high risk. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of daily consumption of decaffeinated green tea catechins (GTC) formulation (Polyphenon E® (PolyE)) for 1 year on biomarkers of obesity in men who are at high risk for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods A randomized, double-blinded trial was conducted targeting 97 men diagnosed with HGPIN or ASAP. Subjects were randomized to receive GTC (PolyE) (n = 49) or placebo (n = 48) for 1 year. Anthropometric data were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months and data analyzed to observe change in weight, body mass index (indicator of obesity) and waist: hip ratio (indicator of abdominal obesity). Results Decaffeinated GTC containing 400 mgs of the bioactive catechin, EGCG administered for 1 year to men diagnosed with ASAP and HGPIN appears to be bioavailable, well tolerated but not effective in reducing biomarkers of obesity including body weight, body mass index and waist: hip ratio. Conclusions The results of our trial demonstrates that men who are obese and at high risk for prostate cancer should resort to effective weight management strategies to reduce obesity and not resort to ineffective measures such as taking supplements of green tea to reduce biomarkers of obesity. Changes in body mass index and abdominal obesity seen in other studies were potentially due to caffeine and not GTC. PMID:29228755

  1. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity happens over time when you eat more calories ...

  2. HPMC supplementation reduces abdominal fat content, intestinal permeability, inflammation, and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a highly viscous non-fermentable soluble dietary fiber, were evaluated on adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in diet induced obese (DIO) mice fed a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with either HPMC or insoluble fiber. DIO C57BL/6J m...

  3. Time spent traveling in motor vehicles and its association with overweight and abdominal obesity in Colombian adults who do not own a car.

    PubMed

    Flórez Pregonero, Alberto; Gómez, Luis Fernando; Parra, Diana C; Cohen, Daniel D; Arango Paternina, Carlos Mario; Lobelo, Felipe

    2012-06-01

    This study examined associations between time spent traveling in motor vehicles per week (TSTMV) and BMI and abdominal obesity (AO) among Colombian adults residing in urban areas who do not own car. Secondary data analysis of the 2005 National Nutrition Survey of Colombia was conducted. TSTMV was assessed using the long International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Body composition was measured in 7900 adults. Polytomous and binary logistic regressions were conducted, stratified by gender and adjusted for confounders, including physical activity (PA). Forty-two percent of participants were either overweight or obese according to their BMI, and 22.4% had AO. Males in the middle (10 to 149 min) and highest (>150 min) TSTMV tertiles were more likely to be overweight (POR=1.58, 95% CI=1.13-2.21 and POR=1.55, 95% CI=1.12-2.15 respectively, p-trend=0.012), obese (POR=2.39, 95% CI=1.43-3.99 and POR=1.93, 95% CI=1.22-3.08 respectively, p trend=0.019) and to have AO (POR=1.81, 95% CI=1.18-2.78 and POR=1.73, 95% CI=1.18-2.54 respectively, p-trend=0.009). Associations were not significant in females. TSTMV was positively associated with overweight and AO in adult Colombian males even after adjusting for PA. These findings highlight the potential deleterious health effects of sedentary behaviors such as prolonged traveling time, independently of having met PA recommendations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of general and abdominal obesity and overweight among adults in Poland. Results of the WOBASZ II study (2013-2014) and comparison with the WOBASZ study (2003-2005).

    PubMed

    Stepaniak, Urszula; Micek, Agnieszka; Waśkiewicz, Anna; Bielecki, Wojciech; Drygas, Wojciech; Janion, Marianna; Kozakiewicz, Krystyna; Niklas, Arkadiusz; Puch-Walczak, Aleksandra; Pająk, Andrzej

    2016-08-18

    INTRODUCTION There are limited data on the current prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as its changes with time in Poland. OBJECTIVES The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity and overweight in Polish adults in the years 2013-2014, and to compare it with the prevalence in the years 2003-2005. PATIENTS AND METHODS The study was conducted in 2 independent, representative samples of the Polish population, comprising 14 537 persons (aged 20-74 years) examined in the years 2003-2005 and 6164 persons (aged ≥20 years) examined in the years 2013-2014. Anthropometric measurements were done by trained nurses. RESULTS In the years 2013-2014, the age-standardized prevalence of obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) was 24.4% in men and 25.0% in women. The prevalence of overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) was 43.2% in men and 30.5% in women. Abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥102 cm in men or ≥88 cm in women) was noted in 32.2% of men and 45.7% of women. Abdominal overweight (waist circumference, 94-101.9 cm in men or 80-87.9 cm in women) was present in 27.2% of men and 21.7% of women. Since the years 2003-2005, the distribution of body mass according to the BMI category had shifted to higher values, and an increase in the prevalence of obesity was observed in men. The percentage of adults with normal waist circumference decreased significantly in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS Every fourth inhabitant of Poland is obese, and during the last decade, the prevalence of obesity has increased, particularly in men. Abdominal obesity is observed in every third man and nearly every second woman, and an excess of abdominal fat has increased in both sexes.

  5. A case report on management of synergistic gangrene following an incisional abdominal hernia repair in an immunocompromised obese patient

    PubMed Central

    Merali, N.; Almeida, R.A.R.; Hussain, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We present a case on conservative management of salvaging the mesh in an immunocompromised morbidly obese patient, who developed a synergistic gangrene infection following a primary open mesh repair of an incisional hernia. Presentation of case Our patient presented with a surgical wound infection, comorbidities were Chronic Lymphoblastic Leukemia (CLL), Body Mass Index (BMI) of 50, hypertension and diet controlled type-2 diabetes. In surgery, wide necrotic wound debridement, early and repetitive wound drainages with the use of a large pore polypropylene mesh and a detailed surgical follow up was required. High dose intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) was administrated in combination with adopting a multidisciplinary approach was key to our success. Discussion Stoppa Re et al. complied a series of 360 ventral hernia mesh repairs reporting an infection rate of 12% that were managed conservatively. However, our selective case is unique within current literature, being the first to illustrate mesh salvage in a morbid obese patient with CLL. Recent modifications in mesh morphology, such as lower density, wide pores, and lighter weight has led to considerable improvements regarding infection avoidance. Conclusion This case has demonstrated how a planned multidisciplinary action can produce prosperous results in a severely obese immunocompromised patient with an SSI, following an incisional hernia repair. PMID:26322822

  6. A case report on management of synergistic gangrene following an incisional abdominal hernia repair in an immunocompromised obese patient.

    PubMed

    Merali, N; Almeida, R A R; Hussain, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a case on conservative management of salvaging the mesh in an immunocompromised morbidly obese patient, who developed a synergistic gangrene infection following a primary open mesh repair of an incisional hernia. Our patient presented with a surgical wound infection, comorbidities were Chronic Lymphoblastic Leukemia (CLL), Body Mass Index (BMI) of 50, hypertension and diet controlled type-2 diabetes. In surgery, wide necrotic wound debridement, early and repetitive wound drainages with the use of a large pore polypropylene mesh and a detailed surgical follow up was required. High dose intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) was administrated in combination with adopting a multidisciplinary approach was key to our success. Stoppa Re et al. complied a series of 360 ventral hernia mesh repairs reporting an infection rate of 12% that were managed conservatively. However, our selective case is unique within current literature, being the first to illustrate mesh salvage in a morbid obese patient with CLL. Recent modifications in mesh morphology, such as lower density, wide pores, and lighter weight has led to considerable improvements regarding infection avoidance. This case has demonstrated how a planned multidisciplinary action can produce prosperous results in a severely obese immunocompromised patient with an SSI, following an incisional hernia repair. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians: a cross-sectional study on association of per cent body fat and intra-abdominal fat mass.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Jaspal Singh; Esht, Vandana; Shenoy, Shweta

    2012-01-01

    To determine the association of per cent total body fat (TBF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat with cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians. Cross-sectional study. Hydrostatic Laboratory, Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, India. 51 subjects aged 30-55 years with a body mass index value 23 and above. In all the participants, TBF was estimated by underwater weighing machine and IAF and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasonography. Lipid profile was determined by a semiautomated analyser. Main outcome measures were: IAF, per cent body fat to TBF ratio, lipid profile and risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. IAF was found to be significantly associated with lipid variables (95% CI, p<0.01) and risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (95% CI, p≤0.05) in both male and female subjects. TBF and subcutaneous fat thickness showed no significant results (95% CI, p>0.05) with either lipid variables or risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (tables 1 and 2). IAF mass showed significant association with age (95% CI, p<0.01) and significant negative association with physical activity (95% CI, p<0.05) in male subjects (tables 3 and 4). An ultrasonic measurement of IAF is a better predictor of the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in middle aged Indian population. In male subjects, physical activity of 5 or more days a week showed lesser amount of IAF as compared with those with physical activity <5 days a week.

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians: a cross-sectional study on association of per cent body fat and intra-abdominal fat mass

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jaspal Singh; Esht, Vandana; Shenoy, Shweta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of per cent total body fat (TBF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat with cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Hydrostatic Laboratory, Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, India. Participants: 51 subjects aged 30–55 years with a body mass index value 23 and above. Methodology In all the participants, TBF was estimated by underwater weighing machine and IAF and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasonography. Lipid profile was determined by a semiautomated analyser. Main outcome measures were: IAF, per cent body fat to TBF ratio, lipid profile and risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Results IAF was found to be significantly associated with lipid variables (95% CI, p<0.01) and risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (95% CI, p≤0.05) in both male and female subjects. TBF and subcutaneous fat thickness showed no significant results (95% CI, p>0.05) with either lipid variables or risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (tables 1 and 2). IAF mass showed significant association with age (95% CI, p<0.01) and significant negative association with physical activity (95% CI, p<0.05) in male subjects (tables 3 and 4). Conclusion An ultrasonic measurement of IAF is a better predictor of the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in middle aged Indian population. In male subjects, physical activity of 5 or more days a week showed lesser amount of IAF as compared with those with physical activity <5 days a week. PMID:27326015

  9. Evaluation of mobile phone and Internet intervention on waist circumference and blood pressure in post-menopausal women with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Jeong; Kim, Hee-Seung

    2012-06-01

    The present study evaluated whether an intervention using a short message service (SMS) by personal cellular phone and Internet would reduce cardiovascular risk factors in post-menopausal women with abdominal obesity over 12 weeks. This is a quasi-experimental design with pre and post tests. Participants were recruited from the gynecology outpatient and family medicine departments of a tertiary care hospital located in an urban city of South Korea. Only 67 subjects completed the entire study, 34 in the intervention group and 33 controls. The goal of intervention was to reduce waist circumference (WC), body weight (BW) and blood pressure (BP) levels. Before the intervention, demographic variables, WC, BW, BP, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and serum lipids were measured as pre-test data. The WC, BW, BP, FPG and serum lipids were measured again 12 weeks later. Patients in the intervention group were requested to record their WC, BW, BP, type and amount of diet and exercise in a weekly web-based diary through the Internet or by cellular phone. The researchers sent weekly recommendations on diet and exercise as an intervention to each patient, by both cellular phone and Internet. The intervention was applied for 12 weeks. WC and BW significantly decreased by 3.0 cm and 2.0 kg, respectively, at 12 weeks compared with the baseline in the intervention group. However, the mean changes in the control group significantly increased by 0.9 cm and 0.7 kg. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) significantly decreased by 6.5 and 4.6 mmHg in the intervention group, respectively. The mean changes in the control group were not significant in either SBP or DBP. A significant mean decrease in total cholesterol (TC) was observed for the intervention group by 12.9 mg/dl, while the control group showed a significant mean increase by 1.5mg/dl. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) for the intervention group showed a significant mean decrease 11.3mg/dl. The mean change in the

  10. A high-fat, high-saturated fat diet decreases insulin sensitivity without changing intra-abdominal fat in weight-stable overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    von Frankenberg, Anize D; Marina, Anna; Song, Xiaoling; Callahan, Holly S; Kratz, Mario; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2017-02-01

    We sought to determine the effects of dietary fat on insulin sensitivity and whether changes in insulin sensitivity were explained by changes in abdominal fat distribution or very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fatty acid composition. Overweight/obese adults with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (35 % fat/12 % saturated fat/47 % carbohydrate) for 10 days, followed by a 4-week low-fat diet (LFD, n = 10: 20 % fat/8 % saturated fat/62 % carbohydrate) or high-fat diet (HFD, n = 10: 55 % fat/25 % saturated fat/27 % carbohydrate). All foods and their eucaloric energy content were provided. Insulin sensitivity was measured by labeled hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, abdominal fat distribution by MRI, and fasting VLDL fatty acids by gas chromatography. The rate of glucose disposal (Rd) during low- and high-dose insulin decreased on the HFD but remained unchanged on the LFD (Rd-low: LFD: 0.12 ± 0.11 vs. HFD: -0.37 ± 0.15 mmol/min, mean ± SE, p < 0.01; Rd-high: LFD: 0.11 ± 0.37 vs. HFD: -0.71 ± 0.26 mmol/min, p = 0.08). Hepatic insulin sensitivity did not change. Changes in subcutaneous fat were positively associated with changes in insulin sensitivity on the LFD (r = 0.78, p < 0.01) with a trend on the HFD (r = 0.60, p = 0.07), whereas there was no association with intra-abdominal fat. The LFD led to an increase in VLDL palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), and palmitoleic (16:1n7c) acids, while no changes were observed on the HFD. Changes in VLDL n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n6) were strongly associated with changes in insulin sensitivity on both diets (LFD: r = -0.77; p < 0.01; HFD: r = -0.71; p = 0.02). A diet very high in fat and saturated fat adversely affects insulin sensitivity and thereby might contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT00930371.

  11. A high-fat, high-saturated fat diet decreases insulin sensitivity without changing intra-abdominal fat in weight-stable overweight and obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Marina, Anna; Song, Xiaoling; Callahan, Holly S.; Kratz, Mario; Utzschneider, Kristina M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We sought to determine the effects of dietary fat on insulin sensitivity and whether changes in insulin sensitivity were explained by changes in abdominal fat distribution or very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fatty acid composition. Methods Overweight/obese adults with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (35 % fat/12 % saturated fat/47 % carbohydrate) for 10 days, followed by a 4-week low-fat diet (LFD, n = 10: 20 % fat/8 % saturated fat/62 % carbohydrate) or high-fat diet (HFD, n = 10: 55 % fat/25 % saturated fat/27 % carbohydrate). All foods and their eucaloric energy content were provided. Insulin sensitivity was measured by labeled hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, abdominal fat distribution by MRI, and fasting VLDL fatty acids by gas chromatography. Results The rate of glucose disposal (Rd) during low-and high-dose insulin decreased on the HFD but remained unchanged on the LFD (Rd-low: LFD: 0.12 ± 0.11 vs. HFD: −0.37 ± 0.15 mmol/min, mean ± SE, p < 0.01; Rdhigh: LFD: 0.11 ± 0.37 vs. HFD: −0.71 ± 0.26 mmol/ min, p = 0.08). Hepatic insulin sensitivity did not change. Changes in subcutaneous fat were positively associated with changes in insulin sensitivity on the LFD (r = 0.78, p < 0.01) with a trend on the HFD (r = 0.60, p = 0.07), whereas there was no association with intra-abdominal fat. The LFD led to an increase in VLDL palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), and palmitoleic (16:1n7c) acids, while no changes were observed on the HFD. Changes in VLDL n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n6) were strongly associated with changes in insulin sensitivity on both diets (LFD: r = −0.77; p < 0.01; HFD: r = −0.71; p = 0.02). Conclusions A diet very high in fat and saturated fat adversely affects insulin sensitivity and thereby might contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26615402

  12. Longitudinal association of obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes with risk of elevated aminotransferase levels in a cohort of Mexican health workers.

    PubMed

    Flores, Yvonne N; Auslander, Allyn; Crespi, Catherine M; Rodriguez, Michael; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Durazo, Francisco; Salmerón, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    In Mexico, chronic liver disease have been increasingly found along with the rapidly growing prevalence of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MS). We aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between these three factors and risk of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (>40 U/L), a marker for liver damage, in a cohort of Mexican adults. Data were obtained from two separate waves of the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study: Wave 1 (2004-2006) and Wave 2 (2011-2013). Unconditional logistic regression models were employed to determine the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between these risk factors and elevated ALT levels. The prevalence of elevated ALT was significantly higher among men, individuals aged under 60 years, those who were overweight or obese, diabetic, with MS or heavy/binge drinkers. The longitudinal results indicated that weight gain between waves that resulted in a change in body mass index, along with remaining overweight or obese, were significantly associated with an increased risk of elevated ALT levels. A significantly increased risk of developing elevated ALT was also observed among those who acquired diabetes or MS from Wave 1 to Wave 2. Weight gain and acquiring diabetes or MS are associated with a significant risk of having elevated ALT. These results, within the context of the rapid increase in global obesity rates, call urgently for programs to help to prevent chronic liver disease. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Elevated systemic glutamic acid level in the non-obese diabetic mouse is Idd linked and induces beta cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Banday, Viqar Showkat; Lejon, Kristina

    2017-02-01

    Although type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T-cell-mediated disease in the effector stage, the mechanism behind the initial beta cell assault is less understood. Metabolomic differences, including elevated levels of glutamic acid, have been observed in patients with T1D before disease onset, as well as in pre-diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Increased levels of glutamic acid damage both neurons and beta cells, implying that this could contribute to the initial events of T1D pathogenesis. We investigated the underlying genetic factors and consequences of the increased levels of glutamic acid in NOD mice. Serum glutamic acid levels from a (NOD×B6)F 2 cohort (n = 182) were measured. By genome-wide and Idd region targeted microsatellite mapping, genetic association was detected for six regions including Idd2, Idd4 and Idd22. In silico analysis of potential enzymes and transporters located in and around the mapped regions that are involved in glutamic acid metabolism consisted of alanine aminotransferase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, aldehyde dehydrogenase 18 family, alutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase, glutamic acid transporters GLAST and EAAC1. Increased EAAC1 protein expression was observed in lysates from livers of NOD mice compared with B6 mice. Functional consequence of the elevated glutamic acid level in NOD mice was tested by culturing NOD. Rag2 -/- Langerhans' islets with glutamic acid. Induction of apoptosis of the islets was detected upon glutamic acid challenge using TUNEL assay. Our results support the notion that a dysregulated metabolome could contribute to the initiation of T1D. We suggest that targeting of the increased glutamic acid in pre-diabetic patients could be used as a potential therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Abdominal obesity and other cardiometabolic risk biomarkers: influence of socioeconomic status and lifestyle on two African-origin population groups, Cotonou (Benin) and Port-au-Prince (Haiti)].

    PubMed

    Mabchour, Asma El; Delisle, Hélène; Vilgrain, Colette; Larco, Phillipe; Sodjinou, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Increased cardio metabolic risk (CMR) in low- and middle-income countries is largely due to rapid nutrition transition. We conducted a study of two African-origin populations groups living, however, in widely different settings. It aimed to assess the relationship between lifestyle and CMR biomarkers as well as between abdominal obesity (AO) and other biomarkers. The study included 200 Benineses from Cotonou and 252 Haitians from Port-with-Prince (PAP) aged between 25 to 60 years and apparently in good health. AO was specifically defined as waist circumference ≥ 88cm (men) and ≥ 95 cm (women). Other most common biomarkers were: high total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, high blood pressure and insulin resistance by HOMA (Homeostasis Model Assessement). Socioeconomic status, diet, alcohol and tobacco were documented by questionnaire. Two dietary patterns emerged from cluster analysis, one traditional and the other "transitional" with increasing frequency of western foods. Socioeconomic status, consumption of alcohol and nicotinism were associated with CMR, but not the food diagram. AO was associated with other CMR markers, with no marked effect of socioeconomic status and lifestyle variables. Specific TT threshold values are confirmed as socioeconomic status and lifestyle have an impact on CMR, but not the relationship between AO and other CMR biomarkers.

  15. Association between Abdominal Fat (DXA) and Its Subcomponents (CT Scan) before and after Weight Loss in Obese Postmenopausal Women: A MONET Study.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Brochu, Martin; Messier, Virginie; Lavoie, Marie-Ève; Faraj, May; Doucet, Eric; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Subcutaneous fat (ScF) and visceral fat (VF) measurements using CT scan are expensive and may imply significant radiation doses. Cross-sectional studies using CT scan showed that ScF and VF are significantly correlated with abdominal fat measured by DXA (AF-DXA). The association has not been studied after a weight loss. Objective. To determine (1) the associations between AF-DXA and ScF and VF before and after weight loss and (2) the associations between their changes. Methods. 137 overweight/obese postmenopausal women were divided in two groups (1-caloric restriction or 2-caloric restriction + resistance training). AF was assessed using DXA and CT scan. Results. Correlations between AF-DXA and ScF (before: r = 0.87, after; r = 0.87; P < .01) and, AF-DXA and VF (before: r = 0.61, after; r = 0.69; P < .01) are not different before and after the weight loss. Correlations between delta AF-DXA and delta ScF (r = 0.72; P < .01) or delta VF (r = 0.51; P < .01) were found. Conclusion. The use of AF-DXA as a surrogate for VF after weight loss is questionable, but may be interesting for ScF.

  16. Association between Abdominal Fat (DXA) and Its Subcomponents (CT Scan) before and after Weight Loss in Obese Postmenopausal Women: A MONET Study

    PubMed Central

    Doyon, Caroline Y.; Brochu, Martin; Messier, Virginie; Lavoie, Marie-Ève; Faraj, May; Doucet, Éric; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Dionne, Isabelle J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Subcutaneous fat (ScF) and visceral fat (VF) measurements using CT scan are expensive and may imply significant radiation doses. Cross-sectional studies using CT scan showed that ScF and VF are significantly correlated with abdominal fat measured by DXA (AF-DXA). The association has not been studied after a weight loss. Objective. To determine (1) the associations between AF-DXA and ScF and VF before and after weight loss and (2) the associations between their changes. Methods. 137 overweight/obese postmenopausal women were divided in two groups (1-caloric restriction or 2-caloric restriction + resistance training). AF was assessed using DXA and CT scan. Results. Correlations between AF-DXA and ScF (before: r = 0.87, after; r = 0.87; P < .01) and, AF-DXA and VF (before: r = 0.61, after; r = 0.69; P < .01) are not different before and after the weight loss. Correlations between delta AF-DXA and delta ScF (r = 0.72; P < .01) or delta VF (r = 0.51; P < .01) were found. Conclusion. The use of AF-DXA as a surrogate for VF after weight loss is questionable, but may be interesting for ScF. PMID:21603261

  17. [Abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging: a comparative study on the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease diagnosis in morbidly obese patients].

    PubMed

    Chaves, Gabriela Villaça; Pereira, Sílvia Elaine; Saboya, Carlos José; Cortes, Caroline; Ramalho, Rejane

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the concordance between abdominal ultrasound and an MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) in the diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and concordance of these two methods with the histopathological exam. The population studied was comprised of 145 patients with morbid obesity (BMI > or = 40 Kg/m(2)), of both genders. NAFLD diagnosis was performed by MRI and Ultrasound. Liver biopsy was performed in a sub-sample (n=40). To evaluate the concordance of these two methods, the kappa coefficient was used. Concordance between both methods (MRI and Ultrasound) was poor and not significant (Kappa adjusted= 0.27; CI 95%= 0.07-0.39.) Nevertheless a slight concordance was found between diagnosis of NAFLD by ultrasound and the hepatic biopsy, with 83.,3% of concordant results and Kappa adjusted= 0.67.Results of an MRI and the histopathological exam were compared and results showed 53.6% of concordant results and kappa adjusted= 0.07. The concordance found in the diagnosis performed using the ultrasound method and the hepatic biopsy, shows a need to implement and perform more research on the use of ultrasound to validate and reconsider these methods. This would minimize the need to perform biopsies to detect and diagnose such disease.

  18. General and Abdominal Obesity Is Related to Physical Activity, Smoking and Sleeping Behaviours and Mediated by the Educational Level: Findings from the ANIBES Study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    López-Sobaler, Ana M.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the association of socioeconomic (SES) and lifestyle factors, with the conditions of overweight (OW), general (OB) and abdominal obesity (AO) in Spanish adults. A representative sample of 1655 Spanish adults (18 to 65 years) from the ANIBES Study was investigated. Collected data included measured anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference), demographic and SES data (region and habitant population size, educational level, family income, unemployment rate), physical activity (PA) and other lifestyle factors (sleeping time and frequency of viewing television). OW, OB and AO were determined in each participant. Being male, older than 40 years, and watching television more frequently were associated with higher risk of OB and AO, whereas those with a higher level of education, smokers, and more time in sleeping and in vigorous PA, but not in moderate-vigorous PA, were associated with a lower risk. Living in the Atlantic region and stating no answer to the question regarding family income were also associated with lower risk of AO. Strategies for preventing and reducing OB and AO should consider improving sleeping habits and PA. They should also pay more attention to the most vulnerable groups such as those less educated. PMID:28033380

  19. General and Abdominal Obesity Is Related to Physical Activity, Smoking and Sleeping Behaviours and Mediated by the Educational Level: Findings from the ANIBES Study in Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Sobaler, Ana M; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the association of socioeconomic (SES) and lifestyle factors, with the conditions of overweight (OW), general (OB) and abdominal obesity (AO) in Spanish adults. A representative sample of 1655 Spanish adults (18 to 65 years) from the ANIBES Study was investigated. Collected data included measured anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference), demographic and SES data (region and habitant population size, educational level, family income, unemployment rate), physical activity (PA) and other lifestyle factors (sleeping time and frequency of viewing television). OW, OB and AO were determined in each participant. Being male, older than 40 years, and watching television more frequently were associated with higher risk of OB and AO, whereas those with a higher level of education, smokers, and more time in sleeping and in vigorous PA, but not in moderate-vigorous PA, were associated with a lower risk. Living in the Atlantic region and stating no answer to the question regarding family income were also associated with lower risk of AO. Strategies for preventing and reducing OB and AO should consider improving sleeping habits and PA. They should also pay more attention to the most vulnerable groups such as those less educated.

  20. Elevated circulating irisin is associated with lower risk of insulin resistance: association and path analyses of obese Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiulin; Lin, Mingzhu; Liu, Changqin; Xiao, Fangsen; Liu, Yongwen; Huang, Peiying; Zeng, Xin; Yan, Bing; Liu, Suhuan; Li, Xiaoying; Yang, Shuyu; Li, Xuejun; Li, Zhibin

    2016-07-29

    Evidence on the role of irisin in insulin resistance is limited and controversial, and pathways between them remain unknown. We aimed to examine the independent effects of circulating irisin and different adiposity measurements, as well as their potential interactions, on insulin resistance. We also aimed to explore possible pathways among circulating irisin, adiposity, glucose and insulin levels and insulin resistance. A cross-sectional study of 1,115 community- living obese Chinese adults, with data collection on clinical characteristics, glucose and lipid metabolic parameters and circulating irisin levels. Among the 1,115 subjects, 667 (59.8 %) were identified as insulin-resistance, and showed significantly decreased serum irisin than their controls (log-transformed irisin: 1.19 ± 2.34 v.s. 1.46 ± 2.05 ng/ml, p = 0.042). With adjustment for potential confounders, elevated circulating irisin was significantly associated with reduced risk of insulin resistance, with adjusted odds ratio per standard deviation increase of irisin of 0.871 (0.765-0.991, p = 0.036). As for different adiposity measurements, body fat percentage, but neither BMI nor waist, was significantly associated with increased risk of insulin resistance (OR: 1.152 (1.041-1.275), p = 0.006). No significant interaction effect between serum irisin and adiposity on insulin resistance was found. A one pathway model about the relationship between serum irisin and insulin resistance fits well (χ (2) = 44.09, p < 0.001; CFI-0.994; TLI =0.986; and RMSEA = 0.067), and shows that elevated circulating irisin might improve insulin resistance indirectly through lowering fasting insulin levels (standardized path coefficient = -0.046, p = 0.032). Elevated circulating irisin is associated with lower risk of insulin resistance indirectly through lowering fasting insulin.

  1. Effect of rimonabant on progression of atherosclerosis in patients with abdominal obesity and coronary artery disease: the STRADIVARIUS randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Steven E; Nicholls, Stephen J; Wolski, Kathy; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Cannon, Christopher P; Deanfield, John E; Després, Jean-Pierre; Kastelein, John J P; Steinhubl, Steven R; Kapadia, Samir; Yasin, Muhammad; Ruzyllo, Witold; Gaudin, Christophe; Job, Bernard; Hu, Bo; Bhatt, Deepak L; Lincoff, A Michael; Tuzcu, E Murat

    2008-04-02

    Abdominal obesity is associated with metabolic abnormalities and increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, no obesity management strategy has demonstrated the ability to slow progression of coronary disease. To determine whether weight loss and metabolic effects of the selective cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonist rimonabant reduces progression of coronary disease in patients with abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 2-group, parallel-group trial (enrollment December 2004-December 2005) comparing rimonabant with placebo in 839 patients at 112 centers in North America, Europe, and Australia. Patients received dietary counseling, were randomized to receive rimonabant (20 mg daily) or matching placebo, and underwent coronary intravascular ultrasonography at baseline (n = 839) and study completion (n = 676). The primary efficacy parameter was change in percent atheroma volume (PAV); the secondary efficacy parameter was change in normalized total atheroma volume (TAV). In the rimonabant vs placebo groups, PAV (95% confidence interval [CI]) increased 0.25% (-0.04% to 0.54%) vs 0.51% (0.22% to 0.80%) (P = .22), respectively, and TAV decreased 2.2 mm3 (-4.09 to -0.24) vs an increase of 0.88 mm3 (-1.03 to 2.79) (P = .03). In the rimonabant vs placebo groups, imputing results based on baseline characteristics for patients not completing the trial, PAV increased 0.25% (-0.04% to 0.55%) vs 0.57% (0.29% to 0.84%) (P = .13), and TAV decreased 1.95 mm3 (-3.8 to -0.10) vs an increase of 1.19 mm3 (-0.73 to 3.12) (P = .02). Rimonabant-treated patients had a larger reduction in body weight (4.3 kg [-5.1 to -3.5] vs 0.5 kg [-1.3 to 0.3]) and greater decrease in waist circumference (4.5 cm [-5.4 to -3.7] vs 1.0 cm [-1.9 to -0.2]) (P < .001 for both comparisons). In the rimonabant vs placebo groups, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased 5.8 mg/dL (4.9 to 6.8) (22.4%) vs 1.8 mg/dL (0.9 to

  2. Abdominal obesity and type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians: dietary strategies including edible oils, cooking practices and sugar intake.

    PubMed

    Gulati, S; Misra, A

    2017-07-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are increasing in rural and urban regions of South Asia including India. Pattern of fat deposition in abdomen, ectopic fat deposition (liver, pancreas) and also low lean mass are contributory to early-onset insulin resistance, dysmetabolic state and diabetes in Asian Indians. These metabolic perturbations are further exacerbated by changing lifestyle, diet urbanization, and mechanization. Important dietary imbalances include increasing use of oils containing high amount of trans fatty acids and saturated fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, palmolein oil) use of deep frying method and reheating of oils for cooking, high intake of saturated fats, sugar and refined carbohydrates, low intake of protein, fiber and increasing intake of processed foods. Although dietary intervention trials are few; the data show that improving quality of carbohydrates (more complex carbohydrates), improving fat quality (more monounsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) and increasing protein intake could improve blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, inflammatory markers and hepatic fat, but more studies are needed. Finally, regulatory framework must be tightened to impose taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages, oils such as palmolein, and dietary fats and limit trans fats.

  3. Randomized controlled trial on the effects of legumes on cardiovascular risk factors in women with abdominal obesity

    PubMed Central

    Safaeiyan, Abdolrasoul; Pourghassem-Gargari, Bahram; Zarrin, Rasoul; Fereidooni, Javid; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The effect of legume-based hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women is unclear. This study provides an opportunity to find effects of high-legume diet on CVD risk factors in women who consumed high legumes at baseline. METHODS This randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 34 premenopausal women with central obesity. After 2 weeks of a run-in period on an isocaloric diet, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) hypocaloric diet enriched with legumes (HDEL) (n = 17) (two servings per day) and (2) hypocaloric diet without legumes (HDWL) (n = 17) for 6 weeks. The following variables were assessed before intervention, 3, and 6 weeks after it: Waist to hip ratio (WHR), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-sensitive-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), nitric oxides (NOx), and Malondialdehyde (MDA). RESULTS Both hypocaloric diets reduced hs-CRP in 3 weeks and returned it to basal values after 6 weeks (P = 0.004). HDWL significantly reduced WHR [P = 0.010 (3.2%)] and increased TC [P < 0.001 (6.3%)]. Despite the significant effect of HDEL on increasing TAC in 3 weeks [P = 0.050 (4%)], the level of TAC remained the same in 6 weeks. None of the diets had any significant effects on NOx and MDA. CONCLUSION The study indicated that beneficial effects of legumes on TC, LDL-C, and hs-CRP were achieved by three servings per week, and consuming more amounts of these products had no more advantages. PMID:26405440

  4. Diet-induced obesity elevates colonic TNF-alpha in mice and is accompanied by an activation of Wnt signaling: a mechanism for obesity-associated colorectal cancer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inflammation associated with obesity may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated whether the Wnt pathway, an intracellular signaling cascade that plays a critical role in colorectal carcinogenesis, is activated by obesity-induce...

  5. Low abdominal NIRS values and elevated plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in a premature piglet model of necrotizing enterocolitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To identify early markers of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), we hypothesized that continuous abdominal near-infrared spectroscopy (A-NIRS) measurement of splanchnic tissue oxygen saturation and intermittent plasma intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (pI-FABP) measured every 6 hours can detect NEC...

  6. Abdominal Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Deborah; Weilitz, Pamela Becker

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints by patients, and assessment of abdominal pain and associated symptoms can be challenging for home healthcare providers. Reasons for abdominal pain are related to inflammation, organ distention, and ischemia. The history and physical examination are important to narrow the source of acute or chronic problems, identify immediate interventions, and when necessary, facilitate emergency department care.

  7. Effect of Electroacupuncture on Visceral and Hepatic Fat in Women with Abdominal Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Study Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hong; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Shuyun; Chen, Zhenyan

    2017-04-01

    volume and HFF in women with abdominal obesity.

  8. Renal function following long-term weight loss in individuals with abdominal obesity on a very-low-carbohydrate diet vs high-carbohydrate diet.

    PubMed

    Brinkworth, Grant D; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M

    2010-04-01

    A frequently cited concern of very-low-carbohydrate diets is the potential for increased risk of renal disease associated with a higher protein intake. However, to date, no well-controlled randomized studies have evaluated the long-term effects of very-low-carbohydrate diets on renal function. To study this issue, renal function was assessed in 68 men and women with abdominal obesity (age 51.5+/-7.7 years, body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 33.6+/-4.0) without preexisting renal dysfunction who were randomized to consume either an energy-restricted ( approximately 1,433 to 1,672 kcal/day), planned isocaloric very-low-carbohydrate (4% total energy as carbohydrate [14 g], 35% protein [124 g], 61% fat [99 g]), or high-carbohydrate diet (46% total energy as carbohydrate [162 g], 24% protein [85 g], 30% fat [49 g]) for 1 year. Body weight, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion were assessed before and after 1 year (April 2006-July 2007). Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted. Weight loss was similar in both groups (very-low-carbohydrate: -14.5+/-9.7 kg, high-carbohydrate: -11.6+/-7.3 kg; P=0.16). By 1 year, there were no changes in either group in serum creatinine levels (very-low-carbohydrate: 72.4+/-15.1 to 71.3+/-13.8 mumol/L, high-carbohydrate: 78.0+/-16.0 to 77.2+/-13.2 mumol/L; P=0.93 time x diet effect) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (very-low-carbohydrate: 90.0+/-17.0 to 91.2+/-17.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), high-carbohydrate: 83.8+/-13.8 to 83.6+/-11.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P=0.53 time x diet effect). All but one participant was classified as having normoalbuminuria at baseline, and for these participants, urinary albumin excretion values remained in the normoalbuminuria range at 1 year. One participant in high-carbohydrate had microalbuminuria (41.8 microg/min) at baseline, which decreased to a value of 3.1 microg/min (classified as normoalbuminuria) at 1 year. This study provides preliminary

  9. Effect of protein source during weight loss on body composition, cardiometabolic risk and physical performance in abdominally obese, older adults: a pilot feeding study.

    PubMed

    Beavers, K M; Gordon, M M; Easter, L; Beavers, D P; Hairston, K G; Nicklas, B J; Vitolins, M Z

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to begin to examine the effect of dietary protein source (soy protein versus non-soy protein) during weight loss on body composition, and cardiometabolic and functional decline risk factors in older, abdominally obese adults. Two-arm, single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem NC 27157, USA. 25 older (68.4±5.5 years, 88% female), abdominally obese (BMI: 35.1±4.3 kg/m2; WC: 101.4±13.1 cm) men and women were randomized to participate in the study. A 12-week weight loss intervention, with participants randomized to consume soy protein-based meal replacements (S; n=12) or non-soy protein-based meal replacements (NS; n=12), in addition to prepared meals, and all participants targeted to receive an individualized caloric deficit of 500 kcal/day. Body weight and composition (assessed via DXA and CT), conventional biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, and physical performance measures were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Additional endpoints of feasibility (accrual, participation, retention, compliance, and safety) are reported. A total of 24 participants (87% female) completed the study (96% retention) and lost an average of 7.8±3.0 kg over the 12-week period, with no difference seen between groups (p=0.83). Although nearly all measures of global and regional body composition were significantly reduced following the 12-week intervention, differences were not observed between groups. Among cardiometabolic risk factors and physical performance measures, only diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the NS group compared to the S group (66.7±2.7 mmHg vs 73.5±2.7 mmHg, respectively; p=0.04). Interestingly, in groups combined, despite significant reductions in body weight and lean mass, no significant changes in 400-meter walk time (+5.3±43.4 s), short physical performance battery score (+0.1±1.0), grip strength (-0.3±3.2 kg), or relative knee extensor strength (-0.0±0

  10. The distance between the lower edge of the xiphisternum and the center of the umbilicus as an indicator of abdominal obesity and cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Katulanda, Prasad; Jayawardena, Mallika Arachchige Ranil; Sheriff, Mohamed Hussain Rezvi; Matthews, David Richard

    2010-06-01

    Abdominal obesity is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To compare the distance between the lower edge of xiphisternum and the center of the umbilicus (XUD) with other anthropometric measurements in predicting risk factors for CVD. A random sample of 4,485 (males 1,772, females 2,713) nationally representative noninstitutionalized adults aged >or=18 years were included in the analysis. XUD, BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured and fasting venous blood samples were collected to determine glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triacylglyceride levels. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also preformed. The mean XUD (+/- SD) was 17.4 +/- 3.2 cm and 17.0 +/- 3.0 cm for males (M) and females (F) respectively (M vs. F; p < 0.001). XUD had significant correlations with the cardiovascular risk factors analyzed as continuous variables (p < 0.001), except LDL cholesterol for women. However, the strengths of associations were weak for all associations (<0.3). The correlations of BMI, WC and WHR with XUD were significant (p < 0.001). The area under the curve (AUC) in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for XUD in predicting the presence of two or more CVD risk factors was 0.62 (95%CI 0.61- 0.64); the corresponding AUC values for BMI (0.71, 95% CI 0.69-0.72), WC (0.71 95% CI, 0.70-0.73), and WHR (0.67 95% CI, 0.65-0.68) were higher than that for XUD. The XUD showed significant correlations with the cardiovascular risk factors among Sriii Lankan adults. However, in predicting CVD risk XUD was inferior to BMI, WC, and WHR. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Use of insulin sensitizers for the treatment of major depressive disorder: a pilot study of pioglitazone for major depression accompanied by abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Kemp, David E; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Ganocy, Stephen J; Conroy, Carla; Gao, Keming; Obral, Sarah; Fein, Elizabeth; Findling, Robert L; Calabrese, Joseph R

    2012-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the safety and efficacy of pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizer, in adult outpatients with major depressive disorder. In a 12-week, open-label, flexible-dose study, 23 patients with major depressive disorder received pioglitazone monotherapy or adjunctive therapy initiated at 15 mg daily. Subjects were required to meet criteria for abdominal obesity (waist circumference>35 in. in women and >40 in. in men) or metabolic syndrome. The primary efficacy measure was the change from baseline to Week 12 on the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) total score. Partial responders (≥25% decrease in IDS total score) were eligible to participate in an optional extension phase for an additional three months. Pioglitazone decreased depression symptom severity from a total IDS score of 40.3±1.8 to 19.2±1.8 at Week 12 (p<.001). Among partial responders (≥25% decrease in IDS total score), an improvement in depressive symptoms was maintained during an additional 3-month extension phase (total duration=24 weeks) according to IDS total scores (p<.001). Patients experienced a reduction in insulin resistance from baseline to Week 12 according to the log homeostasis model assessment (-0.8±0.75; p<.001) and a significant reduction in inflammation as measured by log highly- sensitive C-reactive protein (-0.87±0.72; p<.001). During the current episode, the majority of participants (74%, n=17), had already failed at least one antidepressant trial. The most common side effects were headache and dizziness; no patient discontinued due to side effects. These data are limited by a small sample size and an open-label study design with no placebo control. Although preliminary, pioglitazone appears to reduce depression severity and improve several markers of cardiometabolic risk, including insulin resistance and inflammation. Larger, placebo-controlled studies are indicated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... DC, Wewalka M, et al. Adjustable gastric band surgery or medical management in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized ... 25900871 . Kushner RF, Ryan DH. Assessment and lifestyle management of patients with ... surgery versus conventional medical treatment in obese patients with ...

  13. High and Low Activity Rats: Elevated intrinsic physical activity drives resistance to diet induced obesity in non-bred rats

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio E.; Boland, Kelsey; Billington, Charles; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Humans and rodents show large variability in their individual sensitivity to diet-induced obesity, which has been associated with differences in intrinsic spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Evidence from genetic and out-bred rat obesity models shows that higher activity of the orexin peptides results in higher intrinsic SPA and protection against diet-induced obesity. Based on this, we hypothesized that naturally occurring variation in SPA and orexin signaling activity is sufficient to drive differences in sensitivity to diet-induced obesity. We analyzed orexin activity and sensitivity to diet-induced obesity in non-manipulated male Sprague Dawley rats selected for high and low intrinsic SPA. Our results defined a new model of differential DIO sensitivity, the high-activity and low activity-rats, and suggest that naturally occurring variations in intrinsic SPA cause differences in energy expenditure that are mediated by orexin signaling and alter DIO sensitivity. PMID:23404834

  14. Increasing plasma free fatty acids in healthy subjects induces aortic distensibility changes seen in obesity.

    PubMed

    Rider, Oliver J; Holloway, Cameron J; Emmanuel, Yaso; Bloch, Edward; Clarke, Kieran; Neubauer, Stefan

    2012-05-01

    Elevated free fatty acid (FFA) levels are known to impair aortic elastic function. In obesity, FFA levels are elevated and aortic distensibility (AD) reduced in a pattern that predominantly affects the distal aorta. Despite this, the role of FFAs in obesity-related aortic stiffness remains unclear. Using vascular MRI, we aimed to determine if (1) FFA level correlated with AD in obesity; and (2) whether elevating FFA acutely and subacutely in normal-weight subjects reproduced the distal pattern of AD change in obesity. To do this, regional AD was recorded in 35 normal-weight and 70 obese subjects and then correlated with FFA levels. When compared with normal weight, obesity was associated with reduced AD in a pattern predominantly affecting the distal aorta (ascending aorta by -22%, proximal descending aorta by -25%, and abdominal aorta by -35%; P<0.001). After controlling for age, blood pressure, and body mass index, FFA levels remained negatively correlated with abdominal AD (r=-0.43, P<0.01). In 2 further normal-weight groups, AD was recorded before and after elevation of FFA levels with intralipid infusion (by +535%, n=9) and a 5-day high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet (by +48%, n=14). Both intralipid infusion and a low-carbohydrate diet resulted in reduced abdominal AD (infusion -22%, diet -28%; both P<0.05), reproducing the distal pattern AD reduction seen in obesity. These findings suggest that elevated FFA impair AD in obesity and provide a potential therapeutic target to improve aortic elastic function in obesity.

  15. Elevated hepatic fatty acid elongase-5 activity corrects dietary fat-induced hyperglycemia in obese BL/6J mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Sasmita; Torres-Gonzalez, Moises; Jump, Donald B.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated hepatic fatty acid elongase-5 (Elovl5) activity lowers blood glucose in fasted chow-fed C57BL/6J mice. As high-fat diets induce hyperglycemia and suppress hepatic Elovl5 activity, we tested the hypothesis that elevated hepatic Elovl5 expression attenuates hyperglycemia in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice. Increasing hepatic Elovl5 activity by a recombinant adenoviral approach restored blood glucose and insulin, HOMA-IR, and glucose tolerance to normal values in obese mice. Elevated Elovl5 activity increased hepatic content of Elovl5 products (20:3,n-6, 22:4,n-6) and suppressed levels of enzymes (Pck1, G6Pc) and transcription factors (FoxO1 and PGC1α, but not CRTC2) involved in gluconeogenesis. Effects of Elovl5 on FoxO1 nuclear abundance correlated with increased phosphorylation of FoxO1, Akt, and the catalytic unit of PP2A, as well as a decline in cellular abundance of TRB3. Such changes are mechanistically linked to the regulation of FoxO1 nuclear abundance and gluconeogenesis. These results show that Elovl5 activity impacts the hepatic abundance and phosphorylation status of multiple proteins involved in gluconeogenesis. Our findings establish a link between fatty acid elongation and hepatic glucose metabolism and suggest a role for regulators of Elovl5 activity in the treatment of diet-induced hyperglycemia. PMID:20488798

  16. Effects of the new dual PPAR α/δ agonist GFT505 on lipid and glucose homeostasis in abdominally obese patients with combined dyslipidemia or impaired glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cariou, Bertrand; Zaïr, Yassine; Staels, Bart; Bruckert, Eric

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated the metabolic effects and tolerability of GFT505, a novel dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α/δ agonist, in abdominally obese patients with either combined dyslipidemia or prediabetes. The S1 study was conducted in 94 patients with combined dyslipidemia while the S2 study was conducted in 47 patients with prediabetes. Participants were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to GFT505 at 80 mg/day or placebo for 28 (S1) or 35 (S2) days. Primary efficacy end points were changes from baseline at week 4 in both fasting plasma triglycerides and HDL cholesterol in the S1 group and 2-h glucose upon oral glucose tolerance test in the S2 group. In comparison with placebo, GFT505 significantly reduced fasting plasma triglycerides (S1: least squares means -16.7% [95% one-sided CI -∞ to -5.3], P = 0.005; S2: -24.8% [-∞ to -10.5], P = 0.0003) and increased HDL cholesterol (S1: 7.8% [3.0 to ∞], P = 0.004; S2: 9.3% [1.7 to ∞], P = 0.009) in both studies, whereas LDL cholesterol only decreased in S2 (-11.0% [ -∞ to -3.5], P = 0.002). In S2, GFT505 did not reduce 2-h glucose (-0.52 mmol/L [-∞ to 0.61], P = 0.18) but led to a significant decrease of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (-31.4% [-∞ to 12.5], P = 0.001), fasting plasma glucose (-0.37 mmol/L [-∞ to -0.10], P = 0.01) and fructosamine (-3.6% [-∞ to -0.20], P = 0.02). GFT505 also reduced γ glutamyl transferase levels in both studies (S1: -19.9% [-∞ to -12.8], P < 0.0001; S2: -15.1% [-∞ to -1.1], P = 0.004). No specific adverse safety signals were reported during the studies. GFT505 may be considered a new drug candidate for the treatment of lipid and glucose disorders associated with the metabolic syndrome.

  17. Effects of the New Dual PPARα/δ Agonist GFT505 on Lipid and Glucose Homeostasis in Abdominally Obese Patients With Combined Dyslipidemia or Impaired Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cariou, Bertrand; Zaïr, Yassine; Staels, Bart; Bruckert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We evaluated the metabolic effects and tolerability of GFT505, a novel dual peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α/δ agonist, in abdominally obese patients with either combined dyslipidemia or prediabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The S1 study was conducted in 94 patients with combined dyslipidemia while the S2 study was conducted in 47 patients with prediabetes. Participants were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to GFT505 at 80 mg/day or placebo for 28 (S1) or 35 (S2) days. Primary efficacy end points were changes from baseline at week 4 in both fasting plasma triglycerides and HDL cholesterol in the S1 group and 2-h glucose upon oral glucose tolerance test in the S2 group. RESULTS In comparison with placebo, GFT505 significantly reduced fasting plasma triglycerides (S1: least squares means −16.7% [95% one-sided CI −∞ to −5.3], P = 0.005; S2: −24.8% [−∞ to −10.5], P = 0.0003) and increased HDL cholesterol (S1: 7.8% [3.0 to ∞], P = 0.004; S2: 9.3% [1.7 to ∞], P = 0.009) in both studies, whereas LDL cholesterol only decreased in S2 (−11.0% [ −∞ to −3.5], P = 0.002). In S2, GFT505 did not reduce 2-h glucose (−0.52 mmol/L [−∞ to 0.61], P = 0.18) but led to a significant decrease of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (−31.4% [−∞ to 12.5], P = 0.001), fasting plasma glucose (−0.37 mmol/L [−∞ to −0.10], P = 0.01) and fructosamine (−3.6% [−∞ to −0.20], P = 0.02). GFT505 also reduced γ glutamyl transferase levels in both studies (S1: −19.9% [−∞ to −12.8], P < 0.0001; S2: −15.1% [−∞ to −1.1], P = 0.004). No specific adverse safety signals were reported during the studies. CONCLUSIONS GFT505 may be considered a new drug candidate for the treatment of lipid and glucose disorders associated with the metabolic syndrome. PMID:21816979

  18. Elevated autophagy gene expression in adipose tissue of obese humans: A potential non-cell-cycle-dependent function of E2F1

    PubMed Central

    Haim, Yulia; Blüher, Matthias; Slutsky, Noa; Goldstein, Nir; Klöting, Nora; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Kirshtein, Boris; Ginsberg, Doron; Gericke, Martin; Guiu Jurado, Esther; Kovsan, Julia; Tarnovscki, Tanya; Kachko, Leonid; Bashan, Nava; Gepner, Yiftach; Shai, Iris; Rudich, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy genes' expression is upregulated in visceral fat in human obesity, associating with obesity-related cardio-metabolic risk. E2F1 (E2F transcription factor 1) was shown in cancer cells to transcriptionally regulate autophagy. We hypothesize that E2F1 regulates adipocyte autophagy in obesity, associating with endocrine/metabolic dysfunction, thereby, representing non-cell-cycle function of this transcription factor. E2F1 protein (N=69) and mRNA (N=437) were elevated in visceral fat of obese humans, correlating with increased expression of ATG5 (autophagy-related 5), MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 β), but not with proliferation/cell-cycle markers. Elevated E2F1 mainly characterized the adipocyte fraction, whereas MKI67 (marker of proliferation Ki-67) was elevated in the stromal-vascular fraction of adipose tissue. In human visceral fat explants, chromatin-immunoprecipitation revealed body mass index (BMI)-correlated increase in E2F1 binding to the promoter of MAP1LC3B, but not to the classical cell cycle E2F1 target, CCND1 (cyclin D1). Clinically, omental fat E2F1 expression correlated with insulin resistance, circulating free-fatty-acids (FFA), and with decreased circulating ADIPOQ/adiponectin, associations attenuated by adjustment for autophagy genes. Overexpression of E2F1 in HEK293 cells enhanced promoter activity of several autophagy genes and autophagic flux, and sensitized to further activation of autophagy by TNF. Conversely, mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF)-derived adipocytes from e2f1 knockout mice (e2f1−/−) exhibited lower autophagy gene expression and flux, were more insulin sensitive, and secreted more ADIPOQ. Furthermore, e2f1−/− MEF-derived adipocytes, and autophagy-deficient (by Atg7 siRNA) adipocytes were resistant to cytokines-induced decrease in ADIPOQ secretion. Jointly, upregulated E2F1 sensitizes adipose tissue autophagy to inflammatory stimuli, linking visceral obesity to adipose and systemic

  19. Elevated serum milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 levels in type 2 diabetic patients are suppressed by overweight or obese status.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Ran, Wenzhuo; Zhang, Jiaqiang; Chen, Shi; Li, Yihang; Luo, Deng; Wang, Chen; Jia, Weiping

    2017-02-01

    Inflammation is the most important link between obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a key mediator in anti-inflammatory responses, its role in obesity and diabetes is not yet completely understood. We aimed to measure MFG-E8 serum levels and to explore the role of MFG-E8 in obesity and T2D. Fasting serum MFG-E8 levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for 168 individuals, whose oral glucose tolerance test was conducted, and levels of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein, were measured. The participants were subdivided into 66 newly diagnosed T2D individuals, 44 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects and 58 healthy controls. Their characteristics were further classified as lean or nonlean for investigation. MFG-E8 levels were significantly higher in T2D subjects than in healthy controls (P = 0.028). Decreased levels of MFG-E8 were found in overweight or obese individuals, compared to those in lean subjects, in both the T2D and IGT groups (P < 0.001). Interestingly, MFG-E8 levels showed a negative correlation with body mass index (BMI) and TNF-α levels in the total population and the T2D subgroup. Further, BMI and TNF-α concentrations were found to be independent predictors of MFG-E8 levels in all subjects. MFG-E8 levels are elevated in T2D but suppressed by increased adipose tissues, thereby allowing inflammatory factors to rise to high levels. MFG-E8 may serve as a potential biomarker for obesity and T2D in the clinical setting. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(2):63-71, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation.

    PubMed

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, I A; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated.

  1. Clinical usefulness of the thickness of preperitoneal and subcutaneous fat layer in the abdomen estimated by ultrasonography for diagnosing abdominal obesity in each type of impaired glucose tolerance in man.

    PubMed

    Soyama, Akiko; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Ishizuka, Toshiharu; Ito, Hiroko; Saito, Jun; Yagi, Kazuo; Saito, Yasushi

    2005-04-01

    For this study we enrolled 1,615 males who were admitted to our hospital for a general health check-up. Plasma glucose (PG) and insulin were measured during 75 g OGTT, and abdominal obesity was assessed by ultrasonography in all subjects. We divided them into several groups: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), high-normal glucose tolerance (h-NGT) who showed >10.0 nmol/l at 1 hr PG among those with NGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), IFG + IGT, and DM, according to the results of 75 g OGTT. The aim of the present study was to clarify the clinical characteristics of pre-diabetic disorders relating to metabolic syndrome by comparing various parameters including body mass index (BMI), blood levels of various lipids and abdominal wall fat index (AFI) calculated from the thickness of preperitoneal (Pmax) and subcutaneous (Smin) fat layer in the abdomen estimated by ultrasonography with insulin sensitivity determined by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) in each type of abnormal glucose regulation as classified by PG changes in 75 g OGTT. We also investigated the relationship between insulin secretion capability and insulin sensitivity to delineate the characteristics of each type of abnormal glucose regulation, and compared the area under the insulin curve (AUCins) and the time axis, and the ability of early insulin secretion by glucose loading (insulinogenic index: I.I.) in each type of abnormal glucose regulation. There was a significant positive correlation between HOMA-IR and Smin or Pmax, suggesting that Smin and Pmax may reflect insulin sensitivity. Abdominal obesity, which was diagnosed from the data of AFI, was present in the h-NGT and IFG + IGT groups, suggesting that those groups belong to the clinical entity of metabolic syndrome. HOMA-IR was higher in IFG than in IGT, although I.I. was reduced and AUCins was increased in IFG as well as in IGT. h-NGT demonstrated a slightly lower I.I. and higher AUCins, compared with IGT

  2. [Abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Sido, B; Grenacher, L; Friess, H; Büchler, M W

    2005-09-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma is much more frequent than penetrating abdominal trauma in Europe. As a consequence of improved quality of computed tomography, even complex liver injuries are increasingly being treated conservatively. However, missed hollow viscus injuries still remain a problem, as they considerably increase mortality in multiply injured patients. Laparoscopy decreases the rate of unnecessary laparotomies in perforating abdominal trauma and helps to diagnose injuries of solid organs and the diaphragm. However, the sensitivity in detecting hollow viscus injuries is low and the role of laparoscopy in blunt abdominal injury has not been defined. If intra-abdominal bleeding is difficult to control in hemodynamically unstable patients, damage control surgery with packing of the liver, total splenectomy, and provisional closure of hollow viscus injuries is of importance. Definitive surgical treatment follows hemodynamic stabilization and restoration of hemostasis. Injuries of the duodenum and pancreas after blunt abdominal trauma are often associated with other intra-abdominal injuries and the treatment depends on their location and severity.

  3. Metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Masao; Tanaka, Satoru; Shimago, Atsushi; Sameshima, Koji; Nishi, Junichiro; Nomura, Yuichi; Kawano, Yoshifumi; Hashiguchi, Jun; Ichiki, Takeo; Shimizu, Shinichiro

    2005-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of and sex differences related to the metabolic syndrome among obese and overweight elementary school children. Subjects were 471 overweight or obese Japanese children. Children meeting at least three of the following five criteria qualified as having the metabolic syndrome: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, and high fasting glucose levels. Fasting insulin levels were also examined. Japanese obese children were found to have a significantly lower prevalence (17.7%) of the metabolic syndrome than U.S. obese adolescents (28.7%, p = 0.0014). However, Japanese overweight children had a similar incidence (8.7%) of the metabolic syndrome compared with U.S. overweight adolescents (6.8%). Hyperinsulinemia in girls and abdominal obesity in boys are characteristic features of individual metabolic syndrome factors in Japanese children. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is not lower in preteen Japanese overweight children than in U.S. overweight adolescents, although it is significantly lower in Japanese obese preteen children than in U.S. obese adolescents. Primary and secondary interventions are needed for overweight preteen children in Japan.

  4. Obese First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Elevated Triglyceride Levels Exhibit Increased β-Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Porchia, Leonardo M.; Ruiz-Vivanco, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Mejia, M. Elba; Báez-Duarte, Blanca G.; Pulido-Pérez, Patricia; Rivera, Alicia; Romero, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized as a disease continuum that is marked by metabolic changes that are present for several years, sometimes well before frank diagnosis of T2DM. Genetic predisposition, ethnicity, geography, alterations in BMI, and lipid profile are considered important markers for the pathogenesis of T2DM through mechanisms that remain unresolved and controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between triglycerides (TGs) and β-cell function, insulin resistance (IR), and insulin sensitivity (IS) in obese first-degree relatives of patients with T2DM (FDR-T2DM) among subjects from central Mexico with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We studied 372 FDR-T2DM subjects (ages,18–65) and determined body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin, and TGs levels. Subjects were categorized based on glycemic control [NGT, prediabetes (PT2DM), or T2DM]. NGT subjects were further categorized by BMI [normal weight (Ob−) or obese (Ob+)] and TGs levels (TG−, <150 mg/dL, or TG+, ≥150 mg/dL). β-cell function, IR, and IS were determined by the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA2-β), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR), and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) indices, respectively. Results: The obese subjects with elevated TGs levels had 21%–60% increased β-cell function when compared to all groups (P<0.05). In addition, this group had insulin levels, IS, and IR similar to PT2DM. Furthermore, only in obese subjects did TGs correlate with β-cell function (ρ=0.502, P<0.001). Conclusion: We characterized FDR-T2DM subjects from central Mexico with NGT and revealed a class of obese subjects with elevated TGs and β-cell function, which may precede PT2DM. PMID:25423015

  5. Elevated Dopamine D2/3 Receptor Availability in Obese Individuals: A PET Imaging Study with [11C](+)PHNO

    PubMed Central

    Gaiser, Edward C; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Worhunsky, Patrick D; Jastreboff, Ania M; Pittman, Brian; Kantrovitz, Lauren; Angarita, Gustavo A; Cosgrove, Kelly P; Potenza, Marc N; Malison, Robert T; Carson, Richard E; Matuskey, David

    2016-01-01

    Most prior work with positron emission tomography (PET) dopamine subtype 2/3 receptor (D2/3R) non-selective antagonist tracers suggests that obese (OB) individuals exhibit lower D2/3Rs when compared with normal weight (NW) individuals. A D3-preferring D2/3R agonist tracer, [11C](+)PHNO, has demonstrated that body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with D2/3R availability within striatal reward regions. To date, OB individuals have not been studied with [11C](+)PHNO. We assessed D2/3R availability in striatal and extrastriatal reward regions in 14 OB and 14 age- and gender-matched NW individuals with [11C](+)PHNO PET utilizing a high-resolution research tomograph. Additionally, in regions where group D2/3R differences were observed, secondary analyses of 42 individuals that constituted an overweight cohort was done to study the linear association between BMI and D2/3R availability in those respective regions. A group-by-brain region interaction effect (F7, 182=2.08, p=0.047) was observed. Post hoc analyses revealed that OB individuals exhibited higher tracer binding in D3-rich regions: the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) (+20% p=0.02), ventral striatum (VST) (+14% p<0.01), and pallidum (+11% p=0.02). BMI was also positively associated with D2/3R availability in the SN/VTA (r=0.34, p=0.03), VST (r=0.36, p=0.02), and pallidum (r=0.30, p=0.05) across all subjects. These data suggest that individuals who are obese have higher D2/3R availability in brain reward regions densely populated with D3Rs, potentially identifying a novel pharmacologic target for the treatment of obesity. PMID:27374277

  6. Elevated Dopamine D2/3 Receptor Availability in Obese Individuals: A PET Imaging Study with [11C](+)PHNO.

    PubMed

    Gaiser, Edward C; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Worhunsky, Patrick D; Jastreboff, Ania M; Pittman, Brian; Kantrovitz, Lauren; Angarita, Gustavo A; Cosgrove, Kelly P; Potenza, Marc N; Malison, Robert T; Carson, Richard E; Matuskey, David

    2016-12-01

    Most prior work with positron emission tomography (PET) dopamine subtype 2/3 receptor (D 2/3 R) non-selective antagonist tracers suggests that obese (OB) individuals exhibit lower D 2/3 Rs when compared with normal weight (NW) individuals. A D 3 -preferring D 2/3 R agonist tracer, [ 11 C](+)PHNO, has demonstrated that body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with D 2/3 R availability within striatal reward regions. To date, OB individuals have not been studied with [ 11 C](+)PHNO. We assessed D 2/3 R availability in striatal and extrastriatal reward regions in 14 OB and 14 age- and gender-matched NW individuals with [ 11 C](+)PHNO PET utilizing a high-resolution research tomograph. Additionally, in regions where group D 2/3 R differences were observed, secondary analyses of 42 individuals that constituted an overweight cohort was done to study the linear association between BMI and D 2/3 R availability in those respective regions. A group-by-brain region interaction effect (F 7, 182 =2.08, p=0.047) was observed. Post hoc analyses revealed that OB individuals exhibited higher tracer binding in D 3 -rich regions: the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) (+20%; p=0.02), ventral striatum (VST) (+14%; p<0.01), and pallidum (+11%; p=0.02). BMI was also positively associated with D 2/3 R availability in the SN/VTA (r=0.34, p=0.03), VST (r=0.36, p=0.02), and pallidum (r=0.30, p=0.05) across all subjects. These data suggest that individuals who are obese have higher D 2/3 R availability in brain reward regions densely populated with D 3 Rs, potentially identifying a novel pharmacologic target for the treatment of obesity.

  7. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  8. Abdominal rigidity

    MedlinePlus

    ... other symptoms do you have at the same time? For example, do you have abdominal pain ? You may have the following tests: Barium studies of the stomach and intestines (such as an upper GI series ) Blood tests Colonoscopy Gastroscopy Peritoneal lavage Stool studies ...

  9. Education is associated with lower levels of abdominal obesity in women with a non-agricultural occupation: an interaction study using China's Four Provinces survey.

    PubMed

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Chen, Ruoling; Shipley, Martin J; Marmot, Michael G

    2013-08-21

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as their populations become exposed to obesogenic environments. The transition from an agrarian to an industrial and service-based economy results in important lifestyle changes. Yet different socioeconomic groups may experience and respond to these changes differently. Investigating the socioeconomic distribution of obesity in LMICs is key to understanding the causes of obesity but the field is limited by the scarcity of data and a uni-dimensional approach to socioeconomic status (SES). This study splits socioeconomic status into two dimensions to investigate how educated women may have lower levels of obesity in a context where labour market opportunities have shifted away from agriculture to other forms of employment. The Four Provinces Study in China 2008/09 is a household-based community survey of 4,314 people aged ≥60  years (2,465 women). It was used to investigate an interaction between education (none/any) and occupation (agricultural/non-agricultural) on high-risk central obesity defined as a waist circumference ≥80 cm. An interaction term between education and occupation was incorporated in a multivariate logistic regression model, and the estimates adjusted for age, parity, urban/rural residence and health behaviours (smoking, alcohol, meat and fruit & vegetable consumption). Complete case analyses were undertaken and results confirmed using multiple imputation to impute missing data. An interaction between occupation and education was present (P = 0.02). In the group with no education, the odds of central obesity in the sedentary occupation group were more than double those of the agricultural occupation group even after taking age group and parity into account (OR; 95%CI: 2.21; 1.52, 3.21), while in the group with any education there was no evidence of such a relationship (OR; 95%CI: 1.25; 0.92, 1.70). Health behaviours appeared to account for some of

  10. Education is associated with lower levels of abdominal obesity in women with a non-agricultural occupation: an interaction study using China’s four provinces survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as their populations become exposed to obesogenic environments. The transition from an agrarian to an industrial and service-based economy results in important lifestyle changes. Yet different socioeconomic groups may experience and respond to these changes differently. Investigating the socioeconomic distribution of obesity in LMICs is key to understanding the causes of obesity but the field is limited by the scarcity of data and a uni-dimensional approach to socioeconomic status (SES). This study splits socioeconomic status into two dimensions to investigate how educated women may have lower levels of obesity in a context where labour market opportunities have shifted away from agriculture to other forms of employment. Methods The Four Provinces Study in China 2008/09 is a household-based community survey of 4,314 people aged ≥60  years (2,465 women). It was used to investigate an interaction between education (none/any) and occupation (agricultural/non-agricultural) on high-risk central obesity defined as a waist circumference ≥80 cm. An interaction term between education and occupation was incorporated in a multivariate logistic regression model, and the estimates adjusted for age, parity, urban/rural residence and health behaviours (smoking, alcohol, meat and fruit & vegetable consumption). Complete case analyses were undertaken and results confirmed using multiple imputation to impute missing data. Results An interaction between occupation and education was present (P = 0.02). In the group with no education, the odds of central obesity in the sedentary occupation group were more than double those of the agricultural occupation group even after taking age group and parity into account (OR; 95%CI: 2.21; 1.52, 3.21), while in the group with any education there was no evidence of such a relationship (OR; 95%CI: 1.25; 0.92, 1.70). Health behaviours

  11. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Loan, Marta D.; Keim, Nancy L.; Adams, Sean H.; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R.; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A.; Spurlock, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered. PMID:21941636

  12. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  13. Consumption of total fiber and types of fiber are associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and abdominal adiposity in US adults. NHANES 1999-2006.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this cross-sectional study, an inverse association was found between intakes of total dietary fiber and five types of fiber with Body Mass Index, waist circumference, and percent obese, and with increased waist circumference. Intake of vegetable fiber was not associated with any of the weight mea...

  14. Differential nongenetic impact of birth weight versus third-trimester growth velocity on glucose metabolism and magnetic resonance imaging abdominal obesity in young healthy twins.

    PubMed

    Pilgaard, Kasper; Hammershaimb Mosbech, Thomas; Grunnet, Louise; Eiberg, Hans; Van Hall, Gerrit; Fallentin, Eva; Larsen, Torben; Larsen, Rasmus; Poulsen, Pernille; Vaag, Allan

    2011-09-01

    Low birth weight is associated with type 2 diabetes, which to some extent may be mediated via abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance. Fetal growth velocity is high during the third trimester, constituting a potential critical window for organ programming. Intra-pair differences among monozygotic twins are instrumental in determining nongenetic associations between early environment and adult metabolic phenotype. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between size at birth and third-trimester growth velocity on adult body composition and glucose metabolism using intra-pair differences in young healthy twins. Fifty-eight healthy twins (42 monozygotic/16 dizygotic) aged 18-24 yr participated. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Whole-body fat was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan, whereas abdominal visceral and sc fat (L1-L4) were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Third-trimester growth velocity was determined by repeated ultrasound examinations. Size at birth was nongenetically inversely associated with adult visceral and sc fat accumulation but unrelated to adult insulin action. In contrast, fetal growth velocity during third trimester was not associated with adult visceral or sc fat accumulation. Interestingly, third-trimester growth was associated with insulin action in a paradoxical inverse manner. Abdominal adiposity including accumulation of both sc and visceral fat may constitute primary nongenetic factors associated with low birth weight and reduced fetal growth before the third trimester. Reduced fetal growth during vs. before the third trimester may define distinct adult trajectories of metabolic and anthropometric characteristics influencing risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

  15. The Effect of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations on Elevated Serum C-Reactive Protein Concentrations in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Participants of a Preventive Health Program.

    PubMed

    Mastroeni, Silmara S B S; Munasinghe, Lalani L; Pham, Truong-Minh; Loehr, Sarah A; Ekwaru, John Paul; Mastroeni, Marco F; Veugelers, Paul J

    2016-11-04

    The hypothesized effect of vitamin D on C-reactive protein (CRP) has received substantial attention as a potential means to alleviate the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, observational studies have been inconsistent in their reporting of associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and CRP concentrations, and trials and meta analyses have been inconsistent in their conclusions regarding the effect of vitamin D supplementation on CRP concentrations. These supplementation trials were mostly conducted among patients with more or less inflammatory complications and did not consider potential distinctive effects by weight status. To further our understanding of the potential influences of vitamin D on CRP, we analyzed longitudinal observations of 6755 participants of a preventative health program. On average, serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased from 88.3 to 121.0 nmol/L and those of CRP decreased from 1.7 to 1.6 mg/L between baseline and follow up. Relative to obese participants without temporal increases in 25(OH)D, those who showed improvements of <25, 25-50, 50-75, and more than 75 nmol/L at follow up were 0.57 (95% confidence interval: 0.37-0.88), 0.54 (0.34-0.85), 0.49 (0.30-0.80), and 0.48 (0.29-0.78) times as likely to have elevated CRP concentrations (≥1 mg/L), respectively. These associations were less pronounced and not statistically significant for normal weight and overweight participants. Herewith, the findings suggest that promotion of adequate serum 25(OH)D concentrations among obese individuals along with healthy lifestyles may alleviate the public health burden associated with cardiovascular disease.

  16. The Effect of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations on Elevated Serum C-Reactive Protein Concentrations in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Participants of a Preventive Health Program

    PubMed Central

    Mastroeni, Silmara S. B. S.; Munasinghe, Lalani L.; Pham, Truong-Minh; Loehr, Sarah A.; Ekwaru, John Paul; Mastroeni, Marco F.; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesized effect of vitamin D on C-reactive protein (CRP) has received substantial attention as a potential means to alleviate the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, observational studies have been inconsistent in their reporting of associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and CRP concentrations, and trials and meta analyses have been inconsistent in their conclusions regarding the effect of vitamin D supplementation on CRP concentrations. These supplementation trials were mostly conducted among patients with more or less inflammatory complications and did not consider potential distinctive effects by weight status. To further our understanding of the potential influences of vitamin D on CRP, we analyzed longitudinal observations of 6755 participants of a preventative health program. On average, serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased from 88.3 to 121.0 nmol/L and those of CRP decreased from 1.7 to 1.6 mg/L between baseline and follow up. Relative to obese participants without temporal increases in 25(OH)D, those who showed improvements of <25, 25–50, 50–75, and more than 75 nmol/L at follow up were 0.57 (95% confidence interval: 0.37–0.88), 0.54 (0.34–0.85), 0.49 (0.30–0.80), and 0.48 (0.29–0.78) times as likely to have elevated CRP concentrations (≥1 mg/L), respectively. These associations were less pronounced and not statistically significant for normal weight and overweight participants. Herewith, the findings suggest that promotion of adequate serum 25(OH)D concentrations among obese individuals along with healthy lifestyles may alleviate the public health burden associated with cardiovascular disease. PMID:27827910

  17. Mass Spectrometry Imaging Reveals Elevated Glomerular ATP/AMP in Diabetes/obesity and Identifies Sphingomyelin as a Possible Mediator.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Satoshi; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Hamm, Gregory; Darshi, Manjula; Diamond-Stanic, Maggie; Declèves, Anne-Emilie; Slater, Larkin; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Stauber, Jonathan; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Sharma, Kumar

    2016-05-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is suppressed in diabetes and may be due to a high ATP/AMP ratio, however the quantitation of nucleotides in vivo has been extremely difficult. Via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to localize renal nucleotides we found that the diabetic kidney had a significant increase in glomerular ATP/AMP ratio. Untargeted MALDI-MSI analysis revealed that a specific sphingomyelin species (SM(d18:1/16:0)) accumulated in the glomeruli of diabetic and high-fat diet-fed mice compared with wild-type controls. In vitro studies in mesangial cells revealed that exogenous addition of SM(d18:1/16:0) significantly elevated ATP via increased glucose consumption and lactate production with a consequent reduction of AMPK and PGC1α. Furthermore, inhibition of sphingomyelin synthases reversed these effects. Our findings suggest that AMPK is reduced in the diabetic kidney due to an increase in the ATP/AMP ratio and that SM(d18:1/16:0) could be responsible for the enhanced ATP production via activation of the glycolytic pathway. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Long-term lifestyle intervention with optimized high-intensity interval training improves body composition, cardiometabolic risk, and exercise parameters in patients with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Gremeaux, Vincent; Drigny, Joffrey; Nigam, Anil; Juneau, Martin; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Elise; Gayda, Mathieu

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to study the impact of a combined long-term lifestyle and high-intensity interval training intervention on body composition, cardiometabolic risk, and exercise tolerance in overweight and obese subjects. Sixty-two overweight and obese subjects (53.3 ± 9.7 yrs; mean body mass index, 35.8 ± 5 kg/m(2)) were retrospectively identified at their entry into a 9-mo program consisting of individualized nutritional counselling, optimized high-intensity interval exercise, and resistance training two to three times a week. Anthropometric measurements, cardiometabolic risk factors, and exercise tolerance were measured at baseline and program completion. Adherence rate was 97%, and no adverse events occurred with high-intensity interval exercise training. Exercise training was associated with a weekly energy expenditure of 1582 ± 284 kcal. Clinically and statistically significant improvements were observed for body mass (-5.3 ± 5.2 kg), body mass index (-1.9 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)), waist circumference (-5.8 ± 5.4 cm), and maximal exercise capacity (+1.26 ± 0.84 metabolic equivalents) (P < 0.0001 for all parameters). Total fat mass and trunk fat mass, lipid profile, and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein ratio were also significantly improved (P < 0.0001). At program completion, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was reduced by 32.5% (P < 0.05). Independent predictors of being a responder to body mass and waist circumference loss were baseline body mass index and resting metabolic rate; those for body mass index decrease were baseline waist circumference and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. A long-term lifestyle intervention with optimized high-intensity interval exercise improves body composition, cardiometabolic risk, and exercise tolerance in obese subjects. This intervention seems safe, efficient, and well tolerated and could improve adherence to exercise training in this population.

  20. Are Mothers' Working Hours Associated with General and Abdominal Obesity in Children and Adolescents? The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2012).

    PubMed

    Kim, Juyeong; Park, Eun-Cheol; Choi, Young; Park, Sohee

    2018-04-01

    Objectives Despite an increase in the female work force and recent increase in childhood obesity, the association between working hours of mothers and childhood obesity as well as how such association differs according to mothers' weight and intake frequency of energy-dense, nutrition-poor (EDNP) foods remain unclear. Methods Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2012) that included samples from 3914 children in 2526 households were analyzed. Two-level (household-children) mixed-effects modeling was performed to investigate the association between mothers' working hours and childhood obesity based on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Results Long working hours (h) of mothers were associated with both BMI (β = - 0.14; P = 0.324 for 1-20 h, β = 0.10; P = 0.334 for ≤ 21-40 h; β = 0.09; P = 0.429 for 41-68 h, β = 0.51; P = 0.015 for ≥ 69 h) and WC of the child (β = 0.06; P = 0.809 for 1-20 h; β = 0.46; P = 0.017 for ≤ 21-40 h; β = 0.59; P = 0.004 for 41-68 h, β = 1.35; P < 0.001 for ≥ 69 h), and the mean increase was greater for mothers working ≥ 69 h compared to those working 0 h. We also observed that the association between mothers' working hours and child's BMI and WC was greater for children whose mothers were either overweight or obese and frequently consumed energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods (EDNP). Conclusions for Practice Long working hours of mothers are associated with higher BMI and WC in children. Thus, it is important to improve labor welfare for mothers who work long hours, and provide interventions to promote good health behaviors in both children and working mothers.

  1. Supplementation with Resveratrol and Curcumin Does Not Affect the Inflammatory Response to a High-Fat Meal in Older Adults with Abdominal Obesity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial.

    PubMed

    Vors, Cécile; Couillard, Charles; Paradis, Marie-Eve; Gigleux, Iris; Marin, Johanne; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2018-03-01

    High-fat meals induce postprandial inflammation. Resveratrol is a polyphenol known to prevent comorbidities associated with cardiovascular disease and exerts an anti-inflammatory action. There is also an increasing body of evidence supporting the role of curcumin, a polyphenol from the curcuminoid family, as a modulator of proinflammatory processes. The objectives of this study were to investigate the following: 1) the bioavailability of resveratrol consumed in combination with curcumin after consumption of a high-fat meal; and 2) the acute combined effects of this combination on the postprandial inflammatory response of subjects with abdominal obesity. In a double blind, crossover, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 11 men and 11 postmenopausal women [mean ± SD age: 62 ± 5 y; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2): 29 ± 3] underwent a 6-h oral fat tolerance test on 2 occasions separated by 1-2 wk: once after consumption of a dietary supplement (200 mg resveratrol and 100 mg curcumin, Res/Cur) and once after consumption of a placebo (cellulose). Plasma concentrations of total resveratrol and its major metabolites as well as inflammatory markers, adhesion molecules, and whole blood NFκB1 and PPARA gene expression were measured during both fat tolerance tests. Kinetics of resveratrol and identified metabolites revealed rapid absorption patterns but also relatively limited bioavailability based on free resveratrol concentrations. Supplementation with Res/Cur did not modify postprandial variations in circulating inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and adhesion molecules [soluble E-selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1] compared to placebo (PTreatment×Time > 0.05). However, Res/Cur significantly decreased the cumulative postprandial response of sVCAM-1, compared to placebo (incremental area under the curve -4643%, P = 0

  2. Effect of long-term treatment with metformin added to hypocaloric diet on body composition, fat distribution, and androgen and insulin levels in abdominally obese women with and without the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, R; Gambineri, A; Biscotti, D; Vicennati, V; Gagliardi, L; Colitta, D; Fiorini, S; Cognigni, G E; Filicori, M; Morselli-Labate, A M

    2000-08-01

    Abdominal obesity and hyperinsulinemia play a key role in the development of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Dietary-induced weight loss and the administration of insulin-lowering drugs, such as metformin, are usually followed by improved hyperandrogenism and related clinical abnormalities. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of combined hypocaloric diet and metformin on body weight, fat distribution, the glucose-insulin system, and hormones in a group of 20 obese PCOS women [body mass index (BMI) > 28 kg/m2] with the abdominal phenotype (waist to hip ratio >0.80), and an appropriate control group of 20 obese women who were comparable for age and pattern of body fat distribution but without PCOS. At baseline, we measured sex hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and leptin blood concentrations and performed an oral glucose tolerance test and computerized tomography (CT) at the L4-L5 level, to measure sc adipose tissue area (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue area. All women were then given a low-calorie diet (1,200-1,400 kcal/day) alone for one month, after which anthropometric parameters and CT scan were newly measured. While continuing dietary treatment, PCOS women and obese controls were subsequently placed, in a random order, on metformin (850 mg/os, twice daily) (12 and 8, respectively) or placebo (8 and 12, respectively), according to a double-blind design, for the following 6 months. Blood tests and the CT scan were performed in each woman at the end of the study while they were still on treatment. During the treatment period, 3 women of the control group (all treated with placebo) were excluded because of noncompliance; and 2 PCOS women, both treated with metformin, were also excluded because they became pregnant. Therefore, the women cohort available for final statistical analysis included 18 PCOS (10 treated with metformin and 8 with placebo) and 17 control women (8 treated with metformin and 9 with placebo). The treatment was

  3. A positive association between dietary sodium intake and obesity and central obesity: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Wang, Jiawei; Li, Jibin; Yu, Yongfu; Song, Yiqing

    2018-07-01

    The link between sodium and obesity has been accumulated over years. However, there has been few data reported on such sodium-obesity association from the general US population. This study is designed to assess the hypothesis that dietary sodium intake is independently and positively associated with obesity, central obesity, and measures of body composition among generally healthy US adults. We analyzed data on 9162 healthy participants aged 24 to 48 years (4813 men and 4349 women) with at least one valid diet recall from the 8-year National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2006). Measures of body composition, including fat mass, lean mass, and total fat percent, were determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We assessed the association between dietary sodium and obesity and measures of body composition by using multivariable logistic regression models. After adjustment for total energy intake and other prespecified confounders, high sodium intake (>2300 mg/d) was significantly associated with elevated risk of obesity and central obesity as compared with moderate sodium intake (1500-2300 mg/d). On average, each 1-g/d increment in dietary sodium intake resulted in a 15% (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.33) increase in the risk of obesity and 24% (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.39) increase in the risk of central obesity. After stratification by sex and ethnicity, significant associations between sodium and obesity/abdominal obesity were apparent only among women and non-Hispanic whites. In addition, all measures of body composition were positively associated with sodium consumption levels. We found that high sodium intake is independently associated with elevated risk of obesity and central obesity in the general US adult population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Central arterial stiffness and diastolic dysfunction are associated with insulin resistance and abdominal obesity in young women but polycystic ovary syndrome does not confer additional risk.

    PubMed

    Rees, E; Coulson, R; Dunstan, F; Evans, W D; Blundell, H L; Luzio, S D; Dunseath, G; Halcox, J P; Fraser, A G; Rees, D A

    2014-09-01

    Are arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness and diastolic dysfunction increased in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) independently of the effects of obesity? Insulin resistance and central obesity are associated with subclinical cardiovascular dysfunction in young women, but a diagnosis of PCOS does not appear to confer additional risk at this age. Some studies have shown that young women with PCOS may have increased measures of cardiovascular risk, including arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness and myocardial dysfunction. However, it is difficult to establish how much of this risk is due to PCOS per se and how much is due to obesity and insulin resistance, which are common in PCOS and themselves associated with greater vascular risk. This cross-sectional study comprised 84 women with PCOS and 95 healthy volunteers, aged 16-45 years. The study was conducted in a university hospital. Subjects underwent a comprehensive assessment of body composition (including computed tomography (CT) assessment of visceral fat; VF), measurements of arterial stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity; aPWV), common carotid intima-media thickness (ccIMT), diastolic function (longitudinal tissue velocity; e':a') and endocrinological measures. A sample size of 80 in each group gave 80% power for detecting a difference of 0.45 m/s in aPWV or a difference of 0.25 in e':a'. After adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), PCOS subjects had a greater insulin response (insulin area under the curve-IAUC) following glucose challenge (adjusted difference [AD] 35 900 pmol min/l, P < 0.001) and higher testosterone (AD 0.57 nmol/l, P < 0.001) and high molecular weight adiponectin than controls (AD 3.01 µg/ml, P = 0.02), but no significant differences in aPWV (AD -0.13 m/s, P = 0.33), ccIMT (AD -0.01 mm, P = 0.13), or e':a' (AD -0.01, P = 0.86) were observed. After adjustment for age, height and central pulse pressure, e':a' and aPWV were associated with log

  5. Replacement of Refined Starches and Added Sugars with Egg Protein and Unsaturated Fats Increases Insulin Sensitivity and Lowers Triglycerides in Overweight or Obese Adults with Elevated Triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Palacios, Orsolya M; Lindner, Emily; Nieman, Kristin M; Bell, Marjorie; Sorce, Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    Background: Hypertriglyceridemia is a common condition in the United States and is often associated with other metabolic disturbances, including insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and a predominance of small dense LDL particles. Objective: The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of a combination of egg protein (Epro) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) substituted for refined starches and added sugars on insulin sensitivity (primary outcome) and other cardiometabolic health markers in overweight or obese adults with elevated triglyceride (TG) concentrations. Methods: Subjects with elevated TG concentrations were given test foods prepared by using Epro powder (∼8% of energy) and vegetable oil (∼8% of energy; Epro and UFA condition) or test foods prepared by using refined starch and sugar (∼16% of energy; carbohydrate condition) in a randomized, double-blind, controlled-feeding, crossover trial (3 wk/condition, 2-wk washout). The Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (MISI), fasting lipids, and other cardiometabolic health markers were assessed at baseline and the end of each diet condition. Responses were compared by using repeated-measures ANCOVA. Results: Twenty-five participants [11 men, 14 women; mean ± SEM: age, 46.3 ± 2.4 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ), 31.8 ± 1.0] with a median (interquartile range limits) fasting serum TG concentration of 173 mg/dL (159, 228 mg/dL) completed the trial. The MISI value increased 18.1% ± 8.7% from baseline during the Epro and UFA condition and decreased 5.7% ± 6.2% from baseline during the carbohydrate condition ( P < 0.001). The disposition index increased 23.8% ± 20.8% during the Epro and UFA condition compared with a decrease of 16.3% ± 18.8% during carbohydrate ( P = 0.042) and LDL peak particle size increased 0.12 nm (-0.12, 0.28 nm) with Epro and UFA compared with a decrease of 0.15 nm (-0.33, 0.12 nm) with carbohydrate ( P = 0.019). TG and VLDL cholesterol concentrations were lowered by 18

  6. Assessment of image quality and low-contrast detectability in abdominal CT of obese patients: comparison of a novel integrated circuit with a conventional discrete circuit detector at different tube voltages.

    PubMed

    Euler, A; Heye, T; Kekelidze, M; Bongartz, G; Szucs-Farkas, Z; Sommer, C; Schmidt, B; Schindera, Sebastian T

    2015-03-01

    To compare image quality and low-contrast detectability of an integrated circuit (IC) detector in abdominal CT of obese patients with conventional detector technology at low tube voltages. A liver phantom with 45 lesions was placed in a water container to mimic an obese patient and examined on two different CT systems at 80, 100 and 120 kVp. The systems were equipped with either the IC or conventional detector. Image noise was measured, and the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) was calculated. Low-contrast detectability was assessed independently by three radiologists. Radiation dose was estimated by the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). The image noise was significantly lower, and the CNR was significantly higher with the IC detector at 80, 100 and 120 kVp, respectively (P = 0.023). The IC detector resulted in an increased lesion detection rate at 80 kVp (38.1 % vs. 17.2 %) and 100 kVp (57.0 % vs. 41.0 %). There was no difference in the detection rate between the IC detector at 100 kVp and the conventional detector at 120 kVp (57.0 % vs. 62.2 %). The CTDIvol at 80, 100 and 120 kVp measured 4.5-5.2, 7.3-7.9 and 9.8-10.2 mGy, respectively. The IC detector at 100 kVp resulted in similar low-contrast detectability compared to the conventional detector with a 120-kVp protocol at a radiation dose reduction of 37 %.

  7. The impact of masticatory ability as evaluated by salivary flow rates on obesity in Japanese: The Toon health study.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Koutatsu; Nishioka, Shinji; Miyoshi, Noriko; Higuchi, Kana; Mori, Hiromi; Tanno, Sakurako; Tomooka, Kiyohide; Eguchi, Eri; Furukawa, Shinya; Saito, Isao; Sakurai, Susumu; Nishida, Wataru; Osawa, Haruhiko; Tanigawa, Takeshi

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the associations of masticatory ability evaluated by chewing-gum-stimulated salivary flow rate with anthropometric indices among a general Japanese population. In total, 921 Japanese men and women aged 30-79 years participated in this cross-sectional study. Saliva production was stimulated by 5 min of gum chewing, then collected; salivary flow rate was calculated as g/min. Overweight, abdominal obesity in terms of waist circumference (WC), and waist-hip ratio (WHR), and elevated skinfold thickness statuses were determined. The multivariable odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals of overweight, abdominal obesity (WC, WHR), and elevated skinfold thickness status for highest vs. lowest quartile of salivary flow rate were 0.59 (0.37-0.95, P for trend = 0.02), 0.65 (0.43-0.98, P = 0.03), 0.54 (0.35-0.83, P < 0.01), and 0.61 (0.39-0.96, P < 0.01), respectively. The linear trends of multivariable-adjusted means of BMI, WC, WHR, and skinfold thickness according to quartiles of salivary flow rate did not vary after stratification by overweight status. Higher stimulated salivary flow rate, a surrogate marker for mastication ability, was associated with lower prevalence of overweight, abdominal obesity (whether WC- or WHR-defined), and elevated skinfold thickness among the general Japanese population. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  8. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life ... familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: abdominal aorta, abdominal aortic aneurysm, abdominal pain, ...

  9. A randomized, double blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the effects of Candesartan on the insulin sensitivity on non diabetic, non hypertense subjects with dysglyce mia and abdominal obesity. "ARAMIA"

    PubMed Central

    López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Pradilla, Lina P; Lahera, Vicente; Sieger, Federico A Silva; Rueda-Clausen, Christian F; Márquez, Gustavo A

    2006-01-01

    Candesartan, could improve the HOMA index, the response to the oral glucose tolerance test and reduce the plasma levels of adipoquines, oxidative stress and prothrombotic markers, in non diabetic, non hypertense subjects with dysglycemia and abdominal obesity, recruited from a population at high risk of developing insulin resistance. These effects are independent of the changes in arterial blood pressure. Trial registration: NCT00319202 PMID:16959033

  10. Sarcopenic-obesity and cardiovascular disease risk in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Stephen, W C; Janssen, I

    2009-05-01

    To determine: 1) whether sarcopenic-obesity is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than either sarcopenia or obesity alone in the elderly, and 2) whether muscle mass or muscular strength is a stronger marker of CVD risk. Prospective cohort study. Participants included 3366 community-dwelling older (>or= 65 years) men and women who were free of CVD at baseline. Waist circumference (WC), bioimpedance analysis, and grip strength were used to measure abdominal obesity, whole-body muscle mass, and muscular strength, respectively. Subjects were classified as normal, sarcopenic, obese, or sarcopenic-obese based on measures of WC and either muscle mass or strength. Participants were followed for 8 years for CVD development and proportional hazard regression models were used to compare risk estimates for CVD in the four groups after adjusting for age, sex, race, income, smoking, alcohol, and cognitive status. Compared with the normal group, CVD risk was not significantly elevated within the obese, sarcopenic, or sarcopenic-obese groups as determined by WC and muscle mass. When determined by WC and muscle strength, CVD risk was not significantly increased in the sarcopenic or obese groups, but was increased by 23% (95% confidence interval: 0.99-1.54, P=0.06) within the sarcopenic-obese group. Sarcopenia and obesity alone were not sufficient to increase CVD risk. Sarcopenic-obesity, based on muscle strength but not muscle mass, was modestly associated with increased CVD risk. These findings imply that strength may be more important than muscle mass for CVD protection in old age.

  11. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model.

  12. Intra-abdominal fat measurement by ultrasonography: association with anthropometry and metabolic syndrome in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Novais, Rommel L R; Café, Ana Carolina C; Morais, Aisha A; Bila, Wendell C; Santos, Gilson D da S; Lopes, Carlos Alexandre de O; Belo, Vinícius S; Romano, Márcia Christina C; Lamounier, Joel A

    2018-04-27

    To associate intra-abdominal fat thickness measured by ultrasonography to the factors related to metabolic syndrome and to determine cutoff points of intra-abdominal fat measurement associated with a greater chance of metabolic syndrome in adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study, with 423 adolescents from public schools. Intra-abdominal fat was measured by ultrasonography. Anthropometric data were collected, and biochemical analyses were performed. Intra-abdominal fat was measured by ultrasonography, showing a statistically significant association with the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (p=0.037), body mass index (p<0.001), elevated triglyceride levels (p=0.012), decreased plasma HDL levels (p=0.034), and increased systemic blood pressure values (p=0.023). Cutoff values of intra-abdominal fat thickness measurements were calculated by ultrasound to estimate the individuals most likely to develop metabolic syndrome. In the logistic regression models, the cutoff values that showed the highest association with metabolic syndrome in males were 4.50, 5.35, 5.46, 6.24, and 6.50cm for the ages of 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18/19 years, respectively. In the female gender, the cutoff values defined for the same age groups were 4.46, 4.55, 4.45, 4.90, and 6.46cm. In an overall analysis using the ROC curve, without gender and age stratification, the cut-off of 3.67cm showed good sensitivity, but low specificity. Ultrasonography is a useful method to estimate intra-abdominal adipose tissue in adolescents, which is associated with the main factors related to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Gastrointestinal Morbidity in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a complex disease that results from increased energy intake and decreased energy expenditure. The gastrointestinal system plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and facilitates caloric imbalance. Changes in gastrointestinal hormones and the inhibition of mechanisms that curtail caloric intake result in weight gain. It is not clear if the gastrointestinal role in obesity is a cause or an effect of this disease. Obesity is often associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Obesity is also associated with gastrointestinal disorders, which are more frequent and present earlier than T2DM and CVD. Diseases such as gastro-esophageal reflux disease, cholelithiasis or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are directly related to body weight and abdominal adiposity. Our objective is to assess the role of each gastrointestinal organ in obesity and the gastrointestinal morbidity resulting in those organs from effects of obesity. PMID:24602085

  14. International Day for the Evaluation of Abdominal Obesity (IDEA): a study of waist circumference, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus in 168,000 primary care patients in 63 countries

    PubMed Central

    Balkau, Beverley; Deanfield, John E.; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bassan, Jean-Pierre; Fox, Keith A.A.; Smith, Sidney C.; Barter, Philip; Tan, Chee E.; Van Gaal, Luc; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Massien, Christine; Haffner, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Abdominal adiposity is a growing clinical and public health problem. It is not known whether it is similarly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes in different regions around the world, and thus whether measuring waist circumference (WC) in addition to body mass index (BMI) is useful in primary care practice. Methods and Results Randomly chosen primary care physicians (PCPs) in 63 countries recruited consecutive patients aged 18 to 80 years, on two pre-specified half-days. WC and BMI were measured and the presence of CVD and diabetes recorded. Of the patients consulting the PCPs, 97% agreed to participate in this study. Overall, 24% of 69,409 men and 27% of 98,750 women were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). A further 40% and 30% of men and women, respectively, were overweight (BMI 25 to 30 kg/m2). In men and women, respectively, increased WC (>102/88cm, men/women) was recorded in 29% and 48%, CVD in 16% and 13%, and diabetes in 13% and 11%. There was a statistically significant graded increase in the frequency of CVD and diabetes with both BMI and WC, with a stronger relationship for WC than for BMI across regions, for both genders. This relationship between WC, CVD and particularly diabetes was seen even in lean patients (BMI <25 kg/m2). Conclusions Among men and women consulting PCPs, BMI and particularly WC were both strongly linked to CVD and especially to diabetes. Strategies to address this global problem are required to prevent an epidemic of these major causes of morbidity and mortality. PMID:17965405

  15. Stress, cortisol, and obesity: a role for cortisol responsiveness in identifying individuals prone to obesity.

    PubMed

    Hewagalamulage, S D; Lee, T K; Clarke, I J; Henry, B A

    2016-07-01

    There is a strong inter-relationship between activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and energy homeostasis. Patients with abdominal obesity have elevated cortisol levels. Furthermore, stress and glucocorticoids act to control both food intake and energy expenditure. In particular, glucocorticoids are known to increase the consumption of foods enriched in fat and sugar. It is well-known that, in all species, the cortisol response to stress or adrenocorticotropin is highly variable. It has now emerged that cortisol responsiveness is an important determinant in the metabolic sequelae to stress. Sheep that are characterized as high-cortisol responders (HRs) have greater propensity to weight gain and obesity than low-cortisol responders (LRs). This difference in susceptibility to become obese is associated with a distinct metabolic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral phenotype. In women and ewes, HR individuals eat more in response to stress than LR. Furthermore, HR sheep have impaired melanocortin signaling and reduced skeletal muscle thermogenesis. High-cortisol responder sheep exhibit reactive coping strategies, whereas LRs exhibit proactive coping strategies. This complex set of traits leads to increased food intake and reduced energy expenditure in HR and thus, predisposition to obesity. We predict that cortisol responsiveness may be used as a marker to identify individuals who are at risk of weight gain and subsequent obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. APOA2 Polymorphism in Relation to Obesity and Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Amr, Khalda Sayed; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to analysis the relationship between c.-492T>C polymorphism in APOA2 gene and the risk for obesity in a sample of Egyptian adolescents and investigates its effect on body fat distribution and lipid metabolism. Material and Methods. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 303 adolescents. They were 196 obese and 107 nonobese, aged 16-19 years old. Variables examined included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), body fat percentage (BF%), abdominal visceral fat layer, and dietary intake. Abdominal visceral fat thickness was determined by ultrasonography. The polymorphism in the APOA2 c.-492T>C was analyzed by PCR amplification. Results. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the mutant C allele was significantly higher in obese cases compared to nonobese. After multivariate adjustment, waist, BF% and visceral adipose layer, food consumption, and HDL-C were significantly higher in homozygous allele CC carriers than TT+TC carriers. Conclusions. Homozygous individuals for the C allele had higher obesity risk than carriers of the T allele and had elevated levels of visceral adipose tissue and serum HDL-C. Moreover, the study shows association between the APOA2 c.-492T>C polymorphism and food consumption.

  17. APOA2 Polymorphism in Relation to Obesity and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Amr, Khalda Sayed; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to analysis the relationship between c.-492T>C polymorphism in APOA2 gene and the risk for obesity in a sample of Egyptian adolescents and investigates its effect on body fat distribution and lipid metabolism. Material and Methods. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 303 adolescents. They were 196 obese and 107 nonobese, aged 16–19 years old. Variables examined included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), body fat percentage (BF%), abdominal visceral fat layer, and dietary intake. Abdominal visceral fat thickness was determined by ultrasonography. The polymorphism in the APOA2 c.-492T>C was analyzed by PCR amplification. Results. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the mutant C allele was significantly higher in obese cases compared to nonobese. After multivariate adjustment, waist, BF% and visceral adipose layer, food consumption, and HDL-C were significantly higher in homozygous allele CC carriers than TT+TC carriers. Conclusions. Homozygous individuals for the C allele had higher obesity risk than carriers of the T allele and had elevated levels of visceral adipose tissue and serum HDL-C. Moreover, the study shows association between the APOA2 c.-492T>C polymorphism and food consumption. PMID:24382995

  18. Environmental Perturbations: Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity currently affects about one third of the U.S. population, while another one third is overweight. The importance of obesity for certain conditions such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes is well appreciated. The effects of obesity on the respiratory system have received less attention and are the subject of this chapter. Obesity alters the static mechanic properties of the respiratory system leading to a reduction in the functional residual capacity (FRC) and the expiratory reserve volume (ERV). There is substantial variability in the effects of obesity on FRC and ERV, at least some of which is related to the location, rather than the total mass of adipose tissue. Obesity also results in airflow obstruction, which is only partially attributable to breathing at low lung volume, and can also promote airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma. Hypoxemia is common is obesity, and correlates well with FRC, as well as with measures of abdominal obesity. However, obese subjects are usually eucapnic, indicating that hypoventilation is not a common cause of their hypoxemia. Instead, hypoxemia results from ventilation perfusion mismatch caused by closure of dependent airways at FRC. Many obese subjects complain of dyspnea either at rest or during exertion, and the dyspnea score also correlates with reductions in FRC and ERV. Weight reduction should be encouraged in any symptomatic obese individual, since virtually all of the respiratory complications of obesity improve with even moderate weight loss. PMID:23737172

  19. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... plaque buildup causes the walls of the abdominal aorta to become weak and bulge outward like a ... treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, is a ...

  20. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  1. Role of central obesity in risk stratification after an acute coronary event: does central obesity add prognostic value to the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score in patients with acute coronary syndrome?

    PubMed

    Martins, Albino; Ribeiro, Sílvia; Gonçalves, Pierre; Correia, Adelino

    2013-10-01

    Accurate risk stratification is an important step in the initial management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and current guidelines recommend the use of risk scores, such as the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score (GRACE RS). Recent studies have suggested that abdominal obesity is associated with cardiovascular events in patients with ACS. However, little is known about the additional value of abdominal obesity beyond risk scores. The aim of our study was thus to assess whether waist circumference, a surrogate of abdominal adiposity, adds prognostic information to the GRACE RS. This was a retrospective cohort study of ACS patients admitted consecutively to a cardiac care unit between June 2009 and July 2010. The composite of all-cause mortality or myocardial reinfarction within six months of index hospitalization was used as the endpoint for the analysis. A total of 285 patients were studied, 96.1% admitted for myocardial infarction (with or without ST elevation) and 3.9% for unstable angina. At the end of the follow-up period, 10 patients had died and the composite endpoint had been reached in 27 patients (9.5%). More than 70% of the study population were obese or overweight, and abdominal obesity was present in 44.6%. The GRACE RS showed poor predictive accuracy (area under the curve 0.60), and most of the GRACE variables did not reach statistical significance in multivariate analysis. The addition of waist circumference to the GRACE RS did not improve its discriminatory performance. Abdominal obesity does not add prognostic information to the GRACE RS to predict six-month mortality or myocardial reinfarction.

  2. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia Possibly Masked Acute Pancreatitis and Led to a Difficult Diagnosis in an Obese Patient with Ketoacidosis-onset Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Midori; Horita, Akiko; Nakagawara, Hiroshi; Mawatari, Takayuki; Kishigami, Yoshifusa; Tominaga, Yoshiteru; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko; Ishihara, Hisamitsu

    2017-10-01

    A young obese man with ketoacidosis-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus, associated with severe hypertriglyceridemia, was admitted to a local hospital complaining of abdominal pain. Although the abdominal pain worsened, his serum amylase level remained normal with persistent severe hypertriglyceridemia until the second day of hospitalization. The next day, computed tomography showed severe acute pancreatitis (AP) with serum amylase elevation, while the patient's triglyceride level decreased to 558 mg/dL. He was transferred to our hospital and recovered after intensive care. AP accompanied by diabetic ketoacidosis is not rare but an early diagnosis can be difficult to make due to normal amylase levels in the presence of severe hypertriglyceridemia.

  3. The Co-Occurrence of Obesity, Elevated Blood Pressure and Acanthosis Nigricans among American Indian School-children: Identifying Individual Heritage and Environment-level Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Hearst, Mary O.; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Himes, John H.; Butterbrodt, Mark; Sinaiko, Alan; Cloud, Richard Iron; Tobacco, Mary; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and explore the social and cultural etiologic roots of weight status, blood pressure and acanthosis nigricans among American Indian children on a reservation in South Dakota. Methods This observational study was conducted in 26 schools from 1998–2002 and included 5,422 observations representing 3,841 children, ages 3–19. Trained staff measured height, weight, blood pressure and assessed the presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN). Percent Indian heritage (PIH) was abstracted from tribal records. Sociodemographic environment (SDE) was calculated using the 2000 Census at the city/town level. Descriptive analyses were conducted using one measurement time point, including tests for trend and co-occurrence of risk factors using the kappa statistic. Hierarchical, multivariate logistic regression estimated associations with overweight/obesity status, accounting for multiple measures on individuals and SDE. Results The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 46%, of hypertension 9%, and of AN 14%. The co-occurrence of risk factors was moderate to high. PIH and AN were positively associated in unadjusted analysis. Controlling for sex, age, and SDE, higher PIH was a significant correlate of overweight/obesity, although when hypertension (OR=5.92, CI=3.27–10.72), pre-hypertension (OR=3.80, CI=1.99–7.26) and AN (OR=16.20, CI=8.08–32.48) were included in the model PIH was no longer significant. SDE was not significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion PIH appeared to be an important correlate of overweight and obesity, except when adjusted for the co-occurrence of high blood pressure and AN. Overall, the prevalence and co-occurrence of various risk factors in this population was high. Obesity prevention initiatives targeting families and communities are needed, as well as access to screening and treatment services. PMID:21445934

  4. Intrahepatic fat, abdominal adipose tissues, and metabolic state: magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Tene, Lilac; Cohen, Noa; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Zelicha, Hila; Rein, Michal; Bril, Nitzan; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusy, Benjamin; Dicker, Dror; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-07-01

    Intrahepatic fat (IHF) is best known to associate with waist circumference (WC) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), but its relation to abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue is controversial. While IHF ≥ 5% dichotomously defines fatty liver, %IHF is rarely considered as a continuous variable that includes the normal range. In this study, we aimed to evaluate %IHF association with abdominal fat subdepots, pancreatic, and renal-sinus fats. We evaluated %IHF, abdominal fat subdepots, %pancreatic, and renal-sinus fats, among individuals with moderate abdominal obesity, using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Among 275 participants, %IHF widely ranged (0.01%-50.4%) and was lower in women (1.6%) than men (7.3%; P < .001). In an age, sex, and WC-adjusted models, VAT area (P < .006) was directly associated with %IHF, while superficial-subcutaneous adipose tissue proportion was inversely associated with %IHF (P < .006). In these models, renal-sinus fat was positively associated with %IHF (P = .005). In an age, sex, WC, and VAT-adjusted models, elevated liver enzymes, glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory biomarkers were associated with increased %IHF (P < .003 for all). In these models, the associations remained robust even within the normal range strata of IHF < 5% for triglycerides and chemerin (P ≤ .004 for all). For the diagnosis of fatty liver, the joint area under the curve of WC, alanine-aminotransferase, triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was 0.84(95% CI, 0.79-0.89). Intrahepatic fat is differentially associated with abdominal fat subdepots. Intrahepatic-fat as a continuous variable could be predicted by specific traditional parameters, even within the current normal range, and partially independent of VAT. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Obesity, but not metabolic syndrome, negatively affects outcome in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    McElroy, S L; Kemp, D E; Friedman, E S; Reilly-Harrington, N A; Sylvia, L G; Calabrese, J R; Rabideau, D J; Ketter, T A; Thase, M E; Singh, V; Tohen, M; Bowden, C L; Bernstein, E E; Brody, B D; Deckersbach, T; Kocsis, J H; Kinrys, G; Bobo, W V; Kamali, M; McInnis, M G; Leon, A C; Faraone, S; Nierenberg, A A; Shelton, R C

    2015-06-26

    Examine the effects of obesity and metabolic syndrome on outcome in bipolar disorder. The Comparative Effectiveness of a Second Generation Antipsychotic Mood Stabilizer and a Classic Mood Stabilizer for Bipolar Disorder (Bipolar CHOICE) study randomized 482 participants with bipolar disorder in a 6-month trial comparing lithium- and quetiapine-based treatment. Baseline variables were compared between groups with and without obesity, with and without abdominal obesity, and with and without metabolic syndrome respectively. The effects of baseline obesity, abdominal obesity, and metabolic syndrome on outcomes were examined using mixed effects linear regression models. At baseline, 44.4% of participants had obesity, 48.0% had abdominal obesity, and 27.3% had metabolic syndrome; neither obesity, nor abdominal obesity, nor metabolic syndrome were associated with increased global severity, mood symptoms, or suicidality, or with poorer functioning or life satisfaction. Treatment groups did not differ on prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, or metabolic syndrome. By contrast, among the entire cohort, obesity was associated with less global improvement and less improvement in total mood and depressive symptoms, suicidality, functioning, and life satisfaction after 6 months of treatment. Abdominal obesity was associated with similar findings. Metabolic syndrome had no effect on outcome. Obesity and abdominal obesity, but not metabolic syndrome, were associated with less improvement after 6 months of lithium- or quetiapine-based treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic risk factors in a population with mild to severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Do, Kathy; Brown, Ruth E; Wharton, Sean; Ardern, Chris I; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    Previous literature suggests the beneficial effects of fitness on abdominal obesity may be attenuated in obesity and abolished in severe obesity. It is unclear whether the beneficial association between fitness and health is similarly present in those with mild and severe obesity. Patients from the Wharton Medical Clinic ( n  = 853) completed a clinical examination and maximal treadmill test. Patients were categorized into fit and unfit based on age- and sex-categories and body mass index (BMI) class (mild: ≤ 34.9 kg/m 2 , moderate: 35-39.9 kg/m 2 or severe obesity: ≥ 40 kg/m 2 ). Within the sample, 41% of participants with mild obesity had high fitness whereas only 25% and 11% of the participants with moderate and severe obesity, respectively, had high fitness. BMI category was independently associated with most of the metabolic risk factors, while fitness was only independently associated with systolic blood pressure and triglycerides ( P  < 0.05). The prevalent relative risk for pre-clinical hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia and pre-diabetes was only elevated in the unfit moderate and severe obesity groups ( P  < 0.05), and fitness groups were only significantly different in their relative risk for prevalent pre-clinical hypertension within the severe obesity group ( p  = 0.03). High fitness was associated with smaller waist circumferences, with differences between high and low fitness being larger in those with severe obesity than mild obesity (Men: P  = 0.06, Women: P  = 0.0005). Thus, in contrast to previous observations, the favourable associations of having high fitness and health may be similar if not augmented in individuals with severe compared to mild obesity.

  7. Alcohol, metabolic risk and elevated serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in Indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Haren, Matthew T; Li, Ming; Petkov, John; McDermott, Robyn A

    2010-08-03

    The interaction between overweight/obesity and alcohol intake on liver enzyme concentrations have been demonstrated. No studies have yet examined the interaction between metabolic syndrome or multiple metabolic risk factors and alcohol intake on liver enzymes. The aim of this study was to examine if alcohol consumption modifies the effect of metabolic risk on elevated serum GGT in Indigenous Australians. Data were from N = 2609 Indigenous Australians who participated in a health screening program in rural far north Queensland in 1999-2000 (44.5% response rate). The individual and interactive effects of metabolic risk and alcohol drinking on elevated serum GGT concentrations (>or=50 U/L) were analyzed using logistic regression. Overall, 26% of the population had GGT>or=50 U/L. Elevated GGT was associated with alcohol drinking (moderate drinking: OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.6 - 3.2]; risky drinking: OR 6.0 [4.4 - 8.2]), and with abdominal obesity (OR 3.7 [2.5 - 5.6]), adverse metabolic risk cluster profile (OR 3.4 [2.6 - 4.3]) and metabolic syndrome (OR 2.7 [2.1 - 3.5]) after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, smoking, physical activity and BMI. The associations of obesity and metabolic syndrome with elevated GGT were similar across alcohol drinking strata, but the association of an adverse metabolic risk cluster profile with elevated GGT was larger in risky drinkers (OR 4.9 [3.7 - 6.7]) than in moderate drinkers (OR 2.8 [1.6 - 4.9]) and abstainers (OR 1.6 [0.9 - 2.8]). In this Indigenous population, an adverse metabolic profile conferred three times the risk of elevated GGT in risky drinkers compared with abstainers, independent of sex and ethnicity. Community interventions need to target both determinants of the population's metabolic status and alcohol consumption to reduce the risk of elevated GGT.

  8. Child with Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Rajalakshmi; Nallasamy, Karthi

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the common symptoms reported by children in urgent care clinics. While most children tend to have self-limiting conditions, the treating pediatrician should watch out for underlying serious causes like intestinal obstruction and perforation peritonitis, which require immediate referral to an emergency department (ED). Abdominal pain may be secondary to surgical or non-surgical causes, and will differ as per the age of the child. The common etiologies for abdominal pain presenting to an urgent care clinic are acute gastro-enteritis, constipation and functional abdominal pain; however, a variety of extra-abdominal conditions may also present as abdominal pain. Meticulous history taking and physical examination are the best tools for diagnosis, while investigations have a limited role in treating benign etiologies.

  9. Abdominal exploration - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100049.htm Abdominal exploration - series—Normal ... intestine (jejunum and ileum), the large intestine (colon), the liver, the spleen, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the uterus, ...

  10. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome after Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: Quaternary Syndromes?

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, A W; Nickerson, D; Roberts, D J; Rosen, M J; McBeth, P B; Petro, C C; Berrevoet, Frederik; Sugrue, M; Xiao, Jimmy; Ball, C G

    2017-06-01

    Reconstruction with reconstitution of the container function of the abdominal compartment is increasingly being performed in patients with massive ventral hernia previously deemed inoperable. This situation places patients at great risk of severe intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome if organ failure ensues. Intra-abdominal hypertension and especially abdominal compartment syndrome may be devastating systemic complications with systematic and progressive organ failure and death. We thus reviewed the pathophysiology and reported clinical experiences with abnormalities of intra-abdominal pressure in the context of abdominal wall reconstruction. Bibliographic databases (1950-2015), websites, textbooks, and the bibliographies of previously recovered articles for reports or data relating to intra-abdominal pressure, intra-abdominal hypertension, and the abdominal compartment syndrome in relation to ventral, incisional, or abdominal hernia repair or abdominal wall reconstruction. Surgeons should thus consider and carefully measure intra-abdominal pressure and its resultant effects on respiratory parameters and function during abdominal wall reconstruction. The intra-abdominal pressure post-operatively will be a result of the new intra-peritoneal volume and the abdominal wall compliance. Strategies surgeons may utilize to ameliorate intra-abdominal pressure rise after abdominal wall reconstruction including temporizing paralysis of the musculature either temporarily or semi-permanently, pre-operative progressive pneumoperitoneum, permanently removing visceral contents, or surgically releasing the musculature to increase the abdominal container volume. In patients without complicating shock and inflammation, and in whom the abdominal wall anatomy has been so functionally adapted to maximize compliance, intra-abdominal hypertension may be transient and tolerable. Intra-abdominal hypertension/abdominal compartment syndrome in the specific setting of

  11. Abdominal Aortic Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Borioni, Raoul; Garofalo, Mariano; De Paulis, Ruggero; Nardi, Paolo; Scaffa, Raffaele; Chiariello, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    Isolated abdominal aortic dissections are rare events. Their anatomic and clinical features are different from those of atherosclerotic aneurysms. We report 4 cases of isolated abdominal aortic dissection that were successfully treated with surgical or endovascular intervention. The anatomic and clinical features and a review of the literature are also presented. PMID:15902826

  12. Abdominal Trauma Revisited.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, David V

    2017-11-01

    Although abdominal trauma has been described since antiquity, formal laparotomies for trauma were not performed until the 1800s. Even with the introduction of general anesthesia in the United States during the years 1842 to 1846, laparotomies for abdominal trauma were not performed during the Civil War. The first laparotomy for an abdominal gunshot wound in the United States was finally performed in New York City in 1884. An aggressive operative approach to all forms of abdominal trauma till the establishment of formal trauma centers (where data were analyzed) resulted in extraordinarily high rates of nontherapeutic laparotomies from the 1880s to the 1960s. More selective operative approaches to patients with abdominal stab wounds (1960s), blunt trauma (1970s), and gunshot wounds (1990s) were then developed. Current adjuncts to the diagnosis of abdominal trauma when serial physical examinations are unreliable include the following: 1) diagnostic peritoneal tap/lavage, 2) surgeon-performed ultrasound examination; 3) contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis; and 4) diagnostic laparoscopy. Operative techniques for injuries to the liver, spleen, duodenum, and pancreas have been refined considerably since World War II. These need to be emphasized repeatedly in an era when fewer patients undergo laparotomy for abdominal trauma. Finally, abdominal trauma damage control is a valuable operative approach in patients with physiologic exhaustion and multiple injuries.

  13. The effect of high-dose sodium salicylate on chronically elevated plasma nonesterified fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in overweight and obese nondiabetic men.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Changting; Giacca, Adria; Lewis, Gary F

    2009-11-01

    Prolonged elevation of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) induces insulin resistance and impairs pancreatic β-cell adaptation to insulin resistance. Studies in rodents suggest that inflammation may play a role in this "lipotoxicity." We studied the effects of sodium salicylate, an anti-inflammatory agent, on lipid-induced alterations in β-cell function and insulin sensitivity in six overweight and obese nondiabetic men. Each subject underwent four separate studies, 4-6 wk apart, in random order: 1) SAL, 1-wk placebo followed by intravenous (iv) infusion of saline for 48 h; 2) IH, 1-wk placebo followed by iv infusion of intralipid plus heparin for 48 h to raise plasma NEFA approximately twofold; 3) IH + SS, 1-wk sodium salicylate (4.5 g/day) followed by 48-h IH infusion; and 4) SS, 1-wk oral sodium salicylate followed by 48-h saline infusion. After 48-h saline or lipid infusion, insulin secretion and sensitivity were assessed by hyperglycemic clamp and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, respectively, in sequential order. Insulin sensitivity was reduced by lipid infusion (IH = 67% of SAL) and was not improved by salicylate (IH + SS = 56% of SAL). Lipid infusion also reduced the disposition index (P < 0.05), which was not prevented by sodium salicylate. Salicylate reduced insulin clearance. These data suggest that oral sodium salicylate at this dose impairs insulin clearance but does not ameliorate lipid-induced insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in overweight and obese nondiabetic men.

  14. Effect of Gender on the Total Abdominal Fat, Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Abdominal Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue among Indian Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    Abdominal obesity is a better marker of adverse metabolic profile than generalized obesity in hypertensive subjects. Further, gender has effect on adiposity and its distribution. Effect of gender on obesity and the distribution of fat in different sub-compartments of abdomen among Indian hypertensive subjects. This observational study included 278 adult subjects (Males-149 & Females-129) with essential hypertension from a tertiary care centre in north India over one year. A detailed history taking and physical examination including anthropometry were performed in all patients. Total Abdominal Fat (TAF) and abdominal adipose tissue sub-compartments like Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue (IAAT) and Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue (SCAT) were measured using the predictive equations developed for Asian Indians. Female hypertensive subjects had higher Body Mass Index (BMI) with more overweight (BMI ≥ 23kg/m(2)), and obesity (BMI≥ 25 kg/m(2)). Additionally, they had higher prevalence of central obesity based on both Waist Circumference (WC) criteria (WC≥ 90 cm in males and WC≥ 80 cm in females) and TAF criteria {≥245.6 cm(2) (males) and ≥203.46 cm(2) (females)} than male patients. But there was no difference in the prevalence of central obesity based on Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) criteria (WHR ≥0.90 in males and WHR ≥ 0.85 in females) between two genders. High TAF & IAAT were present in more females although there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT between two genders. Female hypertensive subjects were more obese with higher abnormal TAF & IAAT compared to male patients. However, there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT among them.

  15. [Obesity and male infertility].

    PubMed

    Heráček, J; Sobotka, V; Urban, M

    2012-10-01

    The authors present a review on the effects of obesity on male fertility. Current scientific findings suggest an elevated risk of infertility among couples in which the male partner is obese. In obese men can be found reduced serum levels of androgens and SHBG and increased estrogen levels without compensatory increase in FSH. Among other impacts of male obesity that may contribute to increased risk of infertility are altered retention and metabolism of environmental toxins, lifestyle, sexual dysfunction, genetic factors, excessive secretion of hormones derived from adipose tissue, oxidative stress, sperm specific proteomic changes or elevated levels of cytokines. The increasing prevalence of obesity calls for greater clinical awareness of its impact on male fertility.

  16. School-based exercise program improves fitness, body composition and cardiovascular risk profile in overweight/obese children.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Viktória Anna; Fajcsák, Zs; Gábor, A; Martos, E

    2009-09-01

    We determined the effect of a school-based exercise training (ET) without dietary intervention, on body composition, fitness and cardiovascular risk in overweight/obese children. Subjects were 51 overweight/obese 6.5- to 12.5-year-old children (23 boys, 28 girls; BMI 25.6+/-4.3 kg/m 2 ), of whom 48 completed the program. Participants were enrolled in a 15-week aerobic training (three 60-minute sessions/week). Working heart rate was between 120-185 beats/minute. Participation rate was 87%. BMI, waist circumference, body composition (bioimpedance), aerobic capacity (treadmill), blood pressure, lipids and insulin sensitivity (HOMA) were assessed. Waist circumference (85.9+/-12.4 vs. 80.9+/-10.2 cm), muscle mass (32.4+/-6.2 vs. 33.7+/-6.1 kg), maximal oxygen consumption (37.0+/-3.9 vs. 42.6+/-11.2 ml/kg per minute), systolic blood pressure (113.3+/-11.2 vs. 106.7+/-11.6 mmHg) and LDL cholesterol (2.4+/-0.6 vs. 1.9+/-0.6 mM/l) improved significantly. Number of children with abdominal obesity (29 vs. 20), hypertension (10 vs. 5) and elevated triglyceride (18 vs. 14) also declined significantly over time. We concluded that as a result of high attendance and appropriate training program, cardiovascular fitness and abdominal obesity improved in overweight/obese children along with the improvement in metabolic risk factor profile.

  17. The common -55 C/T polymorphism in the promoter region of the uncoupling protein 3 gene reduces prevalence of obesity and elevates serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the general Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Taku; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Fujiwara, Shinji; Sano, Yoshiko; Domichi, Masayuki; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Sakane, Naoki

    2008-03-01

    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is considered to be associated with obesity, given its function in the regulation of energy and lipid metabolism. An increased body mass index (BMI) and a decreased level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the UCP3 promoter -55 C/T single nucleotide polymorphism (UCP3 -55 C/T SNP) was associated with obesity according to the criteria for Japanese (BMI > or = 25 kg/m2), BMI, and serum HDL-C levels in the general Japanese population. The subjects, numbering 282 and aged 65 +/- 13 years (mean +/- SD), were recruited through an annual health checkup of residents of Mima city, Tokushima, in Japan. Body mass index, blood pressure, biochemical indexes including lipid, and lipoprotein profiles were measured. The UCP3 -55 C/T SNP was determined with a fluorescence-based allele-specific DNA primer assay system. The frequency of the -55 T allele was 30.0%. Subjects with the T/T genotype had significantly higher HDL-C levels than those with the C/C genotype or the C/T genotype. Furthermore, subjects with the T/T genotype had a significantly lower BMI than those with the C/C genotype. A multivariate analysis revealed that the -55 T allele was a significant independent variable contributing to the variance in HDL-C levels and BMI. The T/T genotype was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity than the C/C and C/T genotypes, with an odds ratio of 0.358 (95% confidence interval, 0.132-0.972; P = .037). In conclusion, the UCP3 -55 C/T SNP was associated with elevated HDL-C levels and a reduced BMI, independent of modifiable factors such as lifestyle. Furthermore, this polymorphism, when expressed in its homozygous form, reduced the prevalence of obesity in Japanese.

  18. Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Koop, Herbert; Koprdova, Simona; Schürmann, Christine

    2016-01-29

    Chronic abdominal wall pain is a poorly recognized clinical problem despite being an important element in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. This review is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and EMBASE employing the terms "abdominal wall pain" and "cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. In 2% to 3% of patients with chronic abdominal pain, the pain arises from the abdominal wall; in patients with previously diagnosed chronic abdominal pain who have no demonstrable pathological abnormality, this likelihood can rise as high as 30% . There have only been a small number of clinical trials of treatment for this condition. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, with the aid of Carnett's test. The characteristic clinical feature is strictly localized pain in the anterior abdominal wall, which is often mischaracterized as a "functional" complaint. In one study, injection of local anesthesia combined with steroids into the painful area was found to relieve pain for 4 weeks in 95% of patients. The injection of lidocaine alone brought about improvement in 83-91% of patients. Long-term pain relief ensued after a single lidocaine injection in 20-30% of patients, after repeated injections in 40-50% , and after combined lidocaine and steroid injections in up to 80% . Pain that persists despite these treatments can be treated with surgery (neurectomy). Chronic abdominal wall pain is easily diagnosed on physical examination and can often be rapidly treated. Any physician treating patients with abdominal pain should be aware of this condition. Further comparative treatment trials will be needed before a validated treatment algorithm can be established.

  19. Preliminary evidence for obesity and elevations in fasting insulin mediating associations between cortisol awakening response and hippocampal volumes and frontal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Ursache, Alexandra; Wedin, William; Tirsi, Aziz; Convit, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated alterations in the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and brain abnormalities in adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While adolescents with T2DM exhibit similar brain abnormalities, less is known about whether brain impairments and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities are already present in adolescents with pre-diabetic conditions such as insulin resistance (IR). This study included 33 adolescents with IR and 20 without IR. Adolescents with IR had a blunted CAR, smaller hippocampal volumes, and greater frontal lobe atrophy compared to controls. Mediation analyses indicated pathways whereby a smaller CAR was associated with higher BMI which was in turn associated with fasting insulin levels, which in turn was related to smaller hippocampal volume and greater frontal lobe atrophy. While we had hypothesized that HPA dysregulation may result from brain abnormalities, our findings suggest that HPA dysregulation may also impact brain structures through associations with metabolic abnormalities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... are, or may be, pregnant. Alternative Names Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, ...

  1. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... this problem include: Smoking High blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most ... body from an aortic aneurysm, you will need surgery right away. If the aneurysm is small and ...

  2. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... An abdominal CT scan makes detailed pictures of the structures inside your belly very quickly. This test may be used to look ...

  3. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood clots to the lungs) Abdominal or chest wall pain: Shingles (herpes zoster infection) Costochondritis (inflammation of ... or tumors), fat (evidence of impaired digestion and absorption of food), and the presence of germs. X- ...

  4. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  5. Abdominal cocoon: sonographic features.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, S Boopathy; Palanivelu, Chinnusamy; Sendhilkumar, Karuppusamy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan

    2003-07-01

    An abdominal cocoon is a rare condition in which the small bowel is encased in a membrane. The diagnosis is usually established at surgery. Here we describe the sonographic features of this condition.

  6. Role of Obesity Variables in Detecting Hypertension in an Iranian Population.

    PubMed

    Khashayar, Patricia; Aghaei Meybodi, Hamidreza; Rezaei Hemami, Mohsen; Larijani, Bagher

    2017-09-01

    As the high incidence of hypertension has been in conjunction with dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity, many studies have suggested obesity as its underlying cause in diverse race and ethnic groups. The present study was designed to quantify the relationship between obesity variables and hypertension in Iranian population. A ROC curve analysis was also used to determine an optimal BMI cutoff for obesity with the aim of representing elevated incidence of hypertension in this population. The study population comprised of apparently healthy men and women who participated in the Iranian Multi-centric Osteoporosis Studies (IMOS), a multi-centric cross-sectional study carried out in urban areas of five great cities (Tehran, Tabriz, Mashhad, Shiraz and Bushehr). The anthropometric (weight, height, waist a